Scholars have debated how to define coercion and undue influence, but how institutional review boards (IRBs) view and make decisions about these issues in actual cases has not been explored. I contacted the leadership of 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), and interviewed 39 IRB leaders or administrators from 34 of these institutions (response rate=55%), and 7 members. IRBs wrestled with defining of 'coercion' and 'undue inducement', most notably in deciding about participant compensation. IRBs often use these terms synonymously and define undue inducement in varying ways, often wrestling with these issues, relying on 'gut feelings', and seeking compromises. Ambiguities arose, partly reflecting underlying tensions: whether subjects should 'get paid' versus 'volunteer' (ie, whether subjects should be motivated by compensation vs altruism), and whether subjects should be paid differently based on income, given possible resultant selection bias. Lack of consistent standards emerged between and even on single IRBs. Questions arose concerning certain aspects and types of studies; for example, how to view and weigh providing free care in research, whether and how recruitment flyers should mention compensation, and how to avoid coercion in paediatric, developing world, or students research. These data, the first to probe qualitatively how IRBs view and approach questions about coercion, undue influence and participant compensation, and to examine how IRBs have reviewed actual cases, reveal several critical ambiguities and dilemmas, and have vital implications for future practice, education, policy and research.
Baker, Francis X; Gallagher, Colleen M
Undue influence from family members of patients with advanced cancer remains a serious ethical problem in end-of-life decision making. Despite the wealth of articles discussing the problem of undue influence, little has been written by way of practical guidance to help clinicians identify and effectively manage situations of undue influence. This article briefly lays out how to identify and manage situations of undue influence sensitively and effectively. We explain how undue influence may present itself in the clinic and distinguish it from ethically permissible expressions of relational autonomy. In addition, we lay out a process by which any clinician suspecting undue influence may gather additional information and, if necessary, conduct a family meeting to address the undue influence. It is our hope that by providing clinicians at all levels of patient care with such guidance, they will feel empowered to respond to cases of undue influence when they arise.
Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Okninski, Michaela E
A major appellate court decision from the United States seriously questions the legal sufficiency of prevailing medical criteria for the determination of death by neurological criteria. There may be a mismatch between legal and medical standards for brain death, requiring the amendment of either or both. In South Australia, a Bill seeks to establish a legal right for a defined category of persons suffering unbearably to request voluntary euthanasia. However, an essential criterion of a voluntary decision is that it is not tainted by undue influence, and this Bill falls short of providing adequate guidance to assess for undue influence.
... Government position, former Government employment, family relationship, political position, or otherwise, the.... 0.735-19 Section 0.735-19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Regulatory Limitations Upon Employee Conduct § 0.735-19 Reporting undue influence to...
Wade, T D; Zhu, G; Martin, N G
Three cognitive constructs are risk factors for eating disorders: undue influence of weight and shape, concern about weight and shape, and body dissatisfaction (BD). Undue influence, a diagnostic criterion for eating disorders, is postulated to be closely associated with self-esteem whereas BD is postulated to be closely associated with body mass index (BMI). We understand less about the relationships with concern about weight and shape. The aim of the current investigation was examine the degree of overlap across these five phenotypes in terms of latent genetic and environmental risk factors in order to draw some conclusions about the similarities and differences across the three cognitive variables. A sample of female Australian twins (n=1056, including 348 complete pairs), mean age 35 years (S.D.=2.11, range 28-40), completed a semi-structured interview about eating pathology and self-report questionnaires. An independent pathways model was used to investigate the overlap of genetic and environmental risk factors for the five phenotypes. In terms of variance that was not shared with other phenotypes, self-esteem emerged as being separate, with 100% of its variance unshared with the other phenotypes, followed by undue influence (51%) and then concern (34%), BD (28%) and BMI (32%). In terms of shared genetic risk, undue influence and concern were more closely related than BD, whereas BMI and BD were found to share common sources of risk. With respect to environmental risk factors, concern, BMI and BD were more closely related to each other than to undue influence.
Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa
It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies. The analysis identified and described, from the interviewed persons' experiences, both the inappropriate influences exerted on the actors and those that they exerted. Inappropriate influences were identified at all levels of administration and policy. They included actions for personal benefits, pressure for blocking health policies and pressure from high levels of government in favour of private corporations. The private sector played a significant role in these strategies through bribery, personal gifts, revolving doors, negative campaigns and by blocking unfavourable political positions or determining the knowledge agenda. The interviewees reported subtle forms of influence (social events, offers of technical support, invitations, etc) that contributed to the intellectual and cultural capture of health officials. The health policy decision-making processes in Spain are subject to influences by stakeholders that determine a degree of policy capture, which is avoidable. The private sector uses different strategies, from subtle influences to outright corruption, taking advantage in many cases of flexible legislation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Weiler, Richard; Ioannidis, John P A
Expenditure on industry products (mostly drugs and devices) has spiraled over the last 15 years and accounts for substantial part of healthcare expenditure. The enormous financial interests involved in the development and marketing of drugs and devices may have given excessive power to these industries to influence medical research, policy, and practice. Review of the literature and analysis of the multiple pathways through which the industry has directly or indirectly infiltrated the broader healthcare systems. We present the analysis of the industry influences at the following levels: (i) evidence base production, (ii) evidence synthesis, (iii) understanding of safety and harms issues, (iv) cost-effectiveness evaluation, (v) clinical practice guidelines formation, (vi) healthcare professional education, (vii) healthcare practice, (viii) healthcare consumer's decisions. We located abundance of consistent evidence demonstrating that the industry has created means to intervene in all steps of the processes that determine healthcare research, strategy, expenditure, practice and education. As a result of these interferences, the benefits of drugs and other products are often exaggerated and their potential harms are downplayed, and clinical guidelines, medical practice, and healthcare expenditure decisions are biased. To serve its interests, the industry masterfully influences evidence base production, evidence synthesis, understanding of harms issues, cost-effectiveness evaluations, clinical practice guidelines and healthcare professional education and also exerts direct influences on professional decisions and health consumers. There is an urgent need for regulation and other action towards redefining the mission of medicine towards a more objective and patient-, population- and society-benefit direction that is free from conflict of interests. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Beer, G.; Slovak, K.
We will get Transpetrol Lubomir Jahnatek, the Minister of Economy, was full of optimism following negotiations with the representatives of the Dutch company, Yukos Finance. According to the results of the meetings, the shares should have been back in Slovakia by the end of August. This enthusiasm was premature. The negotiating power of the delegation which came to Bratislava to promise the return of Transpetrol was very weak. The managers of Yukos Finance thought they would manage to avoid communication with Eduard Rebgun, Yukos' Russian bankruptcy supervisor. Their analyses showed that Yukos Finance is legally only marginally connected with the parent company, Yukos, and that they will be able to decide on the sale of Transpetrol and the Latvian refinery, Mazeikiu Nafta, on their own. On Friday last week, the Dutch courts decided that the Russian administrator is authorized to call an extraordinary general meeting of the Dutch company and to replace its management. This has further complicated the entire situation. (authors)
Pultorak, Katherine J.; Schelp, Scott A.; Isaacs, Dominic P.; Krzystyniak, Gregory
Abstract While an extensive literature supports the notion that mesocorticolimbic dopamine plays a role in negative reinforcement, recent evidence suggests that dopamine exclusively encodes the value of positive reinforcement. In the present study, we employed a behavioral economics approach to investigate whether dopamine plays a role in the valuation of negative reinforcement. Using rats as subjects, we first applied fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to determine that dopamine concentration decreases with the number of lever presses required to avoid electrical footshock (i.e., the economic price of avoidance). Analysis of the rate of decay of avoidance demand curves, which depict an inverse relationship between avoidance and increasing price, allows for inference of the worth an animal places on avoidance outcomes. Rapidly decaying demand curves indicate increased price sensitivity, or low worth placed on avoidance outcomes, while slow rates of decay indicate reduced price sensitivity, or greater worth placed on avoidance outcomes. We therefore used optogenetics to assess how inducing dopamine release causally modifies the demand to avoid electrical footshock in an economic setting. Increasing release at an avoidance predictive cue made animals more sensitive to price, consistent with a negative reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a worse outcome than expected). Increasing release at avoidance made animals less sensitive to price, consistent with a positive reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a better outcome than expected). These data demonstrate that transient dopamine release events represent the value of avoidance outcomes and can predictably modify the demand to avoid. PMID:29766047
Burgess, L J; Sulzer, N
The use of retention gifts in clinical trials has been controversial, with some ethicists maintaining that such gifts represent undue inducement to the trial participants. A study was conducted at TREAD Research, a site-managed organisation based at Tygerberg Hospital, in which 302 participants completed a questionnaire that focused on their opinion with regard to such gifts. The results suggest that these gifts do not influence patients to participate in a clinical trial or influence them to remain on a trial should they wish to withdraw. However, they do act as a useful motivational tool and trial participants appreciate them.
Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison
The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.
Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H
Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.
The intertwining ideas of self-determination and well-being have received tremendous support in western bioethics. They have been used to reject medical paternalism and to justify patients' rights to give informed consent (or refusal) and execute advanced directives. It is frequently argued that everyone is thoroughly unique, and as patients are most knowledgeable of and invested in their own interests, they should be the ones to make voluntary decisions regarding their care. Two results of the strong focus on autonomy are the rejection of the image of patients as passive care recipients and the suspicion against paternalistic influence anyone may have on patients' decision-making process. Although the initial focus in western bioethics was on minimizing professional coercion, there has been a steady concern of family's involvement in adult patients' medical decision-making. Many worry that family members may have divergent values and priorities from those of the patients, such that their involvement could counter patients' autonomy. Those who are heavily involved in competent patients' decision-making are often met with suspicion. Patients who defer to their families are sometimes presumed to be acting out of undue pressure. This essay argues for a re-examination of the notions of autonomy and undue pressure in the contexts of patienthood and relational identity. In particular, it examines the characteristics of families and their role in adult patients' decision-making. Building on the feminist conception of the relational self and examining the context of contemporary institutional medicine, this paper argues that family involvement and consideration of family interests can be integral in promoting patients' overall agency. It argues that, in the absence of abuse and neglect, respect for autonomy and agency requires clinicians to abide by patients' expressed wishes.
van Prooijen, J.W.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; van Beest, I.
The authors investigate the relation between the hedonic principle (people's motivations to approach pleasure and to avoid pain) and procedural justice. They explore whether approach or avoidance motivation increases the effect that people feel they were treated more fairly following procedures that
Lee, Seung-Hee; Workman, Jane E.; Jung, Kwangho
Recent brand relationship research has paid attention to brand love, brand credibility, and brand loyalty. In market and society, various collaborations and co-creations derived from brand relationships generate various social network markets and open business innovations. Brand relationships and collaborative forms heavily depend on risk taking or risk avoidance. However, few studies have examined how brand relationship is related to risk avoidance. The purpose of this study is to investigat...
Penny A Becker
Full Text Available The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1 test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2 model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively. Only one of the six (16.7% breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.
Full Text Available Dysfunctions of approach and avoidance motivation play an important role in depression, which in turn may affect cognitive control, i.e., the ability to regulate thoughts and action to achieve internal goals. We use a novel experimental paradigm, i.e. a computer simulated driving-task, to study the impact of depression on cognitive control by measuring approach and avoidance actions in continuous time. In this task, 39 subjects with minimal to severe depression symptoms were instructed to use a joystick to move a virtual car as quickly as possible to a target point without crossing a stop-sign or crashing into a wall. We recorded their continuous actions on a joystick and found that depression 1 leads to further stopping distance to task target; and 2 increases the magnitude of late deceleration (avoidance but not early acceleration (approach, which was only observed in the stop-sign condition. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that depressed individuals have greater avoidance motivation near stopping target, but are minimally affected by approach motivation.
Full Text Available Biogenic amines are widely characterized in pathways evaluating reward and punishment, resulting in appropriate aversive or appetitive responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. We utilized the honey bee model and a newly developed spatial avoidance conditioning assay to probe effects of biogenic amines octopamine (OA and dopamine (DA on avoidance learning. In this new protocol non-harnessed bees associate a spatial color cue with mild electric shock punishment. After a number of experiences with color and shock the bees no longer enter the compartment associated with punishment. Intrinsic aspects of avoidance conditioning are associated with natural behavior of bees such as punishment (lack of food, explosive pollination mechanisms, danger of predation, heat, etc. and their association to floral traits or other spatial cues during foraging. The results show that DA reduces the punishment received whereas octopamine OA increases the punishment received. These effects are dose-dependent and specific to the acquisition phase of training. The effects during acquisition are specific as shown in experiments using the antagonists Pimozide and Mianserin for DA and OA receptors, respectively. This study demonstrates the integrative role of biogenic amines in aversive learning in the honey bee as modeled in a novel non-appetitive avoidance learning assay.
Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison
The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…
Brüne, Martin; Ebert, Andreas; Kolb, Meike; Tas, Cumhur; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Roser, Patrik
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by interpersonal dysfunction, emotional instability, impulsivity, and risk-taking behavior. Recent research has focused on the role of oxytocin in BPD, with mixed results as regards the processing of social stimuli. In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 13 BPD patients and 13 controls performed a dot probe task to examine attentional biases to happy and angry faces after intranasal application of oxytocin or placebo. Childhood trauma was examined using the childhood trauma questionnaire. In the placebo condition, patients with BPD (but not controls) showed an avoidant reaction to angry faces (but not happy faces). The strength of the avoidant reaction correlated with the severity of childhood trauma. This behavioral response (as well as the correlation) was abolished in the oxytocin condition. Adult patients with BPD show an avoidant response to social threat, a reaction that is linked with traumatic experiences during childhood. This response pattern is altered by oxytocin, possibly by reducing stress and inhibiting social withdrawal from distressing social stimuli. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S
Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.
Haire, Bridget G; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
In their recent paper'Undue inducement: a case study in CAPRISA 008', Mngadi et al conclude that a participant in an HIV prevention study who deliberately concealed her pregnancy was not 'unduly induced' to participate by the offer of an experimental product. This paper argues that while the authors' conclusion is sound, the framing of this case study is consistent with the preoccupation in research ethics with the concept of undue inducement, coupled with a highly risk-averse attitude to pregnancy (regardless of whether those risks may be willingly assumed by pregnant women themselves). We suggest that the critical research ethics question raised by Mngadi et al 's case study is not 'undue inducement', but the exclusion of pregnant women from research studies where the risks are acceptable to the potential participant, and benefits likely. We also suggest that current regulatory paradigms regarding pregnancy are both overly paternalistic and value the fetus over the mother. In order to ensure timely provision of new HIV prevention agents, we argue that there is a need for expeditious testing of proven effective agents in pregnancy, with due consideration given to situations where preliminary efficacy data exist but fall short of licensure standards. This requires a paradigm shift from researchers, funders, regulators and ethical review bodies towards practices that critically examine the legitimacy of the exclusion of pregnant women on a study-by-study basis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Evaluated was effect of mating (random vs. maximum avoidance of inbreeding under BLUP EBV selection strategy. Existing population structure was under Monte Carlo stochastic simulation analyzed from the point to minimize increase of inbreeding. Maximum avoidance of inbreeding under BLUP selection resulted into comparable increase of inbreeding then random mating in average of 10 generation development. After 10 generations of simulation of mating strategy was observed ΔF= 6,51 % (2 sires, 5,20 % (3 sires, 3,22 % (4 sires resp. 2,94 % (5 sires. With increased number of sires selected, decrease of inbreeding was observed. With use of 4, resp. 5 sires increase of inbreeding was comparable to random mating with phenotypic selection. For saving of genetic diversity and prevention of population loss is important to minimize increase of inbreeding in small populations. Classical approach was based on balancing ratio of sires and dams in mating program. Contrariwise in the most of commercial populations small number of sires was used with high mating ratio.
Ana Rosa Lins de Souza
Full Text Available O uso indevido de benzodiazepínicos, especialmente entre mulheres, tem despertado preocupação na área de saúde pública. Este estudo objetivou compreender qualitativamente crenças e valores associados ao consumo indevido dessa substância por mulheres. Foram entrevistadas trinta e três mulheres (18-60 anos com histórico de uso indevido de benzodiazepínicos no último ano, selecionadas intencionalmente e por critérios. Os discursos foram transcritos e submetidos à análise de conteúdo com auxílio do software NVivo. A maioria das entrevistadas referiu tempo de uso bem superior ao recomendado (mediana: 7 anos e compra com receita médica. Os motivos de uso mais citados foram diminuição da ansiedade, problemas de insônia e fuga dos problemas. Apesar de reconhecerem a possibilidade de dependência, esta não motivou a interrupção do uso. O acompanhamento médico não pareceu, necessariamente, estimular a percepção de risco dos benzodiazepínicos, sendo um fator que favoreceu a manutenção do uso prolongado.The undue use of benzodiazepines particularly among women has raised concern in the public health area. This qualitative study aimed at understanding the beliefs and values associated with undue use of benzodiazepines among women. Thirty-three participants (aged between 18 and 60 with a history of undue use of benzodiazepines in the past year were selected intentionally using specific criteria. The interviews were fully transcribed and subjected to content analysis using NVivo software. The majority of respondents reported use for longer than the recommended duration (median 7 years and they purchased the drug with a medical prescription. Reasons for use most given were to deal with anxiety, to improve sleep and to "flee from problems." Even those who acknowledged the possibility of being addicted were not motivated to stop taking the drug. Medical supervision did not necessarily seem to influence the perception of risk of
Full Text Available Detect and Avoid (DAA systems are complex communication and locational technologies comprising multiple independent components. DAA technologies support communications between ground-based and space-based operations with aircraft. Both manned and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS rely on DAA communication and location technologies for safe flight operations. We examined the occurrence and duration of communication losses between radar and automatic dependent surveillance–broadcast (ADS-B systems with aircraft operating in proximate airspace using data collected during actual flight operations. Our objectives were to identify the number and duration of communication losses for both radar and ADS-B systems that occurred within a discrete time period. We also investigated whether other unique communication behavior and anomalies were occurring, such as reported elevation deviations. We found that loss of communication with both radar and ADS-B systems does occur, with variation in the length of communication losses. We also discovered that other unexpected behaviors were occurring with communications. Although our data were gathered from manned aircraft, there are also implications for UAS that are operating within active airspaces. We are unaware of any previously published work on occurrence and duration of communication losses between radar and ADS-B systems.
Monitoring for microbiologically influenced corrosion in industry commonly is practiced, but too often has failed to predict corrosion damage. Reports of failed monitoring seldom appear in the published literature, but hands-on experience and word-of-mouth communication indicate that the problem is widespread. The question of why so many monitoring programs are unsuccessful is investigated, and remedies for common problems are suggested. Failures can be attributed to three main causes: confusion over the goals of the monitoring program, inappropriate monitoring methods, and inadequate execution of the monitoring program.
Meier, Brian P; D'Agostino, Paul R; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Wilkowski, Benjamin M
A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue) indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context), but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context). These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.
Brian P Meier
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context, but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.
Meier, Brian P.; D’Agostino, Paul R.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.; Wilkowski, Benjamin M.
Background A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. Methodology/Principal Findings The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue) indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context), but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context). Conclusions/Significance These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes. PMID:22808136
Meng, Yujie; Wang, Siqun; Cai, Zhiyong; Young, Timothy M.; Du, Guanben; Li, Yanjun
The effect of the embedding medium on the nano-indentation measurements of lignocellulosic materials was investigated experimentally using nano-indentation. Both the reduced elastic modulus and the hardness of non-embedded cell walls were found to be lower than those of the embedded samples, proving that the embedding medium used for specimen preparation on cellulosic material during nano-indentation can modify cell-wall properties. This leads to structural and chemical changes in the cell-wall constituents, changes that may significantly alter the material properties. Further investigation was carried out to detect the influence of different vacuum times on the cell-wall mechanical properties during the embedding procedure. Interpretation of the statistical analysis revealed no linear relationships between vacuum time and the mechanical properties of cell walls. The quantitative measurements confirm that low-viscosity resin has a rapid penetration rate early in the curing process. Finally, a novel sample preparation method aimed at preventing resin diffusion into lignocellulosic cell walls was developed using a plastic film to wrap the sample before embedding. This method proved to be accessible and straightforward for many kinds of lignocellulosic material, but is especially suitable for small, soft samples.
Garofalo, Sara; Robbins, Trevor W
The present study investigates human aversive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) and possible influences of outcome devaluation and instrumental overtraining on this effect. PIT measures the extent to which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can increase instrumental responses independently paired with the same (outcome-specific transfer) or a different (general transfer) reinforcer. Two measures of PIT were obtained: the percentage of instrumental responses and the vigor of such responses. Thirty-eight volunteers performed a standard PIT task sequence. Results showed a double dissociation between outcome-specific and general transfer: the first selectively expressed in the amount of responses, the second in the vigor measure solely. Furthermore, outcome-specific transfer was enhanced by overtraining, but not affected by devaluation. General transfer, on the other hand, was affected by neither overtraining, nor devaluation. A positive correlation between general transfer and sensitivity to punishments was found. Findings are discussed in terms of hypothetically different underlying neurobehavioral mechanisms and their relations to habits and goal-directed behavior.
Knight, J. Brent
This study is intended to investigate the frequency dependency of significant strain due to vibratory loads in aerospace vehicle components. The notion that "higher frequency" dynamic loads applied as static loads is inherently conservative is perceived as widely accepted. This effort is focused on demonstrating that principle and attempting to evolve methods to capitalize on it to mitigate undue conservatism. It has been suggested that observations of higher frequency modes that resulted in very low corresponding strain did so due to those modes not being significant. Two avionics boxes, one with its first significant mode at 341 Hz and the other at 857 Hz, were attached to a flat panel installed on a curved orthogrid panel which was driven acoustically in tests performed at NASA/MSFC. Strain and acceleration were measured at select locations on each of the boxes. When possible, strain gage rosettes and accelerometers were installed on either side of a given structural member so that measured strain and acceleration data would directly correspond to one another. Ultimately, a frequency above which vibratory loads can be disregarded for purposes of static structural analyses and sizing of typical robust aerospace components is sought.
Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B
Animal dispersal is highly non-random and has important implications for the dynamics of populations in fragmented habitat. We identified interpatch dispersal events from genetic tagging, parentage analyses and assignment tests and modelled the factors associated with apparent emigration and post-dispersal settlement choices by individual male agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis, a marsupial carnivore of south-east Australian forests). Emigration decisions were best modelled with on data patch isolation and inbreeding risk. The choice of dispersal destination by males was influenced by inbreeding risk, female abundance, patch size, patch quality and matrix permeability (variation in land cover). Males were less likely to settle in patches without highly unrelated females. Our findings highlight the importance of individual-level dispersal data for understanding how multiple processes drive non-randomness in dispersal in modified landscapes. Fragmented landscapes present novel environmental, demographic and genetic contexts in which dispersal decisions are made, so the major factors affecting dispersal decisions in fragmented habitat may differ considerably from unfragmented landscapes. We show that the spatial scale of genetic neighbourhoods can be large in fragmented habitat, such that dispersing males can potentially settle in the presence of genetically similar females after moving considerable distances, thereby necessitating both a choice to emigrate and a choice of where to settle to avoid inbreeding. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.
Hutzell, Kirsten L.; Payne, Allison Ann
This study examines the impact of bullying victimization on school avoidance by proposing the following hypotheses: (1) Net of other factors, students who have experienced bullying victimization are more likely to engage in school avoidance behaviors; (2) There are protective factors that will decrease this relationship between bullying…
This study uncovers which learning (epistemic belief of learning), socioeconomic background (level of parental education, family income) or social-personality factors (performance-avoidance goals, test anxiety) mitigate the ethnic gap in SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) scores. Measures assessing achievement motivation, test anxiety, socioeconomic…
Full Text Available This paper focuses on tax evasion and tax avoidance in Iceland, and on how special interest groups have shaped the taxation system to serve their own ends. The period covered is from 1930, when the present Icelandic system of power was established, to the present.
Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Candia-Zulbarán, Rebeca I; Negrete-Soto, Fernando; Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia; Huchin-Mian, Juan P; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique
In Bahía de la Ascensión, Mexico, 'casitas' (large artificial shelters) are extensively used to harvest Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus. After the discovery of a pathogenic virus, Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1), in these lobsters, laboratory experiments revealed that PaV1 could be transmitted by contact and through water, and that lobsters avoided shelters harboring diseased conspecifics. To examine these issues in the context of casitas, which typically harbor multiple lobsters of all sizes, we examined the distribution and aggregation patterns of lobsters in the absence/presence of diseased conspecifics (i.e. visibly infected with PaV1) in 531 casitas distributed over 3 bay zones, 1 poorly vegetated ('Vigía Chico', average depth: 1.5 m) and 2 more extensively vegetated ('Punta Allen': 2.5 m; 'Los Cayos': 2.4 m). All zones had relatively high indices of predation risk. Using several statistical approaches, we found that distribution parameters of lobsters were generally not affected by the presence of diseased conspecifics in casitas. Interestingly, however, in the shallower and less vegetated zone (Vigía Chico), individual casitas harbored more lobsters and lobsters were actually more crowded in casitas containing diseased conspecifics, yet disease prevalence was the lowest in lobsters of all sizes. These results suggest that (1) investment in disease avoidance by lobsters is partially modulated by local habitat features, (2) contact transmission rates of PaV1 may be lower in nature than in the laboratory, and (3) water-borne transmission rates may be lower in shallow, poorly vegetated habitats more exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation, which can damage viral particles.
Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting
Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in
del Saz Moreno, Vicente; Alberquilla Menéndez-Asenjo, Ángel; Camacho Hernández, Ana M; Lora Pablos, David; Enríquez de Salamanca Lorente, Rafael; Magán Tapia, Purificación
To determine if the process of care in primary health, affects the risk of avoidable hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSH) for heart failure (HF). Case-control study analyzing the risk of hospitalization for HF. The exposure factor was the process of care for HF in primary health. Health area of the region of Madrid (n=466.901). There were included all adult patients (14 years or older) with a documented diagnosis of HF in the electronic medical record of primary health (n=3.277). The cases were patients who were hospitalized for HF while the controls did not require admission, during 2007. risk of ACSH for HF related to the process of care considered both overall and for each separate standard of appropiate care. Differences in clinical complexity of the groups were measured using the Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG) classification system. 227 cases and 3.050 controls. Clinical complexity was greater in cases. The standards of appropriate care were met to a greater degree in the control group, but none of the two groups met all the standards that would define a process of care as fully appropriate. A significantly lower risk of ACSH was seen for only two standards of appropriate care. For each additional standard of appropriate care not met, the probability of admission was significantly greater (OR: 1,33, 95% CI: 1,19-1,49). Higher quality in the process of care in primary health was associated with a lower risk of hospitalization for HF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dessus, B.; Tubiana, L.
After a round table between (French) political leaders committed in environment policies and leaders of public institutions specialized in environment matters discussing the Kyoto Protocol negotiation process, this publication proposes contributions and interviews about Kyoto negotiations, about the influence of the carbon lobby, about the implementation of the Kyoto protocol in various countries (European Union, France, Germany, United States, China, developing countries), about the role of renewable energies, and about adaptation challenges
Byrne, Sharon K
The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.
Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand
We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...
Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.
Yonela Z. Njisane
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*, pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s. Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04% values than castrates (35.1±0.95%. Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N. There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade the sub grouping of low back pain (LBP patients according to their likely response to treatment has been identified as a research priority. As with other patient groups, researchers have found few if any factors from the case history or physical examination that are helpful in predicting the outcome of chiropractic care. However, in the wider LBP population psychosocial factors have been identified that are significantly prognostic. This study investigated changes in the components of the LBP fear-avoidance beliefs model in patients pre- and post- their initial visit with a chiropractor to determine if there was a relationship with outcomes at 1 month. Methods Seventy one new patients with lower back pain as their primary complaint presenting for chiropractic care to one of five clinics (nine chiropractors completed questionnaires before their initial visit (pre-visit and again just before their second appointment (post-visit. One month after the initial consultation, patient global impression of change (PGIC scores were collected. Pre visit and post visit psychological domain scores were analysed for any association with outcomes at 1 month. Results Group mean scores for Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB, catastrophisation and self-efficacy were all improved significantly within a few days of a patient's initial chiropractic consultation. Pre-visit catastrophisation as well as post-visit scores for catastrophisation, back beliefs (inevitability and self-efficacy were weakly correlated with patient's global impression of change (PGIC at 1 month. However when the four assessed psychological variables were dichotomised about pre-visit group medians those individuals with 2 or more high variables post-visit had a substantially increased risk (OR 36.4 (95% CI 6.2-213.0 of poor recovery at 1 month. Seven percent of patients with 1 or fewer adverse psychological variables described poor benefit compared to 73% of those
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Collision avoidance for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) traveling at high relative speeds is a challenging task. It requires both the detection of a possible collision...
Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Vries, de H.
This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people's dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after
Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred
The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on
Influence able and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique-Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note
Rott, G.; Boecker, F.
Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influence able or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemo static valve.
Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…
Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.
Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen
Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...
Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.
This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.
Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.
This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP
Du, Shizheng; Hu, Lingli; Bai, Yamei; Dong, Jianshu; Jin, Shengji; Zhang, Heng; Zhu, Ying
As a bio-psycho-social issue, chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been a significant topic in health management, and patients' quality of life (QOL) is gaining extensive attention. Self-efficacy, pain fear-avoidance belief (FAB), and coping styles play important roles in the QOL of CLBP patients. However, it remains unclear how self-efficacy and FAB influence QOL through specific coping styles. This study aimed to explore the influencing paths of self-efficacy, FAB, and coping styles on the QOL of patients with CLBP. This study relies on a multisite, cross-sectional design involving 221 CLBP patients. Stepwise multiple regression and structural equation modeling were employed. CLBP patients lived with a poor global QOL. Self-efficacy played a direct, positive role in predicting QOL for patients with CLBP (β = 0.35), and it also played an indirect, positive role in predicting QOL (β = 0.19) through active coping styles (β = 0.31). FAB played a direct, negative role in predicting QOL (β = -0.33), and it also played an indirect, negative role in predicting QOL (β = -0.32) through passive coping styles (β = 0.32). Self-efficacy and FAB are both directly and indirectly related to global QOL, and coping styles are important mediating variables. Self-efficacy and active coping are protective factors for the QOL of CLBP patients, while FAB and passive coping are risk factors. Health education strategies are recommended by medical personnel to enhance CLBP patients' pain self-efficacy, decrease pain FAB, and modify pain coping styles, so that their global QOL can be improved. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.
AVOID work stream (WS1)one has produced emission scenarios that simulate potential future global emission pathways for greenhouse gases during the 21st century. The study explored the influence of three key features of such pathways: (1) the year in which emissions peak globally, (2) the rate of emission reduction, and (3) the minimum level to which emissions are eventually reduced. It examined the resultant climate change, climate change impacts and economic implications using computer simulations. Avoided impacts, carbon taxes and GDP change increase throughout the 21st century in the models. AVOID-WS1 showed that in the absence of climate policy it is very likely that global mean temperatures would exceed 3 degrees and there are evens chances that the temperature would rise by 4 degrees relative to pre-industrial times. Scenarios that peak emissions in 2016 were more effective at constraining temperatures to below 3 degrees than those that peaked in 2030: one ‘2016' scenario achieved a probability of 45% of avoiding breaching of a 2 degree threshold. Scenarios peaking in 2030 were inconsistent with constraining temperatures to below 2 degrees. Correspondingly, scenarios that peak in 2030 are more effective at avoiding climate impacts than scenarios that peak in 2016, for all sectors that we studied. Hence the date at which emissions peak is more important than the rate of subsequent emissions reduction in determining the avoided impacts. Avoided impacts increase with time, being negligible in the 2030s, significant by the 2050s and large by the 2080s. Finally, the choice of GCM influences the magnitude of the avoided impacts strongly, so that the uncertainties in our estimates of avoided impacts for each scenario are larger than the difference between the scenarios. Our economic analysis is based on models which differ greatly in the assumptions that they make, but generally show that the date at which emissions peak is a stronger driver of induced GDP changes
Engle, Randi A.; Langer-Osuna, Jennifer M.; McKinney de Royston, Maxine
It is commonly observed that during classroom or group discussions some students have greater influence than may be justified by the normative quality of those students' contributions. We propose a 5-component theoretical framework in order to explain how undue influence unfolds. We build on literatures on persuasion, argumentation, discourse, and…
Indah Dwi Pratama
Full Text Available One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES, advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the program, and advertising sector, and competition (DayPart. The study attempted to measure the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia and its relation to various factors that influence it by using the secondary data generated by Nielsen Audience Measurement Indonesia through Television Audience Measurement (TAM. The methods utilized consisted of the t-test independent sample, one way ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn Bonferoni. The result showed that the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia reached by 23%, with relatively similar results to the other studies in various countries. The hypothesis test results also showed a significant relationship between the advertising avoidance and demographic variables, advertising attributes, and competitions affecting this avoidance. On one hand, the findings of the study are expected to be useful for the advertisers to plan their advertisements on television so that they become more effective and efficient. On the other hand, television stations can utilize these findings as a development strategy to expand their audience segmentation and to accommodate the needs of the advertisers more optimally.Keywords: advertising avoidance, television advertisement, TAM, ANOVA, Tukey
Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.
Nuralifmida Ayu Annisa
Full Text Available This study aims to find out how the influence of the corporate governance of tax avoidanceactivity in companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008. The samples are publiclytraded company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008 as many as 200 companies. Thisstudy uses data analysis and regression analysis of the elements of corporate governance and taxavoidance. The results of this study show that the elements of corporate governance that consist ofaudit quality and audit committee significantly influence the activity of tax avoidance as measuredusing proxy book tax gap. Other results show that the tax avoidance activity as measured withproxy book tax gap are not affected significantly by institutional ownership and board ofcommissioners. Limitation of this study is not to use each type of industries as control variable socan’t identify the direct effect from type of industry on tax avoidance. Another limitation of thisstudy is use corporate governance’s proxy separately, so it can’t capture the full effect ofcorporate governance. Keywords:corporate governance, ownership structure, board of commissioners, audit committee,tax avoidance, book tax gap.
This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...
Kannan, Viji Diane; Veazie, Peter J
Delayed medical care has negative health and economic consequences; interventions have focused on appraising symptoms, with limited success in reducing delay. To identify predictors of care avoidance and reasons for avoiding care. Using the Health Information National Trends Survey (2007), we conducted logistic regressions to identify predictors of avoiding medical visits deemed necessary by the respondents; and, we then conducted similar analyses on reasons given for avoidance behavior. Independent variables included geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, personal health, health behavior, health care system, and cognitive characteristics. Approximately one third of adults avoided doctor visits they had deemed necessary. Although unadjusted associations existed, avoiding needed care was not independently associated with geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Avoidance behavior is characterized by low health self-efficacy, less experience with both quality care and getting help with uncertainty about health, having your feelings attended to by your provider, no usual source of care, negative affect, smoking daily, and fatalistic attitude toward cancer. Reasons elicited for avoidance include preference for self-care or alternative care, dislike or distrust of doctors, fear or dislike of medical treatments, time, and money; respondents also endorsed discomfort with body examinations, fear of having a serious illness, and thoughts of dying. Distinct predictors distinguish each of these reasons. Interventions to reduce patient delay could be improved by addressing the health-related behavioral, belief, experiential, and emotional traits associated with delay. Attention should also be directed toward the interpersonal communications between patients and providers.
Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B
According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.
Eerland, A.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franken, Ingmar; Zwaan, Rolf
Approach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed pleasant,
A. Eerland (Anita); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)
textabstractApproach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed
G. Häubl (Gerald); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)
textabstractWe introduce and test a behavioral model of consumer product search that extends a baseline normative model of sequential search by incorporating nonnormative influences that are local in the sense that they reflect consumers' undue sensitivity to recently encountered alternatives. We
Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.
The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…
Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.
Carolina, Verani; Natalia, Maria; Debbianita, Debbianita
This research aimed to examine the influence of the executive characteristic on corporate tax avoidance. Risktaker’s executive tended to be more courageous and aggressive in taking decision related to the tax. On thecontrary, the risk averse executive tended to be carefully (Low, 2006). This research used leverage as interveningvariable. Therefore, there was an assumption that the executive characteristic determined the corporateleverage which then influenced their tax avoidance in the compan...
Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven
We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble
Alstadsæter, Annette; Jacob, Martin
This paper analyzes the sources of heterogeneity in legal tax avoidance strategies across individuals. Three conditions are required for a taxpayer to participate in tax avoidance: incentive, access, and awareness. Using rich Swedish administrative panel data with a unique link between corporate and individual tax returns, we analyze individual participation in legal tax planning around the 2006 Swedish tax reform. Our results suggest that closely held corporations are utilized to facilitate ...
Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin
Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.
Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin
Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337
Weinbrecht, Anna; Schulze, Lars; Boettcher, Johanna; Renneberg, Babette
This review focuses on recent research on diagnostic aspects, etiology, and treatment of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Current studies stress the close relation between AVPD and social anxiety disorder, the influence of genetic factors in the development of AVPD, and the relative stability of symptoms. Treatment approaches should target the pervasive patterns of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Empirical evidence for cognitive-behavior and schema therapy is promising. Few other therapeutic approaches have been developed, but until now, these have only been investigated in case studies. We conclude that AVPD qualifies as a neglected disorder and that more research specifically on avoidant personality disorder symptoms and its treatment is needed.
Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark
The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Self controlling robot is necessary in the robot application in which operator control is difficult. Serial method such as process on the computer of van newman is difficult to be applied for self controlling robot. In this research, Neural network system for robotic control system was developed by performance expanding at the SCARA. In this research, it was shown that SCARA with application at Neural network system can avoid blocking objects without influence by number and density of the blocking objects, also departure and destination paint. robot developed by this study also can control its moving by self
Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin
In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.
Full Text Available Approach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures (passively viewing phase. Then they had to move their body to the left or the right (lateral movement phase to make the next picture appear. We recorded movements in the anterior-posterior direction to examine approach and avoidant behavior. During passively viewing, people approached pleasant pictures. They avoided unpleasant ones while they made a lateral movement. These findings provide support for the idea that we tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations.
To ensure patient safety, it is crucial that the airway is safeguarded. The single most important responsibility is to protect it. An unobstructed airway, with intact protective reflexes and respiratory drive, is essential to avoid complications. In some procedures, e.g. dental, the airway may need to be shared with the surgeon.
Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.
As economic globalization proceeds, tax policies of one nation influence others more and greater pressures are imposed on tax systems and tax administrations．The possibility of tax avoidance will expand if cross-border transactions are abused．Specifically, tax system differentials among countries increase the opportunity for tax avoidance．Under some tax avoidance schemes, foreign entities which have no or little economic substance are used to create artificial losses, so that they can minimiz...
Smith, Marvin K; Werner, Brian C; Diduch, David R
To discuss the potentially significant complications associated with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Additionally, to review the most current and relevant literature with an emphasis on avoiding these potential complications. Multiple cadaveric studies have characterized the anatomy of the MPFL and the related morphologic abnormalities that contribute to recurrent lateral patellar instability. Such abnormalities include patella alta, excessive tibial tubercle to trochlear grove (TT-TG) distance, trochlear dysplasia, and malalignment. Recent studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes associated with the treatment of concomitant pathology in combination with MPFL reconstruction, which is critical in avoiding recurrent instability and complications. Although there remains a lack of consensus regarding various critical aspects of MPFL reconstruction, certain concepts remain imperative. Our preferred methods and rationales for surgical techniques are described. These include appropriate work up, a combination of procedures to address abnormal morphology, anatomical femoral insertion, safe and secure patellar fixation, appropriate graft length fixation, and thoughtful knee flexion during fixation.
Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective t...
Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.
Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...
Kristen L Sessions
Full Text Available In the United States, there are a growing number of medical students participating in international health electives. These experiences have the potential to be mutually beneficial to both the host country and the student. However, there is a significant risk of unethical and damaging practices during these trips, including concerns for sending trainees without appropriate pre-travel preparation with inadequate accountability to local health care providers at a stage in their education that imposes an undue burden on the local health facilities. This article describes one first year medical student’s experience in navigating common challenges faced in international health electives and offers practical advice enlightened by the literature on how to overcome them. We emphasize the need for students to ensure adequate pre-trip preparation, communicate their level of training clearly, practice cultural humility, ensure personal safety, and engage in projects needed by the host community.
Full Text Available Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD, schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. Keywords: avoidant personality disorder, social anxiety disorder, social cognition, psychotherapy, attachment
Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin
Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)
Full Text Available Worldwide crisis has made multinational companies that are engaged in corporate social responsibility actions to manage their businesses through the lens of various tax avoidance practices. The content of this paper is important due to the fact that tries to identify the impact in case of companies active in corporate social responsibility actions versus their tax structures orientation. Corporate social responsibility literature did not paid enough attention on the impact of the tax avoidance practices of companies. Tax, as a concept, brings in itself an important corporate financial impact with subsequent effects for the life of multiple citizens in countries where private entities are operating. Even though companies are usually expressing their ethical and responsible conduct in respect of the social environment, there are many cases when the business practices were not aligned with the declared corporate behavior. This paper seeks firstly to examine whether companies engaged in tax avoidance practices (ex. offshore tax havens consider that continue to act socially responsible. Secondly, the paper examines the influence on attending the stakeholdersâ€™ goals for those companies practicing tax avoidance and its implications on corporate social responsibility actions. Moreover, the paper focuses also on the aspects described before from the perspective of the corporate entities operating in Romania. This paperâ€™s intention is to use and to develop the results of previous research carried out by Lutz Preus (University of London and, subsequently, by Senators Levin, Coleman and Obama in their â€œStop Tax Haven Abuse Billâ€. The implications and the objectives of this material are to highlight, to identify and to spot clearly the relations and the influences of the tax haven practices of corporations versus their undertaken social responsibility actions. Moreover, this paper brings a fresh perspective of this topic from the
ZHAI Xianghua; XI Ping
The scalar phantom field Φ leads to various catastrophic fates of the universe including big rip,little rip and other future singularity depending on the choice of its potential.For example,little rip stems from a quadratic potential in general relativity.We suggest a new mechanism to avoid little rip in the 1/R gravity.The phantom field with different potentials,including quadratic,cubic and quantic potentials are studied via numerical calculation in the 1/R gravity with R2 correction.T...
This of course has been legislated upon by the labour (amendment) ... length of which shall, together with the salary, determine its amount. Under ..... when people become older in age, there is a tendency of reduction in productivity and on.
Rohr, Michaela; Kamm, Friederike; Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk
Empirical evidence suggests that the color red acts like an implicit avoidance cue in food contexts. Thus specific colors seem to guide the implicit evaluation of food items. We built upon this research by investigating the implicit meaning of color (red vs. green) in an approach-avoidance task with healthy and unhealthy food items. Thus, we examined the joint evaluative effects of color and food: Participants had to categorize food items by approach-avoidance reactions, according to their healthfulness. Items were surrounded by task-irrelevant red or green circles. We found that the implicit meaning of the traffic light colors influenced participants' reactions to the food items. The color red (compared to green) facilitated automatic avoidance reactions to unhealthy foods. By contrast, approach behavior toward healthy food items was not moderated by color. Our findings suggest that traffic light colors can act as implicit cues that guide automatic behavioral reactions to food.
Aloysius Deno Hervino
Full Text Available This research analyzes risk avoidance behaviour of banking institutions in distributing working capital loan in Indonesia. Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag Error Correction Model, this paper uncovers three findings. First, in the short run, risk avoidance in working capital loan distribution depends on inter-call banking money market and Sertifikat Bank Indonesia. Second, following banking regulation after 1997 crisis, banks have become more careful in distributing credits, with SBI as a substitution instrument and inter-call banking money market as a complement instrument to spread the risk. Third, all explanatory variables take an average of 6 days or 1 week to influence bank’s risk avoidance behaviour.Keywords: Risk avoidance, working capital distribution, banking institutions JEL classification numbers: C32, C52, D81, E51
Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S
Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the "severity continuum hypothesis", in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment.
Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S
Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. PMID:29563846
Full Text Available The research’s first purpose is to analyze directly conservatism accounting influence towards book tax differences and tax avoidance. The second pusrpose is to analyze indirect influence of towards tax avoidance through book tax differences. The research is conducted to companies enlisted in Indonesian Stock Exchange and belongs to LQ45 during 2013 to 2015. The number of companies sample taken by purposive sampling is 23 corporations, therefore total observation is 69 observations. The acquired data analysed by path analysis. This research conclude that conservatism accounting practice significantly influence book tax difference practice but did not influence tax avoidance. Conservatism accounting practice is also has no influence towards tax avoidance committed by book tax differences. This book tax difference is only significantly influential to commit tax avoidance. This research can contribute in taxation field as input in tax planning formulation.
Heino, A.; van der Molen, H.H.; Wilde, G.J S
The prime purpose of our study was to find out whether the need for stimulation has a systematic influence on perceived risk. While driving on a motorway, 21 male sensation avoiders and 21 male sensation seekers had to follow another car, once at a free following distance chosen by the subject
A generalized approach to the problem of collision avoidance in robotic environments is presented. This approach transforms the three dimensional but dynamic real-world changing geometric space of the robot in its environment into a multidimensional but static space such that any possible geometric arrangement of the robotic space becomes a point in hyperspace. Major advantages of this approach include clarification of and potential solution to the basic problem of finding optimized, collision free movements from an initial to a final configuration. A major disadvantage of the approach is related to computational and data storage problems. However these latter are technically solvable while the clarification of the control and guidance problem gained through the transformational approach and its general elucidation power remain prime conceptual tools for the problem of robot design and operation
Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the influence of the executive characteristic on corporate tax avoidance. Risktaker’s executive tended to be more courageous and aggressive in taking decision related to the tax. On thecontrary, the risk averse executive tended to be carefully (Low, 2006. This research used leverage as interveningvariable. Therefore, there was an assumption that the executive characteristic determined the corporateleverage which then influenced their tax avoidance in the company. Manufacturing companies which werelisted in Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period 2010-2012 were used as samples. This research usedpurposive sampling method to select the sample with the criteria as follows: they were listed in Indonesia StockExchange during the period of 2010-2012, they made a profit during the period of 2010-2012, and they usedrupiah as reporting currency. Data was processed using path analysis and the result showed that the executivecharacteristic had an impact on corporate tax avoidance with leverage as the intervening variable. The resultof this research could be used for the investors to assess the corporate tax avoidance before they made a decision,and also for the policy makers to detect the corporate tax avoidance.
Full Text Available Avoidance behaviour test with the earthworms (ISO 17512-1:2008 is a rapid screening test for the evaluation of soil and the influence of pollutants and chemicals on the behaviour of earthworms. The purpose of the testing is to determine the avoidance behaviour of earthworm (in this case Eisenia andrei was used which can be used as an organism for the composting and occur naturally in soil environment. The methodology was modified according to the needs of the avoidance behaviour testing of earthworms in biodegradable plastic environment. It is a biodegradable thermoplastic material Mater-Bi, which is produced from corn starch. Californian earthworm (Eisenia andrei was chosen as a test organism. The two-chamber test was used in testing. 10 earthworms were used, which were exposed to a number of concentrations of the test substance, which was mixed into the compost environment. It was recorded both a positive result, avoidance reaction, as well as a negative result, non-avoidance reaction and also there was a case, where individuals prefer both substrates equally. Organisms showed no escape reaction and were fairly evenly distributed in both halves of the test vessel, it can be assessed that organisms prefer both substrates equally. In testing, the mortality was zero, none of the individuals died, at the conclusion of the test there were not found any dead individuals. Avoidance higher than 80 % didn’t occur; it cannot be said that the substrate is toxic or degraded.
... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...
Franck, Gustav Grønborg; Runchel, Daniel Theis; Mac, Martin Tuannhien; Ahmed, Jahanzeeb; Bang, Lars Seneca
The issue of tax avoidance has been subject for recommended regulations by the G20 countries in collaboration with OECD. We examine the usefulness of market failure theory to explain the economic and political issues of tax avoidance. We test our hypothesis using theory through a deductive approach incorporating content analysis to find convergence(s) between tax avoidance methods identified and the efforts of the G20 BEPS action plan to respond to those methods. The issue of tax avoidance...
Does tax avoidance have any implications for financial markets? This paper quantifies the general equilibrium implications of tax avoidance by setting up an incomplete markets production economy model in which households pay capital gains taxes and have access to tax avoidance technologies provided by financial institutions. I find that changes in the level of tax avoidance have disproportionate effects on different groups of agents and generally benefit the old, wealthy and high income house...
Barsky, Allan E.; Wood, Lorinda
This ethnographic study explores patterns of conflict avoidance among university students, professors, administrators and staff. Analysis of their narratives of conflict avoidance suggests that avoidance can be beneficial in some circumstances, depending upon personality issues, cost?benefit analysis, power imbalance, type of work, length of…
In most past studies of the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons vs the amount of collateral damage produced (civilian casualties), civilians have been congregated into idealized shaped towns and cities, and criteria for city avoidance were usually formulated in terms relating to a town's population. This treatment was sufficient in those studies where weapon yields were so large that great numbers of civilians were almost always placed at risk. As further studies developed, demonstrating that real progress could be made in reducing the numbers of civilians potentially placed at risk in tactical nuclear warfare situations, the inadequacies of the present treatment became obvious. The need existed for a more detailed description of the distribution of civilians. The method described determines the number of civilians at risk for a weapon under consideration being detonated at a given point and displays a symbol relating to the numbers at risk on a map or a transparency that overlays a 1:50,000 map of the region. Thus, a weapons planner making the selection of aimpoints for inflicting the necessary military damage required has the means to reduce potential civilian casualties by properly choosing the weapon and aimpoints
Mariyadas, Jennifer; Amorim, Mónica J B; Jensen, John
Avoidance behaviour offers a highly relevant information as it reveals the ability to avoid (or not) possible toxic compounds in the field, hence it provides information on reasons for the presence/absence in the field. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was used to study avoidance behaviour to four si...... exposure durations and showed a continuous higher avoidance with time (based on EC50 values). The AgNMs avoidance was in the order NM300Ksoil solution fraction that correlated with EC50 across materials....
Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James
Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the avoidance behaviour of earthworms, Eisenia fetida to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly as antibacterial agents....... The avoidance behaviour could not be explained by the release of silver ions in the soil-solution. Although, Ag-ions release (if any) may still have had an influence on behaviour. The present results suggests that the earthworms perceive the presence of actual nanoparticles in the soil. Our results suggest that...... and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment . In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworms avoided commercially fabricated silver nanoparticles in a dose and time dependent manner. The earthworms were exposed to 3 nanoparticles: NM...
Full Text Available Reliable obstacle avoidance is a key to navigating with UAVs in the close vicinity of static and dynamic obstacles. Wheel-based mobile robots are often equipped with 2D or 3D laser range finders that cover the 2D workspace sufficiently accurate and at a high rate. Micro UAV platforms operate in a 3D environment, but the restricted payload prohibits the use of fast state-of-the-art 3D sensors. Thus, perception of small obstacles is often only possible in the vicinity of the UAV and a fast collision avoidance system is necessary. We propose a reactive collision avoidance system based on artificial potential fields, that takes the special dynamics of UAVs into account by predicting the influence of obstacles on the estimated trajectory in the near future using a learned motion model. Experimental evaluation shows that the prediction leads to smoother trajectories and allows to navigate collision-free through passageways.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative synonymous codons are not used with equal frequencies. In addition, the contexts of codons – neighboring nucleotides and neighboring codons – can have certain patterns. The codon context can influence both translational accuracy and elongation rates. However, it is not known how strong or conserved the codon context preferences in different organisms are. We analyzed 138 organisms (bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes to find conserved patterns of codon pairs. Results After removing the effects of single codon usage and dipeptide biases we discovered a set of neighboring codons for which avoidances or preferences were conserved in all three domains of life. Such biased codon pairs could be divided into subtypes on the basis of the nucleotide patterns that influence the bias. The most frequently avoided type of codon pair was nnUAnn. We discovered that 95.7% of avoided nnUAnn type patterns contain out-frame UAA or UAG triplets on the sense and/or antisense strand. On average, nnUAnn codon pairs are more frequently avoided in ORFeomes than in genomes. Thus we assume that translational selection plays a major role in the avoidance of these codon pairs. Among the preferred codon pairs, nnGCnn was the major type. Conclusion Translational selection shapes codon pair usage in protein coding sequences by rules that are common to all three domains of life. The most frequently avoided codon pairs contain the patterns nnUAnn, nnGGnn, nnGnnC, nnCGCn, GUCCnn, CUCCnn, nnCnnA or UUCGnn. The most frequently preferred codon pairs contain the patterns nnGCnn, nnCAnn or nnUnCn.
Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.
Calcott, Rebecca D.; Berkman, Elliot T.
Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects’ ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects’ motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects’ preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states. PMID:26000735
Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Besides cognitive factors, children's learning at school may be influenced by more dynamic phenomena, such as motivation and achievement-related task-avoidant behavior. The present study examined the developmental dynamics of task-avoidant behavior and math performance from kindergarten to Grade 4. A total of 225 children were tested for their arithmetic skills in kindergarten and in Grades 1, 2, and 4 of elementary school. Children's task-avoidant behavior in learning situations was rated by...
В. М. Киричко
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the problem of determining who may commit a crime under part 2 article 369-2 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. Defined: 1 only any official or person who provides public services may commit this crime, 2 trading in influence means that said person uses the opportunities associated with his official status for undue influence on a person authorized to perform state functions.
Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.
This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction
I. Stirbu (Irina); A.E. Kunst (Anton); V. Bos (Vivian); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The quality of the healthcare system and its role in influencing mortality of migrant groups can be explored by examining ethnic variations in 'avoidable' mortality. This study investigates the association between the level of mortality from 'avoidable' causes and ethnic
Fischerauer, Stefan F.; Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Bexkens, Rens; Ring, David C.; Oh, Luke S.; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria
Fear avoidance can play a prominent role in maladaptive responses to an injury. In injured athletes, such pain-related fear or fear avoidance behavior may have a substantial influence on the recovery process. Specifically, it may explain why some are able to reach their preinjury abilities, whereas
Terry, W. Scott
Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and…
Renata Nogueira Braga
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigates the association between mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adoption and corporate tax avoidance. In this study, tax avoidance is defined as a reduction in the effective corporate income tax rate through tax planning activities, whether these are legal, questionable, or even illegal. Three measures of tax avoidance are used and factors at the country and firm level (that have already been associated with tax avoidance in prior research are controlled. Using samples that range from 9,389 to 15,423 publicly-traded companies from 35 countries, covering 1999 to 2014, it is found that IFRS adoption is associated with higher levels of corporate tax avoidance, even when the level of book-tax conformity required in the countries and the volume of accruals are controlled, both of which are considered potential determinants of this relationship. Furthermore, the results suggest that after IFRS adoption, firms in higher book-tax conformity environments engage more in tax avoidance than firms in lower book-tax conformity environments. It is also identified that engagement in tax avoidance after IFRS adoption derives not only from accruals management, but also from practices that do not involve accruals. The main conclusion is that companies engage more in tax avoidance after mandatory IFRS adoption.
Rattel, Julina A; Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H
Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task. After differential acquisitions of shock-expectancy to a predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+), participants underwent extinction where they could either take a risky shortcut, while anticipating shock signaled by the CS+, or choose a costly avoidance option (lengthy detour); thus, they were faced with an approach-avoidance conflict. Groups with higher avoidance costs (longer detours) showed lower proportions of avoiders. Avoiders gave heightened shock-expectancy ratings post-extinction, demonstrating 'protecting from extinction', i.e. failure to extinguish. Moreover, there was an indirect effect of avoidance costs on protection from extinction through avoidance behaviour. No moderating role of trait-anxiety was found. Theoretical implications of avoidance behaviour are discussed, considering the involvement of instrumental learning in the maintenance of fear responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D
Transmissible pathogens are the bane of social animals, so they have evolved behaviours to decrease the probability of infection. There is no record, however, of social animals avoiding diseased individuals of their own species in the wild. Here we show how healthy, normally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) avoid conspecifics that are infected with a lethal virus. Early detection and avoidance of infected, though not yet infectious, individuals by healthy lobsters confers a selective advantage and highlights the importance of host behaviour in disease transmission among natural populations.
Rebecca, Rodillas; Hanna, Bjärkvik
Background - Supply is nowadays higher than the demand, making it possible for consumers to pick, choose and purchase brands that responds to their individual identity. Due to the numerous offerings available, consumers have started to become resistant and they are now withstanding the influence of brands marketing activities. The concept of brand avoidance is one type of personal anti-consumption behaviour which deals with understanding why consumers actively avoid purchasing a specific bran...
Reyes, Sussanne; Peirano, Patricio; Luna, Beatriz; Lozoff, Betsy; Algarín, Cecilia
Reward system and inhibitory control are brain functions that exert an influence on eating behavior regulation. We studied the differences in inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward and loss avoidance between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents. We assessed 51 overweight/obese and 52 normal-weight 15-y-old Chilean adolescents. The groups were similar regarding sex and intelligence quotient. Using Antisaccade and Incentive tasks, we evaluated inhibitory control and the effect of incentive trials (neutral, loss avoidance, and reward) on generating correct and incorrect responses (latency and error rate). Compared to normal-weight group participants, overweight/obese adolescents showed shorter latency for incorrect antisaccade responses (186.0 (95% CI: 176.8-195.2) vs. 201.3 ms (95% CI: 191.2-211.5), P reward (41.0 (95% CI: 34.5-47.5) vs. 49.8% (95% CI: 43.0-55.1), P reward and loss avoidance trials. These findings could suggest that an imbalance of inhibition and reward systems influence their eating behavior.
... Search English Español Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles KidsHealth / For Parents / Toddlers at the Table: ... common concerns into opportunities to teach healthy eating habits. Most Toddlers Are Picky Eaters Many toddlers express ...
... patientinstructions/000865.htm How to avoid overheating during exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... condition can get heat illness. Stay Cool During Exercise Try these tips to help prevent heat-related ...
Wang, Yu; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J
This paper analyzes the performance of directional collision avoidance schemes, in which antenna systems are used to direct the transmission and reception of control and data packets in channel access...
... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... during pregnancy Foods to avoid or limit during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...
Fisher, E R; Partin, K M
Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...
... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...
Ana Carolina eSaraiva
Full Text Available Behaviour is influenced by the emotional content – or valence – of stimuli in our environment. Positive stimuli facilitate approach, whereas negative stimuli facilitate defensive actions such as avoidance (flight and attack (fight. Facilitation of approach or avoidance movements may also be influenced by whether it is the self that moves relative to a stimulus (self-reference or the stimulus that moves relative to the self (object-reference, adding flexibility and context-dependence to behaviour. Alternatively, facilitation of approach avoidance movements may happen in a predefined and muscle-specific way, whereby arm flexion is faster to approach positive (e.g. flexing the arm brings a stimulus closer and arm extension faster to avoid negative stimuli (e.g. extending the arm moves the stimulus away. While this allows for relatively fast responses, it may compromise the flexibility offered by contextual influences. Here we asked under which conditions approach-avoidance actions are influenced by contextual factors (i.e. reference-frame. We manipulated the reference-frame in which actions occurred by asking participants to move a symbolic manikin (representing the self towards or away from a positive or negative stimulus, and move a stimulus towards or away from the manikin. We also controlled for the type of movements used to approach or avoid in each reference. We show that the reference-frame influences approach-avoidance actions to emotional stimuli, but additionally we find muscle-specificity for negative stimuli in self-reference contexts. We speculate this muscle-specificity may be a fast and adaptive response to threatening stimuli. Our results confirm that approach-avoidance behaviour is flexible and reference-frame dependent, but can be muscle-specific depending on the context and valence of the stimulus. Reference-frame and stimulus-evaluation are key factors in guiding approach-avoidance behaviour towards emotional stimuli in our
Indah Dwi Pratama; Ujang Sumarwan; Hari Wijayanto
One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES), advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the p...
Bill B. Francis
Full Text Available We investigate whether tax avoidance substitutes for external financing. We exploit interstate banking deregulation as a quasi-external shock to examine whether firms engage in less tax avoidance after banking deregulation, because of cheaper and easier access to credit from banks. We find no empirical evidence to support this substitutive relation, even for firms with higher financial constraints or firms with higher external financing dependence.
COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C
O Nions, E.; Viding, E.; Greven, C. U.; Ronald, A.; Happé, F.
'Pathological Demand Avoidance' is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to 'socially manipulative' behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand avoidance is thought to share aspects of social impairment with autism spectrum disorders, but autism spectrum disorder-appropriate strategies, such as routine and repetition, ...
Pickett, Scott M; Kurby, Christopher A
Experiential avoidance is a functional class of maladaptive strategies that contribute to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Although previous research has demonstrated group differences in the interpretation of aversive stimuli, there is limited work on the influence of experiential avoidance during the online processing of emotion. An experimental design investigated the influence of self-reported experiential avoidance during emotion processing by assessing emotion inferences during the comprehension of narratives that imply different emotions. Results suggest that experiential avoidance is partially characterized by an emotional information processing bias. Specifically, individuals reporting higher experiential avoidance scores exhibited a bias towards activating negative emotion inferences, whereas individuals reporting lower experiential avoidance scores exhibited a bias towards activating positive emotion inferences. Minimal emotional inference was observed for the non-bias affective valence. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications of experiential avoidance as a cognitive vulnerability for psychopathology.
Mara M. de Andréa
Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.
Wilson, Robert S; Buchman, Aron S; Arnold, Steven E; Shah, Raj C; Tang, Yuxiao; Bennett, David A
The relation of personality to disability in old age is not well understood. The authors examined the relation of harm avoidance, a trait indicating a tendency to worry, fear uncertainty, be shy, and tire easily, to disability in a group of 474 older persons without dementia. Participants completed the 35-item Harm Avoidance scale. Disability was assessed with the Rosow-Breslau scale, a self-report measure of physical mobility. Performance-based tests of lower limb functions were also administered from which composite measures of gait, balance, and strength were derived. In a logistic regression model controlled for age, sex, education, and lower limb function, persons with high levels of harm avoidance were nearly three times as likely to report mobility limitations as persons with low levels, and these effects largely reflected fatigability and fear of uncertainty. The association of harm avoidance with disability was not explained or modified by frailty, physical activity, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, or cognition. The results suggest that harm avoidance is associated with disability in old age.
Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Supurna; Ghosh, Abhijit
We present a theoretical treatment of DNA stretching and twisting experiments, in which we discuss global topological subtleties of self-avoiding ribbons and provide an underlying justification for the worm-like rod chain (WLRC) model proposed by Bouchiat and Mezard. Some theoretical points regarding the WLRC model are clarified: the 'local writhe formula' and the use of an adjustable cut-off parameter to 'regularize' the model. Our treatment brings out the precise relation between the worm-like chain (WLC), the paraxial worm-like chain (PWLC) and the WLRC models. We describe the phenomenon of 'topological untwisting' and the resulting collapse of link sectors in the WLC model and note that this leads to a free energy profile periodic in the applied link. This periodicity disappears when one takes into account the topology of self-avoidance or at large stretch forces (paraxial limit). We note that the difficult non-local notion of self-avoidance can be replaced (in an approximation) by the simpler local notion of 'south avoidance'. This gives an explanation for the efficacy of the approach of Bouchiat and Mezard in explaining the 'hat curves' using the WLRC model, which is a south avoiding model. We propose a new class of experiments to probe the continuous transition between the periodic and aperiodic behaviour of the free energy
Johnson, H D; LaVoie, J C; Spenceri, M C; Mahoney-Wernli, M A
Failure to resolve peer conflict is associated with children's reports of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance. Although these relationships are well established, researchers have not examined the association between the avoidance of peer conflict and various adjustment characteristics. The current study examined the association between avoidance of conflict and measures of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance for 59 pupils in Grade 4 (31 boys and 28 girls) and 47 in Grade 8 (22 boys and 25 girls). Volunteers indicated that conflict avoidance based on autonomy, e.g., independence issues, and interpersonal issues, e.g., closeness and cohesion, was associated with scores on loneliness for boys and girls, respectively. Conflict avoidance for emotional and physical well-being and fear of punishment was associated with increased reports of loneliness and social anxiety for children in Grade 4.
Feng Yun; Ding Li; Huang Yun-Han; Guan Zhi-Hong
In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on random surfer networks with infected avoidance (IA) strategy. In particular, we consider that susceptible individuals’ moving direction angles are affected by the current location information received from infected individuals through a directed information network. The model is mainly analyzed by discrete-time numerical simulations. The results indicate that the IA strategy can restrain epidemic spreading effectively. However, when long-distance jumps of individuals exist, the IA strategy’s effectiveness on restraining epidemic spreading is heavily reduced. Finally, it is found that the influence of the noises from information transferring process on epidemic spreading is indistinctive. (paper)
De Callatay, A.
A project of layered software architecture is proposed: a safety-critical real-time non-stop simple kernel system includes a layer avoiding threatening actions from operators or programs in other control systems. Complex process-control applications (such as fuzzy systems) are useful for the smooth operation of the system, optimum productivity, efficient diagnostics, and safe management of degraded modes of operation. Defects in these complex process-control applications do not have an impact on safety if their commands have first to be accepted by a safety-critical module. The development, testing, and certification of complex applications computed in the outside layers can be made simpler and less expensive than for those in the kernel. Avoidance systems use rule-base systems having negative fuzzy conditions and actions. Animal and human behaviour cannot be explained without active avoidance
A new apparatus for active avoidance training in rats consists of a short, wide runway which can be tilted from a horizontal to vertical position. One half of the electrifiable grid floor is covered by a nonconducting sheet. For brightness (black-white) discrimination training a white walled goal box can be inserted into the runway and shifted from left to right during training. Avoidance training of 24 rats (female Wistar SPF) required 14.1 +/- 2.6 (mean +/- SEM) to-criterion trials (9/10) and was completed in less than 4 min. Brightness discrimination training required 21.3 +/- 2.1 to-criterion trials and the time of training did not exceed 12 min. The retention of the acquired responses was very good in both cases. The main advantage of the apparatus is very rapid acquisition of the one-way and discriminated avoidance without the necessity of manual manipulation of the animal.
M. Paul Latiolais
Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.
Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier
from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... on information control to insulating leaders by using technical experts and agencies as 'lightning rods.' In 2003, the Chinese strategy of information containment and secrecy backfired, and the Chinese leadership eventually received blame at home and internationally for crisis mismanagement. In 2009, China put...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....
Živić, I.; Elezović-Hadžić, S.; Milošević, S.
We have studied the statistics of semiflexible polymer chains modeled by crossing-avoiding trails (CAT) situated on the family of plane-filling (PF) fractals. The fractals are compact, that is, their fractal dimension d_f is equal to 2 for all members of the fractal family. By applying the exact and Monte Carlo real-space renormalization group method we have calculated the critical exponent ν, which governs the scaling behavior of the end-to-end distance of the polymer, as well as the entropic critical exponent γ, for a large set of fractals, and various values of polymer flexibility. Our results, obtained for CAT model on PF fractals, show that both critical exponents depend on the polymer flexibility, in such a way that less flexible polymer chains display enlarged values of ν, and diminished values of γ. We have compared the obtained results for CAT model with the known results for the self-avoiding walk and self-avoiding trail models and discussed the influence of excluded volume effect on the values of semiflexible polymer critical exponents, for a large set of studied compact fractals.
Knockaert, J.; Bakens, J.; Ettema, D.F.; Verhoef, E.
The Dutch road network is becoming increasingly congested. In late 2006, a group of companies, universities and government institutions established the Spitsmijden project. ‘Spitsmijden’ is the Dutch term for ‘avoiding the peak’. This joint initiative aimed to identify and assess a short-term
Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.
The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to
Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.
Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are
Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.
Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are
Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.
Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive
Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K W
Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive
O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca
"Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…
HAIRIAH, K; VANNOORDWIJK, M; STULEN, [No Value; KUIPER, PJC
The hypothesis was tested that the avoidance of acid subsoil by the velvet bean Mucuna pruriens is based on a mechanism acting on the whole root system rather than on individual roots. In a split-root experiment with circulating nutrient solution the growth of plants with Al-containing (+/+) or
Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can significantly decrease perinatal mortality. H. R. G. Ward, G. R. Howarth, O. J. N. Jennings,. R. C. Pattinson .... 6 months) and seven interns. The study was .... maternity care notes study: a randomized control trial to assess the effects of giving expectant mothers ...
Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van
Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM.
Renshaw, Domeena C.
Discusses the complexities of sexual avoidance, or Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD), a previously neglected aspect of a couple's relationship. Suggests that learning from a therapist to accept and enjoy other forms of sexual exchange can open up new horizons of physical and emotional intimacy. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)
Wang, Dizhong; Lin, Jiajian
Recent years, the flight control technology over quadcopter has been boosted vigorously and acquired the comprehensive application in a variety of industries. However, it is prominent for there to be problems existed in the stable and secure flight with the development of its autonomous flight. Through comparing with the characteristics of ultrasonic ranging and laser Time-of-Flight(abbreviated to ToF) distance as well as vision measurement and its related sensors, the obstacle detection and identification sensors need to be installed in order to effectively enhance the safety flying for aircraft, which is essential for avoiding the dangers around the surroundings. That the major sensors applied to objects perception at present are distance measuring instruments which based on the principle and application of non-contact detection technology . Prior to acknowledging the general principles of flight and obstacle avoiding, the aerodynamics modeling of the quadcopter and its object detection means has been initially determined on this paper. Based on such premise, this article emphasized on describing and analyzing the research on obstacle avoiding technology and its application status, and making an expectation for the trend of its development after analyzing the primary existing problems concerning its accuracy object avoidance.
... to-date information, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) website -- www.cdc.gov/zika . To prevent getting the Zika virus, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Sexual transmission of the virus can be prevented by using condoms ...
Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan
The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.
Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.
We examined attitudes towards spiders by employing an Approach-Avoidance Task, in which participants respond to pictures by pulling a joystick towards themselves or by pushing it away from themselves. For spider fearfuls, this stimulus–response assignment is either compatible (push spiders away) or
The efficacy of diets advocating extreme macronutrient manipulation has been reviewed extensively. Studies involving participation for 12 months or longer revealed that diet adherence, length of intervention and level of calorie. ISSUES IN MEDICINE. Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity. Maria Elizabeth Catsicas.
Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…
Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both
Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)
A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.
Andersen, Martin Marchman
In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about...
Stuyt, Floran H.A.; Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry .J.A.
The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm
Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E
around the year 2000, with 1,890 among men and fewer than 25 among women. The proportions that could be avoided if industrial carcinogens were eliminated would be 70% of mesotheliomas, 20% of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses, 12% of lung cancers, 5% of laryngeal cancers, 2% of urinary bladder...
Reb, Jochen; Connolly, Terry
Decision makers can become trapped by "myopic regret avoidance" in which rejecting feedback to avoid short-term "outcome regret" (regret associated with counterfactual outcome comparisons) leads to reduced learning and greater long-term regret over continuing poor decisions. In a series of laboratory experiments involving repeated choices among…
Zhou, Zhuping; Cai, Yifei; Ke, Ruimin; Yang, Jiwei
Grouping is a common phenomenon in pedestrian crowds and group modeling is still an open challenging problem. When grouping pedestrians avoid each other, different patterns can be observed. Pedestrians can keep close with group members and avoid other groups in cluster. Also, they can avoid other groups separately. Considering this randomness in avoidance patterns, we propose a collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups. In our model, the avoidance model is proposed based on velocity obstacle method at first. Then grouping model is established using Distance constrained line (DCL), by transforming DCL into the framework of velocity obstacle, the avoidance model and grouping model are successfully put into one unified calculation structure. Within this structure, an algorithm is developed to solve the problem when solutions of the two models conflict with each other. Two groups of bidirectional pedestrian experiments are designed to verify the model. The accuracy of avoidance behavior and grouping behavior is validated in the microscopic level, while the lane formation phenomenon and fundamental diagrams is validated in the macroscopic level. The experiments results show our model is convincing and has a good expansibility to describe three or more pedestrian groups.
Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
The current study focuses on the propensity of drivers to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers in relation to driver attributes, critical events, crash characteristics, vehicles involved, road characteristics, and environmental conditions. The importance of avoidance maneuvers derives from the key role of proactive and state-aware road users within the concept of sustainable safety systems, as well as from the key role of effective corrective maneuvers in the success of automated in-vehicle warning and driver assistance systems. The analysis is conducted by means of a mixed logit model that represents the selection among 5 emergency lateral and speed control maneuvers (i.e., "no avoidance maneuvers," "braking," "steering," "braking and steering," and "other maneuvers) while accommodating correlations across maneuvers and heteroscedasticity. Data for the analysis were retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the year 2009 by considering drivers for which crash avoidance maneuvers are known. The results show that (1) the nature of the critical event that made the crash imminent greatly influences the choice of crash avoidance maneuvers, (2) women and elderly have a relatively lower propensity to conduct crash avoidance maneuvers, (3) drowsiness and fatigue have a greater negative marginal effect on the tendency to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers than alcohol and drug consumption, (4) difficult road conditions increase the propensity to perform crash avoidance maneuvers, and (5) visual obstruction and artificial illumination decrease the probability to carry out crash avoidance maneuvers. The results emphasize the need for public awareness campaigns to promote safe driving style for senior drivers and warning about the risks of driving under fatigue and distraction being comparable to the risks of driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs. Moreover, the results suggest the need to educate drivers about hazard perception, designing
Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.
Drawing upon media agenda-setting theory and previous studies in organizational impression management, this paper empirically investigates the influence of tax avoidance news on corporate tax reporting. This study is based on the pronounced discontinuity in the amount of news articles related to tax avoidance in the United Kingdom over two periods (2010-2011 and 2012-2013). A difference-in-differences design is employed in order to enable a comparison of the media effects on those firms that ...
Martin Lacroix; Armin Pircher Verdorfer
This study tested the effect of servant leadership on followers’ inclinations to strive for and, in contrast, to avoid leadership responsibility. Results from a study in the health care context, including two waves of data from 222 employees, revealed that servant leadership had a small but positive effect on followers’ leadership avoidance. This effect was influenced by followers’ implicit conception of an ideal leader. Specifically, servant leadership was found to reduce leadership avoidanc...
Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.
Pracht, Etienne E; Orban, Barbara L; Comins, Meg M; Large, John T; Asin-Oostburg, Virginia
Avoidable hospitalizations represent a key indicator for access to, and the quality of, primary care. Therefore, understanding their behavior is essential in terms of management of healthcare resources and costs. This analysis examines the affect of 2 healthcare strategies on the rate of avoidable hospitalization, managed care and the healthcare safety net. The avoidable hospitalizations definition developed by Weissman et al. (1992) was used to identify relevant inpatient episodes. A 2-stage simultaneous equations multivariate regression model with instrumental variables was used to estimate the relative influence of HMO penetration and the composition of local hospital markets on the rate of avoidable hospitalizations. Control variables in the model include healthcare supply and demand, demographic, socioeconomic, and health status characteristics. Increased market presence of public hospitals significantly reduced avoidable hospitalizations. HMO penetration did not influence the rate of avoidable hospitalizations. The results suggest that public investments in healthcare facilities and infrastructure are more effective in reducing avoidable hospitalizations. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.
Gordon JG Asmundson
Full Text Available The fear-avoidance model of chronic musculoskeletal pain has become an increasingly popular conceptualization of the processes and mechanisms through which acute pain can become chronic. Despite rapidly growing interest and research regarding the influence of fear-avoidance constructs on pain-related disability in children and adolescents, there have been no amendments to the model to account for unique aspects of pediatric chronic pain. A comprehensive understanding of the role of fear-avoidance in pediatric chronic pain necessitates understanding of both child/adolescent and parent factors implicated in its development and maintenance. The primary purpose of the present article is to propose an empirically-based pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain that accounts for both child/adolescent and parent factors as well as their potential interactive effects. To accomplish this goal, the present article will define important fear-avoidance constructs, provide a summary of the general fear-avoidance model and review the growing empirical literature regarding the role of fear-avoidance constructs in pediatric chronic pain. Assessment and treatment options for children with chronic pain will also be described in the context of the proposed pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain. Finally, avenues for future investigation will be proposed.
Full Text Available Taking ARM embedded Linux operating system as the development platform,combined with AVR microcontroller,while optimizing the ranging algorithm and using air ultrasonic transducer,the measurement range of which can be up to 50 meter,this paper designs a high-precision,range far,low price,various models suitable automobile collision avoidance warning system.The system adopts Forlinx OK6410 development board for the master.AVR microcontroller is responsible for taking the data of traveling distance between vehicles,and with the ARM development board via RS232 communication transfers vehicle′s distance and speed information to the ARM development boards.The system uses the established collision avoidance model to get alarm information.Experiments show that the system can accurately send out alarm information within a certain range.It is innovative and practical.
Freeman, Todd I
Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.
Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.
There are three specific purposes of Construction Dispute Research. First, this volume aims to summarise studies on construction dispute. Second, apart from the theoretical constructs, where appropriate empirical tests are also included. This approach serves to go beyond the commonly used anecdotal approach for the subject matters. Third, it is the sincere hope of the authors that this book will help shaping research agenda of construction dispute. The studies are mostly framed from a management perspective drawing on methods and concepts in contract law, economics, psychology and management science. The book has twenty chapters that are arranged in four parts covering conceptualisation, avoidance, negotiation and mediation. Part 1 is devoted for dispute conceptualisation. A building is only as strong as its foundation. Thus it is no better start to study construction dispute by conceptualisation. The theme of Part 2 is dispute avoidance. The conventional wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ se...
Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard
Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.
Spiegler, Kevin M; Fortress, Ashley M; Pang, Kevin C H
Differential processing of danger and safety signals may underlie symptoms of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. One symptom common to these disorders is pathological avoidance. The present study examined whether danger and safety signals influence avoidance differently in anxiety-vulnerable Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. SD and WKY rats were tested in a novel progressive ratio avoidance task with and without danger or safety signals. Two components of reinforcement, hedonic value and motivation, were determined by fitting an exponentiated demand equation to the data. Hedonic value of avoidance did not differ between SD and WKY rats, but WKY rats had greater motivation to avoid than SD rats. Removal of the safety signal reduced motivation to avoid in SD, but not WKY, rats. Removal of the danger signal did not alter avoidance in either strain. When danger and safety signals were presented simultaneously, WKY rats responded to the danger signals, whereas SD rats responded to the safety signal. The results provide evidence that 1) safety signals enhance motivation to avoid in SD rats, 2) both danger and safety signals influence motivation in WKY rats, and 3) danger signals take precedence over safety signals when presented simultaneously in WKY rats. Thus, anxiety vulnerability is associated with preferential use of danger signals to motivate avoidance. The differential use of danger and safety signals has important implications for the etiology and treatment of pathological avoidance in anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Uziel, Guy; El-Yaniv, Ran
We present a novel online ensemble learning strategy for portfolio selection. The new strategy controls and exploits any set of commission-oblivious portfolio selection algorithms. The strategy handles transaction costs using a novel commission avoidance mechanism. We prove a logarithmic regret bound for our strategy with respect to optimal mixtures of the base algorithms. Numerical examples validate the viability of our method and show significant improvement over the state-of-the-art.
GUY A. FRENCH JOSEPH C. PRICE, MAJ, USAF Work Unit Manager Acting Chief, Supervisory Control and Cognition Branch Supervisory Control and Cognition...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON (Monitor) a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Guy French 19b. TELEPHONE...the ability to detect and safely avoid other aircraft in flight ( Cook & Davis, 2013). In order to increase UAS flight safety and support UAS
Full Text Available The problem of resolving issues pertaining to tax avoidance, and particularly its aggressive forms, has been the focal point of discussion among tax scholars which is increasingly gaining attention of politicians alike. As opposed to tax evasion (which is illegal, the phenomenon of tax avoidance calls for careful consideration of state fiscal interests and a highly precise demarcation of the thin line between the acceptable and unacceptable conduct. In many contemporary states, tax avoidance (which implies a formal behaviour of tax payers within the limits of tax legislation but contrary to the tax regulation objectives is declared to be illegitimate. State authorities do not want to tolerate such activity, which results in tax payers' reduction or avoidance of tax liabilities. We should also bear in mind that all tax payers have the tax planning option at their disposal, by means of which they make sure that they do not pay more tax than they are legally obliged to. However, in case they skilfully use the tax regulation flaws and loopholes for the sole purpose of tax evasion, and/or resort to misrepresentation and deceptive constructs, they are considered to be exceeding the limits of acceptable tax behaviour. In comparison to the specific anti-abuse measures which have been built into some national tax legislations, there is a growing number of states that introduce the general anti-abuse legislations, which is based on judicial doctrines or statutory legislation. Yet, there is a notable difference among the envisaged anti-abuse measures depending on whether the national legislation is based on the Anglo-American or European-Continental legal system. The efficiency of applying these general anti-abuse rules in taxation largely rests on their interpretation as well as on their relationship with the principle of legality.
the top of a flight of stairs selects for climbing ; suspending the robot and the target object above the ground and creating rungs between the two will...REPORT Avoiding Local Optimawith Interactive Evolutionary Robotics 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The main bottleneck in evolutionary... robotics has traditionally been the time required to evolve robot controllers. However with the continued acceleration in computational resources, the
The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting m...
Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W
Objective The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan. Following 4 blocks of training, we tested if the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. We tested for task-related differences in brain activity in 3 ROIs, the caudate, putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex at a statistical threshold of phabit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyper-activation in the caudate. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyper-activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) during the acquisition of avoidance, however this did not relate directly to habit formation. Conclusions OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyper-activation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Prior studies suggest that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the build up of stimulus-response habits themselves. PMID:25526600
Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi
The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of
Choi, Jung Il; Jain, Mayank; Kazandjieva, Maria A.; Levis, Philip
We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.
Choi, Jung Il
We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.
Hallem, Elissa A; Sternberg, Paul W
Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFbeta signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm.
Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.
In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.
Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M
Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.
Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M
Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588
Zijlmans, L.J.M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Gerits, L.; Derksen, J.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
Background Challenging behaviour of clients influences emotional wellbeing of staff; this in turn affects levels of staff engagement and avoidance within interactions with clients. The main goal of this study was to investigate to what extent levels of staff engagement and staff avoidance are
Full Text Available The author of this paper (Dr. Ivo Pezzuto has been one of the first authors to write back in 2008 about the alleged "subprime mortgage loans fraud" which has triggered the 2008 financial crisis, in combination with multiple other complex, highly interrelated, and concurrent factors. The author has been also one of the first authors to report in that same working paper of 2008 (available on SSRN and titled "Miraculous Financial Engineering or Toxic Finance? The Genesis of the U.S. Subprime Mortgage Loans Crisis and its Consequences on the Global Financial Markets and Real Economy" the high probability of a Eurozone debt crisis, due to a number of unsolved structural macroeconomic problems, the lack of a single crisis resolution scheme, current account imbalances, and in some countries, housing bubbles/high private debt. In the book published in 2013 and titled "Predictable and Avoidable: Repairing Economic Dislocation and Preventing the Recurrence of Crisis", Dr. Ivo Pezzuto has exposed the root causes of the financial crisis in order to enables readers to understand that the crisis we have seen was predictable and should have been avoidable, and that a recurrence can be avoided, if lessons are learned and the right action taken. Almost one year after the publication of the book "Predictable and Avoidable: Repairing Economic Dislocation and Preventing the Recurrence of Crisis", the author has decided to write this working paper to explore what happened in the meantime to the financial markets and to the financial regulation implementation. Most of all, the author with this working paper aims to provide an updated analysis as strategist and scenario analyst on the topics addressed in the book "Predictable and Avoidable" based on a forward-looking perspective and on potential "tail risk" scenarios. The topics reported in this paper relate to financial crises; Government policy; financial regulation; corporate governance; credit risk management
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative collision avoidance radar and communication technology to detect and track both cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The system...
Laurel S. Morris
Full Text Available Background: Functional neurological disorder (FND is an elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms alongside aberrant cognitive processing and negative affect, often associated with amygdala reactivity. Methods: We examined the effect of negative conditioning on cognitive function and amygdala reactivity in 25 FND patients and 20 healthy volunteers (HV. Participants were first conditioned to stimuli paired with negative affective or neutral (CS+/CS− information. During functional MRI, subjects then performed an instrumental associative learning task to avoid monetary losses in the context of the previously conditioned stimuli. We expected that FND patients would be better at learning to avoid losses when faced with negatively conditioned stimuli (increased harm avoidance. Multi-echo resting state fMRI was also collected from the same subjects and a robust denoising method was employed, important for removing motion and physiological artifacts. Results: FND subjects were more sensitive to the negative CS+ compared to HV, demonstrated by a reinforcement learning model. Contrary to expectation, FND patients were generally more impaired at learning to avoid losses under both contexts (CS+/CS−, persisting to choose the option that resulted in a negative outcome demonstrated by both behavioural and computational analyses. FND patients showed enhanced amygdala but reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses when they received negative feedback. Patients also had increased resting state functional connectivity between these two regions. Conclusions: FND patients had impaired instrumental avoidance learning, findings that parallel previous observations of impaired action-outcome binding. FND patients further show enhanced behavioural and neural sensitivity to negative information. However, this did not translate to improved avoidance learning. Put together, our findings do not support the theory of harm avoidance in FND
Full Text Available A life-support service robot must avoid both static and dynamic obstacles for working in a real environment. Here, a static obstacle means an obstacle that does not move, and a dynamic obstacle is the one that moves. Assuming the robot is following a target person, we discuss how the robot avoids a crowd through which the target person passes and arrives at the target position. The purpose of this paper is to propose a crowd avoidance method that makes a robot to be able to avoid both static and dynamic obstacles. The method uses the surface points of the obstacles to form an avoidance region, and the robot moves along the edge of the region. We conducted experiments assuming various situations such that the robot was blocked, there was a wide gap in the crowd, or a person in the crowd yielded for the robot to pass through. As an experimental result, it was confirmed the robot could avoid the crowd even when the obstacles were aligned in an “inverted wedge” shape.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats receive information from other conspecifics by observation or other types of social interaction. Such social interaction may contribute to the effective adaptation to changes of environment such as situational switching. Learning to avoid dangerous places or objects rapidly occurs with even a single conditioning session, and the conditioned memory tends to be sustained over long periods. The avoidance is important for adaptation, but the details of the conditions under which the social transmission of avoidance is formed are unknown. We demonstrate that the previous experience of avoidance learning is important for the formation of behaviors for social transmission of avoidance and that the experienced rats adapt to a change of situation determined by the presence or absence of aversive stimuli. We systematically investigated social influence on avoidance behavior using a passive avoidance test in a light/dark two-compartment apparatus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into two groups, one receiving foot shocks and another with no aversive experience in a dark compartment. Experienced and inexperienced rats were further divided into subjects and partners. In Experiment 1, each subject experienced (1 interaction with an experienced partner, (2 interaction with an inexperienced partner, or (3 no interaction. In Experiment 2, each subject experienced interaction with a partner that received a shock. The entering latency to a light compartment was measured. The avoidance behavior of experienced rats was inhibited by interaction with inexperienced or experienced partners in a safely-changed situation. The avoidance of experienced rats was reinstated in a dangerously-changed situation by interaction with shocked rats. In contrast, the inexperienced rats were not affected by any social circumstances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that transmitted information among rats can be updated under a
Calley, Darren Q; Jackson, Steven; Collins, Heather; George, Steven Z
Cross-sectional. To evaluate the accuracy with which physical therapists identify fear-avoidance beliefs in patients with low back pain by comparing therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance to the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia 11-item (TSK-11), and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). To compare the concurrent validity of therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance and a 2-item questionnaire on fear of physical activity and harm, with clinical measures of fear-avoidance (FABQ, TSK-11, PCS), pain intensity as assessed with a numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), and disability as assessed with the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ). The need to consider psychosocial factors for identifying patients at risk for disability and chronic low back pain has been well documented. Yet the ability of physical therapists to identify fear-avoidance beliefs using direct observation has not been studied. Eight physical therapists and 80 patients with low back pain from 3 physical therapy clinics participated in the study. Patients completed the FABQ, TSK-11, PCS, ODQ, NPRS, and a dichotomous 2-item fear-avoidance screening questionnaire. Following the initial evaluation, physical therapists rated perceived patient fear-avoidance on a 0-to-10 scale and recorded 2 influences on their ratings. Spearman correlation and independent t tests determined the level of association of therapist 0-to-10 ratings and 2-item screening with fear-avoidance and clinical measures. Therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance had fair to moderate interrater reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.663). Therapist ratings did not strongly correlate with FABQ or TSK-11 scores. Instead, they unexpectedly had stronger associations with ODQ and PCS scores. Both 2-item screening questions were associated with FABQ-physical activity scores, while the fear of physical activity question was also associated with FABQ-work, TSK-11, PCS, and ODQ scores
Paschall, Steve; Brady, Tye; Sostaric, Ron
The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing the software and hardware technology needed to support a safe and precise landing for the next generation of lunar missions. ALHAT provides this capability through terrain-relative navigation measurements to enhance global-scale precision, an onboard hazard detection system to select safe landing locations, and an Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control (AGNC) capability to process these measurements and safely direct the vehicle to a landing location. This paper focuses on the key trajectory design issues relevant to providing an onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) capability for the lander. Hazard detection can be accomplished by the crew visually scanning the terrain through a window, a sensor system imaging the terrain, or some combination of both. For ALHAT, this hazard detection activity is provided by a sensor system, which either augments the crew s perception or entirely replaces the crew in the case of a robotic landing. Detecting hazards influences the trajectory design by requiring the proper perspective, range to the landing site, and sufficient time to view the terrain. Following this, the trajectory design must provide additional time to process this information and make a decision about where to safely land. During the final part of the HDA process, the trajectory design must provide sufficient margin to enable a hazard avoidance maneuver. In order to demonstrate the effects of these constraints on the landing trajectory, a tradespace of trajectory designs was created for the initial ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle (ALDAC-1) and each case evaluated with these HDA constraints active. The ALHAT analysis process, described in this paper, narrows down this tradespace and subsequently better defines the trajectory design needed to support onboard HDA. Future ALDACs will enhance this trajectory design by balancing these issues and others in an overall system
Full Text Available This paper discusses how to avoid plagiarism in a research paper. Avoiding plagiarism is part of a scientific writing ethic that always stated in any publication. Every writer should pay attention to their papers submitted to a journal or a scientific forum that they are free from unethical conduct. Writing a research paper needs overall accuracy especially in avoiding plagiarism in the paper that is to be published in a journal or to be presented at a certain scientific meeting, seminar or symposium. It is based on writers’ experience as a paper writer as well as a journal reviewer. The first application that the writers use is ‘checker’, a Mac computer application, used to check spelling and grammar. It assists the writers to check how misspelling and an ungrammatical inaccuracy in the writers’ papers. The second free application is ‘plagiarism checker’. Checking originality of a paper is essential and it is not too difficult to do today. It is freely accessible that plagiarism checker can be used to check how original the paper is. By visiting “Google” then write down ‘plagiarism checker’, it will appear ‘smallseatools’ and then the writers could choose and check how original the paper is. This application is freely accessed and helps immensely to check how original a paper is and how far a paper is free from plagiarism. The unoriginal phrase will be underlined and marked red and finally will be shown how inimitable the paper is. Plagiarism scan report which consists of the date of the report, plagiarism status, total words and total characters can be downloaded.
Bischoff, Andrea; Levitt, Marc A; Lawal, Taiwo A; Peña, Alberto
Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48-72 h after the operation. The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung's disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic stricture and no mortality. Based on
Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III
The Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) domain addresses the development, integration, testing, and spaceflight infusion of sensing, processing, and GN&C functions critical to the success and safety of future human and robotic exploration missions. PL&HA sensors also have applications to other mission events, such as rendezvous and docking. Autonomous PL&HA builds upon the core GN&C capabilities developed to enable soft, controlled landings on the Moon, Mars, and other solar system bodies. Through the addition of a Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) function, precision landing within tens of meters of a map-based target is possible. The addition of a 3-D terrain mapping lidar sensor improves the probability of a safe landing via autonomous, real-time Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA). PL&HA significantly improves the probability of mission success and enhances access to sites of scientific interest located in challenging terrain. PL&HA can also utilize external navigation aids, such as navigation satellites and surface beacons. Advanced Lidar Sensors High precision ranging, velocimetry, and 3-D terrain mapping Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) TRN compares onboard reconnaissance data with real-time terrain imaging data to update the S/C position estimate Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) Generates a high-resolution, 3-D terrain map in real-time during the approach trajectory to identify safe landing targets Inertial Navigation During Terminal Descent High precision surface relative sensors enable accurate inertial navigation during terminal descent and a tightly controlled touchdown within meters of the selected safe landing target.
Kirsten L Armstrong
Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.
Remedial well work has been, and will continue to be, an integral part of oil company operations. More than 16,000 workover operations were performed during 1993 in the US. The economic impact from workover operations is usually immediate due to flowlines, tank batteries and other equipment being in place and ready for service prior to the workover. Similarly, problems encountered during workover operations contribute an immediate negative impact to project economics. Guidelines for common mistake avoidance are presented. They will be especially helpful for those individuals not well trained in workover preparation and supervision
Full Text Available The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting method,on the other hand, but the comparing of tax reduction between methods of exemption and crediting.
Harms, A A [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)
A novel concept for an intrinsically safe reactor, called the Pellet Suspension Reactor (PSR), has vertical fuel tubes in which fuel, in the form of micro-pellets, is suspended by an upwardly flowing liquid or (preferably) gas coolant. Then, in the event of a primary pump failure, the fuel pellets fall down into a divergent conical annulus which is surrounded by ordinary water; the divergent geometry of this catchment ensures nuclear subcriticality, and the annulus will ensure decay-heat removal by packed-bed conduction. Thus melting of the fuel is avoided, and no emergency shut-down or emergency cooling provisions are required. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.
Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.
An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.
Cockcroft, A N
A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice
The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.
Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.
Li, Yu-Fang; Chao, Minston; Shih, Chih-Ting
Studies that examined the negative impact of violence in emergency departments on nurses' leave and avoidance behavior are well-documented. However, few studies provided an integrated model of how and when violence influences their leave and avoidance behavior. The study adopted Affective Events Theory to propose and examine a model of violent events, negative emotions, and (leave and avoidance) behaviors on nurses in emergency departments and further analyzed whether the model is salient to nurses' occupational burnout, nursing experience, and nursing rank. The sample included 123 emergency department nurses at a teaching hospital in northern, Taiwan. All participants had experienced violent incidents within the preceding 6 months. Moderated mediation analysis suggested that nurses experienced one of two emotional processes following violent incidents: "violence-negative feelings toward work-intention to resign" or "violence-negative emotion and physical symptoms-avoidance tendencies." Moreover, nurses with high burnout levels expressed weaker intention to resign after violent incidents, while nurses with more experience and higher rank were less likely to avoid violence after violent incidents. Emergency nurses do not simply elect to escape but may engage in avoidance behavior. This study revealed that how violent incidents affect nurses' resignation or avoidance behaviors depends on how they feel. Occupational burnout and nurses' attributes affected their behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evans, Travis C; Walukevich, Katherine A; Britton, Jennifer C
Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) often exhibit preferential attention for social threat, demonstrating abnormal orientation to threat (i.e., vigilance-avoidance) and/or difficulty disengaging from threat. However, no research has compared the relationship between attention indices (i.e., vigilance-avoidance, difficulty disengaging from threat) and characteristic features of the disorder such as fear during social situations (social fear) and avoidant behaviors (social avoidance). To address this issue, seventy adults (19.29±1.47 years, 33 females) were separated into low (n=37) or high (n=33) socially anxious groups using clinical cutoff scores on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Participants in both groups completed a dot-probe task with congruent, incongruent, and neutral trials to obtain measures of vigilance-avoidance and difficulty disengaging. Using linear regression, we examined the associations each attention index shared with self-reported social fear and social avoidance. Exclusively in the high anxious group, greater vigilance towards threat was associated with higher self-reported social fear, but not with social avoidance. However, difficulty disengaging was not associated with either social measure. In the low anxiety group, no relationships between attention indices and either social measure emerged. Future research with clinical samples is necessary to replicate and extend these findings. The small sample size studied may have limited our ability to detect other smaller effects. Indices of attention bias may contribute differently to the etiology and maintenance of SAD, which offers important implications for novel treatments that target attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wollburg, Eileen; Braukhaus, Christoph
The present study is the first aimed at investigating the influence of goal definition on treatment outcome in a sample of depressed patients. Data from 657 inpatients admitted to a psychosomatic clinic in Germany being treated in a cognitive-behavioral therapy program were analyzed. Treatment goals were identified as either approach or avoidance, and the sample was classified accordingly. Patients who identified approach goals only were placed in the approach group, and those who identified at least one avoidance goal were placed in the avoidance group. Results showed that framing goals using avoidance terms was associated with less symptomatic improvement but did not affect goal attainment. Findings from this research should be utilized in practice not only for process management such as individual treatment planning but also to control outcome quality. Furthermore, goal definition should be considered as a control variable in research on depression.
Dal Mas, Dennis E; Wittmann, Bianca C
People show a strong tendency to avoid boring situations, but the neural systems mediating this behavioural bias are yet unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the anticipation of a boring task influences decisions to purchase entertainment. Participants accepted higher prices to avoid boredom compared to control tasks, and individual differences in boredom experience predicted the increase in price. This behavioural bias was associated with higher activity in the caudate nucleus during music purchases driven by boredom avoidance. Insula activation was increased during performance of the boring task and subsequently associated with individual differences in boredom-related decision making. These results identify a mechanism that drives decisions to avoid boring situations and potentially underlies consumer decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang
pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue...... social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalized social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.......Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid...
Full Text Available This study tested the effect of servant leadership on followers’ inclinations to strive for and, in contrast, to avoid leadership responsibility. Results from a study in the health care context, including two waves of data from 222 employees, revealed that servant leadership had a small but positive effect on followers’ leadership avoidance. This effect was influenced by followers’ implicit conception of an ideal leader. Specifically, servant leadership was found to reduce leadership avoidance when the congruence with the followers’ ideal leader prototype was high. Furthermore, followers’ core self-evaluations and affective motivation to lead mediated the relationship between servant leadership and reduced leadership avoidance. Implications of these patterns for theory and practice and avenues for future research are discussed.
Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Jooyeon; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Cho, Juhee; Youm, Jung Ho; Choi, Gyu Seog; Hong, Nam Soo; Cho, BeLong; Park, Jong-Hyock
This study aimed to examine the following questions: to what extent do patients and caregivers perceive their family members to be avoidant of communication regarding patient's cancer, and to what extent do these perceptions interrelate; and how do such perceptions influence their own and each other's communication behaviors, communication outcome, mental health, and quality of life. A national survey was performed with 990 patient-caregiver dyads (participation rate, 76.2%). To examine the dyadic interaction, we developed linked patient and family member questionnaires, including the Family Avoidance of Communication about Cancer (FACC) scale. The mean scores (standard deviations) of patient- and caregiver-perceived FACC were low at 10.9 (15.5) and 15.5 (17.5), respectively (p communication, as well as lower levels of mental health outcome and quality of life. The same was true for caregivers (all p communication difficulty within the family. Future research would benefit from the measurement of FACC from both patients and caregivers, and promote family intervention to enhance openness to communication, which would be helpful for improving mental health and quality of life for both patients and caregivers.
Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Tambs, Kristian; Kendler, Kenneth S
The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of comorbidity for social phobia and dimensional representations of avoidant personality disorder by estimating to what extent the two disorders are influenced by common genetic and shared or unique environmental factors versus the extent to which these factors are specific to each disorder. Young adult female-female twin pairs (N=1,427) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed at personal interview for avoidant personality disorder and social phobia using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Bivariate Cholesky models were fitted using the Mx statistical program. The best-fitting model included additive genetic and unique environmental factors only. Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia were influenced by the same genetic factors, whereas the environmental factors influencing the two disorders were uncorrelated. Within the limits of statistical power, these results suggest that there is a common genetic vulnerability to avoidant personality disorder and social phobia in women. An individual with high genetic liability will develop avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia entirely as a result of the environmental risk factors unique to each disorder. The results are in accordance with the hypothesis that psychobiological dimensions span the axis I and axis II disorders.
Effting, Marieke; Salemink, Elske; Verschuere, Bruno; Beckers, Tom
Avoidance behavior is central to several anxiety disorders. The current study tested whether avoidance behavior for spiders depends on a dynamic interplay between implicit and explicit processes, moderated by the availability to exert control through working memory capacity (WMC). A total of 63 participants completed an approach-avoidance task, an implicit association test, a spider fear questionnaire and a behavioral avoidance test that included an assessment of approach distance as well as approach speed. WMC was measured by a complex operation span task. It was hypothesized that in individuals with low WMC, implicit avoidance tendencies and implicit negative associations predict avoidance behavior for a spider better than the explicit measure, whereas in high WMC individuals, the explicit measure should better predict avoidance behavior than the implicit measures. Results revealed that WMC moderated the influence of implicit negative associations, but not implicit avoidance tendencies, on spider approach distance but not the speed of approaching. Although explicit spider fear directly influenced avoidance behavior, its impact was not modulated by WMC. Participants in our study were from a non-clinical sample, which limits the generalizability of our findings. These findings suggest that implicit processes might become more pertinent for fear behavior as the ability to control such processes wanes, which may be particularly relevant for anxiety disorders given their association with lowered executive control functioning. As such, training procedures that specifically target implicit processes or control abilities might improve treatment outcomes for anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malterud, Kirsti; Hollnagel, Hanne
To explore potentials for avoiding humiliations in clinical encounters, especially those that are unintended and unrecognized by the doctor. Furthermore, to examine theoretical foundations of degrading behaviour and identify some concepts that can be used to understand such behaviour in the cultural context of medicine. Finally, these concepts are used to build a model for the clinician in order to prevent humiliation of the patient. Empirical studies document experiences of humiliation among patients when they see their doctor. Philosophical and sociological analysis can be used to explain the dynamics of unintended degrading behaviour between human beings. Skjervheim, Vetlesen, and Bauman have identified the role of objectivism, distantiation, and indifference in the dynamics of evil acts, pointing to the rules of the cultural system, rather than accusing the individual of bad behaviour. Examining the professional role of the doctor, parallel traits embedded in the medical culture are demonstrated. According to Vetlesen, emotional awareness is necessary for moral perception, which again is necessary for moral performance. A better balance between emotions and rationality is needed to avoid humiliations in the clinical encounter. The Awareness Model is presented as a strategy for clinical practice and education, emphasizing the role of the doctor's own emotions. Potentials and pitfalls are discussed.
Walker, Shawn W.
This paper presents a softened notion of proximity (or self-avoidance) for curves. We then derive a sensitivity result, based on shape differential calculus, for the proximity. This is combined with a gradient-based optimization approach to compute three-dimensional, parameterized curves that minimize the sum of an elastic (bending) energy and a proximity energy that maintains self-avoidance by a penalization technique. Minimizers are computed by a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) method where the bending energy and proximity energy are approximated by a finite element method. We then apply this method to two problems. First, we simulate adsorbed polymer strands that are constrained to be bound to a surface and be (locally) inextensible. This is a basic model of semi-flexible polymers adsorbed onto a surface (a current topic in material science). Several examples of minimizing curve shapes on a variety of surfaces are shown. An advantage of the method is that it can be much faster than using molecular dynamics for simulating polymer strands on surfaces. Second, we apply our proximity penalization to the computation of ideal knots. We present a heuristic scheme, utilizing the SQP method above, for minimizing rope-length and apply it in the case of the trefoil knot. Applications of this method could be for generating good initial guesses to a more accurate (but expensive) knot-tightening algorithm.
Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Gnam, William H; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Popova, Svetlana
To estimate avoidable burden and avoidable costs of alcohol abuse in Canada for the year 2002. A policy effectiveness approach was used. The impact of six effective and cost-effective alcohol policy interventions aimed to reduce alcohol consumption was modeled. In addition, the effect of privatized alcohol sales that would increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable costs was also modeled. The effects of these interventions were compared with the baseline (aggregate) costs obtained from the second Canadian Study of Social Costs Attributable to Substance Abuse. It was estimated that by implementing six cost-effective policies from about 900 million to two billion Canadian dollars per year could be saved in Canada. The greatest savings due to the implementation of these interventions would be achieved in the lowering of productivity losses, followed by health care, and criminality. Substantial increases in burden and cost would occur if Canadian provinces were to privatize alcohol sales. The implementation of proven effective population-based interventions would reduce alcohol-attributable burden and its costs in Canada to a considerable degree. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Chowdhury, N.; Billinton, R.; Gupta, R.
A simple and straightforward technique was developed to assess avoided system operating costs associated with non-utility generation (NUG). The technique was based on optimum loading configurations of the committed units both before and after the inclusion of NUG energy. The salient features of the technique were presented in this paper. Assessment of avoided operating cost with deterministic and probabilistic criteria were explained. A time differentiated price system was adopted in the algorithms to reflect the different value placed on purchased price by a utility at different times of the day. The algorithms show the utility effects of dispatchable and non-dispatchable NUG energies. The IEEE Reliability Test System (RTS) was utilized for numerical analysis. Results were illustrated. It was found that sensitivity studies similar to those performed on the IEEE-RTS could be utilized to determine the amount of energy and the time period during which utilities and NUGs can maximize their economic benefits. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G; Peruche, Michelle B
The current work examined factors that contribute to positive interracial interactions. It argues that the source of people's motivation to respond without prejudice and the goals and strategies they pursue in interracial interactions influence the quality of these interactions. Three studies show that non-Black participants who are highly internally motivated to respond without prejudice tend to focus on strategies and behaviors in interactions with Black people that approach a positive (i.e., egalitarian) outcome. As a result of engaging in these approach behaviors, their interracial interactions go more smoothly for both themselves and their interaction partners as compared to people less internally motivated. In contrast, externally motivated people tend to focus on avoiding negative (i.e., prejudiced) outcomes, which ironically results in their coming across to their partners as prejudiced. The implications of the findings for smoothing out the rocky road to positive intergroup interactions are discussed.
Feng, Yun; Ding, Li; Huang, Yun-Han; Guan, Zhi-Hong
In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on random surfer networks with infected avoidance (IA) strategy. In particular, we consider that susceptible individuals’ moving direction angles are affected by the current location information received from infected individuals through a directed information network. The model is mainly analyzed by discrete-time numerical simulations. The results indicate that the IA strategy can restrain epidemic spreading effectively. However, when long-distance jumps of individuals exist, the IA strategy’s effectiveness on restraining epidemic spreading is heavily reduced. Finally, it is found that the influence of the noises from information transferring process on epidemic spreading is indistinctive. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61403284, 61272114, 61673303, and 61672112) and the Marine Renewable Energy Special Fund Project of the State Oceanic Administration of China (Grant No. GHME2013JS01).
Full Text Available This research aims to analyze and get empirical evidence about the effect of audit committee, audit quality, ownership institutional, corporate risk and return on assets on the tax avoidance. Sample of this research were property and real estate industries which are listed in Indonesian Stock Exchanges during 2010-2013 period. The number of property and real estate industries that were became in this study were 22 companies with 4 years observation that acquired by purposive sampling method. Hypothesis in this research were tested by multiple regression model.The result of this research showed that corporate risk and return on assets influence the tax avoidance. In the other hand, the audit quality, audit committee and ownership institutional didn’t influence the tax avoidance.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v5i2.2341
Levitt, Marc A.; Lawal, Taiwo A.; Peña, Alberto
Purpose Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. Methods The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48–72 h after the operation. Results The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung’s disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic
Zimmerman, Jacqueline; Fisher, Martin
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is an entirely new diagnosis in the DSM-5. ARFID replaces "feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood," which was a diagnosis in the DSM-IV restricted to children 6 years of age or younger; ARFID has no such age limitations and it is distinct from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in that there is no body image disturbance. ARFID involves a complex and heterogenous etiology, which is reviewed herein. What is known to date regarding the characteristics and medical and psychiatric comorbidities of this patient population are described and compared to other eating disorders. Evaluation and management strategies are also discussed. No data yet exist regarding ARFID׳s prognosis and prevention; however, recommendations to guide parents in establishing appropriate infant and child feeding practices are provided. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Meheus, Joke; Beirlaen, Mathieu; van de Putte, Frederik
In this paper, we present an adaptive logic for deontic conflicts, called P2.1 r , that is based on Goble's logic SDL a P e - a bimodal extension of Goble's logic P that invalidates aggregation for all prima facie obligations. The logic P2.1 r has several advantages with respect to SDL a P e. For consistent sets of obligations it yields the same results as Standard Deontic Logic and for inconsistent sets of obligations, it validates aggregation "as much as possible". It thus leads to a richer consequence set than SDL a P e. The logic P2.1 r avoids Goble's criticisms against other non-adjunctive systems of deontic logic. Moreover, it can handle all the 'toy examples' from the literature as well as more complex ones.
Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K
and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....
Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
aspects –first developing critical self-refection and secondly developing skills to conduct an ethical dialogue. The first aspect is addressed by finding out what the students think, do they contradict themselves and how to avoid self-contradictions. This is done by using a questionnaire with 13 ethical...... the theory and see the consequences of such theories in concrete cases, but would not use any of these theories to justify their own ethical decisions in other contexts. In other words, courses were failing to provide the students with theoretical tools that they could apply outside the classroom. Therefore......, this method focuses not so much on teaching what other people think, but rather starts by finding out what the students think, and to which degree they contradict themselves. In addition the method focuses on how students argue for their positions when entering an ethical dialogue. The method focuses on two...
Wilcox, B. H.; Gennery, D. B.; Mishkin, A. H.
A Mars rover sample return mission has been proposed for the late 1990's. Due to the long speed-of-light delays between earth and Mars, some autonomy on the rover is highly desirable. JPL has been conducting research in two possible modes of rover operation, Computer-Aided Remote Driving and Semiautonomous Navigation. A recently-completed research program used a half-scale testbed vehicle to explore several of the concepts in semiautonomous navigation. A new, full-scale vehicle with all computational and power resources on-board will be used in the coming year to demonstrate relatively fast semiautonomous navigation. The computational and power requirements for Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance are discussed.
Kim, Jayhyun; Woo, M.H.; Han, H.; In, Y.; Bak, J.G.; Eidietis, N.W.
The final target of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) aims advanced tokamak operation at plasma current 2 MA and toroidal field 3.5 T. In order to safely achieve the target, disruption counter-measures are unavoidable when considering the disruption risks, inevitably accompanied with high performance discharges, such as electro-magnetic load on conducting structures, collisional damage by run-away electrons, and thermal load on plasma facing components (PFCs). In this reason, the establishment of integrated disruption mitigation system (DMS) has been started for routine mega-ampere class operations of KSTAR since 2013 campaign. The DMS mainly consists of the disruption prediction and its avoidance/mitigation in company with logical/technical integration of them. We present the details of KSTAR DMS and the related experimental results in this article. (author)
Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F
Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure.
Cardenal, Violeta; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Martín Frías, Isabel; Martínez Lozano, Joaquina
Two groups of women were assessed in psychological aspects considered by some authors of interest for personal well-being. The sample consisted of 118 women, 58 diagnosed with breast cancer and 60 healthy women, of similar ages and personal circumstances. The purpose of the study was: (a) to explore the existence of stressful life events in the women's history and their degree of subjective distress and (b) to determine whether or not there is an emotional avoidance style in the group of women with breast cancer. The following assessment instruments were employed: the "Cuestionario de Formas de Afrontamiento" (CEA), the Five-Factor Inventory NEO-PI-R, and the State-Trait Anger Inventory (STAXI). The results revealed more stressful vital events in the last two years in the group of women with breast cancer and significant differences in the degree of current distress. They also obtained higher scores in current anger, resignation, and neuroticism.
Rossing, Christian Plesner; Riise Johansen, Thomas; Pearson, Thomas C.
-driven discipline to be dealt with by accounting and tax experts. Instead, MNEs face the task of establishing a complex fit with their environment beyond the typical stakeholders with transfer pricing, i.e. tax authorities. These include government officials, tax activists, and consumers who voice......This paper examines the case of Starbucks’ UK branch, which became subject to massive public criticism over alleged tax avoidance. Despite Starbucks arguing that its transfer pricing practices were in full compliance with regulatory requirements, public pressure for higher corporate tax payments...... led Starbucks to increase its UK tax payment on transfer pricing income beyond regulatory requirements. This case study suggests that MNE tax behavior on international transfer pricing is not strictly a matter of compliance with formal tax regulation. We demonstrate the way an MNE attempts to re...
García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A
Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors.
García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A.
Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463
Kaldewaij, Reinoud; Koch, Saskia B J; Volman, Inge; Toni, Ivan; Roelofs, Karin
The ability to control our automatic action tendencies is crucial for adequate social interactions. Emotional events trigger automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Although these actions may be generally adaptive, the capacity to override these emotional reactions may be key to flexible behavior during social interaction. The present chapter provides a review of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this ability and their relation to social psychopathologies. Aberrant social behavior, such as observed in social anxiety or psychopathy, is marked by abnormalities in approach-avoidance tendencies and the ability to control them. Key neural regions involved in the regulation of approach-avoidance behavior are the amygdala, widely implicated in automatic emotional processing, and the anterior prefrontal cortex, which exerts control over the amygdala. Hormones, especially testosterone and cortisol, have been shown to affect approach-avoidance behavior and the associated neural mechanisms. The present chapter also discusses ways to directly influence social approach and avoidance behavior and will end with a research agenda to further advance this important research field. Control over approach-avoidance tendencies may serve as an exemplar of emotional action regulation and might have a great value in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the development of affective disorders.
Yechiam, Eldad; Retzer, Matan; Telpaz, Ariel; Hochman, Guy
Losses are commonly thought to result in a neuropsychological avoidance response. We suggest that losses also provide ecological guidance by increasing focus on the task at hand, and that this effect may override the avoidance response. This prediction was tested in a series of studies. In Study 1a we found that minor losses did not lead to an avoidance response. Instead, they guided participants to make advantageous choices (in terms of expected value) and to avoid disadvantageous choices. Moreover, losses were associated with less switching between options after the first block of exploration. In Study 1b we found that this effect was not simply a by-product of the increase in visual contrast with losses. In Study 1c we found that the effect of losses did not emerge when alternatives did not differ in their expected value but only in their risk level. In Study 2 we investigated the autonomic arousal dynamics associated with this behavioral pattern via pupillometric responses. The results showed increased pupil diameter following losses compared to gains. However, this increase was not associated with a tendency to avoid losses, but rather with a tendency to select more advantageously. These findings suggest that attention and reasoning processes induced by losses can out-weigh the influence of affective processes leading to avoidance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Dijk, Dina; Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Heller, Daniel
Drawing on the approach-avoidance theory, we have examined the role of avoidance motivation in explaining the negative effects of a life-threatening event on subjective well-being (SWB). Residents of the south of Israel were surveyed during heavy missile attacks in January 2009 (T1; n = 283), and again after 6 months (T2; n = 212) and 1 year (T3; n = 154). During the missile attacks, we also surveyed a group from the center of the country (T1; n = 102), not exposed to the attacks. The results indicate that avoidance motivation was activated by the life threat and further mediated its detrimental influence on SWB measures (positive/negative affects, anxiety, and subjective health). Moreover, within the southern sample, the drop in avoidance motivation over time mediated the parallel drop in SWB. In contrast to avoidance motivation, approach motivation remained stable over time and was related to positive emotions. The role of avoidance and approach motivations in life-threatening situations is further discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Goldstein, Larry M
"Litigation-Proof Patents: Avoiding the Most Common Patent Mistakes explains the principles of excellent patents, presents the ten most common errors in patents, and details a step-by-step method for avoiding these common errors...
Lewis, Andrea H.; Niznikiewicz, Michael A.; Delamater, Andrew R.; Delgado, Mauricio R.
The Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm probes the influence of Pavlovian cues over instrumentally learned behavior. The paradigm has been used extensively to probe basic cognitive and motivational processes in studies of animal learning but, more recently, PIT and its underlying neural basis have been extended to investigations in humans. These initial neuroimaging studies of PIT have focused on the influence of appetitively conditioned stimuli on instrumental responses maintained by positive reinforcement, and highlight the involvement of the striatum. In the current study, we sought to understand the neural correlates of PIT in an aversive Pavlovian learning situation when instrumental responding was maintained through negative reinforcement. Participants exhibited specific PIT, wherein selective increases in instrumental responding to conditioned stimuli occurred when the stimulus signaled a specific aversive outcome whose omission negatively reinforced the instrumental response. Additionally, a general PIT effect was observed such that when a stimulus was associated with a different aversive outcome than was used to negatively reinforce instrumental behavior, the presence of that stimulus caused a non-selective increase in overall instrumental responding. Both specific and general PIT behavioral effects correlated with increased activation in corticostriatal circuitry, particularly in the striatum, a region involved in cognitive and motivational processes. These results suggest that avoidance-based PIT utilizes a similar neural mechanism to that seen with PIT in an appetitive context, which has implications for understanding mechanisms of drug-seeking behavior during addiction and relapse. PMID:24118624
Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.
World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to
Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.
World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to
Inger, Kerry Katharine
This paper examines the relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance. Prior studies find that firm value is positively associated with overall measures of tax avoidance; I extend this research by providing evidence that investors distinguish between methods of tax reduction in their valuation of tax avoidance. The impact of tax avoidance on firm value is a function of tax risk, permanence of tax savings, tax planning costs, implicit taxes and contrasts in disclosures of tax re...
future exascale systems, communication cost must be avoided or overlapped. Communication-avoiding 2.5D algorithms improve scalability by reducing...linear algebra problems to future exascale systems, communication cost must be avoided or overlapped. Communication-avoiding 2.5D algorithms improve...will continue to grow relative to the cost of computation. With exascale computing as the long-term goal, the community needs to develop techniques
My thesis investigates the association between CEO power, corporate tax avoidance and tax aggressiveness, using two organizational theory perspectives: self-interest and stewardship. I find that a powerful CEO engages in less corporate tax avoidance activities, which lends credence to the risk minimization motive of the stewardship perspective. My findings on the association between CEO power and tax aggressiveness show that powerful CEOs avoid risky tax avoidance strategies that expose a fir...
Davies, T. R.
On 17 February 2006 a gigantic rockslide triggered a debris avalanche that overran the barangay Guinsaugon, St. Bernard in Southern Leyte Province, Philippines, burying 154 victims, with 990 missing including 246 school children. Even with satellite imagery, GIS-based landslide susceptibility modelling and real-time meteorological and seismic data analysis, scientific prediction of every potentially fatal landslide is not possible in most parts of the world. This is particular the case in steep, unstable, densely-populated country in which heavy rain is common. So how can further events of this type be prevented from turning into disasters? A number of precursory phenomena were noted by local inhabitants at Guinsaugon: a crack around the slope that failed was noticed in May 2005; coconut trees near the northern foot of the landslide scarp began to lean increasingly in the down-slope direction in December 2005; a slope around the northern edge of the 17 February 2006 landslide scarp failed on December 17, 2005; in the 9 days prior to the rockslide, 640 mm of rain fell; 450 mm in a 3-day period. Such phenomena are commonly reported by local inhabitants before large landslides (e.g. Elm, Mayunmarca, and many others). In many cases, therefore, it is in principle possible for local people to avoid the consequences of the landslide if they know enough to act appropriately in response to the precursory phenomena. For this possibility to be realized, appropriate information must be provided to and assimilated by the local population. Useful ways of achieving this include pamphlets, video, TV and radio programs and visits from civil defence personnel. The information must be properly presented; scientific language will be ineffective. A communication pyramid, leading from government agencies to local leaders, can facilitate the rapid availability of the information to all potentially susceptible communities. If science can determine those areas not vulnerable to landslide
Full Text Available Serbia's courts jurisprudence has divergent attitudes with respect to the dilemma whether a surety contract represents a contract without consideration, which may be avoided once the guarantor is subject to bankruptcy procedure without any additional conditions, or an onerous contract. Whether a surety contract is an onerous one has anyhow been disputed in the legal theory. One school of thought considers this contract as non-onerous one, since vis-a-vis guarantor's obligation no benefit to be expected from the other contractual party (i. e. creditor exists. The other school of thought understands surety (almost always as an onerous contract bearing in mind that the guarantor who enters into this contract does not have intentio liberalis. There are numerous and nuanced views based on analyses of the relation between a guarantor and a debtor focused on the argument that surety is a contract without consideration if intentio liberalis existed vis-a-vis main debtor rather than vis-a-vis creditor. Our legal literature did not pay much attention to that issue until recently. In a rare text dedicated to it the author's basic standpoint is that surety represents a contract without consideration. An exception, depending on the circumstances of the case, could be surety given by a parent company for the obligation of a subsidiary, provided the former reasonably expected a benefit in terms of an increase in the value of shares. Commercial courts followed such reasoning. In this article an opposite stance has been argued. Namely, the onerousness of surety must be assessed based on the relation between the guarantor and the main debtor rather than between the guarantor and the creditor. As a rule, surety is an onerous contract because the guarantor expects to collect from the debtor through subrogation the amount he paid to the creditor; exceptionally, surety may be a non-onerous contract if intentio liberalis existed vis-a-vis main debtor. However, this
Tolerance and avoidance are the two contrasting strategies that plants may adopt to cope with herbivores. Tolerance traits define the degree to which communities remain unaffected by herbivory. Trade-offs between herbivore avoidance and competitive strength and between avoidance and colonization
Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the healthcare system and its role in influencing mortality of migrant groups can be explored by examining ethnic variations in 'avoidable' mortality. This study investigates the association between the level of mortality from 'avoidable' causes and ethnic origin in the Netherlands and identifies social factors that contribute to this association. Methods Data were obtained from cause of death and population registries in the period 1995–2000. We compared mortality rates for selected 'avoidable' conditions for Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban groups to native Dutch. Results We found slightly elevated risk in total 'avoidable' mortality for migrant populations (RR = 1.13. Higher risks of death among migrants were observed from almost all infectious diseases (most RR > 3.00 and several chronic conditions including asthma, diabetes and cerebro-vascular disorders (most RR > 1.70. Migrant women experienced a higher risk of death from maternity-related conditions (RR = 3.37. Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban population had a higher mortality risk (RR = 1.65 and 1.31 respectively, while Turkish and Moroccans experienced a lower risk of death (RR = 0.93 and 0.77 respectively from all 'avoidable' conditions compared to native Dutch. Control for demographic and socioeconomic factors explained a substantial part of ethnic differences in 'avoidable' mortality. Conclusion Compared to the native Dutch population, total 'avoidable' mortality was slightly elevated for all migrants combined. Mortality risks varied greatly by cause of death and ethnic origin. The substantial differences in mortality for a few 'avoidable' conditions suggest opportunities for quality improvement within specific areas of the healthcare system targeted to disadvantaged groups.
Turner, Stephanie Lynn; Ray, Anandasankar
The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster exhibits a robust and innate olfactory-based avoidance behaviour to CO(2), a component of odour emitted from stressed flies. Specialized neurons in the antenna and a dedicated neuronal circuit in the higher olfactory system mediate CO(2) detection and avoidance. However, fruitflies need to overcome this avoidance response in some environments that contain CO(2) such as ripening fruits and fermenting yeast, which are essential food sources. Very little is known about the molecular and neuronal basis of this unique, context-dependent modification of innate olfactory avoidance behaviour. Here we identify a new class of odorants present in food that directly inhibit CO(2)-sensitive neurons in the antenna. Using an in vivo expression system we establish that the odorants act on the Gr21a/Gr63a CO(2) receptor. The presence of these odorants significantly and specifically reduces CO(2)-mediated avoidance behaviour, as well as avoidance mediated by 'Drosophila stress odour'. We propose a model in which behavioural avoidance to CO(2) is directly influenced by inhibitory interactions of the novel odours with CO(2) receptors. Furthermore, we observe differences in the temporal dynamics of inhibition: the effect of one of these odorants lasts several minutes beyond the initial exposure. Notably, animals that have been briefly pre-exposed to this odorant do not respond to the CO(2) avoidance cue even after the odorant is no longer present. We also show that related odorants are effective inhibitors of the CO(2) response in Culex mosquitoes that transmit West Nile fever and filariasis. Our findings have broader implications in highlighting the important role of inhibitory odorants in olfactory coding, and in their potential to disrupt CO(2)-mediated host-seeking behaviour in disease-carrying insects like mosquitoes.
Thomas, Anna C; Allen, Felicity L; Phillips, James; Karantzas, Gery
Commonality in etiology and clinical expression plus high comorbidity between pathological gambling and substance use disorders suggest common underlying motives. It is important to understand common motivators and differentiating factors. An overarching framework of addiction was used to examine predictors of problem gambling in current electronic gaming machine (EGM) gamblers. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships between antecedent factors (stressors, coping habits, social support), gambling motivations (avoidance, accessibility, social) and gambling behavior. Three hundred and forty seven (229 females: M = 29.20 years, SD = 14.93; 118 males: M = 29.64 years, SD = 12.49) people participated. Consistent with stress, coping and addiction theory, situational life stressors and general avoidance coping were positively related to avoidance-motivated gambling. In turn, avoidance-motivated gambling was positively related to EGM gambling frequency and problems. Consistent with exposure theory, life stressors were positively related to accessibility-motivated gambling, and accessibility-motivated gambling was positively related to EGM gambling frequency and gambling problems. These findings are consistent with other addiction research and suggest avoidance-motivated gambling is part of a more generalized pattern of avoidance coping with relative accessibility to EGM gambling explaining its choice as a method of avoidance. Findings also showed social support acted as a direct protective factor in relation to gambling frequency and problems and indirectly via avoidance and accessibility gambling motivations. Finally, life stressors were positively related to socially motivated gambling but this motivation was not related to either social support or gambling behavior suggesting it has little direct influence on gambling problems.
Rees, Clare S; Pritchard, Rhian
Avoidant personality disorder (APD) is associated with a high level of impairment in multiple areas of functioning. However, research on the treatment of APD is scarce, and there is an absence of empirically evaluated effective treatment approaches available. This study offers a preliminary investigation of the use of brief cognitive therapy to treat APD. Two individuals, both with a principal diagnosis of APD, but who also possessed a number of comorbidities, participated in 12 weekly sessions. A series of diagnostic symptom severity, global functioning, and self-report measures were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment and at 6-week follow-up. In addition, regular monitoring of each participant's strength of belief in 4 personally identified cognitions associated with APD was completed. Reductions in APD symptoms, associated negative affect, and increases to quality of life were observed for both participants at posttreatment and follow-up phases. Results suggest that brief cognitive therapy may be an effective treatment for APD and that further studies with larger samples are warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu
We succeeded in taste avoidance conditioning with sucrose as the conditional stimulus (CS) and an electrical stimulus (∼1000V, 80μA) as the unconditional stimulus (US). With 15 paired CS-US presentations on a single day, we were able to elicit both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) persisting for at least one week. However, while STM was elicited with 5, 8, 10, and 20 paired presentations of the CS-US on a single day, LTM was not. We found, however, that if we inserted a 3h interval between a first and a second set of CS-US pairings that both 8 and 20 paired CS-US presentations on a single day was now sufficient to cause LTM formation. Exposing snails to bryostatin before or during training enhanced LTM formation such that 8 paired presentations of the CS-US resulted in LTM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anushka B P Fernando
Full Text Available The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food or aversive (e.g. electric shock. We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala’s mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes.
McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David
The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.
Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E
million people (3.7 million men and 0.2 million women) in the Nordic countries were potentially exposed to above-average levels of one or more verified industrial carcinogens. It is expected that these exposures will result in a total of about 1,900 new cases of cancer every year in the Nordic countries...... around the year 2000, with 1,890 among men and fewer than 25 among women. The proportions that could be avoided if industrial carcinogens were eliminated would be 70% of mesotheliomas, 20% of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses, 12% of lung cancers, 5% of laryngeal cancers, 2% of urinary bladder...... cancers, 1% of the leukaemias, and 1% of renal cancers. Overall, it is estimated that verified industrial carcinogens will account for approximately 3% of all cancers in men and less than 0.1% of all cancers in women in the Nordic countries around the year 2000. No attempt was made to estimate...
Humm, John L.; Pizzuto, Domenico; Fleischman, Eric; Mohan, Radhe
Purpose: To develop computer software that assists the planner avoid potential gantry collisions with the patient or patient support assembly during the treatment planning process. Methods and Materials: The approach uses a simulation of the therapy room with a scale model of the treatment machine. Because the dimensions of the machine and patient are known, one can calculate a priori whether any desired therapy field is possible or will result in a collision. To assist the planner, we have developed a graphical interface enabling the accurate visualization of each treatment field configuration with a 'room's eye view' treatment planning window. This enables the planner to be aware of, and alleviate any potential collision hazards. To circumvent blind spots in the graphic representation, an analytical software module precomputes whether each update of the gantry or turntable position is safe. Results: If a collision is detected, the module alerts the planner and suggests collision evasive actions such as either an extended distance treatment or the gantry angle of closest approach. Conclusions: The model enables the planner to experiment with unconventional noncoplanar treatment fields, and immediately test their feasibility
Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery
In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.
Full Text Available Occasionally, the expected effects of approach-avoidance motivation on anterior EEG alpha asymmetry fail to emerge, particularly in studies using affective picture stimuli. These null findings have been explained by insufficient motivational intensity of, and/or overshadowing interindividual variability within the responses to emotional pictures. These explanations were systematically tested using data from 70 students watching 5 types of affective pictures ranging from very pleasant to unpleasant. The stimulus categories reliably modulated self-reports as well as the amplitude of late positive potential, an ERP component reflecting orienting towards motivationally significant stimuli. The stimuli did not, however, induce expected asymmetry effects either for the sample or individual participants. Even while systematic stimulus-dependent individual differences emerged in self-reports as well as LPP amplitudes, the asymmetry variability was dominated by stimulus-independent interindividual variability. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest that under some circumstances anterior asymmetry may not be an inevitable consequence of core affect. Instead, state asymmetry shifts may be overpowered by stable trait asymmetry differences and/or stimulus-independent yet situation-dependent interindividual variability, possibly caused by processes such as emotion regulation or anxious apprehension.
Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Janoff, Shannon L; Anderson, Bradley M; Weisner, Constance M; Perrin, Nancy A
Inability to predict most health services use and costs using demographics and health status suggests that other factors affect use, including attitudes and practices that influence health and willingness to seek care. Alcohol consumption has generated interest because heavy, chronic consumption causes adverse health consequences, acute consumption increases injury, and moderate drinking is linked to better health while hazardous drinking and alcohol-related problems are stigmatized and may affect willingness to seek care. A stratified random sample of health-plan members completed a mail survey, yielding 7884 respondents (2995 male/4889 female). We linked survey data to 24 months of health-plan records to examine relationships between alcohol use, gender, health-related attitudes, practices, health, and service use. In-depth interviews with a stratified 150-respondent subsample explored individuals' reasons for seeking or avoiding care. Quantitative results suggest health-related practices and attitudes predict subsequent service use. Consistent predictors of care were having quit drinking, current at-risk consumption, cigarette smoking, higher BMI, disliking visiting doctors, and strong religious/spiritual beliefs. Qualitative analyses suggest embarrassment and shame are strong motivators for avoiding care. Although models included numerous health, functional status, attitudinal and behavioral predictors, variance explained was similar to previous reports, suggesting more complex relationships than expected. Qualitative analyses suggest several potential predictive factors not typically measured in service-use studies: embarrassment and shame, fear, faith that the body will heal, expectations about likelihood of becoming seriously ill, disliking the care process, the need to understand health problems, and the effects of self-assessments of health-related functional limitations.
Annisa, Nuralifmida Ayu; Kurniasih, Lulus
This study aims to find out how the influence of the corporate governance of tax avoidanceactivity in companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008. The samples are publiclytraded company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008 as many as 200 companies. Thisstudy uses data analysis and regression analysis of the elements of corporate governance and taxavoidance. The results of this study show that the elements of corporate governance that consist ofaudit quality and audit commit...
Konstantinos G. Kafetsios
Full Text Available Several studies examining leader–follower interaction in Greece, a collectivistic culture, paradoxically find that leaders’ emotion suppression-related personality traits (attachment avoidance, emotion suppression, emotion control are associated with followers’ positive emotional and work attitude outcomes. These findings have been explained with reference to followers’ implicit cultural schemas, interdependence in particular. Yet, this conjuncture has not been directly tested. The present study directly examined, in a field setting, how followers’ independent and interdependent (cultural self-construal moderate the relationship between leaders’ attachment orientation and followers’ emotion and satisfaction outcomes at the work place. As hypothesized, leaders’ higher avoidance was associated with followers’ job satisfaction, group cohesion, and deep acting as well as lower negative affect and loneliness for followers higher on interdependent self-construal. The results underline perceptual processes involved in followers’ interdependent self-construal in relation to leaders’ emotion suppression-related traits.
Wu, Arthur W; Ting, Jonathan Y; Borgie, Roderick C; Busaba, Nicolas Y; Sadow, Peter M; Juliano, Amy F; Gray, Stacey T; Holbrook, Eric H
Organizing hematomas of the paranasal sinuses are diagnostic dilemmas clinically and radiographically, mimicking benign or malignant neoplastic processes and causing patients and clinicians undue worry regarding these diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria for correctly identifying these lesions are not well known. A retrospective case series of 7 patients with sinonasal organizing hematoma was studied. Radiographic imaging, clinical characteristics, and pathology were reviewed for new insights. Three patients presented with a primary complaint of epistaxis, 4 had masses visible on nasal endoscopy, and 2 had vascular malformations or small hemangiomas adjacent to the mass found on final pathology. Biopsy of these masses were consistently nondiagnostic prior to complete resection. The most diagnostic findings were "shells" of T2 hypointensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) surrounding the lobules of each of the masses. These correspond to rims of fibrosis at the periphery of the lobules on pathology. Areas of fresh hemorrhage are located at the center of these lobules. Sinonasal organizing hematomas are rare lesions of the paranasal sinuses whose clinical characteristics lead to misdiagnoses of benign or malignant neoplasms. Endoscopy, preoperative biopsy, and computed tomography (CT) imaging do not lend helpful information in differentiating these lesions from more worrisome neoplastic processes. However, MRI can lead to positive diagnosis by recognizing the distinct outer rims of T2 hypointensity typically seen in these lesions. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord
Full text: Entangled superpositions persisting for hundreds of milliseconds in protein assemblies such as microtubules (MTs) are proposed in biological functions, e.g. quantum computation relevant to consciousness in the Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' model. Cylindrical polymers of the protein tubulin, MTs organize cell activities. The obvious question is how biological quantum states could avoid decoherence, e.g. in the brain at 37.6 degrees centigrade. Screening/sheelding: tubulin protein states/functions are governed by van der Waals London forces, quantum interactions among clouds of delocalizable electrons in nonpolar 'hydrophobic' intra-protein pockets screened from external van der Waals thermal interactions. Such pockets include amino acid resonance structures benzene and indole rings. (Anesthetic gases erase consciousness solely by interfering with London forces in hydrophobic pockets in various brain proteins). Hence tubulin states may act as superpositioned qubits also shielded at the MT level by counter-ion Debye plasma layers (due to charged C-termini tails on tubulin) and by water-ordering actin gels which embed MTs in a quasi-solid. Biological systems may also exploit thermodynamic gradients to give extremely low effective temperatures. Decoherence free subspaces: paradoxically, a system coupled strongly to its environment through certain degrees of freedom can effectively 'freeze' other degrees of freedom (quantum Zeno effect), enabling coherent superpositions and entanglement to persist. Metabolic energy supplied to MT collective dynamics (e.g. Froehlich coherence) can cause Bose-Einstein condenzation and counter decoherence as lasers avoid decoherence at room temperature. Topological quantum error correction: MT lattice structure reveals various helical winding paths through adjacent tubulins which follow the Fibonacci series. Propagation/interactions of quasi-particles along these paths may process information. As proposed by Kitaev (1997), various
Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Bouchekioua, Youcef; Mimura, Masaru; Tanaka, Kenji F
Organisms have evolved to approach pleasurable opportunities and to avoid or escape from aversive experiences. These 2 distinct motivations are referred to as approach and avoidance/escape motivations and are both considered vital for survival. Despite several recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of motivation, most studies addressed approach but not avoidance/escape motivation. Here we develop a new experimental paradigm to quantify avoidance/escape motivation and examine the pharmacological validity. We set up an avoidance variable ratio 5 task in which mice were required to press a lever for variable times to avoid an upcoming aversive stimulus (foot shock) or to escape the ongoing aversive event if they failed to avoid it. We i.p. injected ketamine (0, 1, or 5 mg/kg) or buspirone (0, 5, or 10 mg/kg) 20 or 30 minutes before the behavioral task to see if ketamine enhanced avoidance/escape behavior and buspirone diminished it as previously reported. We found that the performance on the avoidance variable ratio 5 task was sensitive to the intensity of the aversive stimulus. Treatment with ketamine increased while that with buspirone decreased the probability of avoidance from an aversive stimulus in the variable ratio 5 task, being consistent with previous reports. Our new paradigm will prove useful for quantifying avoidance/escape motivation and will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of motivation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Deformities of the hands are a fairly common sequel of burn especially in the developing world. This is because of high incidence of burns, limited access to standard treatment and rehabilitation. The best outcome of a burnt hand is when deformities are prevented from developing. A good functional result is possible when due consideration is paid to hands during resuscitation, excisional surgery, reconstructive surgery and physiotherapy. The post-burns deformities of hand develop due direct thermal damage or secondary to intrinsic minus position due to oedema or vascular insufficiency. During the acute phase the concerns are, maintenance circulation minimize oedema prevent unphysiological positioning and wound closure with autogenous tissue as soon as possible. The rehabilitation program during the acute phase starts from day one and goes on till the hand has healed and has regained full range of motion. Full blown hand contractures are challenging to correct and become more difficult as time passes. Long-standing cases often land up with attenuation of extensor apparatus leading to swan neck and boutonniere deformity, muscle shortening and bony ankylosis. The major and most common pitfall after contracture release is relapse. The treatment protocol of contracture is solely directed towards countering this tendency. This article aims to guide a surgeon in obtaining optimal hand function and avoid pit falls at different stages of management of hand burns. The reasons of an unfavourable outcome of a burnt hand are possible lack of optimal care in the acute phase, while planning and performing reconstructive procedure and during aftercare and rehabilitation. PMID:24501479
Malaria remains the most important parasitic disease, and tens of thousands of cases are imported into non-endemic countries annually. However, any single institution may see only a very few cases-this is probably the reason why laboratory and clinical misdiagnosis may not be uncommon. In the laboratory, unfamiliarity with microscopic diagnosis may be the main reason, considering the large number of laboratory staff who provide on-call services, often without expert help at hand, as well as the difficulty in detecting cases with low-level parasitemia. Staff should therefore be provided with continuing microscopic training to maintain proficiency. The complementary use of immunochromatographic rapid detection tests (RDTs) may be useful, especially during on-call hours, although, in order to ensure correct interpretation, their inherent limitations have to be well known. Diagnosis based on the polymerase chain reaction is still unsuitable for routine use, due to its long turnaround time, its cost, and its unavailability outside regular hours, although it may be helpful in selected cases. Once the alert clinician has considered the possibility of malaria, and suspicion continues to be high, malaria can be excluded by repeat smears or RDTs. However, the absence of clinical suspicion may not be infrequent, and may have more serious consequences. Depending on the local number of malaria cases seen, laboratory staff should have a low threshold for the decision to perform unsolicited malaria diagnostic tests on suspicious samples, especially if other laboratory tests are abnormal (e.g. thrombocytopenia, presence of atypical lymphocytes, or raised lactate dehydrogenase). The detection of intraleukocytic hemozoin during automated full blood counts is a promising new way to avoid misdiagnosis of clinically unsuspected malaria.
Is it true that all formative influence is unethical, and that we ought to avoid influencing children (and indeed anyone at all)? There are more or less defensible versions of this doctrine, and we shall follow some of the strands of argument that lead to this conclusion. It seems that in maintaining that all influence is immoral, one commits…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The heterogeneity statistic I2, interpreted as the percentage of variability due to heterogeneity between studies rather than sampling error, depends on precision, that is, the size of the studies included. Methods Based on a real meta-analysis, we simulate artificially 'inflating' the sample size under the random effects model. For a given inflation factor M = 1, 2, 3,... and for each trial i, we create a M-inflated trial by drawing a treatment effect estimate from the random effects model, using si2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGaem4Cam3aa0baaSqaaiabdMgaPbqaaiabikdaYaaaaaa@2FBE@/M as within-trial sampling variance. Results As precision increases, while estimates of the heterogeneity variance τ2 remain unchanged on average, estimates of I2 increase rapidly to nearly 100%. A similar phenomenon is apparent in a sample of 157 meta-analyses. Conclusion When deciding whether or not to pool treatment estimates in a meta-analysis, the yard-stick should be the clinical relevance of any heterogeneity present. τ2, rather than I2, is the appropriate measure for this purpose.
Full Text Available This study found that the main reasons, which lead to a more stringent Anti-Income Tax Avoidance in China than in Taiwan, are as follows by analysis thedifferences of Cross-Strait (Taiwan and China Anti-Income Tax Avoidancepolicies and the process of law regulation. First, the executive department inChina has higher autonomy to regulate Anti-Income Tax Avoidance; whereasTaiwan’s regulations need to reflect citizens’ demand. Second, foreign-fundedenterprises have less impact on Anti-IncomeTax Avoidance in China; however,multinational enterprises in Taiwan have strong influence on it. Third, China hasthe large scale of domestic market, but Taiwan is a typical export-orientedeconomic system. Forth, most multinational enterprises in China are belonged tocentral government. Nevertheless, they are private-owned in Taiwan.
Amaro, Pablo; Obeso, Eduardo; Gomez, Ruben
Trying to give an answer to the lack of public information in the industry, in relationship with the different tools that are managed in the nuclear industry for minimizing the human error, a group of workers from different sections of the St. Maria de Garona NPP (Quality Assurance/ Organization and Human Factors) decided to embark on a challenging and exciting project: 'Write a book collecting all the knowledge accumulated during their daily activities, very often during lecture time of external information received from different organizations within the nuclear industry (INPO, WANO...), but also visiting different NPP's, maintaining meetings and participating in training courses related de Human and Organizational Factors'. Main objective of the book is presenting to the industry in general, the different tools that are used and fostered in the nuclear industry, in a practical way. In this way, the assimilation and implementation in others industries could be possible and achievable in and efficient context. One year of work, and our project is a reality. We have presented and abstract during the last Spanish Nuclear Society meeting in Sevilla, last October...and the best, the book is into the market for everybody in web-site: www.bubok.com. The book is structured in the following areas: 'Errare humanum est': Trying to present what is the human error to the reader, its origin and the different barriers. The message is that the reader see the error like something continuously present in our lives... even more frequently than we think. Studying its origin can be established aimed at barriers to avoid or at least minimize it. 'Error's bitter face': Shows the possible consequences of human errors. What better that presenting real experiences that have occurred in the industry. In the book, accidents in the nuclear industry, like Tree Mile Island NPP, Chernobyl NPP, and incidents like Davis Besse NPP in the past, helps to the reader to make a reflection about the
Common sense dictates that one should choose tried and tested drugs with proven, concrete benefits that outweigh their adverse effects. Many new drugs are approved each year, often despite a lack of solid evidence that they are any better than existing treatments. Worse, some are approved despite being less effective or more harmful than current options. Massive promotion is used to ensure that such drugs achieve a positive image in the eyes of healthcare professionals and patients. Renowned "opinion leaders" intervene in their favour at conferences and in specialist media, and their opinions are further propagated by specialists in the field. Finally, campaigns in the lay media are used to highlight the target illness, encouraging patients to request a prescription. New data sometimes show that older, initially promising drugs are less effective or more harmful than first thought. For all these reasons, many drugs that are now present on the market are more harmful than beneficial and should be avoided. Unfortunately, negative assessment data and warnings are often drowned in the flood of promotion and advertising. Front-line healthcare professionals who are determined to act in their patients' best interests can find themselves swimming against a tide of specialist opinion, marketing authorisation, and reimbursement decisions. By leaving drugs that are more harmful than beneficial on the market and contenting themselves with simple half-measures, healthcare authorities are failing in their duty to protect patients. Prescrire, a journal funded solely by its subscribers, does not seek to do the work of health authorities, and does not have the means to do so. Prescrire's goal is simply to help healthcare professionals provide better care. The following text lists the principal drugs that we consider more harmful than beneficial, based on our reviews published between 2010 and 2012 in our French edition. These drugs should not be used. Patients and healthcare
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK. In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD age: 61.5(4.4 years, 9 male were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p r = 0.6; p Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small. This is likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. Therefore we suggest that many of the alcohol-related falls are the result of the disruptive effects of alcohol on the online corrections of the ongoing gait pattern when walking under challenging conditions.
Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang
Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly. Empirically, we utilize two convenience samples and a large nationally representative sample of US citizens to demonstrate the existence of a robust and replicable effect of individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalized social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.
Full Text Available Approach and avoidance are two basic behavioral aptitudes of humans whose correct balance is critical for successful adaptation to the environment. As the expression of approach and avoidance tendencies may differ significantly between healthy individuals, different psychobiological factors have been posited to account for such variability. In this regard, two main issues are still open that refers to i the role played by dopamine neurotransmission and ii the possible influence of cognitive characteristics, particularly executive functioning. The aim of the present paper was to highlight the contribution of research on Parkinson’s disease (PD to our understanding of the above issues. In particular, we here reviewed PD literature to clarify whether neurobiological and neuropsychological modifications due to PD are associated to changes in approach-avoidance related personality features. Available data indicate that PD patients may show and approach-avoidance imbalance as documented by lower novelty-seeking and higher harm-avoidance behaviors, possibly suggesting a relationship with neurobiological and neurocognitive PD-related changes. However, the literature that directly investigated this issue is still sparse and much more work is needed to better clarify it.
Romero-Moreno, R; Losada, A; Márquez-González, M; Mausbach, B T
Despite the robust associations between stressors and anxiety in dementia caregiving, there is a lack of research examining which factors contribute to explain this relationship. This study was designed to test a multiple mediation model of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and anxiety that proposes higher levels of rumination and experiential avoidance and lower levels of leisure satisfaction as potential mediating variables. The sample consisted of 256 family caregivers. In order to test a simultaneously parallel multiple mediation model of the BPSD to anxiety pathway, a PROCESS method was used and bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping method was used to test confidence intervals. Higher levels of stressors significantly predicted anxiety. Greater stressors significantly predicted higher levels of rumination and experiential avoidance, and lower levels of leisure satisfaction. These three coping variables significantly predicted anxiety. Finally, rumination, experiential avoidance, and leisure satisfaction significantly mediated the link between stressors and anxiety. The explained variance for the final model was 47.09%. Significant contrasts were found between rumination and leisure satisfaction, with rumination being a significantly higher mediator. The results suggest that caregivers' experiential avoidance, rumination, and leisure satisfaction may function as mechanisms through which BPSD influence on caregivers' anxiety. Training caregivers in reducing their levels of experiential avoidance and rumination by techniques that foster their ability of acceptance of their negative internal experiences, and increase their level of leisure satisfaction, may be helpful to reduce their anxiety symptoms developed by stressors.
Stefan, Violeta; van Herpen, Erica; Tudoran, Ana Alina
of disapproval towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control on consumers’ self-reported food waste. Results show that consumers’ planning and shopping routines are important predictors of food waste. Planning and shopping routines are determined by moral attitudes towards food waste and perceived......Food waste is generated in immense amounts across the food life cycle, imposing serious environmental, social and economic consequences. Although consumers are the single biggest contributor to this volume, little is known about the drivers of food waste in households. This exploratory study aims...... to investigate the role of food choices and other food-related activities in producing food waste. A survey of 244 Romanian consumers examined the influence of intentions not to waste food, planning and shopping routines, as well as moral attitudes and lack of concern towards wasting food, a subjective norm...
Telenský, Petr; Svoboda, Jan; Pašťálková, Eva; Blahna, Karel; Bureš, Jan; Stuchlík, Aleš
Roč. 180, č. 1 (2009), s. 29-33 ISSN 0165-0270 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/05/H012; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB500110904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : avoidance * moving subject * learning Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 2.295, year: 2009
Full Text Available he purpose of this research is to know the influence of institutional ownership, independent commissioner, audit committee and audit quality to tax avoidance at mining company listed on BEI year 2014-2016. The population of this study is mining companies listed on the BEI 2014-2016 as many as 46 companies. Sampling used in this research purposive sampling method. Data source is secondary data obtained from company website and BEI website (www.idx.co.id. This study uses multiple regression analysis to analyze data with the help of SPSS 21 edition program. The results of this study indicate that the variables of institutional ownership, audit committee and audit quality have significant influence on tax avoidance, while independent commissioner variable has no significant effect on tax avoidance. The results of this study are expected to be an additional consideration of the management in conducting tax avoidance is correct and efficient without violating applicable tax laws, and can provide additional information for users of financial statements in investment decision making.
RETTEW, DAVID C.; ZANARINI, MARY C.; YEN, SHIRLEY; GRILO, CARLOS M.; SKODOL, ANDREW E.; SHEA, M. TRACIE; MCGLASHAN, THOMAS H.; MOREY, LESLIE C.; CULHANE, MELISSA A.; GUNDERSON, JOHN G.
Objective To explore potential risk factors and early manifestations of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) by examining retrospective reports of social functioning and adverse childhood experiences. Method Early social functioning and pathological childhood experiences were assessed using the Childhood Experiences Questionnaire-Revised. The responses of 146 adults diagnosed with primary AVPD were compared with a group of 371 patients with other personality disorders as a primary diagnosis and a group of 83 patients with current major depression disorder and no personality disorders, using χ2 analyses. Diagnoses were based on semistructured interviews by trained reliable clinicians. Results Adults with AVPD reported poorer child and adolescent athletic performance, less involvement in hobbies during adolescence, and less adolescent popularity than the depressed comparison group and the other personality disorder group. Reported rates of physical and emotional abuse were higher than the depressed group, but this result was influenced by comorbid diagnoses. Conclusions These results suggest that early manifestations of AVPD are present in childhood but that various forms of abuse are not specific to the disorder. PMID:12960713
Full Text Available Predator–prey interactions have a major effect on species abundance and diversity, and aggregation is a well-known anti-predator behaviour. For immobile prey, the effectiveness of aggregation depends on two conditions: (a the inability of the predator to consume all prey in a group and (b detection of a single large group not being proportionally easier than that of several small groups. How prey aggregation influences predation rates when visual cues are restricted, such as in turbid water, has not been thoroughly investigated. We carried out foraging (predation experiments using a fish predator and (dead chironomid larvae as prey in both laboratory and field settings. In the laboratory, a reduction in visual cue availability (in turbid water led to a delay in the location of aggregated prey compared to when visual cues were available. Aggregated prey suffered high mortality once discovered, leading to better survival of dispersed prey in the longer term. We attribute this to the inability of the dead prey to take evasive action. In the field (where prey were placed in feeding stations that allowed transmission of olfactory but not visual cues, aggregated (large groups and semi-dispersed prey survived for longer than dispersed prey—including long term survival. Together, our results indicate that similar to systems where predators hunt using vision, aggregation is an effective anti-predator behaviour for prey avoiding olfactory predators.
Stretch, Roger; Skinner, Nicholas
The introduction of a warning signal that preceded a scheduled shock modified the temporal distribution of free-operant avoidance responses. With response-shock and shock-shock intervals held constant, response rates increased only slightly when the response-signal interval was reduced. The result is consistent with Sidman's (1955) findings under different conditions, but at variance with Ulrich, Holz, and Azrin's (1964) findings under similar conditions. Methylphenidate in graded doses increased response rates, modifying frequency distributions of interresponse times. Drug treatment may have disrupted a “temporal discrimination” formed within the signal-shock interval. More simply, methylphenidate influenced response rates by increasing short response latencies after signal onset; this effect was more prominent than the drug's tendency to increase the frequency of pre-signal responses. When signal-onset preceded shock by 2 sec, individual differences in performance were marked; methylphenidate suppressed responding in one rat as a function of increasing dose levels to a greater degree than in a second animal, but both subjects received more shocks than under control conditions. PMID:6050059
DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng
We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760
DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng
We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G
Recent research has linked avoidance-oriented motivational states to elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. According to one of many theories regarding the association between avoidance and cytokine levels, because the evolutionarily basic avoidance system may be activated when an organism is threatened or overwhelmed, an associated inflammatory response may be adaptive for dealing with potential injury in such threatening situations. To examine this hypothesis, we tested whether the neural correlate of avoidance motivation associates with baseline levels of the circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Controlling for covariates, greater resting neural activity in the right frontal cortex relative to the left frontal cortex-the neural correlate of avoidance motivation-was associated with baseline IL-6. These results thus support the hypothesis that the avoidance motivational system may be closely linked to systemic inflammatory activity. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Policymakers worldwide try to hinder tax avoidance. In order to implement effective tax regulations, it is essential to completely understand why corporations avoid taxes and why some appear to be more effective than others. However, various challenges in identifying effects and determinants of corporate tax avoidance cause knowledge gaps. This thesis consists of three essays highlighting the necessity of refined identification strategies. The first essay “The Undersheltering Puzzle and its P...
Peer, Jacobien Marit van
We investigated the role of cortisol (an important stress-hormone) in the regulation of social fear and avoidance behavior in socially anxious individuals, which are characterized by extreme fear and avoidance of social situations. Previous studies in animals and children showed a relation between increased fearfulness and avoidance and elevated cortisol levels, but the causal role of cortisol in these processes is not known. We found that, only in high socially anxious participants, cortisol...
M. Khoiru Rusydi
This study aims to empirically examine the effect of firm size (Firm Size) against aggressive tax avoidance (aggressive tax avoidance) in Indonesia. The method in use is descriptive quantitative with panel data of financial statements of listed companies on the Stock Exchange in the period 2010-2012 which regresswith Eviews program. The results of this study indicate that company size has no effect on aggressive tax avoidance in Indonesia, which means that the behavior of firms in Indonesia f...
Philippe Delacote; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Sébastien Roussel
This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that one neighbour's deforestation actions may impact the returns to deforestation in nearby patches. We determine the impact of each policy in terms of avoided deforestation and leakage levels at the landscape scale through modelling and simulations. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payment for Environmental Services (PES) p...
Mentor Gashi; Halil Kukaj
Abstract:In order to findelements that destimulate fiscal evasion or avoidance, we have submitted six elements, through the questionnaire, to determine which elements are that destimulate the fiscal evasion and avoidance, and evaluate their impact.This paper is focused in customs duty avoidance.The elements that we have submitted to evaluate their power, are: Powerful control during customs clearance, more efficient post clearance control, probability of subject investigation, higher fines, l...
Foster, D P
Results of a numerically exact transfer matrix calculation for the model of interacting self-avoiding trails are presented. The results lead to the conclusion that at the collapse transition, self-avoiding trails are in the same universality class as the O(n = 0) model of Bloete and Nienhuis (or vertex-interacting self-avoiding walk), which has thermal exponent ν = 12/23, contrary to previous conjectures. (fast track communication)
Vivi Adeyani Tandean
Full Text Available This study aims to examine empirically the effect of the application of GCG and the size of the company on tax avoidance. This study was performed on companies listed on the Stock Exchange 2010-2013. Variables used are institutional ownership, the independence of auditors, the audit committee, and the size of the company as an independent variable and tax avoidance as the dependent variable. The research sample 84 manufacturing companies. The sampling technique using judgment sampling. Testing data using multiple regression analysis. The test results showed that only affects the audit committee on tax avoidance. Keywords: Corporate governance, size, tax avoidance
M. Khoiru Rusydi
Full Text Available This study aims to empirically examine the effect of firm size (Firm Size against aggressive tax avoidance (aggressive tax avoidance in Indonesia. The method in use is descriptive quantitative with panel data of financial statements of listed companies on the Stock Exchange in the period 2010-2012 which regresswith Eviews program. The results of this study indicate that company size has no effect on aggressive tax avoidance in Indonesia, which means that the behavior of firms in Indonesia for more aggressive tax avoidance do not affect the size of the company.
Declercq, Mieke; De Houwer, Jan; Baeyens, Frank
In most studies on avoidance learning, participants receive an aversive unconditioned stimulus after a warning signal is presented, unless the participant performs a particular response. Lovibond (2006) recently proposed a cognitive theory of avoidance learning, according to which avoidance behaviour is a function of both Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In line with this theory, we found that avoidance behaviour was based on an integration of acquired knowledge about, on the one hand, the relation between stimuli and, on the other hand, the relation between behaviour and stimuli.
Jin, Chang Hyun; Villegas, Jorge
The purpose of this study was to understand the effect that individual characteristics have on consumer advertising processing under high- and low-interactivity circumstances on the Web. Tests on the relationship between individual differences and advertising responses form the basis of this empirical study on the Web. The results indicated that consumers have a higher tendency to avoid or experience ambivalence about Internet advertisements under low-interactivity circumstances, and attitudinal ambivalence lead to avoidance when responding to advertisements on the Internet. Personality variables are the main factors in consumer decision-making behaviors and Internet characteristics, such as levels of interactivity, can greatly influence the effectiveness of advertising in online environments. Advertising credibility could influence people's consumer attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors over time on the Web.
Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David E.
Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.
Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M
This study investigated the effects of habitual social approach and avoidance motivation on the classification of facial expressions of different visual clarity. Participants (N = 78) categorized partially masked emotional faces expressing either anger or happiness as positive or negative. Participants generally tended to interpret the facial expressions in a positive way. This positivity effect was reduced when persons were highly avoidance motivated. Social avoidance motivation predicted fe...
Stephan, E.; Wildschut, T.; Sedikides, C.; Zhou, X.; Zu, W.; Routledge, C.; Cheung, W.-Y.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.
In light of its role in maintaining psychological equanimity, we proposed that nostalgia—a self-relevant, social, and predominantly positive emotion—regulates avoidance and approach motivation. We advanced a model in which (a) avoidance motivation triggers nostalgia and (b) nostalgia, in turn,
In our last edition, we informed you about the Staff Council decision to reject the entire set of proposals for the five-yearly review, on the basis of the Director-General's revised proposals 2 and 10. We also indicated that a total failure could still be avoided at TREF on 4 and 5 October. To our relief, TREF avoided the worst!
Peer, Jacobien Marit van
We investigated the role of cortisol (an important stress-hormone) in the regulation of social fear and avoidance behavior in socially anxious individuals, which are characterized by extreme fear and avoidance of social situations. Previous studies in animals and children showed a relation between
Sang, Biao; Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J.; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Feng, Xingyi
The goals of the present study were to (a) develop and validate a new self-report measure of social avoidance for use among early adolescents in mainland China and (b) explore the links between subtypes of social withdrawal (i.e., shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance) and indices of socio-emotional difficulties in this cultural context.…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Avoidance of tax credit reduction. 606.23 Section 606.23 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS... Tax Credit Reduction § 606.23 Avoidance of tax credit reduction. (a) Applicability. Subsection (g) of...
... respect to which a State requests avoidance of tax credit reduction. The Governor is required to notify... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for avoidance. 606.24 Section 606.24 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER...
... principal purpose) the avoidance of Federal income, estate, or gift tax. Section 301(b) of the Immigration... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expatriation to avoid tax. 20.2107-1 Section 20... GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Estates of Nonresidents Not...
... experts and interested parties in Government and the private sector regarding the electronic parts... Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of... interested parties in Government and the private sector about the requirements for detection and avoidance of...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confrontation avoidance procedures. 552... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance... information about the inmate and the immediate situation. Based on their assessment of that information, they...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avoidance of conflict of interest. 950... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.109 Avoidance of conflict of interest. Any... affiliation with a charitable organization, there could be or appear to be a conflict of interest under any...
van Dijck, G.
Empirical legal research in the UK and in the Netherlands has provided data on the extent to which the transaction avoidance rules (avoidance powers, actio Pauliana) generate practical problems. This article’s goal is to explore the similarities and differences of the data. To achieve this, existing
Bates, M. R.; Moore, L. D.; Scott, W. V.
The selection and design of a time/frequency collision avoidance system for use in general aviation aircraft is discussed. The modifications to airline transport collision avoidance equipment which were made to produce the simpler general aviation system are described. The threat determination capabilities and operating principles of the general aviation system are illustrated.
To some extent, good testing procedure, like good language use, can be achieved through avoidance of errors. Almost any language-instruction program requires the preparation and administration of tests, and it is only to the extent that certain common testing mistakes have been avoided that such tests can be said to be worthwhile selection,…
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a robust obstacle avoidance method for service robot in indoor environment. The method for obstacles avoidance uses information about static obstacles on the landmark using edge detection. Speed and direction of people that walks as moving obstacle obtained by single camera using tracking and recognition system and distance measurement using 3 ultrasonic sensors. A new geometrical model and maneuvering method for moving obstacle avoidance introduced and combined with Bayesian approach for state estimation. The obstacle avoidance problem is formulated using decision theory, prior and posterior distribution and loss function to determine an optimal response based on inaccurate sensor data. Algorithms for moving obstacles avoidance method proposed and experiment results implemented to service robot also presented. Various experiments show that our proposed method very fast, robust and successfully implemented to service robot called Srikandi II that equipped with 4 DOF arm robot developed in our laboratory.
Full Text Available This article introduces a novel methodology for dealing with collision avoidance for groups of mobile robots. In particular, full dynamics are considered, since each robot is modeled as a Lagrangian dynamical system moving in a three-dimensional environment. Gyroscopic forces are utilized for defining the collision avoidance control strategy: This kind of forces leads to avoiding collisions, without interfering with the convergence properties of the multi-robot system’s desired control law. Collision avoidance introduces, in fact, a perturbation on the nominal behavior of the system: We define a method for choosing the direction of the gyroscopic force in an optimal manner, in such a way that perturbation is minimized. Collision avoidance and convergence properties are analytically demonstrated, and simulation results are provided for validation purpose.
Ryckman, Richard M; Thornton, Bill; Gold, Joel A
The lack of an adequate psychometric instrument has impeded personality theory testing in the area of competition avoidance. The authors conducted 6 studies in an attempt to remedy this deficiency by constructing an individual-difference measure of competition avoidance. In line with K. Horney's (1937) interpersonal theory of neurosis, participants who were higher in competition avoidance showed higher levels of neuroticism, greater fears of both success and failure, a lower desire to prove themselves in competitive situations, higher levels of self-handicapping, and more maladaptiveness than those participants who were lower in competition avoidance. Also, they were more modest and willing to conform to group standards than were those lower in competition avoidance. The authors discuss the measure's potential usefulness as a diagnostic and assessment tool in academic, athletic, and clinical settings.
João Tiago Marques
Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.
Pittig, Andre; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Craske, Michelle G.; Alpers, Georg W.
Recent research indicates that angry facial expressions are preferentially processed and may facilitate automatic avoidance response, especially in socially anxious individuals. However, few studies have examined whether this bias also expresses itself in more complex cognitive processes and behavior such as decision making. We recently introduced a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task which allowed us to document the influence of task-irrelevant emotional cues on rational decision making. The present study used a modified gambling task to investigate the impact of angry facial expressions on decision making in 38 individuals with a wide range of social anxiety. Participants were to find out which choices were (dis-) advantageous to maximize overall gain. To create a decision conflict between approach of reward and avoidance of fear-relevant angry faces, advantageous choices were associated with angry facial expressions, whereas disadvantageous choices were associated with happy facial expressions. Results indicated that higher social avoidance predicted less advantageous decisions in the beginning of the task, i.e., when contingencies were still uncertain. Interactions with specific skin conductance responses further clarified that this initial avoidance only occurred in combination with elevated responses before choosing an angry facial expressions. In addition, an interaction between high trait anxiety and elevated responses to early losses predicted faster learning of an advantageous strategy. These effects were independent of intelligence, general risky decision-making, self-reported state anxiety, and depression. Thus, socially avoidant individuals who respond emotionally to angry facial expressions are more likely to show avoidance of these faces under uncertainty. This novel laboratory paradigm may be an appropriate analog for central features of social anxiety. PMID:25324792
Pittig, Andre; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Craske, Michelle G; Alpers, Georg W
Recent research indicates that angry facial expressions are preferentially processed and may facilitate automatic avoidance response, especially in socially anxious individuals. However, few studies have examined whether this bias also expresses itself in more complex cognitive processes and behavior such as decision making. We recently introduced a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task which allowed us to document the influence of task-irrelevant emotional cues on rational decision making. The present study used a modified gambling task to investigate the impact of angry facial expressions on decision making in 38 individuals with a wide range of social anxiety. Participants were to find out which choices were (dis-) advantageous to maximize overall gain. To create a decision conflict between approach of reward and avoidance of fear-relevant angry faces, advantageous choices were associated with angry facial expressions, whereas disadvantageous choices were associated with happy facial expressions. Results indicated that higher social avoidance predicted less advantageous decisions in the beginning of the task, i.e., when contingencies were still uncertain. Interactions with specific skin conductance responses further clarified that this initial avoidance only occurred in combination with elevated responses before choosing an angry facial expressions. In addition, an interaction between high trait anxiety and elevated responses to early losses predicted faster learning of an advantageous strategy. These effects were independent of intelligence, general risky decision-making, self-reported state anxiety, and depression. Thus, socially avoidant individuals who respond emotionally to angry facial expressions are more likely to show avoidance of these faces under uncertainty. This novel laboratory paradigm may be an appropriate analog for central features of social anxiety.
Full Text Available Recent research indicates that angry facial expressions are preferentially processed and may facilitate automatic avoidance response, especially in socially anxious individuals. However, few studies have examined whether this bias also expresses itself in more complex cognitive processes and behavior such as decision making. We recently introduced a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task which allowed us to document the influence of task-irrelevant emotional cues on rational decision making. The present study used a modified gambling task to investigate the impact of angry facial expressions on decision making in 38 individuals with a wide range of social anxiety. Participants were to find out which choices were (dis- advantageous to maximize overall gain. To create a decision conflict between approach of rewards and avoidance of fear-relevant angry faces, advantageous choices were associated with angry facial expressions, whereas disadvantageous choices were associated with happy facial expressions. Results indicated that higher social avoidance predicted less advantageous decisions in the beginning of the task, i.e., when contingencies were still uncertain. Interactions with specific skin conductance responses further clarified that this initial avoidance only occurred in combination with elevated responses before choosing an angry facial expressions. In addition, an interaction between high trait anxiety and elevated responses to early losses predicted faster learning of an advantageous strategy. These effects were independent of intelligence, general risky decision-making, self-reported state anxiety, and depression. Thus, socially avoidant individuals who respond emotionally to angry facial expressions are more likely to show avoidance of these faces under uncertainty. This novel laboratory paradigm may be an appropriate analog for central features of social anxiety.
Lowe, Christopher N; Butt, Kevin R; Cheynier, Kevin Yves-Marie
Avoidance behaviour by earthworms is recognised as a valuable endpoint in soil quality assessment and has resulted in the development of a standardised test (ISO 17512-1, 2008) providing epigeic earthworms with a choice between test and control soils. This study sought to develop and evaluate an avoidance test utilising soil-dwelling earthworms in linear pollution gradients with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags used to identify individual organisms. Sequential experiments were established in laboratory-based mesocosms (0.6m×0.13m×0.1m) that determined the relative sensitivities (in terms of associated avoidance behaviour) of Octolasion cyaneum and Lumbricus rubellus at varying levels of polluted soil and also assessed the influence of introduction point on recorded movement within gradients. In an initial gradient (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% polluted soil), both species exhibited a clear avoidance response with all surviving earthworms retrieved (after 7 days) from the unpolluted soil. In a less polluted gradient (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, 25%) L. rubellus were retrieved throughout the gradient while O. cyaneum were located within the 0% and 6.25% divisions, suggesting a species-specific response to polluted soil. Results also showed that the use of a linear pollution gradient system has the potential to assess earthworm avoidance behaviour and could provide a more ecologically relevant alternative to the ISO 17512: 2008 avoidance test. However, further work is required to establish the effectiveness of this procedure, specifically in initial chemical screening and assessment of single contaminant bioavailability, where uptake of pollutants by earthworms could be measured and directly related to the point of introduction and retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aupperle, Robin L.; Melrose, Andrew J.; Francisco, Alex; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.
Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to operationalize anxiety, quantify the effects of anxiolytic agents, and probe the neural basis of fear and anxiety. Results from human neuroimaging studies support that a frontal-striatal-amygdala neural circuitry is important for approach-avoidance learning. However, the neural basis of decision-making is much less clear in this context. Thus, we combined a recently developed human approach-avoidance paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural substrates underlying approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Fifteen healthy adults completed the approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm during fMRI. Analyses of variance were used to compare conflict to non-conflict (avoid-threat and approach-reward) conditions and to compare level of reward points offered during the decision phase. Trial-by-trial amplitude modulation analyses were used to delineate brain areas underlying decision-making in the context of approach/avoidance behavior. Conflict trials as compared to the non-conflict trials elicited greater activation within bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, and caudate, as well as right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Right caudate and lateral PFC activation was modulated by level of reward offered. Individuals who showed greater caudate activation exhibited less approach behavior. On a trial-by-trial basis, greater right lateral PFC activation related to less approach behavior. Taken together, results suggest that the degree of activation within prefrontal-striatal-insula circuitry determines the degree of approach versus avoidance decision-making. Moreover, the degree of caudate and lateral PFC activation is related to individual differences in approach-avoidance decision-making. Therefore, the AAC paradigm is ideally suited to probe anxiety-related processing differences during approach-avoidance decision-making. PMID:25224633
Bell, Kathryn M.; Higgins, Lorrin
The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570
Bell, Kathryn M; Higgins, Lorrin
The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person's ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk.
Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J. Mark G.; Hermans, Dirk
"Overgeneral autobiographical memory" (OGM) refers to the tendency to retrieve less specific personal memories. According to the functional avoidance hypothesis, OGM might act as a cognitive strategy to avoid emotionally distressing details of negative memories. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an experimentally…
Kobeticova, Klara; Hofman, Jakub; Holoubek, Ivan
In this study, avoidance response of Enchytraeus albidus to LUFA 2.2 soil contaminated with pesticide carbendazim was investigated. The aim was to clarify minimal test duration and temporal changes in avoidance response due to contamination ageing. Firstly, the concentration causing 50% avoidance (EC 50 ) was determined as 7.6 mg/kg. Then, test duration needed to reach this value (ET 50 = approximately 18 h) was identified. Finally, the capability of E. albidus avoidance test to reflect the changes of pollutant bioavailability was tested. The soil was spiked with carbendazim at the EC 50 concentration 1, 14, or 28 days before the test started and avoidance effects of fresh versus aged contamination were compared. The results indicated that enchytraeids preferred soil contaminated for 28 days prior to assay where carbendazim was probably less bioavailable than in freshly spiked soil. Our results open an interesting research area of potential use of avoidance tests for contaminant bioavailability assessment. - The results of this study show that avoidance response of Enchytraeus albidus might identify changes of contaminant bioavailability
Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena
The acquisition and use of social information are integral to social behaviour and parasite/pathogen avoidance. This involves social cognition which encompasses mechanisms for acquiring, processing, retaining and acting on social information. Social cognition entails the acquisition of social information about others (i.e. social recognition) and from others (i.e. social learning). Social cognition involves assessing other individuals and their infection status and the pathogen and parasite threat they pose and deciding about when and how to interact with them. Social cognition provides a framework for examining pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours and their associated neurobiological mechanisms. Here, we briefly consider the relationships between social cognition and olfactory-mediated pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours. We briefly discuss aspects of (i) social recognition of actual and potentially infected individuals and the impact of parasite/pathogen threat on mate and social partner choice; (ii) the roles of 'out-groups' (strangers, unfamiliar individuals) and 'in-groups' (familiar individuals) in the expression of parasite/pathogen avoidance behaviours; (iii) individual and social learning, i.e. the utilization of the pathogen recognition and avoidance responses of others; and (iv) the neurobiological mechanisms, in particular the roles of the nonapeptide, oxytocin and steroid hormones (oestrogens) associated with social cognition and parasite/pathogen avoidance.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Evolution of pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours'. © 2018 The Author(s).
In the main experiment two groups of 6 cats each were trained in active bar-pressing avoidance to a CS consisting of either a 10 dB or 20 dB decrease of the background white noise of 70 dB intensity. The two groups did not differ in rapidity of learning, however cats trained to the greater change .in background noise performed avoidance responses with shorter latencies than did cats trained to smaller change. Within-groups comparisons of cumulative distributions of response latencies for consecutive Vincentized fifths of avoidance acquisition showed the greatest changes in the region of latencies longer than the median latency of instrumental responses. On the other hand, the effects of CS intensity found in between-groups comparisons were located in the region of latencies shorter than the median latency of either group. Comparisons with data obtained in a complementary experiment employing additional 17 cats showed that subjects trained to stimuli less intense than the background noise level were marked by an exceptionally low level of avoidance responding with latencies shorter than 1.1 s, which was lower than expected from the probability of intertrial responses for this period of time. Due to this property of stimuli less intense than the background, the distributions of response latencies were moved to the right, in effect, prefrontal lesions influenced a greater part of latency distributions than in cats trained to stimuli more intense than the background.
Siju, K P; Bräcker, Lasse B; Grunwald Kadow, I C
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, innately avoids even low levels of CO2. CO2 is part of the so-called Drosophila stress odor produced by stressed flies, but also a byproduct of fermenting fruit, a main food source, making the strong avoidance behavior somewhat surprising. Therefore, we addressed whether feeding states might influence the fly's behavior and processing of CO2. In a recent report, we showed that this innate behavior is differentially processed and modified according to the feeding state of the fly. Interestingly, we found that hungry flies require the function of the mushroom body, a higher brain center required for olfactory learning and memory, but thought to be dispensable for innate olfactory behaviors. In addition, we anatomically and functionally characterized a novel bilateral projection neuron connecting the CO2 sensory input to the mushroom body. This neuron was essential for processing of CO2 in the starved fly but not in the fed fly. In this Extra View article, we provide evidence for the potential involvement of the neuromodulator dopamine in state-dependent CO2 avoidance behavior. Taken together, our work demonstrates that CO2 avoidance behavior is mediated by alternative neural pathways in a context-dependent manner. Furthermore, it shows that the mushroom body is not only involved in processing of learned olfactory behavior, as previously suggested, but also in context-dependent innate olfaction.
Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M
Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A
Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts.
Erik B Oleson
Full Text Available Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: 1 fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, 2 the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, 3 over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety 4 the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain’s incentive-motivational circuitry.
Liourta, Elissavet; van Empelen, Pepijn
The present study examined self-regulatory and goal-conflicting processes in the avoidance of drunk driving among Greek young drivers. A total of 361 university students in Greece completed a questionnaire, using a retrospective cross-sectional survey design. One-third reported to have driven under the influence of alcohol. Although prior intentions were clearly related to actual avoidance of drunk driving, one out of five respondents had not complied with their intention. An examination of post-intentional correlates of avoidance of drunk driving among positive intenders showed that avoidance of drunk driving was positively related to alcohol limitation plans and alcohol limitation self-efficacy, whereas negative relations were found for goal conflict and behavioural willingness. The present study suggests that people should not only be motivated but also be equipped with self-regulatory strategies aiming at the avoidance of drinking. Finally, goal commitment should be enhanced by increasing the salience of the avoidance goal.
Tanaka, Katsumasa; Cho, Cheolhung; Krey, Volker; Patt, Anthony; Rafaj, Peter; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Wagner, Fabian
., 2009) is employed to calculate climate responses including associated uncertainty and to estimate geoengineering profiles to cap the warming at 2°C since preindustrial. The inversion setup for the model ACC2 is used to estimate the uncertain parameters (e.g. climate sensitivity) against associated historical observations (e.g. global-mean surface air temperature). Our preliminary results show that under climate and scenario uncertainties, a geoengineering intervention to avoid an overshoot would be with medium intensity in the latter half of this century (≈ 1 Mt. Pinatubo eruption every 4 years in terms of stratospheric sulfur injections). The start year of geoengineering intervention does not significantly influence the long-term geoengineering profile. However, a geoengineering intervention of the medium intensity could bring about substantial environmental side effects such as the destruction of stratospheric ozone. Our results point to the necessity to pursue persistently mainstream mitigation efforts. 2) Pollution Abatement and Geoengineering The second study examines the potential of geoengineering combined with air clean policy. A drastic air pollution abatement might result in an abrupt warming because it would suddenly remove the tropospheric aerosols which partly offset the background global warming (e.g. Andreae et al, 2005, Raddatz and Tanaka, 2010). This study investigates the magnitude of unrealized warming under a range of policy assumptions and associated uncertainties. Then the profile of geoengineering is estimated to suppress the warming that would be accompanied by clean air policy. This study is the first attempt to explore uncertainty in the warming caused by clean air policy - Kloster et al. (2009), which assess regional changes in climate and hydrological cycle, has not however included associated uncertainties in the analysis. A variety of policy assumptions will be devised to represent various degrees of air pollution abatement. These
Kevin D Beck
Full Text Available As a model of anxiety disorder vulnerability, male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats acquire lever-press avoidance behavior more readily than outbred Sprague Dawley rats, and their acquisition is enhanced by the presence of a discrete signal presented during the inter-trial intervals (ITIs, suggesting it is perceived as a safety signal. A series of experiments were conducted to determine if this is the case. Additional experiments investigated if the avoidance facilitation relies upon processing through medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. The results suggest that the ITI-signal facilitates acquisition during the early stages of the avoidance acquisition process, when the rats are initially acquiring escape behavior and then transitioning to avoidance behavior. Post-avoidance introduction of the visual ITI-signal into other associative learning tasks failed to confirm that the visual stimulus had acquired the properties of a conditioned inhibitor. Shortening the signal from the entirety of the 3 min ITI to only the first 5 s of the 3 min ITI slowed acquisition during the first 4 sessions, suggesting the flashing light is not functioning as a feedback signal. The prelimbic (PL cortex showed greater activation during the period of training when the transition from escape responding to avoidance responding occurs. Only combined PL+infralimbic cortex lesions modestly slowed avoidance acquisition, but PL cortex lesions slowed avoidance response latencies. Thus, the flashing light ITI-signal is not likely perceived as a safety signal nor is it serving as a feedback signal. The functional role of the PL cortex appears to be to increase the drive towards responding to the threat of the warning signal. Hence, avoidance susceptibility displayed by male WKY rats may be driven, in part, both by external stimuli (ITI signal as well as by enhanced threat recognition to the warning signal via the PL cortex.
Pierce, W David; Heth, C Donald
In Experiment 1, compared to non-reinforced presentation of a food stimulus (A-->no US), the association of a food stimulus with wheel running (A-->US) blocked subsequent avoidance of a distinctive flavor (X), when both the food and flavor were followed by wheel running (AX-->US). Experiment 2 replicated and extended the blocking effect, demonstrating that the amount of avoidance of X after AX-->wheel training depended on the correlation between A-alone trials and wheel running-the predictiveness of the A stimulus. The present study is the first to demonstrate associative blocking of conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) induced by wheel running and strongly implicates associative learning as the basis for this kind of avoidance. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In its first part, this publication gives an overview of the issues of avoided emissions: reasons for their calculation, risks to be understood and anticipated, relationships between avoided emissions and enterprises, avoided emissions in the enterprise climate strategy, and available calculation methods. The second part describes the methodology and process of calculation of avoided emissions: project initiation, method selection, reference solution selection, scenario elaboration, definition of the scope of calculation, taking the whole value chain into account, result consolidation, communication. A synthesis of recommendations is provided. Within the text, this publication proposes presentations of actions undertaken by several French companies or French subsidiaries like Air France, BASF, EDF, Michelin, Paprec, RTE, Saint-Gobain, SNCF, Suez, Total, Veolia, and others
EPA is aware of counterfeit pet pesticides designed to look like legitimately registered pesticide products. The information on this page is intended to help consumers avoid unregistered pet products.
Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.
Costa, Paulo Moises [Escola Superior Tecnologia Viseu, Instituto Politecnico Viseu, Campus Politecnico Repeses, 3504-510 Viseu (Portugal); Matos, Manuel A. [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)
In the scope of the discussions about microgeneration (and microgrids), the avoided electrical losses are often pointed out as an important value to be credited to those entities. Therefore, methods to assess the impact of microgeneration on losses must be developed in order to support the definition of a suitable regulatory framework for the economic integration of microgeneration on distribution networks. This paper presents an analytical method to quantify the value of avoided losses that microgeneration may produce on LV networks. Intervals of expected avoided losses are used to account for the variation of avoided losses due to the number, size and location of microgenerators, as well as for the kind of load distribution on LV networks. (author)
Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing. ... from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism.
Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei
It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.
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Mapes, Peter B
.... This study concludes that implementation of Automatic Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto-CAS) in F-16, F/A-18, F/A-22, and F-35 aircraft would save aircrew lives and preserve, and enhance combat capability.
in the other country with a cross-border hybrid instrument. We then investigate why countries tend to allow the use of hybrid instruments for tax avoidance and show that even if effective anti-avoidance rules are available, there exists a global policy equilibrium in which no country uses such rules......The rules demarcating debt and equity for tax purposes differ between countries, hence the possibility that a hybrid financial instrument is treated as equity in one country and debt in another. This may create a scope for tax avoidance by allowing firms that invest in foreign countries to combine...... tax deductible interest expenses in the host country and tax favored dividend income in the home country. In this paper, we first develop a formal model of hybrid instruments and show that, for a given pair of countries, firms in at least one country and sometimes in both can avoid taxes on investment...
Broekhuizen, Thijs; Giarratana, Marco S.; Torres, Anna
Purpose - This study aims to investigate how a firm's uncertainty avoidance - as indicated by the headquarters' national culture - impacts firm performance by affecting exploratory (product innovation) and exploitative (brand trademark protection) activities. It aims to show that firms characterized
Diabetes care: 10 ways to avoid complications Diabetes care is a lifelong responsibility. Consider 10 strategies to prevent diabetes complications. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes is a serious disease. Following ...
This article presents plans of preventing casting-air-pollution in practice, and some avoiding methods in detail. In modern times, environment protection is looked high upon day by day; green-casting thus becomes more and more important.
Dillen, L.F. van; Enter, D.; Peters, L.P.M.; Dijk, W.W. van; Rotteveel, M.
People derive their sense of belonging from perceptions of being a moral person. Research moreover suggests that social cues of rejection rapidly influence visual scanning, and result in avoidant gaze behavior, especially in socially anxious individuals. With the current eye-tracking experiment, we
Renard, S.B.; de Jong, P.J.; Pijnenborg, G.H.M.
This study examined whether approach-avoidance related behaviour elicited by facial affect is moderated by the presence of an observer-irrelevant trigger that may influence the observer's attributions of the actor's emotion. Participants were shown happy, disgusted, and neutral facial expressions.
Holzmann, Carolin Maria
This paper investigates transfer pricing as tax avoidance before and after reforms of anti-avoidance legislation. The reforms introduced and tightened obligatory documentation requirements for transfer prices to enforce that multinational enterprises (MNEs) set internal transfer prices at an arm’s-length. Linking data from the Microdatabase Statistics on International Trade in Services that comprehends prices of MNEs’ international service transactions to the Microdatabase Direct Investment, ...
Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert
The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important protein for neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. In this thesis the role of BDNF, in suicidal behaviour was investigated with focus on possible risk factors for suicidal behaviour such as avoidant focused coping, dysfuntional personality traits like impulsiveness and hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis.Paper I: The association between avoidant focused coping and the BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism in two differen...
This Functional Requirements Document (FRD) describes the flow of requirements from the high level operational objectives down to the functional requirements specific to cooperative collision avoidance for high altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft systems. These are further decomposed into performance and safety guidelines that are backed up by analysis or references to various documents or research findings. The FRD should be considered when establishing future policies, procedures, and standards pertaining to cooperative collision avoidance.
Bevan, G.; Gollee, H.; O'Reilly, J.
Longitudinal collision avoidance controllers are of limited benefit for preventing head-on collisions between road vehicles travelling at high speed or for preventing rear end collisions when there is insufficient separation between the vehicles. In these circumstances, aggressive lateral vehicle manoeuvres are more appropriate. This paper develops a controller architecture to perform an emergency lateral collision avoidance manoeuvre. Simulation results indicate significant improvements in c...
Wolf , Michael T.; Burdick, Joel W.
We present a set of potential function components to assist an automated or semi-automated vehicle in navigating a multi-lane, populated highway. The resulting potential field is constructed as a superposition of disparate functions for lane- keeping, road-staying, speed preference, and vehicle avoidance and passing. The construction of the vehicle avoidance potential is of primary importance, incorporating the structure and protocol of laned highway driving. Particularly, the shape and dimen...
Amir Abedini Koshksaray; Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee
This study aimed at finding out which e-lifestyles avoid internet advertising more. To this aim, a survey was conducted on 412 students working with internet. Structural Equation Modeling approach was used for estimating the validity of research constructs and multiple regression was utilized for hypothesis testing. According to the findings, individuals with interest-driven e-lifestyle avoid from internet advertising more than others. Novelty-driven, importance-driven, sociability-driven, ne...
Guosheng Wu; Luning Wang; Changyuan Fan; Xi Zhu
This paper provides a new approach to solve the motion planning problems of flying robots in uncertain 3D dynamic environments. The robots controlled by this method can adaptively choose the fast way to avoid collision without information about the shapes and trajectories of obstacles. Based on sphere coordinates the new method accomplishes collision avoidance of flying robots without any other auxiliary positioning systems. The Self-protection System gives robots self-protection abilities to...
Hamid, Umar Zakir Abdul; Zakuan, Fakhrul Razi Ahmad; Akmal Zulkepli, Khairul; Zulfaqar Azmi, Muhammad; Zamzuri, Hairi; Rahman, Mohd Azizi Abdul; Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) of the United States of America in their reports has mentioned that a significant amount of the road mishaps would be preventable if more automated active safety applications are adopted into the vehicle. This includes the incorporation of collision avoidance system. The autonomous intervention by the active steering and braking systems in the hazardous scenario can aid the driver in mitigating the collisions. In this work, a real-time platform of a multi-actuators vehicle collision avoidance system is developed. It is a continuous research scheme to develop a fully autonomous vehicle in Malaysia. The vehicle is a modular platform which can be utilized for different research purposes and is denominated as Intelligent Drive Project (iDrive). The vehicle collision avoidance proposed design is validated in a controlled environment, where the coupled longitudinal and lateral motion control system is expected to provide desired braking and steering actuation in the occurrence of a frontal static obstacle. Results indicate the ability of the platform to yield multi-actuators collision avoidance navigation in the hazardous scenario, thus avoiding the obstacle. The findings of this work are beneficial for the development of a more complex and nonlinear real-time collision avoidance work in the future.
Mkrtchian, Anahit; Aylward, Jessica; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J
Serious and debilitating symptoms of anxiety are the most common mental health problem worldwide, accounting for around 5% of all adult years lived with disability in the developed world. Avoidance behavior-avoiding social situations for fear of embarrassment, for instance-is a core feature of such anxiety. However, as for many other psychiatric symptoms the biological mechanisms underlying avoidance remain unclear. Reinforcement learning models provide formal and testable characterizations of the mechanisms of decision making; here, we examine avoidance in these terms. A total of 101 healthy participants and individuals with mood and anxiety disorders completed an approach-avoidance go/no-go task under stress induced by threat of unpredictable shock. We show an increased reliance in the mood and anxiety group on a parameter of our reinforcement learning model that characterizes a prepotent (pavlovian) bias to withhold responding in the face of negative outcomes. This was particularly the case when the mood and anxiety group was under stress. This formal description of avoidance within the reinforcement learning framework provides a new means of linking clinical symptoms with biophysically plausible models of neural circuitry and, as such, takes us closer to a mechanistic understanding of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S
We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.
Zhuang, Jia-yuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Shi-qi; Cao, Jian; Wang, Bo; Sun, Han-bing
Unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) have become a focus of research because of their extensive applications. To ensure safety and reliability and to perform complex tasks autonomously, USVs are required to possess accurate perception of the environment and effective collision avoidance capabilities. To achieve these, investigation into realtime marine radar target detection and autonomous collision avoidance technologies is required, aiming at solving the problems of noise jamming, uneven brightness, target loss, and blind areas in marine radar images. These technologies should also satisfy the requirements of real-time and reliability related to high navigation speeds of USVs. Therefore, this study developed an embedded collision avoidance system based on the marine radar, investigated a highly real-time target detection method which contains adaptive smoothing algorithm and robust segmentation algorithm, developed a stable and reliable dynamic local environment model to ensure the safety of USV navigation, and constructed a collision avoidance algorithm based on velocity obstacle (V-obstacle) which adjusts the USV's heading and speed in real-time. Sea trials results in multi-obstacle avoidance firstly demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed avoidance system, and then verify its great adaptability and relative stability when a USV sailing in a real and complex marine environment. The obtained results will improve the intelligent level of USV and guarantee the safety of USV independent sailing.
Carson, F; Polman, R C J
Avoidance coping has commonly been reported within literature to be a debilitative process. However, in situations where goal attainment is reduced or eradicated avoidance coping strategies appear to have some benefit. The aim of this study was to identify the role of avoidance coping within the sports injury rehabilitation setting. A mixed methodological approach was utilized with four professional male rugby union players, concurrent with their rehabilitation from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Twice monthly interviews were conducted with each player, along with a self-report diary and the Coping with Health, Injuries and Problems (CHIP; Endler & Parker, 2000) inventory. Content analysis showed six higher-order themes split into two general dimensions: (a) behavioral avoidance coping (physical distraction, social interaction, maladaptive behaviors), and (b) cognitive avoidance coping (denial, thought stopping, cognitive distraction). Results suggest avoidance coping strategies facilitate control of short-term emotional states, as well has appearing to have long-term benefits for injured players. Particular benefits were associated with undertaking alternate work within the sports organization.
Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
from the key role of proactive and state-aware road users within the concept of sustainable safety systems, as well as from the key role of effective corrective maneuvers in the success of automated in-vehicle warning and driver assistance systems. Methods: The analysis is conducted by means of a mixed...... about the risks of driving under fatigue and distraction being comparable to the risks of driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs. Moreover, the results suggest the need to educate drivers about hazard perception, designing a forgiving infrastructure within a sustainable safety systems......Objective: The current study focuses on the propensity of drivers to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers in relation to driver attributes, critical events, crash characteristics, vehicles involved, road characteristics, and environmental conditions. The importance of avoidance maneuvers derives...
Gil de Montes, Lorena; Ortiz, Garbiñe; Valencia, José F; Larrañaga, Maider; Agirrezabal, Arrate
The use of more abstract language to describe expected behaviors as opposed to unexpected behaviors has traditionally been considered a way of stereotype maintenance. This tendency is known as linguistic expectancy bias. Two experiments examined the influence of approach and avoidance motivational orientations on the production of this linguistic expectancy bias. It was predicted that approach strategic orientation is likely to describe expectancy consistent behaviors at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent behaviors. In contrast, avoidance strategic orientation is likely to describe both expectancy consistent behaviors and expectancy inconsistent behaviors at a lower level of linguistic abstraction, thus facilitating the disappearance of linguistic expectancy bias. Two experiments confirmed these expectations, using strategic orientation manipulations based either on communication goals or on motor action, and measuring linguistic abstraction either on forced-choice answer format or on free descriptions. Implications for the generalisation of linguistic expectancy bias are discussed.
Kok, Annebelle C M; Engelberts, J Pamela; Kastelein, Ronald A; Helder-Hoek, Lean; Van de Voorde, Shirley; Visser, Fleur; Slabbekoorn, Hans
The continuing rise in underwater sound levels in the oceans leads to disturbance of marine life. It is thought that one of the main impacts of sound exposure is the alteration of foraging behaviour of marine species, for example by deterring animals from a prey location, or by distracting them while they are trying to catch prey. So far, only limited knowledge is available on both mechanisms in the same species. The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is a relatively small marine mammal that could quickly suffer fitness consequences from a reduction of foraging success. To investigate effects of anthropogenic sound on their foraging efficiency, we tested whether experimentally elevated sound levels would deter two captive harbour porpoises from a noisy pool into a quiet pool (Experiment 1) and reduce their prey-search performance, measured as prey-search time in the noisy pool (Experiment 2). Furthermore, we tested the influence of the temporal structure and amplitude of the sound on the avoidance response of both animals. Both individuals avoided the pool with elevated sound levels, but they did not show a change in search time for prey when trying to find a fish hidden in one of three cages. The combination of temporal structure and SPL caused variable patterns. When the sound was intermittent, increased SPL caused increased avoidance times. When the sound was continuous, avoidance was equal for all SPLs above a threshold of 100 dB re 1 μPa. Hence, we found no evidence for an effect of sound exposure on search efficiency, but sounds of different temporal patterns did cause spatial avoidance with distinct dose-response patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santiago, Confesor; Mueller, Eric Richard; Johnson, Marcus A.; Abramson, Michael; Snow, James William
Unmanned aircraft will equip with a detect-and-avoid (DAA) system that enables them to comply with the requirement to "see and avoid" other aircraft, an important layer in the overall set of procedural, strategic and tactical separation methods designed to prevent mid-air collisions. This paper describes a capability called Java Architecture for Detect and Avoid Extensibility and Modeling (JADEM), developed to prototype and help evaluate various DAA technological requirements by providing a flexible and extensible software platform that models all major detect-and-avoid functions. Figure 1 illustrates JADEM's architecture. The surveillance module can be actual equipment on the unmanned aircraft or simulators that model the process by which sensors on-board detect other aircraft and provide track data to the traffic display. The track evaluation function evaluates each detected aircraft and decides whether to provide an alert to the pilot and its severity. Guidance is a combination of intruder track information, alerting, and avoidance/advisory algorithms behind the tools shown on the traffic display to aid the pilot in determining a maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear. All these functions are designed with a common interface and configurable implementation, which is critical in exploring DAA requirements. To date, JADEM has been utilized in three computer simulations of the National Airspace System, three pilot-in-the-loop experiments using a total of 37 professional UAS pilots, and two flight tests using NASA's Predator-B unmanned aircraft, named Ikhana. The data collected has directly informed the quantitative separation standard for "well clear", safety case, requirements development, and the operational environment for the DAA minimum operational performance standards. This work was performed by the Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability team under NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project.
Weckerly, F.; McFarland, K.; Ricca, M.; Meyer, K.
Intersexual social segregation at small spatial scales is prevalent in ruminants that are sexually dimorphic in body size. Explaining social segregation, however, from hypotheses of how intersexual size differences affects the foraging process of males and females has had mixed results. We studied whether body size influences on forage behavior, intersexual social incompatibility or both might influence social segregation in a population of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelt) that declined 40% over 5 y. Most males and females in the population occurred in the same forage patches, meadows, but occupied different parts of meadows and most groups were overwhelming comprised of one sex. The extent of segregation varied slightly with changing elk density. Cropping rate, our surrogate of forage ingestion, of males in mixed-sex groups differed from males in male-only groups at high, but not low, elk density. In a prior study of intersexual social interactions it was shown that females avoided groups containing ???6 males. Therefore, we predicted that females should avoid parts of meadows where groups of males ???6 were prevalent. Across the 5 y of study this prediction held because ???5% of all females were found in parts of meadows where median aggregation sizes of males were ???6. Social segregation was coupled to body size influences on forage ingestion at high density and social incompatibility was coupled to social segregation regardless of elk density.
Liu, Ying; Ding, Yi; Lu, Luluzi; Chen, Xu
How attachment style affects emotion processing is tightly connected with individuals' attention bias. This experiment explored avoidant individuals' attentional engagement and attentional disengagement using a cue-target paradigm in fMRI. The experimental group consisted of 17 avoidant participants, while the control group consisted of 16 secure participants; these were identified by the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory and the Relationship Questionnaire. Each reacted to pictures of positive parent-child attachment, negative parent-child attachment, positive romantic attachment, negative romantic attachment, and neutral non-attachment. Behaviorally, avoidant individuals were slower than secure individuals in responding to emotions and their attentional disengagement effect for negative parent-child emotions was stronger than positive ones. fMRI results showed that avoidant compared to secure individuals activated more strongly in the right superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and the left medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cingulate gyrus. They also showed stronger activation in disengaging from positive than negative emotions in the bilateral fusiform and middle occipital gyri. In conclusion, avoidant individuals could detect emotions as effective as secure individuals in attentioal engaging stages. They can disengage from positive emotions with effective cognitive resources and were harder to get rid of negative emotions with insufficient resource.
Stephan, Elena; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Zhou, Xinyue; He, Wuming; Routledge, Clay; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M
In light of its role in maintaining psychological equanimity, we proposed that nostalgia--a self-relevant, social, and predominantly positive emotion--regulates avoidance and approach motivation. We advanced a model in which (a) avoidance motivation triggers nostalgia and (b) nostalgia, in turn, increases approach motivation. As a result, nostalgia counteracts the negative impact of avoidance motivation on approach motivation. Five methodologically diverse studies supported this regulatory model. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design and showed that avoidance motivation was positively associated with nostalgia. Nostalgia, in turn, was positively associated with approach motivation. In Study 2, an experimental induction of avoidance motivation increased nostalgia. Nostalgia then predicted increased approach motivation. Studies 3-5 tested the causal effect of nostalgia on approach motivation and behavior. These studies demonstrated that experimental nostalgia inductions strengthened approach motivation (Study 3) and approach behavior as manifested in reduced seating distance (Study 4) and increased helping (Study 5). The findings shed light on nostalgia's role in regulating the human motivation system.
Mehmet Serdar Güzel
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new obstacle avoidance method using a single monocular vision camera as the only sensor which is called as Hybrid Architecture. This architecture integrates a high performance appearance-based obstacle detection method into an optical flow-based navigation system. The hybrid architecture was designed and implemented to run both methods simultaneously and is able to combine the results of each method using a novel arbitration mechanism. The proposed strategy successfully fused two different vision-based obstacle avoidance methods using this arbitration mechanism in order to permit a safer obstacle avoidance system. Accordingly, to establish the adequacy of the design of the obstacle avoidance system, a series of experiments were conducted. The results demonstrate the characteristics of the proposed architecture, and the results prove that its performance is somewhat better than the conventional optical flow-based architecture. Especially, the robot employing Hybrid Architecture avoids lateral obstacles in a more smooth and robust manner than when using the conventional optical flow-based technique.
Full Text Available The use of Indonesian language by children who speak the Balinese language, especially for children who live in rural areas is quite difficult. This is because their Balinese language is much different from Indonesian language. If they speak Indonesian language, they have to fall back to the language first. That is, language transfer process will take place from Balinese language to Indonesian language. This research aims to describe two phenomena of the language transfer process, namely avoidance and overuse (excessive use. Qualitative data were obtained from one Balinese child, namely Gede. Gede’s daily conversations were recorded to be analyzed. The researcher also used field notes. The results show that there is indeed avoidance and overuse in the use of Indonesian language by Gede. The teachers must be aware of the student's avoidance and overuse of Indonesian language, then the teacher can choose a contextual teaching method that best fits their students’ need in order to enable them to cope with the avoidance and overuse in learning the second language. In conclusion, the Balinese child’s avoidance and overuse, displayed in his use of Indonesian Language, is a concequence of his prior knowledge of his first language (L1 as well as his cultural awareness. Teachers should facilitate their students’ second language (L2 learning by being aware of their L1 prior knowledge and culture.
Full Text Available Different modes of transportation are often used in our daily lives. Therefore, how safe these modes are commonly researched by researchers. Many models and methods are developed to avoid collision with the development of technology. This development is aimed to improving the safety of life and property. The technological developments also aim to reduce the minimum level of the human error. Technological devices developed to prevent collision are applied in systematic way according to type of transportation mode. When comparatively examined, it is similar to each other technology used in different modes. In this respect, proposed model and methods are similar in general. These approaches are generally based on position of vehicles relative to each other and also rules have been developed taking into consideration the possibilities that may occur. Real-time sensors used to avoid collision in vehicles reduce risk of collision and provide significant achievements on behalf of avoiding collision. Besides this, it has been considered important a communication network between vehicles. As a result, the importance of the technological devices developed to ensure collision avoidance is increasing in our life. Thus, the study aims to explain and compare the methods, models and techniques used in the different transportation modes so as to avoid collision.
Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine; Borelli, Jessica L; River, Laura M
Perhaps unlike other social roles that people may hold, caring for children offers opportunities for both immense joy and incredible frustration. Yet what predicts how parents will feel during caregiving experiences? In the current study, we examined parents' (N = 152) positive emotion, negative emotion, and felt meaning during caregiving using the Day Reconstruction Method. In addition, we tested attachment anxiety and avoidance as predictors of parents' emotion during caregiving relative to their other daily experiences. We found that attachment avoidance was associated with elevated negative emotion and reduced positive emotion and meaning in life across the entire day, whereas attachment anxiety was associated with elevated negative emotion and marginally greater meaning in life, but not positive emotion, across the entire day. Furthermore, caregiving was associated with greater positive emotion and meaning, but not negative emotion, compared to parents' other daily activities. Finally, attachment avoidance, but not anxiety, was associated with lower levels of positive emotion, negative emotion, and felt meaning during caregiving compared to other daily activities. These findings are consistent with other evidence that attachment avoidance is associated with deactivation of emotion in close relationships and suggest that attachment avoidance minimizes the joys of parenting.
Tucker, John [Genability, San Francisco, CA (United States); Danziger, Eric [Genability, San Francisco, CA (United States)
The core objectives of this project were two separate but integrated products, collectively providing game-changing Avoided Cost capabilities. The first was a kit of avoided cost tools and data that any solar provider can use a-lacarte or as a whole. It’s open and easily accessible nature allows the rapid and accurate calculation of avoided cost in whatever context and software that make sense (“Typical and Avoided Cost Tools”). This kit includes a dataset of typical energy rates, costs and usage that can be used for solar prospecting, lead generation and any situation where data about an opportunity is missing or imperfect. The second is a web application and related APIs specifically built for solar providers to radically streamline their lead-to-sale process (“Solar Provider Module”). The typical and Avoided Cost tools are built directly into this, and allow for solar providers to track their opportunities, collaborate with their installers and financiers, and close more sales faster.
Alvarez, J; Whittington, S G; Rensburg, E J Janse van; Soteros, C E
A polymer in a confined geometry may be modeled by a self-avoiding walk or a self-avoiding polygon confined between two parallel walls. In two dimensions, this model involves self-avoiding walks or self-avoiding polygons in the square lattice between two parallel confining lines. Interactions of the polymer with the confining walls are introduced by energy terms associated with edges in the walk or polygon which are at or near the confining lines. We use transfer-matrix methods to investigate the forces between the walk or polygon and the confining lines, as well as to investigate the effects of the confining slit's width and of the energy terms on the thermodynamic properties of the walks or polygons in several models. The phase diagram found for the self-avoiding walk models is qualitatively similar to the phase diagram of a directed walk model confined between two parallel lines, as was previously conjectured. However, the phase diagram of one of our polygon models is found to be significantly different and we present numerical data to support this. For that particular model we prove that, for any finite values of the energy terms, there are an infinite number of slit widths where a polygon will induce a steric repulsion between the confining lines
Schulz, B.M.; Trimper, S.; Schulz, M.
We study the asymptotic behavior of a Brownian particle under the influence of a dynamical feedback by numerical simulations and analytical considerations. The feedback is controlled by a memory coupling of strength λ. Whereas a negative memory strength yields a true self avoiding walk, a positive memory leads to a self-trapping of the particle. The localization is manifested by a constant mean square displacement in the long time limit which appears after an initial diffusive regime. The probability distribution function of the trapping distance shows an exponential decay. The numerical simulations are compared with an analytical modeling
A developmental-evolutionary perspective is used to synthesize basic research from the neurosciences, ethology, genetics, and developmental psychology into a unified framework for understanding the nature and origins of social anxiety and avoidant personality disorder. Evidence is presented that social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and avoidant personality disorder may be alternate conceptualizations of the same disorder because they have virtually the same symptoms and genetic basis, and respond to the same pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions. A functionalist perspective on social anxiety is formulated to (a) explain the origins of normative states of anxiety, (b) outline developmental pathways in the transition from normative anxiety to social anxiety and avoidant personality disorders, and (c) account for the processes leading to gender-differentiated patterns of anxiety-related disorders after puberty.
Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A
Effective approach/avoidance goal pursuit is critical for attaining long-term health and well-being. Research on the neural correlates of key goal-pursuit processes (e.g., motivation) has long been of interest, with lateralization in prefrontal cortex being a particularly fruitful target of investigation. However, this literature has often been limited by a lack of spatial specificity and has not delineated the precise aspects of approach/avoidance motivation involved. Additionally, the relationships among brain regions (i.e., network connectivity) vital to goal-pursuit remain largely unexplored. Specificity in location, process, and network relationship is vital for moving beyond gross characterizations of function and identifying the precise cortical mechanisms involved in motivation. The present paper integrates research using more spatially specific methodologies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging) with the rich psychological literature on approach/avoidance to propose an integrative network model that takes advantage of the strengths of each of these literatures.
Klein, Marty; Rilling, Mark
Three groups of four pigeons, trained to press a treadle on a free-operant avoidance schedule, were given auditory discrimination training. Alternating 2-min components of avoidance and no shock were paired with either a tone or white noise. The pigeons were subsequently given two types of generalization tests, with and without avoidable shocks scheduled. Two of the groups, trained interdimensionally, produced excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients along the tone frequency dimension. A predicted post-discrimination gradient was computed from the algebraic summation of these gradients of excitation and inhibition. The predicted gradient was compared with the actual post-discrimination gradient obtained from the third group of pigeons that had been given intradimensional discrimination training on the tone frequency dimension. The predicted postdiscrimination gradient agreed in shape with the empirical postdiscrimination gradient. The results in general support Spence's (1937) gradient interaction theory. PMID:16811735
Van Rensburg, E J Janse; Rechnitzer, A
In this paper, we introduce a new Monte Carlo method for sampling lattice self-avoiding walks. The method, which we call 'GAS' (generalized atmospheric sampling), samples walks along weighted sequences by implementing elementary moves generated by the positive, negative and neutral atmospheric statistics of the walks. A realized sequence is weighted such that the average weight of states of length n is proportional to the number of self-avoiding walks from the origin c n . In addition, the method also self-tunes to sample from uniform distributions over walks of lengths in an interval [0, n max ]. We show how to implement GAS using both generalized and endpoint atmospheres of walks and analyse our data to obtain estimates of the growth constant and entropic exponent of self-avoiding walks in the square and cubic lattices.
Skinner, Timothy C.; Roberton, Terri; Allison, Garry T.
) completed a questionnaire including the depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-2; Bond et al., 2007) and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003). Thirty per cent of participants scored above the cut-off for possible...... depression, with equal numbers experiencing mild, moderate or severe depression. Mindfulness and experiential avoidance were significantly associated with depression, and were intercorrelated. Further, regression analysis indicated that experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between depression......This preliminary study sought to explore the link between depression, experiential avoidance and mindfulness in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). We surveyed patients listed on the SCI database at Royal Perth Hospital who had experienced an injury over the last 10 years. Respondents (62...
Hantel, Andrew; Wroblewski, Kristen; Balachandran, Jay S.; Chow, Selina; DeBoer, Rebecca; Fleming, Gini F.; Hahn, Olwen M.; Kline, Justin; Liu, Hongtao; Patel, Bhakti K.; Verma, Anshu; Witt, Leah J.; Fukui, Mayumi; Kumar, Aditi; Howell, Michael D.; Polite, Blase N.
Purpose: Terminal oncology intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations are associated with high costs and inferior quality of care. This study identifies and characterizes potentially avoidable terminal admissions of oncology patients to ICUs. Methods: This was a retrospective case series of patients cared for in an academic medical center’s ambulatory oncology practice who died in an ICU during July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013. An oncologist, intensivist, and hospitalist reviewed each patient’s electronic health record from 3 months preceding terminal hospitalization until death. The primary outcome was the proportion of terminal ICU hospitalizations identified as potentially avoidable by two or more reviewers. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify characteristics associated with avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations. Results: Seventy-two patients met inclusion criteria. The majority had solid tumor malignancies (71%), poor performance status (51%), and multiple encounters with the health care system. Despite high-intensity health care utilization, only 25% had documented advance directives. During a 4-day median ICU length of stay, 81% were intubated and 39% had cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Forty-seven percent of these hospitalizations were identified as potentially avoidable. Avoidable hospitalizations were associated with factors including: worse performance status before admission (median 2 v 1; P = .01), worse Charlson comorbidity score (median 8.5 v 7.0, P = .04), reason for hospitalization (P = .006), and number of prior hospitalizations (median 2 v 1; P = .05). Conclusion: Given the high frequency of avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations, health care leaders should develop strategies to prospectively identify patients at high risk and formulate interventions to improve end-of-life care. PMID:27601514
This useful little book highlights typical mistakes that learners make at First Certificate level and shows how to avoid them. This useful little book highlights typical mistakes that learners make at First Certificate level and shows how to avoid them. Based on the analysis of thousands of actual exam scripts in the Cambridge Learner Corpus, each unit focuses on a key problem area. Clear explanations and varied FCE-style exercises help learners to use the language accurately. Regular tests offer learners a further opportunity to check and consolidate what they have learnt.
This presentation will cover the structure of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) integration into the national airspace system (NAS) project (UAS-NAS Project). The talk also details the motivation of the project to help develop standards for a detect-and-avoid (DAA) system, which is required in order to comply with requirements in manned aviation to see-and-avoid other traffic so as to maintain well clear. The presentation covers accomplishments reached by the project in Phase 1 of the research, and touches on the work to be done in Phase 2. The discussion ends with examples of the display work developed as a result of the Phase 1 research.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify measures that can prevent violent conflict through the maintenance of traditional cultural values that guide conflict avoidance. Moreover, the article focuses on the concepts of conflict prevention and conflict avoidance as applied by the San community of Platfontein. The causes of the inter-communal tensions between the San community members are also examined. A selected conflict situation, that of superstition and witchcraft, is assessed as factors increasing interpersonal conflict in the Platfontein community. This investigation is made to determine if the San preventive measures have an impact in the community, so as to prevent ongoing conflicts from escalating further.
Full Text Available The present article shows that there are consistent and decidable many- valued systems of propositional logic which satisfy two or all the three criteria for non- trivial inconsistent theories by da Costa (1974. The weaker one of these paraconsistent system is also able to avoid a series of paradoxes which come up when classical logic is applied to empirical sciences. These paraconsistent systems are based on a 6- valued system of propositional logic for avoiding difficulties in several domains of empirical science (Weingartner (2009.
Abdel Mehsen Ahmad
Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented and published in IEEE International Multidisciplinary Conference on Engineering Technology (IMCET. This work presents a design and implementation of a moving human tracking system with obstacle avoidance. The system scans the environment by using Kinect, a 3D sensor, and tracks the center of mass of a specific user by using Processing, an open source computer programming language. An Arduino microcontroller is used to drive motors enabling it to move towards the tracked user and avoid obstacles hampering the trajectory. The implemented system is tested under different lighting conditions and the performance is analyzed using several generated depth images.
Tuesta, Luis M; Chen, Zuxin; Duncan, Alexander; Fowler, Christie D; Ishikawa, Masago; Lee, Brian R; Liu, Xin-An; Lu, Qun; Cameron, Michael; Hayes, Matthew R; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Pletcher, Matthew; Kenny, Paul J
Tobacco smokers titrate their nicotine intake to avoid its noxious effects, sensitivity to which may influence vulnerability to tobacco dependence, yet mechanisms of nicotine avoidance are poorly understood. Here we show that nicotine activates glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). The antidiabetic drugs sitagliptin and exenatide, which inhibit GLP-1 breakdown and stimulate GLP-1 receptors, respectively, decreased nicotine intake in mice. Chemogenetic activation of GLP-1 neurons in NTS similarly decreased nicotine intake. Conversely, Glp1r knockout mice consumed greater quantities of nicotine than wild-type mice. Using optogenetic stimulation, we show that GLP-1 excites medial habenular (MHb) projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Activation of GLP-1 receptors in the MHb-IPN circuit abolished nicotine reward and decreased nicotine intake, whereas their knockdown or pharmacological blockade increased intake. GLP-1 neurons may therefore serve as 'satiety sensors' for nicotine that stimulate habenular systems to promote nicotine avoidance before its aversive effects are encountered.
Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan
Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women's eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants ( N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18-29 years ( M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment.
Hildebrandt, Tom; Grotzinger, Andrew; Reddan, Marianne; Greif, Rebecca; Levy, Ifat; Goodman, Wayne; Schiller, Daniela
Anorexia nervosa is characterized by chronic food avoidance that is resistant to change. Disgust conditioning offers one potential unexplored mechanism for explaining this behavioral disturbance because of its specific role in facilitating food avoidance in adaptive situations. A food based reversal learning paradigm was used to study response flexibility in 14 adolescent females with restricting subtype anorexia nervosa (AN-R) and 15 healthy control (HC) participants. Expectancy ratings were coded as a behavioral measure of flexibility and electromyography recordings from the levator labii (disgust), zygomaticus major (pleasure), and corrugator (general negative affect) provided psychophysiological measures of emotion. Response inflexibility was higher for participants with AN-R, as evidenced by lower extinction and updated expectancy ratings during reversal. EMG responses to food stimuli were predictive of both extinction and new learning. Among AN-R patients, disgust specific responses to food were associated with impaired extinction, as were elevated pleasure responses to the cued absence of food. Disgust conditioning appears to influence food learning in acutely ill patients with AN-R and may be maintained by counter-regulatory acquisition of a pleasure response to food avoidance and an aversive response to food presence. Developing strategies to target disgust may improve existing interventions for patients with AN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, David; Schumacher, Anett; Erb, Suzanne; Ito, Rutsuko
Addiction is characterized by persistence to seek drug reinforcement despite negative consequences. Drug-induced aberrations in approach and avoidance processing likely facilitate the sustenance of addiction pathology. Currently, the effects of repeated drug exposure on the resolution of conflicting approach and avoidance motivational signals have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The present study sought to investigate the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on conflict resolution using novel approach-avoidance paradigms. We used a novel mixed-valence conditioning paradigm to condition cocaine-pre-exposed rats to associate visuo-tactile cues with either the delivery of sucrose reward or shock punishment in the arms in which the cues were presented. Following training, exploration of an arm containing a superimposition of the cues was assessed as a measure of conflict resolution behavior. We also used a mixed-valence runway paradigm wherein cocaine-pre-exposed rats traversed an alleyway toward a goal compartment to receive a pairing of sucrose reward and shock punishment. Latency to enter the goal compartment across trials was taken as a measure of motivational conflict. Our results reveal that cocaine pre-exposure attenuated learning for the aversive cue association in our conditioning paradigm and enhanced preference for mixed-valence stimuli in both paradigms. Repeated cocaine pre-exposure allows appetitive approach motivations to gain greater influence over behavioral output in the context of motivational conflict, due to aberrant positive and negative incentive motivational processing.
Kashdan, Todd B; Doorley, James; Stiksma, Melissa C; Hertenstein, Matthew J
Physical touch is central to the emotional intimacy that separates romantic relationships from other social contexts. In this study of 256 adults (128 heterosexual couples, mean relationship length = 20.5 months), we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety influenced comfort with and avoidance of physical touch. Because of prior work on sex difference in touch use, touch comfort, and social anxiety symptoms and impairment, we explored sex-specific findings. We found evidence that women with greater social anxiety were less comfortable with touch and more avoidant of touch in same-sex friendships. Additionally, a woman's social anxiety had a bigger effect on a man's comfort with touch and avoidance of touch in the romantic relationship than a man's social anxiety had on the woman's endorsement of touch-related problems. These effects were uninfluenced by the length of romantic relationships. Touch is a neglected emotional experience that offers new insights into the difficulties of individuals suffering from social anxiety problems, and their romantic partners.
Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim
Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). This paper considered the relationship between students' perceptions of classroom goals and their endorsement of personal achievement goals. We proposed that three (instead of only two) classroom goals need to be distinguished. We aimed to provide evidence for this hypothesis by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and also by divergent associations between the respective classroom goal and students' personal goal endorsement. A total of 871 (474 female) 10th grade students from several German high schools participated in this study. Students responded to items assessing their perception of mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals in the classroom. Additionally, the students reported how much they personally pursue mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. All items referred to German as a specific school subject. RESULTS.A CFA yielded empirical support for the proposed distinction of three (instead of only two) different kinds of classroom goals. Moreover, in hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) analyses all three classroom goals showed unique associations with students' personal goal adoption. The findings emphasized the need to distinguish performance-approach and PAVCG. Furthermore, our results suggest that multiple classroom goals have interactive effects on students' personal achievement strivings. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W
Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Organisms are predicted to make trade-offs when foraging and predator avoidance behaviors present conflicting demands. Balancing conflicting demands is important to larval amphibians because adult fitness can be strongly influenced by size at metamorphosis and duration of the larval period. Larvae in temporary ponds must maximize growth within a short time period to achieve metamorphosis before ponds dry, while simultaneously avoiding predators. To determine whether tadpoles trade off between conflicting demands, I examined tadpole (Pseudacris triseriata) activity and microhabitat use in the presence of red-spotted newts (Notopthalmus viridescens) under varying conditions of pond drying and hunger. Tadpoles significantly decreased activity and increased refuge use when predators were present. The proportion of active time tadpoles spent feeding was significantly greater in predator treatments, suggesting tadpoles adaptively balance the conflicting demands of foraging and predator avoidance without making apparent trade-offs. Tadpoles responded to simulated drying conditions by accelerating development. Pond drying did not modify microhabitat use or activity in the presence of predators, suggesting tadpoles perceived predation and hunger as greater immediate threats than desiccation, and did not take more risks.
Full Text Available Altering physical actions when responding to changing environmental demands is important but not always effectively performed. This ineffectiveness, which is an error of social behavior generated by mutual interactions, is not well understood. This study investigated mechanisms of a hesitant behavior that occurs in people walking toward each other, causing people to move in the same direction when attempting to avoid a collision. Using a motion capture device affixed to 17 pairs, we first confirmed the hesitant behavior by a difference between the experimental task, which involved an indeterminate situation to assess the actions of another individual, and the control task, which involved a predetermined avoiding direction, in a real-time situation involving two people. We next investigated the effect of three external factors: long distance until an event, synchronized walking cycle, and different foot relations in dyads on the hesitant behavior. A dramatic increase in freezing and near-collision behavior occurred in dyads for which the avoiding direction was not predetermined. The behavior related with the combination of long distance until an event, synchronized walking cycle, and different foot relations in dyads. We found that the hesitant behavior is influenced by an interpersonal relationship under enough distance to predict other movement. The hesitant behavior has possibly emerged as an undesired by-product of joint action. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptive control of perception-action coupling in mutual interaction.
Tapias-Espinosa, Carles; Kádár, Elisabet; Segura-Torres, Pilar
Extinction-based therapies (EBT) are the psychological treatments of choice for certain anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. However, some patients relapse and suffer spontaneous recovery (SR) of anxiety symptoms and persistence of avoidance behaviour, which underlines the need for improving EBT. In rats, recent evidence has highlighted the relevance of the temporal distribution of extinction sessions in reducing SR of auditory fear conditioning, although it has seldom been studied in procedures involving proactive avoidance responses, such as two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA). We examined whether the temporal distribution of two extinction sessions separated by 24h or 7days (contiguous versus spaced extinction paradigms, respectively), influences SR after 28days of a TWAA task. c-Fos expression, as a marker of neuronal activation, was also measured by immunohistochemistry 90min after the SR test in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. The temporal distribution of extinction sessions did not affect the degree of extinction learning. However, only the rats that underwent the 7-day spaced extinction paradigm maintained the level of extinction in the long term, showing no SR in TWAA. This behavioural finding was consistent with a greater number of c-Fos-labelled neurons in the infralimbic cortex in the 7-day group, and in the Lateral and Central nuclei of the amygdala in the 24-hour group. These findings show that a time-spaced extinction paradigm reduces the spontaneous recovery of active avoidance behaviour, and that this behavioural advantage appears to be related to the activation of the infralimbic cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Lead ions are particularly dangerous to the photosynthetic apparatus, but little is known about the effects of trace metals, including Pb, on regulation of chloroplast redistribution. In this study a new effect of lead on chloroplast distribution patterns and movements was demonstrated in mesophyll cells of a small-sized aquatic angiosperm Lemna trisulca L. (star duckweed. An analysis of confocal microscopy images of L. trisulca fronds treated with lead (15 μM Pb2+, 24 h in darkness or in weak white light revealed an enhanced accumulation of chloroplasts in the profile position along the anticlinal cell walls, in comparison to untreated plants. The rearrangement of chloroplasts in their response to lead ions in darkness was similar to the avoidance response of chloroplasts in plants treated with strong white light. Transmission electron microscopy X-ray microanalysis showed that intracellular chloroplast arrangement was independent of the location of Pb deposits, suggesting that lead causes redistribution of chloroplasts, which looks like a light-induced avoidance response, but is not a real avoidance response to the metal. Furthermore, a similar redistribution of chloroplasts in L. trisulca cells in darkness was observed also under the influence of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. In addition, we detected an enhanced accumulation of endogenous H2O2 after treatment of plants with lead. Interestingly, H2O2-specific scavenger catalase partly abolished the Pb-induced chloroplast response. These results suggest that H2O2 can be involved in the avoidance-like movement of chloroplasts induced by lead. Analysis of photometric measurements revealed also strong inhibition (but not complete of blue-light-induced chloroplast movements by lead. This inhibition may result from disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, as we observed fragmentation and disappearance of actin filaments around chloroplasts. Results of this study show that the
Watson, P. C.
Variable reluctance switch avoids contact corrosion and bounce in a hostile environment. It consists of a wire-wound magnetic core and moveable bridge piece that alters the core flux pattern to produce an electrical output useful for switching control media.
Shalvi, S.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.
Information advantage enables people to benefit themselves by deceiving their counterparts. Using a modified ultimatum bargaining game with an exit option, we find that people are more likely to avoid settings enabling them to privately deceive their counterparts than settings which do not enable
Background: Low back pain is a commonest musculoskeletal disorder affecting majority of people. Activity limitations are difficulties an individual may have in executing activities resulting from person's functioning and disability. According to the fear‑avoidance model of low back pain, individuals who perceive pain as a sign ...
Roskes, M.; Elliot, A.J.; Nijstad, B.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.
Four experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that performance is particularly undermined by time pressure when people are avoidance motivated. The results supported this hypothesis across three different types of tasks, including those well suited and those ill suited to the type of
Park, Justin H.; Schaller, Mark; Crandall, Christian S.
Humans possess pathogen-avoidance mechanisms that respond to the visual perception of morphological anomalies in others. We investigated whether obesity may trigger these mechanisms. Study I revealed that people who are chronically concerned about pathogen transmission have more negative attitudes
Randomly assigned 42 men and 34 women classified as having avoidant personality disorder to one of three treatment conditions or to control group. Treatment subjects displayed significantly greater improvement on self-report and behavioral measures than did controls. Inclusion of skills-training procedures did not contribute to effects of…
Let G = (V,E) be a nontrivial connected graph. For a subset S ⊆ V, the geodesic closure (S) of S is the set of all vertices on geodesics (shortest paths) between two vertices of S. We study the geodetic achievement and avoidance games defined by Buckley and Harary (Geodetic games for graphs, Quaestiones Math.
Carcioppolo, Nick; John, Kevin K; Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J
Findings from years of research on fear appeals suggest that individuals with low efficacy utilize avoidance strategies when they perceive a significant threat-a process called fear control. Some research suggests that joking could be an avoidance strategy. The current study identifies conditions in which people are more likely to joke about colorectal cancer and explores how this behavior may be associated with screening avoidance. Older adults (N = 209) recruited from eight different worksites completed a survey measuring fear appeal constructs and enactment of colorectal cancer-related joking. Results of a moderated mediation analysis suggest that men were more likely to joke about colorectal cancer than women, particularly if they perceived significant threat but had limited self-efficacy, signifying fear control. Results support prior fear appeal research, suggesting that an increase in joking behavior concerning colorectal cancer may be indicative of screening avoidance, and describe belief-based mechanisms that explain differences between biological sex and joking. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141.171 Section 141.171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection...
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all of...)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. A public water system that uses a ground water source under...
Nwogbaga, David M. E.; Nwankwo, Oliver U.; Onwa, Doris O.
This paper examined how conflicts and crisis can be avoided through formal communication. It was necessitated by the observation that most of the conflicts and crisis which tend to mar school management today are functions of the inconsistencies arising from "grapevines, rumours, and gossips" generated through informal communication…
Otter, A; Haart, M; Mulder, T; Duysens, J
Whereas several animal studies have indicated the important role of the motor cortex in the control of voluntary gait modifications, little is known about the effects of cortical lesions on gait adaptability in humans. Obstacle avoidance tasks provide an adequate paradigm to study the adaptability
Maintaining a healthy weight in childhood can prevent many health-related problems later in life. In this podcast, Dr. Jackson Sekhobo discusses the importance of avoiding obesity in childhood. Created: 1/31/2013 by MMWR. Date Released: 1/31/2013.
S. Tasselli (Stefano)
textabstractDespite its undoubted centrality in modern society, Love has not received the attention it deserves in the study of organizations. Among the reasons for this avoidance is the fact that love is passionate and not authoritative; personal and subjective but not public. To understand the way
Tandean, Vivi Adeyani
Pemerintah mengharapkan wajib pajak membayar pajak sesuai kondisi sebenarnya sedangkan Perusahaanberusaha membayar pajak seminimal mungkin dengan melakukan manajemen pajak tanpa melanggar peraturan.Tuntutan bagi Perusahaan melakukan manajemen pajak yang harus diawasi menjadikan dibentuknya Corporategovernance. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji secara empiris pengaruh penerapan GCG dan ukuranperusahaan terhadap tax avoidance. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada Perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaf...
Sevos, Jessica; Grosselin, Anne; Fedotova, Tatyana; Massoubre, Catherine
Many data suggest a disjunction between decreased emotional expressions and relatively preserved experience of and ability to assess emotions in schizophrenia. Based in an embodied approach of cognition, several studies have highlighted affective stimulus-response congruency effect in healthy subjects that show a direct link between the perception of emotion and associated motor responses. This study investigated whether the categorization of emotional words involves an automatic sensorimotor simulation of approach and avoidance behaviors. We asked 28 subjects with schizophrenia and 28 controls to execute arm movements of approach or avoidance to categorize emotional words, according to their valence (positive or negative). Controls were faster to respond to a positive stimulus with a movement of approach and a negative stimulus with a movement of avoidance (congruent condition) than to perform the inverted response movements (incongruent condition). However, responses of patients with schizophrenia did not differ according to congruence condition. Our results support the apparent non-involvement of covert sensorimotor simulation of approach and avoidance in the categorization of emotional stimuli by patients with schizophrenia, despite their understanding of the emotional valence of words. This absence of affective stimulus-response compatibility effect would imply a decoupling between emotional and bodily states in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jasmien, Lismont; Cardinaels, Eddy; Bruynseels, L.M.L.; De Groote, Sander; Baesens, B.; Lemahieu, W.; Vanthienen, J.
This study predicts tax avoidance by means of social network analytics. We extend previous literature by being the first to build a predictive model including a larger variation of network features. We construct a network of firms connected through shared board membership. Then, we apply three
Schmidt, Peter Koerver; Bundgaard, Jakob
Artiklen omhandler Europa-Kommissionens netop fremsatte og ganske vidtrækkende forslag til et Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive, der skal fastsætte et bindende minimum for værnsregler på seks udvalgte områder. Indledningsvis beskrives baggrunden for og formålet med direktivforslaget, og derpå drøftes...
Hershey, David R.
As follow-up to a previous article "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants," the author identifies fifty additional misconceptions. Undergeneralizations are added to the list of oversimplifications, obsolete concepts, terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with…
This paper presents some backgrounds research on association scheme using a class of (123)-avoiding pattern of Aunu numbers as an application area. It also attempts to highlight some further applications ... concept of association scheme. This research also shows us that the Aunu patterns can be used in design theory.
Borg, Charmaine; Peters, Madelon L.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; de Jong, Peter J.
Introduction. Catastrophic appraisal of experienced pain may promote hypervigilance and intense pain, while the personality trait of harm avoidance (HA) might prevent the occurrence of correcting such experiences. Women inflicted with vaginismus may enter a self-perpetuating downward spiral of
Corporaal, Sharissa H A; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Duysens, Jacques; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.
Complex gait (e.g., obstacle avoidance) requires a higher cognitive load than simple steady-state gait, which is a more automated movement. The higher levels of the central nervous system, responsible for adjusting motor plans to complex gait, develop throughout childhood into adulthood. Therefore,
This paper explores what teachers can do to avoid potential lawsuits. Section 1 describes different types of laws for public and private schools. Section 2 discusses tort liability. Section 3 presents legal principles that apply to educators (in loco parents, intentional torts, strict liability, negligence, foreseeability, assigned duties,…
Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.
How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…
Gerlovich, Jack A.
Discusses various aspects related to negligence on the part of chemistry teachers. Areas addressed include negligence in tort law, avoiding negligence suits, proper instructions, proper supervision, equipment maintenance, and other considerations such as sovereign immunity, and contributory versus comparative negligence. (JN)
Goos, J.; Alirezaei, M.; Semsar-Kazerooni, E.; Ploeg, J.
In this paper, an obstacle avoidance controller (OA) based on the impedance control method is developed. The main goal of the OA controller is to guarantee robust gap making for a merging vehicle within a platoon of vehicles which are longitudinally automated. The proposed OA controller is developed
Suselbeek, Lennart; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Hirsch, Ben T.; Kays, Roland; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Jansen, Patrick A.
Foraging activity in animals reflects a compromise between acquiring food and avoiding predation. The risk allocation hypothesis predicts that prey animals optimize this balance by concentrating their foraging activity at times of relatively low predation risk, as much as their energy status
This study develops a mathematical model for analysis on collision avoidance of ships. The obtained model provides information on the quantitative effect of the ship's engine's response and the applied reversing force on separation distance and stopping abilities of the ships. Appropriate evasive maneuvers require the ...
Verhaegh, J.; Ploeg, J.; Nunen, E. van; Teerhuis, A.
This paper presents a method for trajectory control, based on feedback linearization to guide an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV). The novelty of this work, is the adaptation of a reference trajectory with respect to a desired velocity in real-time to avoid collisions using a time-scaling mechanism.
Nabil M. Hewahi
Full Text Available The robots science has been developed over the past few years, where robots have become used to accomplish difficult, repetitive or accurate tasks, which are very hard for humans to carry out. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to control the motion of a swarm of robots and make them able to avoid obstacles. The proposed solution is based on forming the robots in circular fashion. A group set of robots consists of multiple groups of robots, each group of robots consists of robots forming a circular shape and each group set is a circular form of robots. The proposed algorithm is concerned with first locating the randomly generated robots in groups and secondly with the swarm robot motion and finally with the swarm obstacle avoidance and swarm reorganization after crossing the obstacle. The proposed algorithm has been simulated with five different obstacles with various numbers of randomly generated robots. The results show that the swarm in the circular form can deal with the obstacles very effectively by passing the obstacles smoothly. The proposed algorithm has been compared with flocking algorithm and it is shown that the circular formation algorithm does not need extensive computation after obstacle avoidance whereas the flocking algorithm needs extensive computation. In addition, the circular formation algorithm maintains every robot in its group after avoiding the obstacles whereas with flocking algorithm does not.
In March 1991, following a wide ranging inquiry into community needs and high voltage transmission line development, Sir Harry Gibbs, an ex-Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia concluded that adverse health effects from power frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) had not been established. He went on to find that there was some evidence that they might pose a risk to health. On this basis, he recommended a policy of prudent avoidance in the construction of new transmission lines. Since that time, a succession of inquiries in Australia and overseas have made similar findings and recommended prudent avoidance. This paper provides practical guidance to electricity transmission and distribution utilities and other interested stakeholders in the application of prudent avoidance to the design and siting of new electrical facilities. The paper provides background information and a range of general measures which might prudently be applied. It is not the authors' intention to provide precise instructions for the application of prudent avoidance but, rather, to provide a series of guiding principles which may be applied to particular situations, having regard to the specific design practices and other policies of individual electricity utilities. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc
Objective. To assess whether incorporating a system of identifying, classifying and grading avoidable factors into a perinatal audit can be useful in identifying problem areas. Design. Descriptive study. Setting. Black urban population, Pretoria, South Africa. Subjects. All perinatal deaths of infants weighing more than 1 000 g ...
This podcast discusses seven simple ways to avoid vaccine administration errors in health care settings. Created: 2/16/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 2/16/2012.
Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.
Four experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that performance is particularly undermined by time pressure when people are avoidance motivated. The results supported this hypothesis across three different types of tasks, including those well suited and those ill suited to the type of
Kremer, A.M.; Steenbeek, R.
Introduction Sickness absence has an important impact on employers (e.g. reduced productivity, high costs) and employees (e.g. replacement, job loss). Therefore, we investigated possible reduction by exploring avoidable sickness absence. Methods A questionnaire was filled out by 2,954 Dutch workers
Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.
Two thirds of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Binge eating is a barrier to treatment adherence and sustained weight loss, and can be seen as a form of experiential avoidance. The current study analyzed the impact of binge eating on weight reduction in a previously published study of a 1-day acceptance and commitment…
Suselbeek, L.; Emsens, W.J.; Hirsch, B.T.; Kays, R.; Rowcliffe, J.M.; Zamore-Gutierrez, V.; Jansen, P.A.
Foraging activity in animals reflects a compromise between acquiring food and avoiding predation. The Risk Allocation Hypothesis predicts that prey animals optimize this balance by concentrating their foraging activity at times of relatively low predation risk, as much as their energy status
As summertime approaches and warmer weather moves in, air pollution will become an increasing problem across the U.S. People with asthma are especially impacted by deteriorating air quality. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Beavers discusses ways to avoid the negative impacts of air pollution.
Ryan, Thomas; Poirier, Yves
Our goal was to locate and evaluate the barriers that impact and cause females to avoid secondary elective physical education courses. We sought to find answers to stop the further decline of female enrolment in secondary physical education by looking into curricula, program and instructional variables. Anecdotal evidence informed this study which…
Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W
The purpose of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The authors aimed to test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and to infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 healthy comparison subjects learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional MRI scan. Following four blocks of training, the authors tested whether the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. Task-related differences in brain activity in three regions of interest (the caudate, the putamen, and the medial orbitofrontal cortex) were tested at a statistical threshold set at habit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyperactivation in the caudate, was observed. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyperactivation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex during the acquisition of avoidance; however, this did not relate directly to habit formation. OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyperactivation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Previous studies indicate that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the buildup of stimulus-response habits themselves.
Oertig, D.; Schüler, J.; Schnelle, J.; Brandstätter, V.; Roskes, M.; Elliot, A.J.
Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. Here we conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and resource
Oertig, Daniela; Schüler, Julia; Schnelle, Jessica; Brandstätter, Veronika; Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.
Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. The authors conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and
Library science students in school librarianship were surveyed to determine their information seeking and avoidance behaviors in Web-based online environments. Two coping styles were identified among students. Barriers to student online collaboration, such as individual preferences, concerns on efficiency, and lack of mutual trust, were observed.…
Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom
For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle for recov......For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle...
... than the client. 10.68 Section 10.68 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... the client. (a) Except with the consent of the practitioner's client after full disclosure, a practitioner shall not: (1) Accept compensation from one other than the practitioner's client for the...
Yujie Meng; Siqun Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Timothy M. Young; Guanben Du; Yanjun Li
The effect of the embedding medium on the nano-indentation measurements of lignocellulosic materials was investigated experimentally using nano-indentation. Both the reduced elastic modulus and the hardness of nonembedded cell walls were found to be lower than those of the embedded samples, proving that the embedding medium used for specimen preparation on cellulosic...
Howard, Steven J.; Okely, Anthony D.
Although researchers agree that the first 5 years of life are critical for children's developing executive functions (EFs), further advances are hindered by a lack of consensus on the design and selection of developmentally appropriate EF tasks for young children. Given this debate, well-established adult measures of EF routinely have been adapted…
Kennedy, David N.; Lehár, Joseph; Lee, Myung Joo; Blood, Anne J.; Lee, Sang; Perlis, Roy H.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Morris, Robert; Fava, Maurizio
Background Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach), decrease (avoid), or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be governed by quantitative principles that meet engineering criteria for lawfulness and that encode known features of reward/aversion function, we evaluated whether keypress responses toward pictures with potential motivational value produced any regular patterns, such as a trade-off between approach and avoidance, or recurrent lawful patterns as observed with prospect theory. Methodology/Principal Findings Three sets of experiments employed this task with beautiful face images, a standardized set of affective photographs, and pictures of food during controlled states of hunger and satiety. An iterative modeling approach to data identified multiple law-like patterns, based on variables grounded in the individual. These patterns were consistent across stimulus types, robust to noise, describable by a simple power law, and scalable between individuals and groups. Patterns included: (i) a preference trade-off counterbalancing approach and avoidance, (ii) a value function linking preference intensity to uncertainty about preference, and (iii) a saturation function linking preference intensity to its standard deviation, thereby setting limits to both. Conclusions/Significance These law-like patterns were compatible with critical features of prospect theory, the matching law, and alliesthesia. Furthermore, they appeared consistent with both mean-variance and expected utility approaches to the assessment of risk. Ordering of responses across categories of stimuli demonstrated three properties thought to be relevant for preference-based choice, suggesting these patterns might be grouped together as a relative preference
Byoung Woo Kim
Full Text Available Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach, decrease (avoid, or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be governed by quantitative principles that meet engineering criteria for lawfulness and that encode known features of reward/aversion function, we evaluated whether keypress responses toward pictures with potential motivational value produced any regular patterns, such as a trade-off between approach and avoidance, or recurrent lawful patterns as observed with prospect theory.Three sets of experiments employed this task with beautiful face images, a standardized set of affective photographs, and pictures of food during controlled states of hunger and satiety. An iterative modeling approach to data identified multiple law-like patterns, based on variables grounded in the individual. These patterns were consistent across stimulus types, robust to noise, describable by a simple power law, and scalable between individuals and groups. Patterns included: (i a preference trade-off counterbalancing approach and avoidance, (ii a value function linking preference intensity to uncertainty about preference, and (iii a saturation function linking preference intensity to its standard deviation, thereby setting limits to both.These law-like patterns were compatible with critical features of prospect theory, the matching law, and alliesthesia. Furthermore, they appeared consistent with both mean-variance and expected utility approaches to the assessment of risk. Ordering of responses across categories of stimuli demonstrated three properties thought to be relevant for preference-based choice, suggesting these patterns might be grouped together as a relative preference theory. Since variables in these patterns have been
Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Logofet, D.O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Laboratory of Mathematical Ecology
The current theory that sexual selection results from female choice for good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation is proposed. The pathogen avoidance hypothesis argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status so that sick individuals may be avoided during mating. Our studies shown that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits. The showy traits are argued to originate as simple exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers; vigorous movement; large size). Thus the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic in this theory. A game theory analysis is employed to formalize the theory. Results of the game theory model support the theory. In particular, when the possession of male showy traits does not help reduce disease in the female, then showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to the situation in large flocks or herds in which every animal is thoroughly exposed to all group pathogens on average. Such species do not exhibit showy traits. The good genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance) but will lead to selection for resistance if such genes are present. Overall, the pathogen avoidance hypothesis provides a complete alternative to the good genes theory.
Esposito, B; Granucci, G; Nowak, S; Lazzaro, E; Maraschek, M; Giannone, L; Gude, A; Igochine, V; McDermott, R; Poli, E; Reich, M; Sommer, F; Stober, J; Suttrop, W; Treutterer, W; Zohm, H
Disruptions are very challenging to ITER operation as they may cause damage to plasma facing components due to direct plasma heating, forces on structural components due to halo and eddy currents and the production of runaway electrons. Electron cyclotron (EC) waves have been demonstrated as a tool for disruption avoidance by a large set of recent experiments performed in ASDEX Upgrade and FTU using various disruption types, plasma operating scenarios and power deposition locations. The technique is based on the stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes (mainly m/n = 2/1) through the localized injection of EC power on the resonant surface. This paper presents new results obtained in ASDEX Upgrade regarding stable operation above the Greenwald density achieved after avoidance of density limit disruptions by means of ECRH and suitable density feedback control (L-mode ohmic plasmas, I p = 0.6 MA, B t = 2.5 T) and NTM-driven disruptions at high-β limit delayed/avoided by means of both co-current drive (co-ECCD) and pure heating (ECRH) with power ≤1.7 MW (H-mode NBI-heated plasmas, P NBI ∼ 7.5 MW, I p = 1 MA, B t = 2.1 T, q 95 ∼ 3.6). The localized perpendicular injection of ECRH/ECCD onto a resonant surface leads to the delay and/or complete avoidance of disruptions. The experiments indicate the existence of a power threshold for mode stabilization to occur. An analysis of the MHD mode evolution using the generalized Rutherford equation coupled to the frequency and phase evolution equations shows that control of the modes is due to EC heating close to the resonant surface. The ECRH contribution (Δ' H term) is larger than the co-ECCD one in the initial and more important phase when the discharge is 'saved'. Future research and developments of the disruption avoidance technique are also discussed.
Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.
Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.
Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Olguín, Augusto; Miranda, María; García, Andrés; Martínez, Alberto; Cassinello, Jorge; Miguel, Valentín; Gallego, Laureano
Ungulates select diets with high energy, protein, and sodium contents. However, it is scarcely known the influence of essential minerals other than Na in diet preferences. Moreover, almost no information is available about the possible influence of toxic levels of essential minerals on avoidance of certain plant species. The aim of this research was to test the relative importance of mineral content of plants in diet selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in an annual basis. We determined mineral, protein and ash content in 35 common Mediterranean plant species (the most common ones in the study area). These plant species were previously classified as preferred and non-preferred. We found that deer preferred plants with low contents of Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Cu, Sr and Zn. The model obtained was greatly accurate identifying the preferred plant species (91.3% of correct assignments). After a detailed analysis of these minerals (considering deficiencies and toxicity levels both in preferred and non-preferred plants) we suggest that the avoidance of excessive sulphur in diet (i.e., selection for plants with low sulphur content) seems to override the maximization for other nutrients. Low sulphur content seems to be a forgotten factor with certain relevance for explaining diet selection in deer. Recent studies in livestock support this conclusion, which is highlighted here for the first time in diet selection by a wild large herbivore. Our results suggest that future studies should also take into account the toxicity levels of minerals as potential drivers of preferences.
Vartanian, Oshin; Navarrete, Gorka; Chatterjee, Anjan; Fich, Lars Brorson; Leder, Helmut; Modroño, Cristián; Nadal, Marcos; Rostrup, Nicolai; Skov, Martin
On average, we urban dwellers spend about 90% of our time indoors, and share the intuition that the physical features of the places we live and work in influence how we feel and act. However, there is surprisingly little research on how architecture impacts behavior, much less on how it influences brain function. To begin closing this gap, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine how systematic variation in contour impacts aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions, outcome measures of interest to both architects and users of spaces alike. As predicted, participants were more likely to judge spaces as beautiful if they were curvilinear than rectilinear. Neuroanatomically, when contemplating beauty, curvilinear contour activated the anterior cingulate cortex exclusively, a region strongly responsive to the reward properties and emotional salience of objects. Complementing this finding, pleasantness—the valence dimension of the affect circumplex—accounted for nearly 60% of the variance in beauty ratings. Furthermore, activation in a distributed brain network known to underlie the aesthetic evaluation of different types of visual stimuli covaried with beauty ratings. In contrast, contour did not affect approach-avoidance decisions, although curvilinear spaces activated the visual cortex. The results suggest that the well-established effect of contour on aesthetic preference can be extended to architecture. Furthermore, the combination of our behavioral and neural evidence underscores the role of emotion in our preference for curvilinear objects in this domain. PMID:23754408
Levi, Asaf; Sabuco, Juan; A F Sanjuán, Miguel
Market collapse is one of the most dramatic events in economics. Such a catastrophic event can emerge from the nonlinear interactions between the economic agents at the micro level of the economy. Transient chaos might be a good description of how a collapsing market behaves. In this work, we apply a new control method, the partial control method, with the goal of avoiding this disastrous event. Contrary to common control methods that try to influence the system from the outside, here the market is controlled from the bottom up by one of the most basic components of the market-the firm. This is the first time that the partial control method is applied on a strictly economical system in which we also introduce external disturbances. We show how the firm is capable of controlling the system avoiding the collapse by only adjusting the selling price of the product or the quantity of production in accordance to the market circumstances. Additionally, we demonstrate how a firm with a large market share is capable of influencing the demand achieving price stability across the retail and wholesale markets. Furthermore, we prove that the control applied in both cases is much smaller than the external disturbances.
Arnaudova, I.; Kindt, M.; Fanselow, M.; Beckers, T.
Avoidance is a key symptom of anxiety disorders. Maladaptive avoidance impairs general functioning acutely and maintains chronic anxiety. A better understanding of the mechanisms that elicit and maintain excessive avoidance might provide opportunities to improve treatment. Here, we discuss pathways
Full Text Available Secondhand smoke (SHS exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods: A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Results: Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject’s attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure.
Gharaibeh, Huda; Haddad, Linda; Alzyoud, Sukaina; El-Shahawy, Omar; Baker, Nesrin Abu; Umlauf, Mary
Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women's and children's exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject's attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure.
Full Text Available Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly. Empirically, we utilise two convenience samples and a large nationally representative sample of US citizens to demonstrate the existence of a robust and replicable effect of individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalised social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalised social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.
Kashdan, Todd B; Breen, William E; Julian, Terri
This research investigated whether combat veterans' daily strivings are related to the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and well-being. Veterans created a list of their most important strivings, which were content-analyzed for emotion regulation and approach or avoidance themes. It was hypothesized that veterans pursuing strivings with themes of emotion regulation or avoidance experience deleterious consequences compared with other veterans. For all veterans, devoting finite time and energy in daily life to regulating emotions was associated with less purpose, meaning, and joy compared with other strivings. Veterans with PTSD endorsed more strivings related to emotion regulation and devoted considerable effort to emotion regulation and avoidance strivings. Yet, these efforts failed to translate into any discernible benefits; veterans without PTSD derived greater joy and meaning from strivings focusing on approac- oriented behavior and themes other than emotion regulation. The presence of PTSD and a high rate of emotion regulation strivings led to the lowest global well-being and daily self-esteem during a 14-day assessment period. The presence of PTSD and a high rate of avoidance strivings also led to lower emotional well-being. Results indicate that strivings devoted to regulating emotions or avoidance efforts influence the mental health of veterans with and without PTSD. Studying personality at different levels of analysis-traits, strivings, and life narratives-allows for a fine-grained understanding of emotional disorders.
Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom
For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle...
The traditional avoidance literature undeservedly neglects tax base distribution as a factor affecting the avoidance price, and generally assumed to be equal to the avoidance cost. In reality, avoidance providers are usually either high-skilled specialists or insiders. The strong collusion thus, naturally seems to be an assumption of the behavior of avoidance providers. Within such a framework, income distribution, which forms an avoidance demand together with tax codes, plays a very essentia...
Full Text Available Clarisse Gautier,1 Denis Charpin1,2 1Department of Pulmonology and Allergy, North Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France Abstract: Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs, molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks. Pets, dogs, and especially cats can undoubtedly trigger asthmatic symptoms in sensitized subjects. Avoidance is difficult and rarely adhered to by families. Cockroach allergens contribute to asthma morbidity, and avoidance strategies can lead to clinical benefit. Mouse allergens are mostly found in inner-city dwellings, but their implication in asthma morbidity is debated. In the outdoors, pollens can induce seasonal asthma in sensitized individuals. Avoidance relies on preventing pollens from getting into the house and on minimizing seasonal outdoor exposure. Outdoor molds may lead to severe asthma exacerbations. Nonallergenic triggers include viral infections, active and passive smoking, meteorological changes, occupational exposures, and other triggers that are less commonly involved. Viral infection is the main asthma trigger in children. Active smoking is associated with higher asthma morbidity, and smoking cessation interventions should be personalized. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for asthma exacerbation. The implementation of public smoking bans has led to a reduction in the hospitalization of asthmatic children. Air pollution levels have been linked with asthmatic symptoms, a decrease in lung function, and increased emergency room visits and
Choleris, Elena; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Phan, Anna; Valsecchi, Paola; Kavaliers, Martin
Sociality comes with specific cognitive skills that allow the proper processing of information about others (social recognition), as well as of information originating from others (social learning). Because sociality and social interactions can also facilitate the spread of infection among individuals the ability to recognize and avoid pathogen threat is also essential. We review here various studies primarily from the rodent literature supporting estrogenic involvement in the regulation of social recognition, social learning (socially acquired food preferences and mate choice copying) and the recognition and avoidance of infected and potentially infected individuals. We consider both genomic and rapid estrogenic effects involving estrogen receptors α and β, and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1, along with their interactions with neuropeptide systems in the processing of social stimuli and the regulation and expression of these various socially relevant behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We describe a new algorithm for the enumeration of self-avoiding walks on the square lattice. Using up to 128 processors on a HP Alpha server cluster we have enumerated the number of self-avoiding walks on the square lattice to length 71. Series for the metric properties of mean-square end-to-end distance, mean-square radius of gyration and mean-square distance of monomers from the end points have been derived to length 59. An analysis of the resulting series yields accurate estimates of the critical exponents γ and ν confirming predictions of their exact values. Likewise we obtain accurate amplitude estimates yielding precise values for certain universal amplitude combinations. Finally we report on an analysis giving compelling evidence that the leading non-analytic correction-to-scaling exponent Δ 1 = 3/2
Shiota, Y.; Kusunoki, T.; Tabushi, K.; Shimomura, K.; Kitou, S.
The MACRO programs which express a simple shape such as PLANE, SPHERE, CYLINDER and CONE, are used to the formation of the geometry in EGS4. Each MACRO calculates the important value for the main code to recognize the configured geometry. This calculation process may generate the calculation error due to the effect of a round-off error. SPHERE, CYLINDER and CONE MACRO include the function to avoid the effect, but PLANE MACRO dose not include. The effect of the round-off error is small usually in case of PLANE MACRO, however a slant plane may cause the expansion of the effect. Therefore, we have configured the DELPLANE program with the function to avoid the effect of the round-off error. In this study, we examine the DELPLANE program using the simply geometry with slant plane. As a result, the normal PLANE MACRO generates the round-off error, however DELPLANE program dose not generates one. (author)
van der Horst, H E
From an analysis of data from 23 European countries to determine the impact of primary care on avoidable hospital admissions for uncontrolled diabetes it appeared that, contrary to expectation, countries with strong primary care did not have a lower rate of avoidable hospital admission. It is clear that Roemer's law, 'a bed built is a bed filled,' still applies. However, the validity of this sort of analysis can be questioned, as these data are highly aggregated, and registration quality differs between countries. It is also questionable if these datasets can be considered as 'big data' as there are relatively small numbers per country. Big data analyses are useful for discerning patterns and formulating hypotheses, but not for proving causality. An unwanted side effect of this kind of analysis might be that policymakers use these not so valid results to underpin their policy to their advantage.
After having given an account of the rights of avoidance of third parties and their foundation in the law the author cites an atypical example of a right of avoidance, i.e. the corporation suit in the environmental protection law in the German Laender Bremen and Hesse. The corporations can only denounce the violation of the environmental protection law. These regulations constitute the protection law, namely in favour of the interests of nature protection, i.e. public interests. It is natural that the corporation has only be concerned an independent right of conducting a case. The (altruistic) corporation suit is therefore a complaint suit aiming at administration control and not a means of an individual legal protection. (HSCH) [de
Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee
Transmission reliability and energy consumptions are two critical concerns associated with wireless sensor network (WSN) design for a long time and continuous operation. With the increase in reliability of the transmission, the energy consumption increases by affecting the efficiency of the network....... This paper proposes the Schedule based Collision Avoidance (SCA) algorithm for finding the tradeoff between reliability and energy efficiency by fusion of CSMA/CA and TDMA techniques in Zigbee/ IEEE802.15.4. It uses the multi-path data propagation for collision avoidance and effective utilization...... of the channel providing efficient energy consumption. It analyses different scheduling schemes to provide an appropriate solution for reducing collisions and improving network lifetime....
Larsen, Sanne Vammen, E-mail: email@example.com [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University-Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5, 1. Sal, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Driscoll, Patrick, E-mail: email@example.com [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University-Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)
This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies ‘reduction’ and ‘resilience’, ‘denying’, ‘ignoring’ and ‘postponing’. Second, 151 Danish SEAs are analysed with a focus on the extent to which climate change uncertainties are acknowledged and presented, and the empirical findings are discussed in relation to the model. The findings indicate that despite incentives to do so, climate change uncertainties were systematically avoided or downplayed in all but 5 of the 151 SEAs that were reviewed. Finally, two possible explanatory mechanisms are proposed to explain this: conflict avoidance and a need to quantify uncertainty.
Olsen, J H; Andersen, A; Dreyer, L
An overview is given of the most important known causes of cancer in the five Nordic countries and the resulting number of cancers that are potentially avoidable. The main causes include active and passive smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to asbestos and other occupational carcinogens, solar...... and ionizing radiation, obesity, human papillomavirus infection in the female genital tract and infection with Helicobacter pylori. The organs most commonly affected are those of the respiratory system, the upper digestive tract and stomach, skin, the lower urinary tract and the uterine cervix. Annually, more...... than 18,000 cancers in men and 11,000 in women in the Nordic populations could be avoided by eliminating exposure to known carcinogens which is equivalent to 33% and 20% of all cancers arising in men and women, respectively, around the year 2000. Smoking habits account for a little more than half...
Owczarek, A L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Prellberg, T [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com
The number of free sites next to the end of a self-avoiding walk is known as the atmosphere of the walk. The average atmosphere can be related to the number of configurations. Here we study the distribution of atmospheres as a function of length and how the number of walks of fixed atmosphere scale. Certain bounds on these numbers can be proved. We use Monte Carlo estimates to verify our conjectures in two dimensions. Of particular interest are walks that have zero atmosphere, which are known as trapped. We demonstrate that these walks scale in the same way as the full set of self-avoiding walks, barring an overall constant factor.
Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Driscoll, Patrick
This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies ‘reduction’ and ‘resilience’, ‘denying’, ‘ignoring’ and ‘postponing’. Second, 151 Danish SEAs are analysed with a focus on the extent to which climate change uncertainties are acknowledged and presented, and the empirical findings are discussed in relation to the model. The findings indicate that despite incentives to do so, climate change uncertainties were systematically avoided or downplayed in all but 5 of the 151 SEAs that were reviewed. Finally, two possible explanatory mechanisms are proposed to explain this: conflict avoidance and a need to quantify uncertainty
Full Text Available A hypothesis suggests that objects with a high degree of visual similarity to real humans trigger negative impressions (i.e., the uncanny valley. Previous studies have suggested that difficulty in object categorization elicits negative emotional reactions to enable the avoidance of potential threats. The present study further investigated this categorization-difficulty hypothesis. In an experiment, observers categorized morphed images of photographs and human doll faces as “photograph” or “doll” and evaluated the perceived eeriness of the images. Additionally, we asked the observers to answer questionnaires on behavioral inhibition systems (BIS. The results indicated that individual differences in the BIS score were associated with enhanced eeriness in the objects with a specific human likeness. These findings suggest that the tendency to avoid a potentially threatening novel experience contributes to promoting the perceived eeriness of objects with some degree of visual similarity to real humans.
Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
A self-avoiding walk (SAW) is a series of moves on a lattice that visit the same place only once. Several studies reported that repellent reactions of foragers to previously visited sites induced power-law tailed SAWs in animals. In this paper, we show that modelling the agent's multi-avoidance reactions to its trails enables it to show ballistic movements which result in heavy-tailed movements. There is no literature showing emergent ballistic movements in SAWs. While following SAWs, the agent in my model changed its reactions to marked patches (visited sites) by considering global trail patterns based on local trail patterns when the agent was surrounded by previously visited sites. As a result, we succeeded in producing ballistic walks by the agents which exhibited emergent power-law tailed movements.
Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Gregory A; Warren, Stacie L; Engels, Anna S; Crocker, Laura D; Banich, Marie T; Sutton, Bradley P; Heller, Wendy
Research indicates that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is important for pursuing goals, and areas of DLPFC are differentially involved in approach and avoidance motivation. Given the complexity of the processes involved in goal pursuit, DLPFC is likely part of a network that includes orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), cingulate, amygdala, and basal ganglia. This hypothesis was tested with regard to one component of goal pursuit, the maintenance of goals in the face of distraction. Examination of connectivity with motivation-related areas of DLPFC supported the network hypothesis. Differential patterns of connectivity suggest a distinct role for DLPFC areas, with one involved in selecting approach goals, one in selecting avoidance goals, and one in selecting goal pursuit strategies. Finally, differences in trait motivation moderated connectivity between DLPFC and OFC, suggesting that this connectivity is important for instantiating motivation. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Andrei C. NAE
Full Text Available In this paper the key concepts of ITS - Intelligent Transport Systems, CPS - Cyber-Physical Systems and SM - Smart Mobility are defined and correlated with the need for ACAS – Airborne Collision Avoidance System, as the last resort safety net and indispensable ingredient in civil aviation. Smart Mobility is addressed from a Cyber Physical-Systems perspective, detailing some of the elements that this entails. Here we consider the Air Transportations System of the future as a Cyber-Physical System and analyze the implications of doing so from different perspectives. The objective is to introduce a 4D collision avoidance shield technology which forms a last resort safety net technology for the next generation air transport (2050 and beyond. The new system will represent a step change over the performance of current technology. As conclusions, the benefits of implementing Transport Cyber-Physical Systems are discussed, as well as what this would require for future deployment.
Ismail, R.; Omar, Z.; Suaibun, S.
Obstacle avoiding robot was designed, constructed and programmed which may be potentially used for educational and research purposes. The developed robot will move in a particular direction once the infrared (IR) and the PIR passive infrared (PIR) sensors sense a signal while avoiding the obstacles in its path. The robot can also perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. The hardware was integrated in one application board as embedded system design. The software was developed using C++ and compiled by Arduino IDE 1.6.5. The main objective of this project is to provide simple guidelines to the polytechnic students and beginners who are interested in this type of research. It is hoped that this robot could benefit students who wish to carry out research on IR and PIR sensors.
Full Text Available The Mediterranean hake Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, is the emblem of the so-called Mediterranean demersal fisheries paradox, showing a persistent, although stable, status of growth overexploitation and an impressive gap between current and any biological reference point. Almost full avoidance capability of large size females to bottom trawls, higher overall growth rates than previously believed and higher natural mortality in juveniles than adult, were considered among the most plausible explanation factors of such persistence. In the present note, arguments are illustrated to raise some concern about avoidance and highlight the important role of the other factors in improving assessments and launching a short term recovery plan for Mediterranean Hake stocks which is more acceptable to fishermen.
A brief description is given of a yellowcake precipitation process developed by Intercontinental Energy Crop. for its in-situ uranium leaching opeartions in Texas. The process uses neither sulfates nor chlorides, and thereby avoids formation of uranium salts that require high-temperature calciners. After the precipitation of yellowcake, a rotary vacuum dryer accepts a yellowcake containing 30% solids, and produces a dry product ready for packaging
van Alphen, S P J
This case describes the differential diagnosis and treatment of a 70-year-old man with an avoidant personality disorder. It illustrates that diagnostic assessment and treatment of personality problems in the elderly are possible in mental health care. It demonstrates that multiple stand-alone treatment modules can form part of a single course of adaptation-focused treatment of personality disorders. An interpersonal approach forms an important basis for tackling the typical interpersonal difficulties that occur in axis-II disorders.
Preisinger, G.; Groeschl, M. [Inst. fuer Allgemeine Physik der TU Wien (Austria); Koettritsch, H. [SKF Oesterreich AG, Steyr (Austria)
Roller bearings in electric motors and generators can be exposed to passage of current, which failes not only components, but also changes lubricants. The erosion can be avoided by isolation layers and optimized frequency converters. [German] Waelzlager in Elektromotoren und Generatoren koennen Stromdurchgang ausgesetzt sein, der nicht nur die Teile schaedigt, sondern auch den Schmierstoff veraendert. Die Schaeden sind nicht nur auf Metallteile begrenzt. Abhilfe bieten Isolationsschichten und optimierte Frequenzumrichter. (orig.)
Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Hogan, Neville
Evidence for the existence of discrete submovements underlying continuous human movement has motivated many attempts to extract them. Although they produce visually convincing results, all of the methodologies that have been employed are prone to produce spurious decompositions. Examples of potential failures are given. A branch-and-bound algorithm for submovement extraction, capable of global nonlinear minimization (and hence capable of avoiding spurious decompositions), is developed and demonstrated.
The current theory that sexual selection results from female preference for males with good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation, the pathogen transmission avoidance hypothesis, argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status, so that sick individuals can be avoided during mating. This study shows that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits, which originate as exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers, vigorous movement, large size). Thus, in this new model the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic and there is no threshold effect. This model predicts that when the possession of male showy traits does not help to reduce disease in the female, showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to thorough exposure of every animal to all group pathogens, on average, in large groups. Such species are shown with a large data set on birds to be less likely to exhibit showy traits. The good-genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen transmission avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance), but can result in selection for resistance if such genes are present. Monogamy is argued to reduce selection pressures for showy traits; data show monogamous species to be both less parasitized and less showy. In the context of reduction of pathogen transmission rates in showy populations, selection pressure becomes inversely frequency-dependent, which makes showy traits likely to be self-limiting rather than runaway.
Welsh, J.S.; Turek, M.; Mackie, T.R.; Miller, P.; Mehta, M.P.; Forrest, L.J.
Helical tomotherapy provides a unique means of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using a novel treatment unit, which merges features of a linear accelerator with a helical CT scanner. Thanks to the CT imaging capacity, targeted regions can be visualized prior to, during, or immediately after each treatment. Such image-guidance through megavoltage CT will allow the realization and refinement of the concept of adaptive radiotherapy - the reconstruction of the actually delivered daily dose (as opposed to planned dose) accompanied by prescription adjustments when appropriate. In addition to this unique feature, helical tomotherapy promises further improvements in the specific avoidance of critical normal structures, i.e. conformal avoidance, the counterpart of conformal therapy. The first definitive treatment protocol using helical tomotherapy is presently underway for dogs with nasopharyngeal tumors. In general, such tumors can be treated with conventional external beam radiation therapy but at the cost of severe ocular toxicity due to the anatomy of the canine head. These are readily measurable toxicities and are almost universal in incidence; therefore, the canine nasopharyngeal tumor presents an ideal model to assess the ability to conformally avoid critical structures. It is hoped that conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy will improve tumor control via dose-escalation while reducing ocular toxicity in these veterinary patients. A total of 10 fractions are scheduled for these patients; the first 3 dogs have all received at least 7 fractions delivered via helical tomotherapy. Although preliminary, the first 3 dogs treated have not shown any evidence of ocular toxicity in this ongoing study
As summertime approaches and warmer weather moves in, air pollution will become an increasing problem across the U.S. People with asthma are especially impacted by deteriorating air quality. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Beavers discusses ways to avoid the negative impacts of air pollution. Created: 5/1/2014 by MMWR. Date Released: 5/1/2014.
Existence of a new exponent is reported in the problem of nonintersecting self-avoiding random walks. It is connected with the asymptotic behaviour of the growth of number of such walks of larger and larger length. The value of the exponent is found to be nearly 0.90 for all two-dimensional and nearly 0.96 for all three-dimensional lattices studied here. (author)
The study of fiscal non-compliance - in particular, that of tax evasion - is quite extensive in the literature of economics. Lawyers do not show much interest in fiscal anomalies. An exception for this is perhaps tax avoidance which is usually interpreted as the problem of the form and substance. Apart from the modest interest in irregularities in fiscal law, the legal theories of obedience, or disobedience, and coherence have grown significantly, thanks to the precept of William Ross on prim...
Taxation inevitably gives rise to tax planning. In the era of globalization, multinationals in particular may not only try to exploit options, inconsistencies and gaps in domestic tax legislation, but they will also (re-)organize their business so as to make an optimal use of international tax sheltering opportunities. In order to curb ‘aggressive’ tax arbitrage, all developed jurisdictions rely on targeted anti-avoidance provisions. In addition, most tax systems will have recourse to a statu...
O'nions, E.; Viding, E.; Greven, C.U.; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, F.
‘Pathological Demand Avoidance’ is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to ‘socially manipulative’ behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand avoidance is thought to share aspects of social impairment with autism spectrum disorders, but autism spectrum disorder–appropriate strategies, such as routine and repetition, ...
Panattoni, Joao B; De Ona, Ignacio Roger; Ahmed, Mohammed M
The fingertip is the most commonly injured part of the hand. When replantation of a fingertip amputation is not possible, flap reconstruction may be necessary for a functional and aesthetically pleasing outcome. This paper reviews commonly utilized reconstruction techniques with a focus on technical tricks and potential complications and how to avoid them, with illustrative cases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This report provides a complete summary of what is known about basic hearing capabilities in birds in relation to the characteristics of noise generated by wind turbines. It is a review of existing data on bird hearing with some preliminary estimates of environmental noise and wind turbine noise at Altamont Pass, California, in the summer of 1999. It is intended as a resource in future discussions of the role that hearing might play in bird avoidance of turbines.
Capatina, O; Foreste, A; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Quesnel, J
As presented in the previous speech, the incident in sector 3-4 of the LHC caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum resulting in high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers. This resulted in braking floor and floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barrier. The strategy of improving anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement is presented and discussed.
Gillan, Claire Marie; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke Margaretha; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara Jacquelyn; Robbins, Trevor William
Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method: Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resona...
Flores, Amanda; Cobos-Cano, Pedro Luis; López-Gutiérrez, Francisco José; Andrades, Ainhoa; Vervliet, Bram
The study of habit acquisition and expression is considered relevant to improve our understanding of mental disorders characterised by the presence of compulsive or incontrollable behaviours. Most studies on habit learning, both in animals and in humans, are based on positive reinforcement paradigms. However, the compulsions and habits involved in some mental disorders may be better understood as avoidance behaviours, which involve some peculiarities such as anxiety states that have been show...
Verplaetse, Heidi; Wermuth, Cornelia
Uncertainty Avoidance in PILs: A Question of Ethics and Deontology Enabling patients’ interpretation and correct implementation of the instructions in patient information leaflets (PILs) involves ethical implications in two respects. On the one hand patients’ health and well-being are at stake. But correct usage of prescribed and over-the-counter medication by patients is also part of a country’s financial resources which are apportioned for national health care. This paper aims to inves...