Scholars have debated how to define coercion and undue influence, but how institutional review boards (IRBs) view and make decisions about these issues in actual cases has not been explored. I contacted the leadership of 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), and interviewed 39 IRB leaders or administrators from 34 of these institutions (response rate=55%), and 7 members. IRBs wrestled with defining of 'coercion' and 'undue inducement', most notably in deciding about participant compensation. IRBs often use these terms synonymously and define undue inducement in varying ways, often wrestling with these issues, relying on 'gut feelings', and seeking compromises. Ambiguities arose, partly reflecting underlying tensions: whether subjects should 'get paid' versus 'volunteer' (ie, whether subjects should be motivated by compensation vs altruism), and whether subjects should be paid differently based on income, given possible resultant selection bias. Lack of consistent standards emerged between and even on single IRBs. Questions arose concerning certain aspects and types of studies; for example, how to view and weigh providing free care in research, whether and how recruitment flyers should mention compensation, and how to avoid coercion in paediatric, developing world, or students research. These data, the first to probe qualitatively how IRBs view and approach questions about coercion, undue influence and participant compensation, and to examine how IRBs have reviewed actual cases, reveal several critical ambiguities and dilemmas, and have vital implications for future practice, education, policy and research.
Largent, Emily; Grady, Christine; Miller, Franklin G; Wertheimer, Alan
Payment to recruit research subjects is a common practice but raises ethical concerns relating to the potential for coercion or undue influence. We conducted the first national study of IRB members and human subjects protection professionals to explore attitudes as to whether and why payment of research participants constitutes coercion or undue influence. Upon critical evaluation of the cogency of ethical concerns regarding payment, as reflected in our survey results, we found expansive or inconsistent views about coercion and undue influence that may interfere with valuable research. In particular, respondents appear to believe that coercion and undue influence lie on a continuum; by contrast, we argue that they are wholly distinct: whereas undue influence is a cognitive distortion relating to assessment of risks and benefits, coercion is a threat of harm. Because payment is an offer, rather than a threat, payment is never coercive. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baker, Francis X; Gallagher, Colleen M
Undue influence from family members of patients with advanced cancer remains a serious ethical problem in end-of-life decision making. Despite the wealth of articles discussing the problem of undue influence, little has been written by way of practical guidance to help clinicians identify and effectively manage situations of undue influence. This article briefly lays out how to identify and manage situations of undue influence sensitively and effectively. We explain how undue influence may present itself in the clinic and distinguish it from ethically permissible expressions of relational autonomy. In addition, we lay out a process by which any clinician suspecting undue influence may gather additional information and, if necessary, conduct a family meeting to address the undue influence. It is our hope that by providing clinicians at all levels of patient care with such guidance, they will feel empowered to respond to cases of undue influence when they arise.
van Amerongen, J J
A brief review of the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of avoiding undue pressure on the affected feet of cattle is followed by a report on a study of the use of a new shoe block in dealing with this problem. This new shoe was developed in the ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Utrecht. It was nailed under the feet of thirty cows which were not lame and were housed on a concrete slatted floor. Despite adverse housing conditions, the feet and shoes were still firmly connected three weeks later in 76.7 per cent and forty-nine days later in 50 per cent of the animals. The wear on the rubber shoe block was so slight as to be negligible and untoward side-effects were not observed. This type of shoe block would therefore appear to be a useful aid in avoiding undue pressure on the feet over a prolonged period.
Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa
It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies. The analysis identified and described, from the interviewed persons' experiences, both the inappropriate influences exerted on the actors and those that they exerted. Inappropriate influences were identified at all levels of administration and policy. They included actions for personal benefits, pressure for blocking health policies and pressure from high levels of government in favour of private corporations. The private sector played a significant role in these strategies through bribery, personal gifts, revolving doors, negative campaigns and by blocking unfavourable political positions or determining the knowledge agenda. The interviewees reported subtle forms of influence (social events, offers of technical support, invitations, etc) that contributed to the intellectual and cultural capture of health officials. The health policy decision-making processes in Spain are subject to influences by stakeholders that determine a degree of policy capture, which is avoidable. The private sector uses different strategies, from subtle influences to outright corruption, taking advantage in many cases of flexible legislation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Weiler, Richard; Ioannidis, John P A
Expenditure on industry products (mostly drugs and devices) has spiraled over the last 15 years and accounts for substantial part of healthcare expenditure. The enormous financial interests involved in the development and marketing of drugs and devices may have given excessive power to these industries to influence medical research, policy, and practice. Review of the literature and analysis of the multiple pathways through which the industry has directly or indirectly infiltrated the broader healthcare systems. We present the analysis of the industry influences at the following levels: (i) evidence base production, (ii) evidence synthesis, (iii) understanding of safety and harms issues, (iv) cost-effectiveness evaluation, (v) clinical practice guidelines formation, (vi) healthcare professional education, (vii) healthcare practice, (viii) healthcare consumer's decisions. We located abundance of consistent evidence demonstrating that the industry has created means to intervene in all steps of the processes that determine healthcare research, strategy, expenditure, practice and education. As a result of these interferences, the benefits of drugs and other products are often exaggerated and their potential harms are downplayed, and clinical guidelines, medical practice, and healthcare expenditure decisions are biased. To serve its interests, the industry masterfully influences evidence base production, evidence synthesis, understanding of harms issues, cost-effectiveness evaluations, clinical practice guidelines and healthcare professional education and also exerts direct influences on professional decisions and health consumers. There is an urgent need for regulation and other action towards redefining the mission of medicine towards a more objective and patient-, population- and society-benefit direction that is free from conflict of interests. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
N. Ike Kusmiati
Full Text Available Not to misuse the regulation of the state as the factor that causes defects in the will of the Indonesian Civil Code, should be anticipated for the development of contract occurs so fast in practice. The convergence of an agreement in the form of rapprochement will of the parties, no longer occur in a balanced manner, because there are elements that influence the parties, both economically and psychologically, whereby the economically strong dominate the contract even harm the opposing party, so the contract applies biased, unfair and inappropriate. Therefore, the government needs to intervene to protect the weaker party. It was felt important need for inclusion of the substance abuse situation as a factor that will cause defects arising from Jurisprudence in the Netherlands as the fourth element, in addition to oversight, coercion and deception that has been set out in Article 1321 of the Civil Code. It is therefore necessary to be examined how the relationship between the abuse of state as the factor that causes the will deform against the abuse of contracts and how to position the state as a factor that causes defects will fill the void in the legal system of contract law in Indonesia. The results showed that the state of relationship abuse as factors that led to the agreement will deform, relevant because the agreement occur with the agreement, and to the agreed required the conformity of the will of the parties. For that agreement became the basis for the validity of the contract. But with the misuse of state in the contract raises the contract it becomes irrevocable, because conformity of his will are not met, while the position of the abuse of the state as the factor that causes a defect will in fill the legal vacuum in the system of contract law in Indonesia, it is very important, where in addition there is no setting in Indonesia, also the case in practice. The parties to a contract are often cornered by the interests of one party, so
In community-based participatory research (CBPR), community-level consent is assumed to enhance ethical rigor, when obtained prior to individual informed consent. However, community leaders' permission to conduct research may influence individuals' agency to decline participation. This article presents findings of a Bourdieusian analysis of ethnographic data documenting CBPR in rural Swaziland. The findings reveal that the "symbolic power" of leaders who provide community-level consent constrains individual agency and reproduces existing relations of power, if individual informed consent is simply a procedure. However, when informed consent is a process that introduces notions of autonomy and rights, it can disrupt power relations. Implications for ethical CBPR practice, and ethnography's value for developing theory from real-world research ethics practice, are discussed.
de Haan, A M; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijnens, C M; Dijkerman, H C
When reaching for target objects, we hardly ever collide with other objects located in our working environment. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that the introduction of non-target objects into the workspace alters both spatial and temporal parameters of reaching trajectories. Previous studies have shown the influence of spatial object features (e.g. size and position) on obstacle avoidance movements. However, obstacle identity may also play a role in the preparation of avoidance responses as this allows prediction of possible negative consequences of collision based on recognition of the obstacle. In this study we test this hypothesis by asking participants to reach towards a target as quickly as possible, in the presence of an empty or full glass of water placed about half way between the target and the starting position, at 8 cm either left or right of the virtual midline. While the spatial features of full and empty glasses of water are the same, the consequences of collision are clearly different. Indeed, when there was a high chance of collision, reaching trajectories veered away more from filled than from empty glasses. This shows that the identity of potential obstacles, which allows for estimating the predicted consequences of collision, is taken into account during obstacle avoidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison
The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.
Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H
Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.
Wu, Lin Chieh; Lie, Désirée; Malhotra, Rahul; Allen, John C; Tay, Julie S L; Tan, Thiam Chye; Ostbye, Truls
to explore midwives' reasons for performing or avoiding episiotomies and motivation to change episiotomy practice in a large tertiary maternity hospital. using purposive sampling, three focus groups were conducted to achieve theme saturation. Open-ended questions elicited personal reasons for performing or avoiding episiotomy, information sources, and opinions about past and future practice trends. Sessions were audiotaped, and transcripts independently examined by three researchers who coded for themes. An iterative process was used to achieve consensus. Grounded theory was used to interpret data and to derive a theoretical framework for understanding the reasoning that influences episiotomy practice. a high volume delivery unit in Singapore. 20 of 79 licensed midwives, aged 28-70, who performed independent deliveries at the delivery unit. participants recognised maternal, fetal and other factors affecting their own decision to perform episiotomies. Patient request, better healing, midwife's reputation and job satisfaction were cited as main reasons to avoid episiotomy. Key sources informing practice were past training, delivery experience, anecdotal learning and lack of a protocol. There was no consensus on current trends in episiotomy practice. There was an absence of recognition of individual roles in reducing episiotomy rates. Clinicians were perceived as having both positive and negative influence. midwives' reasons for performing episiotomies were attributed to midwifery training, fear of doing harm and perceived clinician expectation, and were not consistent with current international practice guidelines. Reasons for avoiding episiotomies were associated with patient-centeredness and job satisfaction. Midwives agreed on the need to reduce episiotomy rates. with reduction in episiotomy rates as a goal, a combination of guideline education, feedback, peer coaching and collaborative care with doctors may be needed to achieve desired outcomes. Views and
The intertwining ideas of self-determination and well-being have received tremendous support in western bioethics. They have been used to reject medical paternalism and to justify patients' rights to give informed consent (or refusal) and execute advanced directives. It is frequently argued that everyone is thoroughly unique, and as patients are most knowledgeable of and invested in their own interests, they should be the ones to make voluntary decisions regarding their care. Two results of the strong focus on autonomy are the rejection of the image of patients as passive care recipients and the suspicion against paternalistic influence anyone may have on patients' decision-making process. Although the initial focus in western bioethics was on minimizing professional coercion, there has been a steady concern of family's involvement in adult patients' medical decision-making. Many worry that family members may have divergent values and priorities from those of the patients, such that their involvement could counter patients' autonomy. Those who are heavily involved in competent patients' decision-making are often met with suspicion. Patients who defer to their families are sometimes presumed to be acting out of undue pressure. This essay argues for a re-examination of the notions of autonomy and undue pressure in the contexts of patienthood and relational identity. In particular, it examines the characteristics of families and their role in adult patients' decision-making. Building on the feminist conception of the relational self and examining the context of contemporary institutional medicine, this paper argues that family involvement and consideration of family interests can be integral in promoting patients' overall agency. It argues that, in the absence of abuse and neglect, respect for autonomy and agency requires clinicians to abide by patients' expressed wishes.
Kershaw, Trace S; Milan, Stephanie; Westdahl, Claire; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Fletcher, Rachel; Ickovics, Jeannette
Most unprotected sex occurs in close relationships. However, few studies examine relational factors and sexual risk among high-risk populations. Romantic Attachment Theory states that individuals have cognitive working models for relationships that influence expectations, affect, and behavior. We investigated the influence of attachment avoidance and anxiety on sexual beliefs (e.g., condom use beliefs, self-efficacy), behavior (e.g., condom use, multiple partners, unprotected sex with risky partners), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 755 high-risk, young pregnant women (ages 14-25) recruited from urban prenatal clinics. Attachment anxiety predicted sexual beliefs, condom use, and unprotected sex with risky partners controlling for demographic variables. Sexual beliefs did not mediate the relationship between attachment orientation and sexual behavior. Current relationship with the father of the baby did mediate the effect of attachment anxiety on multiple partners and STIs. Results indicate the importance of including general relational factors, such as attachment, in HIV prevention.
Paulus, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk
Studies examining approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions have yielded conflicting results. For example, expressions of anger have been reported to elicit approach reactions in some studies but avoidance reactions in others. Nonetheless, the results were often explained by the same general underlying process, namely the influence that the social message signaled by the expression has on motivational responses. It is therefore unclear which reaction is triggered by which emotional expression, and which underlying process is responsible for these reactions. In order to address this issue, we examined the role of a potential moderator on approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions, namely the contrast emotion used in the task. We believe that different approach and avoidance reactions occur depending on the congruency or incongruency of the evaluation of the 2 emotions presented in the task. The results from a series of experiments supported these assumptions: Negative emotional expressions (anger, fear, sadness) elicited avoidance reactions if contrasted with expressions of happiness. However, if contrasted with a different negative emotional expression, anger and sadness triggered approach reactions and fear activated avoidance reactions. Importantly, these results also emerged if the emotional expression was not task-relevant. We propose that approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions are triggered by their evaluation if the 2 emotions presented in a task differ in evaluative connotation. If they have the same evaluative connotation, however, reactions are determined by their social message. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Penny A Becker
Full Text Available The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1 test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2 model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively. Only one of the six (16.7% breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.
G.H.C. Clincke (Gilbert Henri Camiel)
textabstractIn this thesis we described the effects of hypoxia on three types of functional behavioL avoidance learning, self-stimulation and drinking behavior. Depth and induction method of hypoxia were chosen to secure maximal survival of the animals. The aim was to evaluate which behavioral
Full Text Available Dysfunctions of approach and avoidance motivation play an important role in depression, which in turn may affect cognitive control, i.e., the ability to regulate thoughts and action to achieve internal goals. We use a novel experimental paradigm, i.e. a computer simulated driving-task, to study the impact of depression on cognitive control by measuring approach and avoidance actions in continuous time. In this task, 39 subjects with minimal to severe depression symptoms were instructed to use a joystick to move a virtual car as quickly as possible to a target point without crossing a stop-sign or crashing into a wall. We recorded their continuous actions on a joystick and found that depression 1 leads to further stopping distance to task target; and 2 increases the magnitude of late deceleration (avoidance but not early acceleration (approach, which was only observed in the stop-sign condition. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that depressed individuals have greater avoidance motivation near stopping target, but are minimally affected by approach motivation.
Agarwal, Maitreyi; Giannoni Guzmán, Manuel; Morales-Matos, Carla; Del Valle Díaz, Rafael Alejandro; Abramson, Charles I.; Giray, Tugrul
Biogenic amines are widely characterized in pathways evaluating reward and punishment, resulting in appropriate aversive or appetitive responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. We utilized the honey bee model and a newly developed spatial avoidance conditioning assay to probe effects of biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA) on avoidance learning. In this new protocol non-harnessed bees associate a spatial color cue with mild electric shock punishment. After a number of experiences with color and shock the bees no longer enter the compartment associated with punishment. Intrinsic aspects of avoidance conditioning are associated with natural behavior of bees such as punishment (lack of food, explosive pollination mechanisms, danger of predation, heat, etc.) and their association to floral traits or other spatial cues during foraging. The results show that DA reduces the punishment received whereas octopamine OA increases the punishment received. These effects are dose-dependent and specific to the acquisition phase of training. The effects during acquisition are specific as shown in experiments using the antagonists Pimozide and Mianserin for DA and OA receptors, respectively. This study demonstrates the integrative role of biogenic amines in aversive learning in the honey bee as modeled in a novel non-appetitive avoidance learning assay. PMID:21980435
Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison
The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…
... strategies have been developed to integrate federal data and reporting requirements, generate reports... Streamlining and Reducing Undue Reporting Burden for HHS-Funded HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care Services...: The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) seeks assistance from key stakeholders to identify...
Brüne, Martin; Ebert, Andreas; Kolb, Meike; Tas, Cumhur; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Roser, Patrik
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by interpersonal dysfunction, emotional instability, impulsivity, and risk-taking behavior. Recent research has focused on the role of oxytocin in BPD, with mixed results as regards the processing of social stimuli. In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 13 BPD patients and 13 controls performed a dot probe task to examine attentional biases to happy and angry faces after intranasal application of oxytocin or placebo. Childhood trauma was examined using the childhood trauma questionnaire. In the placebo condition, patients with BPD (but not controls) showed an avoidant reaction to angry faces (but not happy faces). The strength of the avoidant reaction correlated with the severity of childhood trauma. This behavioral response (as well as the correlation) was abolished in the oxytocin condition. Adult patients with BPD show an avoidant response to social threat, a reaction that is linked with traumatic experiences during childhood. This response pattern is altered by oxytocin, possibly by reducing stress and inhibiting social withdrawal from distressing social stimuli. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.
Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23479648
Polman, Remco; Borkoles, Erika; Nicholls, Adam R
This study investigated whether approach coping, avoidance coping, or perceptions of available social support mediated the relationship between Type D personality and perceived stress. Furthermore, this research also examined whether Type D moderated the relationship between perceived stress and symptoms of burnout. In this cross-sectional study, 334 (male N=180; female N=154) first-year undergraduate students completed the Type D Scale-14 (DS14), the Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Cross-sectional. Multiple mediation analysis revealed that only resignation and withdrawal coping, but not social support partially mediated the relationship between Type D and perceived stress. A small moderation effect was found for the disengagement subscale of the burnout inventory, with Type D individuals experiencing higher levels of disengagement at low and average stress levels. The correlations between variables provided support for most of the prediction from the literature with regard to Type D. Of the participants in the present study, 24.9% were classified as Type D. These individuals tend to use more passive and maladaptive avoidance coping strategies such as resignation and withdrawal. This is associated with higher levels of perceived stress and linked to increased levels of burnout symptoms.
Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S
Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.
Full Text Available Evaluated was effect of mating (random vs. maximum avoidance of inbreeding under BLUP EBV selection strategy. Existing population structure was under Monte Carlo stochastic simulation analyzed from the point to minimize increase of inbreeding. Maximum avoidance of inbreeding under BLUP selection resulted into comparable increase of inbreeding then random mating in average of 10 generation development. After 10 generations of simulation of mating strategy was observed ΔF= 6,51 % (2 sires, 5,20 % (3 sires, 3,22 % (4 sires resp. 2,94 % (5 sires. With increased number of sires selected, decrease of inbreeding was observed. With use of 4, resp. 5 sires increase of inbreeding was comparable to random mating with phenotypic selection. For saving of genetic diversity and prevention of population loss is important to minimize increase of inbreeding in small populations. Classical approach was based on balancing ratio of sires and dams in mating program. Contrariwise in the most of commercial populations small number of sires was used with high mating ratio.
Full Text Available Detect and Avoid (DAA systems are complex communication and locational technologies comprising multiple independent components. DAA technologies support communications between ground-based and space-based operations with aircraft. Both manned and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS rely on DAA communication and location technologies for safe flight operations. We examined the occurrence and duration of communication losses between radar and automatic dependent surveillance–broadcast (ADS-B systems with aircraft operating in proximate airspace using data collected during actual flight operations. Our objectives were to identify the number and duration of communication losses for both radar and ADS-B systems that occurred within a discrete time period. We also investigated whether other unique communication behavior and anomalies were occurring, such as reported elevation deviations. We found that loss of communication with both radar and ADS-B systems does occur, with variation in the length of communication losses. We also discovered that other unexpected behaviors were occurring with communications. Although our data were gathered from manned aircraft, there are also implications for UAS that are operating within active airspaces. We are unaware of any previously published work on occurrence and duration of communication losses between radar and ADS-B systems.
Brian P Meier
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context, but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.
Haire, Bridget G; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
In their recent paper'Undue inducement: a case study in CAPRISA 008', Mngadi et al conclude that a participant in an HIV prevention study who deliberately concealed her pregnancy was not 'unduly induced' to participate by the offer of an experimental product. This paper argues that while the authors' conclusion is sound, the framing of this case study is consistent with the preoccupation in research ethics with the concept of undue inducement, coupled with a highly risk-averse attitude to pregnancy (regardless of whether those risks may be willingly assumed by pregnant women themselves). We suggest that the critical research ethics question raised by Mngadi et al 's case study is not 'undue inducement', but the exclusion of pregnant women from research studies where the risks are acceptable to the potential participant, and benefits likely. We also suggest that current regulatory paradigms regarding pregnancy are both overly paternalistic and value the fetus over the mother. In order to ensure timely provision of new HIV prevention agents, we argue that there is a need for expeditious testing of proven effective agents in pregnancy, with due consideration given to situations where preliminary efficacy data exist but fall short of licensure standards. This requires a paradigm shift from researchers, funders, regulators and ethical review bodies towards practices that critically examine the legitimacy of the exclusion of pregnant women on a study-by-study basis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Ana Rosa Lins de Souza
Full Text Available O uso indevido de benzodiazepínicos, especialmente entre mulheres, tem despertado preocupação na área de saúde pública. Este estudo objetivou compreender qualitativamente crenças e valores associados ao consumo indevido dessa substância por mulheres. Foram entrevistadas trinta e três mulheres (18-60 anos com histórico de uso indevido de benzodiazepínicos no último ano, selecionadas intencionalmente e por critérios. Os discursos foram transcritos e submetidos à análise de conteúdo com auxílio do software NVivo. A maioria das entrevistadas referiu tempo de uso bem superior ao recomendado (mediana: 7 anos e compra com receita médica. Os motivos de uso mais citados foram diminuição da ansiedade, problemas de insônia e fuga dos problemas. Apesar de reconhecerem a possibilidade de dependência, esta não motivou a interrupção do uso. O acompanhamento médico não pareceu, necessariamente, estimular a percepção de risco dos benzodiazepínicos, sendo um fator que favoreceu a manutenção do uso prolongado.The undue use of benzodiazepines particularly among women has raised concern in the public health area. This qualitative study aimed at understanding the beliefs and values associated with undue use of benzodiazepines among women. Thirty-three participants (aged between 18 and 60 with a history of undue use of benzodiazepines in the past year were selected intentionally using specific criteria. The interviews were fully transcribed and subjected to content analysis using NVivo software. The majority of respondents reported use for longer than the recommended duration (median 7 years and they purchased the drug with a medical prescription. Reasons for use most given were to deal with anxiety, to improve sleep and to "flee from problems." Even those who acknowledged the possibility of being addicted were not motivated to stop taking the drug. Medical supervision did not necessarily seem to influence the perception of risk of
Albert, X; Bayo, A; Alfonso, J L; Cortina, P; Corella, D
OBJECTIVES: To measure variations in the Holland and Charlton classifications of avoidable death causes and to estimate the effect of the Spanish national health system on avoidable mortality. DESIGN: Mortality in the Valencian Community was assessed between 1975 and 1990. The classifications of Holland and Charlton, used to assess avoidable causes of death, were compared. Holland's classification was then used to divide avoidable mortality into two groups--medical care indicators (MCI), whic...
Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B
Animal dispersal is highly non-random and has important implications for the dynamics of populations in fragmented habitat. We identified interpatch dispersal events from genetic tagging, parentage analyses and assignment tests and modelled the factors associated with apparent emigration and post-dispersal settlement choices by individual male agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis, a marsupial carnivore of south-east Australian forests). Emigration decisions were best modelled with on data patch isolation and inbreeding risk. The choice of dispersal destination by males was influenced by inbreeding risk, female abundance, patch size, patch quality and matrix permeability (variation in land cover). Males were less likely to settle in patches without highly unrelated females. Our findings highlight the importance of individual-level dispersal data for understanding how multiple processes drive non-randomness in dispersal in modified landscapes. Fragmented landscapes present novel environmental, demographic and genetic contexts in which dispersal decisions are made, so the major factors affecting dispersal decisions in fragmented habitat may differ considerably from unfragmented landscapes. We show that the spatial scale of genetic neighbourhoods can be large in fragmented habitat, such that dispersing males can potentially settle in the presence of genetically similar females after moving considerable distances, thereby necessitating both a choice to emigrate and a choice of where to settle to avoid inbreeding. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.
Hutzell, Kirsten L.; Payne, Allison Ann
This study examines the impact of bullying victimization on school avoidance by proposing the following hypotheses: (1) Net of other factors, students who have experienced bullying victimization are more likely to engage in school avoidance behaviors; (2) There are protective factors that will decrease this relationship between bullying…
Krause, Sebastian M.; Danziger, Michael M.; Zlatić, Vinko
Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness, if such paths exist. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in S. M. Krause et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041022 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041022. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. Here we propose a better method for solving this problem which is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our method with differentiated node functions, either as senders and receivers, or as transmitters. In both functions, nodes can be explicitly trusted or avoided. With only one avoided color we obtain standard percolation. Avoiding additional colors one by one, we can understand the critical behavior of color-avoiding percolation. For unequal color frequencies, we find that the colors with the largest frequencies control the critical threshold and exponent. Colors of small frequencies have only a minor influence on color-avoiding connectivity, thus allowing for approximations.
Knight, J. Brent
This study is intended to investigate the frequency dependency of significant strain due to vibratory loads in aerospace vehicle components. The notion that "higher frequency" dynamic loads applied as static loads is inherently conservative is perceived as widely accepted. This effort is focused on demonstrating that principle and attempting to evolve methods to capitalize on it to mitigate undue conservatism. It has been suggested that observations of higher frequency modes that resulted in very low corresponding strain did so due to those modes not being significant. Two avionics boxes, one with its first significant mode at 341 Hz and the other at 857 Hz, were attached to a flat panel installed on a curved orthogrid panel which was driven acoustically in tests performed at NASA/MSFC. Strain and acceleration were measured at select locations on each of the boxes. When possible, strain gage rosettes and accelerometers were installed on either side of a given structural member so that measured strain and acceleration data would directly correspond to one another. Ultimately, a frequency above which vibratory loads can be disregarded for purposes of static structural analyses and sizing of typical robust aerospace components is sought.
This study uncovers which learning (epistemic belief of learning), socioeconomic background (level of parental education, family income) or social-personality factors (performance-avoidance goals, test anxiety) mitigate the ethnic gap in SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) scores. Measures assessing achievement motivation, test anxiety, socioeconomic…
Jumentier, Sabrina; Barsics, Catherine; Van der Linden, Martial
Future thinking in older adults is characterised by a lack of specificity of imagined events and by an equal or even higher subjective experience, compared to younger adults. We considered whether this lack of specificity stemmed partly from the avoidance of a somewhat disturbing future and then examined the extent to which certain types of emotion-regulation strategies, namely positive reappraisal and positive refocusing, contributed to the subjective experience of future thinking. Middle-aged and older adults completed an adapted version of the AMT, in which temporal distance and cue word valence were manipulated, thus resulting in future conditions assumed to represent varying degrees of discomfort. Results indicate that distant future and negative cues restricted both the specificity and the subjective experience of future thinking. In addition, the use of avoidance strategies predicted the nature of future thoughts in the context of a supposed uncomfortable future (i.e., a distant future induced by negative cues), although it followed quite different age-related patterns. Together with the findings that positive reappraisal and positive refocusing (to a lesser extent) contributed to the subjective experience of future thinking, this study indicates that how individuals imagine their personal future also relies on affect- and emotion-regulation strategies.
Viellard, Juliette; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino
Previous studies from our group have shown that risk assessment behaviors are the primary contextual fear responses to predatory and social threats, whereas freezing is the main contextual fear response to physically harmful events. To test contextual fear responses to a predator or aggressive conspecific threat, we developed a model that involves placing the animal in an apparatus where it can avoid the threat-associated environment. Conversely, in studies that use shock-based fear conditioning, the animals are usually confined inside the conditioning chamber during the contextual fear test. In the present study, we tested shock-based contextual fear responses using two different behavioral testing conditions: confining the animal in the conditioning chamber or placing the animal in an apparatus with free access to the conditioning compartment. Our results showed that during the contextual fear test, the animals confined to the shock chamber exhibited significantly more freezing. In contrast, the animals that could avoid the conditioning compartment displayed almost no freezing and exhibited risk assessment responses (i.e., crouch-sniff and stretch postures) and burying behavior. In addition, the animals that were able to avoid the shock chamber had increased Fos expression in the juxtadorsomedial lateral hypothalamic area, the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus and the lateral and dorsomedial parts of the periaqueductal gray, which are elements of a septo/hippocampal-hypothalamic-brainstem circuit that is putatively involved in mediating contextual avoidance. Overall, the present findings show that testing conditions significantly influence both behavioral responses and the activation of circuits involved in contextual avoidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Casal, Jorge J
The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself.
del Saz Moreno, Vicente; Alberquilla Menéndez-Asenjo, Ángel; Camacho Hernández, Ana M; Lora Pablos, David; Enríquez de Salamanca Lorente, Rafael; Magán Tapia, Purificación
To determine if the process of care in primary health, affects the risk of avoidable hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSH) for heart failure (HF). Case-control study analyzing the risk of hospitalization for HF. The exposure factor was the process of care for HF in primary health. Health area of the region of Madrid (n=466.901). There were included all adult patients (14 years or older) with a documented diagnosis of HF in the electronic medical record of primary health (n=3.277). The cases were patients who were hospitalized for HF while the controls did not require admission, during 2007. risk of ACSH for HF related to the process of care considered both overall and for each separate standard of appropiate care. Differences in clinical complexity of the groups were measured using the Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG) classification system. 227 cases and 3.050 controls. Clinical complexity was greater in cases. The standards of appropriate care were met to a greater degree in the control group, but none of the two groups met all the standards that would define a process of care as fully appropriate. A significantly lower risk of ACSH was seen for only two standards of appropriate care. For each additional standard of appropriate care not met, the probability of admission was significantly greater (OR: 1,33, 95% CI: 1,19-1,49). Higher quality in the process of care in primary health was associated with a lower risk of hospitalization for HF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
A suite of new collision avoidance systems (CAS 1,2,3, and 4) for heavy vehicles particularly mine haul trucks, is presented for vehicles whose structure and size necessarily impeded driver visibility. The systems use probe radar systems, continuous wave Doppler radar, ultrasonic Doppler, radio frequency tagging and laser scanning technology. The main goal of the ACARP/CSIRO funded projects is to determine the appropriate use and adaptation of commercially available technologies, and where possible, produce a low cost variant suitable for use in proximity detection on large mining industry haul trucks. CAS variants produced were subjected to a field demonstration and linked to the output from the earlier CAS 1 project. The research concentrated on large mine haul trucks operating in open cut coal mines. While the results are especially applicable to the Queensland and New South Wales coal industries, they are also applicable worldwide. 1 tab.
Dessus, B.; Tubiana, L.
After a round table between (French) political leaders committed in environment policies and leaders of public institutions specialized in environment matters discussing the Kyoto Protocol negotiation process, this publication proposes contributions and interviews about Kyoto negotiations, about the influence of the carbon lobby, about the implementation of the Kyoto protocol in various countries (European Union, France, Germany, United States, China, developing countries), about the role of renewable energies, and about adaptation challenges
Marchand, Gunn Hege; Myhre, Kjersti; Leivseth, Gunnar; Sandvik, Leiv; Lau, Bjørn; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Røe, Cecilie
Neck and back pain are among the most common causes of prolonged disability, and development of interventions with effect on pain, disability and return to work is important. Reduction of fear avoidance might be one mechanism behind improvement after interventions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in pain and disability at the 12-month follow-up of patients with neck and back pain treated with a work-focused intervention compared to patients treated with standard interventions, and the influence of improvement fear avoidance beliefs during the interventions on pain, disability and return to work at 12-month follow-up. 413 employed patients with back or neck pain referred to secondary care, and sick-listed between 4 weeks and 12 months, were randomized to a work-focused rehabilitation or control interventions. Follow-up was conducted 4 and 12 months after inclusion. The groups were compared (independent sample t-test) regarding differences in disability scores (Oswestry disability index/neck disability index) and pain (numeric rating scale) from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Changes in fear avoidance beliefs (FABQ) from baseline to 4 month follow-up were calculated, and the association between this change and return to work, pain and disability at 12 months were tested in stepwise multiple logistic regression models. Pain and, disability scores decreased to in both the work-focused and control intervention to 12-month follow-up, and there were no significant differences between the groups. FABQ decreased similarly in both groups to 4 month follow-up. The logistic regression model revealed an association between a reduced FABQ work score at 4 months and return to work within one year (adjusted OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.19 to 10.88). Reduced FABQ physical activity score at 4 months was associated with decreased disability after 12 months (adjusted OR (3.65. 95% CI 1.43 to 9.28). Short work-focused rehabilitation had the same effect on pain and disability
Byrne, Sharon K
The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.
Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand
We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...
Yonela Z. Njisane
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*, pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s. Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04% values than castrates (35.1±0.95%. Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N. There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.
path and, using the evaluation module for feedback , alter the path until acceptable surveil- lance avoidance performance is achieved. The current ISAS...Nmber Diselav Stage Containing - Date: I I Time ( GIlT ): Figure 3-46: Textual Display for GRAPHICAL Module 3-64 Surveillance Avoidance Final Report System
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade the sub grouping of low back pain (LBP patients according to their likely response to treatment has been identified as a research priority. As with other patient groups, researchers have found few if any factors from the case history or physical examination that are helpful in predicting the outcome of chiropractic care. However, in the wider LBP population psychosocial factors have been identified that are significantly prognostic. This study investigated changes in the components of the LBP fear-avoidance beliefs model in patients pre- and post- their initial visit with a chiropractor to determine if there was a relationship with outcomes at 1 month. Methods Seventy one new patients with lower back pain as their primary complaint presenting for chiropractic care to one of five clinics (nine chiropractors completed questionnaires before their initial visit (pre-visit and again just before their second appointment (post-visit. One month after the initial consultation, patient global impression of change (PGIC scores were collected. Pre visit and post visit psychological domain scores were analysed for any association with outcomes at 1 month. Results Group mean scores for Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB, catastrophisation and self-efficacy were all improved significantly within a few days of a patient's initial chiropractic consultation. Pre-visit catastrophisation as well as post-visit scores for catastrophisation, back beliefs (inevitability and self-efficacy were weakly correlated with patient's global impression of change (PGIC at 1 month. However when the four assessed psychological variables were dichotomised about pre-visit group medians those individuals with 2 or more high variables post-visit had a substantially increased risk (OR 36.4 (95% CI 6.2-213.0 of poor recovery at 1 month. Seven percent of patients with 1 or fewer adverse psychological variables described poor benefit compared to 73% of those
Watson, Jason M; McDermott, Kathleen B; Balota, David A
On each of five study-test trials, young and old adults attempted to memorize the same list of 60 words (e.g., bed, rest, awake), which were blocked according to their convergence on four corresponding associates. Half of the participants in each age group were given an explicit warning about the DRM paradigm prior to encoding and were asked to attempt to avoid recalling any associated but nonpresented words (e.g., sleep). Lists were presented auditorily at either a fast (1,250 msec/word) or a slow (2,500 msec/word) rate. Without a warning, the probability of veridical recall across trials increased for both age groups; however, the probability of false recall across trials decreased only for young adults. When a warning about false recall was provided, young adults virtually eliminated false recall by the second trial. Even though old adults also used warnings to reduce false recall on Trial 1, they were still unable to decrease false memories across the remaining four study-test trials. Old adults also reduced false recall more with slow than with fast presentation rates. Taken together, these findings suggest that old adults have a breakdown in spontaneous, self-initiated source monitoring as reflected by little change in false recall across study-test trials but a preserved ability to use experimenter-provided warnings or slow presentation rates to reduce false memories.
American Psychiatric Association. Avoidant personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;672-675. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA, Hopwood ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Collision avoidance for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) traveling at high relative speeds is a challenging task. It requires both the detection of a possible collision...
Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred
The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on
Influence able and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique-Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note
Rott, G.; Boecker, F.
Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influence able or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemo static valve.
Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.
Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen
... on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children from six months of age and young people up to 24 years of age are particularly at risk this year from the 2009 H1N1 flu. They ...
It is a trivial observation that every decidable set has strings of length n with Kolmogorov complexity logn + O(1) if it has any strings of length n at all. Things become much more interesting when one asks whether a similar property holds when one considers resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. This is the question considered here: Can a feasible set A avoid accepting strings of low resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, while still accepting some (or many) strings of length n?
combination of these three protocols led to creation of the first animation of flocking in 1987. In , the society of boids is viewed as a distributed...clearly a centralized algorithm which is highly undesirable for flocking due to its high communication cost. The second approach is feasible if the net is... Flocking with Obstacle Avoidance ∗ Reza Olfati Saber † e-mail: email@example.com February 15, 2003 Technical Report CIT-CDS 03-006 Abstract In
Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...
Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.
This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.
Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.
This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP
Du, Shizheng; Hu, Lingli; Bai, Yamei; Dong, Jianshu; Jin, Shengji; Zhang, Heng; Zhu, Ying
As a bio-psycho-social issue, chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been a significant topic in health management, and patients' quality of life (QOL) is gaining extensive attention. Self-efficacy, pain fear-avoidance belief (FAB), and coping styles play important roles in the QOL of CLBP patients. However, it remains unclear how self-efficacy and FAB influence QOL through specific coping styles. This study aimed to explore the influencing paths of self-efficacy, FAB, and coping styles on the QOL of patients with CLBP. This study relies on a multisite, cross-sectional design involving 221 CLBP patients. Stepwise multiple regression and structural equation modeling were employed. CLBP patients lived with a poor global QOL. Self-efficacy played a direct, positive role in predicting QOL for patients with CLBP (β = 0.35), and it also played an indirect, positive role in predicting QOL (β = 0.19) through active coping styles (β = 0.31). FAB played a direct, negative role in predicting QOL (β = -0.33), and it also played an indirect, negative role in predicting QOL (β = -0.32) through passive coping styles (β = 0.32). Self-efficacy and FAB are both directly and indirectly related to global QOL, and coping styles are important mediating variables. Self-efficacy and active coping are protective factors for the QOL of CLBP patients, while FAB and passive coping are risk factors. Health education strategies are recommended by medical personnel to enhance CLBP patients' pain self-efficacy, decrease pain FAB, and modify pain coping styles, so that their global QOL can be improved. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.
Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.
Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B
According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.
Eerland, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412493543; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franken, Ingmar; Zwaan, Rolf
Approach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed pleasant,
A. Eerland (Anita); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)
textabstractApproach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed
G. Häubl (Gerald); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)
textabstractWe introduce and test a behavioral model of consumer product search that extends a baseline normative model of sequential search by incorporating nonnormative influences that are local in the sense that they reflect consumers' undue sensitivity to recently encountered alternatives. We
Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.
The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…
Bertelsen, R J; Carlsen, K C L; Granum, B; Carlsen, K-H; Håland, G; Devulapalli, C S; Munthe-Kaas, M C; Mowinckel, P; Løvik, M
Studies addressing the relationship between pet keeping and development of asthma and allergies may be influenced by pet avoidance in families with a history of allergic disease. Following a cohort of 1019 children in Oslo till 10 years of age, we studied the association of pet keeping with socio-economic factors and allergic disease in the family. A family history of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis was not significantly associated with pet ownership at birth or with pet removal by 10 years. Acquiring cats and dogs was less likely if the child had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, whereas no association was seen with asthma (in any family member). Single parenthood increased the likelihood of acquiring a cat, smoking parents more often had cats or dogs, and having older siblings was associated with keeping dogs and other furry pets. Among 319 families reporting pet avoidance, 70% never had pets, 8% had given up pets, and 22% avoided a particular type of pet only. Twenty-four per cent of the parents failed to retrospectively report pet keeping during the child's first year of life. Overall, allergic rhinitis, but not asthma was associated with actual pet avoidance, whereas the strongest predictors for keeping pets were found to be socio-economic factors. Allergic disease in a child most often does not lead to the removal of the family's furry pet. Pet avoidance is associated with allergic symptoms, but not asthma. Socio-economic factors like parental education, single parenthood and smoking affects the families' decisions on pet keeping, including the type of pets the families will avoid or acquire. The large recall error demonstrated points to the need for prospective data regarding pet keeping.
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Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven
We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble
Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin
Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions...
Weinbrecht, Anna; Schulze, Lars; Boettcher, Johanna; Renneberg, Babette
This review focuses on recent research on diagnostic aspects, etiology, and treatment of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Current studies stress the close relation between AVPD and social anxiety disorder, the influence of genetic factors in the development of AVPD, and the relative stability of symptoms. Treatment approaches should target the pervasive patterns of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Empirical evidence for cognitive-behavior and schema therapy is promising. Few other therapeutic approaches have been developed, but until now, these have only been investigated in case studies. We conclude that AVPD qualifies as a neglected disorder and that more research specifically on avoidant personality disorder symptoms and its treatment is needed.
Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin
Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.
Full Text Available Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre, we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1 that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2 that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.
Hamel, Martin J.; Richards, Nathan S.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.
Underwater strobe lights can influence the behavior and distribution of fishes and are increasingly used as a technique to divert fish away from water intake structures on dams. However, few studies examine how strobe lights may affect organisms other than targeted species. To gain insight on strobe lighting effects on nontarget invertebrates, we investigated whether underwater strobe lights influence zooplankton distributions and abundance in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Zooplankton were collected using vertical tows at 3 discrete distances from an underwater strobe light to quantify the influence of light intensity on zooplankton density. Samples were collected from 3 different depth ranges (0–10 m, 10–20 m and 20–30 m) at strobe light. Copepods represented 67.2% and Daphnia spp. represented 23.3% of all zooplankton sampled from 17 August to 15 September 2004. Night time zooplankton densities significantly decreased in surface waters when strobe lights were activated. Copepods exhibited the greatest avoidance patterns, while Daphnia avoidance varied throughout sampling depths. These results indicate that zooplankton display negative phototaxic behavior to strobe lights and that researchers must be cognizant of potential effects to the ecosystem such as altering predator–prey interactions or affecting zooplankton distribution and growth.
Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark
The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin
In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.
Full Text Available Approach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures (passively viewing phase. Then they had to move their body to the left or the right (lateral movement phase to make the next picture appear. We recorded movements in the anterior-posterior direction to examine approach and avoidant behavior. During passively viewing, people approached pleasant pictures. They avoided unpleasant ones while they made a lateral movement. These findings provide support for the idea that we tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations.
Hulstijn, J.H.; Marchena, E.
This article follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs, such as ‘let down’, while preferring one-word verbs, such as ‘;disappoint’, since phrasal verbs do not exist in Hebrew. A corollary derived from Dagut and Laufer's study is
To ensure patient safety, it is crucial that the airway is safeguarded. The single most important responsibility is to protect it. An unobstructed airway, with intact protective reflexes and respiratory drive, is essential to avoid complications. In some procedures, e.g. dental, the airway may need to be shared with the surgeon.
Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.
Full Text Available The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author′s experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.
Schlund, Michael W; Magee, Sandy; Hudgins, Caleb D
Adaptive functioning is thought to reflect a balance between approach and avoidance neural systems with imbalances often producing pathological forms of avoidance. Yet little evidence is available in healthy adults demonstrating a balance between approach and avoidance neural systems and modulation in avoidance neurocircuitry by vulnerability factors for avoidance. Consequently, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare changes in brain activation associated with human avoidance and approach learning and modulation of avoidance neurocircuitry by experiential avoidance. fMRI tracked trial-by-trial increases in activation while adults learned through trial and error an avoidance response that prevented money loss and an approach response that produced money gain. Avoidance and approach cues elicited similar experience-dependent increases in activation in a fronto-limbic-striatal network. Positive and negative reinforcing outcomes (i.e., money gain and avoidance of loss) also elicited similar increases in activation in frontal and striatal regions. Finally, increased experiential avoidance and self-punishment coping was associated with decreased activation in medial/superior frontal regions, anterior cingulate, amygdala and hippocampus. These findings suggest avoidance and approach learning recruit a similar fronto-limbic-striatal network in healthy adults. Increased experiential avoidance also appears to be associated with reduced frontal and limbic reactivity in avoidance, establishing an important link between maladaptive avoidance coping and altered responses in avoidance neurocircuitry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kristen L Sessions
Full Text Available In the United States, there are a growing number of medical students participating in international health electives. These experiences have the potential to be mutually beneficial to both the host country and the student. However, there is a significant risk of unethical and damaging practices during these trips, including concerns for sending trainees without appropriate pre-travel preparation with inadequate accountability to local health care providers at a stage in their education that imposes an undue burden on the local health facilities. This article describes one first year medical student’s experience in navigating common challenges faced in international health electives and offers practical advice enlightened by the literature on how to overcome them. We emphasize the need for students to ensure adequate pre-trip preparation, communicate their level of training clearly, practice cultural humility, ensure personal safety, and engage in projects needed by the host community.
Full Text Available Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD, schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. Keywords: avoidant personality disorder, social anxiety disorder, social cognition, psychotherapy, attachment
Fonseca Júnior, Amilcar Rodrigues; Leite Hunziker, Maria Helena
This study aimed to investigate whether variable patterns of responses can be acquired and maintained by negative reinforcement under an avoidance contingency. Six male Wistar rats were exposed to sessions in which behavioral variability was reinforced according to a Lag contingency: Sequences of three responses on two levers had to differ from one, two or three previous sequences for shocks to be avoided (Lag 1, Lag 2 and Lag 3, respectively). Performance under the Lag conditions was compared with performance on a Yoke condition in which the animals received the same reinforcement frequency and distribution as in the Lag condition but behavioral variability was not required. The results showed that most of the subjects varied their sequences under the Lag contingencies, avoiding shocks with relatively high probability (≥ 0.7). Under the Yoke procedure, responding continued to occur with high probability, but the behavioral variability decreased. These results suggest that behavioral variability can be negatively reinforced. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin
Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user-object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.
Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin
Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)
Full Text Available Worldwide crisis has made multinational companies that are engaged in corporate social responsibility actions to manage their businesses through the lens of various tax avoidance practices. The content of this paper is important due to the fact that tries to identify the impact in case of companies active in corporate social responsibility actions versus their tax structures orientation. Corporate social responsibility literature did not paid enough attention on the impact of the tax avoidance practices of companies. Tax, as a concept, brings in itself an important corporate financial impact with subsequent effects for the life of multiple citizens in countries where private entities are operating. Even though companies are usually expressing their ethical and responsible conduct in respect of the social environment, there are many cases when the business practices were not aligned with the declared corporate behavior. This paper seeks firstly to examine whether companies engaged in tax avoidance practices (ex. offshore tax havens consider that continue to act socially responsible. Secondly, the paper examines the influence on attending the stakeholdersâ€™ goals for those companies practicing tax avoidance and its implications on corporate social responsibility actions. Moreover, the paper focuses also on the aspects described before from the perspective of the corporate entities operating in Romania. This paperâ€™s intention is to use and to develop the results of previous research carried out by Lutz Preus (University of London and, subsequently, by Senators Levin, Coleman and Obama in their â€œStop Tax Haven Abuse Billâ€. The implications and the objectives of this material are to highlight, to identify and to spot clearly the relations and the influences of the tax haven practices of corporations versus their undertaken social responsibility actions. Moreover, this paper brings a fresh perspective of this topic from the
Aloysius Deno Hervino
Full Text Available This research analyzes risk avoidance behaviour of banking institutions in distributing working capital loan in Indonesia. Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag Error Correction Model, this paper uncovers three findings. First, in the short run, risk avoidance in working capital loan distribution depends on inter-call banking money market and Sertifikat Bank Indonesia. Second, following banking regulation after 1997 crisis, banks have become more careful in distributing credits, with SBI as a substitution instrument and inter-call banking money market as a complement instrument to spread the risk. Third, all explanatory variables take an average of 6 days or 1 week to influence bank’s risk avoidance behaviour.Keywords: Risk avoidance, working capital distribution, banking institutions JEL classification numbers: C32, C52, D81, E51
Rohr, Michaela; Kamm, Friederike; Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk
Empirical evidence suggests that the color red acts like an implicit avoidance cue in food contexts. Thus specific colors seem to guide the implicit evaluation of food items. We built upon this research by investigating the implicit meaning of color (red vs. green) in an approach-avoidance task with healthy and unhealthy food items. Thus, we examined the joint evaluative effects of color and food: Participants had to categorize food items by approach-avoidance reactions, according to their healthfulness. Items were surrounded by task-irrelevant red or green circles. We found that the implicit meaning of the traffic light colors influenced participants' reactions to the food items. The color red (compared to green) facilitated automatic avoidance reactions to unhealthy foods. By contrast, approach behavior toward healthy food items was not moderated by color. Our findings suggest that traffic light colors can act as implicit cues that guide automatic behavioral reactions to food.
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros; Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia
The singularity structure and the corresponding asymptotic behavior of a 3-brane coupled to a scalar field or to a perfect fluid in a five-dimensional bulk is analyzed in full generality using the method of asymptotic splittings. In the case of the scalar field, it is shown that the collapse singularity at a finite distance from the brane can be avoided only at the expense of making the brane world-volume positively or negatively curved. In the case where the bulk field content is parametrized by an analog of perfect fluid with an arbitrary equation of state P = γρ between the 'pressure' P and the 'density' ρ, our results depend crucially on the constant fluid parameter γ. (i) For γ > -1/2, the flat brane solution suffers from a collapse singularity at a finite distance that disappears in the curved case. (ii) For γ < -1, the singularity cannot be avoided and it becomes of the big rip type for a flat brane. (iii) For -1 < γ ≤ -1/2, the surprising result is found that while the curved brane solution is singular, the flat brane is not, opening the possibility for a revival of the self-tuning proposal.
Kokko, Hanna; Ots, Indrek
Avoidance of incestuous matings is widely reported across many animal taxa, and the adaptive value of such behavior is explained through inbreeding depression. However, an old and somewhat neglected theoretical result predicts that inbred matings offer another, positive effect on the inclusive fitness of parents: an individual who mates with a relative will help that relative to spread genes identical by descent. This benefit can be substantial, if the additional mating achieved by the relative does not harm his mating success otherwise, and in the context of selfing in plants the phenomenon is well known. Here, we develop a model that derives expected values of inbreeding tolerance, that is, the magnitude of inbreeding depression that is required to make individuals avoid inbreeding, for different animal life histories and parental investment patterns. We also distinguish between simultaneous and sequential mate choice, and show that inbreeding tolerance should often be remarkably high in the latter scenario in particular, although egalitarian parental care will lead to lower tolerance. There is a mismatch between theory and data: the almost complete lack of cases where individuals prefer to mate incestuously is at odds with a large overlap between the predicted range of inbreeding tolerance and estimates of inbreeding depression found in nature. We discuss four different solutions to this enigma, and suggest that inbreeding tolerance, where it is found, should not always be attributed to a simple constraint that has prevented finding any other mate.
Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S
Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the "severity continuum hypothesis", in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment.
Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald
Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS.
Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S
Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. PMID:29563846
Full Text Available The research’s first purpose is to analyze directly conservatism accounting influence towards book tax differences and tax avoidance. The second pusrpose is to analyze indirect influence of towards tax avoidance through book tax differences. The research is conducted to companies enlisted in Indonesian Stock Exchange and belongs to LQ45 during 2013 to 2015. The number of companies sample taken by purposive sampling is 23 corporations, therefore total observation is 69 observations. The acquired data analysed by path analysis. This research conclude that conservatism accounting practice significantly influence book tax difference practice but did not influence tax avoidance. Conservatism accounting practice is also has no influence towards tax avoidance committed by book tax differences. This book tax difference is only significantly influential to commit tax avoidance. This research can contribute in taxation field as input in tax planning formulation.
Heino, A.; van der Molen, H.H.; Wilde, G.J S
The prime purpose of our study was to find out whether the need for stimulation has a systematic influence on perceived risk. While driving on a motorway, 21 male sensation avoiders and 21 male sensation seekers had to follow another car, once at a free following distance chosen by the subject
Full Text Available At high vegetation density, shade-intolerant plants sense a reduction in the red (660 nm to far-red (730 nm light ratio (R/FR in addition to a general reduction in light intensity. These light signals trigger a spectrum of morphological changes manifested by growth of stem-like tissue (hypocotyl, petiole, etc. instead of harvestable organs (leaves, fruits, seeds, etc.—namely, shade avoidance syndrome (SAS. Common phenotypical changes related to SAS are changes in leaf hyponasty, an increase in hypocotyl and internode elongation and extended petioles. Prolonged shade exposure leads to early flowering, less branching, increased susceptibility to insect herbivory, and decreased seed yield. Thus, shade avoidance significantly impacts on agronomic traits. Many genetic and molecular studies have revealed that phytochromes, cryptochromes and UVR8 (UV-B photoreceptor protein monitor the changes in light intensity under shade and regulate the stability or activity of phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs. PIF-governed modulation of the expression of auxin biosynthesis, transporter and signaling genes is the major driver for shade-induced hypocotyl elongation. Besides auxin, gibberellins, brassinosteroids, and ethylene are also required for shade-induced hypocotyl or petiole elongation growth. In leaves, accumulated auxin stimulates cytokinin oxidase expression to break down cytokinins and inhibit leaf growth. In the young buds, shade light promotes the accumulation of abscisic acid to repress branching. Shade light also represses jasmonate- and salicylic acid-induced defense responses to balance resource allocation between growth and defense. Here we will summarize recent findings relating to such hormonal regulation in SAS in Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica rapa, and certain crops.
Full Text Available Avoidance behaviour test with the earthworms (ISO 17512-1:2008 is a rapid screening test for the evaluation of soil and the influence of pollutants and chemicals on the behaviour of earthworms. The purpose of the testing is to determine the avoidance behaviour of earthworm (in this case Eisenia andrei was used which can be used as an organism for the composting and occur naturally in soil environment. The methodology was modified according to the needs of the avoidance behaviour testing of earthworms in biodegradable plastic environment. It is a biodegradable thermoplastic material Mater-Bi, which is produced from corn starch. Californian earthworm (Eisenia andrei was chosen as a test organism. The two-chamber test was used in testing. 10 earthworms were used, which were exposed to a number of concentrations of the test substance, which was mixed into the compost environment. It was recorded both a positive result, avoidance reaction, as well as a negative result, non-avoidance reaction and also there was a case, where individuals prefer both substrates equally. Organisms showed no escape reaction and were fairly evenly distributed in both halves of the test vessel, it can be assessed that organisms prefer both substrates equally. In testing, the mortality was zero, none of the individuals died, at the conclusion of the test there were not found any dead individuals. Avoidance higher than 80 % didn’t occur; it cannot be said that the substrate is toxic or degraded.
Wilson, Anne C; Wilhelm, Sabine; Hartmann, Andrea S
Experiential avoidance (i.e., the attempt to avoid certain internal experiences including bodily sensations, thoughts, emotions, memories, and urges) has been studied in various psychological disorders. However, research examining experiential avoidance in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is limited and inconsistent. The present study compared experiential avoidance in individuals with primary BDD (n=23) to healthy controls (n=22). Standardized measures were used to assess baseline clinical characteristics as well as experiential avoidance. Compared to healthy controls, individuals with BDD presented with significantly greater experiential avoidance (pdepressive symptoms (p<.01) and avoidant coping strategies (p<.01). Clinician sensitivity to experiential avoidance may serve to improve the course of treatment for BDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Email Print Share School Avoidance: Tips for Concerned Parents Page Content School avoidance – sometimes called school refusal ... school bully) Actual physical harm Tips for Concerned Parents: As a first step, the management of school ...
Barsky, Allan E.; Wood, Lorinda
This ethnographic study explores patterns of conflict avoidance among university students, professors, administrators and staff. Analysis of their narratives of conflict avoidance suggests that avoidance can be beneficial in some circumstances, depending upon personality issues, cost?benefit analysis, power imbalance, type of work, length of…
In most past studies of the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons vs the amount of collateral damage produced (civilian casualties), civilians have been congregated into idealized shaped towns and cities, and criteria for city avoidance were usually formulated in terms relating to a town's population. This treatment was sufficient in those studies where weapon yields were so large that great numbers of civilians were almost always placed at risk. As further studies developed, demonstrating that real progress could be made in reducing the numbers of civilians potentially placed at risk in tactical nuclear warfare situations, the inadequacies of the present treatment became obvious. The need existed for a more detailed description of the distribution of civilians. The method described determines the number of civilians at risk for a weapon under consideration being detonated at a given point and displays a symbol relating to the numbers at risk on a map or a transparency that overlays a 1:50,000 map of the region. Thus, a weapons planner making the selection of aimpoints for inflicting the necessary military damage required has the means to reduce potential civilian casualties by properly choosing the weapon and aimpoints
Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James
Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the avoidance behaviour of earthworms, Eisenia fetida to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly as antibacterial agents...... and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment . In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworms avoided commercially fabricated silver nanoparticles in a dose and time dependent manner. The earthworms were exposed to 3 nanoparticles: NM....... The avoidance behaviour could not be explained by the release of silver ions in the soil-solution. Although, Ag-ions release (if any) may still have had an influence on behaviour. The present results suggests that the earthworms perceive the presence of actual nanoparticles in the soil. Our results suggest that...
Full Text Available Reliable obstacle avoidance is a key to navigating with UAVs in the close vicinity of static and dynamic obstacles. Wheel-based mobile robots are often equipped with 2D or 3D laser range finders that cover the 2D workspace sufficiently accurate and at a high rate. Micro UAV platforms operate in a 3D environment, but the restricted payload prohibits the use of fast state-of-the-art 3D sensors. Thus, perception of small obstacles is often only possible in the vicinity of the UAV and a fast collision avoidance system is necessary. We propose a reactive collision avoidance system based on artificial potential fields, that takes the special dynamics of UAVs into account by predicting the influence of obstacles on the estimated trajectory in the near future using a learned motion model. Experimental evaluation shows that the prediction leads to smoother trajectories and allows to navigate collision-free through passageways.
Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.
Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Besides cognitive factors, children's learning at school may be influenced by more dynamic phenomena, such as motivation and achievement-related task-avoidant behavior. The present study examined the developmental dynamics of task-avoidant behavior and math performance from kindergarten to Grade 4. A total of 225 children were tested for their arithmetic skills in kindergarten and in Grades 1, 2, and 4 of elementary school. Children's task-avoidant behavior in learning situations was rated by...
Calcott, Rebecca D.; Berkman, Elliot T.
Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects’ ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects’ motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects’ preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states. PMID:26000735
Li, Xia; Zhang, Ws
The orientation of plant root growth is modulated by developmental as well as environmental cues. Among the environmental factors, gravity has been extensively studied because of its overpowering effects in modulating root growth direction. However, our knowledge of the effects of other abiotic signals that influence root growth direction is largely unknown. Recently, we have shown that high salinity can modify root growth direction by inducing rapid amyloplast degradation in root columella cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. By exploiting salt overly sensitive (sos) mutants and PIN2 expression analyses, we have shown that the altered root growth direction in response to salt is mediated by ion disequilibrium and is correlated with PIN2 mRNA abundance and expression and localization of the protein. Our study demonstrates that the SOS pathway may mediate this process. Here we discuss our data from broader perspectives. We propose that salt-induced modification of root growth direction is a salt-avoidance behavior, which is an active adaptive mechanism for plants grown under saline conditions. Furthermore, high salinity also stimulates alteration of gravitropic growth of shoots. These findings illustrate that plants have a fine and sophisticated sensory and communication system that enable plants to dynamically and efficiently cope with rapidly changing environment.
Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.
This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction
Fischerauer, Stefan F.; Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Bexkens, Rens; Ring, David C.; Oh, Luke S.; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria
Fear avoidance can play a prominent role in maladaptive responses to an injury. In injured athletes, such pain-related fear or fear avoidance behavior may have a substantial influence on the recovery process. Specifically, it may explain why some are able to reach their preinjury abilities, whereas
Arild Husby; Magne Husby
Among the most widespread forms of anthropogenic modification of the natural landscape is road construction, with vehicle mortality a major issue affecting amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. Why some species are more susceptible to vehicle collision than others, however, is poorly understood. We examine how roadside vegetation patterns, road size, vehicle speed, and brain size influence vehicle avoidance behavior using more than 3700 individuals of 11 species of European birds. We find...
Renata Nogueira Braga
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigates the association between mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adoption and corporate tax avoidance. In this study, tax avoidance is defined as a reduction in the effective corporate income tax rate through tax planning activities, whether these are legal, questionable, or even illegal. Three measures of tax avoidance are used and factors at the country and firm level (that have already been associated with tax avoidance in prior research are controlled. Using samples that range from 9,389 to 15,423 publicly-traded companies from 35 countries, covering 1999 to 2014, it is found that IFRS adoption is associated with higher levels of corporate tax avoidance, even when the level of book-tax conformity required in the countries and the volume of accruals are controlled, both of which are considered potential determinants of this relationship. Furthermore, the results suggest that after IFRS adoption, firms in higher book-tax conformity environments engage more in tax avoidance than firms in lower book-tax conformity environments. It is also identified that engagement in tax avoidance after IFRS adoption derives not only from accruals management, but also from practices that do not involve accruals. The main conclusion is that companies engage more in tax avoidance after mandatory IFRS adoption.
Burgess, Thomas A.; Hinkle, J. Scott
Notes that Millon's biopsychosocial model asserts that socioenvironmental factors of parental or peer rejection may shape development of avoidant behavior but does not elaborate on how family system may perpetuate its existence once disorder has evolved. Presents brief overview of avoidant behavior and strategic family therapy case study.…
There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.
McKibbin, William F; Shackelford, Todd K; Miner, Emily J; Bates, Vincent M; Liddle, James R
Rape can exact severe psychological, physical, and reproductive costs on women, and likely was a recurrent adaptive problem over human evolutionary history. Therefore, women may have evolved psychological mechanisms that motivate rape avoidance behaviors. Guided heuristically by an evolutionary perspective, we tested the hypothesis that women's rape avoidance behaviors would vary with several individual difference variables. Specifically, we predicted that rape avoidance behaviors would covary positively with (1) women's attractiveness, (2) women's involvement in a committed romantic relationship, and (3) the number of family members living nearby. We also predicted that women's rape avoidance behaviors would covary negatively with age. We administered the Rape Avoidance Inventory (McKibbin et al., Pers Indiv Differ 39:336-340, 2009) and a demographic survey to a sample of women (n = 144). The results of correlational and regression analyses were consistent with the predictions, with the exception that women's rape avoidance behaviors did not covary with women's age. Discussion highlighted limitations of the current research and directions for future research on women's rape avoidance psychology and behaviors.
Ishizu, Kenichiro; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki; Ohtsuki, Tomu
The present study aimed to investigate the reciprocal relations between experiential avoidance, stressor, and psychological stress response (which consist of anger, depression, anxiety, helplessness, and physical complaints). In this study, 688 Japanese junior high school students (353 boys, 334 girls, 1 unidentified; mean age 13.28 years) completed three waves of questionnaires on experiential avoidance, stressor, and psychological stress response, with one-week intervals between measurement waves. Results from cross-lagged panel analyses showed that experiential avoidance predicted subsequent stressor and psychological stress response. Furthermore, the stressor and psychological stress response influenced by prior experiential avoidance affected subsequent occurrence of experiential avoidance. The findings suggest that reciprocal relations exist among the variables, and that the interaction between experiential avoidance and psychological stress was possible in adolescents.
Rebecca, Rodillas; Hanna, Bjärkvik
Background - Supply is nowadays higher than the demand, making it possible for consumers to pick, choose and purchase brands that responds to their individual identity. Due to the numerous offerings available, consumers have started to become resistant and they are now withstanding the influence of brands marketing activities. The concept of brand avoidance is one type of personal anti-consumption behaviour which deals with understanding why consumers actively avoid purchasing a specific bran...
... patientinstructions/000865.htm How to avoid overheating during exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... condition can get heat illness. Stay Cool During Exercise Try these tips to help prevent heat-related ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...
US Agency for International Development — The Office of the Chief Information Officer in the Management Bureau of USAID launched initiatives designed for IT cost savings and avoidance. This dataset includes...
General Services Administration — GSA IT provides data related to Agency IT initiatives that save or avoid expenditures. This data is provided as a requirement of OMB's Integrated Data Collection...
Wang, Yu; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J
This paper analyzes the performance of directional collision avoidance schemes, in which antenna systems are used to direct the transmission and reception of control and data packets in channel access...
Fisher, E R; Partin, K M
Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.
... try a new food being offered. Avoid the Junk Food Trap Toddlers need to eat healthy to get ... need. Candy, potato chips, and other low-nutrient "junk foods" shouldn't be part of their diet because ...
... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Tweet Share Compartir When should a mother avoid breastfeeding? Health professionals agree that human milk provides the ...
... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...
Thompson, Brian L; Waltz, Jennifer
Mindfulness reflects an awareness of present moment experiences through an attitude of acceptance and openness (Bishop et al., 2004; Cardaciotto, Herbert, Forman, Moitra, & Farrow, 2008). Experiential avoidance, by contrast, refers to attempts to change, alter, or avoid private experiences (e.g., thoughts, feelings, sensations), and it is believed to underlie a number of psychopathologies, including PTSD (Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, & Strosahl, 1996). We were interested in the ability of mindfulness to predict the variance of PTSD avoidance symptom severity above and beyond experiential avoidance. 378 introductory psychology students were administered self-report measures of PTSD, mindfulness, experiential avoidance, thought suppression, alexithymia, and avoidant coping. Mindfulness, specifically nonjudgment of experiences, accounted for a unique portion of the variance in PTSD avoidance symptoms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bill B. Francis
Full Text Available We investigate whether tax avoidance substitutes for external financing. We exploit interstate banking deregulation as a quasi-external shock to examine whether firms engage in less tax avoidance after banking deregulation, because of cheaper and easier access to credit from banks. We find no empirical evidence to support this substitutive relation, even for firms with higher financial constraints or firms with higher external financing dependence.
Full Text Available Collision avoidance is a fundamental requirement for mobile robots. Avoiding moving obstacles (also termed dynamic obstacles with unpredictable direction changes, such as humans, is more challenging than avoiding moving obstacles whose motion can be predicted. Precise information on the future moving directions of humans is unobtainable for use in navigation algorithms. Furthermore, humans should be able to pursue their activities unhindered and without worrying about the robots around them. In this paper, both active and critical regions are used to deal with the uncertainty of human motion. A procedure is introduced to calculate the region sizes based on worst-case avoidance conditions. Next, a novel virtual force field-based mobile robot navigation algorithm (termed QVFF is presented. This algorithm may be used with both holonomic and nonholonomic robots. It incorporates improved virtual force functions for avoiding moving obstacles and its stability is proven using a piecewise continuous Lyapunov function. Simulation and experimental results are provided for a human walking towards the robot and blocking the path to a goal location. Next, the proposed algorithm is compared with five state-of-the-art navigation algorithms for an environment with one human walking with an unpredictable change in direction. Finally, avoidance results are presented for an environment containing three walking humans. The QVFF algorithm consistently generated collision-free paths to the goal.
Felton, G; Parsons, M A; Ward, D S; Pate, R R; Saunders, R P; Dowda, M; Trost, S
This study examined the maintenance of positive health behavior (avoidance of alcohol use and cigarette smoking) and factors associated with the maintenance of these behaviors from fifth through seventh grade by a cohort of rural students (N = 232). African American and White students showed similar patterns of high avoidance of alcohol until seventh grade. Although more girls avoided use than boys, avoidance decreased in both groups with progression in grade. Mothers', fathers', and best friends' drinking behaviors influenced avoidance behavior; drinking was less likely to occur among those whose parents and friends did not drink. Friends' drinking behavior influenced alcohol use as early as fifth grade. Smoking avoidance was maintained by 74% of the students over the 3 years. Although there were no racial differences in smoking, African Americans started smoking about 1 year earlier than Whites. During seventh grade, an increase in smoking occurred among boys and girls, but was particularly striking among girls. Avoidance of smoking was influenced by mothers' behavior but not fathers'. Best friends' smoking behavior exerted a major influence on avoidance between grades 6 and 7. In grades 5 and 6, those who avoided smoking were more physically active than smokers, but by seventh grade their physical activity declined to a similar level as smokers. Rural adolescent boys seemed to be at early risk for alcohol use and smoking, while rural girls delayed involvement by 1 to 2 years. Communities, schools, and families can help adolescents avoid alcohol use and smoking through early prevention efforts.
Mara M. de Andréa
Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.
Novoseletskaia, A V; Kiseleva, N M; Belova, O V; Zimina, I V; Moskvina, S N; Bystrova, O V; Inozemtsev, A N; Arion, V Ia; Sergienko, V I
The objective of this project was to explore the influence of immunoactive drugs (tactivin, thymulin, and thymosin fraction 5) on the development of the passive avoidance conditioned reflex. Two types of passive avoidance boxes were used--a regular two-chamber box and a modified three-chamber box, comprising a dark chamber in which rats were exposed to electrical shock, a safe dark chamber, and a light chamber in the center. The project has established that the memory trace persists longer under the influence of the immunoactive drugs in both models, which is consistent with the reference nootropic piracetam test results. Notably, the immunoactive drugs' mnemotropic effect was more pronounced in the modified three-chamber box than in the standard two-chamber box. Using the modified box helped to establish the influence of tactivin, thymulin, and thymosin fraction 5 on the spatial memory component. Immunotropic preparations from thymus caused the animals to select the safe chamber 24 hours later and in subsequent tests. The project's results indicate that the drugs tested do possess mnemotropic properties, so their range of clinical use can be broadened.
Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Supurna; Ghosh, Abhijit
We present a theoretical treatment of DNA stretching and twisting experiments, in which we discuss global topological subtleties of self-avoiding ribbons and provide an underlying justification for the worm-like rod chain (WLRC) model proposed by Bouchiat and Mezard. Some theoretical points regarding the WLRC model are clarified: the 'local writhe formula' and the use of an adjustable cut-off parameter to 'regularize' the model. Our treatment brings out the precise relation between the worm-like chain (WLC), the paraxial worm-like chain (PWLC) and the WLRC models. We describe the phenomenon of 'topological untwisting' and the resulting collapse of link sectors in the WLC model and note that this leads to a free energy profile periodic in the applied link. This periodicity disappears when one takes into account the topology of self-avoidance or at large stretch forces (paraxial limit). We note that the difficult non-local notion of self-avoidance can be replaced (in an approximation) by the simpler local notion of 'south avoidance'. This gives an explanation for the efficacy of the approach of Bouchiat and Mezard in explaining the 'hat curves' using the WLRC model, which is a south avoiding model. We propose a new class of experiments to probe the continuous transition between the periodic and aperiodic behaviour of the free energy
Johnson, H D; LaVoie, J C; Spenceri, M C; Mahoney-Wernli, M A
Failure to resolve peer conflict is associated with children's reports of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance. Although these relationships are well established, researchers have not examined the association between the avoidance of peer conflict and various adjustment characteristics. The current study examined the association between avoidance of conflict and measures of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance for 59 pupils in Grade 4 (31 boys and 28 girls) and 47 in Grade 8 (22 boys and 25 girls). Volunteers indicated that conflict avoidance based on autonomy, e.g., independence issues, and interpersonal issues, e.g., closeness and cohesion, was associated with scores on loneliness for boys and girls, respectively. Conflict avoidance for emotional and physical well-being and fear of punishment was associated with increased reports of loneliness and social anxiety for children in Grade 4.
Laurel S. Morris
Conclusions: FND patients had impaired instrumental avoidance learning, findings that parallel previous observations of impaired action-outcome binding. FND patients further show enhanced behavioural and neural sensitivity to negative information. However, this did not translate to improved avoidance learning. Put together, our findings do not support the theory of harm avoidance in FND. We highlight a potential mechanism by which negative contexts interfere with adaptive behaviours in this under-explored disorder.
Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial practices, Western science educators ought to consider the notion of cultural mediators. This position, I argue, infers an obligation to take responsibility for their actions and to consider postcolonial discourses as a way of understanding the relationships and dialogue between different ways of knowing.
A new apparatus for active avoidance training in rats consists of a short, wide runway which can be tilted from a horizontal to vertical position. One half of the electrifiable grid floor is covered by a nonconducting sheet. For brightness (black-white) discrimination training a white walled goal box can be inserted into the runway and shifted from left to right during training. Avoidance training of 24 rats (female Wistar SPF) required 14.1 +/- 2.6 (mean +/- SEM) to-criterion trials (9/10) and was completed in less than 4 min. Brightness discrimination training required 21.3 +/- 2.1 to-criterion trials and the time of training did not exceed 12 min. The retention of the acquired responses was very good in both cases. The main advantage of the apparatus is very rapid acquisition of the one-way and discriminated avoidance without the necessity of manual manipulation of the animal.
Andersen, Martin Marchman
In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about...... such as smoking and over-eating, nor that responsibility is ultimately irrelevant for the principle of Reasonable Avoidability. Second, I object to an argument of Segall’s, according to which the size of the health-care costs related to smoking and obesity is irrelevant for whether society reasonably can expect...
Temperley, H. N. V.
A Gaussian model of self-avoiding walks is studied. Not only is any cluster integral exactly evaluable, but whole sub-series can be evaluated exactly in terms of associated Riemann zeta functions. The results are compared with information recently obtained on self-avoiding walks on the plane square and simple cubic lattices and, as expected, are very similar. Use is made of the author's recent result that the reciprocal of the walks generating function is the generating function for irreducible cluster-sums. This is split into sub-series all of which have the same radius of convergence, and the significance of this is discussed.
Hejduk, Matthew D.
Satellite conjunction assessment is perhaps the fastest-growing area in space situational awareness and protection, with military, civil, and commercial satellite owner operators embracing more and more sophisticated processes to avoid the avoidable namely collisions between high-value space assets and orbital debris. NASA and CNES have collaborated to offer an introductory short course on all the major aspects of the conjunction assessment problem. This half-day course will cover satellite conjunction dynamics and theory, JSpOC conjunction data products, major risk assessment parameters and plots, conjunction remediation decision support, and present and future challenges. This briefing represents the NASA portion of the course.
Wilhelmsen, Karl C.; Strenn, Stephen
The complexity of telerobotic operations in a cluttered environment is exacerbated by the need to present collision information to the operator in an understandable fashion. In addition to preventing movements which will cause collisions, a system providing some form of virtual force reflection is desirable. With this goal in mind Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a kinetically similar master/slave system and developed a whole arm collision avoidance system which interacts directly with the telerobotic controller. LLNL has also provided a structure to allow for automated upgrades of workcell models and provide collision avoidance even in a dynamically changing workcell.
Živić, I.; Elezović-Hadžić, S.; Milošević, S.
We have studied the statistics of semiflexible polymer chains modeled by crossing-avoiding trails (CAT) situated on the family of plane-filling (PF) fractals. The fractals are compact, that is, their fractal dimension d f is equal to 2 for all members of the fractal family. By applying the exact and Monte Carlo real-space renormalization group method we have calculated the critical exponent ν, which governs the scaling behavior of the end-to-end distance of the polymer, as well as the entropic critical exponent γ, for a large set of fractals, and various values of polymer flexibility. Our results, obtained for CAT model on PF fractals, show that both critical exponents depend on the polymer flexibility, in such a way that less flexible polymer chains display enlarged values of ν, and diminished values of γ. We have compared the obtained results for CAT model with the known results for the self-avoiding walk and self-avoiding trail models and discussed the influence of excluded volume effect on the values of semiflexible polymer critical exponents, for a large set of studied compact fractals.
van Keeken, Helco G; Vrieling, Aline H; Hof, At L; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert
In this study, conditions that enable a prosthetic knee flexion strategy in transfemoral amputee subjects during obstacle avoidance were investigated. This study explored the hip torque principle and the static ground principle as object avoidance strategies. A prosthetic limb simulator device was used to study the influence of applied hip torques and static ground friction on the prosthetic foot trajectory. Inverse dynamics were used to calculate the energy produced by the hip joint. A two-dimensional forward dynamics model was used to investigate the relation between obstacle-foot distance and the necessary hip torques utilized during obstacle avoidance. The study showed that a prosthetic knee flexion strategy was facilitated by the use of ground friction and by larger active hip torques. This strategy required more energy produced by the hip compared to a knee extension strategy. We conclude that when an amputee maintains enough distance between the distal tip of the foot and the obstacle during stance, he or she produces sufficiently high, yet feasible, hip torques and uses static ground friction, the amputee satisfies the conditions for enable stepping over an obstacle using a knee flexion strategy. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Renshaw, Domeena C.
Discusses the complexities of sexual avoidance, or Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD), a previously neglected aspect of a couple's relationship. Suggests that learning from a therapist to accept and enjoy other forms of sexual exchange can open up new horizons of physical and emotional intimacy. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)
Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can significantly decrease perinatal mortality. H. R. G. Ward, G. R. Howarth, O. J. N. Jennings,. R. C. Pattinson .... 6 months) and seven interns. The study was .... maternity care notes study: a randomized control trial to assess the effects of giving expectant mothers ...
Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.
The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Avoiding defaults. 260.49 Section 260.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.49...
Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.
Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive
Andersen, Martin Marchman
by imprudent behavior such as smoking and over-eating. While I seek to investigate how more precisely we are to understand this principle of Reasonable Avoidability, I also object to it. First, I argue that Segall neither succeeds in showing that individuals quite generally are responsible for behaviors...
Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K W
Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive
Knockaert, J.; Bakens, J.; Ettema, D.F.; Verhoef, E.
The Dutch road network is becoming increasingly congested. In late 2006, a group of companies, universities and government institutions established the Spitsmijden project. ‘Spitsmijden’ is the Dutch term for ‘avoiding the peak’. This joint initiative aimed to identify and assess a short-term
Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)
A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.
Objective. To evaluate the role of the ICA (Identification, Cause, Avoidable factor) Solution method of perinatal audit in reducing perinatal mortality. Design. Retrospective audit of 1 060 perinatal deaths between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 1992. Setting. Livingstone Hospital Maternity Service. Subjects. One thousand ...
Wang, Dizhong; Lin, Jiajian
Recent years, the flight control technology over quadcopter has been boosted vigorously and acquired the comprehensive application in a variety of industries. However, it is prominent for there to be problems existed in the stable and secure flight with the development of its autonomous flight. Through comparing with the characteristics of ultrasonic ranging and laser Time-of-Flight(abbreviated to ToF) distance as well as vision measurement and its related sensors, the obstacle detection and identification sensors need to be installed in order to effectively enhance the safety flying for aircraft, which is essential for avoiding the dangers around the surroundings. That the major sensors applied to objects perception at present are distance measuring instruments which based on the principle and application of non-contact detection technology . Prior to acknowledging the general principles of flight and obstacle avoiding, the aerodynamics modeling of the quadcopter and its object detection means has been initially determined on this paper. Based on such premise, this article emphasized on describing and analyzing the research on obstacle avoiding technology and its application status, and making an expectation for the trend of its development after analyzing the primary existing problems concerning its accuracy object avoidance.
Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.
We examined attitudes towards spiders by employing an Approach-Avoidance Task, in which participants respond to pictures by pulling a joystick towards themselves or by pushing it away from themselves. For spider fearfuls, this stimulus–response assignment is either compatible (push spiders away) or
controlled a UAS through airspace including several proximal aircraft. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Drones ; Detect and Avoid; Remotely Piloted Aircraft...maneuver guidance presentation but the transparency “threshold” needed to result in appropriate automation usage , which is defined as both high rates of
Mahoney, Frances Eileen
Considers cultural bias in employment interviews. Compares white American and Navajo interview styles and suggests new approach for recruiters to make interviewing less culturally biased. Recommends that recruiters not ask direct questions about personal achievements, try indirect approach, avoid making judgments on first impressions and…
Addresses the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance (UA), of US and German staffing decisions – but uses a different viewpoint. Discusses and challenges the hitherto accepted meaning of individual positions of countries UA, using Höfstede’s guide. Adumbrates the concept of UA at the two lev...
De Salazar, Vitaliano; Borzi, Claudia; Maggiani, Michela; Amato, Simona
The Instabul Convention is a normative tool for the prevention of women's violence in Europe. Rome 5 Local Healthcare Authority has implemented a synergistic intervention model in joint ventures with all stakeholders and institutions involved: the Tivoli Model. This model provides a synergistic social, health, legal and training approach to prevent violence against women in a logic of preventing an avoidable mortality.
Stuyt, Floran H.A.; Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry .J.A.
The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm
The efficacy of diets advocating extreme macronutrient manipulation has been reviewed extensively. Studies involving participation for 12 months or longer revealed that diet adherence, length of intervention and level of calorie. ISSUES IN MEDICINE. Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity. Maria Elizabeth Catsicas.
O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca
"Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…
Nola, F. J.
Single-phase power-factor controller includes special inhibiting circuit to avoid false turnoff. If thyristor trigger signal occurs during flow of current from preceding half cycle, inhibiting signal delays application of trigger pulse until beginning of next current half cycle.
Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E
around the year 2000, with 1,890 among men and fewer than 25 among women. The proportions that could be avoided if industrial carcinogens were eliminated would be 70% of mesotheliomas, 20% of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses, 12% of lung cancers, 5% of laryngeal cancers, 2% of urinary bladder...
Martin Lacroix; Armin Pircher Verdorfer
This study tested the effect of servant leadership on followers’ inclinations to strive for and, in contrast, to avoid leadership responsibility. Results from a study in the health care context, including two waves of data from 222 employees, revealed that servant leadership had a small but positive effect on followers’ leadership avoidance. This effect was influenced by followers’ implicit conception of an ideal leader. Specifically, servant leadership was found to reduce leadership avoidanc...
Friedman, Laura; Sterling, Audra; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea
Gaze avoidance and perseverative language impact pragmatics in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined these features during conversation samples in boys with ASD (n = 10) and boys with FXS and ASD (FXS+ASD; n = 10). Both groups had similar high rates of gaze avoidance and topic and conversation device perseverations, yet these features were not correlated with one another. Boys with FXS+ASD produced a higher proportion of single utterance perseverations. Results from this study highlight the need for future research to identify potential mechanisms influencing the presence of language perseverations and gaze avoidance.
Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.
Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.
Gordon JG Asmundson
Full Text Available The fear-avoidance model of chronic musculoskeletal pain has become an increasingly popular conceptualization of the processes and mechanisms through which acute pain can become chronic. Despite rapidly growing interest and research regarding the influence of fear-avoidance constructs on pain-related disability in children and adolescents, there have been no amendments to the model to account for unique aspects of pediatric chronic pain. A comprehensive understanding of the role of fear-avoidance in pediatric chronic pain necessitates understanding of both child/adolescent and parent factors implicated in its development and maintenance. The primary purpose of the present article is to propose an empirically-based pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain that accounts for both child/adolescent and parent factors as well as their potential interactive effects. To accomplish this goal, the present article will define important fear-avoidance constructs, provide a summary of the general fear-avoidance model and review the growing empirical literature regarding the role of fear-avoidance constructs in pediatric chronic pain. Assessment and treatment options for children with chronic pain will also be described in the context of the proposed pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain. Finally, avenues for future investigation will be proposed.
Aldridge, Jennifer Stacy
Development of tomotherapy has led to the emergence of several processes, providing the basis for many unique investigative opportunities. These processes include setup verification, tomographic verification, megavoltage dose reconstruction, and conformal avoidance tomotherapy. Setup verification and conformal avoidance tomotherapy, in particular, are two closely intertwined matters. In order to avoid critical structures located within or adjacent to indistinct tumor regions, accurate patient positioning from fraction to fraction must be ensured. With tomographic patient registration, a higher level of assurance is offered than with traditional positioning methods. Translational and rotational offsets are calculated directly from projection data using cross- correlation or fast Fourier transforms. Experiments assessing the algorithm's ability to calculate individual offsets were conducted using the University of Wisconsin's Tomotherapy Benchtop. These experiments indicate statistical errors within +/-1 mm for offsets up to approximately 20 mm, with maximum offset errors of about +/-2 mm for displacements up to 35 mm. The angular offset component is within +/-2°. To evaluate the registration process as a whole, experimental results from a few multi-parameter examples are also analyzed. With the development of tomographic patient registration in projection space, efforts to promote further sparing of critical structures are justified. Conformal avoidance tomotherapy has as its objective to treat an indistinct tumor region while conformally avoiding any normal critical structures in that region. To demonstrate the advantages of conformal avoidance tomotherapy, conventional and tomotherapy treatments are contrasted for both nasopharyngeal and breast carcinoma cases. For initial research efforts, computed tomography data sets of a human male and female were obtained via the ``Visible Human Project''. Since these data sets are on the order of hundreds of megabytes, both
Lowe, J. A.; Warren, R.; Arnell, N.; Buckle, S.
The AVOID programme and its successor, AVOID2, have focused on answering three core questions: how do we characterise potentially dangerous climate change and impacts, which emissions pathways can avoid at least some of these impacts, and how feasible are the future reductions needed to significantly deviate from a business-as-usual future emissions pathway. The first AVOID project succeeded in providing the UK Government with evidence to inform its position on climate change. A key part of the work involved developing a range of global emissions pathways and estimating and understanding the corresponding global impacts. This made use of a combination of complex general circulation models, simple climate models, pattern-scaling and state-of-the art impacts models. The results characterise the range of avoidable impacts across the globe in several key sectors including river and coastal flooding, cooling and heating energy demand, crop productivity and aspects of biodiversity. The avoided impacts between a scenario compatible with a 4ºC global warming and one with a 2ºC global warming were found to be highly sector dependent and avoided fractions typically ranged between 20% and 70%. A further key aspect was characterising the magnitude of the uncertainty involved, which is found to be very large in some impact sectors although the avoided fraction appears a more robust metric. The AVOID2 programme began in 2014 and will provide results in the run up to the Paris CoP in 2015. This includes new post-IPCC 5th assessment evidence to inform the long-term climate goal, a more comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty ranges of feasible emission pathways compatible with the long-term goal and enhanced estimates of global impacts using the latest generation of impact models and scenarios.
Spiegler, Kevin M; Fortress, Ashley M; Pang, Kevin C H
Differential processing of danger and safety signals may underlie symptoms of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. One symptom common to these disorders is pathological avoidance. The present study examined whether danger and safety signals influence avoidance differently in anxiety-vulnerable Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. SD and WKY rats were tested in a novel progressive ratio avoidance task with and without danger or safety signals. Two components of reinforcement, hedonic value and motivation, were determined by fitting an exponentiated demand equation to the data. Hedonic value of avoidance did not differ between SD and WKY rats, but WKY rats had greater motivation to avoid than SD rats. Removal of the safety signal reduced motivation to avoid in SD, but not WKY, rats. Removal of the danger signal did not alter avoidance in either strain. When danger and safety signals were presented simultaneously, WKY rats responded to the danger signals, whereas SD rats responded to the safety signal. The results provide evidence that 1) safety signals enhance motivation to avoid in SD rats, 2) both danger and safety signals influence motivation in WKY rats, and 3) danger signals take precedence over safety signals when presented simultaneously in WKY rats. Thus, anxiety vulnerability is associated with preferential use of danger signals to motivate avoidance. The differential use of danger and safety signals has important implications for the etiology and treatment of pathological avoidance in anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
This paper presents an innovative method to teach ethics, which has so far been implemented amongst Danish students. The method focuses on developing skills to conduct a methodical, ethical dialogue by teaching students to become aware of self-contradictions and learning to avoid them. This method......, this method focuses not so much on teaching what other people think, but rather starts by finding out what the students think, and to which degree they contradict themselves. In addition the method focuses on how students argue for their positions when entering an ethical dialogue. The method focuses on two...... (learning the skills to conduct an ethical dialogue) builds on the previous ability to identify contradictions. This is done by focusing in 4 basic rules that introduce the basic principles of a dialectical dialogue. These rules allow them to avoid fundamental mistakes which otherwise hinder an ethical...
Freeman, Todd I
Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.
Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
This paper presents an innovative method to teach ethics, which has so far been implemented amongst Danish students. The method focuses on developing skills to conduct a methodical, ethical dialogue by teaching students to become aware of self-contradictions and learning to avoid them. This method...... was created as a response to a recurring disappointment relating to the common way of teaching ethics in Danish nursing schools, in which students are introduced to ethical theories and asked to use them to reflect on concrete ethical cases. In these courses, quite commonly students were able to understand...... aspects –first developing critical self-refection and secondly developing skills to conduct an ethical dialogue. The first aspect is addressed by finding out what the students think, do they contradict themselves and how to avoid self-contradictions. This is done by using a questionnaire with 13 ethical...
Barrick, Murray R; Zimmerman, Ryan D
The authors investigated the efficacy of several variables used to predict voluntary, organizationally avoidable turnover even before the employee is hired. Analyses conducted on applicant data collected in 2 separate organizations (N = 445) confirmed that biodata, clear-purpose attitudes and intentions, and disguised-purpose dispositional retention scales predicted voluntary, avoidable turnover (rs ranged from -.16 to -.22, R = .37, adjusted R = .33). Results also revealed that biodata scales and disguised-purpose retention scales added incremental validity, whereas clear-purpose retention scales did not explain significant incremental variance in turnover beyond what was explained by biodata and disguised-purpose scales. Furthermore, disparate impact (subgroup differences on race, sex, and age) was consistently small (average d = 0.12 when the majority group scored higher than the minority group).
There are three specific purposes of Construction Dispute Research. First, this volume aims to summarise studies on construction dispute. Second, apart from the theoretical constructs, where appropriate empirical tests are also included. This approach serves to go beyond the commonly used anecdotal approach for the subject matters. Third, it is the sincere hope of the authors that this book will help shaping research agenda of construction dispute. The studies are mostly framed from a management perspective drawing on methods and concepts in contract law, economics, psychology and management science. The book has twenty chapters that are arranged in four parts covering conceptualisation, avoidance, negotiation and mediation. Part 1 is devoted for dispute conceptualisation. A building is only as strong as its foundation. Thus it is no better start to study construction dispute by conceptualisation. The theme of Part 2 is dispute avoidance. The conventional wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ se...
Full Text Available Taking ARM embedded Linux operating system as the development platform,combined with AVR microcontroller,while optimizing the ranging algorithm and using air ultrasonic transducer,the measurement range of which can be up to 50 meter,this paper designs a high-precision,range far,low price,various models suitable automobile collision avoidance warning system.The system adopts Forlinx OK6410 development board for the master.AVR microcontroller is responsible for taking the data of traveling distance between vehicles,and with the ARM development board via RS232 communication transfers vehicle′s distance and speed information to the ARM development boards.The system uses the established collision avoidance model to get alarm information.Experiments show that the system can accurately send out alarm information within a certain range.It is innovative and practical.
Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.
Eliasen, Søren Qvist
presents two initiatives for cod avoidance in Kattegat; a fisher initiative sharing information about cod bycatch which could lead to real time closures in areas with high bycatch of juveniles, for vessels with low cod quota to avoid catch of all cod, and a Danish Swedish Government initiative of permanent...... fair and the goals should be clear, not least when the descriptors of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which might be more intangible for the fishers, are part of the goal of the measures. If incentives created by the regulation are stable over at least a few years the fishers and fishers......’ organisations are more capable at being active partners in developing the systems that support the discard ban. An example from the examined initiatives are the outline of a fleet information system, providing the skipper with information about hotspots of unwanted species allowing him to make a better plan...
Vigueras-Zúñiga Marco Osvaldo
Full Text Available Lean premixed combustion using swirling flows is widely used in gas turbines and combustion. Although flashback is not generally a problem with natural gas combustion, there are some reports of flashback damage with existing gas turbines, whilst hydrogen enriched fuel blends cause concerns in this area. Thus, this paper describes a practical approach to study and avoid flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. The flashback phenomenon is studied experimentally via the derivation of flashback limits for a variety of different geometrical conditions. A high speed camera is used to visualize the process and distinguish new patterns of avoidance. The use of a central fuel injector is shown to give substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance. Conclusions are drawn as to mitigation technologies.
Murphy, Melissa M.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Schroeder, Susan; Serlin, Ronald
The influence of social and information-processing demands on eye-gaze avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, or typical development were examined by manipulating those demands in a structured-language task. Participants with fragile X syndrome exhibited more gaze avoidance than did those in the comparison groups, but no…
Zijlmans, L.J.M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Gerits, L.; Derksen, J.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
Background Challenging behaviour of clients influences emotional wellbeing of staff; this in turn affects levels of staff engagement and avoidance within interactions with clients. The main goal of this study was to investigate to what extent levels of staff engagement and staff avoidance are
Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/
Full Text Available The problem of resolving issues pertaining to tax avoidance, and particularly its aggressive forms, has been the focal point of discussion among tax scholars which is increasingly gaining attention of politicians alike. As opposed to tax evasion (which is illegal, the phenomenon of tax avoidance calls for careful consideration of state fiscal interests and a highly precise demarcation of the thin line between the acceptable and unacceptable conduct. In many contemporary states, tax avoidance (which implies a formal behaviour of tax payers within the limits of tax legislation but contrary to the tax regulation objectives is declared to be illegitimate. State authorities do not want to tolerate such activity, which results in tax payers' reduction or avoidance of tax liabilities. We should also bear in mind that all tax payers have the tax planning option at their disposal, by means of which they make sure that they do not pay more tax than they are legally obliged to. However, in case they skilfully use the tax regulation flaws and loopholes for the sole purpose of tax evasion, and/or resort to misrepresentation and deceptive constructs, they are considered to be exceeding the limits of acceptable tax behaviour. In comparison to the specific anti-abuse measures which have been built into some national tax legislations, there is a growing number of states that introduce the general anti-abuse legislations, which is based on judicial doctrines or statutory legislation. Yet, there is a notable difference among the envisaged anti-abuse measures depending on whether the national legislation is based on the Anglo-American or European-Continental legal system. The efficiency of applying these general anti-abuse rules in taxation largely rests on their interpretation as well as on their relationship with the principle of legality.
The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting m...
Brezinski, Claude; Sadok, Hassane
The conjugate gradient squared algorithm can suffer of similar breakdowns as Lanczos type methods for the same reason that is the non-existence of some formal orthogonal polynomials. Thus curing such breakdowns is possible by jumping over these non-existing polynomials and using only those of them which exist. The technique used is similar to that employed for avoiding breakdowns in Lanczos type methods. The implementation of these new methods is discussed. Numerical examples are given.
Romance languages are known to be more restrictive than Germanic languages as far as segmental coda-filling is concerned. Moreover, it is also known that within the Romance family some languages have more restrictive constraints ruling coda-filling than others. This paper deals with the specific question of segmental coda-filling in Portuguese. Looking at a large array of different historical phenomena, it is claimed that avoiding any segmental material in coda position corresponds to a very ...
Milanés Montero, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagra Serrano, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; Pedro Lucio, María Teresa de; Oria, Juan P.
n recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) – mainly based on lidar and cameras – has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system cap...
Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin; Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens
to minimize the number of unnecessary peripartum hysterectomies, obstetricians and anesthesiologists should investigate individual cases by structured clinical audit, and disseminate and discuss the results for educational purposes. An international collaboration is warranted to strengthen our recommendations......Objective: To audit the clinical management preceding peripartum hysterectomy and evaluate if peripartum hysterectomies are potentially avoidable and by which means. Material and Methods: We developed a structured audit form based on explicit criteria for the minimal mandatory management...
Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi
The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of
Choi, Jung Il
We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.
Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M
Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588
Millner, Alexander J; Gershman, Samuel J; Nock, Matthew K; den Ouden, Hanneke E M
To survive in complex environments, animals need to have mechanisms to select effective actions quickly, with minimal computational costs. As perhaps the computationally most parsimonious of these systems, Pavlovian control accomplishes this by hardwiring specific stereotyped responses to certain classes of stimuli. It is well documented that appetitive cues initiate a Pavlovian bias toward vigorous approach; however, Pavlovian responses to aversive stimuli are less well understood. Gaining a deeper understanding of aversive Pavlovian responses, such as active avoidance, is important given the critical role these behaviors play in several psychiatric conditions. The goal of the current study was to establish a behavioral and computational framework to examine aversive Pavlovian responses (activation vs. inhibition) depending on the proximity of an aversive state (escape vs. avoidance). We introduce a novel task in which participants are exposed to primary aversive (noise) stimuli and characterized behavior using a novel generative computational model. This model combines reinforcement learning and drift-diffusion models so as to capture effects of invigoration/inhibition in both explicit choice behavior as well as changes in RT. Choice and RT results both suggest that escape is associated with a bias for vigorous action, whereas avoidance is associated with behavioral inhibition. These results lay a foundation for future work seeking insights into typical and atypical aversive Pavlovian responses involved in psychiatric disorders, allowing us to quantify both implicit and explicit indices of vigorous choice behavior in the context of aversion.
Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.
In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.
Full Text Available The author of this paper (Dr. Ivo Pezzuto has been one of the first authors to write back in 2008 about the alleged "subprime mortgage loans fraud" which has triggered the 2008 financial crisis, in combination with multiple other complex, highly interrelated, and concurrent factors. The author has been also one of the first authors to report in that same working paper of 2008 (available on SSRN and titled "Miraculous Financial Engineering or Toxic Finance? The Genesis of the U.S. Subprime Mortgage Loans Crisis and its Consequences on the Global Financial Markets and Real Economy" the high probability of a Eurozone debt crisis, due to a number of unsolved structural macroeconomic problems, the lack of a single crisis resolution scheme, current account imbalances, and in some countries, housing bubbles/high private debt. In the book published in 2013 and titled "Predictable and Avoidable: Repairing Economic Dislocation and Preventing the Recurrence of Crisis", Dr. Ivo Pezzuto has exposed the root causes of the financial crisis in order to enables readers to understand that the crisis we have seen was predictable and should have been avoidable, and that a recurrence can be avoided, if lessons are learned and the right action taken. Almost one year after the publication of the book "Predictable and Avoidable: Repairing Economic Dislocation and Preventing the Recurrence of Crisis", the author has decided to write this working paper to explore what happened in the meantime to the financial markets and to the financial regulation implementation. Most of all, the author with this working paper aims to provide an updated analysis as strategist and scenario analyst on the topics addressed in the book "Predictable and Avoidable" based on a forward-looking perspective and on potential "tail risk" scenarios. The topics reported in this paper relate to financial crises; Government policy; financial regulation; corporate governance; credit risk management
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative collision avoidance radar and communication technology to detect and track both cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The system...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats receive information from other conspecifics by observation or other types of social interaction. Such social interaction may contribute to the effective adaptation to changes of environment such as situational switching. Learning to avoid dangerous places or objects rapidly occurs with even a single conditioning session, and the conditioned memory tends to be sustained over long periods. The avoidance is important for adaptation, but the details of the conditions under which the social transmission of avoidance is formed are unknown. We demonstrate that the previous experience of avoidance learning is important for the formation of behaviors for social transmission of avoidance and that the experienced rats adapt to a change of situation determined by the presence or absence of aversive stimuli. We systematically investigated social influence on avoidance behavior using a passive avoidance test in a light/dark two-compartment apparatus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into two groups, one receiving foot shocks and another with no aversive experience in a dark compartment. Experienced and inexperienced rats were further divided into subjects and partners. In Experiment 1, each subject experienced (1 interaction with an experienced partner, (2 interaction with an inexperienced partner, or (3 no interaction. In Experiment 2, each subject experienced interaction with a partner that received a shock. The entering latency to a light compartment was measured. The avoidance behavior of experienced rats was inhibited by interaction with inexperienced or experienced partners in a safely-changed situation. The avoidance of experienced rats was reinstated in a dangerously-changed situation by interaction with shocked rats. In contrast, the inexperienced rats were not affected by any social circumstances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that transmitted information among rats can be updated under a
Li, Yu-Fang; Chao, Minston; Shih, Chih-Ting
Studies that examined the negative impact of violence in emergency departments on nurses' leave and avoidance behavior are well-documented. However, few studies provided an integrated model of how and when violence influences their leave and avoidance behavior. The study adopted Affective Events Theory to propose and examine a model of violent events, negative emotions, and (leave and avoidance) behaviors on nurses in emergency departments and further analyzed whether the model is salient to nurses' occupational burnout, nursing experience, and nursing rank. The sample included 123 emergency department nurses at a teaching hospital in northern, Taiwan. All participants had experienced violent incidents within the preceding 6 months. Moderated mediation analysis suggested that nurses experienced one of two emotional processes following violent incidents: "violence-negative feelings toward work-intention to resign" or "violence-negative emotion and physical symptoms-avoidance tendencies." Moreover, nurses with high burnout levels expressed weaker intention to resign after violent incidents, while nurses with more experience and higher rank were less likely to avoid violence after violent incidents. Emergency nurses do not simply elect to escape but may engage in avoidance behavior. This study revealed that how violent incidents affect nurses' resignation or avoidance behaviors depends on how they feel. Occupational burnout and nurses' attributes affected their behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kirsten L Armstrong
Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.
Armstrong, Kirsten L; Jovic, Martin; Vo-Phuoc, Jennifer L; Thorpe, Jeremy G; Doolan, Brian L
Aims: To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ‘backlog’ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods: Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results: The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$). As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world's inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions: This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector. PMID:22944763
Full Text Available This study tested the effect of servant leadership on followers’ inclinations to strive for and, in contrast, to avoid leadership responsibility. Results from a study in the health care context, including two waves of data from 222 employees, revealed that servant leadership had a small but positive effect on followers’ leadership avoidance. This effect was influenced by followers’ implicit conception of an ideal leader. Specifically, servant leadership was found to reduce leadership avoidance when the congruence with the followers’ ideal leader prototype was high. Furthermore, followers’ core self-evaluations and affective motivation to lead mediated the relationship between servant leadership and reduced leadership avoidance. Implications of these patterns for theory and practice and avenues for future research are discussed.
Cockcroft, A N
A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice
Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.
Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E
to be identified. The tissues affected are mainly the epithelial lining of the respiratory organs (nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx and lung), and urinary tract (renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and urinary bladder), the mesothelial linings, the bone marrow and the liver. During the period 1970-84, almost 4...... around the year 2000, with 1,890 among men and fewer than 25 among women. The proportions that could be avoided if industrial carcinogens were eliminated would be 70% of mesotheliomas, 20% of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses, 12% of lung cancers, 5% of laryngeal cancers, 2% of urinary bladder...
Full Text Available The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting method,on the other hand, but the comparing of tax reduction between methods of exemption and crediting.
The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.
Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom
Avoidance is a key characteristic of adaptive and maladaptive fear. Here, we review past and contemporary theories of avoidance learning. Based on the theories, experimental findings and clinical observations reviewed, we distill key principles of how adaptive and maladaptive avoidance behavior is acquired and maintained. We highlight clinical implications of avoidance learning theories and describe intervention strategies that could reduce maladaptive avoidance and prevent its return. We end with a brief overview of recent developments and avenues for further research. PMID:26257618
Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Tambs, Kristian; Kendler, Kenneth S
The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of comorbidity for social phobia and dimensional representations of avoidant personality disorder by estimating to what extent the two disorders are influenced by common genetic and shared or unique environmental factors versus the extent to which these factors are specific to each disorder. Young adult female-female twin pairs (N=1,427) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed at personal interview for avoidant personality disorder and social phobia using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Bivariate Cholesky models were fitted using the Mx statistical program. The best-fitting model included additive genetic and unique environmental factors only. Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia were influenced by the same genetic factors, whereas the environmental factors influencing the two disorders were uncorrelated. Within the limits of statistical power, these results suggest that there is a common genetic vulnerability to avoidant personality disorder and social phobia in women. An individual with high genetic liability will develop avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia entirely as a result of the environmental risk factors unique to each disorder. The results are in accordance with the hypothesis that psychobiological dimensions span the axis I and axis II disorders.
Morris, Laurel S; To, Benjaman; Baek, Kwangyeol; Chang-Webb, Yee-Chien; Mitchell, Simon; Strelchuk, Daniela; Mikheenko, Yevheniia; Phillips, Wendy; Zandi, Michael; Jenaway, Allison; Walsh, Cathy; Voon, Valerie
Functional neurological disorder (FND) is an elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms alongside aberrant cognitive processing and negative affect, often associated with amygdala reactivity. We examined the effect of negative conditioning on cognitive function and amygdala reactivity in 25 FND patients and 20 healthy volunteers (HV). Participants were first conditioned to stimuli paired with negative affective or neutral (CS +/CS -) information. During functional MRI, subjects then performed an instrumental associative learning task to avoid monetary losses in the context of the previously conditioned stimuli. We expected that FND patients would be better at learning to avoid losses when faced with negatively conditioned stimuli (increased harm avoidance). Multi-echo resting state fMRI was also collected from the same subjects and a robust denoising method was employed, important for removing motion and physiological artifacts. FND subjects were more sensitive to the negative CS + compared to HV, demonstrated by a reinforcement learning model. Contrary to expectation, FND patients were generally more impaired at learning to avoid losses under both contexts (CS +/CS -), persisting to choose the option that resulted in a negative outcome demonstrated by both behavioural and computational analyses. FND patients showed enhanced amygdala but reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses when they received negative feedback. Patients also had increased resting state functional connectivity between these two regions. FND patients had impaired instrumental avoidance learning, findings that parallel previous observations of impaired action-outcome binding. FND patients further show enhanced behavioural and neural sensitivity to negative information. However, this did not translate to improved avoidance learning. Put together, our findings do not support the theory of harm avoidance in FND. We highlight a potential mechanism by which
Evans, Travis C; Walukevich, Katherine A; Britton, Jennifer C
Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) often exhibit preferential attention for social threat, demonstrating abnormal orientation to threat (i.e., vigilance-avoidance) and/or difficulty disengaging from threat. However, no research has compared the relationship between attention indices (i.e., vigilance-avoidance, difficulty disengaging from threat) and characteristic features of the disorder such as fear during social situations (social fear) and avoidant behaviors (social avoidance). To address this issue, seventy adults (19.29±1.47 years, 33 females) were separated into low (n=37) or high (n=33) socially anxious groups using clinical cutoff scores on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Participants in both groups completed a dot-probe task with congruent, incongruent, and neutral trials to obtain measures of vigilance-avoidance and difficulty disengaging. Using linear regression, we examined the associations each attention index shared with self-reported social fear and social avoidance. Exclusively in the high anxious group, greater vigilance towards threat was associated with higher self-reported social fear, but not with social avoidance. However, difficulty disengaging was not associated with either social measure. In the low anxiety group, no relationships between attention indices and either social measure emerged. Future research with clinical samples is necessary to replicate and extend these findings. The small sample size studied may have limited our ability to detect other smaller effects. Indices of attention bias may contribute differently to the etiology and maintenance of SAD, which offers important implications for novel treatments that target attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Snyder, Jeffrey K; Fessler, Daniel M T
A growing number of investigators explore evolutionary psychological hypotheses concerning the avoidance of rape using self-report measures of behavior. Among the most recent and most ambitious, is the work of McKibbin et al. (2011). McKibbin et al. presented evidence supporting their predictions that such behaviors would vary according to the individual's physical attractiveness, relationship status, and proximity to kin. In addition, McKibbin et al. predicted, but failed to find evidence, that age would exercise a similar influence. We question McKibbin et al.'s position on both theoretical and empirical grounds, arguing that (1) two of their predictions do not rule out alternative explanations, and (2) their key supporting findings may well be artifacts of their measurement instrument, the Rape Avoidance Inventory (RAI). Employing new empirical evidence derived from a broader sample of U.S. women, we simultaneously tested McKibbin et al.'s predictions and compared the RAI to alternative dependent measures. We found that McKibbin et al.'s substantive predictions were not supported, and suggest that there may be limits to the utility of the RAI beyond one specific demographic category.
Martinelli, A M
To test an explanatory model of gender, self-efficacy, situational influences, and other health-promoting behaviors on the avoidance of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in young adults. ETS is a cause of lung cancer, pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. Although young adults are at increased risk for ETS exposure, there are few behavioral studies of ETS exposure and no reported studies of ETS exposure in young adults. Although college students are often exposed to ETS, the college environment offers a setting in which the opportunities for change are substantial. Model-testing. Data are reported on a convenience sample of 136 nonsmoking 18- to 25-year old students in one mid-atlantic U.S. university. This sample of nonsmokers was drawn from a larger sample of 241 smokers and nonsmokers in 1995. Model constructs were based on Pender's health promotion model (HPM). The General Self-efficacy Scale, Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile, and ETS Avoidance Scale were used along with items measuring ETS-avoidance efficacy and Living with Smoke. Path analysis was used to test the model. The trimmed explanatory model showed that 26% of the variance in avoiding ETS was accounted for by gender, having self-efficacy, and ETS-avoidance efficacy, not living with people who smoke, and performing other healthy behaviors. Being female and general self-efficacy indirectly influenced ETS avoidance through their effects on related health promoting behaviors. The explanatory model of ETS avoidance can provide useful information for the development of interventions to prevent exposure to passive smoke. Given the occurrence of ETS exposure in young adults, longitudinal research using this explanatory model is yielding promising results. Enhancing the self-efficacy of young adults and encouraging healthy lifestyle behaviors may be an important factor in their avoidance of ETS.
Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G; Peruche, Michelle B
The current work examined factors that contribute to positive interracial interactions. It argues that the source of people's motivation to respond without prejudice and the goals and strategies they pursue in interracial interactions influence the quality of these interactions. Three studies show that non-Black participants who are highly internally motivated to respond without prejudice tend to focus on strategies and behaviors in interactions with Black people that approach a positive (i.e., egalitarian) outcome. As a result of engaging in these approach behaviors, their interracial interactions go more smoothly for both themselves and their interaction partners as compared to people less internally motivated. In contrast, externally motivated people tend to focus on avoiding negative (i.e., prejudiced) outcomes, which ironically results in their coming across to their partners as prejudiced. The implications of the findings for smoothing out the rocky road to positive intergroup interactions are discussed.
Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Tryggvadottir, L
The well-described influence of several aspects of reproductive life on the risk for cancer in the reproductive organs has raised concern regarding the safety of exogenous hormones, particularly since sex hormones have become one of the most widely used drugs among women in the western world....... The major areas of application include oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy in women with menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of oral contraceptives onto the Nordic market in the late 1960s, the number of users has grown steadily, to reach proportions of long-term users among women...... years) of hormone replacement therapy among Nordic women aged 40-69 in 1995 was estimated to be 10-11%, which on the basis of an associated relative risk for breast cancer ranging from 1.2-1.5 suggests than an annual total of 260 cases of breast cancer could be avoided in the Nordic countries around...
Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.
Murphy J Mary
Full Text Available Abstract Adult bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells offer the potential to open a new frontier in medicine. Regenerative medicine aims to replace effete cells in a broad range of conditions associated with damaged cartilage, bone, muscle, tendon and ligament. However the normal process of immune rejection of mismatched allogeneic tissue would appear to prevent the realisation of such ambitions. In fact mesenchymal stem cells avoid allogeneic rejection in humans and in animal models. These finding are supported by in vitro co-culture studies. Three broad mechanisms contribute to this effect. Firstly, mesenchymal stem cells are hypoimmunogenic, often lacking MHC-II and costimulatory molecule expression. Secondly, these stem cells prevent T cell responses indirectly through modulation of dendritic cells and directly by disrupting NK as well as CD8+ and CD4+ T cell function. Thirdly, mesenchymal stem cells induce a suppressive local microenvironment through the production of prostaglandins and interleukin-10 as well as by the expression of indoleamine 2,3,-dioxygenase, which depletes the local milieu of tryptophan. Comparison is made to maternal tolerance of the fetal allograft, and contrasted with the immune evasion mechanisms of tumor cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are a highly regulated self-renewing population of cells with potent mechanisms to avoid allogeneic rejection.
Bonini, Juliana S; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Zinn, Carolina G; Kerr, Daniel S; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín
The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in learning and memory, but the actual role of angiotensin II (A(II)) and its metabolites in this process has been difficult to comprehend. This has been so mainly due to procedural issues, especially the use of multi-trial learning paradigms and the utilization of pre-training intracerebroventricular infusion of RAS-acting compounds. Here, we specifically analyzed the action of A(II) in aversive memory retrieval using a hippocampal-dependent, one-trial, step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) in combination with stereotaxically localized intrahippocampal infusion of drugs. Rats bilaterally implanted with infusion cannulae aimed to the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in IA and tested for memory retention 24 h later. We found that when given into CA1 15 min before IA memory retention test, A(II), but not angiotensin IV or angiotensin(1-7) induced a dose-dependent and reversible amnesia without altering locomotor activity, exploratory behavior or anxiety state. The effect of A(II) was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by the A(II)-type 2 receptor (AT(2)) antagonist PD123319 but not by the A(II)-type 1 receptor (AT(1)) antagonist losartan. By themselves, neither PD123319 nor losartan had any effect on memory expression. Our data indicate that intra-CA1 A(II) hinders retrieval of avoidance memory through a process that involves activation of AT(2) receptors.
Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.
Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots
Full Text Available This research aims to analyze and get empirical evidence about the effect of audit committee, audit quality, ownership institutional, corporate risk and return on assets on the tax avoidance. Sample of this research were property and real estate industries which are listed in Indonesian Stock Exchanges during 2010-2013 period. The number of property and real estate industries that were became in this study were 22 companies with 4 years observation that acquired by purposive sampling method. Hypothesis in this research were tested by multiple regression model.The result of this research showed that corporate risk and return on assets influence the tax avoidance. In the other hand, the audit quality, audit committee and ownership institutional didn’t influence the tax avoidance.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v5i2.2341
Woolley, Kaitlin; Risen, Jane L
Rationally, people should want to receive information that is costless and relevant for a decision. But people sometimes choose to remain ignorant. The current paper identifies intuitive-deliberative conflict as a driver of information avoidance. Moreover, we examine whether people avoid information not only to protect their feelings or experiences, but also to protect the decision itself. We predict that people avoid information that could encourage a more thoughtful, deliberative decision to make it easier to enact their intuitive preference. In Studies 1 and 2, people avoid learning the calories in a tempting dessert and compensation for a boring task to protect their preferences to eat the dessert and work on a more enjoyable task. The same people who want to avoid the information, however, use it when it is provided. In Studies 3-5, people decide whether to learn how much money they could earn by accepting an intuitively unappealing bet (that a sympathetic student performs poorly or that a hurricane hits a third-world country). Although intuitively unappealing, the bets are financially rational because they only have financial upside. If people avoid information in part to protect their intuitive preference, then avoidance should be greater when an intuitive preference is especially strong and when information could influence the decision. As predicted, avoidance is driven by the strength of the intuitive preference (Study 3) and, ironically, information avoidance is greater before a decision is made, when the information is decision relevant, than after, when the information is irrelevant for the decision (Studies 4 and 5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Martin Braunstein, Laura; Kuerbis, Alexis; Ochsner, Kevin; Morgenstern, Jon
Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and substance use, yet many individuals break free of these patterns and change their behavior. Traditional candidate predictors of behavior change/persistence rely on self-reports of factors such as readiness to change. However, explicit measures only characterize top-down influences on behavior. The incentive sensitization model of addition suggests that more implicit, automatic processes, such as the tendency to approach substance cues, play a major role in behavior. We examined implicit alcohol approach and avoidance tendencies using a reaction time (RT) task in a sample of problem drinkers with alcohol use disorder (AUD) seeking to reduce heavy drinking. We measured alcohol approach and avoidance tendencies at baseline and at outcome, 12 weeks later. We asked whether alcohol approach and avoidance tendencies (i) changed over time, (ii) related to current drinking, and (iii) predicted changes in drinking from baseline to outcome. Approach and avoidance tendencies did not significantly change over time, nor did they correlate with current drinking, but these tendencies at baseline did predict drinking weeks later. Faster alcohol approach was associated with greater overall drinking at outcome, and faster alcohol avoidance predicted fewer drinking days per week at outcome. Exploratory analyses examined the relationship between approach and avoidance and traditional explicit measures including appraisals of alcohol and motivation to change. Implicit approach tendencies were largely distinct from explicit measures, and approach and avoidance tendencies explained unique variance in outcome drinking. The current findings suggest that implicit alcohol approach and avoidance tendencies assessed via a simple reaction time task can predict relative changes in drinking weeks later. Given that many explicit measures typically used in treatment studies fail to predict who will change, approach and avoidance tendencies
Eisma, Maarten C; Rinck, Mike; Stroebe, Margaret S; Schut, Henk A W; Boelen, Paul A; Stroebe, Wolfgang; van den Bout, Jan
Rumination, a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement, has often been considered a confrontation process. However, building on research on worry in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and rumination in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), researchers recently developed the Rumination as Avoidance Hypothesis (RAH), which states that rumination after bereavement serves to avoid the reality of the loss. In the present study, RAH was tested by investigating if rumination is associated with implicit loss avoidance. An Approach Avoidance Task (AAT) was used to assess automatic behavior tendencies. Using a joystick, 71 persons who recently lost a first-degree relative (90.1% women), pulled stimuli toward themselves or pushed them away from themselves. Stimuli represented the loss (picture deceased + loss word), were loss-related but ambiguous (picture deceased + neutral word; picture stranger + loss word), or were non-loss-related (picture stranger + neutral word; puzzle picture + X's). Participants who ruminated more were relatively faster in pushing loss stimuli away from themselves and slower in pulling loss stimuli towards themselves, implying more rumination was associated with stronger implicit loss avoidance. Effects were maintained after controlling for depressive or post-traumatic stress symptom levels, but not when controlling for prolonged grief symptom levels. Conjugally bereaved women were overrepresented in the sample, which limits generalizability of results. The study was correlational, precluding causal inferences. In line with RAH, rumination was positively associated with loss avoidance. This may indicate that the application of exposure-based techniques can reduce rumination and loss-related psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abstract-After the airplane attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States, many Americans drove instead of flying, to avoid the risk of terrorism. As a result, there were extra car accidents in which many people died. This study tested whether a similar effect occurred in Spain after the train bombings of March 11, 2004, in Madrid. Data on train travel, highway traffic, and fatal highway accidents were analyzed for the months immediately following March 11. Results show that, like Americans, Spaniards avoided the dread risk of terror attacks, but unlike Americans, they did not confront the death risk of fatal accidents instead. A sociopolitical interpretation for these findings is offered.
Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L
Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all...... malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic...
Rossing, Christian Plesner; Riise Johansen, Thomas; Pearson, Thomas C.
This paper examines the case of Starbucks’ UK branch, which became subject to massive public criticism over alleged tax avoidance. Despite Starbucks arguing that its transfer pricing practices were in full compliance with regulatory requirements, public pressure for higher corporate tax payments...... led Starbucks to increase its UK tax payment on transfer pricing income beyond regulatory requirements. This case study suggests that MNE tax behavior on international transfer pricing is not strictly a matter of compliance with formal tax regulation. We demonstrate the way an MNE attempts to re......-driven discipline to be dealt with by accounting and tax experts. Instead, MNEs face the task of establishing a complex fit with their environment beyond the typical stakeholders with transfer pricing, i.e. tax authorities. These include government officials, tax activists, and consumers who voice...
Jensen, Frank; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Abildtrup, Jens
Compliance and enforcement in fisheries are important issues from an economic point of view since management measures are useless without a certain level of enforcement. These conclusions come from the well-established theoretical literature on compliance and enforcement problems within fisheries...... the likelihood of being detected when noncomplying. The paper presents a model of fisheries that allows the fishermen to engage in avoidance activities. The conclusions from the model are that, under certain circumstances, fines are costly transfers to society since they not only have a direct positive effect...... offenders. For an externality, that has an exogenous effect on other actors, Malik shows that fines are only costly transfers for conditional deterrence (when one actor is deterred while another actor is not). For fisheries, we show that fines are also costly transfers under no deterrence (when no agents...
García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A
Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors.
Brandão, T; Schulz, M S; Matos, P M
Attachment insecurity is associated with difficulties in adapting to cancer. Accumulating evidence points to the influence of avoidant emotion processes in this association. This study explored this pathway by examining the association between attachment insecurity and quality of life in women with breast cancer, and by exploring the mediating role of two avoidant emotion processes in this association. Women with breast cancer (N = 155) completed measures of attachment, emotional suppression, emotional awareness and quality of life. Avoidance of attachment was positively associated with emotional suppression (β = .29, p < .01) and lack of emotional awareness (β = .27, p < .01), and negatively associated with quality of life (β = -.22, p < .05). Lack of emotional awareness partially mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and quality of life (indirect effect β = -.12, p = .008). Attachment anxiety was not associated with any variable. Attachment avoidance may hinder the process of adaptation to breast cancer and difficulties in identifying and describing emotions may be partly responsible for this influence. Access to and ability to benefit from social and medical supports is likely to depend on being able to engage with others and recognise and process emotions effectively. Research and clinical implications are discussed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis Gonzalez, A; Tejerizo Perez, M L
"Avoidable" mortality may be defined as causes of death whose occurrence is closely related to medical intervention. Areas with particular health care delivery problems can be identified through a geographical comparison of these "avoidable deaths." Mortality data for Valencia from 1982 to 1990 were examined to determine whether or not the availability of medical care resources in the area influenced the occurrence of avoidable deaths. We identified variations in mortality from avoidable causes, grouped according to the differences in levels of urbanization and health care resources, in the 537 municipalities of the Valencian community. (In Spain, the municipality is the lowest administrative division.) Linear regression analysis was performed to predict or estimate this relationship. Only in a small number of avoidable causes did the mortality trend for males differ significantly from 0 (p urbanization and health care resources. A direct association between these two variables was observed in males with regards to pneumonia, tuberculosis, chronic rheumatic heart disease, and bacterial infection. In females, a relationship between "avoidable" mortality rates and the differences in urbanization and health care resources was found in cervical cancer, pneumonia, abdominal hernias, and cholecystitis. Mortality from asthma and cardiovascular disease (in both males and females) declined faster in urbanized, high income areas than in rural areas. The results clearly demonstrate the considerable mortality risk associated with living in urban areas. On the contrary, we found very little correlation between health service access and mortality.
Kaldewaij, Reinoud; Koch, Saskia B J; Volman, Inge; Toni, Ivan; Roelofs, Karin
The ability to control our automatic action tendencies is crucial for adequate social interactions. Emotional events trigger automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Although these actions may be generally adaptive, the capacity to override these emotional reactions may be key to flexible behavior during social interaction. The present chapter provides a review of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this ability and their relation to social psychopathologies. Aberrant social behavior, such as observed in social anxiety or psychopathy, is marked by abnormalities in approach-avoidance tendencies and the ability to control them. Key neural regions involved in the regulation of approach-avoidance behavior are the amygdala, widely implicated in automatic emotional processing, and the anterior prefrontal cortex, which exerts control over the amygdala. Hormones, especially testosterone and cortisol, have been shown to affect approach-avoidance behavior and the associated neural mechanisms. The present chapter also discusses ways to directly influence social approach and avoidance behavior and will end with a research agenda to further advance this important research field. Control over approach-avoidance tendencies may serve as an exemplar of emotional action regulation and might have a great value in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the development of affective disorders.
Goldstein, Larry M
"Litigation-Proof Patents: Avoiding the Most Common Patent Mistakes explains the principles of excellent patents, presents the ten most common errors in patents, and details a step-by-step method for avoiding these common errors...
Bon, Bruce; Seraji, Homayoun
A new approach to real-time collison avoidance for dexterous 7-DOF arms and supportive simulation and experimental results are presented. The collision avoidance problem is formulated and solved as a force control problem.
Nguyen, Linh Thi Hoai; Ta, Viet Ton; Yagi, Atsushi
This paper is devoted to studying obstacle avoiding patterns and cohesiveness of fish school. First, we introduce a model of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for describing the process of fish school's obstacle avoidance. Second, on the basis of the model we find obstacle avoiding patterns. Our observations show that there are clear four obstacle avoiding patterns, namely, Rebound, Pullback, Pass and Reunion, and Separation. Furthermore, the emerging patterns change when parameters ch...
Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.
World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to
Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.
World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to
Davies, T. R.
On 17 February 2006 a gigantic rockslide triggered a debris avalanche that overran the barangay Guinsaugon, St. Bernard in Southern Leyte Province, Philippines, burying 154 victims, with 990 missing including 246 school children. Even with satellite imagery, GIS-based landslide susceptibility modelling and real-time meteorological and seismic data analysis, scientific prediction of every potentially fatal landslide is not possible in most parts of the world. This is particular the case in steep, unstable, densely-populated country in which heavy rain is common. So how can further events of this type be prevented from turning into disasters? A number of precursory phenomena were noted by local inhabitants at Guinsaugon: a crack around the slope that failed was noticed in May 2005; coconut trees near the northern foot of the landslide scarp began to lean increasingly in the down-slope direction in December 2005; a slope around the northern edge of the 17 February 2006 landslide scarp failed on December 17, 2005; in the 9 days prior to the rockslide, 640 mm of rain fell; 450 mm in a 3-day period. Such phenomena are commonly reported by local inhabitants before large landslides (e.g. Elm, Mayunmarca, and many others). In many cases, therefore, it is in principle possible for local people to avoid the consequences of the landslide if they know enough to act appropriately in response to the precursory phenomena. For this possibility to be realized, appropriate information must be provided to and assimilated by the local population. Useful ways of achieving this include pamphlets, video, TV and radio programs and visits from civil defence personnel. The information must be properly presented; scientific language will be ineffective. A communication pyramid, leading from government agencies to local leaders, can facilitate the rapid availability of the information to all potentially susceptible communities. If science can determine those areas not vulnerable to landslide
This thesis concerns the development of methods, algorithms, and control laws for the development of an adaptive flight envelope protection system to be used for both manned and unmanned aircraft. The proposed method lifts the requirement for detailed a priori information of aircraft dynamics by enabling adaptation to system uncertainty. The system can be used for limits that can be either measured or related to selected measurable quantities. Specifically, an adaptive technique for predicting limit margins and calculating the corresponding allowable control or controller command margins of an aircraft is described in an effort to enable true carefree maneuvering. This new approach utilizes adaptive neural network based loops for the approximation of required aircraft dynamics. For limits that reach their maximum value in steady state, a constructed estimator model is used to predict the maneuvering quasi-steady response behavior---the so called dynamic trim---of the limit parameters and the corresponding control or command margins. Linearly Parameterized Neural Networks as well as Single Hidden Layer Neural Networks are used for on-line adaptation. The approach does not require any off-line training of the neural networks, instead all learning is achieved during flight. Lyapunov based weight update laws are derived. The method is extended for multi-channelled control limiting for aircraft subject to multiple limits, and for automatic control and command limiting for UAV's. Simulation evaluations of the method using a linear helicopter model and a nonlinear Generalized Tiltrotor Simulation (GTRSIM) model are presented. Limit avoidance methods are integrated and tested through the implementation of an artificial pilot model and an active-stick controller model for tactile cueing in the tiltrotor simulation, GTRSIM. Load factor, angle-of-attack, and torque limits are considered as examples. Similarly, the method is applied to the Georgia Tech's Yamaha R-Max (GTMax
Full Text Available Serbia's courts jurisprudence has divergent attitudes with respect to the dilemma whether a surety contract represents a contract without consideration, which may be avoided once the guarantor is subject to bankruptcy procedure without any additional conditions, or an onerous contract. Whether a surety contract is an onerous one has anyhow been disputed in the legal theory. One school of thought considers this contract as non-onerous one, since vis-a-vis guarantor's obligation no benefit to be expected from the other contractual party (i. e. creditor exists. The other school of thought understands surety (almost always as an onerous contract bearing in mind that the guarantor who enters into this contract does not have intentio liberalis. There are numerous and nuanced views based on analyses of the relation between a guarantor and a debtor focused on the argument that surety is a contract without consideration if intentio liberalis existed vis-a-vis main debtor rather than vis-a-vis creditor. Our legal literature did not pay much attention to that issue until recently. In a rare text dedicated to it the author's basic standpoint is that surety represents a contract without consideration. An exception, depending on the circumstances of the case, could be surety given by a parent company for the obligation of a subsidiary, provided the former reasonably expected a benefit in terms of an increase in the value of shares. Commercial courts followed such reasoning. In this article an opposite stance has been argued. Namely, the onerousness of surety must be assessed based on the relation between the guarantor and the main debtor rather than between the guarantor and the creditor. As a rule, surety is an onerous contract because the guarantor expects to collect from the debtor through subrogation the amount he paid to the creditor; exceptionally, surety may be a non-onerous contract if intentio liberalis existed vis-a-vis main debtor. However, this
Thomas, Anna C; Allen, Felicity L; Phillips, James; Karantzas, Gery
Commonality in etiology and clinical expression plus high comorbidity between pathological gambling and substance use disorders suggest common underlying motives. It is important to understand common motivators and differentiating factors. An overarching framework of addiction was used to examine predictors of problem gambling in current electronic gaming machine (EGM) gamblers. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships between antecedent factors (stressors, coping habits, social support), gambling motivations (avoidance, accessibility, social) and gambling behavior. Three hundred and forty seven (229 females: M = 29.20 years, SD = 14.93; 118 males: M = 29.64 years, SD = 12.49) people participated. Consistent with stress, coping and addiction theory, situational life stressors and general avoidance coping were positively related to avoidance-motivated gambling. In turn, avoidance-motivated gambling was positively related to EGM gambling frequency and problems. Consistent with exposure theory, life stressors were positively related to accessibility-motivated gambling, and accessibility-motivated gambling was positively related to EGM gambling frequency and gambling problems. These findings are consistent with other addiction research and suggest avoidance-motivated gambling is part of a more generalized pattern of avoidance coping with relative accessibility to EGM gambling explaining its choice as a method of avoidance. Findings also showed social support acted as a direct protective factor in relation to gambling frequency and problems and indirectly via avoidance and accessibility gambling motivations. Finally, life stressors were positively related to socially motivated gambling but this motivation was not related to either social support or gambling behavior suggesting it has little direct influence on gambling problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the healthcare system and its role in influencing mortality of migrant groups can be explored by examining ethnic variations in 'avoidable' mortality. This study investigates the association between the level of mortality from 'avoidable' causes and ethnic origin in the Netherlands and identifies social factors that contribute to this association. Methods Data were obtained from cause of death and population registries in the period 1995–2000. We compared mortality rates for selected 'avoidable' conditions for Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban groups to native Dutch. Results We found slightly elevated risk in total 'avoidable' mortality for migrant populations (RR = 1.13. Higher risks of death among migrants were observed from almost all infectious diseases (most RR > 3.00 and several chronic conditions including asthma, diabetes and cerebro-vascular disorders (most RR > 1.70. Migrant women experienced a higher risk of death from maternity-related conditions (RR = 3.37. Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban population had a higher mortality risk (RR = 1.65 and 1.31 respectively, while Turkish and Moroccans experienced a lower risk of death (RR = 0.93 and 0.77 respectively from all 'avoidable' conditions compared to native Dutch. Control for demographic and socioeconomic factors explained a substantial part of ethnic differences in 'avoidable' mortality. Conclusion Compared to the native Dutch population, total 'avoidable' mortality was slightly elevated for all migrants combined. Mortality risks varied greatly by cause of death and ethnic origin. The substantial differences in mortality for a few 'avoidable' conditions suggest opportunities for quality improvement within specific areas of the healthcare system targeted to disadvantaged groups.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid uneconomic...
Tolerance and avoidance are the two contrasting strategies that plants may adopt to cope with herbivores. Tolerance traits define the degree to which communities remain unaffected by herbivory. Trade-offs between herbivore avoidance and competitive strength and between avoidance and colonization
Bohus, B.; Ader, R.; Wied, D. de
Male rats were trained in an active avoidance and/or a “step-through” type of passive avoidance situation. Lysine vasopressin administration resulted in resistance to extinction of active avoidance behavior if it was injected 1 hr prior to the third and final acquisition session; peptide treatment 6
Rees, Clare S; Pritchard, Rhian
Avoidant personality disorder (APD) is associated with a high level of impairment in multiple areas of functioning. However, research on the treatment of APD is scarce, and there is an absence of empirically evaluated effective treatment approaches available. This study offers a preliminary investigation of the use of brief cognitive therapy to treat APD. Two individuals, both with a principal diagnosis of APD, but who also possessed a number of comorbidities, participated in 12 weekly sessions. A series of diagnostic symptom severity, global functioning, and self-report measures were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment and at 6-week follow-up. In addition, regular monitoring of each participant's strength of belief in 4 personally identified cognitions associated with APD was completed. Reductions in APD symptoms, associated negative affect, and increases to quality of life were observed for both participants at posttreatment and follow-up phases. Results suggest that brief cognitive therapy may be an effective treatment for APD and that further studies with larger samples are warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Pichegru, Lorien; Nyengera, Reason; McInnes, Alistair M; Pistorius, Pierre
Seismic surveys in search for oil or gas under the seabed, produce the most intense man-made ocean noise with known impacts on invertebrates, fish and marine mammals. No evidence to date exists, however, about potential impacts on seabirds. Penguins may be expected to be particularly affected by loud underwater sounds, due to their largely aquatic existence. This study investigated the behavioural response of breeding endangered African Penguins Spheniscus demersus to seismic surveys within 100 km of their colony in South Africa, using a multi-year GPS tracking dataset. Penguins showed a strong avoidance of their preferred foraging areas during seismic activities, foraging significantly further from the survey vessel when in operation, while increasing their overall foraging effort. The birds reverted to normal behaviour when the operation ceased, although longer-term repercussions on hearing capacities cannot be precluded. The rapid industrialization of the oceans has increased levels of underwater anthropogenic noises globally, a growing concern for a wide range of taxa, now also including seabirds. African penguin numbers have decreased by 70% in the last 10 years, a strong motivation for precautionary management decisions, including the exclusion of seismic exploratory activities within at least 100 km of their breeding colonies.
Sorce, Jenny G.; Colless, Matthew; Kraan-Korteweg, Renée C.; Gottlöber, Stefan
The Zone of Avoidance (ZOA), whose emptiness is an artefact of our Galaxy dust, has been challenging observers as well as theorists for many years. Multiple attempts have been made on the observational side to map this region in order to better understand the local flows. On the theoretical side, however, this region is often simply statistically populated with structures but no real attempt has been made to confront theoretical and observed matter distributions. This paper takes a step forward using constrained realizations (CRs) of the local Universe shown to be perfect substitutes of local Universe-like simulations for smoothed high-density peak studies. Far from generating completely `random' structures in the ZOA, the reconstruction technique arranges matter according to the surrounding environment of this region. More precisely, the mean distributions of structures in a series of constrained and random realizations (RRs) differ: while densities annihilate each other when averaging over 200 RRs, structures persist when summing 200 CRs. The probability distribution function of ZOA grid cells to be highly overdense is a Gaussian with a 15 per cent mean in the random case, while that of the constrained case exhibits large tails. This implies that areas with the largest probabilities host most likely a structure. Comparisons between these predictions and observations, like those of the Puppis 3 cluster, show a remarkable agreement and allow us to assert the presence of the, recently highlighted by observations, Vela supercluster at about 180 h-1 Mpc, right behind the thickest dust layers of our Galaxy.
Humm, John L.; Pizzuto, Domenico; Fleischman, Eric; Mohan, Radhe
Purpose: To develop computer software that assists the planner avoid potential gantry collisions with the patient or patient support assembly during the treatment planning process. Methods and Materials: The approach uses a simulation of the therapy room with a scale model of the treatment machine. Because the dimensions of the machine and patient are known, one can calculate a priori whether any desired therapy field is possible or will result in a collision. To assist the planner, we have developed a graphical interface enabling the accurate visualization of each treatment field configuration with a 'room's eye view' treatment planning window. This enables the planner to be aware of, and alleviate any potential collision hazards. To circumvent blind spots in the graphic representation, an analytical software module precomputes whether each update of the gantry or turntable position is safe. Results: If a collision is detected, the module alerts the planner and suggests collision evasive actions such as either an extended distance treatment or the gantry angle of closest approach. Conclusions: The model enables the planner to experiment with unconventional noncoplanar treatment fields, and immediately test their feasibility
Lee, Dah-Jye; Beard, Randal W.; Merrell, Paul C.; Zhan, Pengcheng
Recent advances in many multi-discipline technologies have allowed small, low-cost fixed wing unmanned air vehicles (UAV) or more complicated unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) to be a feasible solution in many scientific, civil and military applications. Cameras can be mounted on-board of the unmanned vehicles for the purpose of scientific data gathering, surveillance for law enforcement and homeland security, as well as to provide visual information to detect and avoid imminent collisions for autonomous navigation. However, most current computer vision algorithms are highly complex computationally and usually constitute the bottleneck of the guidance and control loop. In this paper, we present a novel computer vision algorithm for collision detection and time-to-impact calculation based on feature density distribution (FDD) analysis. It does not require accurate feature extraction, tracking, or estimation of focus of expansion (FOE). Under a few reasonable assumptions, by calculating the expansion rate of the FDD in space, time-to-impact can be accurately estimated. A sequence of monocular images is studied, and different features are used simultaneously in FDD analysis to show that our algorithm can achieve a fairly good accuracy in collision detection. In this paper we also discuss reactive path planning and trajectory generation techniques that can be accomplished without violating the velocity and heading rate constraints of the UAV.
McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David
The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.
Anushka B P Fernando
Full Text Available The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food or aversive (e.g. electric shock. We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala’s mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes.
Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery
In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.
Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Janoff, Shannon L; Anderson, Bradley M; Weisner, Constance M; Perrin, Nancy A
Inability to predict most health services use and costs using demographics and health status suggests that other factors affect use, including attitudes and practices that influence health and willingness to seek care. Alcohol consumption has generated interest because heavy, chronic consumption causes adverse health consequences, acute consumption increases injury, and moderate drinking is linked to better health while hazardous drinking and alcohol-related problems are stigmatized and may affect willingness to seek care. A stratified random sample of health-plan members completed a mail survey, yielding 7884 respondents (2995 male/4889 female). We linked survey data to 24 months of health-plan records to examine relationships between alcohol use, gender, health-related attitudes, practices, health, and service use. In-depth interviews with a stratified 150-respondent subsample explored individuals' reasons for seeking or avoiding care. Quantitative results suggest health-related practices and attitudes predict subsequent service use. Consistent predictors of care were having quit drinking, current at-risk consumption, cigarette smoking, higher BMI, disliking visiting doctors, and strong religious/spiritual beliefs. Qualitative analyses suggest embarrassment and shame are strong motivators for avoiding care. Although models included numerous health, functional status, attitudinal and behavioral predictors, variance explained was similar to previous reports, suggesting more complex relationships than expected. Qualitative analyses suggest several potential predictive factors not typically measured in service-use studies: embarrassment and shame, fear, faith that the body will heal, expectations about likelihood of becoming seriously ill, disliking the care process, the need to understand health problems, and the effects of self-assessments of health-related functional limitations.
Li, Xia; Zhang, WS
The orientation of plant root growth is modulated by developmental as well as environmental cues. Among the environmental factors, gravity has been extensively studied because of its overpowering effects in modulating root growth direction. However, our knowledge of the effects of other abiotic signals that influence root growth direction is largely unknown. Recently, we have shown that high salinity can modify root growth direction by inducing rapid amyloplast degradation in root columella c...
Konstantinos G. Kafetsios
Full Text Available Several studies examining leader–follower interaction in Greece, a collectivistic culture, paradoxically find that leaders’ emotion suppression-related personality traits (attachment avoidance, emotion suppression, emotion control are associated with followers’ positive emotional and work attitude outcomes. These findings have been explained with reference to followers’ implicit cultural schemas, interdependence in particular. Yet, this conjuncture has not been directly tested. The present study directly examined, in a field setting, how followers’ independent and interdependent (cultural self-construal moderate the relationship between leaders’ attachment orientation and followers’ emotion and satisfaction outcomes at the work place. As hypothesized, leaders’ higher avoidance was associated with followers’ job satisfaction, group cohesion, and deep acting as well as lower negative affect and loneliness for followers higher on interdependent self-construal. The results underline perceptual processes involved in followers’ interdependent self-construal in relation to leaders’ emotion suppression-related traits.
Dymond, Simon; Roche, Bryan
Despite the central status of avoidance in explaining the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, surprisingly little behavioral research has been conducted on human avoidance. In the present paper, first we provide a brief review of the empirical literature on avoidance. Next, we describe the implications of research on derived relational responding and the transformation of functions for a contemporary behavioral account of avoidance, before providing several illustrative research examples of laboratory-based analogues of key clinical treatment processes. Finally, we suggest some challenges and opportunities that lie ahead for behavioral research on anxiety and avoidance. PMID:22478511
Walsh, Patrick T; McCreless, Erin; Pedersen, Amy B
Host-parasite interactions are a key determinant of the population dynamics of wild animals, and behaviours that reduce parasite transmission and infection may be important for improving host fitness. While antiparasite behaviours have been demonstrated in laboratory animals and domesticated ungulates, whether these behaviours operate in the wild is poorly understood. Therefore, examining antiparasite behaviours in natural populations is crucial for understanding their ecological significance. In this study, we examined whether two wild rodents (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus , and deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus ), selectively foraged away from conspecific faeces or avoided faeces altogether, and whether faecal gastrointestinal parasite status affected their behaviour. We also tested whether wild mice, when nesting, avoided using material that had previously been used by healthy or parasite-infected conspecifics. Our results, in contrast to laboratory mouse studies, suggest that wild mice do not demonstrate faecal avoidance, selective foraging or selective use of nesting material; they preferred being near faeces and did not differentiate between faeces from parasitized and uninfected conspecifics. Behavioural avoidance to reduce parasite infection may still represent an important strategy; however, mice in our study population appeared to favour the opportunity to feed and nest over the risks of coming into contact with faecal-transmitted parasites. Furthermore, the presence of conspecific faeces may actually provide a positive cue of a good foraging or nesting location. Ultimately, balancing the trade-off of performing antiparasite behaviours to reduce infection with missing an important feeding or nesting opportunity may be very different for animals in the wild facing complex and stochastic environments.
Telenský, Petr; Svoboda, Jan; Pašťálková, Eva; Blahna, Karel; Bureš, Jan; Stuchlík, Aleš
Roč. 180, č. 1 (2009), s. 29-33 ISSN 0165-0270 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/05/H012; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB500110904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : avoidance * moving subject * learning Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.295, year: 2009
In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord
Patrick Glynn; Jim Slade; John Marston [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia). Control Technologies International
A suite of new collision avoidance systems (CAS) is presented for use in heavy vehicles whose structure and size necessarily impede driver visibility is introduced. The main goal of the project was to determine the appropriate use of each of the commercially available technologies and, where possible, produce a low cost variant suitable for use in proximity detection on large mining industry haul trucks. CAS variants produced were subjected to a field demonstration and, linked to the output from the earlier CAS 1 project. The CAS 2 system used low cost Doppler continuous wave radar antennae coupled to the CAS 1 monitor to indicate the presence of an object moving at any speed above 3 Km/h relative to the antennae. The novelty of the CAS 3 system lies in the design of 3 interconnected, modules. CAS 4 expanded on the research in CAS 3 the Doppler radar antennae functionality was increased to allow object detection discrimination. This reduced the high bandwidth required by and essentially only informed the driver when an object was detected. The radar antennae modules and the system as a whole are described together with the empirical tests conducted and results obtained. The tests, drawing on Monte-Carlo simulation techniques, demonstrate both the 'correctness' of the implementations and the effectiveness of the system. The results of the testing of the final prototype unit were highly successful both as a computer simulation level and in practical tests on light vehicles. Chapter 9 reports on CAS 4 with the new microcontroller based fast Fourier transforms of the returned Doppler signals to give multiple object detection, speed and distance. A prototype of this system was installed on a Caterpillar 737D haul truck at the BMA Goonyella mine and tested for object detection and general robustness of the CAS 4 system.
Deformities of the hands are a fairly common sequel of burn especially in the developing world. This is because of high incidence of burns, limited access to standard treatment and rehabilitation. The best outcome of a burnt hand is when deformities are prevented from developing. A good functional result is possible when due consideration is paid to hands during resuscitation, excisional surgery, reconstructive surgery and physiotherapy. The post-burns deformities of hand develop due direct thermal damage or secondary to intrinsic minus position due to oedema or vascular insufficiency. During the acute phase the concerns are, maintenance circulation minimize oedema prevent unphysiological positioning and wound closure with autogenous tissue as soon as possible. The rehabilitation program during the acute phase starts from day one and goes on till the hand has healed and has regained full range of motion. Full blown hand contractures are challenging to correct and become more difficult as time passes. Long-standing cases often land up with attenuation of extensor apparatus leading to swan neck and boutonniere deformity, muscle shortening and bony ankylosis. The major and most common pitfall after contracture release is relapse. The treatment protocol of contracture is solely directed towards countering this tendency. This article aims to guide a surgeon in obtaining optimal hand function and avoid pit falls at different stages of management of hand burns. The reasons of an unfavourable outcome of a burnt hand are possible lack of optimal care in the acute phase, while planning and performing reconstructive procedure and during aftercare and rehabilitation. PMID:24501479
Zhang, Tingting; Maruhnich, Stefanie A; Folta, Kevin M
Light quality and quantity affect plant adaptation to changing light conditions. Certain wavelengths in the visible and near-visible spectrum are known to have discrete effects on plant growth and development, and the effects of red, far-red, blue, and ultraviolet light have been well described. In this report, an effect of green light on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rosette architecture is demonstrated using a narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode-based lighting system. When green light was added to a background of constant red and blue light, plants exhibited elongation of petioles and upward leaf reorientation, symptoms consistent with those observed in a shaded light environment. The same green light-induced phenotypes were also observed in phytochrome (phy) and cryptochrome (cry) mutant backgrounds. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the green light-induced response, the accumulation of shade-induced transcripts was measured in response to enriched green light environments. Transcripts that have been demonstrated to increase in abundance under far-red-induced shade avoidance conditions either decrease or exhibit no change when green light is added. However, normal far-red light-associated transcript accumulation patterns are observed in cryptochrome mutants grown with supplemental green light, indicating that the green-absorbing form of cryptochrome is the photoreceptor active in limiting the green light induction of shade-associated transcripts. These results indicate that shade symptoms can be induced by the addition of green light and that cryptochrome receptors and an unknown light sensor participate in acclimation to the enriched green environment.
Full Text Available Deformities of the hands are a fairly common sequel of burn especially in the developing world. This is because of high incidence of burns, limited access to standard treatment and rehabilitation. The best outcome of a burnt hand is when deformities are prevented from developing. A good functional result is possible when due consideration is paid to hands during resuscitation, excisional surgery, reconstructive surgery and physiotherapy. The post-burns deformities of hand develop due direct thermal damage or secondary to intrinsic minus position due to oedema or vascular insufficiency. During the acute phase the concerns are, maintenance circulation minimize oedema prevent unphysiological positioning and wound closure with autogenous tissue as soon as possible. The rehabilitation program during the acute phase starts from day one and goes on till the hand has healed and has regained full range of motion. Full blown hand contractures are challenging to correct and become more difficult as time passes. Long-standing cases often land up with attenuation of extensor apparatus leading to swan neck and boutonniere deformity, muscle shortening and bony ankylosis. The major and most common pitfall after contracture release is relapse. The treatment protocol of contracture is solely directed towards countering this tendency. This article aims to guide a surgeon in obtaining optimal hand function and avoid pit falls at different stages of management of hand burns. The reasons of an unfavourable outcome of a burnt hand are possible lack of optimal care in the acute phase, while planning and performing reconstructive procedure and during aftercare and rehabilitation.
Horn, Joseph Francis
New advanced algorithms, control laws, and pilot cueing methods were developed to provide flight envelope limit protection on rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft. The envelope limiting systems were designed to detect an approaching limit boundary and then provide force-feel cues on the control stick so that the pilot can avoid violations of structural and controllability limits. The limit detection algorithms were designed to predict the future response of a limited parameter in order to give an adequate time margin for corrective action. The dynamic trim estimation method, which uses a neural network to estimate the quasi-steady response of the aircraft based on stick position and measured flight data, was applied to provide torque and V-n envelope protection on the XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft and demonstrated in simulations with a pilot model. This system was also applied to provide angle-of-attack and load factor protection on the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft and demonstrated using real-time piloted simulation. The adaptive dynamic trim estimation method extended this approach by using sensor data history to adapt to model uncertainties. The peak response limiting algorithm, which is used to detect and prevent limit violations that occur in the transient response, was applied to provide longitudinal flapping limiting on the XV-15 and demonstrated in batch simulations. Simulation results showed that the dynamic trim estimation scheme has the potential to effectively expand an aircraft's flight envelope by allowing the pilot to safely fly near limit boundaries. An adaptive algorithm was used to adjust to variations in the mass properties of the aircraft, but improvements to the adaptation method are warranted. The peak response limiting system was shown to be effective in determining rate and position constraints on the stick travel to ensure that flapping limits are not violated.
Stefan, Violeta; van Herpen, Erica; Tudoran, Ana Alina
to investigate the role of food choices and other food-related activities in producing food waste. A survey of 244 Romanian consumers examined the influence of intentions not to waste food, planning and shopping routines, as well as moral attitudes and lack of concern towards wasting food, a subjective norm...... of disapproval towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control on consumers’ self-reported food waste. Results show that consumers’ planning and shopping routines are important predictors of food waste. Planning and shopping routines are determined by moral attitudes towards food waste and perceived...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK. In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD age: 61.5(4.4 years, 9 male were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p r = 0.6; p Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small. This is likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. Therefore we suggest that many of the alcohol-related falls are the result of the disruptive effects of alcohol on the online corrections of the ongoing gait pattern when walking under challenging conditions.
Amaro, Pablo; Obeso, Eduardo; Gomez, Ruben
Trying to give an answer to the lack of public information in the industry, in relationship with the different tools that are managed in the nuclear industry for minimizing the human error, a group of workers from different sections of the St. Maria de Garona NPP (Quality Assurance/ Organization and Human Factors) decided to embark on a challenging and exciting project: 'Write a book collecting all the knowledge accumulated during their daily activities, very often during lecture time of external information received from different organizations within the nuclear industry (INPO, WANO...), but also visiting different NPP's, maintaining meetings and participating in training courses related de Human and Organizational Factors'. Main objective of the book is presenting to the industry in general, the different tools that are used and fostered in the nuclear industry, in a practical way. In this way, the assimilation and implementation in others industries could be possible and achievable in and efficient context. One year of work, and our project is a reality. We have presented and abstract during the last Spanish Nuclear Society meeting in Sevilla, last October...and the best, the book is into the market for everybody in web-site: www.bubok.com. The book is structured in the following areas: 'Errare humanum est': Trying to present what is the human error to the reader, its origin and the different barriers. The message is that the reader see the error like something continuously present in our lives... even more frequently than we think. Studying its origin can be established aimed at barriers to avoid or at least minimize it. 'Error's bitter face': Shows the possible consequences of human errors. What better that presenting real experiences that have occurred in the industry. In the book, accidents in the nuclear industry, like Tree Mile Island NPP, Chernobyl NPP, and incidents like Davis Besse NPP in the past, helps to the reader to make a reflection about the
Common sense dictates that one should choose tried and tested drugs with proven, concrete benefits that outweigh their adverse effects. Many new drugs are approved each year, often despite a lack of solid evidence that they are any better than existing treatments. Worse, some are approved despite being less effective or more harmful than current options. Massive promotion is used to ensure that such drugs achieve a positive image in the eyes of healthcare professionals and patients. Renowned "opinion leaders" intervene in their favour at conferences and in specialist media, and their opinions are further propagated by specialists in the field. Finally, campaigns in the lay media are used to highlight the target illness, encouraging patients to request a prescription. New data sometimes show that older, initially promising drugs are less effective or more harmful than first thought. For all these reasons, many drugs that are now present on the market are more harmful than beneficial and should be avoided. Unfortunately, negative assessment data and warnings are often drowned in the flood of promotion and advertising. Front-line healthcare professionals who are determined to act in their patients' best interests can find themselves swimming against a tide of specialist opinion, marketing authorisation, and reimbursement decisions. By leaving drugs that are more harmful than beneficial on the market and contenting themselves with simple half-measures, healthcare authorities are failing in their duty to protect patients. Prescrire, a journal funded solely by its subscribers, does not seek to do the work of health authorities, and does not have the means to do so. Prescrire's goal is simply to help healthcare professionals provide better care. The following text lists the principal drugs that we consider more harmful than beneficial, based on our reviews published between 2010 and 2012 in our French edition. These drugs should not be used. Patients and healthcare
Fornari, Raquel V; Wichmann, Romy; Atucha, Erika; Desprez, Tifany; Eggens-Meijer, Ellie; Roozendaal, Benno
Glucocorticoids are known to enhance the consolidation of memory of emotionally arousing experiences by acting upon a network of interconnected brain regions. Although animal studies typically do not consider the insular cortex (IC) to be part of this network, the present findings indicate that the IC is importantly involved in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of emotionally arousing inhibitory avoidance training. The specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist RU 28362 (3 or 10 ng in 0.5 μl) infused bilaterally into the IC of male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after one-trial inhibitory avoidance training dose-dependently enhanced 48 h retention performance. Moreover, training on the inhibitory avoidance task increased neuronal activity of the IC, as assessed by an increased number of cells expressing immunoreactivity for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2). However, systemic administration of a memory-enhancing dose of corticosterone (1 mg/kg) after inhibitory avoidance training rapidly reduced the number of pERK1/2-positive cells in the IC, suggesting that glucocorticoid administration reduces overall neuronal activity of the IC. To investigate which components of the inhibitory avoidance training experience were influenced by the intra-IC glucocorticoid administration, in the last experiment rats were trained on a modified inhibitory avoidance task in which context exposure and footshock training occur on two sequential days. RU 28362 administration into the IC enhanced later retention when infused immediately after either the context or footshock training. Thus, these findings indicate that the IC mediates glucocorticoid effects on the consolidation of memory of different components of inhibitory avoidance training and suggest that the IC might be an important element of the rodent brain network involved in emotional regulation of learning and memory.
Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are known to enhance the consolidation of memory of emotionally arousing experiences by acting upon a network of interconnected brain regions. Although animal studies typically do not consider the insular cortex (IC to be part of this network, the present findings indicate that the IC is importantly involved in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of emotionally arousing inhibitory avoidance training. The specific glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU 28362 (3 or 10 ng in 0.5 l infused bilaterally into the IC of male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after one-trial inhibitory avoidance training dose-dependently enhanced 48-h retention performance. Moreover, training on the inhibitory avoidance task increased neuronal activity of the IC, as assessed by an increased number of cells expressing immunoreactivity for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2. However, systemic administration of a memory-enhancing dose of corticosterone (1 mg/kg after inhibitory avoidance training rapidly reduced the number of pERK1/2-positive cells in the IC, suggesting that glucocorticoid administration reduces overall neuronal activity of the IC. To investigate which components of the inhibitory avoidance training experience were influenced by the intra-IC glucocorticoid administration, in the last experiment rats were trained on a modified inhibitory avoidance task in which context exposure and footshock training occur on two sequential days. RU 28362 administration into the IC enhanced later retention when infused immediately after either the context or footshock training. Thus, these findings indicate that the IC mediates glucocorticoid effects on the consolidation of memory of different components of inhibitory avoidance training and suggest that the IC might be an important element of the rodent brain network involved in emotional regulation of learning and memory.
Full Text Available Approach and avoidance are two basic behavioral aptitudes of humans whose correct balance is critical for successful adaptation to the environment. As the expression of approach and avoidance tendencies may differ significantly between healthy individuals, different psychobiological factors have been posited to account for such variability. In this regard, two main issues are still open that refers to i the role played by dopamine neurotransmission and ii the possible influence of cognitive characteristics, particularly executive functioning. The aim of the present paper was to highlight the contribution of research on Parkinson’s disease (PD to our understanding of the above issues. In particular, we here reviewed PD literature to clarify whether neurobiological and neuropsychological modifications due to PD are associated to changes in approach-avoidance related personality features. Available data indicate that PD patients may show and approach-avoidance imbalance as documented by lower novelty-seeking and higher harm-avoidance behaviors, possibly suggesting a relationship with neurobiological and neurocognitive PD-related changes. However, the literature that directly investigated this issue is still sparse and much more work is needed to better clarify it.
RETTEW, DAVID C.; ZANARINI, MARY C.; YEN, SHIRLEY; GRILO, CARLOS M.; SKODOL, ANDREW E.; SHEA, M. TRACIE; MCGLASHAN, THOMAS H.; MOREY, LESLIE C.; CULHANE, MELISSA A.; GUNDERSON, JOHN G.
Objective To explore potential risk factors and early manifestations of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) by examining retrospective reports of social functioning and adverse childhood experiences. Method Early social functioning and pathological childhood experiences were assessed using the Childhood Experiences Questionnaire-Revised. The responses of 146 adults diagnosed with primary AVPD were compared with a group of 371 patients with other personality disorders as a primary diagnosis and a group of 83 patients with current major depression disorder and no personality disorders, using χ2 analyses. Diagnoses were based on semistructured interviews by trained reliable clinicians. Results Adults with AVPD reported poorer child and adolescent athletic performance, less involvement in hobbies during adolescence, and less adolescent popularity than the depressed comparison group and the other personality disorder group. Reported rates of physical and emotional abuse were higher than the depressed group, but this result was influenced by comorbid diagnoses. Conclusions These results suggest that early manifestations of AVPD are present in childhood but that various forms of abuse are not specific to the disorder. PMID:12960713
Stretch, Roger; Skinner, Nicholas
The introduction of a warning signal that preceded a scheduled shock modified the temporal distribution of free-operant avoidance responses. With response-shock and shock-shock intervals held constant, response rates increased only slightly when the response-signal interval was reduced. The result is consistent with Sidman's (1955) findings under different conditions, but at variance with Ulrich, Holz, and Azrin's (1964) findings under similar conditions. Methylphenidate in graded doses increased response rates, modifying frequency distributions of interresponse times. Drug treatment may have disrupted a “temporal discrimination” formed within the signal-shock interval. More simply, methylphenidate influenced response rates by increasing short response latencies after signal onset; this effect was more prominent than the drug's tendency to increase the frequency of pre-signal responses. When signal-onset preceded shock by 2 sec, individual differences in performance were marked; methylphenidate suppressed responding in one rat as a function of increasing dose levels to a greater degree than in a second animal, but both subjects received more shocks than under control conditions. PMID:6050059
The life cycles of Echinococcus spp, involve two phases that have quite different immunological relationships with the host--the parenteral metacestode and the enteral adult. Immune control of the metacestode (at least of E. granulosus) by vaccination is now a real possibility, but there seems little prospect of similar control of the adult worms. Vaccination against metacestodes must not only induce effective responses but also prevent the parasite modulating these in such a way as to render them ineffective. This requires a much fuller understanding of the basis of parasite avoidance mechanisms, in particular an understanding of the balance of parasite- and host-protective mechanisms that involve the activity of T lymphocyte subsets. Protective responses against adult worms in the intestine appear weak and ineffective, although it is clear that the worms are immunogenic and there is some evidence that the host can become immune. Again, a more complete insight into the nature of the worm's association with the mucosal immune system is required, and a fuller understanding of the variables that influence this association; host genetic variation may prove to be an important factor that determines the outcome of adult worm infections.
Schouppe, Nathalie; De Houwer, Jan; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Notebaert, Wim
Conflict has been hypothesized to be aversive, triggering avoidance behaviour (Botvinick, 2007). To test this hypothesis, a standard Stroop task was modified such that avoiding was part of the response set. More precisely, participants were asked to move a manikin towards or away from Stroop stimuli, depending on the colour of the words. Results showed that the type of response (approach versus avoidance) modulated the Stroop congruency effect. Specifically, the reaction time analysis revealed that the stimulus congruency effect disappeared with avoidance responses, contrary to approach responses where a stimulus congruency effect was present. Moreover, the error data showed a reduction of the general congruency effect when avoiding. These results suggest that in the face of conflict, avoidance is the predominant response.
DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng
We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760
Mentor Gashi; Halil Kukaj
Abstract:In order to findelements that destimulate fiscal evasion or avoidance, we have submitted six elements, through the questionnaire, to determine which elements are that destimulate the fiscal evasion and avoidance, and evaluate their impact.This paper is focused in customs duty avoidance.The elements that we have submitted to evaluate their power, are: Powerful control during customs clearance, more efficient post clearance control, probability of subject investigation, higher fines, l...
Millard, S. Sean; Zipursky, S. Lawrence
Recent studies have uncovered the molecular basis of self-avoidance and tiling, two fundamental principles required for the formation of neural circuits. Both of these wiring strategies are established through homophilic repulsion between Dscam proteins expressed on opposing cell surfaces. In Drosophila, Dscam1 mediates self-avoidance whereas Dscam2 mediates tiling. In contrast, phenotypes in the retina of the DSCAM mutant mouse indicate that DSCAM functions in both self-avoidance and tiling....
Foster, D P
Results of a numerically exact transfer matrix calculation for the model of interacting self-avoiding trails are presented. The results lead to the conclusion that at the collapse transition, self-avoiding trails are in the same universality class as the O(n = 0) model of Bloete and Nienhuis (or vertex-interacting self-avoiding walk), which has thermal exponent ν = 12/23, contrary to previous conjectures. (fast track communication)
Philippe Delacote; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Sébastien Roussel
This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that one neighbour's deforestation actions may impact the returns to deforestation in nearby patches. We determine the impact of each policy in terms of avoided deforestation and leakage levels at the landscape scale through modelling and simulations. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payment for Environmental Services (PES) p...
Jin, Chang Hyun; Villegas, Jorge
The purpose of this study was to understand the effect that individual characteristics have on consumer advertising processing under high- and low-interactivity circumstances on the Web. Tests on the relationship between individual differences and advertising responses form the basis of this empirical study on the Web. The results indicated that consumers have a higher tendency to avoid or experience ambivalence about Internet advertisements under low-interactivity circumstances, and attitudinal ambivalence lead to avoidance when responding to advertisements on the Internet. Personality variables are the main factors in consumer decision-making behaviors and Internet characteristics, such as levels of interactivity, can greatly influence the effectiveness of advertising in online environments. Advertising credibility could influence people's consumer attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors over time on the Web.
Shimada, Akira; Kiddee, Prasarn; Nishi, Yujiro
Generally, intelligent vehicle robots are strongly needed in many fields. They are expected to assist our daily lives. In order to implement them in practice, we should mount useful functions including path planning, navigation, and obstacle avoidance, etc. on the robots. This paper focuses on obstacle avoidance control technique to multiple obstacles. The used vehicle as a platform is the mecanum wheel omnidirectional vehicle which is driven on floors and mounts a scanner range sensor. The presented algorithm has the feature that multiple obstacle avoidance control is simply come down to the mono-obstacle avoidance control scheme. Finally, the experimental results are shown in order to evaluate the presented algorithms.
Rosas-Martinez, Victor H.
There is a finite set of characteristics which can be present in a durable asset adding value to it, and that are not necessarily part of it in the moment of its adquisition. We represent formally how the expectations over the possible future characteristics of these goods influence its price, and get the conditions for the formation of bubbles, which allows us to propose mechanisms to avoid this kind of instinctive collective regimes. Posteriorly we extend our analysis to consider the case o...
Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David E.
Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.
Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R
The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.
Arnold, Jennifer E.; Wasow, Thomas; Asudeh, Ash; Alrenga, Peter
Three experiments investigated whether speakers use constituent ordering as a mechanism for avoiding ambiguities. In utterances like ''Jane showed the letter to Mary to her mother,'' alternate orders would avoid the temporary PP-attachment ambiguity (''Jane showed her mother the letter to Mary,'' or ''Jane showed to her mother the letter to…
... analysis. (a) For a permitted flight with a planned maximum altitude greater than 150 kilometers, a permittee must obtain a collision avoidance analysis from United States Strategic Command. (b) The collision... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65...
Cornwell, Brian R.; Overstreet, Cassie; Krimsky, Marissa; Grillon, Christian
Conventional wisdom dictates we must face our fears to conquer them. This idea is embodied in exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders, where the intent of exposure is to reverse a history of avoidant behavior that is thought to fuel a patient's irrational fears. We tested in humans the relationship between fear and avoidance by combining…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Avoidance of tax credit reduction. 606.23 Section 606.23 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS... Tax Credit Reduction § 606.23 Avoidance of tax credit reduction. (a) Applicability. Subsection (g) of...
Afifi, Tamara D.; McManus, Tara; Steuber, Keli; Coho, Amanda
The purpose of this study was to more closely examine the association between avoidance and satisfaction during a potentially conflict-inducing conversation with one's dating partner. The results suggest that the way people respond to their own and their partner's conflict avoidance depends upon whether they are male or female. The perception of…
De Jong, G.Majella; Bouman, Theo K.
This study addresses the relationship between panic symptomatology and situational avoidance behaviour. Eighty panic disordered patients were involved with various degrees of agoraphobia, ranging from nonavoidant to extremely avoidant. Subjects recorded panic attacks by means of a diary for a period
van Keeken, Helco G.; Vrieling, Aline H.; Hof, At L.; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert
In this study, conditions that enable a prosthetic knee flexion strategy in transfemoral amputee subjects during obstacle avoidance were investigated. This study explored the hip torque principle and the static ground principle as object avoidance strategies. A prosthetic limb simulator device was
Schouppe, N.; de Houwer, J.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Notebaert, W.
Conflict has been hypothesized to be aversive, triggering avoidance behaviour (Botvinick, 2007). To test this hypothesis, a standard Stroop task was modified such that avoiding was part of the response set. More precisely, participants were asked to move a manikin towards or away from Stroop
Fagot, Beverly I.; Kavanagh, Kate
Children of 18 months classified as secure or insecure/avoidant by means of the Ainsworth Strange Situation were observed at home and in a playgroup. Teachers and observers rated girls classified as insecure/avoidant as being more difficult to deal with and having more difficulty with peers than girls rated as securely attached. (PCB)
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance mechanisms. 15.711... Television Band Devices § 15.711 Interference avoidance mechanisms. (a) Except as provided in § 15.717... mechanism described in paragraph (b) of this section or spectrum sensing described in paragraph (c) of this...
João Tiago Marques
Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.
Full Text Available Recent research indicates that angry facial expressions are preferentially processed and may facilitate automatic avoidance response, especially in socially anxious individuals. However, few studies have examined whether this bias also expresses itself in more complex cognitive processes and behavior such as decision making. We recently introduced a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task which allowed us to document the influence of task-irrelevant emotional cues on rational decision making. The present study used a modified gambling task to investigate the impact of angry facial expressions on decision making in 38 individuals with a wide range of social anxiety. Participants were to find out which choices were (dis- advantageous to maximize overall gain. To create a decision conflict between approach of rewards and avoidance of fear-relevant angry faces, advantageous choices were associated with angry facial expressions, whereas disadvantageous choices were associated with happy facial expressions. Results indicated that higher social avoidance predicted less advantageous decisions in the beginning of the task, i.e., when contingencies were still uncertain. Interactions with specific skin conductance responses further clarified that this initial avoidance only occurred in combination with elevated responses before choosing an angry facial expressions. In addition, an interaction between high trait anxiety and elevated responses to early losses predicted faster learning of an advantageous strategy. These effects were independent of intelligence, general risky decision-making, self-reported state anxiety, and depression. Thus, socially avoidant individuals who respond emotionally to angry facial expressions are more likely to show avoidance of these faces under uncertainty. This novel laboratory paradigm may be an appropriate analog for central features of social anxiety.
Harder, D B; Whitney, G
Inbred strains of mice (Mus musculus) differ greatly in ability to taste various bitter compounds. For some compounds, the differences result from allelic variation at a single locus. However, segregation patterns incompatible with monogenic inheritance have been found for quinine avoidance. The Soa bitter sensitivity locus exerts some influence on this phenotype, but an unknown number of other loci also contribute. Relative avoidance patterns for quinine sulfate in panels of naive inbred strains resembled avoidance patterns for 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PROP), suggesting a common genetic basis. In particular, C57BL/6J mice strongly avoided both 0.1 mM quinine sulfate and 1 mM PROP in two-bottle preference tests, whereas C3H/HeJ mice were indifferent to both. Therefore, 12 BXH/Ty recombinant inbred strains, derived from these strains, were tested with both solutions to begin identification of the unknown bitter loci. Naive mice were tested for four consecutive days with each compound (order counterbalanced). Some BXH/Ty strain means resembled those of the parent strains, but others were intermediate. This indicated recombination among loci affecting avoidance, and therefore polygenic inheritance. The strain means were highly correlated across compounds (r = 0.98), suggesting that the same polygenes controlled both phenotypes. The BXH/Ty means for both compounds were then compared with the strain genotypes at 212 chromosome position markers distributed throughout the genome. Eight markers on five chromosomes (3, 6, 7, 8 and 9) yielded significant correlations. Six of the markers were correlated with both phenotypes, again suggesting common polygenic inheritance. The marker with the highest correlation was Prp, tightly linked to Soa on chromosome 6. The correlated marker regions likely contain quantitative trait loci affecting bitter avoidance. The phenotypic similarity of PROP to quinine, rather than to phenylthiourea, apparently stemming from a common polygenic
Pittig, Andre; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Craske, Michelle G.; Alpers, Georg W.
Recent research indicates that angry facial expressions are preferentially processed and may facilitate automatic avoidance response, especially in socially anxious individuals. However, few studies have examined whether this bias also expresses itself in more complex cognitive processes and behavior such as decision making. We recently introduced a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task which allowed us to document the influence of task-irrelevant emotional cues on rational decision making. The present study used a modified gambling task to investigate the impact of angry facial expressions on decision making in 38 individuals with a wide range of social anxiety. Participants were to find out which choices were (dis-) advantageous to maximize overall gain. To create a decision conflict between approach of reward and avoidance of fear-relevant angry faces, advantageous choices were associated with angry facial expressions, whereas disadvantageous choices were associated with happy facial expressions. Results indicated that higher social avoidance predicted less advantageous decisions in the beginning of the task, i.e., when contingencies were still uncertain. Interactions with specific skin conductance responses further clarified that this initial avoidance only occurred in combination with elevated responses before choosing an angry facial expressions. In addition, an interaction between high trait anxiety and elevated responses to early losses predicted faster learning of an advantageous strategy. These effects were independent of intelligence, general risky decision-making, self-reported state anxiety, and depression. Thus, socially avoidant individuals who respond emotionally to angry facial expressions are more likely to show avoidance of these faces under uncertainty. This novel laboratory paradigm may be an appropriate analog for central features of social anxiety. PMID:25324792
Lowe, Christopher N; Butt, Kevin R; Cheynier, Kevin Yves-Marie
Avoidance behaviour by earthworms is recognised as a valuable endpoint in soil quality assessment and has resulted in the development of a standardised test (ISO 17512-1, 2008) providing epigeic earthworms with a choice between test and control soils. This study sought to develop and evaluate an avoidance test utilising soil-dwelling earthworms in linear pollution gradients with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags used to identify individual organisms. Sequential experiments were established in laboratory-based mesocosms (0.6m×0.13m×0.1m) that determined the relative sensitivities (in terms of associated avoidance behaviour) of Octolasion cyaneum and Lumbricus rubellus at varying levels of polluted soil and also assessed the influence of introduction point on recorded movement within gradients. In an initial gradient (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% polluted soil), both species exhibited a clear avoidance response with all surviving earthworms retrieved (after 7 days) from the unpolluted soil. In a less polluted gradient (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, 25%) L. rubellus were retrieved throughout the gradient while O. cyaneum were located within the 0% and 6.25% divisions, suggesting a species-specific response to polluted soil. Results also showed that the use of a linear pollution gradient system has the potential to assess earthworm avoidance behaviour and could provide a more ecologically relevant alternative to the ISO 17512: 2008 avoidance test. However, further work is required to establish the effectiveness of this procedure, specifically in initial chemical screening and assessment of single contaminant bioavailability, where uptake of pollutants by earthworms could be measured and directly related to the point of introduction and retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ang, Chin-Siang; Chan, Nee-Nee; Lee, Cheng-Syin
Given that shyness has been consistently linked to Internet addiction in youth, an examination into the mediating effect of a desire to avoid loneliness on the shyness-Internet addiction link could offer potential insights into a possible explanatory mechanism as well as directions for Internet addiction prevention and intervention in young adulthood. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the mediating role of loneliness avoidance in the relationship between shyness and Internet addiction among 286 youth Internet users. Shyness was significantly and positively correlated with loneliness avoidance and Internet addiction. In addition, loneliness avoidance was significantly and positively correlated with Internet addiction. Most importantly, loneliness avoidance may predispose shy youth to become addicted to the Internet. Theoretical and practical implications of the research findings for youth wellness are addressed in this study.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a robust obstacle avoidance method for service robot in indoor environment. The method for obstacles avoidance uses information about static obstacles on the landmark using edge detection. Speed and direction of people that walks as moving obstacle obtained by single camera using tracking and recognition system and distance measurement using 3 ultrasonic sensors. A new geometrical model and maneuvering method for moving obstacle avoidance introduced and combined with Bayesian approach for state estimation. The obstacle avoidance problem is formulated using decision theory, prior and posterior distribution and loss function to determine an optimal response based on inaccurate sensor data. Algorithms for moving obstacles avoidance method proposed and experiment results implemented to service robot also presented. Various experiments show that our proposed method very fast, robust and successfully implemented to service robot called Srikandi II that equipped with 4 DOF arm robot developed in our laboratory.
Full Text Available This article introduces a novel methodology for dealing with collision avoidance for groups of mobile robots. In particular, full dynamics are considered, since each robot is modeled as a Lagrangian dynamical system moving in a three-dimensional environment. Gyroscopic forces are utilized for defining the collision avoidance control strategy: This kind of forces leads to avoiding collisions, without interfering with the convergence properties of the multi-robot system’s desired control law. Collision avoidance introduces, in fact, a perturbation on the nominal behavior of the system: We define a method for choosing the direction of the gyroscopic force in an optimal manner, in such a way that perturbation is minimized. Collision avoidance and convergence properties are analytically demonstrated, and simulation results are provided for validation purpose.
Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A
Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The
Kathryn M. Bell
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA and intimate partner violence (IPV. Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk.
Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J. Mark G.; Hermans, Dirk
"Overgeneral autobiographical memory" (OGM) refers to the tendency to retrieve less specific personal memories. According to the functional avoidance hypothesis, OGM might act as a cognitive strategy to avoid emotionally distressing details of negative memories. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an experimentally…
Consideration of a maneuver might be warranted when a dangerous conjunction between a primary satellite and a secondary object is identified as part of the collision avoidance (COLA) process. Efficient yet accurate numerical solutions to the maneuver problem have been developed and are implemented in The Aerospace Corporation program DVOPT (DeltaV OPTimization) for objects in geosynchronous orbit. However, achieving an accurate solution for satellites in low Earth (LEO) orbits can be problematic. DVOPT utilizes a two-body backwards/forwards propagation technique to determine the effect a proposed burn has on the probability computation. For high altitude, near-circular orbits such as geosynchronous and semisynchronous (i.e., Global Positioning System), the two-body assumption produces sufficient accuracy. The current research determines the validity of the backwards-forwards two-body propagation and identifies the perturbations that are necessary for regimes other than GEO. It is found that LEO orbits experience a significant effect due to other perturbations, which can disrupt the two -body assumption producing an unacceptable reduction in the accuracy of the probability computation. Earth oblateness and drag influence LEOs. Improvement is made to the DVOPT method by allowing for higher order perturbations in the backwards-forwards propagation. An approximate method is utilized that captures the dominant perturbation characteristics without slowing the solution process significantly. The last point is crucial. During operations, determining viable burn solutions can be time critical. The development of the solution shows that the relative error due to the perturbations can be minimized thereby significantly widening the applicability of the maneuver optimization process to other orbit classes without causing a major increase in the s lutiono runtime.
Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M
Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A
Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts.
Bartone, Paul T; Johnsen, Bjorn H; Eid, Jarle; Hystad, Sigurd W; Laberg, Jon C
Military personnel often engage in excessive alcohol use after returning from deployments. Thus far, research has paid scant attention to personality factors that may increase or diminish the risk for increased alcohol consumption in this population. The present study explores how psychological hardiness, avoidance coping, and stress exposure may interact to influence alcohol consumption patterns in soldiers following deployment. U.S. Army National Guard soldiers (N = 357) were surveyed shortly after returning from combat operations in Afghanistan. Conditional process analysis was used to test for mediation and moderation effects. Mediation effects were further tested in a replication sample of Norwegian Army soldiers (N = 230) deployed to Kosovo. Findings show that hardiness is a significant (negative) predictor of increased alcohol use and that this relation is mediated by avoidance coping. Further, this effect was moderated by combat stress exposure in the U.S. sample, such that the mediation is stronger for those with greater exposure (moderated-mediation). Avoidance coping also mediated the effects of hardiness on alcohol consumption in the Norwegian sample. These findings suggest that avoidance coping and hardiness may be fruitful areas for interventions aimed at reducing risky drinking in high-stress groups like the military. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ngoubangoye, Barthelemy; MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.
Avoiding biological contaminants is a well-known manifestation of the adaptive system of disgust. In theory, animals evolved with such a system to prevent pathogen and parasite infection. Bodily products are human-universal disgust elicitors, but whether they also elicit avoidance behaviour in non-human primates has yet to be tested. Here, we report experimental evidence that potential exposure to biological contaminants (faeces, blood, semen), as perceived via multiple sensory modalities (visual, olfactory, tactile), might influence feeding decisions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes)—our closest phylogenetic relatives. Although somewhat mixed, our results do show increased latencies to feed, tendencies to maintain greater distances from contaminants and/or outright refusals to consume food in test versus control conditions. Overall, these findings are consistent with the parasite avoidance theory of disgust, although the presence of biological contaminants did not preclude feeding entirely. The avoidance behaviours observed hint at the origins of disgust in humans, and further comparative research is now needed. PMID:29291090
Pincus, T; Henderson, J
Fear avoidance (FA) has been identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis and a target for intervention in patients with low back pain (LBP), but the mechanisms involved need clarification. Experimental studies would benefit from the use of carefully developed and controlled stimuli representing avoided movements in back pain, and matched stimuli of movements to provide a credible control stimuli. Existing stimuli depicting avoided movements in LBP are static, do not include a set of control stimuli and do not control for possible systematic observer biases. Two studies were carried out aiming to develop and test LBP patients' responses to videos of models depicting commonly avoided movements associated with back pain, and those associated with a control condition, wrist pain. Two samples of LBP patients rated how much pain and harm each movement would cause them. They also reported how often they avoided the movement. The findings from the first study (n = 99) indicate that using videos of commonly avoided movements in low back pain is viable, and that movements associated with wrist pain provide an acceptable control stimuli. Participants in the second study (n = 85) consistently rated movements depicted by females as causing more harm, and more frequently avoided than the same movements depicted by males. The use of video stimuli could advance research into the processes associated with FA through experimental paradigms. However, although small, the model gender effects should be carefully considered. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.
Pearson, G A; Ward-Platt, M; Harnden, A; Kelly, D
To describe the avoidable factors associated with child deaths identified by a confidential enquiry. In the Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries confidential enquiry, a sample (13%) of cases was subjected to case note review by multidisciplinary panels attempting to identify avoidable factors associated with the deaths. Cases were selected blindly but in equal numbers from predetermined age bands and participating regions. The anonymised records were reviewed in regions remote to where the child lived and died. Panel composition, conduct and reporting were standardised. 119 of 126 cases reviewed by enquiry panels had sufficient information to determine avoidable factors. These cases were comparable with the whole dataset in terms of sex and causes of death. 31 (26%) of 119 had avoidable factors that were predominantly related to individuals or agencies with a direct responsibility to the child. 51 (43%) of 119 were defined as potentially avoidable. In all, 130 factors were considered in relation to these 82 cases, and 64% of the factors were healthcare related. Avoidable factors were more likely where life-limiting illness was not present. Recurring avoidable factors included failure to recognise serious illness at the point of presentation and death occurring in children who had been lost to follow-up. Child Death Overview Panels now have the responsibility to review child deaths using similar methods but relying upon data forms rather than the case record. Analysis of contributory factors on a national scale has the potential to improve understanding of why children die and indicate strategies to reduce child mortality.
Calvin-Lamas, M; Portela-Pereira, P; Rabuñal-Alvarez, M T; Martinez-Breijo, S; Martín-Herranz, M I; Gómez-Veiga, F
Economic impact of prostate cancer is increasing in relation to its increased incidence and increased patient survival. Clinical trials are essential to evaluate the efficacy and safety of new treatments but may also result in economic benefits by avoiding the cost of the drug. Our objective is to determine the avoided cost in investigational drugs in clinical trials of prostate cancer conducted in a period of 18 years in a tertiary center. We carried out an observational of prevalence study with retrospective collected data of clinical trials involving currently marketed drugs and cost avoidance during the study period (1996-2013) was calculated. We include in this review five clinical trials on prostate cancer that met selection criteria of 18 performed. All of them were phase III, multicenter, international and with current marketed drugs. 136 patients were included. Total cost avoidance of 696,002€ and an average cost avoidance by clinical trial of 139,200€ were obtained. Average cost avoidance per patient was 5,118€. Cost avoidance in investigational drugs is a tangible benefit of clinical trials, whose realization is a source of economic benefits for the hospital, not only by directly generated by each trial. Clinical trials are an exceptional framework for progress in clinical research and real savings for the health system. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Liourta, Elissavet; van Empelen, Pepijn
The present study examined self-regulatory and goal-conflicting processes in the avoidance of drunk driving among Greek young drivers. A total of 361 university students in Greece completed a questionnaire, using a retrospective cross-sectional survey design. One-third reported to have driven under the influence of alcohol. Although prior intentions were clearly related to actual avoidance of drunk driving, one out of five respondents had not complied with their intention. An examination of post-intentional correlates of avoidance of drunk driving among positive intenders showed that avoidance of drunk driving was positively related to alcohol limitation plans and alcohol limitation self-efficacy, whereas negative relations were found for goal conflict and behavioural willingness. The present study suggests that people should not only be motivated but also be equipped with self-regulatory strategies aiming at the avoidance of drinking. Finally, goal commitment should be enhanced by increasing the salience of the avoidance goal.
Erik B Oleson
Full Text Available Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: 1 fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, 2 the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, 3 over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety 4 the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain’s incentive-motivational circuitry.
Carlo V Bellieni
Full Text Available In western countries we assist at the paradox that fertility is socially discouraged by a mindset that depicts fertility as a resource to exploit as late as possible. So, couples have high expectative about the advantages of delayed parenthood, but they are scarcely informed about its risks. Scientific data suggests to anticipate the first pregnancy, but social pressures impose to wait, though delayed childbearing can provoke sterility and a greater gap between generations. The best age to become parents should be autonomously decided by a couple, under the condition of being a free informed choice and not a social imposition, but currently this is not guaranteed to western women and men.
Dillen, L.F. van; Enter, D.; Peters, L.P.M.; Dijk, W.W. van; Rotteveel, M.
People derive their sense of belonging from perceptions of being a moral person. Research moreover suggests that social cues of rejection rapidly influence visual scanning, and result in avoidant gaze behavior, especially in socially anxious individuals. With the current eye-tracking experiment, we
Kevin D Beck
Full Text Available As a model of anxiety disorder vulnerability, male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats acquire lever-press avoidance behavior more readily than outbred Sprague Dawley rats, and their acquisition is enhanced by the presence of a discrete signal presented during the inter-trial intervals (ITIs, suggesting it is perceived as a safety signal. A series of experiments were conducted to determine if this is the case. Additional experiments investigated if the avoidance facilitation relies upon processing through medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. The results suggest that the ITI-signal facilitates acquisition during the early stages of the avoidance acquisition process, when the rats are initially acquiring escape behavior and then transitioning to avoidance behavior. Post-avoidance introduction of the visual ITI-signal into other associative learning tasks failed to confirm that the visual stimulus had acquired the properties of a conditioned inhibitor. Shortening the signal from the entirety of the 3 min ITI to only the first 5 s of the 3 min ITI slowed acquisition during the first 4 sessions, suggesting the flashing light is not functioning as a feedback signal. The prelimbic (PL cortex showed greater activation during the period of training when the transition from escape responding to avoidance responding occurs. Only combined PL+infralimbic cortex lesions modestly slowed avoidance acquisition, but PL cortex lesions slowed avoidance response latencies. Thus, the flashing light ITI-signal is not likely perceived as a safety signal nor is it serving as a feedback signal. The functional role of the PL cortex appears to be to increase the drive towards responding to the threat of the warning signal. Hence, avoidance susceptibility displayed by male WKY rats may be driven, in part, both by external stimuli (ITI signal as well as by enhanced threat recognition to the warning signal via the PL cortex.
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In its first part, this publication gives an overview of the issues of avoided emissions: reasons for their calculation, risks to be understood and anticipated, relationships between avoided emissions and enterprises, avoided emissions in the enterprise climate strategy, and available calculation methods. The second part describes the methodology and process of calculation of avoided emissions: project initiation, method selection, reference solution selection, scenario elaboration, definition of the scope of calculation, taking the whole value chain into account, result consolidation, communication. A synthesis of recommendations is provided. Within the text, this publication proposes presentations of actions undertaken by several French companies or French subsidiaries like Air France, BASF, EDF, Michelin, Paprec, RTE, Saint-Gobain, SNCF, Suez, Total, Veolia, and others
The rules demarcating debt and equity for tax purposes differ between countries, hence the possibility that a hybrid financial instrument is treated as equity in one country and debt in another. This may create a scope for tax avoidance by allowing firms that invest in foreign countries to combine...... tax deductible interest expenses in the host country and tax favored dividend income in the home country. In this paper, we first develop a formal model of hybrid instruments and show that, for a given pair of countries, firms in at least one country and sometimes in both can avoid taxes on investment...... in the other country with a cross-border hybrid instrument. We then investigate why countries tend to allow the use of hybrid instruments for tax avoidance and show that even if effective anti-avoidance rules are available, there exists a global policy equilibrium in which no country uses such rules...
... How You Can Help Your Child Avoid & Address Bullying Page Content Article Body Whether on the school ... other ways. Getting that response usually makes the bullying behavior continue. Your child should try to keep ...
CPAP machines: Tips for avoiding 10 common problems CPAP is an important treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, but may ... common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. A CPAP machine uses a hose and mask or nosepiece to ...
Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.
Wilbert G. Aguilar
Full Text Available This paper describes an obstacle avoidance system for low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs using vision as the principal source of information through the monocular onboard camera. For detecting obstacles, the proposed system compares the image obtained in real time from the UAV with a database of obstacles that must be avoided. In our proposal, we include the feature point detector Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF for fast obstacle detection and a control law to avoid them. Furthermore, our research includes a path recovery algorithm. Our method is attractive for compact MAVs in which other sensors will not be implemented. The system was tested in real time on a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV, to detect and avoid obstacles in an unknown controlled environment; we compared our approach with related works.
Janse van Rensburg, E J
The numerical simulation of self-avoiding walks remains a significant component in the study of random objects in lattices. In this review, I give a comprehensive overview of the current state of Monte Carlo simulations of models of self-avoiding walks. The self-avoiding walk model is revisited, and the motivations for Monte Carlo simulations of this model are discussed. Efficient sampling of self-avoiding walks remains an elusive objective, but significant progress has been made over the last three decades. The model still poses challenging numerical questions however, and I review specific Monte Carlo methods for improved sampling including general Monte Carlo techniques such as Metropolis sampling, umbrella sampling and multiple Markov Chain sampling. In addition, specific static and dynamic algorithms for walks are presented, and I give an overview of recent innovations in this field, including algorithms such as flatPERM, flatGARM and flatGAS. (topical review)
Lumsden, Charles J.; Wilson, Edward O.
A preliminary analysis is made of the relation between the epigenetic rules of brother-sister incest avoidance, which operate during individual development, and the frequency of occurrence of this form of incest among cultures. PMID:16592898
EPA is aware of counterfeit pet pesticides designed to look like legitimately registered pesticide products. The information on this page is intended to help consumers avoid unregistered pet products.
Boakes, Robert A; Colagiuri, Ben; Mahon, Michelle
Food-deprived rats learned to avoid a flavor negatively correlated with access to a rich nutrient, 20% maltodextrin (20M) solution. This avoidance in two-bottle choice tests was produced by training consisting of either an unpaired condition where sessions of unflavored 20M were intermixed with sessions of 2 or 3% maltodextrin (2M or 3M) flavored with salt (Experiment 1) or almond (Experiments 3 and 4) or a differential conditioning procedure where one flavor was mixed with 20M and another with 2M (Experiment 2). Avoidance was counter-conditioned by mixing the target flavor with 20M (Experiment 1), generalized to a neutral context (Experiment 3), and displayed strong resistance to extinction (Experiment 4). The results demonstrated that food avoidance learning can occur in the absence of an aversive unconditioned stimulus and indicated that unpaired control groups and differential conditioning procedures may be misleading in flavor preference learning research when further control conditions are absent.
.... To implement the new motion mode, the vehicle was required to follow a straight wall with minor variations, navigate around comers, and avoid obstacles in its path while maintaining a specified...
Diabetes care: 10 ways to avoid complications Diabetes care is a lifelong responsibility. Consider 10 strategies to prevent diabetes complications. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes is a serious disease. Following your ...
Fermanian Kammerer, Clotilde; Lasser, Caroline
We study nuclear propagation through avoided crossings of electron energy levels. We construct a surface hopping semigroup, which gives an Egorov-type description of the dynamics. The underlying time-dependent Schrödinger equation has a two-by-two matrix-valued potential, whose eigenvalue surfaces have an avoided crossing. Using microlocal normal forms reminiscent of the Landau-Zener problem, we prove convergence to the true solution in the semi-classical limit.
Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee
. This paper proposes the Schedule based Collision Avoidance (SCA) algorithm for finding the tradeoff between reliability and energy efficiency by fusion of CSMA/CA and TDMA techniques in Zigbee/ IEEE802.15.4. It uses the multi-path data propagation for collision avoidance and effective utilization...... of the channel providing efficient energy consumption. It analyses different scheduling schemes to provide an appropriate solution for reducing collisions and improving network lifetime....
Wolf , Michael T.; Burdick, Joel W.
We present a set of potential function components to assist an automated or semi-automated vehicle in navigating a multi-lane, populated highway. The resulting potential field is constructed as a superposition of disparate functions for lane- keeping, road-staying, speed preference, and vehicle avoidance and passing. The construction of the vehicle avoidance potential is of primary importance, incorporating the structure and protocol of laned highway driving. Particularly, the shape and dimen...
Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert
The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers
Sathya, Ajay Suresha; Sopasakis, Pantelis; Van Parys, Ruben; Themelis, Andreas; Pipeleers, Goele; Patrinos, Panos
We employ the proximal averaged Newton-type method for optimal control (PANOC) to solve obstacle avoidance problems in real time. We introduce a novel modeling framework for obstacle avoidance which allows us to easily account for generic, possibly nonconvex, obstacles involving polytopes, ellipsoids, semialgebraic sets and generic sets described by a set of nonlinear inequalities. PANOC is particularly well-suited for embedded applications as it involves simple steps, its implementation come...
Skinner, Timothy C.; Roberton, Terri; Allison, Garry T.
This preliminary study sought to explore the link between depression, experiential avoidance and mindfulness in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). We surveyed patients listed on the SCI database at Royal Perth Hospital who had experienced an injury over the last 10 years. Respondents (62...... and mindfulness. Our preliminary data suggest that individuals with SCI who are more mindful use less avoidance and have a more positive mood. These results indicate further work in this area is warranted....
Guosheng Wu; Luning Wang; Changyuan Fan; Xi Zhu
This paper provides a new approach to solve the motion planning problems of flying robots in uncertain 3D dynamic environments. The robots controlled by this method can adaptively choose the fast way to avoid collision without information about the shapes and trajectories of obstacles. Based on sphere coordinates the new method accomplishes collision avoidance of flying robots without any other auxiliary positioning systems. The Self-protection System gives robots self-protection abilities to...
Holzmann, Carolin Maria
This paper investigates transfer pricing as tax avoidance before and after reforms of anti-avoidance legislation. The reforms introduced and tightened obligatory documentation requirements for transfer prices to enforce that multinational enterprises (MNEs) set internal transfer prices at an arm’s-length. Linking data from the Microdatabase Statistics on International Trade in Services that comprehends prices of MNEs’ international service transactions to the Microdatabase Direct Investment, ...
Gil de Montes, Lorena; Ortiz, Garbiñe; Valencia, José F; Larrañaga, Maider; Agirrezabal, Arrate
The use of more abstract language to describe expected behaviors as opposed to unexpected behaviors has traditionally been considered a way of stereotype maintenance. This tendency is known as linguistic expectancy bias. Two experiments examined the influence of approach and avoidance motivational orientations on the production of this linguistic expectancy bias. It was predicted that approach strategic orientation is likely to describe expectancy consistent behaviors at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent behaviors. In contrast, avoidance strategic orientation is likely to describe both expectancy consistent behaviors and expectancy inconsistent behaviors at a lower level of linguistic abstraction, thus facilitating the disappearance of linguistic expectancy bias. Two experiments confirmed these expectations, using strategic orientation manipulations based either on communication goals or on motor action, and measuring linguistic abstraction either on forced-choice answer format or on free descriptions. Implications for the generalisation of linguistic expectancy bias are discussed.
Dedering, Asa; Börjesson, Tina
The study sought to evaluate validity and reliability of the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia in patients with cervical radiculopathy. A test-retest design was used to test stability over time in 46 patients with cervical radiculopathy. Differences between patients and healthy subjects were also evaluated comparing the patients with 41 physically active and healthy subjects. The patients answered the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia twice. To test for differences between the patients and the healthy subjects, the latter answered the same questionnaires once. Questionnaires about activity, personal factors and health were also used. The test-retest reliability assessed with weighted kappa was 0.68 for the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and 0.45 for the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Only six of the 11 single items of the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and none of the single items of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia showed kappa coefficients exceeding 0.60 (good reliability). Patients with cervical radiculopathy rated significantly worse on the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia than the healthy subjects did. The Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire may be recommended for test-retest evaluations because 'good' reliability was found. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia had only 'moderate' test-retest reliability, and this should be considered when using this scale in test-retest evaluations. Both questionnaires can discriminate between patients with cervical radiculopathy and healthy subjects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Carson, F; Polman, R C J
Avoidance coping has commonly been reported within literature to be a debilitative process. However, in situations where goal attainment is reduced or eradicated avoidance coping strategies appear to have some benefit. The aim of this study was to identify the role of avoidance coping within the sports injury rehabilitation setting. A mixed methodological approach was utilized with four professional male rugby union players, concurrent with their rehabilitation from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Twice monthly interviews were conducted with each player, along with a self-report diary and the Coping with Health, Injuries and Problems (CHIP; Endler & Parker, 2000) inventory. Content analysis showed six higher-order themes split into two general dimensions: (a) behavioral avoidance coping (physical distraction, social interaction, maladaptive behaviors), and (b) cognitive avoidance coping (denial, thought stopping, cognitive distraction). Results suggest avoidance coping strategies facilitate control of short-term emotional states, as well has appearing to have long-term benefits for injured players. Particular benefits were associated with undertaking alternate work within the sports organization.
Ng, Anuja; Lovibond, Peter F
Intentions prospectively correlate with behaviour (e.g., Ajzen, 1991) but there is little research on whether they play a role in regulating emotion. Two experiments investigated whether avoidance intentions, mediated by expectancy, play a role in reducing anxiety. In Experiment 1, participants performed either an instrumental avoidance response that cancelled the shock signalled by a Pavlovian stimulus; a control response that had no effect on shock; or no response. Prior to this, they indicated their intention to respond or not respond on a form. Both shock expectancy and skin conductance level (SCL) were significantly lower on trials in which an avoidance response was intended compared to not intended, relative to control trials. Experiment 2 replicated these results when intention was retrospectively reported at the end of each trial, arguing against the possibility that the behavioural action of recording intentions in Experiment 1 became directly associated with the shock or no shock outcome. The results indicate that avoidance intentions reduce anxiety through the mediating effect of expectancy, suggesting that avoidance intentions may play an important role in shaping avoidance behaviours for people with anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S
We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.
Seraji, Homayoun; Steele, Robert; Ivlev, Robert
A new on-line control strategy for sensor-based collision avoidance of manipulators and supporting experimental results are presented in this article. This control strategy is based on nullification of virtual forces applied to the end-effector by a hypothetical spring-plus-damper attached to the object's surface. In the proposed approach, the real-time arm control software continuously monitors the object distance measured by the arm-mounted proximity sensors. When this distance is less than a preset threshold, the collision avoidance control action is initiated to inhibit motion toward the object and thus prevent collision. This is accomplished by employing an outer feedback loop to perturb the end-effector nominal motion trajectory in real-time based on the sensory data. The perturbation is generated by a proportional-plus-integral (PI) collision avoidance controller acting on the difference between the sensed distance and the preset threshold. This approach is computationally very fast, requires minimal modification to the existing manipulator positioning system, and provides the manipulator with an on-line collision avoidance capability to react autonomously and intelligently. A dexterous RRC robotic arm is instrumented with infrared proximity sensors and is operated under the proposed collision avoidance strategy. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate end-effector collision avoidance both with an approaching object and while reaching inside a constricted opening.
Kok, Annebelle C M; Engelberts, J Pamela; Kastelein, Ronald A; Helder-Hoek, Lean; Van de Voorde, Shirley; Visser, Fleur; Slabbekoorn, Hans
The continuing rise in underwater sound levels in the oceans leads to disturbance of marine life. It is thought that one of the main impacts of sound exposure is the alteration of foraging behaviour of marine species, for example by deterring animals from a prey location, or by distracting them while they are trying to catch prey. So far, only limited knowledge is available on both mechanisms in the same species. The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is a relatively small marine mammal that could quickly suffer fitness consequences from a reduction of foraging success. To investigate effects of anthropogenic sound on their foraging efficiency, we tested whether experimentally elevated sound levels would deter two captive harbour porpoises from a noisy pool into a quiet pool (Experiment 1) and reduce their prey-search performance, measured as prey-search time in the noisy pool (Experiment 2). Furthermore, we tested the influence of the temporal structure and amplitude of the sound on the avoidance response of both animals. Both individuals avoided the pool with elevated sound levels, but they did not show a change in search time for prey when trying to find a fish hidden in one of three cages. The combination of temporal structure and SPL caused variable patterns. When the sound was intermittent, increased SPL caused increased avoidance times. When the sound was continuous, avoidance was equal for all SPLs above a threshold of 100 dB re 1 μPa. Hence, we found no evidence for an effect of sound exposure on search efficiency, but sounds of different temporal patterns did cause spatial avoidance with distinct dose-response patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santiago, Confesor; Mueller, Eric Richard; Johnson, Marcus A.; Abramson, Michael; Snow, James William
Unmanned aircraft will equip with a detect-and-avoid (DAA) system that enables them to comply with the requirement to "see and avoid" other aircraft, an important layer in the overall set of procedural, strategic and tactical separation methods designed to prevent mid-air collisions. This paper describes a capability called Java Architecture for Detect and Avoid Extensibility and Modeling (JADEM), developed to prototype and help evaluate various DAA technological requirements by providing a flexible and extensible software platform that models all major detect-and-avoid functions. Figure 1 illustrates JADEM's architecture. The surveillance module can be actual equipment on the unmanned aircraft or simulators that model the process by which sensors on-board detect other aircraft and provide track data to the traffic display. The track evaluation function evaluates each detected aircraft and decides whether to provide an alert to the pilot and its severity. Guidance is a combination of intruder track information, alerting, and avoidance/advisory algorithms behind the tools shown on the traffic display to aid the pilot in determining a maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear. All these functions are designed with a common interface and configurable implementation, which is critical in exploring DAA requirements. To date, JADEM has been utilized in three computer simulations of the National Airspace System, three pilot-in-the-loop experiments using a total of 37 professional UAS pilots, and two flight tests using NASA's Predator-B unmanned aircraft, named Ikhana. The data collected has directly informed the quantitative separation standard for "well clear", safety case, requirements development, and the operational environment for the DAA minimum operational performance standards. This work was performed by the Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability team under NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project.
Koyama, Atsuko; Ohtake, Yoichi; Yasuda, Kanae; Sakai, Kiyohiro; Sakamoto, Ryo; Matsuoka, Hiromichi; Okumi, Hirokuni; Yasuda, Toshiko
Non-organic lesions or diseases of unknown origin are sometimes misdiagnosed as "psychogenic" disorders or "psychosomatic" diseases. For the quality of life and safety of patients, recent attention has focused on diagnostic error. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors that affected misdiagnoses in psychosomatic medicine by examining typical cases and to explore strategies that reduce diagnostic errors. The study period was from January 2001 to August 2017. The data of patients who had visited the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Kindai University Hospital and its branches, Sakai Hospital and Nihonbashi Clinic, were collected. All patients were aged 16 years or over. Multiple factors, such as age, sex, presenting symptoms, initial diagnosis, final diagnosis, sources of re-diagnosis and types of diagnostic errors were retrospectively analyzed from the medical charts of 20 patients. Among them, four typical cases can be described as follows. Case 1; a 79-year-old woman, initially diagnosed with psychogenic vomiting due to depression that was changed to gastric torsion as the final diagnosis. Case 2; a 24-year-old man, diagnosed with an eating disorder that was later changed to esophageal achalasia. Case 10; a 60-year-old woman's diagnosis changed from conversion disorder to localized muscle atrophy. Case 19; a 68-year-old man, appetite loss from depression due to cancer changed to secondary adrenal insufficiency, isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD). This study showed that multiple factors related to misdiagnoses were combined and had a mutual influence. However, they can be summarized into two important clinical observations, diagnostic system-related problems and provider issues. Provider issues contain mainly cognitive biases such as Anchoring, Availability, Confirmation bias, Delayed diagnosis, and Representativeness. In order to avoid diagnostic errors, both a diagnostic system approach and the reduction of cognitive biases are needed. Psychosomatic
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA, is associated with pain-related anxiety. METHODS: One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20. Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. RESULTS: The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. CONCLUSION: Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients.
Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija
Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20). Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients.
Delgadillo, Víctor; Verdejo, José; Mondaca, Pedro; Verdugo, Gabriela; Gaete, Hernán; Hodson, Mark E; Neaman, Alexander
Use of avoidance tests is a quick and cost-effective method of assessing contaminants in soils. One option for assessing earthworm avoidance behavior is a two-section test, which consists of earthworms being given the choice to move between a test soil and a control substrate. For ecological relevance, tested soils should be field-contaminated soils. For practical reasons, artificial soils are commonly used as the control substrate. Interpretation of the test results compromised when the test soil and the artificial substrate differ in their physico-chemical properties other than just contaminants. In this study we identified the physico-chemical properties that influence avoidance response and evaluated the usefulness of adjusting these in the control substrate in order to isolate metal-driven avoidance of field soils by earthworms. A standardized two-section avoidance test with Eisenia fetida was performed on 52 uncontaminated and contaminated (Cu >155mgkg -1 , As >19mgkg -1 ) agricultural soils from the Aconcagua River basin and the Puchuncaví Valley in Chile. Regression analysis indicated that the avoidance response was determined by soil organic matter (OM), electrical conductivity (EC) and total soil Cu. Organic matter content of the artificial substrate was altered by peat additions and EC by NaCl so that these properties matched those of the field soils. The resultant EC 80 for avoidance (indicative of soils of "limited habitat") was 433mg Cu kg -1 (339 - 528mgkg -1 95% confidence intervals). The earthworm avoidance test can be used to assess metal toxicity in field-contaminated soils by adjusting physico-chemical properties (OM and EC) of the artificial control substrate in order to mimic those of the field-collected soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Menger, Rudmer; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Dijkerman, H Chris
When reaches are performed toward target objects, the presence of other non-target objects influences kinematic parameters of the reach. A typical observation has been that non-targets positioned ipsilaterally to the acting limb interfere more with the trajectory of the hand than contralateral non-targets. Here, we investigate whether this effect is mediated by motor lateralization or by the relative positioning of the objects with reference to the acting limb. Participants were asked to perform reaches toward physical target objects with their preferred or non-preferred hands while physical non-targets were present in different possible positions in the workspace. We tested both left-handers and right-handers. Our results show that a participant's handedness does not influence reaching behavior in an obstacle avoidance paradigm. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences between the use of the preferred and non-preferred hand were observed on the kinematic parameters of the reaches. We found evidence that non-targets positioned on the outside of the reaching limb influenced the reaching behavior more strongly than non-targets on the inside. Moreover, the type of movement also appeared to play a role, as reaches that crossed the workspace had a stronger effect on avoidance behavior than reaches that were 'uncrossed.' We interpret these results as support for the hypothesis that the avoidance response is determined by keeping a preferred distance between the acting limb in all stages of its reach toward the target and the non-target position. This process is not biased by hand dominance or the hand preference of the actor.
Vandyke, Thomas H; Athmann, Paul W; Ballmer, Corey M; Kintzel, Polly E
Background To reduce product wastage, our institution allows automatic dose rounding of biologic and cytotoxic anticancer agents. The purpose of this project was to determine the actual annual cost avoidance due to pharmacist-managed automatic dose rounding of anticancer treatments. Methods Financial impact was assessed within the context of our departmental standard work which supports automatic dose rounding of biologic anticancer agents (±10%) and cytotoxic anticancer agents (±5%) to the nearest vial size for body surface area- or weight-based doses. Exclusions to automatic dose rounding include multiple dose vial products, pediatric orders, clinical trial drugs, and parenteral busulfan. The amount of cost avoidance for each rounded dose was determined using the product acquisition cost of the smallest available product amount. Data were collected from anticancer treatment orders for the fiscal year 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2014. Results A total of 6216 doses of anticancer drugs were checked for dose rounding during the period of data collection. Almost $200,000 in product acquisition cost was avoided with pharmacist-managed automatic dose rounding. Six different biologic products accounted for approximately 7% of the total doses analyzed and 78% of the cost avoidance. Fifteen drugs comprised the array of cytotoxic agents rounded. Approximately, 37% and 4% of the biologic and cytotoxic doses were rounded up to the vial size. Conclusion Routine dose rounding of biologic anticancer agents (±10%) and cytotoxic products (±5%) achieved cost avoidance through reduction of drug wastage at our institution.
Full Text Available The use of Indonesian language by children who speak the Balinese language, especially for children who live in rural areas is quite difficult. This is because their Balinese language is much different from Indonesian language. If they speak Indonesian language, they have to fall back to the language first. That is, language transfer process will take place from Balinese language to Indonesian language. This research aims to describe two phenomena of the language transfer process, namely avoidance and overuse (excessive use. Qualitative data were obtained from one Balinese child, namely Gede. Gede’s daily conversations were recorded to be analyzed. The researcher also used field notes. The results show that there is indeed avoidance and overuse in the use of Indonesian language by Gede. The teachers must be aware of the student's avoidance and overuse of Indonesian language, then the teacher can choose a contextual teaching method that best fits their students’ need in order to enable them to cope with the avoidance and overuse in learning the second language. In conclusion, the Balinese child’s avoidance and overuse, displayed in his use of Indonesian Language, is a concequence of his prior knowledge of his first language (L1 as well as his cultural awareness. Teachers should facilitate their students’ second language (L2 learning by being aware of their L1 prior knowledge and culture.
Stephan, Elena; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Zhou, Xinyue; He, Wuming; Routledge, Clay; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M
In light of its role in maintaining psychological equanimity, we proposed that nostalgia--a self-relevant, social, and predominantly positive emotion--regulates avoidance and approach motivation. We advanced a model in which (a) avoidance motivation triggers nostalgia and (b) nostalgia, in turn, increases approach motivation. As a result, nostalgia counteracts the negative impact of avoidance motivation on approach motivation. Five methodologically diverse studies supported this regulatory model. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design and showed that avoidance motivation was positively associated with nostalgia. Nostalgia, in turn, was positively associated with approach motivation. In Study 2, an experimental induction of avoidance motivation increased nostalgia. Nostalgia then predicted increased approach motivation. Studies 3-5 tested the causal effect of nostalgia on approach motivation and behavior. These studies demonstrated that experimental nostalgia inductions strengthened approach motivation (Study 3) and approach behavior as manifested in reduced seating distance (Study 4) and increased helping (Study 5). The findings shed light on nostalgia's role in regulating the human motivation system.
Mehmet Serdar Güzel
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new obstacle avoidance method using a single monocular vision camera as the only sensor which is called as Hybrid Architecture. This architecture integrates a high performance appearance-based obstacle detection method into an optical flow-based navigation system. The hybrid architecture was designed and implemented to run both methods simultaneously and is able to combine the results of each method using a novel arbitration mechanism. The proposed strategy successfully fused two different vision-based obstacle avoidance methods using this arbitration mechanism in order to permit a safer obstacle avoidance system. Accordingly, to establish the adequacy of the design of the obstacle avoidance system, a series of experiments were conducted. The results demonstrate the characteristics of the proposed architecture, and the results prove that its performance is somewhat better than the conventional optical flow-based architecture. Especially, the robot employing Hybrid Architecture avoids lateral obstacles in a more smooth and robust manner than when using the conventional optical flow-based technique.
Tucker, John [Genability, San Francisco, CA (United States); Danziger, Eric [Genability, San Francisco, CA (United States)
The core objectives of this project were two separate but integrated products, collectively providing game-changing Avoided Cost capabilities. The first was a kit of avoided cost tools and data that any solar provider can use a-lacarte or as a whole. It’s open and easily accessible nature allows the rapid and accurate calculation of avoided cost in whatever context and software that make sense (“Typical and Avoided Cost Tools”). This kit includes a dataset of typical energy rates, costs and usage that can be used for solar prospecting, lead generation and any situation where data about an opportunity is missing or imperfect. The second is a web application and related APIs specifically built for solar providers to radically streamline their lead-to-sale process (“Solar Provider Module”). The typical and Avoided Cost tools are built directly into this, and allow for solar providers to track their opportunities, collaborate with their installers and financiers, and close more sales faster.
Schulz, B.M.; Trimper, S.; Schulz, M.
We study the asymptotic behavior of a Brownian particle under the influence of a dynamical feedback by numerical simulations and analytical considerations. The feedback is controlled by a memory coupling of strength λ. Whereas a negative memory strength yields a true self avoiding walk, a positive memory leads to a self-trapping of the particle. The localization is manifested by a constant mean square displacement in the long time limit which appears after an initial diffusive regime. The probability distribution function of the trapping distance shows an exponential decay. The numerical simulations are compared with an analytical modeling
A developmental-evolutionary perspective is used to synthesize basic research from the neurosciences, ethology, genetics, and developmental psychology into a unified framework for understanding the nature and origins of social anxiety and avoidant personality disorder. Evidence is presented that social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and avoidant personality disorder may be alternate conceptualizations of the same disorder because they have virtually the same symptoms and genetic basis, and respond to the same pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions. A functionalist perspective on social anxiety is formulated to (a) explain the origins of normative states of anxiety, (b) outline developmental pathways in the transition from normative anxiety to social anxiety and avoidant personality disorders, and (c) account for the processes leading to gender-differentiated patterns of anxiety-related disorders after puberty.
Full Text Available Plants respond to neighbor shade by increasing stem and petiole elongation. Shade, sensed by phytochrome photoreceptors, causes stabilization of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR proteins and subsequent induction of YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes. To investigate the role of YUCCA genes in phytochrome-mediated elongation, we examined auxin signaling kinetics after an end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR light treatment, and found that an auxin responsive reporter is rapidly induced within 2 hours of far-red exposure. YUCCA2, 5, 8, and 9 are all induced with similar kinetics suggesting that they could act redundantly to control shade-mediated elongation. To test this hypothesis we constructed a yucca2, 5, 8, 9 quadruple mutant and found that the hypocotyl and petiole EOD-FR and shade avoidance responses are completely disrupted. This work shows that YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are essential for detectable shade avoidance and that YUCCA genes are important for petiole shade avoidance.
Monitoring of large complex environments, such as underwater environments, is an important task in surveillance. An information (sensor) network can be built to achieve the task. To build an information network in an unknown workspace, we use multiple robots deploying information nodes. While robots build the network, they localize themselves as well as deployed nodes in the global coordinate system. Our multirobot networking strategy is as follows: each robot iteratively visits a frontier, which borders an unsensed area, until all areas are explored. As multiple robots explore the workspace, a robot must avoid colliding with another robot as well as with an obstacle. Hence, we introduce collision avoidance control laws and integrate the control laws with our cooperative networking strategy. Using MATLAB simulations, we verify the scalability and effectiveness of both our networking strategy and the collision avoidance control laws.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the lane departure avoidance system for a four in-wheel motors’ drive electric vehicle, aiming at preventing lane departure under dangerous driving conditions. The control architecture for the lane departure avoidance system is hierarchical. In the upper controller, the desired yaw rate was calculated with the consideration of vehicle-lane deviation, vehicle dynamic, and the limitation of road adhesion. In the middle controller, a sliding mode controller (SMC was designed to control the additional yaw moment. In the lower layer, the yaw moment was produced by the optimal distribution of driving/braking torque between four wheels. Lane departure avoidance was carried out by tracking desired yaw response. Simulations were performed to study the effectiveness of the control algorithm in Carsim®/Simulink® cosimulation. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can effectively confine the vehicle in lane and prevent lane departure accidents.
Robert L. Williams
Full Text Available We have established a novel method of obstacle-avoidance motion planning for mobile robots in dynamic environments, wherein the obstacles are moving with general velocities and accelerations, and their motion profiles are not preknown. A hybrid system is presented in which a global deliberate approach is applied to determine the motion in the desired path line (DPL, and a local reactive approach is used for moving obstacle avoidance. A machine vision system is required to sense obstacle motion. Through theoretical analysis, simulation, and experimental validation applied to the Ohio University RoboCup robot, we show the method is effective to avoid collisions with moving obstacles in a dynamic environment.
Bowick, M.; Travesset, A.
We analyze the tubular phase of self-avoiding anisotropic crystalline membranes. A careful analysis using renormalization group arguments together with symmetry requirements motivates the simplest form of the large-distance free energy describing fluctuations of tubular configurations. The non-self-avoiding limit of the model is shown to be exactly solvable. For the full self-avoiding model we compute the critical exponents using an var-epsilon expansion about the upper critical embedding dimension for general internal dimension D and embedding dimension d. We then exhibit various methods for reliably extrapolating to the physical point (D=2,d=3). Our most accurate estimates are ν=0.62 for the Flory exponent and ζ=0.80 for the roughness exponent. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Paul, Robert A
Why do most people experience a subjective aversion to the idea of incestuous sexual relations? To help answer this question, recent strands of thinking in both cultural and evolutionary anthropology are considered together with psychoanalytic theories regarding incest avoidance. Coevolutionary theories that propose ways to think about genetic and cultural inheritance as partially independent of each other, evolutionary arguments about the reproductive advantages of incest avoidance, structuralist theory arguing for a kind of incest aversion unrelated to any possible Darwinian selective advantage, and other trends in biosocial research into the origins of the incest avoidance are considered. Finally, a synthesis is proposed that seeks to expand our understanding of the oedipal and preoedipal dynamics of the aversion as these are conceptualized in psychoanalytic theory.
Klein, Marty; Rilling, Mark
Three groups of four pigeons, trained to press a treadle on a free-operant avoidance schedule, were given auditory discrimination training. Alternating 2-min components of avoidance and no shock were paired with either a tone or white noise. The pigeons were subsequently given two types of generalization tests, with and without avoidable shocks scheduled. Two of the groups, trained interdimensionally, produced excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients along the tone frequency dimension. A predicted post-discrimination gradient was computed from the algebraic summation of these gradients of excitation and inhibition. The predicted gradient was compared with the actual post-discrimination gradient obtained from the third group of pigeons that had been given intradimensional discrimination training on the tone frequency dimension. The predicted postdiscrimination gradient agreed in shape with the empirical postdiscrimination gradient. The results in general support Spence's (1937) gradient interaction theory. PMID:16811735
Hantel, Andrew; Wroblewski, Kristen; Balachandran, Jay S.; Chow, Selina; DeBoer, Rebecca; Fleming, Gini F.; Hahn, Olwen M.; Kline, Justin; Liu, Hongtao; Patel, Bhakti K.; Verma, Anshu; Witt, Leah J.; Fukui, Mayumi; Kumar, Aditi; Howell, Michael D.; Polite, Blase N.
Purpose: Terminal oncology intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations are associated with high costs and inferior quality of care. This study identifies and characterizes potentially avoidable terminal admissions of oncology patients to ICUs. Methods: This was a retrospective case series of patients cared for in an academic medical center’s ambulatory oncology practice who died in an ICU during July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013. An oncologist, intensivist, and hospitalist reviewed each patient’s electronic health record from 3 months preceding terminal hospitalization until death. The primary outcome was the proportion of terminal ICU hospitalizations identified as potentially avoidable by two or more reviewers. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify characteristics associated with avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations. Results: Seventy-two patients met inclusion criteria. The majority had solid tumor malignancies (71%), poor performance status (51%), and multiple encounters with the health care system. Despite high-intensity health care utilization, only 25% had documented advance directives. During a 4-day median ICU length of stay, 81% were intubated and 39% had cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Forty-seven percent of these hospitalizations were identified as potentially avoidable. Avoidable hospitalizations were associated with factors including: worse performance status before admission (median 2 v 1; P = .01), worse Charlson comorbidity score (median 8.5 v 7.0, P = .04), reason for hospitalization (P = .006), and number of prior hospitalizations (median 2 v 1; P = .05). Conclusion: Given the high frequency of avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations, health care leaders should develop strategies to prospectively identify patients at high risk and formulate interventions to improve end-of-life care. PMID:27601514
Schéle, Erik; Cook, Christopher; Le May, Marie; Bake, Tina; Luckman, Simon M; Dickson, Suzanne L
Feelings of hunger carry a negative-valence (emotion) signal that appears to be conveyed through agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The circulating hunger hormone, ghrelin, activates these neurons although it remains unclear whether it also carries a negative-valence signal. Given that ghrelin also activates pathways in the midbrain that are important for reward, it remains possible that ghrelin could act as a positive reinforcer and hence, carry a positive-valence signal. Here we used condition preference/avoidance tests to explore the reinforcing/aversive properties of ghrelin, delivered by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection (2µg/injection once a day for 4 days). We found that ICV ghrelin produces conditioned avoidance, both in a conditioned place preference/avoidance test (CPP/CPA, in which the animals avoid a chamber previously paired to ghrelin injection) and in a conditioned flavor preference/avoidance test (CFP/CFA, in which the animals consume/avoid a taste previously paired to ghrelin injection). These effects of ghrelin to induce a CPA were observed when conditioning to ghrelin occurred in the absence or presence of food. We did not find evidence, however, that brain ghrelin delivery to rats induces malaise (in the pica test). Our data indicate that ICV ghrelin carries a negative-valence signal consistent with its role as a circulating hunger hormone and with its effects to activate AgRP neurones. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Avoidance of sexual intercourse has not been frequently studied among patients with chronic medical conditions and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are not exception. We aimed to (i) compare intercourse avoidance during the past 2 weeks among women with CAD and healthy controls; and (ii) to determine factors associated with intercourse avoidance during the past 2 weeks among women with CAD. This study was conducted in an outpatient cardiology clinic in Tehran, Iran. The study included 152 married women with CAD and 50 controls. Socio-demographic and clinical data including the severity of angina (WHO Rose Questionnaire), risk factors (cigarette smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and obesity), fatigue, physical function (visual analogue scale [VAS]) and somatic comorbidities [Ifudu index], symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and dyadic adjustment (Revised-Dyadic Adjustment Scale [R-DAS]) were considered as independent variables. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of sexual avoidance during the past 2 weeks. The main outcome was intercourse avoidance over a 2-week period, measured by the Relation and Sexuality Scale (RSS). Avoidance of intercourse during the past 2 weeks was higher among women with CAD than controls (73.0% vs. 56%, P = 0.024). According to the logistic regression, intercourse avoidance was positively associated with age (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.127, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.073, 1.185), somatic comorbidities (OR = 1.137, 95% CI = 1.061, 1.218) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.150, 95% CI = 1.022, 1.293). Our study suggests that among women with CAD, age, depressive symptoms and somatic comorbidities are associated with avoidance of intercourse. As having intercourse is safe among patients with stable CAD, all health professionals should discuss sexual behaviors with their female CAD patients, especially those that are older, with higher
Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Asmolova, Olha
Revolutionary new fly eye radar sensor technologies based on an array of directional antennas is eliminating the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or complicated phase processor. Proposed sense and avoid radar based on fly eye radar technology can be very small, provides continuous surveillance of entire sky (360 degree by azimuth and elevation) and can be applied for separate or swarm of micro/nano UAS or UGS. Monopulse technology increases bearing accuracy several folds and radar can be multi-functional, multi-frequency. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable. Prototype of sense and avoid radar with two directional antennas has been designed and bench tested.
Chappell, Sheryl L.; Scott, Barry C.; Billings, Charles E.
A flight simulator study of pilots' use of the Traffic-alert and Collision Avoidance System is described. Three levels of information on the location of other air traffic were presented to different groups of airline pilots. The amount of informtion on the location of other traffic had little effect on pilots' performance of the maneuvers commanded by the collision avoidance system. Measured crew responses were similar with no presentation of traffic location, with limited information, and with continuous traffic information. No learning effects were observed, and differences in flight experience did not contribute to the performance difference found.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify measures that can prevent violent conflict through the maintenance of traditional cultural values that guide conflict avoidance. Moreover, the article focuses on the concepts of conflict prevention and conflict avoidance as applied by the San community of Platfontein. The causes of the inter-communal tensions between the San community members are also examined. A selected conflict situation, that of superstition and witchcraft, is assessed as factors increasing interpersonal conflict in the Platfontein community. This investigation is made to determine if the San preventive measures have an impact in the community, so as to prevent ongoing conflicts from escalating further.
Abdel Mehsen Ahmad
Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented and published in IEEE International Multidisciplinary Conference on Engineering Technology (IMCET. This work presents a design and implementation of a moving human tracking system with obstacle avoidance. The system scans the environment by using Kinect, a 3D sensor, and tracks the center of mass of a specific user by using Processing, an open source computer programming language. An Arduino microcontroller is used to drive motors enabling it to move towards the tracked user and avoid obstacles hampering the trajectory. The implemented system is tested under different lighting conditions and the performance is analyzed using several generated depth images.
This useful little book highlights typical mistakes that learners make at First Certificate level and shows how to avoid them. This useful little book highlights typical mistakes that learners make at First Certificate level and shows how to avoid them. Based on the analysis of thousands of actual exam scripts in the Cambridge Learner Corpus, each unit focuses on a key problem area. Clear explanations and varied FCE-style exercises help learners to use the language accurately. Regular tests offer learners a further opportunity to check and consolidate what they have learnt.
Full Text Available Collision avoidance radar for trains is pregnant for safety transportation. In order to realize low cost and high performance of azimuth accuracy, we have developed MMW (Milli-Meter Wave radar, which employs switched phased array and frequency stepped technology. This paper analyses the radiation patterns of transmitting/receiving antennas and compensation method for amplitude/phase errors of synthetic wideband frequency stepped signal. To confirm the operation of the radar, low cost millimeter-wave collision avoidance radar was fabricated. Lots of experiments confirmed a high azimuth and range resolution.
Parzani, Céline; Filbet, Francis
This paper presents a three dimensional collision avoidance approach for aerial vehicles inspired by coordinated behaviors in biological groups. The proposed strategy aims to enable a group of vehicles to converge to a common destination point avoiding collisions with each other and with moving obstacles in their environment. The interaction rules lead the agents to adapt their velocity vectors through a modification of the relative bearing angle and the relative elevation. Moreover the model satisfies the limited field of view constraints resulting from individual perception sensitivity. From the proposed individual based model, a mean-field kinetic model is derived. Simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.
This presentation will cover the structure of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) integration into the national airspace system (NAS) project (UAS-NAS Project). The talk also details the motivation of the project to help develop standards for a detect-and-avoid (DAA) system, which is required in order to comply with requirements in manned aviation to see-and-avoid other traffic so as to maintain well clear. The presentation covers accomplishments reached by the project in Phase 1 of the research, and touches on the work to be done in Phase 2. The discussion ends with examples of the display work developed as a result of the Phase 1 research.
Kashdan, Todd B; Doorley, James; Stiksma, Melissa C; Hertenstein, Matthew J
Physical touch is central to the emotional intimacy that separates romantic relationships from other social contexts. In this study of 256 adults (128 heterosexual couples, mean relationship length = 20.5 months), we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety influenced comfort with and avoidance of physical touch. Because of prior work on sex difference in touch use, touch comfort, and social anxiety symptoms and impairment, we explored sex-specific findings. We found evidence that women with greater social anxiety were less comfortable with touch and more avoidant of touch in same-sex friendships. Additionally, a woman's social anxiety had a bigger effect on a man's comfort with touch and avoidance of touch in the romantic relationship than a man's social anxiety had on the woman's endorsement of touch-related problems. These effects were uninfluenced by the length of romantic relationships. Touch is a neglected emotional experience that offers new insights into the difficulties of individuals suffering from social anxiety problems, and their romantic partners.
Organisms are predicted to make trade-offs when foraging and predator avoidance behaviors present conflicting demands. Balancing conflicting demands is important to larval amphibians because adult fitness can be strongly influenced by size at metamorphosis and duration of the larval period. Larvae in temporary ponds must maximize growth within a short time period to achieve metamorphosis before ponds dry, while simultaneously avoiding predators. To determine whether tadpoles trade off between conflicting demands, I examined tadpole (Pseudacris triseriata) activity and microhabitat use in the presence of red-spotted newts (Notopthalmus viridescens) under varying conditions of pond drying and hunger. Tadpoles significantly decreased activity and increased refuge use when predators were present. The proportion of active time tadpoles spent feeding was significantly greater in predator treatments, suggesting tadpoles adaptively balance the conflicting demands of foraging and predator avoidance without making apparent trade-offs. Tadpoles responded to simulated drying conditions by accelerating development. Pond drying did not modify microhabitat use or activity in the presence of predators, suggesting tadpoles perceived predation and hunger as greater immediate threats than desiccation, and did not take more risks.
Full Text Available Altering physical actions when responding to changing environmental demands is important but not always effectively performed. This ineffectiveness, which is an error of social behavior generated by mutual interactions, is not well understood. This study investigated mechanisms of a hesitant behavior that occurs in people walking toward each other, causing people to move in the same direction when attempting to avoid a collision. Using a motion capture device affixed to 17 pairs, we first confirmed the hesitant behavior by a difference between the experimental task, which involved an indeterminate situation to assess the actions of another individual, and the control task, which involved a predetermined avoiding direction, in a real-time situation involving two people. We next investigated the effect of three external factors: long distance until an event, synchronized walking cycle, and different foot relations in dyads on the hesitant behavior. A dramatic increase in freezing and near-collision behavior occurred in dyads for which the avoiding direction was not predetermined. The behavior related with the combination of long distance until an event, synchronized walking cycle, and different foot relations in dyads. We found that the hesitant behavior is influenced by an interpersonal relationship under enough distance to predict other movement. The hesitant behavior has possibly emerged as an undesired by-product of joint action. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptive control of perception-action coupling in mutual interaction.
Tuesta, Luis M; Chen, Zuxin; Duncan, Alexander; Fowler, Christie D; Ishikawa, Masago; Lee, Brian R; Liu, Xin-An; Lu, Qun; Cameron, Michael; Hayes, Matthew R; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Pletcher, Matthew; Kenny, Paul J
Tobacco smokers titrate their nicotine intake to avoid its noxious effects, sensitivity to which may influence vulnerability to tobacco dependence, yet mechanisms of nicotine avoidance are poorly understood. Here we show that nicotine activates glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). The antidiabetic drugs sitagliptin and exenatide, which inhibit GLP-1 breakdown and stimulate GLP-1 receptors, respectively, decreased nicotine intake in mice. Chemogenetic activation of GLP-1 neurons in NTS similarly decreased nicotine intake. Conversely, Glp1r knockout mice consumed greater quantities of nicotine than wild-type mice. Using optogenetic stimulation, we show that GLP-1 excites medial habenular (MHb) projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Activation of GLP-1 receptors in the MHb-IPN circuit abolished nicotine reward and decreased nicotine intake, whereas their knockdown or pharmacological blockade increased intake. GLP-1 neurons may therefore serve as 'satiety sensors' for nicotine that stimulate habenular systems to promote nicotine avoidance before its aversive effects are encountered.
López-Rodríguez, María Mar; Granero Molina, José; Fernández Medina, Isabel María; Fernández Sola, Cayetano; Ruiz Muelle, Alicia
Fibromyalgia is a form of non-articular rheumatic disorder of unknown origin. It is characterized by widespread, chronic musculoskeletal pain. Patients with fibromyalgia suffer more frequently eating disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Studies have pointed out to nutrition as a relevant factor in these patients. Some of them think that diet has an influence on fibromyalgia symptoms, and tend to adopt certain dietary patterns. This, combined with access to non-scientific information about diets and supplements, makes analysis of dietary behavior, avoidance, and restrictions particularly important. The aim of this study was to describe dietary habits and eating avoidance behaviors in patients with fibromyalgia, and to compare these data to those of a healthy sample of similar sociodemographic characteristics. A descriptive case-control study was conducted in healthy subjects (n = 60) age and sex-matched to the fibromyalgia group (n = 60), whose eating habits and restrictions were analyzed using a food frequency questionnaire, a sociodemographic questionnaire, and a food restriction scale. The group with fibromyalgia had significantly higher values in body mass index, weight fluctuation, use of herbal products, and development of diets, and significantly lower mean consumption of cereals, fruits, sugars, alcohol, and soft drinks. These results describe a sample of patients with fibromyalgia who follow a varied diet similar to that of healthy subjects, but more frequently avoid certain foods. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Llorca, David F; Sotelo, Miguel A; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Bergasa, Luis M
This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM) classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS) is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance.
Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan
Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women's eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants ( N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18-29 years ( M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment.
Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W
Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Hildebrandt, Tom; Grotzinger, Andrew; Reddan, Marianne; Greif, Rebecca; Levy, Ifat; Goodman, Wayne; Schiller, Daniela
Anorexia nervosa is characterized by chronic food avoidance that is resistant to change. Disgust conditioning offers one potential unexplored mechanism for explaining this behavioral disturbance because of its specific role in facilitating food avoidance in adaptive situations. A food based reversal learning paradigm was used to study response flexibility in 14 adolescent females with restricting subtype anorexia nervosa (AN-R) and 15 healthy control (HC) participants. Expectancy ratings were coded as a behavioral measure of flexibility and electromyography recordings from the levator labii (disgust), zygomaticus major (pleasure), and corrugator (general negative affect) provided psychophysiological measures of emotion. Response inflexibility was higher for participants with AN-R, as evidenced by lower extinction and updated expectancy ratings during reversal. EMG responses to food stimuli were predictive of both extinction and new learning. Among AN-R patients, disgust specific responses to food were associated with impaired extinction, as were elevated pleasure responses to the cued absence of food. Disgust conditioning appears to influence food learning in acutely ill patients with AN-R and may be maintained by counter-regulatory acquisition of a pleasure response to food avoidance and an aversive response to food presence. Developing strategies to target disgust may improve existing interventions for patients with AN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Justin H.; Schaller, Mark; Crandall, Christian S.
Humans possess pathogen-avoidance mechanisms that respond to the visual perception of morphological anomalies in others. We investigated whether obesity may trigger these mechanisms. Study I revealed that people who are chronically concerned about pathogen transmission have more negative attitudes
This paper explores what teachers can do to avoid potential lawsuits. Section 1 describes different types of laws for public and private schools. Section 2 discusses tort liability. Section 3 presents legal principles that apply to educators (in loco parents, intentional torts, strict liability, negligence, foreseeability, assigned duties,…
Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
This study focused on the link between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers. Various emergency lateral and speed control maneuvers were considered in response to different critical events that made the crash imminent. Partial proportional odds models that allowed for changes in effects ac...
Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S
on potential avoidability from a health services perspective was elaborated at a Nordic-Baltic workshop, using the variables: time of death in relation to admission and delivery, fetal malformation, gestational age, growth-retardation and Apgar score at 5 min. RESULTS: Rates of perinatal deaths of malformed...
Oertig, Daniela; Schüler, Julia; Schnelle, Jessica; Brandstätter, Veronika; Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.
Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. The authors conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and
Oertig, D.; Schüler, J.; Schnelle, J.; Brandstätter, V.; Roskes, M.; Elliot, A.J.
Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. Here we conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and resource
Jasmien, Lismont; Cardinaels, Eddy; Bruynseels, L.M.L.; De Groote, Sander; Baesens, B.; Lemahieu, W.; Vanthienen, J.
This study predicts tax avoidance by means of social network analytics. We extend previous literature by being the first to build a predictive model including a larger variation of network features. We construct a network of firms connected through shared board membership. Then, we apply three
Corporaal, Sharissa H A; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Duysens, Jacques; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.
Complex gait (e.g., obstacle avoidance) requires a higher cognitive load than simple steady-state gait, which is a more automated movement. The higher levels of the central nervous system, responsible for adjusting motor plans to complex gait, develop throughout childhood into adulthood. Therefore,
Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an autonomous obstacle-avoidance method that operates in conjunction with groping locomotion on the humanoid robot Bonten-Maru II. Present studies on groping locomotion consist of basic research in which humanoid robot recognizes its surroundings by touching and groping with its arm on the flat surface of a wall. The robot responds to the surroundings by performing corrections to its orientation and locomotion direction. During groping locomotion, however, the existence of obstacles within the correction area creates the possibility of collisions. The objective of this paper is to develop an autonomous method to avoid obstacles in the correction area by applying suitable algorithms to the humanoid robot's control system. In order to recognize its surroundings, six-axis force sensors were attached to both robotic arms as end effectors for force control. The proposed algorithm refers to the rotation angle of the humanoid robot's leg joints due to trajectory generation. The algorithm relates to the groping locomotion via the measured groping angle and motions of arms. Using Bonten-Maru II, groping experiments were conducted on a wall's surface to obtain wall orientation data. By employing these data, the humanoid robot performed the proposed method autonomously to avoid an obstacle present in the correction area. Results indicate that the humanoid robot can recognize the existence of an obstacle and avoid it by generating suitable trajectories in its legs.
... substantial reduction in the sum of (a) the Federal estate tax and (b) all estate, inheritance, legacy, and... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expatriation to avoid tax. 20.2107-1 Section 20... GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Estates of Nonresidents Not...
Four weeks after the administration of oral magnesium (10 g/L, MgSO4), the animals were subjected to passive avoidance test whereby latency time (LT) was assessed. This was followed by formalin test which entailed the determination of licking and flinching scores. Results: Increased level of glucose and decreased ...
This paper presents some backgrounds research on association scheme using a class of (123)-avoiding pattern of Aunu numbers as an application area. It also attempts to highlight some further applications ... concept of association scheme. This research also shows us that the Aunu patterns can be used in design theory.
This study develops a mathematical model for analysis on collision avoidance of ships. The obtained model provides information on the quantitative effect of the ship's engine's response and the applied reversing force on separation distance and stopping abilities of the ships. Appropriate evasive maneuvers require the ...
Randomly assigned 42 men and 34 women classified as having avoidant personality disorder to one of three treatment conditions or to control group. Treatment subjects displayed significantly greater improvement on self-report and behavioral measures than did controls. Inclusion of skills-training procedures did not contribute to effects of…
amino acid (EAA) glutamate, are analgesic targets and pre-treat- ment with NMDA antagonist analgesic or anaesthetic agents as neuroprotectants may avoid this post-injury hyperalgesia which suggests that we should be interested in pre-emptive analgesia produced by opioids, anaesthetics and NMDA antagonists with.
Mar 26, 2013 ... Original Research: Food avoidance in irritable bowel syndrome leads to a nutrition-deficient diet. 2014;27(1) ... foods play a part in symptom generation may lead to an unbalanced dietary intake. Design: This was a ..... Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin.
Abd-Elhady, M.S.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Wijers, J.G.; van Steenhoven, A.A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.
The minimum gas speed for a heat exchanger (HE) at which particulate fouling is avoided is investigated. Fouling experiments have been done with particles of different sizes and different materials running under different gas speeds. It is found that the smallest particles in the flow deposit first
Let G = (V,E) be a nontrivial connected graph. For a subset S ⊆ V, the geodesic closure (S) of S is the set of all vertices on geodesics (shortest paths) between two vertices of S. We study the geodetic achievement and avoidance games defined by Buckley and Harary (Geodetic games for graphs, Quaestiones Math.
Hacke, Peter; Johnston, Steve
Potential-induced degradation can cause significant power loss in modules if the appropriate precautions are not taken. In the first part of a new series in PV Tech Power on module failure, Peter Hacke and Steve Johnston assess the current state-of-the-art in detecting, avoiding and mitigating the worst effects of PID.
Goos, J.; Alirezaei, M.; Semsar-Kazerooni, E.; Ploeg, J.
In this paper, an obstacle avoidance controller (OA) based on the impedance control method is developed. The main goal of the OA controller is to guarantee robust gap making for a merging vehicle within a platoon of vehicles which are longitudinally automated. The proposed OA controller is developed
Maintaining a healthy weight in childhood can prevent many health-related problems later in life. In this podcast, Dr. Jackson Sekhobo discusses the importance of avoiding obesity in childhood. Created: 1/31/2013 by MMWR. Date Released: 1/31/2013.
Dec 11, 2008 ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) ...
Jordet, Geir; Hartman, Esther
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between shot valence, avoidance behavior, and performance in soccer penalty shootouts. Video analyses were conducted with all penalty shootouts ever held ill the World Cup, the European Championships. and the UEFA Champions League (n = 36
Vanderelst, Dieter; Holderied, Marc W; Peremans, Herbert
Bat echolocation is an ability consisting of many subtasks such as navigation, prey detection and object recognition. Understanding the echolocation capabilities of bats comes down to isolating the minimal set of acoustic cues needed to complete each task. For some tasks, the minimal cues have already been identified. However, while a number of possible cues have been suggested, little is known about the minimal cues supporting obstacle avoidance in echolocating bats. In this paper, we propose that the Interaural Intensity Difference (IID) and travel time of the first millisecond of the echo train are sufficient cues for obstacle avoidance. We describe a simple control algorithm based on the use of these cues in combination with alternating ear positions modeled after the constant frequency bat Rhinolophus rouxii. Using spatial simulations (2D and 3D), we show that simple phonotaxis can steer a bat clear from obstacles without performing a reconstruction of the 3D layout of the scene. As such, this paper presents the first computationally explicit explanation for obstacle avoidance validated in complex simulated environments. Based on additional simulations modelling the FM bat Phyllostomus discolor, we conjecture that the proposed cues can be exploited by constant frequency (CF) bats and frequency modulated (FM) bats alike. We hypothesize that using a low level yet robust cue for obstacle avoidance allows bats to comply with the hard real-time constraints of this basic behaviour.
Full Text Available Bat echolocation is an ability consisting of many subtasks such as navigation, prey detection and object recognition. Understanding the echolocation capabilities of bats comes down to isolating the minimal set of acoustic cues needed to complete each task. For some tasks, the minimal cues have already been identified. However, while a number of possible cues have been suggested, little is known about the minimal cues supporting obstacle avoidance in echolocating bats. In this paper, we propose that the Interaural Intensity Difference (IID and travel time of the first millisecond of the echo train are sufficient cues for obstacle avoidance. We describe a simple control algorithm based on the use of these cues in combination with alternating ear positions modeled after the constant frequency bat Rhinolophus rouxii. Using spatial simulations (2D and 3D, we show that simple phonotaxis can steer a bat clear from obstacles without performing a reconstruction of the 3D layout of the scene. As such, this paper presents the first computationally explicit explanation for obstacle avoidance validated in complex simulated environments. Based on additional simulations modelling the FM bat Phyllostomus discolor, we conjecture that the proposed cues can be exploited by constant frequency (CF bats and frequency modulated (FM bats alike. We hypothesize that using a low level yet robust cue for obstacle avoidance allows bats to comply with the hard real-time constraints of this basic behaviour.
Carloni, Raffaella; Lippiello, Vincenzo; D'auria, Massimo; Fumagalli, Matteo; Mersha, A.Y.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Sicilano, Bruno
In this article, a vision-based technique for obstacle avoidance and target identification is combined with haptic feedback to develop a new teleoperated navigation system for underactuated aerial vehicles in unknown environments. A three-dimensional (3-D) map of the surrounding environment is built
Describes how school nurses can advocate for adolescent female students and help them avoid the female athlete triad that includes disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The article focuses on consequences of the triad, how to uncover the symptoms, working to improve public support, and creating a successful program through partnership.…
Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.
The ability to adequately avoid obstacles while walking is an important skill that allows safe locomotion over uneven terrain. The high proportion of falls in the elderly that is associated to tripping over obstacles potentially illustrates an age-related deterioration of this locomotor skill. Some
Garman, E. Thomas; Monroe, Sarah D.
Focusing on avoiding consumer frauds and misrepresentations, this document is one in a series of three consumer education modules developed to educate individual adult consumers in important areas of consumer affairs. An introductory section provides an overview of the module contents, suggested approaches for using the module, and suggestions for…
Library science students in school librarianship were surveyed to determine their information seeking and avoidance behaviors in Web-based online environments. Two coping styles were identified among students. Barriers to student online collaboration, such as individual preferences, concerns on efficiency, and lack of mutual trust, were observed.…
Correspondence: Naude et al. avoid answering the essential question: Mistake or mischief? Zoë Harcombe, Tim Noakes. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2017.v107i5.12454.
with electric shock in normal and mutant larvae and Tully et al. reported the passage of olfactory ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of ..... Pairing odour with shock drives the larvae to the opposite zone. Preference learning index PLI.
Objective. To assess whether incorporating a system of identifying, classifying and grading avoidable factors into a perinatal audit can be useful in identifying problem areas. Design. Descriptive study. Setting. Black urban population, Pretoria, South Africa. Subjects. All perinatal deaths of infants weighing more than 1 000 g ...
Sevos, Jessica; Grosselin, Anne; Fedotova, Tatyana; Massoubre, Catherine
Many data suggest a disjunction between decreased emotional expressions and relatively preserved experience of and ability to assess emotions in schizophrenia. Based in an embodied approach of cognition, several studies have highlighted affective stimulus-response congruency effect in healthy subjects that show a direct link between the perception of emotion and associated motor responses. This study investigated whether the categorization of emotional words involves an automatic sensorimotor simulation of approach and avoidance behaviors. We asked 28 subjects with schizophrenia and 28 controls to execute arm movements of approach or avoidance to categorize emotional words, according to their valence (positive or negative). Controls were faster to respond to a positive stimulus with a movement of approach and a negative stimulus with a movement of avoidance (congruent condition) than to perform the inverted response movements (incongruent condition). However, responses of patients with schizophrenia did not differ according to congruence condition. Our results support the apparent non-involvement of covert sensorimotor simulation of approach and avoidance in the categorization of emotional stimuli by patients with schizophrenia, despite their understanding of the emotional valence of words. This absence of affective stimulus-response compatibility effect would imply a decoupling between emotional and bodily states in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Borg, Charmaine; Peters, Madelon L.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; de Jong, Peter J.
Introduction. Catastrophic appraisal of experienced pain may promote hypervigilance and intense pain, while the personality trait of harm avoidance (HA) might prevent the occurrence of correcting such experiences. Women inflicted with vaginismus may enter a self-perpetuating downward spiral of
Gerlovich, Jack A.
Discusses various aspects related to negligence on the part of chemistry teachers. Areas addressed include negligence in tort law, avoiding negligence suits, proper instructions, proper supervision, equipment maintenance, and other considerations such as sovereign immunity, and contributory versus comparative negligence. (JN)
Kremer, A.M.; Steenbeek, R.
Introduction Sickness absence has an important impact on employers (e.g. reduced productivity, high costs) and employees (e.g. replacement, job loss). Therefore, we investigated possible reduction by exploring avoidable sickness absence. Methods A questionnaire was filled out by 2,954 Dutch workers
in patients receiving isoflurane undergoing bariatric surgery.55. Opioid must be provided to the right location in sufficient amount and agents with NMDA antagonist action are favoured. Lipid infusions for maintenance of anaesthesia may need to be avoided. The optimum may be inhalational agent to maximum toler- ance ...
Nwogbaga, David M. E.; Nwankwo, Oliver U.; Onwa, Doris O.
This paper examined how conflicts and crisis can be avoided through formal communication. It was necessitated by the observation that most of the conflicts and crisis which tend to mar school management today are functions of the inconsistencies arising from "grapevines, rumours, and gossips" generated through informal communication…
teachers who have no understanding of the situation or needs of ethnic minority children, who have no strategies to deal with racist behaviour in the classroom ..." Avoidance, or so-called "no problem!" strategies, are often the outcome of teacher training that fails or fall short of ad- dressing issues of diversity in schools.
Nabil M. Hewahi
Full Text Available The robots science has been developed over the past few years, where robots have become used to accomplish difficult, repetitive or accurate tasks, which are very hard for humans to carry out. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to control the motion of a swarm of robots and make them able to avoid obstacles. The proposed solution is based on forming the robots in circular fashion. A group set of robots consists of multiple groups of robots, each group of robots consists of robots forming a circular shape and each group set is a circular form of robots. The proposed algorithm is concerned with first locating the randomly generated robots in groups and secondly with the swarm robot motion and finally with the swarm obstacle avoidance and swarm reorganization after crossing the obstacle. The proposed algorithm has been simulated with five different obstacles with various numbers of randomly generated robots. The results show that the swarm in the circular form can deal with the obstacles very effectively by passing the obstacles smoothly. The proposed algorithm has been compared with flocking algorithm and it is shown that the circular formation algorithm does not need extensive computation after obstacle avoidance whereas the flocking algorithm needs extensive computation. In addition, the circular formation algorithm maintains every robot in its group after avoiding the obstacles whereas with flocking algorithm does not.
Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.
How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…
Background ..................................................................................................................... 1 Problem Statement...34 1 COST AVOIDANCE TECHNIQUES FOR RC-135 PROGRAM FLYING TRAINING I. Introduction Background The 338th Combat Training...Approach TAC/VOR/LOC Approach - GPS AR01 Receiver A/R Day AR02 Receiver A/R Night R050 Rec A/R-Tanker Auto Off P015 Instrument ( IFR ) Departure TO40
This study was designed to evaluate the potential effects of acetochlor (herbicide) on the survival and avoidance behaviour of lycosid spiders example Lycosa terrestris. During the topical toxicity experiment, P. birmanica was found to be more susceptible to acetochlor than L. terrestris. Although, there was 10% mortality at ...
Jasmien, Lismont; Cardinaels, Eddy; Bruynseels, L.M.L.; De Groote, Sander; Baesens, B.; Lemahieu, W.; Vanthienen, J.
This study predicts tax avoidance by means of social network analytics. We extend previous literature by being the first to build a predictive model including a larger variation of network features. We construct a network of firms connected through shared board membership. Then, we apply three
The evidence of relative AI is clear, but the cause-effect relationship of increased mortality is not as clear. Currently, most evidence is in the context of septic shock, with only retrospective studies in the trauma subgroup, with a small or moderate sample size. Conclusion. Etomidate should preferably be avoided as an RSI ...
... contractors subject to the Cost Accounting Standards. It addresses the responsibility of DoD contractors for... Responsibilities in Regulations Relating to Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts,'' of the... company or organization. Last four digits of the social security number for anyone who is not a Federal...
As network bandwidth continues to grow and longer paths are used to exchange large scientific data between storage systems and GRID computation, it has become increasingly obvious that there is a need to deploy a packet drop avoidance mechanism into network transmission protocols. Current end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanisms used in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) have worked well on low bandwidth delay product networks, but with newer high-bandwidth delay networks they have shown to be inefficient and prone to unstable. This is largely due to increased network bandwidth coupled with changes in internet traffic patterns. These changes come from a variety of new network applications that are being developed to take advantage of the increased network bandwidth. This paper will examine the end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanism and perform a step-by-step analysis of its theory. In addition we will propose an alternative approach developed as part of a new network transmission protocol. Our alternative protocol uses a packet drop avoidance (PDA) mechanism built on top of the maximum burst size (MBS) theory combined with a real-time available bandwidth algorithm.
Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.
Two thirds of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Binge eating is a barrier to treatment adherence and sustained weight loss, and can be seen as a form of experiential avoidance. The current study analyzed the impact of binge eating on weight reduction in a previously published study of a 1-day acceptance and commitment…
This podcast discusses seven simple ways to avoid vaccine administration errors in health care settings. Created: 2/16/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 2/16/2012.
Norris, Janet A.
This article urges speech language pathologists (SLPs) to avoid the tutoring role in the effort to provide individualized services to children in regular classroom settings. Suggested alternatives to the tutoring role include acting in a consultative role to help modify classroom practices early in the year and later on providing direct services…
... Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all of...)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. A public water system that uses a ground water source under... it can control all human activities which may have an adverse impact on the microbiological quality...
Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés; Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Arellano-Hernández, Aurelia
Fear-avoidance beliefs are related to the prognosis of chronicity in low back pain in subacute stages, however in chronic pain, is no clear the influence of these factors; it has been suggested that the study population can determine the magnitude of influence on disability and pain of those suffering from back pain. Currently, information does not exist in the Mexican population. To analyze the relationship between fear-avoidance beliefs with pain and disability in Mexicans with chronic low back pain; analyze potentials differences between subgroups according to the time of evolution. Cross-sectional study in Mexicans with chronic LBP aged between 18 and 45. Data were collected on general socio demographic characteristics, time of evolution, body mass index, pain, disability and fear-avoidance beliefs. 33 men and 47 women, with an average age of 34.19±7.65 years. Higher scores of fear-avoidance beliefs were obtained in women (47.2±20.99 versus 38.5±9.7; p=0.05) and single participants (p=0.04). A positive correlation was found between disability (r=0.603, p<0.001) and pain (r=0.234, p=0.03) with high scores of fear-avoidance beliefs. Through generalized linear models for disability, total score of the fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire showed a standardized beta coefficient of 0.603, p<0.001 (R 2 of 0.656); for pain showed a standardized beta coefficient of 0.29, p=0.01 (R 2 of 0.721). The present study suggests that there is a strong relationship between pain severity, FABQ scores, and functional disability in Mexicans with chronic LBP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés; Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Arellano-Hernández, Aurelia
Fear-avoidance beliefs are related to the prognosis of chronicity in low back pain in subacute stages, however in chronic pain, is no clear the influence of these factors; it has been suggested that the study population can determine the magnitude of influence on disability and pain of those suffering from back pain. Currently, information does not exist in the Mexican population. To analyze the relationship between fear-avoidance beliefs with pain and disability in Mexicans with chronic low back pain; analyze potentials differences between subgroups according to the time of evolution. Cross-sectional study in Mexicans with chronic LBP aged between 18 and 45. Data were collected on general socio demographic characteristics, time of evolution, body mass index, pain, disability and fear-avoidance beliefs. 33 men and 47 women, with an average age of 34.19±7.65 years. Higher scores of fear-avoidance beliefs were obtained in women (47.2±20.99 versus 38.5±9.7; p=0.05) and single participants (p=0.04). A positive correlation was found between disability (r=0.603, p<0.001) and pain (r=0.234, p=0.03) with high scores of fear-avoidance beliefs. Through generalized linear models for disability, total score of the fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire showed a standardized beta coefficient of 0.603, p<0.001 (R 2 of 0.656); for pain showed a standardized beta coefficient of 0.29, p=0.01 (R 2 of 0.721) CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that there is a strong relationship between pain severity, FABQ scores, and functional disability in Mexicans with chronic LBP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Howard, Steven J.; Okely, Anthony D.
Although researchers agree that the first 5 years of life are critical for children's developing executive functions (EFs), further advances are hindered by a lack of consensus on the design and selection of developmentally appropriate EF tasks for young children. Given this debate, well-established adult measures of EF routinely have been adapted…
Yujie Meng; Siqun Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Timothy M. Young; Guanben Du; Yanjun Li
The effect of the embedding medium on the nano-indentation measurements of lignocellulosic materials was investigated experimentally using nano-indentation. Both the reduced elastic modulus and the hardness of nonembedded cell walls were found to be lower than those of the embedded samples, proving that the embedding medium used for specimen preparation on cellulosic...
Guendouzi, Jacqueline; Meaux, A.; Müller, Nicole
Sociolinguistic research in the general population has established the existence of gender differences in the social use of language. In particular, it has been noted that women use more markers of politeness, small talk and structural devices (e.g. minimal responses, tag questions) to help maintain their conversations. Analysis of interactions involving people with dementia (PWD) suggests that these gender based differences were still present in the face of dementia. Furthermore, the use of ...
Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Ramírez, M Isabel
With the potential expansion of forest conservation programs spurred by climate-change agreements, there is a need to measure the extent to which such programs achieve their intended results. Conventional methods for evaluating conservation impact tend to be biased because they do not compare like areas or account for spatial relations. We assessed the effect of a conservation initiative that combined designation of protected areas with payments for environmental services to conserve over wintering habitat for the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in Mexico. To do so, we used a spatial-matching estimator that matches covariates among polygons and their neighbors. We measured avoided forest loss (avoided disturbance and deforestation) by comparing forest cover on protected and unprotected lands that were similar in terms of accessibility, governance, and forest type. Whereas conventional estimates of avoided forest loss suggest that conservation initiatives did not protect forest cover, we found evidence that the conservation measures are preserving forest cover. We found that the conservation measures protected between 200 ha and 710 ha (3-16%) of forest that is high-quality habitat for monarch butterflies, but had a smaller effect on total forest cover, preserving between 0 ha and 200 ha (0-2.5%) of forest with canopy cover >70%. We suggest that future estimates of avoided forest loss be analyzed spatially to account for how forest loss occurs across the landscape. Given the forthcoming demand from donors and carbon financiers for estimates of avoided forest loss, we anticipate our methods and results will contribute to future studies that estimate the outcome of conservation efforts. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.
Ciolfi, Andrea; Sessa, Giovanna; Sassi, Massimiliano; Possenti, Marco; Salvucci, Samanta; Carabelli, Monica; Morelli, Giorgio; Ruberti, Ida
Shade-intolerant plants perceive the reduction in the ratio of red light (R) to far-red light (FR) as a warning of competition with neighboring vegetation and display a suite of developmental responses known as shade avoidance. In recent years, major progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying shade avoidance. Despite this, little is known about the dynamics of this response and the cascade of molecular events leading to plant adaptation to a low-R/FR environment. By combining genome-wide expression profiling and computational analyses, we show highly significant overlap between shade avoidance and deetiolation transcript profiles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The direction of the response was dissimilar at the early stages of shade avoidance and congruent at the late ones. This latter regulation requires LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR RED1/SLENDER IN CANOPY SHADE1 and phytochrome A, which function largely independently to negatively control shade avoidance. Gene network analysis highlights a subnetwork containing ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), a master regulator of deetiolation, in the wild type and not in phytochrome A mutant upon prolonged low R/FR. Network analysis also highlights a direct connection between HY5 and HY5 HOMOLOG (HYH), a gene functionally implicated in the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and known to be a direct target of the HY5 transcription factor. Kinetics analysis show that the HYH gene is indeed late induced by low R/FR and that its up-regulation depends on the action of HY5, since it does not occur in hy5 mutant. Therefore, we propose that one way plants adapt to a low-R/FR environment is by enhancing HY5 function.
Gautier, Clarisse; Charpin, Denis
Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs), molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks. Pets, dogs, and especially cats can undoubtedly trigger asthmatic symptoms in sensitized subjects. Avoidance is difficult and rarely adhered to by families. Cockroach allergens contribute to asthma morbidity, and avoidance strategies can lead to clinical benefit. Mouse allergens are mostly found in inner-city dwellings, but their implication in asthma morbidity is debated. In the outdoors, pollens can induce seasonal asthma in sensitized individuals. Avoidance relies on preventing pollens from getting into the house and on minimizing seasonal outdoor exposure. Outdoor molds may lead to severe asthma exacerbations. Nonallergenic triggers include viral infections, active and passive smoking, meteorological changes, occupational exposures, and other triggers that are less commonly involved. Viral infection is the main asthma trigger in children. Active smoking is associated with higher asthma morbidity, and smoking cessation interventions should be personalized. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for asthma exacerbation. The implementation of public smoking bans has led to a reduction in the hospitalization of asthmatic children. Air pollution levels have been linked with asthmatic symptoms, a decrease in lung function, and increased emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Since avoidance is not easy to achieve, clean air policies remain the most effective strategy. Indoor air is also affected by air pollutants, such as cigarette smoke and
Daras, Laura Coots; Wang, Joyce M; Ingber, Melvin J; Ormond, Catherine; Breg, Nathaniel W; Khatutsky, Galina; Feng, Zhanlian
Hospitalizations among nursing facility residents are frequent and often potentially avoidable. A number of initiatives and interventions have been developed to reduce excessive hospitalizations; however, little is known about the specific approaches nursing facilities use to address this issue. The objective of this study is to better understand which types of interventions nursing facilities have introduced to reduce potentially avoidable hospitalizations of long-stay nursing facility residents. Cross-sectional survey. 236 nursing facilities from 7 states. Nursing facility administrators. Web-based survey to measure whether facilities introduced any policies or procedures designed specifically to reduce potentially avoidable hospitalizations of long-stay nursing facility residents between 2011 and 2015. We surveyed facilities about seven types of interventions and quality improvement activities related to reducing avoidable hospitalizations, including use of Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers (INTERACT) and American Medical Directors Association tools. Ninety-five percent of responding nursing facilities reported having introduced at least one new policy or procedure to reduce nursing facility resident hospitalizations since January 2011. The most common practice reported was hospitalization rate tracking or review, followed by standardized communication tools, such as Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation (SBAR). We found some variation in the extent and types of these reported interventions. Nearly all facilities surveyed reported having introduced a variety of initiatives to reduce potentially avoidable hospitalizations, likely driven by federal, state, and corporate initiatives to decrease hospital admissions and readmissions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.
Byoung Woo Kim
Full Text Available Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach, decrease (avoid, or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be governed by quantitative principles that meet engineering criteria for lawfulness and that encode known features of reward/aversion function, we evaluated whether keypress responses toward pictures with potential motivational value produced any regular patterns, such as a trade-off between approach and avoidance, or recurrent lawful patterns as observed with prospect theory.Three sets of experiments employed this task with beautiful face images, a standardized set of affective photographs, and pictures of food during controlled states of hunger and satiety. An iterative modeling approach to data identified multiple law-like patterns, based on variables grounded in the individual. These patterns were consistent across stimulus types, robust to noise, describable by a simple power law, and scalable between individuals and groups. Patterns included: (i a preference trade-off counterbalancing approach and avoidance, (ii a value function linking preference intensity to uncertainty about preference, and (iii a saturation function linking preference intensity to its standard deviation, thereby setting limits to both.These law-like patterns were compatible with critical features of prospect theory, the matching law, and alliesthesia. Furthermore, they appeared consistent with both mean-variance and expected utility approaches to the assessment of risk. Ordering of responses across categories of stimuli demonstrated three properties thought to be relevant for preference-based choice, suggesting these patterns might be grouped together as a relative preference theory. Since variables in these patterns have been
Lowe, Robyn; Guastella, Adam J; Chen, Nigel T M; Menzies, Ross G; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark
Adults who stutter are at significant risk of developing social phobia. Cognitive theorists argue that a critical factor maintaining social anxiety is avoidance of social information. This avoidance may impair access to positive feedback from social encounters that could disconfirm fears and negative beliefs. Adults who stutter are known to engage in avoidance behaviours, and may neglect positive social information. This study investigated the gaze behaviour of adults who stutter whilst giving a speech. 16 adults who stutter and 16 matched controls delivered a 3-min speech to a television display of a pre-recorded lecture theatre audience. Participants were told the audience was watching them live from another room. Audience members were trained to display positive, negative and neutral expressions. Participant eye movement was recorded with an eye-tracker. There was a significant difference between the stuttering and control participants for fixation duration and fixation count towards an audience display. In particular, the stuttering participants, compared to controls, looked for shorter time at positive audience members than at negative and neutral audience members and the background. Adults who stutter may neglect positive social cues within social situations that could serve to disconfirm negative beliefs and fears. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the nature of anxiety experienced by adults who stutter; (b) identify the most common anxiety condition among adults who stutter; (c) understand how information processing biases and the use of safety behaviours contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety; (d) describe how avoiding social information may contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety in people who stutter; and (e) describe the clinical implications of avoidance of social information in people who stutter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Logofet, D.O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Laboratory of Mathematical Ecology
The current theory that sexual selection results from female choice for good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation is proposed. The pathogen avoidance hypothesis argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status so that sick individuals may be avoided during mating. Our studies shown that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits. The showy traits are argued to originate as simple exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers; vigorous movement; large size). Thus the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic in this theory. A game theory analysis is employed to formalize the theory. Results of the game theory model support the theory. In particular, when the possession of male showy traits does not help reduce disease in the female, then showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to the situation in large flocks or herds in which every animal is thoroughly exposed to all group pathogens on average. Such species do not exhibit showy traits. The good genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance) but will lead to selection for resistance if such genes are present. Overall, the pathogen avoidance hypothesis provides a complete alternative to the good genes theory.
Background Adults with anxiety show biased categorization and avoidance of threats. Such biases may emerge through complex interplay between genetics and environments, occurring early in life. Research on threat biases in children has focuses on a restricted range of biases, with insufficient focus on genetic and environmental origins. Here, we explore differences between children with and without anxiety problems in under-studied areas of threat bias. We focused both on associations with anxious phenotype and the underlying gene-environmental correlates for two specific processes: the categorisation of threat faces and avoidance learning. Method Two-hundred and fifty 10-year old MZ and DZ twin pairs (500 individuals) completed tasks assessing accuracy in the labelling of threatening facial expressions and in the acquisition of avoidant responses to a card associated with a masked threatening face. To assess whether participants met criteria for an anxiety disorder, parents of twins completed a self-guided computerized version of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA). Comparison of MZ and DZ twin correlations using model-fitting were used to compute estimates of genetic, shared and non-shared environmental effects. Results Of the 500 twins assessed, 25 (5%) met diagnostic criteria for a current anxiety disorder. Children with anxiety disorders were more accurate in their ability to recognize disgust faces than those without anxiety disorders, but were commensurate on identifying other threatening face emotions (angry, fearful, sad). Children with anxiety disorders but also more strongly avoided selecting a conditioned stimulus than non-anxious children. While recognition of socially threatening faces was moderately heritable, avoidant responses were heavily influenced by the non-shared environment. Conclusion These data add to other findings on threat biases in anxious children. Specifically, we found biases in the labelling of some negative
Arnold, Jonathon C; Dielenberg, Robert A; McGregor, Iain S
Genetic disposition modulates the psychoactive effects of cannabis. Cannabinoids have a greater impact on brain regions that subserve anxiety in Wistar compared to Lewis strain rats. Here we aim to show that this correlates with strain differences in cannabinoid-induced anxiety-related behaviour. Lewis and Wistar rats were administered vehicle or the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, CP 55,940 (10, 25 and 50μg/kg) before testing in the conditioned ultrasonic vocalization (USV), cat odour avoidance or open area avoidance models. Animals were placed in a chamber in which they had previously received footshock. Wistar but not Lewis rats re-exposed under the influence of all CP 55,940 doses emitted significantly more USVs than vehicle-treated rats. In the cat odour avoidance model, rats were exposed to cat odour and given the opportunity to hide in a small box. In Wistar but not Lewis rats, 50μg/kg of CP 55,940 magnified hiding behaviour promoted by cat odour exposure. Animals were also tested in the open area avoidance model which occurred in the same arena as the predatory avoidance model but without cat odour. In Wistar, but not Lewis rats, 25 and 50μg/kg of CP 55,940 increased the avoidance of the open space. CP 55,940 increased anxiety-related behaviour in Wistar rats but not Lewis rats providing a model to dissect the genetic basis of cannabinoid-induced anxiety. We show for the first time that cannabinoids magnify conditioned USVs and cat odour avoidance behaviour dependent on the strain being tested. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Olguín, Augusto; Miranda, María; García, Andrés; Martínez, Alberto; Cassinello, Jorge; Miguel, Valentín; Gallego, Laureano
Ungulates select diets with high energy, protein, and sodium contents. However, it is scarcely known the influence of essential minerals other than Na in diet preferences. Moreover, almost no information is available about the possible influence of toxic levels of essential minerals on avoidance of certain plant species. The aim of this research was to test the relative importance of mineral content of plants in diet selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in an annual basis. We determined mineral, protein and ash content in 35 common Mediterranean plant species (the most common ones in the study area). These plant species were previously classified as preferred and non-preferred. We found that deer preferred plants with low contents of Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Cu, Sr and Zn. The model obtained was greatly accurate identifying the preferred plant species (91.3% of correct assignments). After a detailed analysis of these minerals (considering deficiencies and toxicity levels both in preferred and non-preferred plants) we suggest that the avoidance of excessive sulphur in diet (i.e., selection for plants with low sulphur content) seems to override the maximization for other nutrients. Low sulphur content seems to be a forgotten factor with certain relevance for explaining diet selection in deer. Recent studies in livestock support this conclusion, which is highlighted here for the first time in diet selection by a wild large herbivore. Our results suggest that future studies should also take into account the toxicity levels of minerals as potential drivers of preferences.
Vartanian, Oshin; Navarrete, Gorka; Chatterjee, Anjan; Fich, Lars Brorson; Leder, Helmut; Modroño, Cristián; Nadal, Marcos; Rostrup, Nicolai; Skov, Martin
On average, we urban dwellers spend about 90% of our time indoors, and share the intuition that the physical features of the places we live and work in influence how we feel and act. However, there is surprisingly little research on how architecture impacts behavior, much less on how it influences brain function. To begin closing this gap, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine how systematic variation in contour impacts aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions, outcome measures of interest to both architects and users of spaces alike. As predicted, participants were more likely to judge spaces as beautiful if they were curvilinear than rectilinear. Neuroanatomically, when contemplating beauty, curvilinear contour activated the anterior cingulate cortex exclusively, a region strongly responsive to the reward properties and emotional salience of objects. Complementing this finding, pleasantness—the valence dimension of the affect circumplex—accounted for nearly 60% of the variance in beauty ratings. Furthermore, activation in a distributed brain network known to underlie the aesthetic evaluation of different types of visual stimuli covaried with beauty ratings. In contrast, contour did not affect approach-avoidance decisions, although curvilinear spaces activated the visual cortex. The results suggest that the well-established effect of contour on aesthetic preference can be extended to architecture. Furthermore, the combination of our behavioral and neural evidence underscores the role of emotion in our preference for curvilinear objects in this domain. PMID:23754408
Kashdan, Todd B; Breen, William E; Julian, Terri
This research investigated whether combat veterans' daily strivings are related to the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and well-being. Veterans created a list of their most important strivings, which were content-analyzed for emotion regulation and approach or avoidance themes. It was hypothesized that veterans pursuing strivings with themes of emotion regulation or avoidance experience deleterious consequences compared with other veterans. For all veterans, devoting finite time and energy in daily life to regulating emotions was associated with less purpose, meaning, and joy compared with other strivings. Veterans with PTSD endorsed more strivings related to emotion regulation and devoted considerable effort to emotion regulation and avoidance strivings. Yet, these efforts failed to translate into any discernible benefits; veterans without PTSD derived greater joy and meaning from strivings focusing on approac- oriented behavior and themes other than emotion regulation. The presence of PTSD and a high rate of emotion regulation strivings led to the lowest global well-being and daily self-esteem during a 14-day assessment period. The presence of PTSD and a high rate of avoidance strivings also led to lower emotional well-being. Results indicate that strivings devoted to regulating emotions or avoidance efforts influence the mental health of veterans with and without PTSD. Studying personality at different levels of analysis-traits, strivings, and life narratives-allows for a fine-grained understanding of emotional disorders.
Van Dillen, Lotte F; Enter, Dorien; Peters, Leonie P M; van Dijk, Wilco W; Rotteveel, Mark
People derive their sense of belonging from perceptions of being a moral person. Research moreover suggests that social cues of rejection rapidly influence visual scanning, and result in avoidant gaze behavior, especially in socially anxious individuals. With the current eye-tracking experiment, we therefore examined whether moral integrity threats and affirmations influence selective avoidance of social threat, and how this varies with individual differences in social anxiety. Fifty-nine participants retrieved a memory of a past immoral, moral, or neutral act. Next, participants passively viewed angry, happy, and neutral faces, while we recorded how often they first fixated on the eyes. In addition, we administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (1987). Participants first fixated less on angry eyes compared to happy or neutral eyes when their moral integrity was threatened, and this selective avoidance was enhanced with increasing social anxiety. Following a moral affirmation, however, participants no longer selectively avoided the eyes of angry faces, regardless of individual differences in social anxiety. The results thus suggest that both low and high socially anxious people adjust their social gaze behavior in response to threats and affirmations of their moral integrity, pointing to the importance of the social context when considering affective processing biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom
For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle for recov...
Full Text Available Clarisse Gautier,1 Denis Charpin1,2 1Department of Pulmonology and Allergy, North Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France Abstract: Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs, molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks. Pets, dogs, and especially cats can undoubtedly trigger asthmatic symptoms in sensitized subjects. Avoidance is difficult and rarely adhered to by families. Cockroach allergens contribute to asthma morbidity, and avoidance strategies can lead to clinical benefit. Mouse allergens are mostly found in inner-city dwellings, but their implication in asthma morbidity is debated. In the outdoors, pollens can induce seasonal asthma in sensitized individuals. Avoidance relies on preventing pollens from getting into the house and on minimizing seasonal outdoor exposure. Outdoor molds may lead to severe asthma exacerbations. Nonallergenic triggers include viral infections, active and passive smoking, meteorological changes, occupational exposures, and other triggers that are less commonly involved. Viral infection is the main asthma trigger in children. Active smoking is associated with higher asthma morbidity, and smoking cessation interventions should be personalized. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for asthma exacerbation. The implementation of public smoking bans has led to a reduction in the hospitalization of asthmatic children. Air pollution levels have been linked with asthmatic symptoms, a decrease in lung function, and increased emergency room visits and
Andrei C. NAE
Full Text Available In this paper the key concepts of ITS - Intelligent Transport Systems, CPS - Cyber-Physical Systems and SM - Smart Mobility are defined and correlated with the need for ACAS – Airborne Collision Avoidance System, as the last resort safety net and indispensable ingredient in civil aviation. Smart Mobility is addressed from a Cyber Physical-Systems perspective, detailing some of the elements that this entails. Here we consider the Air Transportations System of the future as a Cyber-Physical System and analyze the implications of doing so from different perspectives. The objective is to introduce a 4D collision avoidance shield technology which forms a last resort safety net technology for the next generation air transport (2050 and beyond. The new system will represent a step change over the performance of current technology. As conclusions, the benefits of implementing Transport Cyber-Physical Systems are discussed, as well as what this would require for future deployment.
Full Text Available A hypothesis suggests that objects with a high degree of visual similarity to real humans trigger negative impressions (i.e., the uncanny valley. Previous studies have suggested that difficulty in object categorization elicits negative emotional reactions to enable the avoidance of potential threats. The present study further investigated this categorization-difficulty hypothesis. In an experiment, observers categorized morphed images of photographs and human doll faces as “photograph” or “doll” and evaluated the perceived eeriness of the images. Additionally, we asked the observers to answer questionnaires on behavioral inhibition systems (BIS. The results indicated that individual differences in the BIS score were associated with enhanced eeriness in the objects with a specific human likeness. These findings suggest that the tendency to avoid a potentially threatening novel experience contributes to promoting the perceived eeriness of objects with some degree of visual similarity to real humans.
When calculating the value of heat recovered from engine exhaust in a cogeneration cycle, some energy managers and engineers use the 3413 standard of evaluation: that is, that 3413 Btu of recovered engine exhaust heat has a financial value equivalent to the cost of one kilowatt hour of utility-purchased electricity. The standard establishing 3413 Btu as the equivalent of one kilowatt hour is valid where the heat output from a 1000-watt electric resistance heater is used to add 3413 Btu from electric resistance heat to 23.70 pounds of water in one hour. The temperature of that amount of water will, in one hour, increase 144/sup 0/F (3413/23.70 = 144). To avoid the latent heat range, the starting temperature of the water must not be greater than 67/sup 0/F at sea level. Unless the 3413 standard is understood, it can lead to expensive mistakes in projected avoided costs.
Munoz, Cesar; Narkawicz, Anthony; Hagen, George; Upchurch, Jason; Dutle, Aaron; Consiglio, Maria; Chamberlain, James
This paper presents DAIDALUS (Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems), a reference implementation of a detect and avoid concept intended to support the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into civil airspace. DAIDALUS consists of self-separation and alerting algorithms that provide situational awareness to UAS remote pilots. These algorithms have been formally specified in a mathematical notation and verified for correctness in an interactive theorem prover. The software implementation has been verified against the formal models and validated against multiple stressing cases jointly developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and NASA. The DAIDALUS reference implementation is currently under consideration for inclusion in the appendices to the Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Unmanned Aircraft Systems presently being developed by RTCA Special Committee 228.
Olsen, J H; Andersen, A; Dreyer, L
An overview is given of the most important known causes of cancer in the five Nordic countries and the resulting number of cancers that are potentially avoidable. The main causes include active and passive smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to asbestos and other occupational carcinogens, solar...... and ionizing radiation, obesity, human papillomavirus infection in the female genital tract and infection with Helicobacter pylori. The organs most commonly affected are those of the respiratory system, the upper digestive tract and stomach, skin, the lower urinary tract and the uterine cervix. Annually, more...... than 18,000 cancers in men and 11,000 in women in the Nordic populations could be avoided by eliminating exposure to known carcinogens which is equivalent to 33% and 20% of all cancers arising in men and women, respectively, around the year 2000. Smoking habits account for a little more than half...
Olsen, J H; Andersen, A; Dreyer, L
and ionizing radiation, obesity, human papillomavirus infection in the female genital tract and infection with Helicobacter pylori. The organs most commonly affected are those of the respiratory system, the upper digestive tract and stomach, skin, the lower urinary tract and the uterine cervix. Annually, more......An overview is given of the most important known causes of cancer in the five Nordic countries and the resulting number of cancers that are potentially avoidable. The main causes include active and passive smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to asbestos and other occupational carcinogens, solar...... than 18,000 cancers in men and 11,000 in women in the Nordic populations could be avoided by eliminating exposure to known carcinogens which is equivalent to 33% and 20% of all cancers arising in men and women, respectively, around the year 2000. Smoking habits account for a little more than half...
Choleris, Elena; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Phan, Anna; Valsecchi, Paola; Kavaliers, Martin
Sociality comes with specific cognitive skills that allow the proper processing of information about others (social recognition), as well as of information originating from others (social learning). Because sociality and social interactions can also facilitate the spread of infection among individuals the ability to recognize and avoid pathogen threat is also essential. We review here various studies primarily from the rodent literature supporting estrogenic involvement in the regulation of social recognition, social learning (socially acquired food preferences and mate choice copying) and the recognition and avoidance of infected and potentially infected individuals. We consider both genomic and rapid estrogenic effects involving estrogen receptors α and β, and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1, along with their interactions with neuropeptide systems in the processing of social stimuli and the regulation and expression of these various socially relevant behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Mediterranean hake Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, is the emblem of the so-called Mediterranean demersal fisheries paradox, showing a persistent, although stable, status of growth overexploitation and an impressive gap between current and any biological reference point. Almost full avoidance capability of large size females to bottom trawls, higher overall growth rates than previously believed and higher natural mortality in juveniles than adult, were considered among the most plausible explanation factors of such persistence. In the present note, arguments are illustrated to raise some concern about avoidance and highlight the important role of the other factors in improving assessments and launching a short term recovery plan for Mediterranean Hake stocks which is more acceptable to fishermen.
Ferreira, C.; Pinto-Gouveia, J.; Duarte, C.
Ferreira, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Duarte, C. (2013). Drive for thinness as a women's strategy to avoid inferiority. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 13(1), 15-29. http://www.ijpsy.com/volumen13/num1/344.html The emphasis on the need to achieve and be successful, and the contextual competitive dynamics in Western societies, may explain the increase of distinct forms of psychopathology. This study examined sex differences relative to the expression and conseque...
Atwan, S M; Turner, D; Khalid, A
Recognition of dental anomalies is essential in determining appropriate treatment for each patient. Diagnosis and assessment of mesiodens are critical in avoiding complications such as blocking the eruption of the maxillary central incisors, cyst formation, and dilaceration of the permanent incisors. Collecting data for diagnostic criteria, utilizing diagnostic radiographs, and determining when to refer to a specialist are important steps in the treatment of mesiodens. Early diagnosis and timely intervention could reduce or eliminate the need for orthodontic treatment and prevent serious complications.
Brewer, David; Morgan, Bill
In this session, INDOT auditors address common billing errors for different contract payment methodologies. Attendees responsible for preparing bills and submitting invoices will gain a better understanding of how contracts are designed and what is accepted for payment. Local agencies will understand how to review a consultant’s billing before making payment, thus avoiding citations. This presentation should be of particular interest to both engineering consulting firms and local agencies who...
Panattoni, Joao B; De Ona, Ignacio Roger; Ahmed, Mohammed M
The fingertip is the most commonly injured part of the hand. When replantation of a fingertip amputation is not possible, flap reconstruction may be necessary for a functional and aesthetically pleasing outcome. This paper reviews commonly utilized reconstruction techniques with a focus on technical tricks and potential complications and how to avoid them, with illustrative cases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This report provides a complete summary of what is known about basic hearing capabilities in birds in relation to the characteristics of noise generated by wind turbines. It is a review of existing data on bird hearing with some preliminary estimates of environmental noise and wind turbine noise at Altamont Pass, California, in the summer of 1999. It is intended as a resource in future discussions of the role that hearing might play in bird avoidance of turbines.
van Alphen, S P J
This case describes the differential diagnosis and treatment of a 70-year-old man with an avoidant personality disorder. It illustrates that diagnostic assessment and treatment of personality problems in the elderly are possible in mental health care. It demonstrates that multiple stand-alone treatment modules can form part of a single course of adaptation-focused treatment of personality disorders. An interpersonal approach forms an important basis for tackling the typical interpersonal difficulties that occur in axis-II disorders.
As summertime approaches and warmer weather moves in, air pollution will become an increasing problem across the U.S. People with asthma are especially impacted by deteriorating air quality. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Beavers discusses ways to avoid the negative impacts of air pollution. Created: 5/1/2014 by MMWR. Date Released: 5/1/2014.
Hansen, Mikael Sonne
The Self-Avoiding Walk (SAW) on a lattice are often used to study properties of polymers in good solvents such as entanglement, knotting (ring polymers), and statistical mechanical properties of polymers. Recently it has been used to explain the increased probability of phage DNA being knotted when...... (autocorrelation times), how to implement geometrical (writhe) and topological (alexander polynomial) numerically, closing the curve we can start to ask questions about random (lattice) knots, optimizing the implementation e.g. using hash-coding ...
Full Text Available In this paper we study the enumeration and the construction, according to the number of ones, of particular binary words avoiding a fixed pattern. The growth of such words can be described by particular jumping and marked succession rules. This approach enables us to obtain an algorithm which constructs all binary words having a fixed number of ones and then kills those containing the forbidden pattern.
is that it has been fueled at least in part by so-called quantitative easing of the money supply by the federal reserve system, a move which some...have likened prosaically to simply printing money to avoid government default on debt service.41 The United States has apparently abandoned the...comprehensive health care reform legislation. These efforts appear to be in pursuit of a federal government-centered economic policy based upon Keynesian
Capatina, O; Foreste, A; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Quesnel, J
As presented in the previous speech, the incident in sector 3-4 of the LHC caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum resulting in high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers. This resulted in braking floor and floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barrier. The strategy of improving anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement is presented and discussed.
Welsh, J.S.; Turek, M.; Mackie, T.R.; Miller, P.; Mehta, M.P.; Forrest, L.J.
Helical tomotherapy provides a unique means of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using a novel treatment unit, which merges features of a linear accelerator with a helical CT scanner. Thanks to the CT imaging capacity, targeted regions can be visualized prior to, during, or immediately after each treatment. Such image-guidance through megavoltage CT will allow the realization and refinement of the concept of adaptive radiotherapy - the reconstruction of the actually delivered daily dose (as opposed to planned dose) accompanied by prescription adjustments when appropriate. In addition to this unique feature, helical tomotherapy promises further improvements in the specific avoidance of critical normal structures, i.e. conformal avoidance, the counterpart of conformal therapy. The first definitive treatment protocol using helical tomotherapy is presently underway for dogs with nasopharyngeal tumors. In general, such tumors can be treated with conventional external beam radiation therapy but at the cost of severe ocular toxicity due to the anatomy of the canine head. These are readily measurable toxicities and are almost universal in incidence; therefore, the canine nasopharyngeal tumor presents an ideal model to assess the ability to conformally avoid critical structures. It is hoped that conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy will improve tumor control via dose-escalation while reducing ocular toxicity in these veterinary patients. A total of 10 fractions are scheduled for these patients; the first 3 dogs have all received at least 7 fractions delivered via helical tomotherapy. Although preliminary, the first 3 dogs treated have not shown any evidence of ocular toxicity in this ongoing study
The current theory that sexual selection results from female preference for males with good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation, the pathogen transmission avoidance hypothesis, argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status, so that sick individuals can be avoided during mating. This study shows that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits, which originate as exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers, vigorous movement, large size). Thus, in this new model the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic and there is no threshold effect. This model predicts that when the possession of male showy traits does not help to reduce disease in the female, showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to thorough exposure of every animal to all group pathogens, on average, in large groups. Such species are shown with a large data set on birds to be less likely to exhibit showy traits. The good-genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen transmission avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance), but can result in selection for resistance if such genes are present. Monogamy is argued to reduce selection pressures for showy traits; data show monogamous species to be both less parasitized and less showy. In the context of reduction of pathogen transmission rates in showy populations, selection pressure becomes inversely frequency-dependent, which makes showy traits likely to be self-limiting rather than runaway.
Stuchlík, Aleš; Bubeníková-Valešová, Věra; Valeš, Karel
Roč. 104, Suppl.2 (2008), s. 1135-1135 ISSN 1212-0383. [World congress of psychiatry /14./. 20.09.2008-25.09.2008, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MZd(CZ) NR9178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * avoidance * memory * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology
O'Malley, Karina R; Waters, Allison M
Exposure therapy is a key component of efficacious treatment for anxiety. Biases in the allocation of attention towards versus away from threat assessed prior to exposure-based treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy differentially predict treatment outcomes. However, it is unclear whether monitoring versus avoiding threat stimuli influences learning during exposure. Extinction paradigms are the experimental analogue of exposure therapy. Therefore, manipulating attention towards versus away from threat during extinction trials may shed light on the role of attention during exposure therapy. This study utilised a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction paradigm to examine whether directing attention towards versus away from the threat conditioned stimulus (CS+) related to differences in extinction, as indexed by skin conductance responses (SCR), CS evaluations and subjective measures of anxiety. Following a fear conditioning phase in which a dog image (CS+) was paired with an aversive tone unconditioned stimulus (US) and another dog image (CS-) was presented alone, 57 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions during extinction in which both CSs were presented alone: monitor the CS+ (N = 19), avoid the CS+ and attend to another stimulus (N = 18), no attention manipulation control (N = 20). Eye movements were monitored for visual adherence to assigned location using horizontal electro-oculogram. In the context of the acquisition of differential conditioning and visual adherence during extinction, both active groups exhibited larger SCRs to the CS + relative to the CS- during the first extinction block compared to the control group, and the avoid group exhibited significantly larger SCRs on CS+ and CS- trials throughout the extinction phase compared to the other groups. The avoid group also exhibited less decline in SCRs to the CS+ during the extinction retest phase relative to the control group. No significant group
AMIT KUMAR GARG
Full Text Available Optical Burst Switching (OBS is a promising technology for future optical networks. Due to its less complicated implementation using current optical and electrical components, OBS is seen as the first step towards the future Optical Packet Switching (OPS. In OBS, a key problem is to schedule bursts on wavelength channels whose bandwidth may become fragmented with the so-called void (or idle intervals with both fast and bandwidth efficient algorithms so as to reduce burst loss. In this paper, a new scheme has been proposed to improve the throughput and to avoid the contention in the OBS network. The proposed scheme offers the same node complexity as that in general OBS networks with optical buffers. Also, it avoids burst blockings in transit nodes, turning it into an efficient and simple burst contention avoidance mechanism. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has improvement of 15% in terms of burst loss probability as compared to OBS existing schemes and also maximizes the throughput of the network without deteriorating excessively other parameters such as end to end delay or ingress queues.
Manthous, Constantine A; Mokhlesi, Babak
The prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea are increasing rapidly in the United States in parallel with the obesity epidemic. As the pathogenesis of this chronic illness is better understood, effective evidence-based therapies are being deployed to reduce morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, patients with obesity hypoventilation still fall prey to at least four avoidable types of therapeutic errors, especially at the time of hospitalization for respiratory or cardiovascular decompensation: (1) patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome may develop acute hypercapnia in response to administration of excessive supplemental oxygen; (2) excessive diuresis for peripheral edema using a loop diuretic such as furosemide exacerbates metabolic alkalosis, thereby worsening daytime hypoventilation and hypoxemia; (3) excessive or premature pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illnesses can exacerbate sleep-disordered breathing and worsen hypercapnia, thereby exacerbating psychiatric symptoms; and (4) clinicians often erroneously diagnose obstructive lung disease in patients with obesity hypoventilation, thereby exposing them to unnecessary and potentially harmful medications, including β-agonists and corticosteroids. Just as literary descriptions of pickwickian syndrome have given way to greater understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity hypoventilation, clinicians might exercise caution to consider these potential pitfalls and thus avoid inflicting unintended and avoidable complications.
Skinner, Stan; Holdefer, Robert; McAuliffe, John J; Sala, Francesco
Error avoidance in medicine follows similar rules that apply within the design and operation of other complex systems. The error-reduction concepts that best fit the conduct of testing during intraoperative neuromonitoring are forgiving design (reversibility of signal loss to avoid/prevent injury) and system redundancy (reduction of false reports by the multiplication of the error rate of tests independently assessing the same structure). However, error reduction in intraoperative neuromonitoring is complicated by the dichotomous roles (and biases) of the neurophysiologist (test recording and interpretation) and surgeon (intervention). This "interventional cascade" can be given as follows: test → interpretation → communication → intervention → outcome. Observational and controlled trials within operating rooms demonstrate that optimized communication, collaboration, and situational awareness result in fewer errors. Well-functioning operating room collaboration depends on familiarity and trust among colleagues. Checklists represent one method to initially enhance communication and avoid obvious errors. All intraoperative neuromonitoring supervisors should strive to use sufficient means to secure situational awareness and trusted communication/collaboration. Face-to-face audiovisual teleconnections may help repair deficiencies when a particular practice model disallows personal operating room availability. All supervising intraoperative neurophysiologists need to reject an insular or deferential or distant mindset.
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of good corporate Governance against tax avoidance peroxided by the book tax gap and corporate governance is peroxided by institutional ownership, managerial ownership, independent board, audit committee and audit quality. This study was performed on companies listed on the Stock Exchange on the observation period 2011-2014. The method used is purposive sampling and obtained a sample of 10 companies. The data used is secondary data that can be downloaded through www.idx.co.id and www.sahamok.com. The results showed that the variables of the board of managerial ownership, independent directors, audit committee, and audit quality effect on tax avoidance while institutional ownership variable has no effect on tax avoidance. It is suspected that institutional ownership as a monitoring tool in any decision taken by the manager does not support an optimal oversight of management performance related to tax evasion.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i2.3541
Dubiela, Francisco Paulino; Queiroz, Claudio Marcos; Moreira, Karin Di Monteiro; Nobrega, Jose N; Sita, Luciane Valéria; Tufik, Sergio; Hipolide, Debora Cristina
The present study addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) binding in brain regions associated with learning and memory, and investigated whether treatment with drugs acting on AMPAR could prevent passive avoidance deficits in sleep deprived animals. [(3)H]AMPA binding and GluR1 in situ hybridization signals were quantified in different brain regions of male Wistar rats either immediately after 96 h of sleep deprivation or after 24h of sleep recovery following 96 h of sleep deprivation. Another group of animals were sleep deprived and then treated with either the AMPAR potentiator, aniracetam (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, acute administration) or the AMPAR antagonist GYKI-52466 (5 and 10mg/kg, acute and chronic administration) before passive avoidance training. Task performance was evaluated 2h and 24h after training. A significant reduction in [(3)H]AMPA binding was found in the hippocampal formation of SD animals, while no alterations were observed in GluR1 mRNA levels. The highest dose of aniracetam (100mg/kg) reverted SD-induced impairment of passive avoidance performance in both retention tests, whereas GYKI-52466 treatment had no effect. Pharmacological enhancement of AMPAR function may revert hippocampal-dependent learning impairments produced after SD. We argue that such effects might be associated with reduced AMPAR binding in the hippocampus of sleep deprived animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The aim of the study is to describe the ability of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to avoid exposure to allergens in cosmetics. The study is a questionnaire survey among 382 patients with contact allergy to preservatives and fragrances, included from 3 dermatological clinics. The questi......The aim of the study is to describe the ability of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to avoid exposure to allergens in cosmetics. The study is a questionnaire survey among 382 patients with contact allergy to preservatives and fragrances, included from 3 dermatological clinics....... The questionnaire included questions about the level of difficulty in reading labels of ingredients on cosmetics and about patients' strategies to avoid substances they were allergic to. It also included questions about eczema severity as well as about educational level. 46% of the patients found it difficult...... or extremely difficult to read the ingredient labelling of cosmetics, and this finding was significantly related to low educational level. Patients allergic to formaldehyde and methyldibromo glutaronitrile experienced the worst difficulties, while patients with fragrance allergy found ingredient label reading...
Watson, Noreen L; Heffner, Jaimee L; McClure, Jennifer B; Bricker, Jonathan B
Although social anxiety is associated with higher prevalence of smoking and lower cessation rates, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of these relationships. Research suggests that socially anxious smokers have higher levels of smoking-specific experiential avoidance and are inclined to smoke to avoid internal smoking cues. However, it is unknown which types of internal smoking cues they avoid. Thus, this study aimed to address this gap in the literature. Participants (N = 450) were adult smokers from a group-based trial for smoking cessation. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical linear regression models examined relationships between baseline levels of social anxiety and acceptance of internal smoking cues-physical sensations, emotions, and cognitions. Social anxiety was associated with lower levels of acceptance of thoughts, sensations, and emotions that cue smoking. After controlling for levels of nicotine dependence, depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder, social anxiety still explained unique variability in overall acceptance of internal smoking cues and in acceptance of physical sensations and emotions that serve as smoking cues. Social anxiety no longer explained unique variability in acceptance of thoughts that trigger smoking. Smokers with high levels of social anxiety are less accepting of internal smoking cues. For physical and emotional cues, this effect was independent of level of dependence and mental health comorbidity. Results help explain why smokers with social anxiety are less likely to quit and can inform the development of targeted cessation treatments for smokers with social anxiety.
Jeffrey Martin Spielberg
Full Text Available Effective approach/avoidance goal pursuit is critical for attaining long-term health and well-being. Research on the neural correlates of key goal pursuit processes (e.g., motivation has long been of interest, with lateralization in prefrontal cortex being a particularly fruitful target of investigation. However, this literature has often been limited by a lack of spatial specificity and has not delineated the precise aspects of approach/avoidance motivation involved. Additionally, the relationships among brain regions (i.e., network connectivity vital to goal pursuit remain largely unexplored. Specificity in location, process, and network relationship is vital for moving beyond gross characterizations of function and identifying the precise cortical mechanisms involved in motivation. The present paper integrates research using more spatially specific methodologies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging with the rich psychological literature on approach/avoidance to propose an integrative network model that takes advantage of the strengths of each of these literatures.
Green-Pedersen, Christoffer; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre
A substantial literature claims that political parties compete over issues by selectively emphasizing favorable issues and avoiding issues emphasized by their opponents. In recent years, this understanding of issue competition has been challenged by empirical studies showing issue engagement to b...... of parties from their own party family than to the issue agendas of non-family parties and that large mainstream parties are more responsive than niche parties to the common issue agenda of the other parties in the party system.......A substantial literature claims that political parties compete over issues by selectively emphasizing favorable issues and avoiding issues emphasized by their opponents. In recent years, this understanding of issue competition has been challenged by empirical studies showing issue engagement...... to be the rule rather than the exception. To move the discussion beyond the descriptive question about degree of issue avoidance or issue engagement, this article offers a theoretical framework of issue competition that addresses central but hitherto neglected questions about which parties respond to which...
Yuan, Xu; Yu, Zhengshi; Cui, Pingyuan; Xu, Rui; Zhu, Shengying; Cao, Menglong; Luan, Enjie
Future landing and sample return missions on planets and small bodies will seek landing sites with high scientific value, which may be located in hazardous terrains. Autonomous landing in such hazardous terrains and highly uncertain planetary environments is particularly challenging. Onboard hazard avoidance ability is indispensable, and the algorithms must be robust to uncertainties. In this paper, a novel probability-based hazard avoidance guidance method is developed for landing in hazardous terrains on planets or small bodies. By regarding the lander state as probabilistic, the proposed guidance algorithm exploits information on the uncertainty of lander position and calculates the probability of collision with each hazard. The collision probability serves as an accurate safety index, which quantifies the impact of uncertainties on the lander safety. Based on the collision probability evaluation, the state uncertainty of the lander is explicitly taken into account in the derivation of the hazard avoidance guidance law, which contributes to enhancing the robustness to the uncertain dynamics of planetary landing. The proposed probability-based method derives fully analytic expressions and does not require off-line trajectory generation. Therefore, it is appropriate for real-time implementation. The performance of the probability-based guidance law is investigated via a set of simulations, and the effectiveness and robustness under uncertainties are demonstrated.
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multiple moving obstacles avoidance using stereo vision for service robots in indoor environments. We assume that this model of service robot is used to deliver a cup to the recognized customer from the starting point to the destination. The contribution of this research is a new method for multiple moving obstacle avoidance with Bayesian approach using stereo camera. We have developed and introduced 3 main modules to recognize faces, to identify multiple moving obstacles and to maneuver of robot. A group of people who is walking will be tracked as a multiple moving obstacle, and the speed, direction, and distance of the moving obstacles is estimated by a stereo camera in order that the robot can maneuver to avoid the collision. To overcome the inaccuracies of vision sensor, Bayesian approach is used for estimate the absense and direction of obstacles. We present the results of the experiment of the service robot called Srikandi III which uses our proposed method and we also evaluate its performance. Experiments shown that our proposed method working well, and Bayesian approach proved increasing the estimation perform for absence and direction of moving obstacle.
Hu, Yibo; Nie, Yonggang; Wei, Wei; Ma, Tianxiao; Van Horn, Russell; Zheng, Xiaoguang; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Zhou, Zhixin; Zhou, Wenliang; Yan, Li; Zhang, Zejun; Wei, Fuwen
Inbreeding can have negative consequences on population and individual fitness, which could be counteracted by inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. However, the inbreeding risk and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in endangered species are less studied. The giant panda, a solitary and threatened species, lives in many small populations and suffers from habitat fragmentation, which may aggravate the risk of inbreeding. Here, we performed long-term observations of reproductive behaviour, sampling of mother-cub pairs and large-scale genetic analyses on wild giant pandas. Moderate levels of inbreeding were found in 21.1% of mating pairs, 9.1% of parent pairs and 7.7% of panda cubs, but no high-level inbreeding occurred. More significant levels of inbreeding may be avoided passively by female-biased natal dispersal rather than by breeding dispersal or active relatedness-based mate choice mechanisms. The level of inbreeding in giant pandas is greater than expected for a solitary mammal and thus warrants concern for potential inbreeding depression, particularly in small populations isolated by continuing habitat fragmentation, which will reduce female dispersal and increase the risk of inbreeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Barajas, Santiago; Garra, Luis; Ros, Laura
This study examines how cognitive, behavioral and experiential avoidance differs between clinical patients (N = 100), the general population (N = 100), and undergraduate students (N = 54). For this purpose, a Spanish adaptation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Avoidance Scale (CBAS; Ottenbreit & Dobson, 2004) was made. Confirmatory factor analysis supports the four factors structure similar to the original one, yet question the value of three of the items (CFI = .929, RMSEA = .057, SRMR = .051, χ2(333) = 603.28, p scale was .95, and adequate alpha values for the four subscales were found (α between .74 and .93). Statistical differences were found between the clinical and non-clinical groups, and also between the clinical and undergraduate groups (GLM, p future studies are discussed.
Betoret, Fernando Domenech; Artiga, Amparo Gomez
Introduction: This study examines the relationship between student basic need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, relatedness and belonging), their reporting of approaches to learning (deep and surface), their reporting of avoidance strategies (avoidance of effort and challenge, avoidance of help seeking and preference to avoid novelty) and…
Agterberg, Martijn J H; van den Broek, Marloes; Philippens, Ingrid H C H M
In the conventional shuttle box, animals are trained to avoid electric foot-shocks. As a consequence of these stress-inducing foot-shocks the animals become anxious and are difficult to train. The aim of the present study was to avoid the stress-inducing foot-shocks and to develop a fast and reliable conditioned avoidance behaviour task for guineapigs. We examined whether narrowband noises at four different sound levels above hearing threshold could be used as conditioned stimulus (CS). The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) was a stream of air, which was used instead of the conventionally used electric foot-shocks. The animals were initially trained with a CS of 78 dB sound pressure level (SPL). In this initial training, guineapigs learned to detect a narrowband noise of 78 dB SPL. Interestingly, during the first additional training session in which three other sound levels were applied, guineapigs did not immediately generalize the learned response at 78 dB SPL to lower sound levels of 58 and 68 dB SPL. However, in this session a noise level of 88 dB SPL led immediately to a high level of responses. The response latency decreased with increasing sound level, from approximately 7 s at 58 dB SPL to approximately 3 s at 88 dB SPL. The escape latency during the UCS was approximately 0.6 s. The present results demonstrate that after reducing the level of stress guineapigs can acquire a response in only a few sessions and furthermore, although the guineapigs were less anxious, training at sound levels of 78 and 88 dB SPL was influenced by an aversive reaction by the guineapig. The results indicate that this aversive reaction of the guineapig is crucial for the training.