WorldWideScience

Sample records for avoiding undue influence

  1. Assessing Undue Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Daniel A; Spar, James E; Horwitz, Howard L

    2016-09-01

    A claim of undue influence (UI) often figures prominently in will and trust contests and in other legal matters. Mental health professionals (MHPs) are frequently asked to provide expert opinions on UI, but the task is challenging, because of the lack of a clear definition of UI, and conflicting and contradictory recommendations in the literature on the specific conduct of the MHP in rendering opinions on UI. Recently, however, a California statutory scheme on UI applicable in will, trust, conservatorship, and financial elder abuse cases was adopted, bringing greater clarity to the meaning of the construct. The clarification provides an opportunity to review the concern, and to recommend a set of principles to guide MHPs in the role of expert in such litigation. PMID:27644868

  2. Undue influence and elder abuse: recognition and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Joy

    2002-01-01

    Undue influence is the substitution of one person's will for the true desires of another. Unlike common persuasion and sales techniques, such influence often entails fraud, duress, threats, or other deceits and pressures. Undue influence takes place when one person uses his or her role and power to exploit the trust, dependency, or fear of another to gain psychologic control over the weaker person's decision-making, usually for financial gain. Dependent and impaired people are particularly susceptible, but it can happen to anyone who otherwise would be considered capable and competent. The current interest in undue influence represents the union of three major forces: current and historical legal concepts, knowledge learned from domestic violence, specifically the field of elder abuse and neglect, and the distillation of relevant psychologic processes. PMID:11865252

  3. 19 CFR 111.34 - Undue influence upon Department of Homeland Security employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.34 Undue influence upon Department of Homeland Security employees. A broker must not influence or attempt to influence the conduct of any representative of the Department of Homeland...

  4. Legal Standards for Brain Death and Undue Influence in Euthanasia Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Okninski, Michaela E

    2016-06-01

    A major appellate court decision from the United States seriously questions the legal sufficiency of prevailing medical criteria for the determination of death by neurological criteria. There may be a mismatch between legal and medical standards for brain death, requiring the amendment of either or both. In South Australia, a Bill seeks to establish a legal right for a defined category of persons suffering unbearably to request voluntary euthanasia. However, an essential criterion of a voluntary decision is that it is not tainted by undue influence, and this Bill falls short of providing adequate guidance to assess for undue influence. PMID:27048423

  5. Donation of surplus frozen embryos for stem cell research or fertility treatment-should medical professionals and healthcare institutions be allowed to exercise undue influence on the informed decision of their former patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin

    2006-01-01

    The increasing availability of clinical assisted reproduction has led to an accumulated surplus of frozen embryos within fertility clinics worldwide. Couples that have attained success in clinical assisted reproduction, and have no further desire to reproduce; are often faced with an agonizing dilemma on what to do with their surplus frozen embryos-whether to simply discard them, or donate either for scientific research or to other infertile couples. There is a risk that persons or institutions directly involved in procuring donated embryos will prioritize their own interests over the informed choice of the patient to donate either for scientific research or to other infertile couples. Very often, formerly infertile couples who have attained reproductive success feel an overwhelming sense of gratitude to the fertility doctor handling their treatment. Hence, there is a risk of medical professionals exercising undue influence on their former patients, to sway the final decision to their preferred outcome. In the private practice setting, the preferred outcome would likely be donation for the treatment of other infertile couples; whilst in the case of medical professionals affiliated with research or academic institutions, the preferred outcome would likely be donation for stem cell research.

  6. The influence of object identity on obstacle avoidance reaching behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, A M; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijnens, C M; Dijkerman, H C

    2014-07-01

    When reaching for target objects, we hardly ever collide with other objects located in our working environment. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that the introduction of non-target objects into the workspace alters both spatial and temporal parameters of reaching trajectories. Previous studies have shown the influence of spatial object features (e.g. size and position) on obstacle avoidance movements. However, obstacle identity may also play a role in the preparation of avoidance responses as this allows prediction of possible negative consequences of collision based on recognition of the obstacle. In this study we test this hypothesis by asking participants to reach towards a target as quickly as possible, in the presence of an empty or full glass of water placed about half way between the target and the starting position, at 8 cm either left or right of the virtual midline. While the spatial features of full and empty glasses of water are the same, the consequences of collision are clearly different. Indeed, when there was a high chance of collision, reaching trajectories veered away more from filled than from empty glasses. This shows that the identity of potential obstacles, which allows for estimating the predicted consequences of collision, is taken into account during obstacle avoidance.

  7. Avoidance, anxiety, and sex: the influence of romantic attachment on HIV-risk among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace S; Milan, Stephanie; Westdahl, Claire; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Fletcher, Rachel; Ickovics, Jeannette

    2007-03-01

    Most unprotected sex occurs in close relationships. However, few studies examine relational factors and sexual risk among high-risk populations. Romantic Attachment Theory states that individuals have cognitive working models for relationships that influence expectations, affect, and behavior. We investigated the influence of attachment avoidance and anxiety on sexual beliefs (e.g., condom use beliefs, self-efficacy), behavior (e.g., condom use, multiple partners, unprotected sex with risky partners), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 755 high-risk, young pregnant women (ages 14-25) recruited from urban prenatal clinics. Attachment anxiety predicted sexual beliefs, condom use, and unprotected sex with risky partners controlling for demographic variables. Sexual beliefs did not mediate the relationship between attachment orientation and sexual behavior. Current relationship with the father of the baby did mediate the effect of attachment anxiety on multiple partners and STIs. Results indicate the importance of including general relational factors, such as attachment, in HIV prevention.

  8. Amygdaloid and non-amygdaloid fear both influence avoidance of risky foraging in hungry rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Earnest; Kim, Eun Joo; Yeh, Regina; Shin, Minkyung; Bobman, Jake; Krasne, Franklin B; Kim, Jeansok J

    2014-09-01

    Considerable evidence seems to show that emotional and reflex reactions to feared situations are mediated by the amygdala. It might therefore seem plausible to expect that amygdala-coded fear should also influence decisions when animals make choices about instrumental actions. However, there is not good evidence of this. In particular, it appears, though the literature is conflicted, that once learning is complete, the amygdala may often not be involved in instrumental avoidance behaviours. It is therefore of interest that we have found in rats living for extended periods in a semi-naturalistic 'closed economy', where they were given random shocks in regions that had to be entered to obtain food, choices about feeding behaviour were in fact influenced by amygdala-coded fear, in spite of the null effect of amygdalar lesions on fear of dangerous location per se. We suggest that avoidance of highly motivated voluntary behaviour does depend in part on fear signals originating in the amygdala. Such signalling may be one role of well-known projections from amygdala to cortico-striate circuitry.

  9. Influence of social factors on avoidable mortality: a hospital-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Daniel; Alfonso, José Luis; Corella, Dolores; Saiz, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of socioeconomic factors on avoidable mortality at an individual level is not well known, since most studies showing this association are based on aggregate data. The purpose of this study was to determine socioeconomic differences between those patients who die of avoidable causes and those who do not die. METHODS: A matched case-control study was carried out regarding in-hospital avoidable mortality (Holland's medical care indicators) that occurred in a university hosp...

  10. Refocusing the Undue Burden Test: Inconsistent Interpretations Pose a Substantial Obstacle to Constitutional Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David L

    2016-01-01

    Decades after Roe, debate over abortion remains as contentious as ever. States continue to pass regulations burdening the abortion right, but lack clear guidance on how to evaluate such regulations using the undue burden test. This Article chronicles Supreme Court jurisprudence on abortion and examines how the current circuit split surrounding FDA-protocol legislation fits within the larger framework. Finally, this Article applies the proper version of the undue burden test to FDA-protocol legislation, which resolves the circuit split and provides lower courts with a clear means of analyzing abortion issues moving forward. PMID:27323546

  11. It depends: Approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions are influenced by the contrast emotions presented in the task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Studies examining approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions have yielded conflicting results. For example, expressions of anger have been reported to elicit approach reactions in some studies but avoidance reactions in others. Nonetheless, the results were often explained by the same general underlying process, namely the influence that the social message signaled by the expression has on motivational responses. It is therefore unclear which reaction is triggered by which emotional expression, and which underlying process is responsible for these reactions. In order to address this issue, we examined the role of a potential moderator on approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions, namely the contrast emotion used in the task. We believe that different approach and avoidance reactions occur depending on the congruency or incongruency of the evaluation of the 2 emotions presented in the task. The results from a series of experiments supported these assumptions: Negative emotional expressions (anger, fear, sadness) elicited avoidance reactions if contrasted with expressions of happiness. However, if contrasted with a different negative emotional expression, anger and sadness triggered approach reactions and fear activated avoidance reactions. Importantly, these results also emerged if the emotional expression was not task-relevant. We propose that approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions are triggered by their evaluation if the 2 emotions presented in a task differ in evaluative connotation. If they have the same evaluative connotation, however, reactions are determined by their social message. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Influence of person- and situation-specific characteristics on collision avoidance behavior in human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Alexander G; Willacker, Lina; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Glasauer, Stefan; Krüger, Melanie

    2016-09-01

    In everyday situations, pedestrians deploy successful strategies to avoid collisions with other persons crossing their paths. In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate to what extent personal or situational characteristics affect role attribution and contribution to successful collision avoidance in human locomotion. Pairs of subjects walked at their natural speed from a start to a goal point. Walking paths were defined in such a way that subjects would collide halfway on their trajectory, if they did not actively avoid colliding by speed or path adjustments. In the first experiment, we investigated whether crossing order, path, and speed adjustments correlate with subject-specific parameters, such as gender, height, and personality traits. It is interesting that individuals' collision avoidance behavior was not correlated with any of these factors. In the second experiment, initial walking speed and heading were used to predict the crossing order. It was found that these 2 parameters are sufficient to estimate future role attribution with 95% confidence already 2.5 m before the crossing; that is, even before any collision avoidance behavior is initiated. In sum, this suggests that collision avoidance strategies in human locomotion are based on situational rather than on personal characteristics. These situational characteristics result in role attributions, which are highly predictable within and across pairs of pedestrians, whereby the role-dependent contribution of the pedestrian giving way is of greater relevance for successful collision avoidance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. The influence of approach-avoidance motivational orientation on conflict adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstler, M.; Holland, R.W.; Steenbergen, H. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2014-01-01

    To deal effectively with a continuously changing environment, our cognitive system adaptively regulates resource allocation. Earlier findings showed that an avoidance orientation (induced by arm extension), relative to an approach orientation (induced by arm flexion), enhanced sustained cognitive co

  14. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for naviga...

  15. The influence of corporate social responsibility on the level of corporate tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    van Renselaar, Jos

    2016-01-01

    This thesis empirically studies the relation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate tax avoidance. Based on a sample of 3304 observations between 2002 and 2014, I find that the CSR score of companies is negatively related to their effective tax rate. This indicates that on average, responsible companies are more involved in tax avoidance activities compared to less responsible companies. This result is robust against different sets of control variables. The results of thi...

  16. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny A Becker

    Full Text Available The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1 test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2 model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively. Only one of the six (16.7% breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.

  17. The possible price of auditory cueing: influence on obstacle avoidance in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanhoe-Mahabier, S.W.; Delval, A.; Snijders, A.H.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Under carefully controlled conditions, rhythmic auditory cueing can improve gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In complex environments, attention paid to cueing might adversely affect gait, for example when a simultaneous task-such as avoiding obstacles-has to be executed. W

  18. Is All Motivation Good for Learning? Dissociable Influences of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Declarative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…

  19. Dopamine and octopamine influence avoidance learning of honey bees in a place preference assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitreyi Agarwal

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are widely characterized in pathways evaluating reward and punishment, resulting in appropriate aversive or appetitive responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. We utilized the honey bee model and a newly developed spatial avoidance conditioning assay to probe effects of biogenic amines octopamine (OA and dopamine (DA on avoidance learning. In this new protocol non-harnessed bees associate a spatial color cue with mild electric shock punishment. After a number of experiences with color and shock the bees no longer enter the compartment associated with punishment. Intrinsic aspects of avoidance conditioning are associated with natural behavior of bees such as punishment (lack of food, explosive pollination mechanisms, danger of predation, heat, etc. and their association to floral traits or other spatial cues during foraging. The results show that DA reduces the punishment received whereas octopamine OA increases the punishment received. These effects are dose-dependent and specific to the acquisition phase of training. The effects during acquisition are specific as shown in experiments using the antagonists Pimozide and Mianserin for DA and OA receptors, respectively. This study demonstrates the integrative role of biogenic amines in aversive learning in the honey bee as modeled in a novel non-appetitive avoidance learning assay.

  20. Dopamine and octopamine influence avoidance learning of honey bees in a place preference assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Maitreyi; Giannoni Guzmán, Manuel; Morales-Matos, Carla; Del Valle Díaz, Rafael Alejandro; Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines are widely characterized in pathways evaluating reward and punishment, resulting in appropriate aversive or appetitive responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. We utilized the honey bee model and a newly developed spatial avoidance conditioning assay to probe effects of biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA) on avoidance learning. In this new protocol non-harnessed bees associate a spatial color cue with mild electric shock punishment. After a number of experiences with color and shock the bees no longer enter the compartment associated with punishment. Intrinsic aspects of avoidance conditioning are associated with natural behavior of bees such as punishment (lack of food, explosive pollination mechanisms, danger of predation, heat, etc.) and their association to floral traits or other spatial cues during foraging. The results show that DA reduces the punishment received whereas octopamine OA increases the punishment received. These effects are dose-dependent and specific to the acquisition phase of training. The effects during acquisition are specific as shown in experiments using the antagonists Pimozide and Mianserin for DA and OA receptors, respectively. This study demonstrates the integrative role of biogenic amines in aversive learning in the honey bee as modeled in a novel non-appetitive avoidance learning assay.

  1. The Influence of Depression on Cognitive Control: Disambiguating Approach and Avoidance Tendencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Huang

    Full Text Available Dysfunctions of approach and avoidance motivation play an important role in depression, which in turn may affect cognitive control, i.e., the ability to regulate thoughts and action to achieve internal goals. We use a novel experimental paradigm, i.e. a computer simulated driving-task, to study the impact of depression on cognitive control by measuring approach and avoidance actions in continuous time. In this task, 39 subjects with minimal to severe depression symptoms were instructed to use a joystick to move a virtual car as quickly as possible to a target point without crossing a stop-sign or crashing into a wall. We recorded their continuous actions on a joystick and found that depression 1 leads to further stopping distance to task target; and 2 increases the magnitude of late deceleration (avoidance but not early acceleration (approach, which was only observed in the stop-sign condition. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that depressed individuals have greater avoidance motivation near stopping target, but are minimally affected by approach motivation.

  2. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Brian P Meier; Paul R D'Agostino; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.; Wilkowski, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments....

  3. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend o...

  4. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-03-26

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

  5. Prior exposure influences the behavioural avoidance by an intertidal gastropod, Bembicium auratum, of acidified waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Valter; Cabral, Henrique N.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be critical to the maintenance of viable populations under future environmental change. Here we examined the role of behavioural avoidance of sub-optimal conditions in enabling the intertidal gastropod, Bembicium auratum, to persist in mangrove forests affected by the low pH runoff from acid sulphate soils (ASS). Behaviourally, the gastropod may be able to avoid periods of particularly high acidity by using pneumatophores and/or mangrove trunks to vertically migrate above the water line or by retreating into its shell. We hypothesised that (1) B. auratum would display greater and more rapid vertical migration out of acidified than reference estuarine waters, and (2) responses would be more pronounced in gastropods collected from acidified than reference sites. Gastropods from acidified sites showed significantly higher activity in and more rapid migration out of acidified waters of pH 6.2-7.0, than reference waters or waters of pH impact of this stressor on their populations. The stronger response to acidification of gastropods from populations previously exposed to this stressor suggests that the response may be learned, inherited or induced over multiple exposures. Our study adds to growing evidence that estuarine organisms may exhibit considerable physiological and behaviour adaptive capacity to acidification. The potential for such adaptive capacity should be incorporated into studies seeking to forecast impacts to marine organisms of environmental change.

  6. Influence of cypermethrin on avoidance behavior, survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortéa, Talyta; Baretta, Dilmar; Maccari, Ana Paula; Segat, Julia C; Boiago, Elaine S; Sousa, José Paulo; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-03-01

    Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid widely used in agriculture and in control of animal ectoparasites, being effective against a large number of insects. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of cypermethrin on soil fauna using reproduction and behavior ecotoxicological tests with the springtail Folsomia candida. The surface layer of a soil characteristic of the western region of the Santa Catarina State, classified as Typic Dystrupept, was used as test substrate. The treatments on both tests consisted of five concentrations of cypermethrin (0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0mgkg(-)(1)) corresponding to 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0gm(-2), respectively. This range was chosen according to technical instruction for the use of this product in broilers beds (that are used afterwards as organic fertilizer in soil) that recommends 15mgkg(-1) (3.0gm(-2)). The results obtained with tests for F. candida showed toxicity at all doses tested, following a dose-related response resulting in reduction in survival rate (LC50 of 18.41mgkg(-1), equivalent to 3.8gm(-2)), in the number of juveniles (EC50 of 15.05mgkg(-1), corresponding to 3.01gm(-2)), and an increase in avoidance response (AC50 of 29mgkg(-1), corresponding to 5.8gm(-2)). Although more studies are needed focusing on the fate of cypermethrin in soil when the poultry beds are used as fertilizer and how it may affect soil fauna, data obtained in this study, by showing effects within the range of the doses that are recommended implies that caution and possible mitigation measures should be taken when using this compound. PMID:25434267

  7. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Meier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context, but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.

  8. Attracting pollinators and avoiding herbivores: insects influence plant traits within and across years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Amanda Lynn; Underwood, Nora

    2013-10-01

    Perennial plants interact with herbivores and pollinators across multiple growing seasons, and thus may respond to herbivores and pollinators both within and across years. Joint effects of herbivores and pollinators influence plant traits, but while some of the potential interactions among herbivory, pollination, plant size, and plant reproductive traits have been well studied, others are poorly understood. This is particularly true for perennial plants where effects of herbivores and pollinators may manifest across years. Here, we describe two experiments addressing the reciprocal interactions of plant traits with herbivore damage and pollination across 2 years using the perennial plant Chamerion angustifolium. We measured (1) plant responses to manipulation of damage and pollination in the year of treatment and the subsequent season, (2) damage and pollination responses to manipulation of plant size and flowering traits in the year of treatment, and (3) plant-mediated indirect interactions between herbivores and pollinators. We found that plant traits had little effect on damage and pollination, but damage and pollination affected plant traits in both the treatment year and the subsequent year. We found evidence of indirect effects between leaf herbivores and pollinators in both directions; indirect effects of pollinators on leaf herbivores have not been previously demonstrated. Our results indicate that pollen receipt results in shorter plants with fewer stems but does not change flower number, while leaf herbivory results in taller plants with fewer flowers. Together, herbivory and pollination may contribute to intermediate plant height and plants with fewer stems and flowers in our system.

  9. Influence of temperature and reproductive state upon the jamming avoidance response in the pulse-type electric fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Macadar, Omar

    2005-01-01

    The electric organ discharge (EOD) in Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus is modified by temperature and reproductive state. We studied the influence of these variables upon a complex behavior, the jamming avoidance response (JAR). Experiments were performed in non-reproductive fish and in two groups of fish after the induction of reproductive state (by nature or by acclimation at 28 degrees C). JARs were elicited at 20 and 30 degrees C by free-run electric stimuli with different deltaLs (interval difference between stimulus and EOD). In non-reproductive fish, JARs induced by stimuli with +deltaLs showed temperature sensitivity, with smaller responses at 30 degrees C. Conversely, similar JARs were obtained at both temperatures in reproductive fish. These observations were replicated in curarized preparations. Stimuli with -deltaLs were almost ineffective in non-reproductive fish at 30 degrees C, whereas adequate JARs were shown by reproductive fish. Phase-locked stimuli were used to evaluate the duration of the low-threshold electrosensory periods preceding and following the EOD. In non-reproductive fish, the temperature step induced a shortening of these periods. The opposite effect was observed in reproductive fish, probably explaining the differences in JAR capability. A prolongation of the low-threshold periods would favor the perception of electrocommunication signals during courtship. JAR changes would be a consequence of this adaptation.

  10. Inbreeding avoidance, patch isolation and matrix permeability influence dispersal and settlement choices by male agile antechinus in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-03-01

    Animal dispersal is highly non-random and has important implications for the dynamics of populations in fragmented habitat. We identified interpatch dispersal events from genetic tagging, parentage analyses and assignment tests and modelled the factors associated with apparent emigration and post-dispersal settlement choices by individual male agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis, a marsupial carnivore of south-east Australian forests). Emigration decisions were best modelled with on data patch isolation and inbreeding risk. The choice of dispersal destination by males was influenced by inbreeding risk, female abundance, patch size, patch quality and matrix permeability (variation in land cover). Males were less likely to settle in patches without highly unrelated females. Our findings highlight the importance of individual-level dispersal data for understanding how multiple processes drive non-randomness in dispersal in modified landscapes. Fragmented landscapes present novel environmental, demographic and genetic contexts in which dispersal decisions are made, so the major factors affecting dispersal decisions in fragmented habitat may differ considerably from unfragmented landscapes. We show that the spatial scale of genetic neighbourhoods can be large in fragmented habitat, such that dispersing males can potentially settle in the presence of genetically similar females after moving considerable distances, thereby necessitating both a choice to emigrate and a choice of where to settle to avoid inbreeding. PMID:23991826

  11. Hispanics' SAT Scores: The Influences of Level of Parental Education, Performance-Avoidance Goals, and Knowledge about Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    This study uncovers which learning (epistemic belief of learning), socioeconomic background (level of parental education, family income) or social-personality factors (performance-avoidance goals, test anxiety) mitigate the ethnic gap in SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) scores. Measures assessing achievement motivation, test anxiety, socioeconomic…

  12. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  13. Testing conditions in shock-based contextual fear conditioning influence both the behavioral responses and the activation of circuits potentially involved in contextual avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viellard, Juliette; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies from our group have shown that risk assessment behaviors are the primary contextual fear responses to predatory and social threats, whereas freezing is the main contextual fear response to physically harmful events. To test contextual fear responses to a predator or aggressive conspecific threat, we developed a model that involves placing the animal in an apparatus where it can avoid the threat-associated environment. Conversely, in studies that use shock-based fear conditioning, the animals are usually confined inside the conditioning chamber during the contextual fear test. In the present study, we tested shock-based contextual fear responses using two different behavioral testing conditions: confining the animal in the conditioning chamber or placing the animal in an apparatus with free access to the conditioning compartment. Our results showed that during the contextual fear test, the animals confined to the shock chamber exhibited significantly more freezing. In contrast, the animals that could avoid the conditioning compartment displayed almost no freezing and exhibited risk assessment responses (i.e., crouch-sniff and stretch postures) and burying behavior. In addition, the animals that were able to avoid the shock chamber had increased Fos expression in the juxtadorsomedial lateral hypothalamic area, the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus and the lateral and dorsomedial parts of the periaqueductal gray, which are elements of a septo/hippocampal-hypothalamic-brainstem circuit that is putatively involved in mediating contextual avoidance. Overall, the present findings show that testing conditions significantly influence both behavioral responses and the activation of circuits involved in contextual avoidance. PMID:27544875

  14. Ultrasonic vocalization ratios reflect the influence of motivational state and amygdala lesions on different types of taste avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Selma; White, Norman M

    2011-02-01

    Consumption of a sweet solution (the CS) and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by rats were recorded in a conditioned taste avoidance paradigm. The rats' affective states were inferred from a ratio of high to low-frequency ultrasonic calls, which have been associated with positive and negative affect, respectively. The interacting effects of deprivation state and lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on CS consumption and affective state were examined. Rats were trained during the light phase while either 23 h or 3h water deprived by exposing them to the CS and then injecting them with LiCl or saline. They were tested by re-exposing them to the CS while either 23 or 3h deprived. Sham-lesioned rats that received LiCl injections consumed significantly less of the CS and evidenced relatively negative affect (inferred from the USV ratio) compared to control rats that received saline injections, regardless of the deprivation state in which they were trained or tested. Rats with BLA lesions trained while 23 h deprived failed to exhibit either reduced consumption or negative affect, regardless of whether they were tested while deprived for 23 or 3h. Identical lesions had no effect on reduced consumption or on negative affect in rats trained while 3h deprived, regardless of whether they were tested while deprived for 3 or 23 h. The findings suggest that both reduced consumption and negative affect are the results of different learning processes in deprived (23 h) and nearly satiated (3h, during the light phase) rats. The amygdala-dependent negative affective shift observed in deprived rats may be due to an aversive Pavlovian conditioned response that acts to suppress drinking. The amygdala-independent negative affective response and reduced consumption in nearly satiated rats could be due to a form of latent learning of a stimulus-outcome association. PMID:20888864

  15. Avoiding overheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a round table between (French) political leaders committed in environment policies and leaders of public institutions specialized in environment matters discussing the Kyoto Protocol negotiation process, this publication proposes contributions and interviews about Kyoto negotiations, about the influence of the carbon lobby, about the implementation of the Kyoto protocol in various countries (European Union, France, Germany, United States, China, developing countries), about the role of renewable energies, and about adaptation challenges

  16. Differences between left- and right-handers in approach/avoidance motivation: influence of consistency of handedness measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Hardie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hand preference is often viewed as a troublesome variable in psychological research, with left-handers routinely excluded from studies. Contrary to this, a body of evidence has shown hand preference to be a useful variable when examining human behaviour. A recent review argues that the most effective way of using handedness as a variable, is a comparison between individuals who use their dominant hand for virtually all manual activities (consistent handers versus those who use their other hand for at least one activity (inconsistent handers. The authors contend that researchers should only focus on degree of handedness rather than direction of preference (left versus right. However, we argue that the field suffers from a number of methodological and empirical issues. These include a lack of consensus in choice of cut-off point to divide consistent and inconsistent categories and importantly a paucity of data from left-handers. Consequentially, researchers predominantly compare inconsistent versus consistent right-handers, largely linked to memory, cognition and language. Other research on response style and personality measures shows robust direction of handedness effects. The present study examines both strength and direction of handedness on self-reported Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS and Activation System (BAS scores, using evidence from a large (N=689 dataset including more than 200 left-handers. There were degree of handedness effects on BIS and BAS-Fun Seeking, but effects are largely driven by differences between consistent left-handers and other groups. Choice of cut-off point substantively influenced results, and suggests that unless a suitable sample of left-handers is included, researchers clarify that their degree of handedness effects are applicable only to right-handers. We concur that strength of hand preference is an important variable but caution that differences related to consistency may not be identical in right and left-handers.

  17. 29 CFR 1605.2 - Reasonable accommodation without undue hardship as required by section 701(j) of title VII of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF RELIGION § 1605.2 Reasonable accommodation without undue hardship as required by section 701(j... address other obligations under title VII not to discriminate on grounds of religion, nor other provisions... intended to provide guidance for statutes which require accommodation on bases other than religion such...

  18. Bioavailability and influence of ¹⁴C-carbofuran on Eisenia andrei avoidance, growth and reproduction in treated natural tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regina C B; Papini, Solange; de Andréa, Mara M

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of carbofuran to the compost worms Eisenia andrei and the influence of its residual amounts on the avoidance, reproduction and growth of this species were studied in two natural tropical soils: a Typic Humaquept (GM) and a Typic Hapludox (LVD), as indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. The worms avoided the soil LVD treated with different doses of carbofuran. The pesticide also affected the production of juvenile specimens in both soils, but cocoon production was reduced only in the GM soil. The earthworms' growth and weight loss were affected by carbofuran (2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate. CAS number 1563-66-2) only in the LVD and the mortality detected at 56 days of contact with the treated soils was not statistically significant in both of them. Fourteen days after the soil treatment with(14) c-carbofuran, most residues detected in the soils were bound residues (approximately 36% and 30% in the GM and LVD, respectively) and neither mortality nor bioaccumulation was detected in the earthworms, even with absorptions of 13% and 43%, respectively. The LVD soil has lower organic matter content, and the effects of carbofuran on different aspects of the earthworms' life were more pronounced in this soil, most likely due to the higher bioavailability of the pesticide in the soil solution. The results for carbofuran clearly demonstrate that even small quantities of residues do not assure lack of toxicity. They also make evident the necessity of studying the effects of pesticides in natural agricultural soils. Furthermore, as the bound residues and the earthworm contamination are not detected by conventional techniques, they are not taken into account and may be underestimated on environmental risk assessments. PMID:25714458

  19. Bioavailability and influence of ¹⁴C-carbofuran on Eisenia andrei avoidance, growth and reproduction in treated natural tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regina C B; Papini, Solange; de Andréa, Mara M

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of carbofuran to the compost worms Eisenia andrei and the influence of its residual amounts on the avoidance, reproduction and growth of this species were studied in two natural tropical soils: a Typic Humaquept (GM) and a Typic Hapludox (LVD), as indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. The worms avoided the soil LVD treated with different doses of carbofuran. The pesticide also affected the production of juvenile specimens in both soils, but cocoon production was reduced only in the GM soil. The earthworms' growth and weight loss were affected by carbofuran (2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate. CAS number 1563-66-2) only in the LVD and the mortality detected at 56 days of contact with the treated soils was not statistically significant in both of them. Fourteen days after the soil treatment with(14) c-carbofuran, most residues detected in the soils were bound residues (approximately 36% and 30% in the GM and LVD, respectively) and neither mortality nor bioaccumulation was detected in the earthworms, even with absorptions of 13% and 43%, respectively. The LVD soil has lower organic matter content, and the effects of carbofuran on different aspects of the earthworms' life were more pronounced in this soil, most likely due to the higher bioavailability of the pesticide in the soil solution. The results for carbofuran clearly demonstrate that even small quantities of residues do not assure lack of toxicity. They also make evident the necessity of studying the effects of pesticides in natural agricultural soils. Furthermore, as the bound residues and the earthworm contamination are not detected by conventional techniques, they are not taken into account and may be underestimated on environmental risk assessments.

  20. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  1. Discussion and Influence of Merchant Ship Collision Avoidance Method%商船避碰方法的探讨及影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏成勇

    2012-01-01

    文章分析了商船与捕鱼船舶的避碰情况,以及减少碰撞事故应采取的措施,从而减少事故降低经济损失.%This paper analyzes the situation about collision avoidance between merchant ships and fishing vessels, and measures on reducing collision accident, and thus reduces the accident and lower economic loss.

  2. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were record...

  3. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaizauskiene, A.; Gurevicius, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death ...

  4. Avoidant personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  5. Preliminary study into the components of the fear-avoidance model of LBP: change after an initial chiropractic visit and influence on outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newell Dave

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade the sub grouping of low back pain (LBP patients according to their likely response to treatment has been identified as a research priority. As with other patient groups, researchers have found few if any factors from the case history or physical examination that are helpful in predicting the outcome of chiropractic care. However, in the wider LBP population psychosocial factors have been identified that are significantly prognostic. This study investigated changes in the components of the LBP fear-avoidance beliefs model in patients pre- and post- their initial visit with a chiropractor to determine if there was a relationship with outcomes at 1 month. Methods Seventy one new patients with lower back pain as their primary complaint presenting for chiropractic care to one of five clinics (nine chiropractors completed questionnaires before their initial visit (pre-visit and again just before their second appointment (post-visit. One month after the initial consultation, patient global impression of change (PGIC scores were collected. Pre visit and post visit psychological domain scores were analysed for any association with outcomes at 1 month. Results Group mean scores for Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB, catastrophisation and self-efficacy were all improved significantly within a few days of a patient's initial chiropractic consultation. Pre-visit catastrophisation as well as post-visit scores for catastrophisation, back beliefs (inevitability and self-efficacy were weakly correlated with patient's global impression of change (PGIC at 1 month. However when the four assessed psychological variables were dichotomised about pre-visit group medians those individuals with 2 or more high variables post-visit had a substantially increased risk (OR 36.4 (95% CI 6.2-213.0 of poor recovery at 1 month. Seven percent of patients with 1 or fewer adverse psychological variables described poor benefit compared to 73% of those

  6. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  7. Avoidance orientation moderates the effect of threatening messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Vries, de H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people's dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after wh

  8. Myelin Avoids the JAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follis, Rose M; Carter, Bruce D

    2016-08-17

    In this issue of Neuron, Redmond et al. (2016) identify junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitor of somatodendritic myelination in spinal cord neurons, thereby elucidating how myelin forms on axons but avoids dendrites and cell bodies. PMID:27537479

  9. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  10. Influenceable and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique—Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Rott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influenceable or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemostatic valve.

  11. Influenceable and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique-Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Gernot; Boecker, Frieder

    2014-01-01

    Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influenceable or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemostatic valve. PMID:25431666

  12. Deforestation, leakage and avoided deforestation policies: a spatial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DELACOTE, Philippe; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Roussel, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that deforestation choices in one area influence deforestation decisions in nearby patches. We explore the interplay between forest landscapes comprising heterogeneous patches, localised spatial displacement, and avoided deforestation policies. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payments for Environmental Services (PES) policie...

  13. AVOIDING MANUSCRIPT MISTAKES

    OpenAIRE

    Grindstaff, Terry L.; Saliba, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Writing a scientific manuscript can be a consuming, but rewarding task with a number of intrinsic and extrinsic benefits. The ability to write a scientific manuscript is typically not an emphasized component of most entry‐level professional programs. The purpose of this overview is to provide authors with suggestions to improve manuscript quality and to provide mechanisms to avoid common manuscript mistakes that are often identified by journal reviewers and editors.

  14. Indonesia : Avoiding the Trap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Within the next two decades Indonesia aspires to generate prosperity, avoid a middle-income trap and leave no one behind as it tries to catch up with high-income economies. These are ambitious goals. Realizing them requires sustained high growth and job creation, as well as reduced inequality. Can Indonesia achieve them? This report argues that the country has the potential to rise and bec...

  15. Loss of control eating with and without the undue influence of weight or shape on self-evaluation: evidence from an adolescent population

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Carmel; Mond, Jonathan; Bentley, Caroline; Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Rieger, Elizabeth; Rodgers, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background The overvaluation of weight and/or shape (“overvaluation”), a diagnostic criterion for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, is increasingly supported for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition (DSM-5) criteria of binge eating disorder (BED). However, current evidence has been largely confined to adult populations. The current study aims to examine the status of overvaluation among adolescents with loss of control (LOC) eating recruited f...

  16. On partitions avoiding right crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Sherry H. F.; Xu, Yuexiao

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Chen et al. derived the generating function for partitions avoiding right nestings and posed the problem of finding the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings. In this paper, we derive the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings via an intermediate structure of partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossings and right nestings. We show that there is a bijection between partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossing and right nestings and partitions...

  17. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  18. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  19. Communication Avoiding ILU0 Preconditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Grigori, Laura; Moufawad, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a communication avoiding ILU0 preconditioner for solving large linear systems of equations by using iterative Krylov subspace methods. Recent research has focused on communication avoiding Krylov subspace methods based on so called s-step methods. However there is no communication avoiding preconditioner yet, and this represents a serious limitation of these methods. Our preconditioner allows to perform s iterations of the iterative method with no communication, throu...

  20. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  1. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. PMID:26970365

  2. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  3. Acquaintance Rape: Effective Avoidance Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-MacCombie, Joyce; Koss, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Determined that acknowledged and unacknowledged acquaintance rape victims and rape avoiders could be discriminated by situational variables and response strategies. Avoiders were less likely to have experienced passive or internalizing emotions at the time of the assault, perceived the assault as less violent, and were more likely to have utilized…

  4. Tunnel Vision: Local Behavioral Influences on Consumer Decisions in Product Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Häubl (Gerald); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce and test a behavioral model of consumer product search that extends a baseline normative model of sequential search by incorporating nonnormative influences that are local in the sense that they reflect consumers' undue sensitivity to recently encountered alternatives. We pr

  5. Panic disorder and exercise avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo W. Muotri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To identify whether patients with panic disorder in general and those with the respiratory subtype in particular actively avoid exercise; 2 to investigate physiological differences in cardiopulmonary function parameters in patients with panic disorder in general, patients with the respiratory subtype of panic disorder, and healthy controls upon exercise challenge. Methods: Patients with panic disorder were classified as having either the respiratory or the non-respiratory subtype. Both groups were compared to controls in terms of exercise avoidance patterns and performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: Patients with panic disorder exhibited higher exercise avoidance scores and worse performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing as compared with controls. No differences were found between patients with the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes. Conclusions: Exercise avoidance is present in panic disorder and is associated with poorer performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. These findings are not limited to patients with the respiratory subtype of the disorder.

  6. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using biologically-inspired neuromorphic optic flow algorithms is a novel approach in collision avoidance for UAS. Traditional computer vision algorithms rely on...

  7. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  8. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Plath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre, we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1 that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2 that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  9. Avoidance of strobe lights by zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Martin J.; Richards, Nathan S.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Underwater strobe lights can influence the behavior and distribution of fishes and are increasingly used as a technique to divert fish away from water intake structures on dams. However, few studies examine how strobe lights may affect organisms other than targeted species. To gain insight on strobe lighting effects on nontarget invertebrates, we investigated whether underwater strobe lights influence zooplankton distributions and abundance in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Zooplankton were collected using vertical tows at 3 discrete distances from an underwater strobe light to quantify the influence of light intensity on zooplankton density. Samples were collected from 3 different depth ranges (0–10 m, 10–20 m and 20–30 m) at zooplankton sampled from 17 August to 15 September 2004. Night time zooplankton densities significantly decreased in surface waters when strobe lights were activated. Copepods exhibited the greatest avoidance patterns, while Daphnia avoidance varied throughout sampling depths. These results indicate that zooplankton display negative phototaxic behavior to strobe lights and that researchers must be cognizant of potential effects to the ecosystem such as altering predator–prey interactions or affecting zooplankton distribution and growth.

  10. Attachment avoidance predicts inflammatory responses to marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Glaser, Ronald; Loving, Timothy J; Malarkey, William B; Stowell, Jeffrey; Houts, Carrie; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2009-10-01

    Marital stress has been associated with immune dysregulation, including increased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Attachment style, one's expectations about the availability and responsiveness of others in intimate relationships, appears to influence physiological stress reactivity and thus could influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. Thirty-five couples were invited for two 24-h admissions to a hospital research unit. The first visit included a structured social support interaction, while the second visit comprised the discussion of a marital disagreement. A mixed effect within-subject repeated measure model indicated that attachment avoidance significantly influenced IL-6 production during the conflict visit but not during the social support visit. Individuals with higher attachment avoidance had on average an 11% increase in total IL-6 production during the conflict visit as compared to the social support visit, while individuals with lower attachment avoidance had, on average, a 6% decrease in IL-6 production during the conflict visit as compared to the social support visit. Furthermore, greater attachment avoidance was associated with a higher frequency of negative behaviors and a lower frequency of positive behaviors during the marital interaction, providing a mechanism by which attachment avoidance may influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. In sum, these results suggest that attachment avoidance modulates marital behavior and stress-induced immune dysregulation. PMID:18952163

  11. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  12. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  13. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  14. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author′s experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.

  15. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance. PMID:19186631

  16. Plagiarism Avoidance in Academic Submissions

    OpenAIRE

    Cully, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide undergraduate students with an introductory resource focusing on plagiarism avoidance. It sets out to identify often confusing associated nuances. From the perspective of paraphrasing, the requirements attaching to the necessary provision of proper citations are explored. The paper concludes by pondering the topic of reliability of sources.

  17. Avoidance: grammatical or semantic causes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Hulstijn; E. Marchena

    1989-01-01

    This article follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs, such as ‘let down’, while preferring one-word verbs, such as ‘;disappoint’, since phrasal verbs do not exist in Hebrew. A corollary derived from Dagut and Laufer's study is t

  18. Obstacle Avoidance Through Visual Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Keerio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel controlling approach forHumanoid Robot to work safely in critical situations like badlight environment using Visual Teleoperation. In this regardmodeling environments for Humanoid Teleoperation Systemis developed. Here virtual reality modeling environmentincludes development of virtual Humanoid BHR-2, andvirtual objects like table etc. The main goal of this work is toenhance our visual teleoperation system for BHR-2 in orderto avoid any collision during real time operation. SoftwareMaya is used for modeling and simulations. Maya plug-insin VC++ provides efficient modeling rule, real timeinteraction, and time saving rendering approach in a virtualenvironment. In this paper the validity of proposed scheme isshown by conducting experiments using offline step overtrajectory to avoid obstacle in bad light environment.

  19. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tordeux, Antoine; Lassarre, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed...

  20. Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Il-Horn Hann; Kai-Lung Hui; Sang-Yong Tom Lee; Ivan Png

    2005-01-01

    We introduce consumer avoidance into analytical marketing research. We show that consumer efforts to conceal themselves and to deflect marketing have a crucial impact on sellers¡¯ marketing strategy. Under reasonable conditions, seller marketing is a strategic complement with consumer concealment. Hence, consumer measures to conceal themselves from marketing will increase its cost-effectiveness and lead sellers to market more. Policies that encourage consumers to conceal their identities woul...

  1. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  2. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY VERSUS TAX AVOIDANCE PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Ciprian-Dumitru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide crisis has made multinational companies that are engaged in corporate social responsibility actions to manage their businesses through the lens of various tax avoidance practices. The content of this paper is important due to the fact that tries to identify the impact in case of companies active in corporate social responsibility actions versus their tax structures orientation. Corporate social responsibility literature did not paid enough attention on the impact of the tax avoidance practices of companies. Tax, as a concept, brings in itself an important corporate financial impact with subsequent effects for the life of multiple citizens in countries where private entities are operating. Even though companies are usually expressing their ethical and responsible conduct in respect of the social environment, there are many cases when the business practices were not aligned with the declared corporate behavior. This paper seeks firstly to examine whether companies engaged in tax avoidance practices (ex. offshore tax havens consider that continue to act socially responsible. Secondly, the paper examines the influence on attending the stakeholders’ goals for those companies practicing tax avoidance and its implications on corporate social responsibility actions. Moreover, the paper focuses also on the aspects described before from the perspective of the corporate entities operating in Romania. This paper’s intention is to use and to develop the results of previous research carried out by Lutz Preus (University of London and, subsequently, by Senators Levin, Coleman and Obama in their “Stop Tax Haven Abuse Bill”. The implications and the objectives of this material are to highlight, to identify and to spot clearly the relations and the influences of the tax haven practices of corporations versus their undertaken social responsibility actions. Moreover, this paper brings a fresh perspective of this topic from the

  3. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  4. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Khanna; George Filobbos

    2013-01-01

    The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suc...

  5. AVOIDING RISK IN WORKING CAPITAL CREDIT DISTRIBUTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Deno Hervino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes risk avoidance behaviour of banking institutions in distributing working capital loan in Indonesia. Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag Error Correction Model, this paper uncovers three findings. First, in the short run, risk avoidance in working capital loan distribution depends on inter-call banking money market and Sertifikat Bank Indonesia. Second, following banking regulation after 1997 crisis, banks have become more careful in distributing credits, with SBI as a substitution instrument and inter-call banking money market as a complement instrument to spread the risk. Third, all explanatory variables take an average of 6 days or 1 week to influence bank’s risk avoidance behaviour.Keywords:     Risk avoidance, working capital distribution, banking institutions JEL classification numbers: C32, C52, D81, E51

  6. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram; Levine, Simon P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  7. Adaptive avoidance of reef noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Simpson

    Full Text Available Auditory information is widely used throughout the animal kingdom in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some marine species are dependent on reefs for adult survival and reproduction, and are known to use reef noise to guide orientation towards suitable habitat. Many others that forage in food-rich inshore waters would, however, benefit from avoiding the high density of predators resident on reefs, but nothing is known about whether acoustic cues are used in this context. By analysing a sample of nearly 700,000 crustaceans, caught during experimental playbacks in light traps in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, we demonstrate an auditory capability in a broad suite of previously neglected taxa, and provide the first evidence in any marine organisms that reef noise can act as a deterrent. In contrast to the larvae of species that require reef habitat for future success, which showed an attraction to broadcasted reef noise, taxa with a pelagic or nocturnally emergent lifestyle actively avoided it. Our results suggest that a far greater range of invertebrate taxa than previously thought can respond to acoustic cues, emphasising yet further the potential negative impact of globally increasing levels of underwater anthropogenic noise.

  8. Analysis of phthalates in wine using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry combined with a hold-back column: Chromatographic strategy to avoid the influence of pre-existing phthalate contamination in a liquid chromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Y

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a novel method for the analysis of phthalates in wine using HPLC-MS/MS combined with a hold-back column. Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment and can be widely found in laboratory materials and equipment. A HPLC system is no exception and can be the source of contamination affecting the accuracy and precision of analytical results. The new method successfully separates phthalates from the different sources, a wine sample and HPLC system by a simple technique using an additional HPLC column (a hold-back column) placed upstream of the injection valve. The hold-back column effectively retains the HPLC-derived contaminants during column equilibrium time and delays their elution times from an analytical column. Consequently, a phthalate from a wine sample can be baseline separated as it elutes sufficiently earlier than the same phthalate from the HPLC system. HPLC-MS/MS analysis combined with the hold-back column demonstrated virtually no influence of the HPLC contaminants on the quantification of phthalates present in wine. Together with a simple and rapid sample preparation and the use of labeled internal standards, the method was confirmed to be robust and reliable to determine concentrations of phthalates in wine. Quantification limits were within the range of 1.6-9.8μgL(-1) for dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, benzylbutyl, bis(2-ethylhexyl) and dioctyl phthalates, and 7.5-26.6μgL(-1) for multiple isomeric phthalates, di-iso-nonyl and di-iso-dodecyl phthalates.

  9. Approach, avoidance, and affect: A meta-analysis of approach-avoidance tendencies in manual reaction time tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Approach action tendencies towards positive stimuli and avoidance tendencies from negative stimuli are widely seen to foster survival. Many studies have shown that approach and avoidance arm movements are facilitated by positive and negative affect, respectively. There is considerable debate whether positively and negatively valenced stimuli prime approach and avoidance movements directly (i.e., immediate, unintentional, implicit, automatic, and stimulus-based, or indirectly (i.e., after conscious or nonconscious interpretation of the situation. The direction and size of these effects were often found to depend on the instructions referring to the stimulus object or the self, and on explicit vs. implicit stimulus evaluation. We present a meta-analysis of 29 studies included for their use of strongly positive and negative stimuli, with 81 effect sizes derived solely from the means and standard deviations (combined N = 1538, to examine the automaticity of the link between affective information processing and approach and avoidance, and to test whether it depends on instruction, type of approach-avoidance task, and stimulus type. Results show a significant small to medium-sized effect after correction for publication bias. The strongest arguments for an indirect link between affect and approach-avoidance were the absence of evidence for an effect with implicit evaluation, and the opposite directions of the effect with self and object-related interpretations. The link appears to be influenced by conscious or nonconscious intentions to deal with affective stimuli.

  10. Predictive Potential Field-Based Collision Avoidance for Multicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuisen, M.; Schadler, M.; Behnke, S.

    2013-08-01

    Reliable obstacle avoidance is a key to navigating with UAVs in the close vicinity of static and dynamic obstacles. Wheel-based mobile robots are often equipped with 2D or 3D laser range finders that cover the 2D workspace sufficiently accurate and at a high rate. Micro UAV platforms operate in a 3D environment, but the restricted payload prohibits the use of fast state-of-the-art 3D sensors. Thus, perception of small obstacles is often only possible in the vicinity of the UAV and a fast collision avoidance system is necessary. We propose a reactive collision avoidance system based on artificial potential fields, that takes the special dynamics of UAVs into account by predicting the influence of obstacles on the estimated trajectory in the near future using a learned motion model. Experimental evaluation shows that the prediction leads to smoother trajectories and allows to navigate collision-free through passageways.

  11. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  12. Who Avoids Cancer Information? Examining a Psychological Process Leading to Cancer Information Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jiyoung

    2016-07-01

    Although cancer information avoidance (CIA) is detrimental to public health, predictors of CIA have not been fully investigated. Based on uncertainty management theory, this study viewed CIA as a response to uncertainty related to the distress associated with cancer information and illustrated the psychological process leading to CIA. Given the current information context, it was hypothesized that cancer information overload (CIO), accompanied by confusion and stress about cancer information, causes CIA. As trait anxiety is a strong predictor of CIO, it was also hypothesized that trait anxiety has an indirect effect on CIA through CIO. Study 1 tested this relationship in a U.S. sample (N = 384); the results showed that CIO was positively associated with CIA and that trait anxiety indirectly influenced CIA through CIO. Whereas Study 1 tested the relationship with cross-sectional data in the general cancer context, Study 2 replicated Study 1 with 3-wave longitudinal data in the context of a specific cancer (i.e., stomach cancer) in South Korea (N = 1,130 at Wave 1, 813 at Wave 2, and 582 at Wave 3). Trait anxiety at Wave 1 predicted CIO at Wave 2, which in turn increased CIA at Wave 3, suggesting that some people are inherently inclined to avoid cancer information due to their trait anxiety, which results in confusion about cancer information. PMID:27337343

  13. The developmental dynamics of task-avoidant behavior and math performance in kindergarten and elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Besides cognitive factors, children's learning at school may be influenced by more dynamic phenomena, such as motivation and achievement-related task-avoidant behavior. The present study examined the developmental dynamics of task-avoidant behavior and math performance from kindergarten to Grade 4. A total of 225 children were tested for their arithmetic skills in kindergarten and in Grades 1, 2, and 4 of elementary school. Children's task-avoidant behavior in learning situations was rated by...

  14. Optimizing Sampling Design to Deal with Mist-Net Avoidance in Amazonian Birds and Bats

    OpenAIRE

    João Tiago Marques; Ramos Pereira, Maria J.; Marques, Tiago A.; Carlos David Santos; Joana Santana; Pedro Beja; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scen...

  15. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    OpenAIRE

    Mara M. de Andréa; Sousa, Ana Paula A. de

    2011-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment...

  16. Socially dependent avoidance learning : mechanisms of adaptive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of human social behavior are likely to be shaped by punishment, threats of punishment, and avoidance of punishment. However, surprisingly little is known about the psychological mechanisms underpinning these influences. The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate how basic reinforcement-based learning processes contribute to adaptive social behavior. To this end, we investigated how human behavior is shaped by punishment and threats of punishment in simpl...

  17. The Developmental Dynamics of Task-Avoidant Behavior and Math Performance in Kindergarten and Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Besides cognitive factors, children's learning at school may be influenced by more dynamic phenomena, such as motivation and achievement-related task-avoidant behavior. The present study examined the developmental dynamics of task-avoidant behavior and math performance from kindergarten to Grade 4. A total of 225 children were tested for their…

  18. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) (b) Where two or more licensees are assigned a common...

  19. Conjecture on Avoidance of Big Crunch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Yi; ZHANG De-Hai

    2006-01-01

    By conjecturing the physics at the Planck scale, we modify the definition of the Hawking temperature and modify the Friedmann equation. It is found that we can avoid the singularity of the big crunch and obtain a bouncing cosmological model.

  20. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: ...

  1. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  2. Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159681.html Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity Good relationship with parents, especially between fathers and ... develop healthy habits that may protect them against obesity, a new study suggests. The researchers also found ...

  3. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  4. GSA IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — GSA IT provides data related to Agency IT initiatives that save or avoid expenditures. This data is provided as a requirement of OMB's Integrated Data Collection...

  5. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  6. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  7. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required. PMID:24785995

  8. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in radar technology have resulted in commercial, automotive collision avoidance radars. These radar systems typically use 37GHz or 77GHz interferometry...

  9. How to avoid overheating during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000865.htm How to avoid overheating during exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... condition can get heat illness. Stay Cool During Exercise Try these tips to help prevent heat-related ...

  10. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....

  11. Mobile Robot Collision Avoidance in Human Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingqi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance is a fundamental requirement for mobile robots. Avoiding moving obstacles (also termed dynamic obstacles with unpredictable direction changes, such as humans, is more challenging than avoiding moving obstacles whose motion can be predicted. Precise information on the future moving directions of humans is unobtainable for use in navigation algorithms. Furthermore, humans should be able to pursue their activities unhindered and without worrying about the robots around them. In this paper, both active and critical regions are used to deal with the uncertainty of human motion. A procedure is introduced to calculate the region sizes based on worst‐case avoidance conditions. Next, a novel virtual force field‐based mobile robot navigation algorithm (termed QVFF is presented. This algorithm may be used with both holonomic and nonholonomic robots. It incorporates improved virtual force functions for avoiding moving obstacles and its stability is proven using a piecewise continuous Lyapunov function. Simulation and experimental results are provided for a human walking towards the robot and blocking the path to a goal location. Next, the proposed algorithm is compared with five state‐of‐the‐art navigation algorithms for an environment with one human walking with an unpredictable change in direction. Finally, avoidance results are presented for an environment containing three walking humans. The QVFF algorithm consistently generated collision‐free paths to the goal.

  12. Target Tracking and Obstacle Avoidance for Multi-agent Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yan; Xin-Ping Guan; Fu-Xiao Tan

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problems of target tracking and obstacle avoidance for multi-agent systems.To solve the problem that multiple agents cannot effectively track the target while avoiding obstacle in dynamic environment,a novel control algorithm based on potential function and behavior rules is proposed.Meanwhile,the interactions among agents are also considered.According to the state whether an agent is within the area of its neighbors' influence,two kinds of potential functions are presented.Meanwhile,the distributed control input of each agent is determined by relative velocities as well as relative positions among agents,target and obstacle.The maximum linear speed of the agents is also discussed.Finally,simulation studies are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara M. de Andréa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

  14. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Ana Paula A.; de Andréa, Mara M.

    2011-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05). No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000) for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms. PMID:22247652

  15. Analyzing the Objective Causes of Oral Chinglish and Error Avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁方娣

    2016-01-01

    Due to the inevitable influence of the mother tongue and some other objective causes, Chinglish is troubling Chinese learners of English in various ways, which has an bad effect on quality of oral communication. Therefore, minimizing or eliminating oral Chinglish will greatly improve the quality of communication. This paper will firstly explain the definition of Chinglish,then focus on description and analyzing of oral Chinglish mistakes, what’s more, the objective causes of oral Chinglish will be analyzed and founded, especially on the aspect of negative transfer. At last, some avoidance of oral Chinglish will be offered.

  16. Avoiding barriers in control of mowing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Bai-jing; QIAN Guo-hong; XIANG Zhong-ping; LI Zuo-peng

    2006-01-01

    Due to complicated barriers,it is difficult to track the path of the mowing robot and to avoid barriers.In order to solve the problem,a method based on distance-measuring sensors and fuzzy control inputs was proposed.Its track was composed of beelines and was easy to tail.The fuzzy control inputs were based on the front barrier distance and the difference between the left and right barrier distance measured by ultrasonic sensors;the output was the direction angle.The infrared sensors around the robot improved its safety in avoiding barriers.The result of the method was feasible,agile,and stable.The distance between the robot and the barriers could be changed by altering the inputs and outputs of fuzzy control and the length of the beelines.The disposed sensors can fulfill the need of the robot in avoiding barriers.

  17. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L;

    1997-01-01

    cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly......Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all...

  18. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Latiolais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.

  19. Is avoiding an aversive outcome rewarding? Neural substrates of avoidance learning in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackjin Kim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance learning poses a challenge for reinforcement-based theories of instrumental conditioning, because once an aversive outcome is successfully avoided an individual may no longer experience extrinsic reinforcement for their behavior. One possible account for this is to propose that avoiding an aversive outcome is in itself a reward, and thus avoidance behavior is positively reinforced on each trial when the aversive outcome is successfully avoided. In the present study we aimed to test this possibility by determining whether avoidance of an aversive outcome recruits the same neural circuitry as that elicited by a reward itself. We scanned 16 human participants with functional MRI while they performed an instrumental choice task, in which on each trial they chose from one of two actions in order to either win money or else avoid losing money. Neural activity in a region previously implicated in encoding stimulus reward value, the medial orbitofrontal cortex, was found to increase, not only following receipt of reward, but also following successful avoidance of an aversive outcome. This neural signal may itself act as an intrinsic reward, thereby serving to reinforce actions during instrumental avoidance.

  20. A collision avoidance system for workpiece protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Novak, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maslakowski, J.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes an application of Sandia`s non-contact capacitive sensing technology for collision avoidance during the manufacturing of rocket engine thrust chambers. The collision avoidance system consists of an octagon shaped collar with a capacitive proximity sensor mounted on each face. The sensors produced electric fields which extend several inches from the face of the collar and detect potential collisions between the robot and the workpiece. A signal conditioning system processes the sensor output and provides varying voltage signals to the robot controller for stopping the robot.

  1. Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlioglu, Fatih; Al-Namazi, Ali; Bonser, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Plant strategy and life-history theories make different predictions about reproductive efficiency under competition. While strategy theory suggests under intense competition iteroparous perennial plants delay reproduction and semelparous annuals reproduce quickly, life-history theory predicts both annual and perennial plants increase resource allocation to reproduction under intense competition. We tested (1) how simulated competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitive ability (CA) of different plant life histories and growth forms; (2) whether life history or growth form is associated with CA; (3) whether shade avoidance plasticity is connected to reproductive efficiency under simulated competition. We examined plastic responses of 11 herbaceous species representing different life histories and growth forms to simulated competition (spectral shade). We found that both annual and perennial plants invested more to reproduction under simulated competition in accordance with life-history theory predictions. There was no significant difference between competitive abilities of different life histories, but across growth forms, erect species expressed greater CA (in terms of leaf number) than other growth forms. We also found that shade avoidance plasticity can increase the reproductive efficiency by capitalizing on the early life resource acquisition and conversion of these resources into reproduction. Therefore, we suggest that a reassessment of the interpretation of shade avoidance plasticity is necessary by revealing its role in reproduction, not only in competition of plants.

  2. Disgust as an adaptive system for disease avoidance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie; de Barra, Mícheál; Aunger, Robert

    2011-02-12

    Disgust is an evolved psychological system for protecting organisms from infection through disease avoidant behaviour. This 'behavioural immune system', present in a diverse array of species, exhibits universal features that orchestrate hygienic behaviour in response to cues of risk of contact with pathogens. However, disgust is also a dynamic adaptive system. Individuals show variation in pathogen avoidance associated with psychological traits like having a neurotic personality, as well as a consequence of being in certain physiological states such as pregnancy or infancy. Three specialized learning mechanisms modify the disgust response: the Garcia effect, evaluative conditioning and the law of contagion. Hygiene behaviour is influenced at the group level through social learning heuristics such as 'copy the frequent'. Finally, group hygiene is extended symbolically to cultural rules about purity and pollution, which create social separations and are enforced as manners. Cooperative hygiene endeavours such as sanitation also reduce pathogen prevalence. Our model allows us to integrate perspectives from psychology, ecology and cultural evolution with those of epidemiology and anthropology. Understanding the nature of disease avoidance psychology at all levels of human organization can inform the design of programmes to improve public health. PMID:21199843

  3. Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlioglu, Fatih; Al-Namazi, Ali; Bonser, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Plant strategy and life-history theories make different predictions about reproductive efficiency under competition. While strategy theory suggests under intense competition iteroparous perennial plants delay reproduction and semelparous annuals reproduce quickly, life-history theory predicts both annual and perennial plants increase resource allocation to reproduction under intense competition. We tested (1) how simulated competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitive ability (CA) of different plant life histories and growth forms; (2) whether life history or growth form is associated with CA; (3) whether shade avoidance plasticity is connected to reproductive efficiency under simulated competition. We examined plastic responses of 11 herbaceous species representing different life histories and growth forms to simulated competition (spectral shade). We found that both annual and perennial plants invested more to reproduction under simulated competition in accordance with life-history theory predictions. There was no significant difference between competitive abilities of different life histories, but across growth forms, erect species expressed greater CA (in terms of leaf number) than other growth forms. We also found that shade avoidance plasticity can increase the reproductive efficiency by capitalizing on the early life resource acquisition and conversion of these resources into reproduction. Therefore, we suggest that a reassessment of the interpretation of shade avoidance plasticity is necessary by revealing its role in reproduction, not only in competition of plants. PMID:27547325

  4. Stress Generation, Avoidance Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: A 10-Year Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined (a) the role of avoidance coping in prospectively generating both chronic and acute life stressors and (b) the stress-generating role of avoidance coping as a prospective link to future depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,211 late-middle-aged individuals (500 women and 711 men) assessed 3 times over a 10-year period. As predicted, baseline avoidance coping was prospectively associated with both more chronic and more acute life stressors 4 years later. Furthermore, as predicted, these intervening life stressors linked baseline avoidance coping and depressive symptoms 10 years later, controlling for the influence of initial depressive symptoms. These findings broaden knowledge about the stress-generation process and elucidate a key mechanism through which avoidance coping is linked to depressive symptoms. PMID:16173853

  5. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  6. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2010-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM. M

  7. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  8. Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2012-01-01

    In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about ...

  9. Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem manifests in school avoidance, the initial goal will be to get the youngster back to school as soon as possible. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy In many cases, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy techniques are effective in addressing adolescent anxiety disorders. ...

  10. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Arnaudova

    2015-01-01

    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both side

  11. Oscillations in two-person avoidance control

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Social interaction dynamics are a special type of group interactions that play a large part in our everyday lives. They dictate how and with whom a certain individual will interact. One of such interactions can be termed "avoidance control". This everyday situation occurs when two fast-walking persons suddenly realize that they are on a frontal collision course and begin maneuvering to avoid collision. If the two walkers' initial maneuverings are in the same direction that can lead to oscillations that lengthen time required to reach a stable avoidance trajectory. We introduce a dynamical model with a feedback loop to understand the origin and properties of this oscillation. For the emergence of the oscillatory behavior, two conditions must be satisfied: i) the persons must initiate the avoidance maneuver in the same direction; ii) the time delays in the feedback loop must reverse the phase of the players' positions at the oscillation frequency. The oscillation can be terminated at any time if one of the walk...

  12. Pathogen evolution under host avoidance plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David V; Day, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Host resistance consists of defences that limit pathogen burden, and can be classified as either adaptations targeting recovery from infection or those focused upon infection avoidance. Conventional theory treats avoidance as a fixed strategy which does not vary from one interaction to the next. However, there is increasing empirical evidence that many avoidance strategies are triggered by external stimuli, and thus should be treated as phenotypically plastic responses. Here, we consider the implications of avoidance plasticity for host-pathogen coevolution. We uncover a number of predictions challenging current theory. First, in the absence of pathogen trade-offs, plasticity can restrain pathogen evolution; moreover, the pathogen exploits conditions in which the host would otherwise invest less in resistance, causing resistance escalation. Second, when transmission trades off with pathogen-induced mortality, plasticity encourages avirulence, resulting in a superior fitness outcome for both host and pathogen. Third, plasticity ensures the sterilizing effect of pathogens has consequences for pathogen evolution. When pathogens castrate hosts, selection forces them to minimize mortality virulence; moreover, when transmission trades off with sterility alone, resistance plasticity is sufficient to prevent pathogens from evolving to fully castrate. PMID:26336170

  13. The Advocacy or Avoidance of Only Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    A brief review of the psychological literature on the characteristics of only children is presented in order to determine if the one-child family should be avoided or advocated. The relevant literature is found to be limited in quantity and conceptualization of the only child. Previous literature is divided into three types of study: those with…

  14. Obsessive compulsive disorder with pervasive avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Parul; Sharma Ravi; Kumar Ramesh; Sharma Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common disorder, but some of its atypical presentations are uncommon and difficult to diagnose. We report one such case which on initial presentation appeared to be psychotic protocol but after detailed workup was diagnosed as OCD with marked avoidance symptoms.

  15. Obesity and Healthcare Avoidance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D McGuigan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the issue of health care avoidance and obesity. English language journal articles published between 1990 and 2012 that addressed the review question|“is being overweight or obese an unrecognized factor in healthcare avoidance?” were located using major databases. A modified JADAD scoring system was then used to assess papers. Ten papers were identified which directly addressed the review question. A positive relationship exists between obesity and healthcare avoidance. The major contributory factors were being female, have a diagnosed mental health problem and perceived or actual bias and discrimination by health professionals. The review also highlights the importance of the relationship between healthcare professionals and their patients, and the physical environment in which interactions occur as these may contribute to avoidance behaviors. Concern about obesity is rising and while there has been much discussion about strategies to reduce obesity this review highlights the need for thinking more broadly about the way in which overweight and obese individuals interact with preventative health strategies.

  16. HOW TO AVOID SEXIST LANGUAGE IN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuZhiqing

    2004-01-01

    Use of Sexist language is one of the serious yet often-neglected mistakes in the English writing and speaking of Chineselearners of English. Sexist language in English can be classifiedinto two categories : ambiguity of referent and stereotyping. Thispaper focuses on some common sexist language in the Englishwriting and speaking of Chinese learners of English and givessome suggestions about how to avoid them.

  17. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  18. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  19. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication. PMID:16736662

  20. Simple Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Rehabilitation Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, F.H.A.; Römer, G.R.B.; Stuyt, H.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm fo

  1. Specific Language Impairment at Adolescence: Avoiding Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuller, Laurice; Henry, Celia; Sizaret, Eva; Barthez, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study explores complex language in adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) with the aim of finding out how aspects of language characteristic of typical syntactic development after childhood fare and, in particular, whether there is evidence that individuals with SLI avoid using structures whose syntactic derivation involves…

  2. Working with Avoidant Children: A Clinical Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Nancy; Meisburger, Diana

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies for interviewing and assisting highly avoidant children who may be victims of maltreatment. Discusses factors inhibiting their self-disclosure, the importance of managing child safety, and establishing and maintaining rapport. Describes strategies including pacing the interview, empowering the child, and using distancing…

  3. Avoided by association: acquisition, extinction, and renewal of avoidance tendencies toward conditioned fear stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Krypotos; M. Effting; I. Arnaudova; M. Kindt; T. Beckers

    2013-01-01

    Traditional theoretical models hold that avoidance reflects the interplay of Pavlovian and instrumental learning. Here we suggest that avoidance tendencies to intrinsically neutral cues may be established by mere Pavlovian association. Following fear conditioning, in which pictures of one object wer

  4. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes - bursts - that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing - the auditory receptor - already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2's sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  5. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  6. Approach/Avoidance Orientations Affect Self-Construal and Identification with In-group

    OpenAIRE

    Nussinson, Ravit; Häfner, Michael; Seibt, Beate; Strack, Fritz; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-01-01

    Approach and avoidance are two basic motivational orientations. Their activation influences cognitive and perceptive processes: Previous work suggests that an approach orientation instigates a focus on larger units as compared to avoidance. Study 1 confirms this assumption using a paradigm that more directly taps a person’s tendency to represent objects as belonging to small or large units than prior studies. It was further predicted that the self should also be represented as belonging to la...

  7. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  8. Pediatric Fear-Avoidance Model of Chronic Pain: Foundation, Application and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon JG Asmundson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fear-avoidance model of chronic musculoskeletal pain has become an increasingly popular conceptualization of the processes and mechanisms through which acute pain can become chronic. Despite rapidly growing interest and research regarding the influence of fear-avoidance constructs on pain-related disability in children and adolescents, there have been no amendments to the model to account for unique aspects of pediatric chronic pain. A comprehensive understanding of the role of fear-avoidance in pediatric chronic pain necessitates understanding of both child/adolescent and parent factors implicated in its development and maintenance. The primary purpose of the present article is to propose an empirically-based pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain that accounts for both child/adolescent and parent factors as well as their potential interactive effects. To accomplish this goal, the present article will define important fear-avoidance constructs, provide a summary of the general fear-avoidance model and review the growing empirical literature regarding the role of fear-avoidance constructs in pediatric chronic pain. Assessment and treatment options for children with chronic pain will also be described in the context of the proposed pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain. Finally, avenues for future investigation will be proposed.

  9. Converging evidence of social avoidant behavior in schizophrenia from two approach-avoidance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-10-01

    Many people with schizophrenia suffer from social impairments characterized by active social avoidance, which is related to social phobia common in schizophrenia, while motivational impairments can also result in passive social withdrawal. Although social avoidance is frequently reported in this population, this is the first study to directly compare approach-avoidance tendencies in schizophrenia patients (N = 37) and healthy controls (N = 29). Participants performed two tasks: a computerized approach-avoidance task (AAT) to assess response tendencies toward images of happy and angry faces with direct or averted gaze and a one-to-one personal space test (PST) to gauge more naturalistic approach-avoidance behaviors toward a real person bearing a neutral expression. The AAT results showed that both groups showed faster avoidance responses to angry faces and faster approach responses to happy faces with a direct gaze. Happy faces with averted gaze, however, resulted in faster avoidance responses in the patient group only. On the PST, the patients approached the experimenter less than healthy controls did. This measure of interpersonal distance was positively related to positive symptom severity. Delusions of reference and increased sensitivity to social rejection may explain the patients' avoidance tendencies in response to pictures of happy faces with averted gaze and in the presence of an actual person. The current findings demonstrate the importance of others adopting positive and unambiguous attitudes when interacting with schizophrenia patients to minimize behavioral avoidance patterns, which is particularly relevant for relatives and clinicians whose interactions with the patients are crucial to facilitating treatment and promoting healthy social relationships.

  10. The Feasibility of Avoiding Future Climate Impacts: Results from the AVOID Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J. A.; Warren, R.; Arnell, N.; Buckle, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AVOID programme and its successor, AVOID2, have focused on answering three core questions: how do we characterise potentially dangerous climate change and impacts, which emissions pathways can avoid at least some of these impacts, and how feasible are the future reductions needed to significantly deviate from a business-as-usual future emissions pathway. The first AVOID project succeeded in providing the UK Government with evidence to inform its position on climate change. A key part of the work involved developing a range of global emissions pathways and estimating and understanding the corresponding global impacts. This made use of a combination of complex general circulation models, simple climate models, pattern-scaling and state-of-the art impacts models. The results characterise the range of avoidable impacts across the globe in several key sectors including river and coastal flooding, cooling and heating energy demand, crop productivity and aspects of biodiversity. The avoided impacts between a scenario compatible with a 4ºC global warming and one with a 2ºC global warming were found to be highly sector dependent and avoided fractions typically ranged between 20% and 70%. A further key aspect was characterising the magnitude of the uncertainty involved, which is found to be very large in some impact sectors although the avoided fraction appears a more robust metric. The AVOID2 programme began in 2014 and will provide results in the run up to the Paris CoP in 2015. This includes new post-IPCC 5th assessment evidence to inform the long-term climate goal, a more comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty ranges of feasible emission pathways compatible with the long-term goal and enhanced estimates of global impacts using the latest generation of impact models and scenarios.

  11. Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  12. Construction dispute research conceptualisation, avoidance and resolution

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    There are three specific purposes of Construction Dispute Research. First, this volume aims to summarise studies on construction dispute. Second, apart from the theoretical constructs, where appropriate empirical tests are also included. This approach serves to go beyond the commonly used anecdotal approach for the subject matters. Third, it is the sincere hope of the authors that this book will help shaping research agenda of construction dispute.  The studies are mostly framed from a management perspective drawing on methods and concepts in contract law, economics, psychology and management science.   The book has twenty chapters that are arranged in four parts covering conceptualisation, avoidance, negotiation and mediation. Part 1 is devoted for dispute conceptualisation. A building is only as strong as its foundation. Thus it is no better start to study construction dispute by conceptualisation. The theme of Part 2 is dispute avoidance. The conventional wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ se...

  13. Inhibited Sexual Desire and Sexual Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, William I.

    1985-01-01

    Inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions, especially in women. Family physicians have an opportunity to recognize ISD before the associated problems become entrenched, and to guide couples toward satisfactory resolution. A summary is presented of current thinking on ISD and its causes. Case reports and observations about frequency of and treatment for ISD are included. Much less has been written about sexual avoidance in the presence of desire. A definition ...

  14. Anorexia nervosa and food avoidance emotional disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, J F; Goodyer, I M; Birch, J.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective and longitudinal study was carried out on all children and adolescents who presented to a child psychiatry service over a period of 26 years to identify the nature, course, and outcome of cases meeting criteria for anorexia nervosa (n = 27). Two groups of the same age were identified for comparison, firstly those with food avoidance and emotional disorders (n = 23), and secondly those with emotional disorders but no symptoms associated with eating (n = 22). The results confirm...

  15. Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claire; Duca, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/

  16. Can subjectivity be avoided in translation evaluation?

    OpenAIRE

    Segers, Winibert; Kockaert, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    The didactics of translation and interpreting Testing and assessment criteria and methods Can subjectivity be avoided in translation evaluation? Winibert Segers & Hendrik J Kockaert, KU Leuven Camiel Paulusstraat 8, 2630 Aartselaar, België Is translation evaluation a subjective, personal matter? Is evaluating translations the same as beer tasting or listening to a piece of music? Is the judgment determined by personal taste? We will try to answe...

  17. Normal coronary arteriogram. An avoidable test?

    OpenAIRE

    Ilsley, C; Stockley, A; Clitsakis, D; Layton, C

    1982-01-01

    Between 10 and 20% of coronary arteriograms in patients with chest pain show normal vessels, often in association with a history of "atypical" angina. Conventional non-invasive tests are inaccurate in this group of patients compared with those with classical angina. This study prospectively evaluates combined 12 lead exercise electrocardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy as a screening test in patients with atypical angina in order to determine whether normal arteriograms are avoidable in...

  18. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  19. Granting silence to avoid wireless collisions

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il

    2010-10-01

    We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.

  20. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    The concept of avoidable deaths suggests that certain deaths ought not occur in a given society because it is possible to prevent or treat the disease or condition. A list of avoidable deaths is time and community specific as it reflects the socioeconomic conditions, professional medical capacity...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...

  1. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  2. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M

    2014-09-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.

  3. Contribution of Social and Information-Processing Factors to Eye-Gaze Avoidance in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Schroeder, Susan; Serlin, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The influence of social and information-processing demands on eye-gaze avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, or typical development were examined by manipulating those demands in a structured-language task. Participants with fragile X syndrome exhibited more gaze avoidance than did those in the comparison groups, but no…

  4. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  5. See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative collision avoidance radar and communication technology to detect and track both cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The system...

  6. Social transmission of avoidance behavior under situational change in learned and unlearned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Masuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats receive information from other conspecifics by observation or other types of social interaction. Such social interaction may contribute to the effective adaptation to changes of environment such as situational switching. Learning to avoid dangerous places or objects rapidly occurs with even a single conditioning session, and the conditioned memory tends to be sustained over long periods. The avoidance is important for adaptation, but the details of the conditions under which the social transmission of avoidance is formed are unknown. We demonstrate that the previous experience of avoidance learning is important for the formation of behaviors for social transmission of avoidance and that the experienced rats adapt to a change of situation determined by the presence or absence of aversive stimuli. We systematically investigated social influence on avoidance behavior using a passive avoidance test in a light/dark two-compartment apparatus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into two groups, one receiving foot shocks and another with no aversive experience in a dark compartment. Experienced and inexperienced rats were further divided into subjects and partners. In Experiment 1, each subject experienced (1 interaction with an experienced partner, (2 interaction with an inexperienced partner, or (3 no interaction. In Experiment 2, each subject experienced interaction with a partner that received a shock. The entering latency to a light compartment was measured. The avoidance behavior of experienced rats was inhibited by interaction with inexperienced or experienced partners in a safely-changed situation. The avoidance of experienced rats was reinstated in a dangerously-changed situation by interaction with shocked rats. In contrast, the inexperienced rats were not affected by any social circumstances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that transmitted information among rats can be updated under a

  7. Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Steve; Brady, Tye; Sostaric, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing the software and hardware technology needed to support a safe and precise landing for the next generation of lunar missions. ALHAT provides this capability through terrain-relative navigation measurements to enhance global-scale precision, an onboard hazard detection system to select safe landing locations, and an Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control (AGNC) capability to process these measurements and safely direct the vehicle to a landing location. This paper focuses on the key trajectory design issues relevant to providing an onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) capability for the lander. Hazard detection can be accomplished by the crew visually scanning the terrain through a window, a sensor system imaging the terrain, or some combination of both. For ALHAT, this hazard detection activity is provided by a sensor system, which either augments the crew s perception or entirely replaces the crew in the case of a robotic landing. Detecting hazards influences the trajectory design by requiring the proper perspective, range to the landing site, and sufficient time to view the terrain. Following this, the trajectory design must provide additional time to process this information and make a decision about where to safely land. During the final part of the HDA process, the trajectory design must provide sufficient margin to enable a hazard avoidance maneuver. In order to demonstrate the effects of these constraints on the landing trajectory, a tradespace of trajectory designs was created for the initial ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle (ALDAC-1) and each case evaluated with these HDA constraints active. The ALHAT analysis process, described in this paper, narrows down this tradespace and subsequently better defines the trajectory design needed to support onboard HDA. Future ALDACs will enhance this trajectory design by balancing these issues and others in an overall system

  8. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  9. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  10. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  11. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  12. How to avoid unnatural hierarchical thermal leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    A one-flavour naturalness argument suggests that the Type I seesaw model cannot naturally explain neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via hierarchical thermal leptogenesis. We prove that there is no way to avoid this conclusion in a minimal three-flavour setup. We then comment on the simplest ways out. In particular, we focus on a resolution utilising a second Higgs doublet. Such models predict an automatically SM-like Higgs boson, (maximally) TeV-scale scalar states, and low- to intermediate-scale hierarchical leptogenesis with $10^3\\text{ GeV}\\lesssim M_{N_1}\\lesssim 10^7\\text{ GeV}$.

  13. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  14. Understanding, Avoiding, and Managing Severe Filler Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzany, Berthold; DeLorenzi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Any injectable filler may elicit moderate-to-severe adverse events, ranging from nodules to abscesses to vascular occlusion. Fortunately, severe adverse events are uncommon for the majority of fillers currently on the market. Because these are rare events, it is difficult to identify the relevant risk factors and to design the most efficacious treatment strategies. Poor aesthetic outcomes are far more common than severe adverse events. These in contrast should be easily avoidable by ensuring that colleagues receive proper training and follow best practices. PMID:26441099

  15. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission. PMID:24568425

  16. Shape optimization of self-avoiding curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shawn W.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a softened notion of proximity (or self-avoidance) for curves. We then derive a sensitivity result, based on shape differential calculus, for the proximity. This is combined with a gradient-based optimization approach to compute three-dimensional, parameterized curves that minimize the sum of an elastic (bending) energy and a proximity energy that maintains self-avoidance by a penalization technique. Minimizers are computed by a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) method where the bending energy and proximity energy are approximated by a finite element method. We then apply this method to two problems. First, we simulate adsorbed polymer strands that are constrained to be bound to a surface and be (locally) inextensible. This is a basic model of semi-flexible polymers adsorbed onto a surface (a current topic in material science). Several examples of minimizing curve shapes on a variety of surfaces are shown. An advantage of the method is that it can be much faster than using molecular dynamics for simulating polymer strands on surfaces. Second, we apply our proximity penalization to the computation of ideal knots. We present a heuristic scheme, utilizing the SQP method above, for minimizing rope-length and apply it in the case of the trefoil knot. Applications of this method could be for generating good initial guesses to a more accurate (but expensive) knot-tightening algorithm.

  17. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    Cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) operations near Space Station Freedom will require positive collision avoidance maneuver (CAM) capability to preclude any change of collision, even in the event of CTV failures. The requirements for CAM are discussed, and the CAM design approach and design of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed; this design met requirements for OMV operation near the Space Station, provided a redundant collision avoidance maneuver capability. Significant portions of the OMV CAM design should be applicable to CTV. The key features of the OMV design are summarized and related to the CTV mission design to that of OMV's. CAM is a defined sequence of events executed by the CTV to place the vehicle in a safe position relative to a target such as the Space Station. CAM can be performed through software commands to the propulsion system, or through commands pre-stored in hardware. Various techniques for triggering CAM are considered, and the risks associated with CAM enable and execution in phases are considered. OMV CAM design features both hardware and software CAM capability, with analyses conducted to assess the ability to meet the collision-free requirement during all phases of the mission.

  18. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

  19. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Exogenous hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Tryggvadottir, L

    1997-01-01

    The well-described influence of several aspects of reproductive life on the risk for cancer in the reproductive organs has raised concern regarding the safety of exogenous hormones, particularly since sex hormones have become one of the most widely used drugs among women in the western world....... The major areas of application include oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy in women with menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of oral contraceptives onto the Nordic market in the late 1960s, the number of users has grown steadily, to reach proportions of long-term users among women...... years) of hormone replacement therapy among Nordic women aged 40-69 in 1995 was estimated to be 10-11%, which on the basis of an associated relative risk for breast cancer ranging from 1.2-1.5 suggests than an annual total of 260 cases of breast cancer could be avoided in the Nordic countries around...

  20. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  1. Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Classroom Goals and the Adoption of Personal Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). Aims: This…

  2. Mars Rover Local Navigation And Hazard Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Gennery, D. B.; Mishkin, A. H.

    1989-03-01

    A Mars rover sample return mission has been proposed for the late 1990's. Due to the long speed-of-light delays between Earth and Mars, some autonomy on the rover is highly desirable. JPL has been conducting research in two possible modes of rover operation, Computer-Aided Remote Driving and Semiautonomous Navigation. A recently-completed research program used a half-scale testbed vehicle to explore several of the concepts in semiautonomous navigation. A new, full-scale vehicle with all computational and power resources on-board will be used in the coming year to demonstrate relatively fast semiautonomous navigation. The computational and power requirements for Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance are discussed.

  3. Avoiding Quantum Chaos in Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, G P; Izrailev, F M; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2001-01-01

    We study a one-dimensional chain of nuclear $1/2-$spins in an external time-dependent magnetic field. This model is considered as a possible candidate for experimental realization of quantum computation. According to the general theory of interacting particles, one of the most dangerous effects is quantum chaos which can destroy the stability of quantum operations. According to the standard viewpoint, the threshold for the onset of quantum chaos due to an interaction between spins (qubits) strongly decreases with an increase of the number of qubits. Contrary to this opinion, we show that the presence of a magnetic field gradient helps to avoid quantum chaos which turns out to disappear with an increase of the number of qubits. We give analytical estimates which explain this effect, together with numerical data supporting

  4. Collision Avoidance of Trains Using Arm7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. R. R. Mohan Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Railways are the popular mode of Transport in almost all major cities of the World. Railways are the most widely used and comfortable modes of transportation system. The major cause for railway accidents is collision of trains on the same track. The main aim of this anti collision system is to identify collision points and to report these error cases to main control room nearer to the station as well as grid control station. Majority of accidents occurred due to improper communication among the network between drivers and control room, due to wrong signaling, worst atmospheric condition, immediate change of route. The train driver doesn’t get proper information in time leading to hazardous situations. So this system by using zigbee protocol provides communication in between trains, which provide information or track id of one train to another train to avoid collision.

  5. Avoiding Braess' Paradox Through Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert , David H.; Tumer, Kagan

    1999-01-01

    In an Ideal Shortest Path Algorithm (ISPA), at each moment each router in a network sends all of its traffic down the path that will incur the lowest cost to that traffic. In the limit of an infinitesimally small amount of traffic for a particular router, its routing that traffic via an ISPA is optimal, as far as cost incurred by that traffic is concerned. We demonstrate though that in many cases, due to the side-effects of one router's actions on another routers performance, having routers use ISPA's is suboptimal as far as global aggregate cost is concerned, even when only used to route infinitesimally small amounts of traffic. As a particular example of this we present an instance of Braess' paradox for ISPA'S, in which adding new links to a network decreases overall throughput. We also demonstrate that load-balancing, in which the routing decisions are made to optimize the global cost incurred by all traffic currently being routed, is suboptimal as far as global cost averaged across time is concerned. This is also due to "side-effects", in this case of current routing decision on future traffic. The theory of COllective INtelligence (COIN) is concerned precisely with the issue of avoiding such deleterious side-effects. We present key concepts from that theory and use them to derive an idealized algorithm whose performance is better than that of the ISPA, even in the infinitesimal limit. We present experiments verifying this, and also showing that a machine-learning-based version of this COIN algorithm in which costs are only imprecisely estimated (a version potentially applicable in the real world) also outperforms the ISPA, despite having access to less information than does the ISPA. In particular, this COIN algorithm avoids Braess' paradox.

  6. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  7. SAKAMATA : A tool to avoid whale strandings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.

    2004-01-01

    World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to m

  8. SAKAMATA : A tool to avoid whale strandings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to m

  9. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut. PMID:16828543

  10. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data...

  11. Conjunctions and Collision Avoidance with Electrodynamic Tethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E.

    2013-09-01

    Electrodynamic propulsion technology is currently in development by NASA, ESA, and JAXA for the purpose of affordable removal of large debris objects from LEO. At the same time, the Naval Research Laboratory is preparing a 3U CubeSat with a 1-km electrodynamic tether for a flight demonstration of electrodynamic propulsion. This type of propulsion does not require fuel. The electrodynamic thrust is the Lorentz force acting on the electric current in a long conductor (tether) in the geomagnetic field. Electrons are collected from the ambient plasma on one end and emitted back into the plasma from the other end. The electric current loop is closed through the ionosphere, as demonstrated in two previous flights. The vehicle is solar powered. To support safe navigation of electrodynamic tethers, proper conjunction analysis and collision avoidance strategies are needed. The typical lengths of electrodynamic tethers for near-term applications are measured in kilometers, and the conjunction geometry is very different from the geometry of conjunctions between compact objects. It is commonly thought that the collision cross-section in a conjunction between a tether and a compact object is represented by the product of the tether length and the size of the object. However, rigorous analysis shows that this is not the case, and that the above assumption leads to grossly overestimated collision probabilities. The paper will present the results of a detailed mathematical analysis of the conjunction geometry and collision probabilities in close approaches between electrodynamic tethers and compact objects, such as satellites, rocket bodies, and debris fragments. Electrodynamic spacecraft will not require fuel, and therefore, can thrust constantly. Their orbit transfers can take many days, but can result in major orbit changes, including large rotations of the orbital plane, both in the inclination and the node. During these orbit transfers, the electrodynamic spacecraft will

  12. Unobserved Tax Avoidance and the Tax Elasticity of FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Merlo, Valeria; Wamser, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the tax responsiveness of multinational firms’ investment decisions in foreign countries, distinguishing firms that are able to avoid taxes (avoiders) from those that are not (non-avoiders). From a theoretical point of view, the tax responsiveness of firms crucially depends on this distinction. Empirically, however, a firm’s ability to avoid profit taxes is inherently unobservable to the researcher. To address this problem, we use a finite mixture modeling approach whi...

  13. Effects of vasopressin on active and passive avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Ader, R.; Wied, D. de

    1972-01-01

    Male rats were trained in an active avoidance and/or a “step-through” type of passive avoidance situation. Lysine vasopressin administration resulted in resistance to extinction of active avoidance behavior if it was injected 1 hr prior to the third and final acquisition session; peptide treatment 6

  14. Social anxiety predicts avoidance behaviour in virtual encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinck, M.; Rörtgen, T.; Lange, W.G.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Avoidant behaviour is critical in social anxiety and social phobia, being a major factor in the maintenance of anxiety. However, almost all previous studies of social avoidance were restricted to using self-reports for the study of intentional aspects of avoidance. In contrast, the current study use

  15. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 121.356 Section... Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision Avoidance Systems If you operate...

  16. Effects of optimism on creativity under approach and avoidance motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Icekson, Tamar; Roskes, Marieke; Moran, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on avoiding failure or negative outcomes (avoidance motivation) can undermine creativity, due to cognitive (e.g., threat appraisals), affective (e.g., anxiety), and volitional processes (e.g., low intrinsic motivation). This can be problematic for people who are avoidance motivated by natur

  17. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 129.18 Section... § 129.18 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you, as a foreign air... Avoidance Systems If you operate in the United States any . . . Then you must operate that airplane with:...

  18. 14 CFR 437.65 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.65 Collision avoidance... permittee must obtain a collision avoidance analysis from United States Strategic Command. (b) The...

  19. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 417.231..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis...

  20. 20 CFR 606.23 - Avoidance of tax credit reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Avoidance of tax credit reduction. 606.23... Tax Credit Reduction § 606.23 Avoidance of tax credit reduction. (a) Applicability. Subsection (g) of... receipts and benefit outlays under the law in effect for the year for which avoidance is requested, as...

  1. Avoidance learning : a review of theoretical models and recent developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance is a key characteristic of adaptive and maladaptive fear. Here, we review past and contemporary theories of avoidance learning. Based on the theories, experimental findings and clinical observations reviewed, we distill key principles of how adaptive and maladaptive avoidance behavior is a

  2. 20 CFR 606.24 - Application for avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for avoidance. 606.24 Section 606... Credit Reduction § 606.24 Application for avoidance. (a) Application. (1) The Governor of the State shall... respect to which a State requests avoidance of tax credit reduction. The Governor is required to...

  3. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510 Section 600.510 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds...

  4. 78 FR 35262 - Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts AGENCY... and the private sector regarding the electronic parts detection and avoidance coverage proposed to be... about the requirements for detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts in DoD contracts....

  5. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  6. Avoiding sexual harassment liability in veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F

    1996-05-15

    Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure. PMID:8641947

  7. Can low metallicity binaries avoid merging?

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Pols, O R

    2007-01-01

    Rapid mass transfer in a binary system can drive the accreting star out of thermal equilibrium, causing it to expand. This can lead to a contact system, strong mass loss from the system and possibly merging of the two stars. In low metallicity stars the timescale for heat transport is shorter due to the lower opacity. The accreting star can therefore restore thermal equilibrium more quickly and possibly avoid contact. We investigate the effect of accretion onto main sequence stars with radiative envelopes with different metallicities. We find that a low metallicity (Z<0.001), 4 solar mass star can endure a 10 to 30 times higher accretion rate before it reaches a certain radius than a star at solar metallicity. This could imply that up to two times fewer systems come into contact during rapid mass transfer when we compare low metallicity. This factor is uncertain due to the unknown distribution of binary parameters and the dependence of the mass transfer timescale on metallicity. In a forthcoming paper we w...

  8. The amygdala: securing pleasure and avoiding pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushka B P Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food or aversive (e.g. electric shock. We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala’s mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes.

  9. Gaming machine addiction: the role of avoidance, accessibility and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna C; Allen, Felicity L; Phillips, James; Karantzas, Gery

    2011-12-01

    Commonality in etiology and clinical expression plus high comorbidity between pathological gambling and substance use disorders suggest common underlying motives. It is important to understand common motivators and differentiating factors. An overarching framework of addiction was used to examine predictors of problem gambling in current electronic gaming machine (EGM) gamblers. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships between antecedent factors (stressors, coping habits, social support), gambling motivations (avoidance, accessibility, social) and gambling behavior. Three hundred and forty seven (229 females: M = 29.20 years, SD = 14.93; 118 males: M = 29.64 years, SD = 12.49) people participated. Consistent with stress, coping and addiction theory, situational life stressors and general avoidance coping were positively related to avoidance-motivated gambling. In turn, avoidance-motivated gambling was positively related to EGM gambling frequency and problems. Consistent with exposure theory, life stressors were positively related to accessibility-motivated gambling, and accessibility-motivated gambling was positively related to EGM gambling frequency and gambling problems. These findings are consistent with other addiction research and suggest avoidance-motivated gambling is part of a more generalized pattern of avoidance coping with relative accessibility to EGM gambling explaining its choice as a method of avoidance. Findings also showed social support acted as a direct protective factor in relation to gambling frequency and problems and indirectly via avoidance and accessibility gambling motivations. Finally, life stressors were positively related to socially motivated gambling but this motivation was not related to either social support or gambling behavior suggesting it has little direct influence on gambling problems. PMID:21823764

  10. Differences in avoidable mortality between migrants and the native Dutch in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bos V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the healthcare system and its role in influencing mortality of migrant groups can be explored by examining ethnic variations in 'avoidable' mortality. This study investigates the association between the level of mortality from 'avoidable' causes and ethnic origin in the Netherlands and identifies social factors that contribute to this association. Methods Data were obtained from cause of death and population registries in the period 1995–2000. We compared mortality rates for selected 'avoidable' conditions for Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban groups to native Dutch. Results We found slightly elevated risk in total 'avoidable' mortality for migrant populations (RR = 1.13. Higher risks of death among migrants were observed from almost all infectious diseases (most RR > 3.00 and several chronic conditions including asthma, diabetes and cerebro-vascular disorders (most RR > 1.70. Migrant women experienced a higher risk of death from maternity-related conditions (RR = 3.37. Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban population had a higher mortality risk (RR = 1.65 and 1.31 respectively, while Turkish and Moroccans experienced a lower risk of death (RR = 0.93 and 0.77 respectively from all 'avoidable' conditions compared to native Dutch. Control for demographic and socioeconomic factors explained a substantial part of ethnic differences in 'avoidable' mortality. Conclusion Compared to the native Dutch population, total 'avoidable' mortality was slightly elevated for all migrants combined. Mortality risks varied greatly by cause of death and ethnic origin. The substantial differences in mortality for a few 'avoidable' conditions suggest opportunities for quality improvement within specific areas of the healthcare system targeted to disadvantaged groups.

  11. The Effect of Similarity: Non-Spatial Features Modulate Obstacle Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Rudmer Menger; H Chris Dijkerman; Stefan Van der Stigchel

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of non-target objects into a workspace leads to temporal and spatial adjustments of reaching trajectories towards a target. If the non-target is obstructing the path of the hand towards the target, the reach is adjusted such that collision with the non-target, or obstacle, is avoided. Little is known about the influence of features which are irrelevant for the execution of the movement on avoidance movements, like color similarity between target and non-target objects. In eye...

  12. Why Do Consumers Avoid Certain Brands? : A Study of Brand Avoidance Within the Swedish Cosmetics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vong, Amy; Hellberg, Anna; Melander, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background - As of today, the positive forms of consumer-brand relationships have been intensively researched, whereas its counterpart has attained far less attention. Whilst current literature is focused on increasing positive brand equity, the knowledge of negative brand equity is sparse. When the brand-consumer relationship is negatively affected and the brand equity is unfavourable, rejection of a specific brand, namely brand avoidance might occur. This may affect companies negatively if ...

  13. Avoidance learning, Pavlovian conditioning, and the development of phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, D A; Bond, N W

    1988-10-01

    This paper examines the role of Pavlovian conditioning in the acquisition, maintenance and elimination of human phobias. Because many conceptualizations of human fears and phobias are based on data from studies of avoidance learning in animals, we first review theories of avoidance. Our conclusion is that none of the extant theories provides an adequate account of avoidance learning, and we propose a model of avoidance that involves Pavlovian, but not instrumental learning. We then analyse critically arguments that Pavlovian conditioning plays only a small role in the aetiology of fears. Finally, the paper examines the implications of a conditioning model of avoidance for the study of human fears and phobias.

  14. EDITORIAL AVOIDABLE MORTALITY OF SCIENTIFIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Palacios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia Médica publishes 64% of the original research articles submitted to editorial process, which highlights the rigor of the editorial review system; while at the same time, generating a reflection on the causes for rejecting material submitted for publication as an input for the Journal’s collaborators.The review of the file of articles rejected by the Journal leads us to arbitrarily discriminating the causes for rejecting scientific documents into two groups: A first group we will call «lost causes», which centers on the lack of ethical evaluation, research design flaws, and plagiarism. And the second group, «manuscripts with avoidable rejection», which includes deficiencies in following the editorial guidelines for authors, inadequate writing, and delays by authors in submitting answers to observations raised during an initial evaluation. Documents classifying in the latter group could have had an opportunity with a bit of joint effort between the authors and the editorial board; and in all cases, by correcting errors and seeking support from, among others, expert consultants, these could, potentially, be revived by submitting them to a journal with a lower impact than that in which they were rejected.Among the reasons for the lost causes, we find that faults in the structure of institutional research take up considerable space. Institutions considering scientific production as one of their assets, must invest on the conformation and growth of an ethics committee on research that reasonably provides researchers with social, environmental, and ethical reflection elements to enrich research proposals. With bioethics foundations, Colombian and international norms do not consider other forms of ethical evaluation of the projects, and; consequently, neither does the Editorial Committee. Furthermore, anyone seeking to conduct clinical trials must register the entity in any of the international data bases that permit inputting the

  15. EDITORIAL AVOIDABLE MORTALITY OF SCIENTIFIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Palacios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia Médica publishes 64% of the original research articles submitted to editorial process, which highlights the rigor of the editorial review system; while at the same time, generating a reflection on the causes for rejecting material submitted for publication as an input for the Journal’s collaborators. The review of the file of articles rejected by the Journal leads us to arbitrarily discriminating the causes for rejecting scientific documents into two groups: A first group we will call «lost causes», which centers on the lack of ethical evaluation, research design flaws, and plagiarism. And the second group, «manuscripts with avoidable rejection», which includes deficiencies in following the editorial guidelines for authors, inadequate writing, and delays by authors in submitting answers to observations raised during an initial evaluation. Documents classifying in the latter group could have had an opportunity with a bit of joint effort between the authors and the editorial board; and in all cases, by correcting errors and seeking support from, among others, expert consultants, these could, potentially, be revived by submitting them to a journal with a lower impact than that in which they were rejected. Among the reasons for the lost causes, we find that faults in the structure of institutional research take up considerable space. Institutions considering scientific production as one of their assets, must invest on the conformation and growth of an ethics committee on research that reasonably provides researchers with social, environmental, and ethical reflection elements to enrich research proposals. With bioethics foundations, Colombian and international norms do not consider other forms of ethical evaluation of the projects, and; consequently, neither does the Editorial Committee. Furthermore, anyone seeking to conduct clinical trials must register the entity in any of the international data bases that permit inputting the

  16. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord

  17. End of the line: Line bisection, an unreliable measure of approach and avoidance motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Nathan C; Thomas, Nicole A; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2016-09-01

    Approach motivation leads to greater left hemisphere activation, whereas an avoidant motivational state activates the right hemisphere. Recent research, which served as the basis for the current experiment, suggests line bisection provides a simple measure of approach/avoidance lateralisation. Findings from Experiment 1 indicated that the landmark task was sensitive enough to identify lateral asymmetries evoked by happy and angry faces; however, follow-up experiments failed to replicate this finding. When task instructions were slightly modified or when a mixed design was used, motivation did not influence landmark task performance. The use of images in lieu of faces also failed to produce a significant effect. Importantly, a straight replication of Experiment 1 produced a null result. Line bisection does not appear to be a suitable measure of lateralised approach/avoidance biases, possibly due to the high individual variability inherent in visuospatial biases. Implications for null hypothesis significance testing are also discussed. PMID:26211805

  18. The role of experiential avoidance in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L; Salters, Kristalyn; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2004-11-01

    This study examined the relationships between experiential avoidance in general (and thought suppression in particular), posttraumatic stress symptom severity, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization among a sample of individuals exposed to multiple potentially traumatic events. Although experiential avoidance was not associated with severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms beyond their shared relationship with general psychiatric symptom severity, it was associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization when controlling for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Thought suppression, on the other hand, was associated with severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms when controlling for their shared relationship with general psychiatric symptom severity. No significant relationships were found between thought suppression and the presence of depression, anxiety, and somatization symptoms when controlling for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Results suggest the importance of separately examining the influence of different forms of experiential avoidance on posttraumatic psychopathology. PMID:15505519

  19. Towards better patient care: drugs to avoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Common sense dictates that one should choose tried and tested drugs with proven, concrete benefits that outweigh their adverse effects. Many new drugs are approved each year, often despite a lack of solid evidence that they are any better than existing treatments. Worse, some are approved despite being less effective or more harmful than current options. Massive promotion is used to ensure that such drugs achieve a positive image in the eyes of healthcare professionals and patients. Renowned "opinion leaders" intervene in their favour at conferences and in specialist media, and their opinions are further propagated by specialists in the field. Finally, campaigns in the lay media are used to highlight the target illness, encouraging patients to request a prescription. New data sometimes show that older, initially promising drugs are less effective or more harmful than first thought. For all these reasons, many drugs that are now present on the market are more harmful than beneficial and should be avoided. Unfortunately, negative assessment data and warnings are often drowned in the flood of promotion and advertising. Front-line healthcare professionals who are determined to act in their patients' best interests can find themselves swimming against a tide of specialist opinion, marketing authorisation, and reimbursement decisions. By leaving drugs that are more harmful than beneficial on the market and contenting themselves with simple half-measures, healthcare authorities are failing in their duty to protect patients. Prescrire, a journal funded solely by its subscribers, does not seek to do the work of health authorities, and does not have the means to do so. Prescrire's goal is simply to help healthcare professionals provide better care. The following text lists the principal drugs that we consider more harmful than beneficial, based on our reviews published between 2010 and 2012 in our French edition. These drugs should not be used. Patients and healthcare

  20. Towards better patient care: drugs to avoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Common sense dictates that one should choose tried and tested drugs with proven, concrete benefits that outweigh their adverse effects. Many new drugs are approved each year, often despite a lack of solid evidence that they are any better than existing treatments. Worse, some are approved despite being less effective or more harmful than current options. Massive promotion is used to ensure that such drugs achieve a positive image in the eyes of healthcare professionals and patients. Renowned "opinion leaders" intervene in their favour at conferences and in specialist media, and their opinions are further propagated by specialists in the field. Finally, campaigns in the lay media are used to highlight the target illness, encouraging patients to request a prescription. New data sometimes show that older, initially promising drugs are less effective or more harmful than first thought. For all these reasons, many drugs that are now present on the market are more harmful than beneficial and should be avoided. Unfortunately, negative assessment data and warnings are often drowned in the flood of promotion and advertising. Front-line healthcare professionals who are determined to act in their patients' best interests can find themselves swimming against a tide of specialist opinion, marketing authorisation, and reimbursement decisions. By leaving drugs that are more harmful than beneficial on the market and contenting themselves with simple half-measures, healthcare authorities are failing in their duty to protect patients. Prescrire, a journal funded solely by its subscribers, does not seek to do the work of health authorities, and does not have the means to do so. Prescrire's goal is simply to help healthcare professionals provide better care. The following text lists the principal drugs that we consider more harmful than beneficial, based on our reviews published between 2010 and 2012 in our French edition. These drugs should not be used. Patients and healthcare

  1. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhuis Bart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK. In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD age: 61.5(4.4 years, 9 male were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p r = 0.6; p Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small. This is likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. Therefore we suggest that many of the alcohol-related falls are the result of the disruptive effects of alcohol on the online corrections of the ongoing gait pattern when walking under challenging conditions.

  2. Avoidance Perseveration During Extinction Training in Wistar-Kyoto Rats: An Interaction of Innate Vulnerability and Stressor Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C.H.; Beck, Kevin D.; Minor, Thomas R.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Given that avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats may be a good model of anxiety vulnerability for their hypersensitivity to stress and trait behavioral inhibition. Here, we examined the influence of strain and shock intensity on avoidance acquisition and extinction. Accordingly, we trained WKY and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in lever-press avoidance using either 1.0-mA or 2.0-mA foot-shock. After extinction, neuronal activation was visualized by c-Fos for over...

  3. Adolescents' approach-avoidance behaviour in the context of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Emma; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents who experience pain often face competing goals and have to choose whether to approach (confront) or avoid pain. This study investigates the decisions adolescents make when their pain conflicts with a valued goal. Adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years (N = 170) completed questionnaires on general and pain-specific anxiety, courage, and dispositional avoidance. Adolescents were presented with 16 vignettes (8 high pain intensity, 8 low pain intensity), which described pain conflicting with a goal (eg, doing well at school, seeing friends). Adolescents rated goals for importance and reported how likely they would be to approach or avoid each pain. Adolescents were more likely to avoid and were more fearful of high pain intensity than low pain intensity vignettes. Pain anxiety predicted higher levels of avoidance for both pain intensities. General anxiety was not a significant predictor of avoidance for either pain intensity. Goal importance promoted approach of goals, but only when pain was described as intense. However, pain anxiety predicted avoidance beyond the importance of goals for high pain intensity vignettes. In addition, we compared approach-avoidance of adolescents with and without chronic pain; analyses revealed no differences in approach-avoidance behaviour. We also found that behavioural endurance was predictive of approach and dispositional avoidance predicted higher avoidance, but courage was not predictive of behaviour in this task. We adopt a motivational perspective when interpreting the findings and consider whether the fear-avoidance model should be extended to include the function of avoidance or approach in the pursuit of a desired goal.

  4. Avoiding food waste by Romanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Violeta; van Herpen, Erica; Tudoran, Ana Alina;

    2013-01-01

    to investigate the role of food choices and other food-related activities in producing food waste. A survey of 244 Romanian consumers examined the influence of intentions not to waste food, planning and shopping routines, as well as moral attitudes and lack of concern towards wasting food, a subjective norm...... of disapproval towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control on consumers’ self-reported food waste. Results show that consumers’ planning and shopping routines are important predictors of food waste. Planning and shopping routines are determined by moral attitudes towards food waste and perceived...... behavioural control. This implies that in order to change consumers’ food waste behaviour, efforts should be directed towards providing consumers with skills and tools to deal with their food-related activities....

  5. Dorsal raphe nucleus and harm avoidance: A resting-state investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylakh, N; Henderson, L A

    2016-06-01

    The temperament dimension of harm avoidance defines an individual's biological tendency to exhibit altering levels of anxious, inhibiting, and cautious behavior. High harm avoidance and anxiety are highly comorbid, likely due to activity in similar neural circuitries involving the dorsal raphe nucleus. Despite the many investigations that have explored personality factors and brain function, none have determined the influence of ongoing activity within dorsal raphe networks on harm avoidance. The aim of this study was to explore such a relationship. In 62 healthy subjects, a series of 180 functional magnetic resonance images covering the entire brain were collected, and each subject completed the 240-item TCI-R questionnaire. Independent component analyses were performed to define the dorsal raphe network and then to determine the regions significantly correlated with harm avoidance. The independent component analyses revealed three signal intensity fluctuation maps encompassing the dorsal raphe nucleus, showing interactions with regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal, insular, and cingulate cortices. Within these systems, the resting signal intensity was significantly coupled to harm avoidance in the bilateral basal amygdala, bilateral ventral hippocampus, bilateral insula, bilateral nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex. Note that we could not measure serotonergic output, but instead measured signal changes in the dorsal raphe that likely reflect synaptic activity. These data provide evidence that at rest, signal intensity fluctuations within the dorsal raphe networks are related to harm avoidance. Given the strong relationship between harm avoidance and anxiety-like behaviors, it is possible that ongoing activity within this identified neural circuitry can contribute to an individual developing anxiety disorders.

  6. Involvement of the insular cortex in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel eFornari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are known to enhance the consolidation of memory of emotionally arousing experiences by acting upon a network of interconnected brain regions. Although animal studies typically do not consider the insular cortex (IC to be part of this network, the present findings indicate that the IC is importantly involved in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of emotionally arousing inhibitory avoidance training. The specific glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU 28362 (3 or 10 ng in 0.5 l infused bilaterally into the IC of male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after one-trial inhibitory avoidance training dose-dependently enhanced 48-h retention performance. Moreover, training on the inhibitory avoidance task increased neuronal activity of the IC, as assessed by an increased number of cells expressing immunoreactivity for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2. However, systemic administration of a memory-enhancing dose of corticosterone (1 mg/kg after inhibitory avoidance training rapidly reduced the number of pERK1/2-positive cells in the IC, suggesting that glucocorticoid administration reduces overall neuronal activity of the IC. To investigate which components of the inhibitory avoidance training experience were influenced by the intra-IC glucocorticoid administration, in the last experiment rats were trained on a modified inhibitory avoidance task in which context exposure and footshock training occur on two sequential days. RU 28362 administration into the IC enhanced later retention when infused immediately after either the context or footshock training. Thus, these findings indicate that the IC mediates glucocorticoid effects on the consolidation of memory of different components of inhibitory avoidance training and suggest that the IC might be an important element of the rodent brain network involved in emotional regulation of learning and memory.

  7. Restriction-Modification systems interplay causes avoidance of GATC site in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Anna; Rusinov, Ivan; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Spirin, Sergey; Karyagina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Palindromes are frequently underrepresented in prokaryotic genomes. Palindromic 5[Formula: see text]-GATC-3[Formula: see text] site is a recognition site of different Restriction-Modification (R-M) systems, as well as solitary methyltransferase Dam. Classical GATC-specific R-M systems methylate GATC and cleave unmethylated GATC. On the contrary, methyl-directed Type II restriction endonucleases cleave methylated GATC. Methylation of GATC by Dam methyltransferase is involved in the regulation of different cellular processes. The diversity of functions of GATC-recognizing proteins makes GATC sequence a good model for studying the reasons of palindrome avoidance in prokaryotic genomes. In this work, the influence of R-M systems and solitary proteins on the GATC site avoidance is described by a mathematical model. GATC avoidance is strongly associated with the presence of alternate (methyl-directed or classical Type II R-M system) genes in different strains of the same species, as we have shown for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Eubacterium rectale, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We hypothesize that GATC avoidance can result from a DNA exchange between strains with different methylation status of GATC site within the process of natural transformation. If this hypothesis is correct, the GATC avoidance is a sign of a DNA exchange between bacteria with different methylation status in a mixed population.

  8. Distrust As a Disease Avoidance Strategy: Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly. Empirically, we utilize two convenience samples and a large nationally representative sample of US citizens to demonstrate the existence of a robust and replicable effect of individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalized social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice. PMID:27516744

  9. Individual Differences in Approach-Avoidance Aptitude: Some Clues from Research on Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eCosta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Approach and avoidance are two basic behavioral aptitudes of humans whose correct balance is critical for successful adaptation to the environment. As the expression of approach and avoidance tendencies may differ significantly between healthy individuals, different psychobiological factors have been posited to account for such variability. In this regard, two main issues are still open that refers to i the role played by dopamine neurotransmission and ii the possible influence of cognitive characteristics, particularly executive functioning. The aim of the present paper was to highlight the contribution of research on Parkinson’s disease (PD to our understanding of the above issues. In particular, we here reviewed PD literature to clarify whether neurobiological and neuropsychological modifications due to PD are associated to changes in approach-avoidance related personality features. Available data indicate that PD patients may show and approach-avoidance imbalance as documented by lower novelty-seeking and higher harm-avoidance behaviors, possibly suggesting a relationship with neurobiological and neurocognitive PD-related changes. However, the literature that directly investigated this issue is still sparse and much more work is needed to better clarify it.

  10. Personality and mood correlates of avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Björn

    2002-04-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (APD) has been recognized as prevalent and clinically important; however, it is not clear how APD maps onto established personality and mood dimensions. In this cross-sectional survey study, 365 college students completed questionnaires assessing APD features and theoretically relevant personality and mood dimensions. Based on these self-report data, 6.6% may meet DSM-IV criteria for APD. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that APD features were associated with introversion, neuroticism, low self-esteem, and pessimistic expectancies. Additionally, APD features were linked with self-reports of elevated emotional responsiveness to threats and reduced emotional responsiveness to incentives (the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system scales). After controlling for the effects of other personality, temperament, and cognitive measures, affective distress (i.e., anger, anxiety, and depression) was no longer related to APD. Results are consistent with APD models that emphasize the joint influences of emotional vulnerability and social-cognitive triggering and sustaining factors. PMID:12004493

  11. Image Degradation in Microscopic Images: Avoidance, Artifacts, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Joris; Aelterman, Jan; De Vylder, Jonas; Lippens, Saskia; Luong, Hiêp Q; Guérin, Christopher J; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    The goal of modern microscopy is to acquire high-quality image based data sets. A typical microscopy workflow is set up in order to address a specific biological question and involves different steps. The first step is to precisely define the biological question, in order to properly come to an experimental design for sample preparation and image acquisition. A better object representation allows biological users to draw more reliable scientific conclusions. Image restoration can manipulate the acquired data in an effort to reduce the impact of artifacts (spurious results) due to physical and technical limitations, resulting in a better representation of the object of interest. However, precise usage of these algorithms is necessary so as to avoid further artifacts that might influence the data analysis and bias the conclusions. It is essential to understand image acquisition, and how it introduces artifacts and degradations in the acquired data, so that their effects on subsequent analysis can be minimized. This paper provides an overview of the fundamental artifacts and degradations that affect many micrographs. We describe why artifacts appear, in what sense they impact overall image quality, and how to mitigate them by first improving the acquisition parameters and then applying proper image restoration techniques.

  12. Investigation of potential of improvement of helical coils based on avoidable and unavoidable exergy destruction concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inevitable problem challenges heat exchanger designers is that the heat transfer augmentation in a thermal system is always achieved at the expense of an increase in pressure loss. Thus, the trade-off by choosing the most proper configuration and best flow condition has become the critical problem for design work. The brief survey on literature shows that optimal Reynolds number of laminar forced convection in a helical tube, was specified based on minimum entropy generation. Therefore, the present study analyzes the thermodynamic potential of improvement for steady, laminar, fully developed, forced convection in a helical coiled tube subjected to uniform wall temperature based on the concept of avoidable and unavoidable exergy destruction. The influence of various parameters such as coil curvature ratio, dimensionless inlet temperature difference, dimensionless passage length of the coil, and fluid properties on avoidable exergy destruction have been investigated for water as working fluid. Results show considerable potential of thermodynamic optimization of helical coil tubes. In addition, a relation for determining the amount of optimum Dean Number is proposed for the range considered in the present study. -- Highlights: → Based on this investigation, a new correlation for prediction of optimal Dean Number has been proposed for helical coil heat exchangers subjected to uniform wall temperature. → Avoidable exergy destruction concept has been used to investigate the influence of all effective geometrical and thermal parameters on the potential of improvement of helical coil heat exchangers. → The results show that up to 16% of total exergy destruction can be avoided.

  13. Generalisation of fear and avoidance along a semantic continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sean; Roche, Bryan; Dymond, Simon; Hermans, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Directly conditioned fear and avoidance readily generalises to dissimilar but conceptually related stimuli. Here, for the first time, we examined the conceptual/semantic generalisation of both fear and avoidance using real words (synonyms). Participants were first exposed to a differential fear conditioning procedure in which one word (e.g., "broth"; CS+) was followed with brief electric shock [unconditioned stimulus (US)] and another was not (e.g., "assist"; CS-). Next, an instrumental conditioning phase taught avoidance in the presence the CS+ but not the CS-. During generalisation testing, synonyms of the CS+ (e.g., "soup"; GCS+) and CS- (e.g., "help"; GCS-) were presented in the absence of shock. Conditioned fear and avoidance, measured via skin conductance responses, behavioural avoidance and US expectancy ratings, generalised to the semantically related, but not to the semantically unrelated, synonyms. Findings have implications for how natural language categories and concepts mediate the expansion of fear and avoidance repertoires in clinical contexts.

  14. Individual differences in physiological flexibility predict spontaneous avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2016-08-01

    People often regulate their emotions by resorting to avoidance, a putatively maladaptive strategy. Prior work suggests that increased psychopathology symptoms predict greater spontaneous utilisation of this strategy. Extending this work, we examined whether heightened resting cardiac vagal tone (which reflects a general ability to regulate emotions in line with contextual demands) predicts decreased spontaneous avoidance. In Study 1, greater resting vagal tone was associated with reduced spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting pictures, beyond anxiety and depression symptoms and emotional reactivity. In Study 2, resting vagal tone interacted with anxiety and depression symptoms to predict spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting film clips. The positive association between symptoms and spontaneous avoidance was more pronounced among participants with reduced resting vagal tone. Thus, increased resting vagal tone might protect against the use of avoidance. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing both subjective and biological processes when studying individual differences in emotion regulation.

  15. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes.

  16. Avoidance and tolerance to avian herbivores in aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hidding, A.

    2009-01-01

    Tolerance and avoidance are the two contrasting strategies that plants may adopt to cope with herbivores. Tolerance traits define the degree to which communities remain unaffected by herbivory. Trade-offs between herbivore avoidance and competitive strength and between avoidance and colonization ability may shape population traits and communities under herbivory. In this thesis I present comparative and experimental studies on populations and communities of aquatic plants and how they deal wi...

  17. The mnemonic mover: nostalgia regulates avoidance and approach motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Elena; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Zhou, X.; He, W.; Routledge, Clay; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Vingerhoets, A.

    2014-01-01

    In light of its role in maintaining psychological equanimity, we proposed that nostalgia—a self-relevant, social, and predominantly positive emotion—regulates avoidance and approach motivation. We advanced a model in which (a) avoidance motivation triggers nostalgia and (b) nostalgia, in turn, increases approach motivation. As a result, nostalgia counteracts the negative impact of avoidance motivation on approach motivation. Five methodologically diverse studies supported this regulatory mode...

  18. Multiobjective Optimization Based Vessel Collision Avoidance Strategy Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyang Xu; Chuang Zhang; Ning Wang

    2014-01-01

    The vessel collision accidents cause a great loss of lives and property. In order to reduce the human fault and greatly improve the safety of marine traffic, collision avoidance strategy optimization is proposed to achieve this. In the paper, a multiobjective optimization algorithm NSGA-II is adopted to search for the optimal collision avoidance strategy considering the safety as well as economy elements of collision avoidance. Ship domain and Arena are used to evaluate the collision risk in ...

  19. How to avoid reputation damage in financial restatement? The role of investor relations management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine the effects of avoiding reputation damage by investor relations management under certain corporate governance structures and mechanisms, samples of 1120 listed companies are used to research the influence on financial restatements by corporate governance. Then the moderating effects of investor relations management on financial restatements are analyzed. The result is that the more dispersed the equity, the higher the probability of financial restatements will be (This includes the gover...

  20. Avoidant decision making in social anxiety: the interaction of angry faces and emotional responses

    OpenAIRE

    Pittig, Andre; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Craske, Michelle G.; Alpers, Georg W

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that angry facial expressions are preferentially processed and may facilitate automatic avoidance response, especially in socially anxious individuals. However, few studies have examined whether this bias also expresses itself in more complex cognitive processes and behavior such as decision making. We recently introduced a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task which allowed us to document the influence of task-irrelevant emotional cues on rational decision making. The...

  1. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment? Dutch focus group research on cohabitation and marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Hiekel, Nicole; Keizer, Renske

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. OBJECTIVE We examine Dutch adults‘ perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. METHODS We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 D...

  2. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment. : Dutch focus group research on views on cohabitation and marriage.

    OpenAIRE

    Renske Keizer; Nicole Hiekel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews ...

  3. The Impact of the Estate Tax on the Wealth Accumulation and Avoidance Behavior of Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Slemrod; Wojciech Kopczuk

    2000-01-01

    Using estate tax return data from 1916 to 1996, we investigate the impact of the estate tax on reported estates, which reflects the impact of the tax on both wealth accumulation and avoidance. An aggregate measure of reported estates is generally negatively correlated with summary measures of the level of estate taxation, holding constant other influences. In pooled cross-sectional analysis that makes use of individual decedent information, the relationship between the concurrent tax rate and...

  4. Get in My Belly: Food Preferences Trigger Approach and Avoidant Postural Asymmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Tad T Brunyé; Hayes, Jackie F.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Aaron L Gardony; Taylor, Holly A.; Kanarek, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Appetitive motivational states are fundamental neural and behavioral mechanisms underlying healthy and abnormal eating behavior, though their dynamic influence on food-related behavior is unknown. The present study examined whether personal food-related preferences would activate approach and avoidance systems, modulating spontaneous postural sway toward and away from food items. Participants stood on a balance board that collected real-time data regarding postural sway along two axes (x, y) ...

  5. Approach, avoidance, and affect: a meta-analysis of approach-avoidance tendencies in manual reaction time tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Phaf, R. Hans; Mohr, Sören E.; Rotteveel, Mark; Jelte M Wicherts

    2014-01-01

    Approach action tendencies toward positive stimuli and avoidance tendencies from negative stimuli are widely seen to foster survival. Many studies have shown that approach and avoidance arm movements are facilitated by positive and negative affect, respectively. There is considerable debate whether positively and negatively valenced stimuli prime approach and avoidance movements directly (i.e., immediate, unintentional, implicit, automatic, and stimulus-based), or indirectly (i.e., after cons...

  6. Approach, avoidance, and affect: A meta-analysis of approach-avoidance tendencies in manual reaction time tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Hans ePhaf; Sören Erik Mohr; Mark eRotteveel; Jelte M Wicherts

    2014-01-01

    Approach action tendencies towards positive stimuli and avoidance tendencies from negative stimuli are widely seen to foster survival. Many studies have shown that approach and avoidance arm movements are facilitated by positive and negative affect, respectively. There is considerable debate whether positively and negatively valenced stimuli prime approach and avoidance movements directly (i.e., immediate, unintentional, implicit, automatic, and stimulus-based), or indirectly (i.e., after con...

  7. What you want to avoid is what you see: Social avoidance motivation affects the interpretation of emotional faces

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of habitual social approach and avoidance motivation on the classification of facial expressions of different visual clarity. Participants (N = 78) categorized partially masked emotional faces expressing either anger or happiness as positive or negative. Participants generally tended to interpret the facial expressions in a positive way. This positivity effect was reduced when persons were highly avoidance motivated. Social avoidance motivation predicted fe...

  8. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  9. The Prediction of Antisocial Behavior from Avoidant Attachment Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, Beverly I.; Kavanagh, Kate

    1990-01-01

    Children of 18 months classified as secure or insecure/avoidant by means of the Ainsworth Strange Situation were observed at home and in a playgroup. Teachers and observers rated girls classified as insecure/avoidant as being more difficult to deal with and having more difficulty with peers than girls rated as securely attached. (PCB)

  10. Research on Double Collision Avoidance Mechanism of Ships at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiuYing Bi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When power driven vessels encounter at sea, they need to avoid collision. The definition of right vessel may mislead ships officers think his or her direct navigating has absolute power with this special ship. This paper will define DCPA symbols; give the cause and the method of double collision avoidance mechanism of ships at sea.

  11. Tax avoidance with cross-border hybrid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    in the other country with a cross-border hybrid instrument. We then investigate why countries tend to allow the use of hybrid instruments for tax avoidance and show that even if effective anti-avoidance rules are available, there exists a global policy equilibrium in which no country uses such rules...

  12. Verbal Avoidance and Dissatisfaction in Intimate Conflict Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tamara D.; McManus, Tara; Steuber, Keli; Coho, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to more closely examine the association between avoidance and satisfaction during a potentially conflict-inducing conversation with one's dating partner. The results suggest that the way people respond to their own and their partner's conflict avoidance depends upon whether they are male or female. The perception of…

  13. The inhibitory avoidance discrimination task to investigate accuracy of memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atucha Trevino, E.; Roozendaal, B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at developing a new inhibitory avoidance task, based on training and/or testing rats in multiple contexts, to investigate accuracy of memory. In the first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given footshock in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus and, 48 h later, reten

  14. Principles of obstacle avoidance with a transfemoral prosthetic limb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keeken, Helco G.; Vrieling, Aline H.; Hof, At L.; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In this study, conditions that enable a prosthetic knee flexion strategy in transfemoral amputee subjects during obstacle avoidance were investigated. This study explored the hip torque principle and the static ground principle as object avoidance strategies. A prosthetic limb simulator device was u

  15. Panic disorder : A baseline period : predictability of agoraphobic avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, G.Majella; Bouman, Theo K.

    1995-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between panic symptomatology and situational avoidance behaviour. Eighty panic disordered patients were involved with various degrees of agoraphobia, ranging from nonavoidant to extremely avoidant. Subjects recorded panic attacks by means of a diary for a period

  16. 31 CFR 800.104 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions or devices for avoidance. 800.104 Section 800.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance..., ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS General § 800.104 Transactions or devices for avoidance....

  17. 47 CFR 15.711 - Interference avoidance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance mechanisms. 15.711 Section 15.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Television Band Devices § 15.711 Interference avoidance mechanisms. (a) Except as provided in §...

  18. 5 CFR 950.109 - Avoidance of conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avoidance of conflict of interest. 950.109 Section 950.109 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.109 Avoidance of conflict of interest....

  19. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction,...

  20. 14 CFR 125.224 - Collision avoidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 125.224 Section... Requirements § 125.224 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part 125 must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision...

  1. 38 CFR 4.14 - Avoidance of pyramiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of pyramiding. 4.14 Section 4.14 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.14 Avoidance of pyramiding. The evaluation of...

  2. 29 CFR 1912.4 - Avoidance of duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of duplication. 1912.4 Section 1912.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.4 Avoidance of duplication....

  3. 16 CFR 801.90 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions or devices for avoidance. 801.90 Section 801.90 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND... Transactions or devices for avoidance. Any transaction(s) or other device(s) entered into or employed for...

  4. How to Avoid the ER If You Have Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in ... is the last resort for someone who has asthma. If a flare-up is really out of ...

  5. How do walkers avoid a mobile robot crossing their way?

    CERN Document Server

    Vassallo, Christian; Souères, Philippe; Crétual, Armel; Stasse, Olivier; Pettré, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Robots and Humans have to share the same environment more and more often. In the aim of steering robots in a safe and convenient manner among humans it is required to understand how humans interact with them. This work focuses on collision avoidance between a human and a robot during locomotion. Having in mind previous results on human obstacle avoidance, as well as the description of the main principles which guide collision avoidance strategies, we observe how humans adapt a goal-directed locomotion task when they have to interfere with a mobile robot. Our results show differences in the strategy set by humans to avoid a robot in comparison with avoiding another human. Humans prefer to give the way to the robot even when they are likely to pass first at the beginning of the interaction.

  6. Multiobjective Optimization Based Vessel Collision Avoidance Strategy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vessel collision accidents cause a great loss of lives and property. In order to reduce the human fault and greatly improve the safety of marine traffic, collision avoidance strategy optimization is proposed to achieve this. In the paper, a multiobjective optimization algorithm NSGA-II is adopted to search for the optimal collision avoidance strategy considering the safety as well as economy elements of collision avoidance. Ship domain and Arena are used to evaluate the collision risk in the simulation. Based on the optimization, an optimal rudder angle is recommended to navigator for collision avoidance. In the simulation example, a crossing encounter situation is simulated, and the NSGA-II searches for the optimal collision avoidance operation under the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS. The simulation studies exhibit the validity of the method.

  7. A Robust Obstacle Avoidance for Service Robot Using Bayesian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Budiharto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a robust obstacle avoidance method for service robot in indoor environment. The method for obstacles avoidance uses information about static obstacles on the landmark using edge detection. Speed and direction of people that walks as moving obstacle obtained by single camera using tracking and recognition system and distance measurement using 3 ultrasonic sensors. A new geometrical model and maneuvering method for moving obstacle avoidance introduced and combined with Bayesian approach for state estimation. The obstacle avoidance problem is formulated using decision theory, prior and posterior distribution and loss function to determine an optimal response based on inaccurate sensor data. Algorithms for moving obstacles avoidance method proposed and experiment results implemented to service robot also presented. Various experiments show that our proposed method very fast, robust and successfully implemented to service robot called Srikandi II that equipped with 4 DOF arm robot developed in our laboratory.

  8. Avoidant decision making in social anxiety: the interaction of angry faces and emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittig, Andre; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Craske, Michelle G; Alpers, Georg W

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that angry facial expressions are preferentially processed and may facilitate automatic avoidance response, especially in socially anxious individuals. However, few studies have examined whether this bias also expresses itself in more complex cognitive processes and behavior such as decision making. We recently introduced a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task which allowed us to document the influence of task-irrelevant emotional cues on rational decision making. The present study used a modified gambling task to investigate the impact of angry facial expressions on decision making in 38 individuals with a wide range of social anxiety. Participants were to find out which choices were (dis-) advantageous to maximize overall gain. To create a decision conflict between approach of reward and avoidance of fear-relevant angry faces, advantageous choices were associated with angry facial expressions, whereas disadvantageous choices were associated with happy facial expressions. Results indicated that higher social avoidance predicted less advantageous decisions in the beginning of the task, i.e., when contingencies were still uncertain. Interactions with specific skin conductance responses further clarified that this initial avoidance only occurred in combination with elevated responses before choosing an angry facial expressions. In addition, an interaction between high trait anxiety and elevated responses to early losses predicted faster learning of an advantageous strategy. These effects were independent of intelligence, general risky decision-making, self-reported state anxiety, and depression. Thus, socially avoidant individuals who respond emotionally to angry facial expressions are more likely to show avoidance of these faces under uncertainty. This novel laboratory paradigm may be an appropriate analog for central features of social anxiety. PMID:25324792

  9. Avoidant decision making in social anxiety: The interaction of angry faces and emotional responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre ePittig

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that angry facial expressions are preferentially processed and may facilitate automatic avoidance response, especially in socially anxious individuals. However, few studies have examined whether this bias also expresses itself in more complex cognitive processes and behavior such as decision making. We recently introduced a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task which allowed us to document the influence of task-irrelevant emotional cues on rational decision making. The present study used a modified gambling task to investigate the impact of angry facial expressions on decision making in 38 individuals with a wide range of social anxiety. Participants were to find out which choices were (dis- advantageous to maximize overall gain. To create a decision conflict between approach of rewards and avoidance of fear-relevant angry faces, advantageous choices were associated with angry facial expressions, whereas disadvantageous choices were associated with happy facial expressions. Results indicated that higher social avoidance predicted less advantageous decisions in the beginning of the task, i.e., when contingencies were still uncertain. Interactions with specific skin conductance responses further clarified that this initial avoidance only occurred in combination with elevated responses before choosing an angry facial expressions. In addition, an interaction between high trait anxiety and elevated responses to early losses predicted faster learning of an advantageous strategy. These effects were independent of intelligence, general risky decision-making, self-reported state anxiety, and depression. Thus, socially avoidant individuals who respond emotionally to angry facial expressions are more likely to show avoidance of these faces under uncertainty. This novel laboratory paradigm may be an appropriate analog for central features of social anxiety.

  10. Optimizing Sampling Design to Deal with Mist-Net Avoidance in Amazonian Birds and Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J.; Marques, Tiago A.; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas. PMID:24058579

  11. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Marques

    Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  12. Assessment of avoidance behaviour by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Octolasion cyaneum) in linear pollution gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher N; Butt, Kevin R; Cheynier, Kevin Yves-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Avoidance behaviour by earthworms is recognised as a valuable endpoint in soil quality assessment and has resulted in the development of a standardised test (ISO 17512-1, 2008) providing epigeic earthworms with a choice between test and control soils. This study sought to develop and evaluate an avoidance test utilising soil-dwelling earthworms in linear pollution gradients with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags used to identify individual organisms. Sequential experiments were established in laboratory-based mesocosms (0.6m×0.13m×0.1m) that determined the relative sensitivities (in terms of associated avoidance behaviour) of Octolasion cyaneum and Lumbricus rubellus at varying levels of polluted soil and also assessed the influence of introduction point on recorded movement within gradients. In an initial gradient (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% polluted soil), both species exhibited a clear avoidance response with all surviving earthworms retrieved (after 7 days) from the unpolluted soil. In a less polluted gradient (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, 25%) L. rubellus were retrieved throughout the gradient while O. cyaneum were located within the 0% and 6.25% divisions, suggesting a species-specific response to polluted soil. Results also showed that the use of a linear pollution gradient system has the potential to assess earthworm avoidance behaviour and could provide a more ecologically relevant alternative to the ISO 17512: 2008 avoidance test. However, further work is required to establish the effectiveness of this procedure, specifically in initial chemical screening and assessment of single contaminant bioavailability, where uptake of pollutants by earthworms could be measured and directly related to the point of introduction and retrieval.

  13. Avoidant decision making in social anxiety: the interaction of angry faces and emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittig, Andre; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Craske, Michelle G; Alpers, Georg W

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that angry facial expressions are preferentially processed and may facilitate automatic avoidance response, especially in socially anxious individuals. However, few studies have examined whether this bias also expresses itself in more complex cognitive processes and behavior such as decision making. We recently introduced a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task which allowed us to document the influence of task-irrelevant emotional cues on rational decision making. The present study used a modified gambling task to investigate the impact of angry facial expressions on decision making in 38 individuals with a wide range of social anxiety. Participants were to find out which choices were (dis-) advantageous to maximize overall gain. To create a decision conflict between approach of reward and avoidance of fear-relevant angry faces, advantageous choices were associated with angry facial expressions, whereas disadvantageous choices were associated with happy facial expressions. Results indicated that higher social avoidance predicted less advantageous decisions in the beginning of the task, i.e., when contingencies were still uncertain. Interactions with specific skin conductance responses further clarified that this initial avoidance only occurred in combination with elevated responses before choosing an angry facial expressions. In addition, an interaction between high trait anxiety and elevated responses to early losses predicted faster learning of an advantageous strategy. These effects were independent of intelligence, general risky decision-making, self-reported state anxiety, and depression. Thus, socially avoidant individuals who respond emotionally to angry facial expressions are more likely to show avoidance of these faces under uncertainty. This novel laboratory paradigm may be an appropriate analog for central features of social anxiety.

  14. 49 CFR 37.151 - Waiver for undue financial burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.151 Waiver for... incorporating an additional paratransit service criterion or improving an aspect of a specific service...

  15. Undue Lead Absorption and Lead Poisoning in Children: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Fu, J. S.

    The toxic effects of lead, a useful metal ubiquitous in the human environment, have long been known. The occupational hazards of lead poisoning were well established by the early 19th century, but plumbism in children caused by paint ingestion was not reported until the turn of the century. Even in 1924, the child was said to live in a "lead…

  16. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  17. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  18. Approach, avoidance, and affect: a meta-analysis of approach-avoidance tendencies in manual reaction time tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Phaf; S.E. Mohr; M. Rotteveel; J.M. Wicherts

    2014-01-01

    Approach action tendencies toward positive stimuli and avoidance tendencies from negative stimuli are widely seen to foster survival. Many studies have shown that approach and avoidance arm movements are facilitated by positive and negative affect, respectively. There is considerable debate whether

  19. Reduction in Memory Specificity Following an Approach/Avoidance Scrambled Sentences Task Relates to Cognitive Avoidant Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J. Mark G.; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    "Overgeneral autobiographical memory" (OGM) refers to the tendency to retrieve less specific personal memories. According to the functional avoidance hypothesis, OGM might act as a cognitive strategy to avoid emotionally distressing details of negative memories. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an experimentally induced avoidant…

  20. Aversive event anticipation affects connectivity between the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex in an fMRI avoidance task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Bolstad

    Full Text Available Ability to anticipate aversive events is important for avoiding dangerous or unpleasant situations. The motivation to avoid an event is influenced by the incentive salience of an event-predicting cue. In an avoidance fMRI task we used tone intensities to manipulate salience in order to study the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in processing of incentive salience. In the task, cues predicting either aversive or neutral avoidable tones were presented. Ventral striatum, amygdala and anterior insula activations were significantly stronger during presentation of cues for aversive than neutral tones. A psychophysiological interaction analysis showed stronger connectivity between the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex during aversive than neutral conditions. The present study shows an interaction between the ventral striatum, a structure previously linked to negative incentive salience, and the orbitofrontal cortex supporting a role for this region in processing salience. In addition, this study replicates previous findings suggesting that the task is robust.

  1. Neural mechanisms of context-dependent processing of CO2 avoidance behavior in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siju, K P; Bräcker, Lasse B; Grunwald Kadow, I C

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, innately avoids even low levels of CO2. CO2 is part of the so-called Drosophila stress odor produced by stressed flies, but also a byproduct of fermenting fruit, a main food source, making the strong avoidance behavior somewhat surprising. Therefore, we addressed whether feeding states might influence the fly's behavior and processing of CO2. In a recent report, we showed that this innate behavior is differentially processed and modified according to the feeding state of the fly. Interestingly, we found that hungry flies require the function of the mushroom body, a higher brain center required for olfactory learning and memory, but thought to be dispensable for innate olfactory behaviors. In addition, we anatomically and functionally characterized a novel bilateral projection neuron connecting the CO2 sensory input to the mushroom body. This neuron was essential for processing of CO2 in the starved fly but not in the fed fly. In this Extra View article, we provide evidence for the potential involvement of the neuromodulator dopamine in state-dependent CO2 avoidance behavior. Taken together, our work demonstrates that CO2 avoidance behavior is mediated by alternative neural pathways in a context-dependent manner. Furthermore, it shows that the mushroom body is not only involved in processing of learned olfactory behavior, as previously suggested, but also in context-dependent innate olfaction. PMID:25483251

  2. Internalized societal attitudes moderate the impact of weight stigma on avoidance of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A

    2011-04-01

    Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts. PMID:20948515

  3. On the role of subsecond dopamine release in conditioned avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik B Oleson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: 1 fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, 2 the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, 3 over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety 4 the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain’s incentive-motivational circuitry.

  4. Rethinking Oedipus: an evolutionary perspective of incest avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, M T

    1993-03-01

    The author presents a biological hypothesis of incest avoidance. Pertinent literature from evolutionary biology, ethology, anthropology, and clinical research is reviewed. Secure early bonding to immediate kin predicts later adaptive kin-directed behaviors, including preferential altruism (kin selection) and incest avoidance. Impaired bonding predicts aberrant kin-directed behavior, including diminished altruism, neglect, and an increased incidence of incest. Failed bonding predicts the highest frequency of incest. Secure bonding to kin may function to establish adaptive kin-directed behaviors, including incest avoidance. Bonding is conceived of as the developmental foundation of a form of social attraction, here called "familial attraction," which is evolutionarily distinct from sexual attraction.

  5. Obstacle-avoidance automatic guidance - A concept-development study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper studies the notion of obstacle-avoidance guidance, and investigates the issues in automating this function by considering helicopter nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight as an example. In particular, it considers a hierarchy of guidance components, including mission planning and obstacle avoidance. Based on this hierarchical breakdown, the functional requirements of obstacle-avoidance guidance are identified. An effort in developing automatic guidance algorithms to meet these requirements is presented, along with the necesssary simulation tools for evaluation of these algorithms.

  6. Braking news: link between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the link between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers. Various emergency lateral and speed control maneuvers were considered in response to different critical events that made the crash imminent. Partial proportional odds models that allowed for changes in effects...... crash avoidance maneuvers and crash severity, with differences emerging for different critical events. Moreover, results showed two trends:(a) most drivers failed to act when facing critical events and (b) drivers rarely performed crash avoidance maneuvers that were correlated with a higher probability...

  7. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Analysis of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Cho, Cheolhung; Krey, Volker; Patt, Anthony; Rafaj, Peter; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Wagner, Fabian

    2010-05-01

    ., 2009) is employed to calculate climate responses including associated uncertainty and to estimate geoengineering profiles to cap the warming at 2°C since preindustrial. The inversion setup for the model ACC2 is used to estimate the uncertain parameters (e.g. climate sensitivity) against associated historical observations (e.g. global-mean surface air temperature). Our preliminary results show that under climate and scenario uncertainties, a geoengineering intervention to avoid an overshoot would be with medium intensity in the latter half of this century (≈ 1 Mt. Pinatubo eruption every 4 years in terms of stratospheric sulfur injections). The start year of geoengineering intervention does not significantly influence the long-term geoengineering profile. However, a geoengineering intervention of the medium intensity could bring about substantial environmental side effects such as the destruction of stratospheric ozone. Our results point to the necessity to pursue persistently mainstream mitigation efforts. 2) Pollution Abatement and Geoengineering The second study examines the potential of geoengineering combined with air clean policy. A drastic air pollution abatement might result in an abrupt warming because it would suddenly remove the tropospheric aerosols which partly offset the background global warming (e.g. Andreae et al, 2005, Raddatz and Tanaka, 2010). This study investigates the magnitude of unrealized warming under a range of policy assumptions and associated uncertainties. Then the profile of geoengineering is estimated to suppress the warming that would be accompanied by clean air policy. This study is the first attempt to explore uncertainty in the warming caused by clean air policy - Kloster et al. (2009), which assess regional changes in climate and hydrological cycle, has not however included associated uncertainties in the analysis. A variety of policy assumptions will be devised to represent various degrees of air pollution abatement. These

  8. ITI-signals and prelimbic cortex facilitate avoidance acquisition and reduce avoidance latencies, respectively, in male WKY rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Beck

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a model of anxiety disorder vulnerability, male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats acquire lever-press avoidance behavior more readily than outbred Sprague Dawley rats, and their acquisition is enhanced by the presence of a discrete signal presented during the inter-trial intervals (ITIs, suggesting it is perceived as a safety signal. A series of experiments were conducted to determine if this is the case. Additional experiments investigated if the avoidance facilitation relies upon processing through medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. The results suggest that the ITI-signal facilitates acquisition during the early stages of the avoidance acquisition process, when the rats are initially acquiring escape behavior and then transitioning to avoidance behavior. Post-avoidance introduction of the visual ITI-signal into other associative learning tasks failed to confirm that the visual stimulus had acquired the properties of a conditioned inhibitor. Shortening the signal from the entirety of the 3 min ITI to only the first 5 s of the 3 min ITI slowed acquisition during the first 4 sessions, suggesting the flashing light is not functioning as a feedback signal. The prelimbic (PL cortex showed greater activation during the period of training when the transition from escape responding to avoidance responding occurs. Only combined PL+infralimbic cortex lesions modestly slowed avoidance acquisition, but PL cortex lesions slowed avoidance response latencies. Thus, the flashing light ITI-signal is not likely perceived as a safety signal nor is it serving as a feedback signal. The functional role of the PL cortex appears to be to increase the drive towards responding to the threat of the warning signal. Hence, avoidance susceptibility displayed by male WKY rats may be driven, in part, both by external stimuli (ITI signal as well as by enhanced threat recognition to the warning signal via the PL cortex.

  9. Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Undersea Vehicle in Unknown Unstructured Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.

  10. Neurobehavioral Study on Social Transmission of Avoidance Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Akira

    2010-01-01

    CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION||CHAPTER 2BEHAVIORAL STUDIES: BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOCIAL TRANSMISSION||CHAPTER 3LESION STUDIES: IDENTIFICATION OF IMPORTANT BRAIN AREAS FOR SOCIAL TRANSMISSION OF AVOIDANCE||CHAPTER 4CONCLUSION||Publication List

  11. Optical Obstacle Avoidance System for Lunar and Mars Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The systems developed at fibertek for Obstacle-Avoidance has so far all been operated at 1560nm. Such an operation is required due to the required eye-safety...

  12. The Use of Arbitration to Avoid Litigation Under ERISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Richard P.

    1975-01-01

    In this symposium report it is suggested that arbitration can be used to avoid litigation of ERISA pension and welfare benefit claims if the negotiated plan or related collective bargaining agreement provides for arbitration or benefit disputes. (Author/LBH)

  13. You Have Diabetes. How Can You Avoid Serious Eye Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Day You have diabetes. How can you avoid serious eye diseases? Did you know that diabetic retinopathy, an eye ... Or that the number of people with this serious eye disease that damages the blood vessels inside the retina, ...

  14. [The history and current state of communication avoidance research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, M; Pribyl, C B; Keaten, J

    1998-02-01

    The ability to communicate effectively has a profound impact on academic ability and social status in the United States. As such, communication avoidance may impart critical consequences on individuals who suffer from it. Within the communication discipline, communication avoidance is an extensive body of research with a relatively long history. Central to communication avoidance research is the concept of communication apprehension (CA). However, in comparison with research conducted in the United States, CA research in Japan remains in its genesis. This review thus focuses on communication apprehension and related constructs. Starting with an explanation of the magnitude of the problem of communication avoidance, a definition of CA is presented, and an overview of the related constructs of reticence, shyness, and other communication-related fears is introduced. Basic CA treatment programs and personality correlates of CA are also covered. The review closes by offering suggestions for future CA research in Japan. PMID:9626739

  15. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  16. Does the Organized Sexual Murderer Better Delay and Avoid Detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; Martineau, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    According to the organized-disorganized model, organized sexual murderers adopt specific behaviors during the commission of their crimes that contribute to avoiding police detection. The current study examines the effect of sexual murderers' organized behaviors on their ability to both delay and/or avoid police detection. Using a combination of negative binomial and logistic regression analyses on a sample of 350 sexual murder cases, findings showed that although both measures of delaying and avoiding detection are positively correlated, different behavioral patterns were observed. For instance, offenders who moved the victim's body were more likely to avoid detection but the victim's body was likely to be recovered faster. Moreover, victim characteristics have an impact on both measures; however, this effect disappears for the measure of delaying detection once the organized behaviors are introduced. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Optimal deadlock avoidance Petri net supervisors for automated manufacturing systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keyi XING; Feng TIAN; Xiaojun YANG

    2007-01-01

    Deadlock avoidance problems are investigated for automated manufacturing systems with flexible routings.Based on the Petri net models of the systems, this paper proposes, for the first time, the concept of perfect maximal resourcetransition circuits and their saturated states. The concept facilitates the development of system liveness characterization and deadlock avoidance Petri net supervisors. Deadlock is characterized as some perfect maximal resource-transition circuits reaching their saturated states. For a large class of manufacturing systems, which do not contain center resources, the optimal deadlock avoidance Petri net supervisors are presented. For a general manufacturing system, a method is proposed for reducing the system Petri net model so that the reduced model does not contain center resources and, hence, has optimal deadlock avoidance Petri net supervisor. The controlled reduced Petri net model can then be used as the liveness supervisor of the system.

  18. Minding Your Metabolism: Can You Avoid Middle-Age Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Minding Your Metabolism Can You Avoid Middle-Age Spread? As you age, you may notice you have less muscle and energy and more fat. Carrying those extra ...

  19. Plans and Measures for Avoiding Casting-Air-Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian

    2003-01-01

    This article presents plans of preventing casting-air-pollution in practice, and some avoiding methods in detail. In modern times, environment protection is looked high upon day by day; green-casting thus becomes more and more important.

  20. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Avoidance Areas: Terrestrial

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service depicting aerial fire retardant avoidance areas delivered as part of the 2011 Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest...

  1. Tautological Explanations and Definitions--An Avoidable Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, E.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews findings from three diagnostic studies which focused on the problem of tautological explanations. Includes a report on a teaching intervention strategy which resulted in the improvement of pupil performance. Suggests that avoidance of tautology can be taught. (ML)

  2. Rouse modes of self-avoiding flexible polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Panja, D.; Barkema, G. T.

    2009-01-01

    Using a lattice-based Monte Carlo code for simulating self-avoiding flexible polymers in three dimensions in the absence of explicit hydrodynamics, we study their Rouse modes. For self-avoiding polymers, the Rouse modes are not expected to be statistically independent; nevertheless, we demonstrate that numerically these modes maintain a high degree of statistical independence. Based on high-precision simulation data we put forward an approximate analytical expression for the mode amplitude co...

  3. Avoidance from petroleum hydrocarbons by the cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhle, Bjørn

    1982-01-01

    In laboratory experiments cod was presented a choice situation between different concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, appearing as "water soluble fraction" and emulsified droplets derived from Fuel Oil No. 2. In most experiments, the fishes seemed to avoid water containing hydrocarbons, though some fishes for periods was indifferent also to considerable contaminated water. The over all results indicates that a majority of the fishes avoided water containing total hyd...

  4. Autonomous Visual Navigation and Laser-based Moving Obstacle Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Cherubini, Andrea; Spindler, Fabien; Chaumette, François

    2014-01-01

    International audience Moving obstacle avoidance is a fundamental re- quirement for any robot operating in real environments, where pedestrians, bicycles and cars are present. In this paper, we propose and validate a framework for avoiding moving obstacles during visual navigation with a wheeled mobile robot. Visual navigation consists of following a path, represented as an ordered set of key images, which have been acquired by an on-board camera in a teaching phase. While following such p...

  5. A bijection to count (1-23-4)-avoiding permutations

    OpenAIRE

    Callan, David

    2010-01-01

    A permutation is (1-23-4)-avoiding if it contains no four entries, increasing left to right, with the middle two adjacent in the permutation. Here we give a 2-variable recurrence for the number of such permutations, improving on the previously known 4-variable recurrence. At the heart of the proof is a bijection from (1-23-4)-avoiding permutations to increasing ordered trees whose leaves, taken in preorder, are also increasing.

  6. Amygdala involvement in human avoidance, escape and approach behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schlund, Michael W.; Cataldo, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Many forms of psychopathology and substance abuse problems are characterized by chronic ritualized forms of avoidance and escape behavior that are designed to control or modify external or internal (i.e, thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations) threats. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation, we examined amygdala reactivity to threatening cues when avoidance responding consistently prevented contact with an upcoming aversive event (money loss). In addition, we examined esca...

  7. Identity brand avoidance: How is it manifested in social media?

    OpenAIRE

    CHAN KAO CHUNG, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    Existing research on brand symbolic consumption mainly focuses on brand approach; the phenomenon being explained by the theory of self congruity, i.e. consumers would approach brands whose image is congruent to their actual or ideal self. On the other hand, identity brand avoidance, has been object of less attention. The scarce research dedicated to this field essentially revolves around the causes of identity brand avoidance, i.e. when consumers have a positive image of themselves and a nega...

  8. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers

  9. Avoiding Colored Partitions of Lengths Two and Three

    CERN Document Server

    Goyt, Adam M

    2011-01-01

    Pattern avoidance in the symmetric group $S_n$ has provided a number of useful connections between seemingly unrelated problems from stack-sorting to Schubert varieties. Recent work has generalized these results to $S_n\\wr C_c$, the objects of which can be viewed as "colored permutations". Another body of research that has grown from the study of pattern avoidance in permutations is pattern avoidance in $\\Pi_n$, the set of set partitions of $[n]$. Pattern avoidance in set partitions is a generalization of the well-studied notion of noncrossing partitions. Motivated by recent results in pattern avoidance in $S_n \\wr C_c$ we provide a catalog of initial results for pattern avoidance in colored partitions, $\\Pi_n \\wr C_c$. We note that colored set partitions are not a completely new concept. \\emph{Signed} (2-colored) set partitions appear in the work of Bj\\"{o}rner and Wachs involving the homology of partition lattices. However, we seek to study these objects in a new enumerative context.

  10. Global and local obstacle avoidance technique for an autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Keith W.; Saunders, Kevin S.

    1999-07-01

    The Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) is engaged in developing autonomous ground vehicles. A significant problem for such vehicles is obstacle detection and avoidance. After studying various methods of detection, a scanning laser system was chosen that can detect objects at a distance of up to thirty feet while traveling between five and ten miles per hour. Once an object is detected, the vehicle must avoid it. The project employs a mission-level path planner that predetermines the path of a vehicle. One avoidance scheme is to inform the path planner of the obstacle and then let it re-plan the path. This is the global approach to the problem, which allows the use of existing software for maneuvering the vehicle. However, replanning is time consuming and lacks knowledge of the entire obstacle. An alternative approach is to use local avoidance, whereby a vehicle determines how to get by an obstacle without help from the path planner. This approach offers faster response without requiring the computing resource of the path planner. The disadvantage is that during local avoidance the vehicle ignores the global map of known obstacles and does not know to turn control back to the path planner if mission efficiency is adversely affected. This paper will describe a method for combining the current global path planner with a local obstacle avoidance technique to efficiently complete required tasks in a partially unknown environment.

  11. Slow maturation of planning in obstacle avoidance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corporaal, Sharissa H A; Swinnen, Stephan P; Duysens, Jacques; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2016-01-01

    Complex gait (e.g., obstacle avoidance) requires a higher cognitive load than simple steady-state gait, which is a more automated movement. The higher levels of the central nervous system, responsible for adjusting motor plans to complex gait, develop throughout childhood into adulthood. Therefore, we hypothesize that gait strategies in complex gait are likely to mature until adulthood as well. However, little is known about the maturation of complex gait from childhood into adolescence and adulthood. To address this issue, we investigated obstacle avoidance in forty-four 8- to 18-yr-old participants who walked at preferred speed along a 6-m walkway on which a planar obstacle (150% of step length, 1 m wide) was projected. Participants avoided the obstacle by stepping over this projection, while lower body kinematics were recorded. Results showed that step length and speed adjustments during successful obstacle avoidance were similar across all ages, even though younger children modified step width to a greater extent. Additionally, the younger children used larger maximal toe elevations and take-off distances than older children. Moreover, during unsuccessful trials, younger children deployed exaggerated take-off distances, which resulted in obstacle contact upon the consecutive heel strike. These results indicate that obstacle avoidance is not fully matured in younger children, and that the inability to plan precise foot placements is an important factor contributing to failures in obstacle avoidance.

  12. Java Architecture for Detect and Avoid Extensibility and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Confesor; Mueller, Eric Richard; Johnson, Marcus A.; Abramson, Michael; Snow, James William

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft will equip with a detect-and-avoid (DAA) system that enables them to comply with the requirement to "see and avoid" other aircraft, an important layer in the overall set of procedural, strategic and tactical separation methods designed to prevent mid-air collisions. This paper describes a capability called Java Architecture for Detect and Avoid Extensibility and Modeling (JADEM), developed to prototype and help evaluate various DAA technological requirements by providing a flexible and extensible software platform that models all major detect-and-avoid functions. Figure 1 illustrates JADEM's architecture. The surveillance module can be actual equipment on the unmanned aircraft or simulators that model the process by which sensors on-board detect other aircraft and provide track data to the traffic display. The track evaluation function evaluates each detected aircraft and decides whether to provide an alert to the pilot and its severity. Guidance is a combination of intruder track information, alerting, and avoidance/advisory algorithms behind the tools shown on the traffic display to aid the pilot in determining a maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear. All these functions are designed with a common interface and configurable implementation, which is critical in exploring DAA requirements. To date, JADEM has been utilized in three computer simulations of the National Airspace System, three pilot-in-the-loop experiments using a total of 37 professional UAS pilots, and two flight tests using NASA's Predator-B unmanned aircraft, named Ikhana. The data collected has directly informed the quantitative separation standard for "well clear", safety case, requirements development, and the operational environment for the DAA minimum operational performance standards. This work was performed by the Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability team under NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project.

  13. It is the flash which appears, the movement will follow: Investigating the relation between spatial attention and obstacle avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Rudmer; Dijkerman, H Chris; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Obstacles are represented in the attentional landscape. However, it is currently unclear what the exclusive contribution of attention is to the avoidance response. This is because in earlier obstacle avoidance designs, it was impossible to disentangle an effect of attention from the changing features of the obstacle (e.g., its identity, size, or orientation). Conversely, any feature manipulation could be interpreted as an attentional as well as an obstacle effect on avoidance behavior. We tested the possible tuning of avoidance responses by a spatial cue in two experiments. In both experiments, spatial and nonspatial cues were separately given as go cues for an obstacle avoidance task. Participants had to reach past two obstacles in Experiment 1, and past a single obstacle in Experiment 2. We found that when the right obstacle was flashed, participants veered away more and produced more-variable trajectories over trials than in conditions with nonspatial and left spatial cues, regardless of the presence or absence of another obstacle. Therefore, we concluded that the tuning of avoidance responses can be influenced by spatial cues. Moreover, we speculated that a flashed obstacle receives more attentional weighting in the attentional landscape and prompts a stronger repulsion away from the obstacle.

  14. Experimental characterization of collision avoidance in pedestrian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Daniel R.; Negri, Pablo A.; Bruno, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the avoidance behavior of pedestrians was characterized by controlled experiments. Several conflict situations were studied considering different flow rates and group sizes in crossing and head-on configurations. Pedestrians were recorded from above, and individual two-dimensional trajectories of their displacement were recovered after image processing. Lateral swaying amplitude and step lengths were measured for free pedestrians, obtaining similar values to the ones reported in the literature. Minimum avoidance distances were computed in two-pedestrian experiments. In the case of one pedestrian dodging an arrested one, the avoidance distance did not depend on the relative orientation of the still pedestrian with respect to the direction of motion of the first. When both pedestrians were moving, the avoidance distance in a perpendicular encounter was longer than the one obtained during a head-on approach. It was found that the mean curvature of the trajectories was linearly anticorrelated with the mean speed. Furthermore, two common avoidance maneuvers, stopping and steering, were defined from the analysis of the acceleration and curvature in single trajectories. Interestingly, it was more probable to observe steering events than stopping ones, also the probability of simultaneous steering and stopping occurrences was negligible. The results obtained in this paper can be used to validate and calibrate pedestrian dynamics models.

  15. The mnemonic mover: nostalgia regulates avoidance and approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Elena; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Zhou, Xinyue; He, Wuming; Routledge, Clay; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2014-06-01

    In light of its role in maintaining psychological equanimity, we proposed that nostalgia--a self-relevant, social, and predominantly positive emotion--regulates avoidance and approach motivation. We advanced a model in which (a) avoidance motivation triggers nostalgia and (b) nostalgia, in turn, increases approach motivation. As a result, nostalgia counteracts the negative impact of avoidance motivation on approach motivation. Five methodologically diverse studies supported this regulatory model. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design and showed that avoidance motivation was positively associated with nostalgia. Nostalgia, in turn, was positively associated with approach motivation. In Study 2, an experimental induction of avoidance motivation increased nostalgia. Nostalgia then predicted increased approach motivation. Studies 3-5 tested the causal effect of nostalgia on approach motivation and behavior. These studies demonstrated that experimental nostalgia inductions strengthened approach motivation (Study 3) and approach behavior as manifested in reduced seating distance (Study 4) and increased helping (Study 5). The findings shed light on nostalgia's role in regulating the human motivation system.

  16. The mnemonic mover: nostalgia regulates avoidance and approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Elena; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Zhou, Xinyue; He, Wuming; Routledge, Clay; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2014-06-01

    In light of its role in maintaining psychological equanimity, we proposed that nostalgia--a self-relevant, social, and predominantly positive emotion--regulates avoidance and approach motivation. We advanced a model in which (a) avoidance motivation triggers nostalgia and (b) nostalgia, in turn, increases approach motivation. As a result, nostalgia counteracts the negative impact of avoidance motivation on approach motivation. Five methodologically diverse studies supported this regulatory model. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design and showed that avoidance motivation was positively associated with nostalgia. Nostalgia, in turn, was positively associated with approach motivation. In Study 2, an experimental induction of avoidance motivation increased nostalgia. Nostalgia then predicted increased approach motivation. Studies 3-5 tested the causal effect of nostalgia on approach motivation and behavior. These studies demonstrated that experimental nostalgia inductions strengthened approach motivation (Study 3) and approach behavior as manifested in reduced seating distance (Study 4) and increased helping (Study 5). The findings shed light on nostalgia's role in regulating the human motivation system. PMID:24708500

  17. Providing a food reward reduces inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Zethof, Jan; Flik, Gert; van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-11-01

    As shown in male rats, prior history of subjects changes behavioural and stress-responses to challenges: a two-week history of exposure to rewards at fixed intervals led to slightly, but consistently, lower physiological stress-responses and anxiety-like behaviour. Here, we tested whether similar effects are present in zebrafish (Danio rerio). After two weeks of providing Artemia (brine shrimp; Artemia salina) as food reward or flake food (Tetramin) as control at fixed intervals, zebrafish were exposed to a fear-avoidance learning task using an inhibitory avoidance protocol. Half the number of fish received a 3V shock on day 1 and were tested and sacrificed on day 2; the other half received a second 3V shock on day 2 and were tested and sacrificed on day 3. The latter was done to assess whether effects are robust, as effects in rats have been shown to be modest. Zebrafish that were given Artemia showed less inhibitory avoidance after one shock, but not after two shocks, than zebrafish that were given flake-food. Reduced avoidance behaviour was associated with lower telencepahalic gene expression levels of cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) and higher gene expression levels of corticotropin releasing factor (crf). These results suggest that providing rewards at fixed intervals alters fear avoidance behaviour, albeit modestly, in zebrafish. We discuss the data in the context of similar underlying brain structures in mammals and fish. PMID:26342856

  18. Animal models of social avoidance and social fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D

    2013-10-01

    Social fear and avoidance of social situations represent the main behavioral symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD), a highly prevalent anxiety disorder that is poorly elucidated and has rather unsatisfactory therapeutic options. Therefore, animal models are needed to study the underlying etiology and pathophysiology of SAD and to verify the efficacy of possible novel treatment approaches. In this review, we describe and discuss the most important paradigms that have been shown to induce social avoidance and fear in rodents, including foot shock exposure, restraint stress, social isolation, social instability, social defeat, conditioned defeat, social defeat/overcrowding, chronic subordinate colony housing, chronic mild stress, maternal separation and social fear conditioning. We also describe some of the behavioral paradigms used to assess social avoidance and fear in rodents, including the social interaction test, the social preference-avoidance test, the social approach-avoidance test, the three-chambered social approach test, the partition test and the modified Y-maze test. We focus on the behavioral alterations these paradigms induce, especially on social interaction, general anxiety and depressive-like behavior given that SAD is strongly comorbid with anxiety and affective disorders.

  19. Sense and avoid technology for Global Hawk and Predator UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalmont, John F.; Utt, James; Deschenes, Michael; Taylor, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    The Sensors Directorate at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) along with Defense Research Associates, Inc. (DRA) conducted a flight demonstration of technology that could potentially satisfy the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) requirement for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to sense and avoid local air traffic sufficient to provide an "...equivalent level of safety, comparable to see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft". This FAA requirement must be satisfied for autonomous UAV operation within the national airspace. The real-time on-board system passively detects approaching aircraft, both cooperative and non-cooperative, using imaging sensors operating in the visible/near infrared band and a passive moving target indicator algorithm. Detection range requirements for RQ-4 and MQ-9 UAVs were determined based on analysis of flight geometries, avoidance maneuver timelines, system latencies and human pilot performance. Flight data and UAV operating parameters were provided by the system program offices, prime contractors, and flight-test personnel. Flight demonstrations were conducted using a surrogate UAV (Aero Commander) and an intruder aircraft (Beech Bonanza). The system demonstrated target detection ranges out to 3 nautical miles in nose-to-nose scenarios and marginal visual meteorological conditions. (VMC) This paper will describe the sense and avoid requirements definition process and the system concept (sensors, algorithms, processor, and flight rest results) that has demonstrated the potential to satisfy the FAA sense and avoid requirements.

  20. A neuro-collision avoidance strategy for robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onema, Joel P.; Maclaunchlan, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The area of collision avoidance and path planning in robotics has received much attention in the research community. Our study centers on a combination of an artificial neural network paradigm with a motion planning strategy that insures safe motion of the Articulated Two-Link Arm with Scissor Hand System relative to an object. Whenever an obstacle is encountered, the arm attempts to slide along the obstacle surface, thereby avoiding collision by means of the local tangent strategy and its artificial neural network implementation. This combination compensates the inverse kinematics of a robot manipulator. Simulation results indicate that a neuro-collision avoidance strategy can be achieved by means of a learning local tangent method.

  1. Incest avoidance: oedipal and preoedipal, natural and cultural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    Why do most people experience a subjective aversion to the idea of incestuous sexual relations? To help answer this question, recent strands of thinking in both cultural and evolutionary anthropology are considered together with psychoanalytic theories regarding incest avoidance. Coevolutionary theories that propose ways to think about genetic and cultural inheritance as partially independent of each other, evolutionary arguments about the reproductive advantages of incest avoidance, structuralist theory arguing for a kind of incest aversion unrelated to any possible Darwinian selective advantage, and other trends in biosocial research into the origins of the incest avoidance are considered. Finally, a synthesis is proposed that seeks to expand our understanding of the oedipal and preoedipal dynamics of the aversion as these are conceptualized in psychoanalytic theory.

  2. YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are required for Arabidopsis shade avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Nozue, Kazunari; Pytlak, Melissa L.; Palmer, Christine M.; Covington, Michael F.; Wallace, Andreah D.; Harmer, Stacey L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to neighbor shade by increasing stem and petiole elongation. Shade, sensed by phytochrome photoreceptors, causes stabilization of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR proteins and subsequent induction of YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes. To investigate the role of YUCCA genes in phytochrome-mediated elongation, we examined auxin signaling kinetics after an end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) light treatment, and found that an auxin responsive reporter is rapidly induced within 2 hours of far-red exposure. YUCCA2, 5, 8, and 9 are all induced with similar kinetics suggesting that they could act redundantly to control shade-mediated elongation. To test this hypothesis we constructed a yucca2, 5, 8, 9 quadruple mutant and found that the hypocotyl and petiole EOD-FR and shade avoidance responses are completely disrupted. This work shows that YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are essential for detectable shade avoidance and that YUCCA genes are important for petiole shade avoidance. PMID:27761349

  3. Dynamic Obstacle Avoidance for an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Williams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have established a novel method of obstacle-avoidance motion planning for mobile robots in dynamic environments, wherein the obstacles are moving with general velocities and accelerations, and their motion profiles are not preknown. A hybrid system is presented in which a global deliberate approach is applied to determine the motion in the desired path line (DPL, and a local reactive approach is used for moving obstacle avoidance. A machine vision system is required to sense obstacle motion. Through theoretical analysis, simulation, and experimental validation applied to the Ohio University RoboCup robot, we show the method is effective to avoid collisions with moving obstacles in a dynamic environment.

  4. The Effect of Tax Rates on Fiscal Evasion and Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:In order to findelements that destimulate fiscal evasion or avoidance, we have submitted six elements, through the questionnaire, to determine which elements are that destimulate the fiscal evasion and avoidance, and evaluate their impact.This paper is focused in customs duty avoidance.The elements that we have submitted to evaluate their power, are: Powerful control during customs clearance, more efficient post clearance control, probability of subject investigation, higher fines, lower tax rate, consciousness of companies.In this research, we collected 248 answers, and can present these results:Fiscal policy or lower tax rate is a powerful element that can't stimulate a tax evasion and/or avoidance, for this element we received 68 answers from respondentsor 27.42%. The other element is powerful control from customs during clearance, for this element we received 52 answers from respondents or 20.97%. The next element following is consciousness of companies, for this element are 36 answers from respondents or 12.90%. The next element investigation are 33 answers or 12.90%, post clearance control are 31 respondents or 12%, the last element is higher fines, that are 28 respondents or 11.29%.As presented, all the elements are very close to each other, except first and second element, which are: lower tax rate and powerful control from customs during clearance. These elements have more effect, that destimulate tax evasion and avoidance.  Keywords: tax rates, fiscal evasion, fiscal avoidance, elements of destimulate.

  5. On (cosmological) singularity avoidance in loop quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnemann, J; Thiemann, T [MPI fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2006-03-07

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC), mainly due to Bojowald, is not the cosmological sector of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Rather, LQC consists of a truncation of the phase space of classical general relativity to spatially homogeneous situations which is then quantized by the methods of LQG. Thus, LQC is a quantum-mechanical toy model (finite number of degrees of freedom) for LQG (a genuine QFT with an infinite number of degrees of freedom) which provides important consistency checks. However, it is a non-trivial question whether the predictions of LQC are robust after switching on the inhomogeneous fluctuations present in full LQG. Two of the most spectacular findings of LQC are that: (1) the inverse scale factor is bounded from above on zero-volume eigenstates which hints at the avoidance of the local curvature singularity and (2) the quantum Einstein equations are non-singular which hints at the avoidance of the global initial singularity. This rests on (1) a key technique developed for LQG and (2) the fact that there are no inhomogeneous excitations. We display the result of a calculation for LQG which proves that the (analogon of the) inverse scale factor, while densely defined, is not bounded from above on zero-volume eigenstates. Thus, in full LQG, if curvature singularity avoidance is realized, then not in this simple way. In fact, it turns out that the boundedness of the inverse scale factor is neither necessary nor sufficient for the curvature singularity avoidance and that non-singular evolution equations are neither necessary nor sufficient for initial singularity avoidance because none of these criteria are formulated in terms of observable quantities. After outlining what would be required, we present the results of a calculation for LQG which could be a first indication that our criteria at least for curvature singularity avoidance are satisfied in LQG.

  6. Ontogenetic development of avoidance learning in rats after eye opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, O; Köllner, U; Göb, R; Klingberg, F

    1988-01-01

    Five male and one female group of 8 pups were selected from 8 liters on the second postnatal day and returned to 6 dams. The animals were investigated in two subsequent tests; first, in a peripheral field avoidance test using a 60 x 75 x 22 cm open field subdivided into 20 equal squares of 15 x 15 cm with separate floor grids for electrical punishment and, second, in a W-like maze with a start arm falling into a common alley from which left and right each two goal arms branched off. Four qualities were measured in the first test: finding out that only central fields remained unpunished; the stay duration in central fields indicating passive avoidance; the response to a conditioned stimulus, when they entered peripheral fields indicating active avoidance; the quality of extinction. The differences of these qualities changed significantly from week to week as the acquisition speed and the consolidation increased, the extinction was rapid in the third week, very slow in the fourth week and adult-like in the fifth week. The self-chosen strategy of pups showed dominance of escape with subsequent motor inhibition in the third week, dominance of trials and active avoidance in the fourth week, dominance of passive avoidance in the fifth week. We found no difference between males and females, or between blind and control rats. The W-maze test revealed additionally that reversal learning from left goal to right goal was still difficult in the fourth week and that brightness-cued alteration of goals in which wrong choices were punished when a time limit was overcome could not be learned before the sixth week and not consolidated before the end of the seventh week. The results suggest that various brain processes are involved in the development of avoidance and learning strategies which mature unevenly and reach their peaks at different ages. PMID:3254159

  7. Formation and obstacle avoidance control for multiagent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problems of formation and obstacle avoidance for multiagent systems.The objective is to design a term of agents that can reach a desired formation while avoiding collision with obstacles.To reduce the amount of information interaction between agents and target,we adopt the leader-follower formation strategy.By using the receding horizon control (RHC),an optimal problem is formulated in terms of cost minimization under constraints.Information on obstacles is incorporated online as se...

  8. Managed care contracting and payment reform: avoiding a showdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Michael E

    2010-07-01

    Health reform promises to fundamentally change what and how CMS and commercial payers reimburse providers. Providers need to transition from their traditionally adversarial, transactions-based payer relationships to ones that optimize purchaser and patient value for the dollar. To avoid negotiation table showdowns and to prepare for reform, commercial payers and providers should take three actions: Recognize the dead ends with their historical relationships. Formulate their road map to value-based contracting. Avoid operational pot-holes along the way. PMID:20608414

  9. OBSTACLE-AVOIDANCE NAVIGATION OF MULTIPLE MOBILE ROBOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗青; 李智军; 吕恬生

    2002-01-01

    In the context of robot soccer, the robots have to select actions to achieve individual and team goals in the dynamic environment. It is important for a robot to acquire navigation behaviors for avoiding other robots and obstacles in the real-time environment. This paper suggested an efficient approach to collision-avoidance in multirobot system. This approach is based on velocity information of moving objects and the distance between robot and obstacle in three specified directions. The main contribution of this paper is that it provides a method for robots with decreased-computational cost and makes the robot navigate without collision with each other in a complicated environment.

  10. Mad genius revisited: Vulnerability to psychopathology, biobehavioral approach-avoidance, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2016-06-01

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950008

  11. Error Analysis in a Stereo Vision-Based Pedestrian Detection Sensor for Collision Avoidance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Llorca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance.

  12. Error analysis in a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for collision avoidance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, David F; Sotelo, Miguel A; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Bergasa, Luis M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM) classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS) is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance. PMID:22319323

  13. Pb-induced avoidance-like chloroplast movements in fronds of Lemna trisulca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Samardakiewicz

    Full Text Available Lead ions are particularly dangerous to the photosynthetic apparatus, but little is known about the effects of trace metals, including Pb, on regulation of chloroplast redistribution. In this study a new effect of lead on chloroplast distribution patterns and movements was demonstrated in mesophyll cells of a small-sized aquatic angiosperm Lemna trisulca L. (star duckweed. An analysis of confocal microscopy images of L. trisulca fronds treated with lead (15 μM Pb2+, 24 h in darkness or in weak white light revealed an enhanced accumulation of chloroplasts in the profile position along the anticlinal cell walls, in comparison to untreated plants. The rearrangement of chloroplasts in their response to lead ions in darkness was similar to the avoidance response of chloroplasts in plants treated with strong white light. Transmission electron microscopy X-ray microanalysis showed that intracellular chloroplast arrangement was independent of the location of Pb deposits, suggesting that lead causes redistribution of chloroplasts, which looks like a light-induced avoidance response, but is not a real avoidance response to the metal. Furthermore, a similar redistribution of chloroplasts in L. trisulca cells in darkness was observed also under the influence of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. In addition, we detected an enhanced accumulation of endogenous H2O2 after treatment of plants with lead. Interestingly, H2O2-specific scavenger catalase partly abolished the Pb-induced chloroplast response. These results suggest that H2O2 can be involved in the avoidance-like movement of chloroplasts induced by lead. Analysis of photometric measurements revealed also strong inhibition (but not complete of blue-light-induced chloroplast movements by lead. This inhibition may result from disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, as we observed fragmentation and disappearance of actin filaments around chloroplasts. Results of this study show that the

  14. Hospital readmission prevalence and analysis of those potentially avoidable in southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Bianco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One quality indicator of hospital care, which can be used to judge the process of care, is the prevalence of hospital readmission because it reflects the impact of hospital care on the patient's condition after discharge. The purposes of the study were to measure the prevalence of hospital readmissions, to identify possible factors that influence such readmission and to measure the prevalence of readmissions potentially avoidable in Italy. METHODS: A sample of 2289 medical records of patients aged 18 and over admitted for medical or surgical illness at one 502-bed community non-teaching hospital were randomly selected. RESULTS: A total of 2252 patients were included in the final analysis, equaling a response rate of 98.4%. The overall hospital readmission prevalence within 30 days of discharge was 10.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the proportion of patients readmitted within 30 days of discharge significantly increased regardless of Charlson et al. comorbidity score, among unemployed or retired patients, and in patients in general surgery. A total of 43.7% hospital readmissions were judged to be potentially avoidable. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that potentially avoidable readmissions were significantly higher in general surgery, in patients referred to hospital by an emergency department physician, and in those with a shortened time between discharge and readmission. CONCLUSION: Additional research on intervention or bundle of interventions applicable to acute inpatient populations that aim to reduce potentially avoidable readmissions is strongly needed, and health care providers are urged to implement evidence-based programs for more cost-effective delivery of health care.

  15. All About PID - Testing and Avoidance in the Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter; Johnston, Steve

    2016-09-01

    Potential-induced degradation can cause significant power loss in modules if the appropriate precautions are not taken. In the first part of a new series in PV Tech Power on module failure, Peter Hacke and Steve Johnston assess the current state-of-the-art in detecting, avoiding and mitigating the worst effects of PID.

  16. Improving Network Performance using ACO Based Redundant Link Avoidance Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chandra Mohan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the wide spread internet, response time and pocket loss are inappropriate due to network traffic, as a result the network efficiency becomes worst and the system provides poor Quality of Service (QoS. An optimal routing protocol, especially multipath may avoid such traffic in the network. But existing routing protocols, both single path and multi path, concentrates only on finding the routes based on any one or some set of metrics, that not always suitable for dynamic, cloud natured network environment. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO based multipath routing protocol was suggested as an alternate to this problem by many researchers. The multipath ACO also provides same set of link(s for the source to destination, so that traffic merging again becomes a critical problem. This paper proposes an optimal solution to avoid the problem of traffic merging in the network by removing redundant link in the route. The Proposed algorithm, called 'Redundant Link Avoidance (RLA algorithm', is an ACO based multi path routing methodology, avoiding copious link in the suggested routes of ACO multipath protocol.

  17. Avoidance of moulds in living rooms; Schimmelpilze in Wohnraeumen vermeiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anda Gonzalez, Leticia de; Spitzner, Martin H.

    2011-07-01

    The contribution under consideration supplies valuable recommendations regarding the avoidance of a growth of mould fungi in living rooms. Information about a correct ventilation behaviour, a correct heating behaviour, a correct positioning of furniture, a correct attachment of wall coverings and measures of the user behaviour are given.

  18. Avoiding Childhood Obesity (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-31

    Maintaining a healthy weight in childhood can prevent many health-related problems later in life. In this podcast, Dr. Jackson Sekhobo discusses the importance of avoiding obesity in childhood.  Created: 1/31/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/31/2013.

  19. The "Eye Avoidance" Hypothesis of Autism Face Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, James W; Sung, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Although a growing body of research indicates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit selective deficits in their ability to recognize facial identities and expressions, the source of their face impairment is, as yet, undetermined. In this paper, we consider three possible accounts of the autism face deficit: (1) the holistic hypothesis, (2) the local perceptual bias hypothesis and (3) the eye avoidance hypothesis. A review of the literature indicates that contrary to the holistic hypothesis, there is little evidence to suggest that individuals with autism do perceive faces holistically. The local perceptual bias account also fails to explain the selective advantage that ASD individuals demonstrate for objects and their selective disadvantage for faces. The eye avoidance hypothesis provides a plausible explanation of face recognition deficits where individuals with ASD avoid the eye region because it is perceived as socially threatening. Direct eye contact elicits a increased physiological response as indicated by heightened skin conductance and amygdala activity. For individuals with autism, avoiding the eyes is an adaptive strategy, however, this approach interferes with the ability to process facial cues of identity, expressions and intentions, exacerbating the social challenges for persons with ASD. PMID:24150885

  20. Instructional Support Predicts Children's Task Avoidance in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Ahonen, Timo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of observed classroom quality in children's task-avoidant behavior and math skills in kindergarten. To investigate this, 1268 children were tested twice on their math skills during their kindergarten year. Kindergarten teachers (N = 137) filled in questionnaires measuring their professional experience and also rated…

  1. Avoidance of low doses of naphthalene by Collembola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boitaud, Laetitia [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Salmon, Sandrine [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Bourlette, Celine [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France)]. E-mail: jean-francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr

    2006-02-15

    The introduction of behavioural aspects of soil animals in ecological risk assessment would allow us to better assess soil quality, all the more if a range of animal populations are considered. We compared the avoidance behaviour of several strains of springtails (Arthropoda: Collembola) obtained from different soils. Naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), widely represented in soils polluted with hydrocarbons, was tested in aqueous solutions on nine springtail species issuing from four sites. Fine quartz sand saturated with an aqueous solution of naphthalene was avoided by most of the tested species, avoidance being, however, detected down to a concentration of 0.030 mg L{sup -1}. Folsomia candida (Isotomidae) was shown to be relatively tolerant to pollutants compared to other Collembola such as Mesaphorura macrochaeta, Mesaphorura yosii (Onychiuridae), Parisotoma notabilis (Isotomidae) and Arrhopalites caecus (Arrhopalitidae). Differences between strains could not be explained by properties of the original soils. - PAH avoidance by soil springtails is species-specific and differs among populations of the same species.

  2. 49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 11-61-91 Do. Materials 21-61-91 Do. Purchased services 41-61-91 Do. Other expenses 61-61-91 Do. Legal... 21-61-93 Do. Purchased services 41-61-93 Do. Other expenses 61-61-93 Do. Research and development... property tax methodology if it is claiming the local property tax as an avoidable cost of...

  3. Characterization of white mold disease avoidance in common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Physiological resistance and disease avoidance conferred by plant architecture-related traits contribute to white mold field resistance. Our objective was to further exam...

  4. Robot vision: obstacle-avoidance techniques for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carloni, Raffaella; Lippiello, Vincenzo; D'auria, Massimo; Fumagalli, Matteo; Mersha, Abeje Y.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Sicilano, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a vision-based technique for obstacle avoidance and target identification is combined with haptic feedback to develop a new teleoperated navigation system for underactuated aerial vehicles in unknown environments. A three-dimensional (3-D) map of the surrounding environment is built

  5. Time Pressure Undermines Performance More Under Avoidance Than Approach Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that performance is particularly undermined by time pressure when people are avoidance motivated. The results supported this hypothesis across three different types of tasks, including those well suited and those ill suited to the type of informa

  6. Obstacle avoidance to elicit freezing of gait during treadmill walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Hagen, Y.J.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Giladi, N.; Bloem, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and disabling feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Detailed pathophysiological studies are hampered by the fact that FOG episodes are difficult to elicit in a gait laboratory. We evaluated whether the need to avoid sudden obstacles on a treadmill can provoke FOG. W

  7. Obstacle Avoidance in Groping Locomotion of a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ohka

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an autonomous obstacle-avoidance method that operates in conjunction with groping locomotion on the humanoid robot Bonten-Maru II. Present studies on groping locomotion consist of basic research in which humanoid robot recognizes its surroundings by touching and groping with its arm on the flat surface of a wall. The robot responds to the surroundings by performing corrections to its orientation and locomotion direction. During groping locomotion, however, the existence of obstacles within the correction area creates the possibility of collisions. The objective of this paper is to develop an autonomous method to avoid obstacles in the correction area by applying suitable algorithms to the humanoid robot's control system. In order to recognize its surroundings, six-axis force sensors were attached to both robotic arms as end effectors for force control. The proposed algorithm refers to the rotation angle of the humanoid robot's leg joints due to trajectory generation. The algorithm relates to the groping locomotion via the measured groping angle and motions of arms. Using Bonten-Maru II, groping experiments were conducted on a wall's surface to obtain wall orientation data. By employing these data, the humanoid robot performed the proposed method autonomously to avoid an obstacle present in the correction area. Results indicate that the humanoid robot can recognize the existence of an obstacle and avoid it by generating suitable trajectories in its legs.

  8. Career Barriers: How People Experience, Overcome, and Avoid Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel

    This book defines career barriers, considers how people react to them, and offers ways to overcome and prevent them. It is geared towards people experiencing career barriers; for students at the start of their careers; for seasoned employees wanting to avoid or be prepared to deal with career barriers; and for managers, human resource…

  9. Binge Eating and Weight Control: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Two thirds of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Binge eating is a barrier to treatment adherence and sustained weight loss, and can be seen as a form of experiential avoidance. The current study analyzed the impact of binge eating on weight reduction in a previously published study of a 1-day acceptance and commitment…

  10. Concept development of automatic guidance for rotorcraft obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1990-01-01

    The automatic guidance of rotorcraft for obstacle avoidance in nap-of-the-earth flight is studied. A hierarchical breakdown of the guidance components is used to identify the functional requirements. These requirements and anticipated sensor capabilities lead to a preliminary guidance concept, which has been evaluated via computer simulations.

  11. Avoiding School Management Conflicts and Crisis through Formal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwogbaga, David M. E.; Nwankwo, Oliver U.; Onwa, Doris O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined how conflicts and crisis can be avoided through formal communication. It was necessitated by the observation that most of the conflicts and crisis which tend to mar school management today are functions of the inconsistencies arising from "grapevines, rumours, and gossips" generated through informal communication…

  12. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confrontation avoidance procedures. 552.23 Section 552.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation...

  13. Packet Drop Avoidance for High-speed network transmission protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Guojun

    2004-05-01

    As network bandwidth continues to grow and longer paths are used to exchange large scientific data between storage systems and GRID computation, it has become increasingly obvious that there is a need to deploy a packet drop avoidance mechanism into network transmission protocols. Current end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanisms used in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) have worked well on low bandwidth delay product networks, but with newer high-bandwidth delay networks they have shown to be inefficient and prone to unstable. This is largely due to increased network bandwidth coupled with changes in internet traffic patterns. These changes come from a variety of new network applications that are being developed to take advantage of the increased network bandwidth. This paper will examine the end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanism and perform a step-by-step analysis of its theory. In addition we will propose an alternative approach developed as part of a new network transmission protocol. Our alternative protocol uses a packet drop avoidance (PDA) mechanism built on top of the maximum burst size (MBS) theory combined with a real-time available bandwidth algorithm.

  14. 7 Ways to Avoid Serious Injury from School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160474.html 7 Ways to Avoid Serious Injury From School Sports Know how to reduce the risk of getting ...

  15. Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

    A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

  16. Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordet, Geir; Hartman, Esther

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between shot valence, avoidance behavior, and performance in soccer penalty shootouts. Video analyses were conducted with all penalty shootouts ever held ill the World Cup, the European Championships. and the UEFA Champions League (n = 36 sh

  17. Self-Avoiding Walks (SAWs), Entanglement and Biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikael Sonne

    2006-01-01

    The Self-Avoiding Walk (SAW) on a lattice are often used to study properties of polymers in good solvents such as entanglement, knotting (ring polymers), and statistical mechanical properties of polymers. Recently it has been used to explain the increased probability of phage DNA being knotted when...

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Experiential Avoidance in Emotional Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Drost, Jolijn; de Rooij, Mark; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the degree in which measurements of trait experiential avoidance (EA) are affected by current emotional disorder and whether EA is a causal factor in the course of emotional disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) and the development of comorbidity among emo

  19. A longitudinal study of experiential avoidance in emotional disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; Drost, J.; Rooij, M. de; Hemert, A.M. van; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the degree in which measurements of trait experiential avoidance (EA) are affected by current emotional disorder and whether EA is a causal factor in the course of emotional disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) and the development of comorbidity among emo

  20. Avoiding asymmetry-induced bias in longitudinal image processing

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Martin; Fischl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal image processing procedures frequently transfer or pool information across time within subject, with the dual goals of reducing the variability and increasing the accuracy of the derived measures. In this note, we discuss common difficulties in longitudinal image processing, focusing on the introduction of bias, and describe the approaches we have taken to avoid them in the FreeSurfer longitudinal processing stream.

  1. Avoid Vaccine Administration Errors with Seven Simple Steps

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-16

    This podcast discusses seven simple ways to avoid vaccine administration errors in health care settings.  Created: 2/16/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 2/16/2012.

  2. Looking after your health. 3. Avoiding varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sara

    2015-02-01

    This article is to summarise key concepts for the health of the midwife with particular focus on standing for prolonged periods. One of the resultant factors relating to standing postures is the slow but avoidable progression of varicose veins. There is a strong genetic bias to these veins, which can be distressing, but here we will highlight awareness and current research.

  3. Food aquisition and predator avoidance in a Neotropical rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suselbeek, L.; Emsens, W.J.; Hirsch, B.T.; Kays, R.; Rowcliffe, J.M.; Zamore-Gutierrez, V.; Jansen, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Foraging activity in animals reflects a compromise between acquiring food and avoiding predation. The Risk Allocation Hypothesis predicts that prey animals optimize this balance by concentrating their foraging activity at times of relatively low predation risk, as much as their energy status permits

  4. Fear-avoidance beliefs and pain avoidance in low back pain--translating research into clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom;

    2011-01-01

    For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle for recov...... for recovery from acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain.......For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle...

  5. Recurrent, robust and scalable patterns underlie human approach and avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Woo Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach, decrease (avoid, or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be governed by quantitative principles that meet engineering criteria for lawfulness and that encode known features of reward/aversion function, we evaluated whether keypress responses toward pictures with potential motivational value produced any regular patterns, such as a trade-off between approach and avoidance, or recurrent lawful patterns as observed with prospect theory. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three sets of experiments employed this task with beautiful face images, a standardized set of affective photographs, and pictures of food during controlled states of hunger and satiety. An iterative modeling approach to data identified multiple law-like patterns, based on variables grounded in the individual. These patterns were consistent across stimulus types, robust to noise, describable by a simple power law, and scalable between individuals and groups. Patterns included: (i a preference trade-off counterbalancing approach and avoidance, (ii a value function linking preference intensity to uncertainty about preference, and (iii a saturation function linking preference intensity to its standard deviation, thereby setting limits to both. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These law-like patterns were compatible with critical features of prospect theory, the matching law, and alliesthesia. Furthermore, they appeared consistent with both mean-variance and expected utility approaches to the assessment of risk. Ordering of responses across categories of stimuli demonstrated three properties thought to be relevant for preference-based choice, suggesting these patterns might be grouped together as a

  6. Sexual selection as a consequence of pathogen avoidance behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Logofet, D.O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Laboratory of Mathematical Ecology

    1997-08-01

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female choice for good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation is proposed. The pathogen avoidance hypothesis argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status so that sick individuals may be avoided during mating. Our studies shown that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits. The showy traits are argued to originate as simple exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers; vigorous movement; large size). Thus the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic in this theory. A game theory analysis is employed to formalize the theory. Results of the game theory model support the theory. In particular, when the possession of male showy traits does not help reduce disease in the female, then showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to the situation in large flocks or herds in which every animal is thoroughly exposed to all group pathogens on average. Such species do not exhibit showy traits. The good genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance) but will lead to selection for resistance if such genes are present. Overall, the pathogen avoidance hypothesis provides a complete alternative to the good genes theory.

  7. A spatially explicit estimate of avoided forest loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Ramírez, M Isabel

    2011-10-01

    With the potential expansion of forest conservation programs spurred by climate-change agreements, there is a need to measure the extent to which such programs achieve their intended results. Conventional methods for evaluating conservation impact tend to be biased because they do not compare like areas or account for spatial relations. We assessed the effect of a conservation initiative that combined designation of protected areas with payments for environmental services to conserve over wintering habitat for the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in Mexico. To do so, we used a spatial-matching estimator that matches covariates among polygons and their neighbors. We measured avoided forest loss (avoided disturbance and deforestation) by comparing forest cover on protected and unprotected lands that were similar in terms of accessibility, governance, and forest type. Whereas conventional estimates of avoided forest loss suggest that conservation initiatives did not protect forest cover, we found evidence that the conservation measures are preserving forest cover. We found that the conservation measures protected between 200 ha and 710 ha (3-16%) of forest that is high-quality habitat for monarch butterflies, but had a smaller effect on total forest cover, preserving between 0 ha and 200 ha (0-2.5%) of forest with canopy cover >70%. We suggest that future estimates of avoided forest loss be analyzed spatially to account for how forest loss occurs across the landscape. Given the forthcoming demand from donors and carbon financiers for estimates of avoided forest loss, we anticipate our methods and results will contribute to future studies that estimate the outcome of conservation efforts. PMID:21902720

  8. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  9. Impact of contour on aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions in architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Navarrete, Gorka; Chatterjee, Anjan; Fich, Lars Brorson; Leder, Helmut; Modroño, Cristián; Nadal, Marcos; Rostrup, Nicolai; Skov, Martin

    2013-06-18

    On average, we urban dwellers spend about 90% of our time indoors, and share the intuition that the physical features of the places we live and work in influence how we feel and act. However, there is surprisingly little research on how architecture impacts behavior, much less on how it influences brain function. To begin closing this gap, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine how systematic variation in contour impacts aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions, outcome measures of interest to both architects and users of spaces alike. As predicted, participants were more likely to judge spaces as beautiful if they were curvilinear than rectilinear. Neuroanatomically, when contemplating beauty, curvilinear contour activated the anterior cingulate cortex exclusively, a region strongly responsive to the reward properties and emotional salience of objects. Complementing this finding, pleasantness--the valence dimension of the affect circumplex--accounted for nearly 60% of the variance in beauty ratings. Furthermore, activation in a distributed brain network known to underlie the aesthetic evaluation of different types of visual stimuli covaried with beauty ratings. In contrast, contour did not affect approach-avoidance decisions, although curvilinear spaces activated the visual cortex. The results suggest that the well-established effect of contour on aesthetic preference can be extended to architecture. Furthermore, the combination of our behavioral and neural evidence underscores the role of emotion in our preference for curvilinear objects in this domain.

  10. Catching Fish and Avoiding Sharks: Investigating Factors That Influence Developmentally Appropriate Measurement of Preschoolers' Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J.; Okely, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers agree that the first 5 years of life are critical for children's developing executive functions (EFs), further advances are hindered by a lack of consensus on the design and selection of developmentally appropriate EF tasks for young children. Given this debate, well-established adult measures of EF routinely have been adapted…

  11. Fear-avoidance beliefs and pain avoidance in low back pain--translating research into clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom;

    2011-01-01

    For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle...

  12. 78 FR 28780 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts (DFARS... detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed rule...-81, enacted December 31, 2011). Section 818 is entitled ``Detection and Avoidance of...

  13. The Influence of Working Memory Capacity on Avoidance in English Writing:An Empirical Study of Non-English Majors in Independent Colleges of China%工作记忆容量对英语写作中回避现象的影响--基于中国非英语专业独立学院学生的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟; 陈璐

    2014-01-01

    以西安市某大学独立学院会计专业大学二年级两个自然班共95名学生作为研究对象,通过控制被试的目的语语言水平,从心理学角度探讨了二语写作中回避现象与工作记忆容量之间的关系。研究结果显示,高工作记忆容量组在写作中词汇回避和句型回避的出现几率明显低于低容量组。对研究结果进行分析可知,工作记忆容量差异对二语写作中词汇回避和句型回避存在负相关影响,工作记忆容量差异对以话题回避的语用回避不存在影响。关于语用回避与工作记忆的关系,需进一步研究探讨。%95 students from two natural classes of Grade Two majored in accountancy in the independent school of a university in Xi’an are taken as the research subjects.It explores the relation between the a-voidance in English writing and working memory capacity from the perspective of psychology,with the control on target language level.The results prove that high working memory capacity will reduce the rate of avoidance and it is concluded that working memory capacity is inversely proportional to the avoidance of vocabulary and sentence types in English writing,while it has no effect on the pragmatics of topic avoid-ance.The relationship between semantic avoidance and working memory needs further study.

  14. Measuring the Willingness to Pay to Avoid Guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Strobel, Martin

    We estimate structural models of guilt aversion to measure the population level of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid feeling guilt by letting down another player. We compare estimates of WTP under the assumption that higher-order beliefs are in equilibrium (i.e. consistent with the choice distrib...... is substantially overestimated (by a factor of two) when correlation between preferences and beliefs is not controlled for. Finally, we find no evidence that WTP is significantly related to the observable socio-economic characteristics of players....... experiment of proposal and response conducted with a large and representative sample of the Dutch population. Our range of estimates suggests that responders are willing to pay between 0.40 and 0.80 Euro to avoid letting down proposers by 1 Euro. Furthermore, we find that WTP estimated using stated beliefs...

  15. Measuring the willingness to pay to avoid guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Strobel, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We estimate structural models of guilt aversion to measure the population level of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid feeling guilt by letting down another player. We compare estimates of WTP under the assumption that higher-order beliefs are in equilibrium (i.e., consistent with the choice distri...... substantially overestimated (by a factor of two) when correlation between preferences and beliefs is not controlled for. Finally, we find no evidence that WTP is significantly related to the observable socio-economic characteristics of players....... experiment of proposal and response conducted with a large and representative sample of the Dutch population. Our range of estimates suggests that responders are willing to pay between ¤0.40 and ¤0.80 to avoid letting down proposers by ¤1. Furthermore, we find that WTP estimated using stated beliefs is...

  16. DAIDALUS: Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar; Narkawicz, Anthony; Consiglio, Maria; Chamberlain, James; Hagen, George; Upchurch, Jason; Dutle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DAIDALUS (Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems), a reference implementation of a detect and avoid concept intended to support the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into civil airspace. DAIDALUS consists of self-separation and alerting algorithms that provide situational awareness to UAS remote pilots. These algorithms have been formally specified in a mathematical notation and verified for correctness in an interactive theorem prover. The software implementation has been verified against the formal models and validated against multiple stressing cases jointly developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and NASA. The DAIDALUS reference implementation is currently under consideration for inclusion in the appendices to the Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Unmanned Aircraft Systems presently being developed by RTCA Special Committee 228.

  17. The lengths birds will go to avoid incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Cooperatively breeding species, in which some individuals help others to rear their offspring, face a high risk of inbreeding because of close relatedness within social groups. Many species circumvent this problem via sex-biased dispersal, in which one sex is more likely to disperse (and to disperse further), while the other stays and helps. In the absence of sex-biased dispersal, more complex dispersal patterns can arise, based on kin recognition. However, this can also present challenges when dispersal distances are short, leading to clusters of relatives on neighbouring territories. In this issue, Nelson-Flower et al. (2012) break important new ground by unravelling adaptive incest-avoidance mechanisms in a cooperatively breeding bird without sex-biased dispersal. They provide an elegant demonstration of finely tuned dispersal distances together with cognitively based methods for knowing whom to avoid as mates.

  18. Airborne Collision Avoidance System as a Cyber-Physical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. NAE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the key concepts of ITS - Intelligent Transport Systems, CPS - Cyber-Physical Systems and SM - Smart Mobility are defined and correlated with the need for ACAS – Airborne Collision Avoidance System, as the last resort safety net and indispensable ingredient in civil aviation. Smart Mobility is addressed from a Cyber Physical-Systems perspective, detailing some of the elements that this entails. Here we consider the Air Transportations System of the future as a Cyber-Physical System and analyze the implications of doing so from different perspectives. The objective is to introduce a 4D collision avoidance shield technology which forms a last resort safety net technology for the next generation air transport (2050 and beyond. The new system will represent a step change over the performance of current technology. As conclusions, the benefits of implementing Transport Cyber-Physical Systems are discussed, as well as what this would require for future deployment.

  19. Kinetic description of collision avoidance in pedestrian crowds by sidestepping

    CERN Document Server

    Festa, Adriano; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study a kinetic model for pedestrians, who are assumed to adapt their motion towards a desired direction while avoiding collisions with others by stepping aside. These minimal microscopic interaction rules lead to complex emergent macroscopic phenomena, such as velocity alignment in unidirectional flows and lane or stripe formation in bidirectional flows. We start by discussing collision avoidance mechanisms at the microscopic scale, then we study the corresponding Boltzmann-type kinetic description and its hydrodynamic mean-field approximation in the grazing collision limit. In the spatially homogeneous case we prove directional alignment under specific conditions on the sidestepping rules for both the collisional and the mean-field model. In the spatially inhomogeneous case we illustrate, by means of various numerical experiments, the rich dynamics that the proposed model is able to reproduce.

  20. Self-Avoiding Random Dynamics on Integer Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamze, Firas; de Freitas, Nando

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new specialized algorithm for equilibrium Monte Carlo sampling of binary-valued systems, which allows for large moves in the state space. This is achieved by constructing self-avoiding walks (SAWs) in the state space. As a consequence, many bits are flipped in a single MCMC step. We name the algorithm SARDONICS, an acronym for Self-Avoiding Random Dynamics on Integer Complex Systems. The algorithm has several free parameters, but we show that Bayesian optimization can be used to automatically tune them. SARDONICS performs remarkably well in a broad number of sampling tasks: toroidal ferromagnetic and frustrated Ising models, 3D Ising models, restricted Boltzmann machines and chimera graphs arising in the design of quantum computers.

  1. Structural characterization of ice polymorphs from self-avoiding walks

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero, Carlos P

    2014-01-01

    Topological properties of crystalline ice structures are studied by means of self-avoiding walks on their H-bond networks. The number of self-avoiding walks, C_n, for eight ice polymorphs has been obtained by direct enumeration up to walk length n = 27. This has allowed us to determine the `connective constant' or effective coordination number `mu' of these structures as the limit of the ratio C_n/C_{n-1} for large n. This structure-dependent parameter `mu' is related with other topological characteristics of ice polymorphs, such as the mean and minimum ring size, or the topological density of network sites. A correlation between the connective constant and the configurational entropy of hydrogen-disordered ice structures is discussed.

  2. Robotic Path Finding with Collision Avoidance Using Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡自兴

    1989-01-01

    A rule-based expert system has been developed and used into a robotic planning system with collision-avoidance,The world model is represented as the knowledge data and stored in the knowledge base with rules.The expert system can find a collision-avoidance path.Otherwise.it shows the collision secton in which the moved object is blocked,Several examples for the different objects to pass through the different channels and to find a collision-free path have been tested.The simulating results of the palnner give out the planning sequence or blocked section(s).The output information is useful for making decision of the robot motion and modifyting the technological parameters of the world.

  3. Robotic Path Finding with Collision Avoidance Using Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡自兴

    1989-01-01

    A rule-based expert system has been developed and used into a robotic planning system with collision-avoidance, The world model is represented as the knowledge data and stored in the knowledge base with rules. The expert system can find a collision-avoidance path . Otherwise, it shows the collision secton in which the moved object is blocked . Several examples for the different objects to pass throngli the different channels and to find a collision-free path have been testnd. The simulating resuks of the planner give out the planning sequence or blocked section(s) . The output information is useful for making decision of the robot motion and modifying the technological parameters of the world .

  4. [Big data, Roemer's law and avoidable hospital admissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, H E

    2016-01-01

    From an analysis of data from 23 European countries to determine the impact of primary care on avoidable hospital admissions for uncontrolled diabetes it appeared that, contrary to expectation, countries with strong primary care did not have a lower rate of avoidable hospital admission. It is clear that Roemer's law, 'a bed built is a bed filled,' still applies. However, the validity of this sort of analysis can be questioned, as these data are highly aggregated, and registration quality differs between countries. It is also questionable if these datasets can be considered as 'big data' as there are relatively small numbers per country. Big data analyses are useful for discerning patterns and formulating hypotheses, but not for proving causality. An unwanted side effect of this kind of analysis might be that policymakers use these not so valid results to underpin their policy to their advantage. PMID:27484429

  5. Real-Time Fuzzy Obstacle Avoidance Using Directional Visual Perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Guoquan(黄国权); Rad A. B.; Wong Y. K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel vision-based obstacle avoidance approach for the Autonomous Mobile Robot (AMR) with a Pan- Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) camera as its only sensing modality. The approach combines the morphological closing operation based on Sobel Edge Detection Operation and the (μ-kσ) thresholding technique to detect obstacles to soften the various lighting and ground floor effects. Both the morphology method and thresholding technique are computationally simple. The processing speed of the algorithm is fast enough to avoid some active obstacles. In addition, this approach takes into account the history obstacle effects on the current state. Fuzzy logic is used to control the behaviors of AMR as it navigates in the environment. All behaviors run concurrently and generate motor response solely based on vision perception. A priority based on subsumption coordinator selects the most appropriate response to direct the AMR away from obstacles. Validation of the proposed approach is done on a Pioneer 1 mobile robot.

  6. Avoidance within a changing assessment paradigm for Mediterranean Hake stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAGONESE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean hake Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, is the emblem of the so-called Mediterranean demersal fisheries paradox, showing a persistent, although stable, status of growth overexploitation and an impressive gap between current and any biological reference point. Almost full avoidance capability of large size females to bottom trawls, higher overall growth rates than previously believed and higher natural mortality in juveniles than adult, were considered among the most plausible explanation factors of such persistence. In the present note, arguments are illustrated to raise some concern about avoidance and highlight the important role of the other factors in improving assessments and launching a short term recovery plan for Mediterranean Hake stocks which is more acceptable to fishermen.

  7. Departures from optimality when pursuing multiple approach or avoidance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Timothy; Yeo, Gillian; Neal, Andrew; Farrell, Simon

    2016-07-01

    This article examines how people depart from optimality during multiple-goal pursuit. The authors operationalized optimality using dynamic programming, which is a mathematical model used to calculate expected value in multistage decisions. Drawing on prospect theory, they predicted that people are risk-averse when pursuing approach goals and are therefore more likely to prioritize the goal in the best position than the dynamic programming model suggests is optimal. The authors predicted that people are risk-seeking when pursuing avoidance goals and are therefore more likely to prioritize the goal in the worst position than is optimal. These predictions were supported by results from an experimental paradigm in which participants made a series of prioritization decisions while pursuing either 2 approach or 2 avoidance goals. This research demonstrates the usefulness of using decision-making theories and normative models to understand multiple-goal pursuit. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963081

  8. Phase-space picture of resonance creation and avoided crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, T

    2000-01-01

    Complex coordinate scaling (CCS) is used to calculate resonance eigenvalues and eigenstates for a system consisting of an inverted Gaussian potential and a monochromatic driving field. Floquet eigenvalues and Husimi distributions of resonance eigenfunctions are calculated using two different versions of CCS. The number of resonance states in this system increases as the strength of the driving field is increased, indicating that this system might have increased stability against ionization when the field strength is very high. We find that the newly created resonance states are scarred on unstable periodic orbits of the classical motion. The behavior of these periodic orbits as the field strength is increased may explain why there are more resonance states at high field strengths than at low field strengths. Close examination of an avoided crossing between resonance states shows that this type of avoided crossing does not delocalize the resonance states, although it may lead to interesting effects at certain ...

  9. Getting Obstacle Avoidance Trajectory of Mobile Beacon for Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Qing CUI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the most important technologies in wireless sensor network, and mobile beacon assisted localization is a promising localization method. The mobile beacon trajectory planning is a basic and important problem in these methods. There are many obstacles in the real world, which obstruct the moving of mobile beacon. This paper focuses on the obstacle avoidance trajectory planning scheme. After partitioning the deployment area with fixed cell decomposition, the beacon trajectory are divided into global and local trajectory. The approximate shortest global trajectory is obtained by depth-first search, greedy strategy method and ant colony algorithm, while local trajectory is any existing trajectories. Simulation results show that this method can avoid obstacles in the network deployment area, and the smaller cell size leads to longer beacon trajectory and more localizable sensor nodes.

  10. Dopamine Regulates Approach-Avoidance in Human Sensation-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Norbury, A.; Kurth-Nelson, Z.; Winston, J. S.; Roiser, J.P.; M. Husain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensation-seeking is a trait that constitutes an important vulnerability factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost. However, little is understood either about the mechanisms underlying motivation for intense sensory experiences or their neuropharmacological modulation in humans. Methods: Here, we first evaluate a novel paradigm to investigate sensation-seeking in humans. This test probes the extent to which participants choose either to avoid or self-administ...

  11. Factors associated with healthcare avoidance among transgender women in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Socías, María Eugenia; Marshall, Brandon DL; Arístegui, Inés; Romero, Marcela; Cahn, Pedro; Kerr, Thomas; Sued, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Transgender (TG) women in many settings continue to contend with barriers to healthcare, including experiences of stigma and discrimination. Argentina has a universal health care system and laws designed to promote healthcare access among TG women. However, little is known about barriers to healthcare access among TG women in this setting. The aim of this study was to explore individual, social-structural and environmental factors associated with healthcare avoidance among TG wom...

  12. Real-time collision avoidance in space: the GETEX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Juergen; Schluse, Michael

    2000-10-01

    Intelligent autonomous robotic systems require efficient safety components to assure system reliability during the entire operation. Especially if commanded over long distances, the robotic system must be able to guarantee the planning of safe and collision free movements independently. Therefore the IRF developed a new collision avoidance methodology satisfying the needs of autonomous safety systems considering the dynamics of the robots to protect. To do this, the collision avoidance system cyclically calculates the actual collision danger of the robots with respect to all static and dynamic obstacles in the environment. If a robot gets in collision danger the methodology immediately starts an evasive action to avoid the collision and guides the robot around the obstacle to its target position. This evasive action is calculated in real-time in a mathematically exact way by solving a quadratic convex optimization problem. The secondary conditions of this optimization problem include the potential collision danger of the robots kinematic chain including all temporarily attached grippers and objects and the dynamic constraints of the robots. The result of the optimization procedure are joint accelerations to apply to prevent the robot from colliding and to guide it to its target position. This methodology has been tested very successfully during the Japanese/German space robot project GETEX in April 1999. During the mission, the collision avoidance system successfully protected the free flying Japanese robot ERA on board the satellite ETS-VII at all times. The experiments showed, that the developed system is fully capable of ensuring the safety of such autonomous robotic systems by actively preventing collisions and generating evasive actions in cases of collision danger.

  13. Platform Siphoning: Ad-Avoidance and Media Content

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P. Anderson; Joshua S. Gans

    2011-01-01

    Content providers rely on advertisers to pay for content. TiVo, remote controls, and pop-up ad blockers are examples of ad-avoidance technologies that allow consumers to view content without ads, and thereby siphon off the content without paying the "price." We examine the content provider's reaction to such technologies, demonstrating that their adoption increases advertising clutter (leading to a potential downward spiral), may reduce total welfare and content quality, and can lead to more ...

  14. Procrastination and counterfactual thinking: avoiding what might have been.

    OpenAIRE

    Sirois, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    The possible negative consequences of counterfactuals were explored in the current study by examining the relationship between counterfactual direction and trait procrastination, a self-defeating behavioural style. Eighty participants generated counterfactuals in response to two experimental anxiety inductions. Trait procrastination was overall related to avoiding thoughts about how things could have been better (making more downward and relatively fewer upward counterfactuals) in response to...

  15. Recognition of Threshold Dose Model: Avoiding Continued Excessive Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to examine the relationships between radiation dose-response models and associated regulations. It is concluded that recognition of the validity of a threshold model can be done on the basis of presently known data and that changes in regulations should be started at this time to avoid further unnecessary losses due to continued excessive regulation. As results from new research come in, refinement of interim values proposed in revised regulations can be incorporated

  16. Avoiding Dirty Air (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-01

    As summertime approaches and warmer weather moves in, air pollution will become an increasing problem across the U.S. People with asthma are especially impacted by deteriorating air quality. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Beavers discusses ways to avoid the negative impacts of air pollution.  Created: 5/1/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/1/2014.

  17. Asymmetric learning to avoid heterospecific males in Mesocricetus hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    If a female mates with a male of a closely related species, her fitness is likely to decline. Consequently, females may develop behavioral mechanisms to avoid mating with heterospecific males. In some species, one such mechanism is for adult females to learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure to such males. We have previously shown that adult, female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against male Turkish hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti) after...

  18. Avoidance of petroleum hydrocarbons by the cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhle, Bjørn

    1986-01-01

    The experimental fish were held in two different aquaria, one with three and one with two compartments. Water containing "water soluble fraction" of Fuel Oil No. 2 was introduced in one of the compartments. By means of light- and sound-based detectors, the amount of time spent by the fish in the various compartments was recorded. Although the results were somewhat contradictory, it seems that the fish avoided water containing more than 100 µg/l of the petroleum hydrocarbons.

  19. Multiple System-Decomposition Method for Avoiding Quantum Decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Jekni(c)-Dugi(c); M.Dugi(c)

    2008-01-01

    Decomposition of a composite system C into different subsystems,A+B or D+ε,may help in avoiding decoherence.For example,the environment-induced decoherence for an A+B system need not destroy entanglement present in the D+ε system(A+B=C=D+ε).This new approach opens some questions also in the foundations of the quantum computation theory that might eventually lead to a new model of quantum computation.

  20. Getting Obstacle Avoidance Trajectory of Mobile Beacon for Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Huan-Qing CUI; Ying-Long WANG; Guo, Qiang; Wei, Nuo

    2010-01-01

    Localization is one of the most important technologies in wireless sensor network, and mobile beacon assisted localization is a promising localization method. The mobile beacon trajectory planning is a basic and important problem in these methods. There are many obstacles in the real world, which obstruct the moving of mobile beacon. This paper focuses on the obstacle avoidance trajectory planning scheme. After partitioning the deployment area with fixed cell decomposition, the beacon traject...

  1. The pathogen transmission avoidance theory of sexual selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1997-08-01

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female preference for males with good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation, the pathogen transmission avoidance hypothesis, argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status, so that sick individuals can be avoided during mating. This study shows that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits, which originate as exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers, vigorous movement, large size). Thus, in this new model the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic and there is no threshold effect. This model predicts that when the possession of male showy traits does not help to reduce disease in the female, showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to thorough exposure of every animal to all group pathogens, on average, in large groups. Such species are shown with a large data set on birds to be less likely to exhibit showy traits. The good-genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen transmission avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance), but can result in selection for resistance if such genes are present. Monogamy is argued to reduce selection pressures for showy traits; data show monogamous species to be both less parasitized and less showy. In the context of reduction of pathogen transmission rates in showy populations, selection pressure becomes inversely frequency-dependent, which makes showy traits likely to be self-limiting rather than runaway.

  2. Obstacle Avoidance in Groping Locomotion of a Humanoid Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Ohka; Kazuhisa Mitobe; Yasuo Nasu; Mitsuhiro Yamano; Hanafiah Yussof

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an autonomous obstacle-avoidance method that operates in conjunction with groping locomotion on the humanoid robot Bonten-Maru II. Present studies on groping locomotion consist of basic research in which humanoid robot recognizes its surroundings by touching and groping with its arm on the flat surface of a wall. The robot responds to the surroundings by performing corrections to its orientation and locomotion direction. During groping locomotion, howev...

  3. Food Avoidance Learning in Squirrel Monkeys and Common Marmosets

    OpenAIRE

    Laska, Matthias; Metzker, Karin

    1998-01-01

    Using a conditioned food avoidance learning paradigm, six squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and six common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were tested for their ability to (1) reliably form associations between visual or olfactory cues of a potential food and its palatability and (2) remember such associations over prolonged periods of time. We found (1) that at the group level both species showed one-trial learning with the visual cues color and shape, whereas only the marmosets were able t...

  4. Approach-Avoidance Behavior of Refugees in a Finnish School

    OpenAIRE

    Laasonen, Ed.D. Raimo J

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to research how the Vietnamese refugees (N was 9) behave with a Finnish school environment. Participating observation was applied because of the lack of public possibilities to study the phenomenon openly. The Markovian approach was the analysis of the data. The results indicate school environment, its interaction guides how the refugees behave in their approach-avoidance behavior. Principally, the behavior of the surrounding school environment p...

  5. Design of an obstacle avoidance system for automated guided vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    Most Industrial Automated Guided Vehicles CAGV s) follow fixed guide paths embedded in the floor or bonded to the floor surface. Whilst reliable in their basic operation, these AGV systems fail if unexpected obstacles are placed in the vehicle path. This can be a problem particularly in semi-automated factories where men and AGVs share the same environment. The perfonnance of line-guided AGVs may therefore be enhanced with a capability to avoid unexpected obstructions in the guide path. Th...

  6. Indonesia - Avoiding the Trap : Development Policy Review 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Within the next two decades Indonesia aspires to generate prosperity, avoid a middle-income trap, and leave no one behind as it tries to catch up with high-income economies. Can Indonesia achieve them? This report argues that the country has the potential to rise and become more prosperous and equitable. But the risk of floating in the middle is real. Which pathway the economy will take de...

  7. A new method to avoid PPP in data evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhen-Peng; Sun Ye-Ying

    2004-01-01

    The Peelle Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) has been studied systematically. The results obtained by using several proposed methods to deal with a sample of 6Li(n, t) are compared with each other. The cause of PPP occurrence has been found.error according to the relative extent of discrepancy'. The method is able to produce the best result and should be used to avoid the PPP at first.

  8. Rumination, experiential avoidance, and dysfunctional thinking in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rawal, A.; Park, R J; Williams, J.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of research in eating disorders (ED) has investigated the content of disorder-specific thoughts, while few studies have addressed underlying cognitive-affective processes. A better understanding of processes underpinning ED may have important implications for treatment development. Two studies were conducted that investigated levels of rumination, beliefs about rumination, experiential avoidance, and aspects of schematic thinking in individuals with eating pathology. The latter w...

  9. Avoiding Confusion between Predictors and Inhibitors in Value Function Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Patrick C.; Trappenberg, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    In reinforcement learning, the goal is to seek rewards and avoid punishments. A simple scalar captures the value of a state or of taking an action, where expected future rewards increase and punishments decrease this quantity. Naturally an agent should learn to predict this quantity to take beneficial actions, and many value function approximators exist for this purpose. In the present work, however, we show how value function approximators can cause confusion between predictors of an outcome...

  10. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukant Khurana; Mohammed Bin AbuBaker; Obaid Siddiqi

    2009-10-01

    Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) and long term (LTM) as a function of training cycles. The same method of analysis when applied to learning mutants dunce, amnesiac, rutabaga and radish reveals memory deficits characteristic of the mutant strains.

  11. Collision Avoidance for Satellite Orbits and Low Thrust Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Assmann, Kaja

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a capacious collision avoidance method named COLA. The method has been designed to predict collisions for Earth orbiting spacecraft (S/C) with other space-born objects. The COLA method is able to detect the point of time and the probability of collisions for objects flying on all kinds of Earth orbits, including high impulse and low thrust transfers. To guarantee an effective solution of all tasks in the process of the collision prediction, the COLA method ...

  12. Collision detection and avoidance system based on computer vision

    OpenAIRE

    Kalvå, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A wide selection of stereo matching algorithms have been evaluated for the purpose ofcreating a collision avoidance module. Varying greatly in the accuracy, a few of thealgorithms were fast enough for further use.Two computer vision libraries, OpenCV and MRF, were evaluated for their implementationsof various stereo matching algorithms. In addition OpenCV provides a wide variety offunctions for creating sophisticated computer vision programs and were evaluated onthis basis as well.A stereo ca...

  13. Breast Positioning during Mammography: Mistakes to be Avoided

    OpenAIRE

    Manju Bala Popli; Rahul Teotia; Meenakshi Narang; Hare Krishna

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Breast positioning is the key factor affecting a mammogram. If care is taken during positioning, it maximizes the amount of breast tissue being imaged, eliminates most of the artifacts, and increases sensitivity of the mammogram. This retrospective study was carried out in our department to assess correctness, and also the incorrectness of breast positioning, which need to be avoided to obtain an ideal mammogram. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 1369 female patients were in...

  14. The Effect of Synchronized Running Activity with Chronic Stress on Passive Avoidance Learning and Body Weight in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Radahmadi; Hojjatallah Alaei; Mohammad R Sharifi; Nasrin Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different stressors induce learning and memory impairment and physical activity influence learning and memory enhancement. In this research, we investigated the effect of synchronized running activity with stress on acquisition and retention time of passive avoidance test. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups as follows: Control (Co), Sham (Sh), Exercise (Ex), Stress (St), synchronized exercise with stress (St and Ex) groups. Chronic restraint stres...

  15. Analysis on problems of avoiding thunder in gasoline station%加油站防雷问题的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘洋

    2015-01-01

    分析了雷电对加油站c的影响,提出了加油站在防雷方面易出现的问题.%The author analyzes the influence factors of lightning and thunders to the gas station according to the national relevant provisi ons and industry standards,and points out the problems in avoiding thunder of the gas stations.

  16. Do Tetranychus urticae males avoid mating with familiar females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Yano, S

    2014-07-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, usually lives in kin groups under common webs. Because only the first mating results in fertilisation in female T. urticae, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, those at the stage immediately before maturation, to ensure paternity. Therefore, the cost of precopulatory guarding time seems considerable for males. Moreover, the fitness indices of daughters from intra-population crosses were significantly lower than those of daughters from inter-population crosses, indicating that inbreeding depression exists in T. urticae. Therefore, we hypothesised that T. urticae males should be choosy in guarding familiar females to avoid inbreeding depression. Furthermore, webs should be a key element of the environment shared by familiar individuals. In this study, we demonstrated the inbreeding avoidance mechanism of T. urticae males in relation to webs produced by familiar females (known webs) or unfamiliar females (unknown webs). Regardless of surrounding webs (known or unknown), males preferred unfamiliar to familiar females. We further examined whether males detect unfamiliar females by their webs. When males had experienced a female's web without encountering that female, they subsequently preferred females that did not produce the surrounding webs in which the choice experiment was conducted. Results suggest that putative kin recognition for inbreeding avoidance in T. urticae males is based on the relationship between webs and females, and not on the discrimination of webs in shared environments.

  17. Cavity Femtochemistry: Manipulating Nonadiabatic Dynamics at Avoided Crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-06-01

    Molecular potential energy surfaces can be actively manipulated by light. This is usually done by strong classical laser light but was recently demonstrated for the quantum field in an optical cavity. The photonic vacuum state of a localized cavity mode can be strongly mixed with the molecular degrees of freedom to create hybrid field-matter states known as polaritons. We simulate the avoided crossing of sodium iodide in a cavity by incorporating the quantized cavity field into the nuclear wave packet dynamics calculation. The quantized field is represented on a numerical grid in quadrature space, thus avoiding the limitations set by the rotating wave approximation (RWA) when the field is expanded in Fock space. This approach allows the investigation of cavity couplings in the vicinity of naturally occurring avoided crossings and conical intersections, which is too expensive in the fock space expansion when the RWA does not apply. Numerical results show how the branching ratio between the covalent and ionic dissociation channels can be strongly manipulated by the optical cavity. PMID:27186666

  18. Reinforcement learning for congestion-avoidance in packet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Keisuke; Tretiakov, Alexei

    2005-04-01

    Occurrence of congestion of packet flow in computer networks is one of the unfavorable problems in packet communication and hence its avoidance should be investigated. We use a neural network model for packet routing control in a computer network proposed in a previous paper by Horiguchi and Ishioka (Physica A 297 (2001) 521). If we assume that the packets are not sent to nodes whose buffers are already full of packets, then we find that traffic congestion occurs when the number of packets in the computer network is larger than some critical value. In order to avoid the congestion, we introduce reinforcement learning for a control parameter in the neural network model. We find that the congestion is avoided by the reinforcement learning and at the same time we have good performance for the throughput. We investigate the packet flow on computer networks of various types of topology such as a regular network, a network with fractal structure, a small-world network, a scale-free network and so on.

  19. Difficulties in avoiding exposure to allergens in cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the ability of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to avoid exposure to allergens in cosmetics. The study is a questionnaire survey among 382 patients with contact allergy to preservatives and fragrances, included from 3 dermatological clinics. The questi......The aim of the study is to describe the ability of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to avoid exposure to allergens in cosmetics. The study is a questionnaire survey among 382 patients with contact allergy to preservatives and fragrances, included from 3 dermatological clinics....... The questionnaire included questions about the level of difficulty in reading labels of ingredients on cosmetics and about patients' strategies to avoid substances they were allergic to. It also included questions about eczema severity as well as about educational level. 46% of the patients found it difficult...... or extremely difficult to read the ingredient labelling of cosmetics, and this finding was significantly related to low educational level. Patients allergic to formaldehyde and methyldibromo glutaronitrile experienced the worst difficulties, while patients with fragrance allergy found ingredient label reading...

  20. A Robot Manipulator with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Obstacle Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Muthuswamy

    2016-07-01

    Building robots and machines to act within a fuzzy environment is a problem featuring complexity and ambiguity. In order to avoid obstacles, or move away from it, the robot has to perform functions such as obstacle identification, finding the location of the obstacle, its velocity, direction of movement, size, shape, and so on. This paper presents about the design, and implementation of an adaptive fuzzy controller designed for a 3 degree of freedom spherical coordinate robotic manipulator interfaced with a microcontroller and an ultrasonic sensor. Distance between the obstacle and the sensor and its time rate are considered as inputs to the controller and how the manipulator to take diversion from its planned trajectory, in order to avoid collision with the obstacle, is treated as output from the controller. The obstacles are identified as stationary or moving objects and accordingly adaptive self tuning is accomplished with three set of linguistic rules. The prototype of the manipulator has been fabricated and tested for collision avoidance by placing stationary and moving obstacles in its planned trajectory. The performance of the adaptive control algorithm is analyzed in MATLAB by generating 3D fuzzy control surfaces.

  1. Autonomous obstacle avoidance using visual fixation and looming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Kunal; Raviv, Daniel

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes a vision-based method for avoiding obstacles using the concepts of visual looming and fixating motion. Visual looming refers to the expansion of images of objects in the retina. Usually, this is due to the decreasing distance between the observer and the object. An increasing looming value signifies an increasing threat of collision with the object. The visual task of avoiding collision can be further simplified by purposive control of visual fixation at the objects in front of the moving camera. Using these two basic concepts real time obstacle avoidance in a tight perception-action loop is implemented. Three-dimensional space in front of the camera is divided into zones with various degrees of looming-based threat of collision. For each obstacle seen by a fixating camera, looming and its time derivative are calculated directly from the 2-D image. Depending on the threat posed by an obstacle, a course change is dictated. This looming based approach is simple, independent of the size of the 3-D object and its range and involves simple quantitative measurements. Results pertinent to a camera on a robot arm navigating between obstacles are presented.

  2. Square lattice self-avoiding walks and biased differential approximants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Iwan

    2016-10-01

    The model of self-avoiding lattice walks and the asymptotic analysis of power-series have been two of the major research themes of Tony Guttmann. In this paper we bring the two together and perform a new analysis of the generating functions for the number of square lattice self-avoiding walks and some of their metric properties such as the mean-square end-to-end distance. The critical point x c for self-avoiding walks is known to a high degree of accuracy and we utilise this knowledge to undertake a new numerical analysis of the series using biased differential approximants. The new method is major advance in asymptotic power-series analysis in that it allows us to bias differential approximants to have a singularity of order q at x c. When biasing at x c with q≥slant 2 the analysis yields a very accurate estimate for the critical exponent γ =1.343 7500(3) thus confirming the conjectured exact value γ =43/32 to eight significant digits and removing a long-standing minor discrepancy between exact and numerical results. The analysis of the mean-square end-to-end distance yields ν =0.750 0002(4) thus confirming the exact value ν =3/4 to seven significant digits. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  3. Disruption avoidance through active magnetic feedback in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Roberto; Zanca, Paolo; Yanovskiy, Vadim; Finotti, Claudio; Manduchi, Gabriele; Piron, Chiara; Carraro, Lorella; Franz, Paolo; RFX Team

    2014-10-01

    Disruptions avoidance and mitigation is a fundamental need for a fusion relevant tokamak. In this paper a new experimental approach for disruption avoidance using active magnetic feedback is presented. This scheme has been implemented and tested on the RFX-mod device operating as a circular tokamak. RFX-mod has a very complete system designed for active mode control that has been proved successful for the stabilization of the Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs). In particular the current driven 2/1 mode, unstable when the edge safety factor, qa, is around (or even less than) 2, has been shown to be fully and robustly stabilized. However, at values of qa (qa > 3), the control of the tearing 2/1 mode has been proved difficult. These results suggested the idea to prevent disruptions by suddenly lowering qa to values around 2 where the tearing 2/1 is converted to a RWM. Contrary to the universally accepted idea that the tokamaks should disrupt at low qa, we demonstrate that in presence of a well designed active control system, tokamak plasmas can be driven to low qa actively stabilized states avoiding plasma disruption with practically no loss of the plasma internal energy.

  4. Hierarchical brain networks active in approach and avoidance goal pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Martin Spielberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective approach/avoidance goal pursuit is critical for attaining long-term health and well-being. Research on the neural correlates of key goal pursuit processes (e.g., motivation has long been of interest, with lateralization in prefrontal cortex being a particularly fruitful target of investigation. However, this literature has often been limited by a lack of spatial specificity and has not delineated the precise aspects of approach/avoidance motivation involved. Additionally, the relationships among brain regions (i.e., network connectivity vital to goal pursuit remain largely unexplored. Specificity in location, process, and network relationship is vital for moving beyond gross characterizations of function and identifying the precise cortical mechanisms involved in motivation. The present paper integrates research using more spatially specific methodologies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging with the rich psychological literature on approach/avoidance to propose an integrative network model that takes advantage of the strengths of each of these literatures.

  5. Computer-assisted collision avoidance using ARPA and ECDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, J.; Mathes, S.

    1997-12-01

    In the project entitled “Computer-Assisted Collision Avoidance”, which was funded by the German Mi nistry of Education, Research and Technology and was executed in cooperation with the industrial partner STN ATLAS Elektronik, the intention was to combine the tasks of track planning, track control and collision avoidance. The aim was to develop a system which would support the officer of the watch in the handling of complex traffic situations by suggesting collision-avoidance tracks. The main points of this project were in the following areas: p] Determination and display of danger areas The positions of possible collisions with other ships, and areas to be avoided on the basis of defined closest points of approach, are computed and displayed with geometrical exactness. The target ships are fed into the system via a standardized interface. Set of rules for the handling of multi- ship encounters The software for computer-assisted collision avoidance contains a set of rules for the creation of collisi on avoidance tracks, taking account of the existing traffic situation. This set of rules takes into account the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG) and nautical practice. In the process of generating a track suggestion, all other ships detected in the sea area concerned are included in the compu tation. Integration of ECDIS One of the main aims of the project was to combine the information and functionalities of ARPA and ECDIS. By the incorporation of chart data, the system is able to compute track suggestions, taking account of the sea area in which the ships are sailing. In this process, the own ship’s safety requirements are inclu ded. Accordingly, the track thus determined can actually be sailed. By the overlaid display of radar picture and ECDIS, the situation involving encounters with other vessels can at all times be assessed within the over all context. Economically designed man- machine interface One important subtask in the

  6. Hear no evil: The effect of auditory warning signals on avian innate avoidance, learned avoidance and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. SIDDALL, Nicola M. MARPLES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aposematic insect species advertise their toxicity to potential predators using olfactory and auditory signals, in addition to visual signals, to produce a multimodal warning display. The olfactory signals in these displays may have interesting effects, such as eliciting innate avoidance against novel colored prey, or improving learning and memory of defended prey. However, little is known about the effects of such ancillary signals when they are auditory rather than olfactory. The few studies that have investigated this question have provided conflicting results. The current study sought to clarify and extend understanding of the effects of prey auditory signals on avian predator responses. The domestic chick Gallus gallus domesticus was used as a model avian predator to examine how the defensive buzzing sound of a bumblebee Bombus terrestris affected the chick’s innate avoidance behavior, and the learning and memory of prey avoidance. The results demonstrate that the buzzing sound had no effect on the predator’s responses to unpalatable aposematically colored crumbs, suggesting that the agitated buzzing of B. terrestris may provide no additional protection from avian predators [Current Zoology 57 (2: 197–207, 2011].

  7. Hear no evil:The effect of auditory warning signals on avian innate avoidance,learned avoidance and memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emma C.SIDDALL; Nicola M.MARPLES

    2011-01-01

    Many aposematic insect species advertise their toxicity to potential predators using olfactory and auditory signals,in addition to visual signals,to produce a multimodal warning display.The olfactory signals in these displays may have interesting effects,such as eliciting innate avoidance against novel colored prey,or improving learning and memory of defended prey.However,little is known about the effects of such ancillary signals when they are auditory rather than olfactory.The few studies that have investigated this question have provided confficting results.The current study sought to clarify and extend understanding of the effects of prey auditory signals on avian predator responses.The domestic chick Gallus gallus domesticus was used as a model avian predator to examine how the defensive buzzing sound of a bumblebee Bombus terrestris affected the chick's innate avoidance behavior,and the learning and memory of prey avoidance.The resuits demonstrate that the buzzing sound had no effect on the predator's responses to unpalalable aposematically colored crumbs,suggesting that the agitated buzzing of B.terrestris may provide no additional protection from avian predators.

  8. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  9. The Relationship among Student Basic Need Satisfaction, Approaches to Learning, Reporting of Avoidance Strategies and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech; Artiga, Amparo Gomez

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the relationship between student basic need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, relatedness and belonging), their reporting of approaches to learning (deep and surface), their reporting of avoidance strategies (avoidance of effort and challenge, avoidance of help seeking and preference to avoid novelty) and…

  10. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  11. The Relationship Between Approach-Avoidance Behaviors and Hardiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali-Poor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hardiness as a personality trait is an important factor in directing people to success. An explanation for this trait is the psychobiological explanation including the Gray’s theory of Brian/behavioral systems. This study has examined the relationship between the Brian/behavioral systems and hardiness in successful people.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 successful students (medical students in their final two years of medical school and 60 ordinary subjects were studied using two personality questionnaires (Gary-Wilson and Hardiness Questionnaires as well as Pearson’s correlation statistical technique, regression, and independent t-test.Results: Data analysis showed that the activity level of behavioral activation system (p=0.002: active avoidance and p> 0.001: approach behavior and hardiness (p>0.001 is significantly higher in successful people than ordinary subjects and that there is a significant relationship between hardiness and two components of behavioral activation system and one component of behavioral inhibition system (i.e. active avoidance (p>0.01. Conclusion: According to the findings, only two components of approach behavior and active avoidance can predict the variable hardiness. However, these two components are considered as only one of the predictors of success and there are undoubtedly many other factors involved in this regard. Overall, this study can lead to the identification of new factors involved in the success occurrence that consideration of them can help understanding the individual differences in order to perform effective psychological interventions to improve the level of effort and success in people.

  12. STRES DITINJAU DARI ACTIVE COPING, AVOIDANCE COPING DAN NEGATIVE COPING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantoro Safaria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakStres  merupakan bagian dari kehidupan dan  kehidupan tidak lepas dari stres. Stresbisa dialami siapa saja, dari kanak-kanak hingga  lanjut usia.  Stres bisa bersifat akut danbisa pula bersifat  kronis.  Banyak penelitian empiris yang membuktikan bahwa stres berdampaksecara negatif bagi kesehatan tubuh  dan  kesejahteraan psikologis. Namun banyak faktoryang berpengaruh terhadap stres. Diantara faktor  faktor tersebut adalah strategi  coping yangdigunakan individu.Penelitian ini menguji hubungan antara  tiga strategi coping yaitu active coping,avoidance coping  dan  negative coping  dengan  stres  pada mahasiswa. Subyekpenelitian berjumlah  41 orang yang merupakan mahasiswa psikologi Universitas AhmadDahlan Yogyakarta.Berdasarkan hasil  analisis regresi menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan  yang signifikanantara   active coping, negative coping dan  avoidance coping  secara bersama-sama dengan  stres R = 0.045 F = 1.631 p = 0.199. Hasil uji korelasi  product momentpearson antara  active coping  dengan stres menunjukkan adanya hubungan negatif yangtidak signifikan r = - 0.034 p =  0.417. Korelasi antara avoidance coping  dengan stresmenunjukkan adanya hubungan positif yang tidak signifikan r = 0.113 p = 0.241.  Korelasiantara  negative coping  dengan stres menunjukkan hubungan positif yang signifikan  r =0.340 p = 0.015. Negative  coping  menyumbang  9.3 %  terhadap  stres. Ini menunjukkanmasih terdapat  90.7 % pengaruh variabel lain yang terhadap stres.

  13. Avoiding maladaptation to climate change: towards guiding principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent publication of the Physical Science Basis volume of IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report reaffirms an already known conclusion: even drastic reductions of global greenhouse gas emissions will be insufficient to avoid some of the impacts of climate change, and is becoming increasingly clear that the temperature increase by the end of the century is likely to exceed the official target of +2 deg. C. Urgent efforts are thus more than ever needed to support socio-ecological systems threatened by climate change, but how to make adaptation happen on the ground remains vague. Consequently, there is a real risk that climate funding may support initiatives that are actually harmful for the socio-ecological systems, i.e. that foster adaptation in the short-term but insidiously affect systems' long-term vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity to climate change. This generally defines 'mal-adaptation', and this paper affirms that avoiding mal-adaptation is a first key concrete step towards adaptation in a broader sense. Focusing on coastal areas at a local scale and with the aim of providing insights to help avoiding mal-adaptation to climate change on the ground, this paper develops eleven practice-oriented guidelines that address the environmental, socio-cultural and economic dimensions of adaptation initiatives (policies, plans, projects). Based upon this, it affirms that the more guidelines an initiative addresses, the lower will be the risk of mal-adaptation. Together, these guidelines and this assumption constitute the 'Assessment framework' for approaching mal-adaptation to climate change at a local level. (author)

  14. A Global Obstacle-avoidance Map for Anthropomorphic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more humanoid robots are used in human society, and they face a wide variety of complicated manipulation tasks, which are mainly to be achieved by their anthropomorphic arms. Obstacle avoidance for the anthropomorphic arm must be a fundamental consideration to guarantee the successful implementation of these tasks. Different from traditional methods searching for feasible or optimal collision-free solutions for the anthropomorphic arm, a global obstacle- avoidance map for the whole arm is proposed to indicate the complete set of feasible solutions. In this map, the motion of the arm can be appropriately planned to intuitively control the configuration of the arm in motion. First, the cubic spline function is adopted to interpolate some well-chosen path points to generate a smooth collision-free path for the wrist of the anthropomorphic arm. Second, based on the path function of the wrist, the time and the self-rotation angle of the arm about the “shoulder-wrist” axis are used to parameterize all possible configurations of the arm so that a global two- dimensional map considering the obstacle avoidance can be established. Subsequently, a collision-free self-rotation angle profile of the arm can be well planned. Finally, the joint trajectories of a specific anthropomorphic arm, which correspond to the planned path of the wrist and self-rotation angle profile of the arm, can be solved on the basis of the general kinematic analysis of the anthropomorphic arm, and the specific structure. Several simulations are conducted to verify that the proposed collision-free motion planning method for anthropomorphic arms has some advantages and can be regarded as a convenient and intuitive tool to control the configuration of the anthropomorphic arm in motion, without collision with obstacles in its surroundings.

  15. Intelligent Surveillance Robot with Obstacle Avoidance Capabilities Using Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharto, Widodo

    2015-01-01

    For specific purpose, vision-based surveillance robot that can be run autonomously and able to acquire images from its dynamic environment is very important, for example, in rescuing disaster victims in Indonesia. In this paper, we propose architecture for intelligent surveillance robot that is able to avoid obstacles using 3 ultrasonic distance sensors based on backpropagation neural network and a camera for face recognition. 2.4 GHz transmitter for transmitting video is used by the operator/user to direct the robot to the desired area. Results show the effectiveness of our method and we evaluate the performance of the system. PMID:26089863

  16. Nursing and conflict communication: avoidance as preferred strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Margaret M; Nicotera, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to examine nurses' (n = 57) selection of strategies to confront conflict in the workplace. Communication competence is the conceptual framework, defining competent conflict communication as joint problem-solving communication that is both effective and appropriate. Items were drawn from tools assessing nurses' conflict management strategies. Nurses reported a strong preference not to confront conflict directly; nurse managers were less likely to avoid direct communication. Nurses who do choose to confront conflict are more likely to use constructive than destructive strategies. The integration of the social science of health communication into nursing education and practice and other implications are discussed.

  17. Dyck Paths, Standard Young Tableaux, and Pattern Avoiding Permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Gudmundsson, Hilmar

    2009-01-01

    We present a generating function and a closed counting formula in two variables that enumerate a family of classes of permutations that avoid or contain an increasing pattern of length three and have a prescribed number of occurrences of another pattern of length three. This gives a refinement of some previously studied statistics, most notably one by Noonan. The formula is also shown to enumerate a family of classes of Dyck paths and Standard Young Tableaux, and a bijection is given between the corresponding classes of these two families of objects. Finally, the results obtained are used to solve an optimization problem for a certain card game.

  18. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S;

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... to some extent could reflect differences in the quality of care, indicated by the numbers of perinatal deaths in categories of potentially avoidable deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 97% of all perinatal deaths in 1991 in the two countries were analyzed. A new classification focusing...

  19. Avoidance of Blow-up by Moving Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOLi; LIUYun-xian; YANGPeng-fei

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with two parabolic inltial-boundary value problems in multidimensional domain. The first problem describes the situation where the spherical medium is static and the nonlinear reaction takes place only at a single point. We show that under some conditions, the solution blows up in finite time and the blow-up set is the whole spherical medium. When the spherical medium is allowed to move in a special space, we investigate another parabolic initial-boundary value problem. It is proved that the blow-up can be avoided if the acceleration of the motion satisfies certain conditions.

  20. Mergers in health care: avoiding divorce IDS style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazen, E; Kueber, M

    1998-08-01

    The recent flurry of merger activity in the healthcare industry has given rise to a significant number of integration efforts. Unfortunately, some of these "marriages" will end in "divorce." Reasons for failure can be found in four critical dimensions of integration: structural, operational, clinical, and informational. Each dimension has its associated pitfalls, and every merger confronts clearly identifiable risks. By taking steps to mitigate such risks, merging organizations can improve the chances the merger will succeed. If the merger does fail, measures taken prior to the merger, such as including an escape clause in the merger contract, can help avoid problems in dividing operational assets, physicians practices, and information assets.

  1. Potential-based obstacle avoidance in formation control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia WANG; Xiaobei WU; Zhiliang XU

    2008-01-01

    Based on the double integrator mathematic model,a new kind of potential function is presented in this paper by referring to the concepts of the electric field;then a new formation control method is proposed,in which the potential functions are used between agent-agent and between agent-obstacle,while state feedback control is applied for the agent and its goal.This strategy makes the whole potential field simpler and helps avoid some local minima.The stability of this combination of potential functions and state feedback control is proven.Some simulations are presented to show the rationality of this control method.

  2. Micro-Controller Based Obstacle Avoiding Autonomous Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Subhranil Som; Arjun Shome

    2014-01-01

    Main aim of this paperwork is to study development of the obstacle avoiding spy robot, which can be operated manually as per the operator wants to take control of the robot himself, it also can be autonomous in its actions while intelligently moving itself by detecting the obstacles in front of it by the help of the obstacle detectable circuit. The robot is in form of a vehicle mounted with a web cam, which acquires and sends video as per the robots eye view to a TV or PC via ...

  3. Book Review of How to avoid becoming a victim

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, J. Jr.,

    2007-01-01

    The book, Cybercrime: How to avoid becoming a victim, written by H.  Thomas Milhorn, MD, Ph.D. sets out to educate its readers about the many different types of cyber crimes and ways in which internet users can protect themselves from becoming victims.  According to the author, cyber crime is identified as “any type of activity that uses the Internet to commit a crime (p.1)”.  A broad area of cyber crime is covered throughout the book with special emphasis given to ...

  4. Conflict Detection Metrics for Aircraft Sense and Avoid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsten, Fredrik; Nordlund, Per-Johan; Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    The task of an airborne collision avoidance system is to continuously evaluate the risk of collision and in the case of too high risk initiate an evasive action. The traditional way to assess risk is to focus on a critical point of time. A recently proposed alternative is to evaluate the cumulated risk over time. It is the purpose of this contribution to evaluate the difference between these two concepts and also to validate an approximate method for computing the cumulated risk, suitable for...

  5. Detection and Avoidance of Collisions: the REACT Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Craig; Andersen, Goerge J.; Saidpour, Asad

    2004-01-01

    An important perceptual task during driving is the ability to detect and avoid collisions. Failure to accurately perform this task can have serious consequences for the driver and passengers. The present research developed and tested a model of car following by human drivers, as part of a general model under development of a human driver. Unlike other car following models that are based on 3D parameters (e.g., range or distance) the present model is based on the visual information available t...

  6. Avoiding Intellectual Stagnation: The Starship as an Expander of Minds

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar exploration will advance human knowledge and culture in multiple ways. Scientifically, it will advance our understanding of the interstellar medium, stellar astrophysics, planetary science and astrobiology. In addition, significant societal and cultural benefits will result from a programme of interstellar exploration and colonisation. Most important will be the cultural stimuli resulting from expanding the horizons of human experience, and increased opportunities for the spread and diversification of life and culture through the Galaxy. Ultimately, a programme of interstellar exploration may be the only way for human (and post-human) societies to avoid the intellectual stagnation predicted for the "end of history".

  7. Real-Time Arm Animation with Natural Collision Avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach to realistic collision-free animation of the upper limb was proposed. According to the obstacle-avoidance strategy of human hand, the movement trajectory was computed by manipulability model and minimum-jerk based interpolation. In each key frame, an improved inverse kinematics method was adopted to obtain a believable posture of the upper limb. By comparing with the real movement data obtained from the motion capture device, the resultant animation was testified to be natural. This method can be performed in interactive time, and therefore is applicable in animation edit and control of virtual humans.

  8. How to Avoid the Pitfalls of Legal English

    OpenAIRE

    Chovancová Barbora; Hradilová Alena

    2012-01-01

    The present manual is intended for Czech students of law as well as other professionals interested in finding out more about legal English. This brief guide provides a few quick tips on improving one's legal English and helps users to avoid making the most common mistakes. It consists of four parts: (1) lawyers and the legal profession, (2) the meanings of 'law', (3) language and law, and (4) legal false friends. Tato příručka byla vytvořena pro české studenty práva a pro další odborníky, ...

  9. A New Technique of Frequency Hopping with Collision Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Burda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a new technique of frequency hopping with collision avoidance (FH/CA. Currently there are well-known systems of frequency hopping which adapt their behavior based on previously measured data (such as PER for individual channels. The FH/CA system adjusts its behavior based on the current occupancy of several test channels. Using a mathematical model, the performance of the newly proposed FH/CA technique is compared with the currently used techniques FH and AFH. Comparison criteria are the probability of a collision between an FH/CA communication system and a static or dynamic jammer (i.e. other FH or AFH systems.

  10. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2010-01-01

    When facing a conjunction between space objects, decision makers must chose whether to maneuver for collision avoidance or not. We apply a well-known decision procedure, the sequential probability ratio test, to this problem. We propose two approaches to the problem solution, one based on a frequentist method, and the other on a Bayesian method. The frequentist method does not require any prior knowledge concerning the conjunction, while the Bayesian method assumes knowledge of prior probability densities. Our results show that both methods achieve desired missed detection rates, but the frequentist method's false alarm performance is inferior to the Bayesian method's

  11. Intelligent Surveillance Robot with Obstacle Avoidance Capabilities Using Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharto, Widodo

    2015-01-01

    For specific purpose, vision-based surveillance robot that can be run autonomously and able to acquire images from its dynamic environment is very important, for example, in rescuing disaster victims in Indonesia. In this paper, we propose architecture for intelligent surveillance robot that is able to avoid obstacles using 3 ultrasonic distance sensors based on backpropagation neural network and a camera for face recognition. 2.4 GHz transmitter for transmitting video is used by the operator/user to direct the robot to the desired area. Results show the effectiveness of our method and we evaluate the performance of the system.

  12. Punishment of an extinguishing shock-avoidance response by time-out from positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, M R

    1966-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of punishment by time-out from positive reinforcement on the extinction of discriminated shock-avoidance responding. Subjects were trained initially to bar press for food on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement and, concurrently, to avoid shock at the onset of a warning signal. Experiment I compared avoidance extinction performance under no punishment and when avoidance responding resulted in a 30-sec TO from reinforced appetitive responding. In Exp II, the contingent use of TO punishment was compared with its random, or noncontingent use. The results of both experiments showed that in the absence of punishment, avoidance extinction was characterized by short latencies and nearly 100% avoidance responding. Avoidance responding in extinction was little affected by noncontingent TO punishment. When TO was made contingent upon avoidance responding, however, avoidance latencies immediately increased and the frequency of avoidance responses subsequently decreased to zero.

  13. Punishment of an extinguishing shock-avoidance response by time-out from positive reinforcement1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of punishment by time-out from positive reinforcement on the extinction of discriminated shock-avoidance responding. Subjects were trained initially to bar press for food on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement and, concurrently, to avoid shock at the onset of a warning signal. Experiment I compared avoidance extinction performance under no punishment and when avoidance responding resulted in a 30-sec TO from reinforced appetitive responding. In Exp II, the contingent use of TO punishment was compared with its random, or noncontingent use. The results of both experiments showed that in the absence of punishment, avoidance extinction was characterized by short latencies and nearly 100% avoidance responding. Avoidance responding in extinction was little affected by noncontingent TO punishment. When TO was made contingent upon avoidance responding, however, avoidance latencies immediately increased and the frequency of avoidance responses subsequently decreased to zero. PMID:5903964

  14. The relationship between knowledge of pain neurophysiology and fear avoidance in people with chronic pain: A point in time, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Claire; Bradnam, Lynley; Barr, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent in the western world; however fear of pain often has a greater impact than the degree of initial injury. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between knowledge of the neurophysiology of pain and fear avoidance in individuals diagnosed with chronic pain. Twenty-nine people with chronic musculoskeletal pain were recruited and completed questionnaires to determine their understanding of pain neurophysiology and the degree of their fear avoidance beliefs. There was an inverse relationship between knowledge of pain neurophysiology and the level of fear avoidance. Patients with higher pain knowledge reported less fear avoidance and lower perceived disability due to pain. There was no relationship with the educational level or compensable status for either variable. The findings suggest that fear avoidance is positively influenced by neurophysiology of pain education, so that a higher level of pain knowledge is associated with less activity-related fear. The clinical implication is that reducing fear avoidance/kinesiophobia using neurophysiology of pain education in people with chronic pain may provide an effective strategy to help manage fear avoidance and related disability in the chronic pain population in order to improve treatment outcomes.

  15. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Striatal Reward Responses Relate to Approach-Avoidance Learning and Encoding of Positive-Negative Prediction Errors in Dopaminergic Midbrain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-10-28

    Some individuals are better at learning about rewarding situations, whereas others are inclined to avoid punishments (i.e., enhanced approach or avoidance learning, respectively). In reinforcement learning, action values are increased when outcomes are better than predicted (positive prediction errors [PEs]) and decreased for worse than predicted outcomes (negative PEs). Because actions with high and low values are approached and avoided, respectively, individual differences in the neural encoding of PEs may influence the balance between approach-avoidance learning. Recent correlational approaches also indicate that biases in approach-avoidance learning involve hemispheric asymmetries in dopamine function. However, the computational and neural mechanisms underpinning such learning biases remain unknown. Here we assessed hemispheric reward asymmetry in striatal activity in 34 human participants who performed a task involving rewards and punishments. We show that the relative difference in reward response between hemispheres relates to individual biases in approach-avoidance learning. Moreover, using a computational modeling approach, we demonstrate that better encoding of positive (vs negative) PEs in dopaminergic midbrain regions is associated with better approach (vs avoidance) learning, specifically in participants with larger reward responses in the left (vs right) ventral striatum. Thus, individual dispositions or traits may be determined by neural processes acting to constrain learning about specific aspects of the world. PMID:26511241

  16. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Striatal Reward Responses Relate to Approach-Avoidance Learning and Encoding of Positive-Negative Prediction Errors in Dopaminergic Midbrain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-10-28

    Some individuals are better at learning about rewarding situations, whereas others are inclined to avoid punishments (i.e., enhanced approach or avoidance learning, respectively). In reinforcement learning, action values are increased when outcomes are better than predicted (positive prediction errors [PEs]) and decreased for worse than predicted outcomes (negative PEs). Because actions with high and low values are approached and avoided, respectively, individual differences in the neural encoding of PEs may influence the balance between approach-avoidance learning. Recent correlational approaches also indicate that biases in approach-avoidance learning involve hemispheric asymmetries in dopamine function. However, the computational and neural mechanisms underpinning such learning biases remain unknown. Here we assessed hemispheric reward asymmetry in striatal activity in 34 human participants who performed a task involving rewards and punishments. We show that the relative difference in reward response between hemispheres relates to individual biases in approach-avoidance learning. Moreover, using a computational modeling approach, we demonstrate that better encoding of positive (vs negative) PEs in dopaminergic midbrain regions is associated with better approach (vs avoidance) learning, specifically in participants with larger reward responses in the left (vs right) ventral striatum. Thus, individual dispositions or traits may be determined by neural processes acting to constrain learning about specific aspects of the world.

  17. Promoting the avoidance of high-calorie snacks: priming autonomy moderates message framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Louisa; Churchill, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of gain-framed vs. loss-framed messages promoting health protective behaviors have been found to be inconsistent, and consideration of potential moderating variables is essential if framed health promotion messages are to be effective. This research aimed to determine the influence of highlighting autonomy (choice and freedom) and heteronomy (coercion) on the avoidance of high-calorie snacks following reading gain-framed or loss-framed health messages. In Study 1 (N = 152) participants completed an autonomy, neutral, or heteronomy priming task, and read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message. In Study 2 (N = 242) participants read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message with embedded autonomy or heteronomy primes. In both studies, snacking intentions and behavior were recorded after seven days. In both studies, when autonomy was highlighted, the gain-framed message (compared to the loss-framed message) resulted in stronger intentions to avoid high-calorie snacks, and lower self-reported snack consumption after seven days. Study 2 demonstrated this effect occurred only for participants to whom the information was most relevant (BMI>25). The results suggest that messages promoting healthy dietary behavior may be more persuasive if the autonomy-supportive vs. coercive nature of the health information is matched to the message frame. Further research is needed to examine potential mediating processes. PMID:25078965

  18. Genetics of Intraspecies Variation in Avoidance Behavior Induced by a Thermal Stimulus in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajarshi; Bloom, Joshua S; Mohammadi, Aylia; Schumer, Molly E; Andolfatto, Peter; Ryu, William; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2015-08-01

    Individuals within a species vary in their responses to a wide range of stimuli, partly as a result of differences in their genetic makeup. Relatively little is known about the genetic and neuronal mechanisms contributing to diversity of behavior in natural populations. By studying intraspecies variation in innate avoidance behavior to thermal stimuli in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we uncovered genetic principles of how different components of a behavioral response can be altered in nature to generate behavioral diversity. Using a thermal pulse assay, we uncovered heritable variation in responses to a transient temperature increase. Quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that separate components of this response were controlled by distinct genomic loci. The loci we identified contributed to variation in components of thermal pulse avoidance behavior in an additive fashion. Our results show that the escape behavior induced by thermal stimuli is composed of simpler behavioral components that are influenced by at least six distinct genetic loci. The loci that decouple components of the escape behavior reveal a genetic system that allows independent modification of behavioral parameters. Our work sets the foundation for future studies of evolution of innate behaviors at the molecular and neuronal level.

  19. Alleged Approach-Avoidance Conflict for Food Stimuli in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehr, Elisabeth J.; Schag, Kathrin; Brinkmann, Amelie; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E.; Dresler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Food stimuli are omnipresent and naturally primary reinforcing stimuli. One explanation for the intake of high amounts of food in binge eating disorder (BED) is a deviant valuation process. Valuation of food stimuli is supposed to influence approach or avoidance behaviour towards food. Focusing on self-reported and indirect (facial electromyography) valuation process, motivational aspects in the processing of food stimuli were investigated. Methods We compared an overweight sample with BED (BED+) with an overweight sample without BED (BED-) and with normal weight controls (NWC) regarding their self-reported and indirect (via facial electromyography) valuation of food versus non-food stimuli. Results Regarding the self-reported valuation, the BED+ sample showed a significantly stronger food-bias compared to the BED- sample, as food stimuli were rated as significantly more positive than the non-food stimuli in the BED+ sample. This self-reported valuation pattern could not be displayed in the indirect valuation. Food stimuli evoked negative indirect valuation in all groups. The BED+ sample showed the plainest approach-avoidance conflict marked by a diverging self-reported (positive) and indirect (negative) valuation of food stimuli. Conclusions BED+ showed a deviant self-reported valuation of food as compared to BED-. The valuation process of the BED+ sample seems to be characterized by a motivational ambivalence. This ambivalence should be subject of further studies and may be of potential use for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27045169

  20. Tolerance and phenological avoidance of herbivory in tarweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmel, Billy; Pearse, Ian S

    2016-05-01

    Avoidance and tolerance of herbivory are important components of plant interactions with herbivores. Their relationship to each other and to plant defense is important in understanding how plants maximize fitness in the face of herbivore pressure. Various tarweed species have populations comprised of both early-season and late-season flowering individuals. Late-season flowering individuals employ a recently described indirect defense against herbivores in which the accumulation of dead insects on their sticky surfaces attracts predatory insects that eat herbivores. In two tarweed species (Hemizonia congesta and Madia elegans), we observed that key herbivores rarely interact with early-season individuals in the field, and early-season individuals did not invest in dense glandular trichomes that cause indirect defense. We conducted field and greenhouse bud-removal experiments to assess tolerance of M elegans to herbivore damage. We found that late-season individuals were more tolerant of simulated herbivory than early-season individuals in both the field and the greenhouse. Late-season individuals that were forced into an earlier phenology with a 24-h light cue lost their tolerance to simulated herbivory. One possible mechanism linking phenological avoidance of herbivores with decreased tolerance is that early-season individuals invested less in below-ground biomass than late-season individuals, which may accumulate belowground resources for regrowth at the expense of early flowering.

  1. European operative registry to avoid complications in operative gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Andreas; Bohlin, Tonje; Rakovan, Martin; Putz, Ariane Maria; De Wilde, Rudy Leon

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine how complications can be avoided in gynecological minimally invasive surgery in Europe. The Norwegian Gynecological Endoscopic Registry (NGER) facilitates medical research over a long duration. Can experiences from the Norwegian registry be used to develop a European registry to avoid complications? To answer this question, we used the NGER data from February 2013 until March 2015 to analyze the complications of gynecological endoscopy. The registry includes sociodemographic factors, related comorbidity, previous surgery, present procedure, and intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications were identified with a questionnaire administered 4 weeks after surgery. The risk factors leading to complications in gynecological endoscopy were found to be obesity, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, previous surgery due to cervical carcinoma in situ, and low educational level. Regional differences in the complication rate were noted. National web-based operation registries such as the NGER can identify the risk factors for complications of gynecological endoscopic surgery and can help improve the outcome after surgery. The experience from NGER can be used to establish a European register. PMID:26805611

  2. Tolerance and phenological avoidance of herbivory in tarweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmel, Billy; Pearse, Ian S

    2016-05-01

    Avoidance and tolerance of herbivory are important components of plant interactions with herbivores. Their relationship to each other and to plant defense is important in understanding how plants maximize fitness in the face of herbivore pressure. Various tarweed species have populations comprised of both early-season and late-season flowering individuals. Late-season flowering individuals employ a recently described indirect defense against herbivores in which the accumulation of dead insects on their sticky surfaces attracts predatory insects that eat herbivores. In two tarweed species (Hemizonia congesta and Madia elegans), we observed that key herbivores rarely interact with early-season individuals in the field, and early-season individuals did not invest in dense glandular trichomes that cause indirect defense. We conducted field and greenhouse bud-removal experiments to assess tolerance of M elegans to herbivore damage. We found that late-season individuals were more tolerant of simulated herbivory than early-season individuals in both the field and the greenhouse. Late-season individuals that were forced into an earlier phenology with a 24-h light cue lost their tolerance to simulated herbivory. One possible mechanism linking phenological avoidance of herbivores with decreased tolerance is that early-season individuals invested less in below-ground biomass than late-season individuals, which may accumulate belowground resources for regrowth at the expense of early flowering. PMID:27349109

  3. Avoiding vacuum arcs in high gradient normal conducting RF structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sjøbæk, Kyrre Ness; Adli, Erik; Grudiev, Alexej; Wuensch, Walter

    In order to build the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), accelerating structures reaching extremely high accelerating gradients are needed. Such structures have been built and tested using normal-conducting copper, powered by X-band RF power and reaching gradients of 100 MV/m and above. One phenomenon that must be avoided in order to reliably reach such gradients, is vacuum arcs or “breakdowns”. This can be accomplished by carefully designing the structure geometry such that high surface fields and large local power flows are avoided. The research presented in this thesis presents a method for optimizing the geometry of accelerating structures so that these breakdowns are made less likely, allowing the structure to operate reliably at high gradients. This was done primarily based on a phenomenological scaling model, which predicted the maximum gradient as a function of the break down rate, pulse length, and field distribution in the structure. The model is written in such a way that it allows direct comparis...

  4. Rats learn to eat more to avoid hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvandi, Soghra; Thibault, Louise; Booth, David A

    2009-04-01

    Several recent experiments have provided evidence that the ingestion of a distinctive food by rats can be a learnt instrumental act as well as an associatively conditioned reaction. In the previous work, maintenance food was withheld for shorter and longer durations on different days following access to the training food. Extra eating before the longer fast was interpreted as avoidance of hunger. This interpretation was based on the evidence showing that extra eating as a result of classical conditioning comes from pairing food stimuli with the presence of little or no hunger because of repletion with energy nutrients. The theory that the extra eating arose from a response-depletion contingency was tested in the present experiment by training rats on only a long fast or only a short fast. Greater increase in intake was seen before the longer fast. The results also replicated previously seen cycles of increase, decrease, and renewed increase in putative deficit-avoidant eating over about three trials, indicating that the extra eating reduces the response-reinforcing hunger and that the consequent part-extinction restores reinforcement. The shape of the learning curve was consistent with these cycles occurring from the start of training, further supporting the view that the increase in food intake before a long delay in refeeding is hunger-reinforced instrumental behaviour. PMID:19048448

  5. Flu, risks, and videotape: escalating fear and avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, Heather; John, Richard S; Prager, Fynnwin

    2012-04-01

    While extensive risk perception research has focused on emotions, cognitions, and behavior at static points in time, less attention has been paid to how these variables might change over time. This study assesses how negative affect, threat beliefs, perceived risk, and intended avoidance behavior change over the course of an escalating biological disaster. A scenario simulation methodology was used that presents respondents with a video simulation of a 15-day series of local news reports to immerse respondents in the developing details of the disaster. Systemic manipulation of the virus's causal origin (terrorist attack, medical lab accident, unknown) and the respondent's proximity to the virus (local vs. opposite coast) allowed us to investigate the dynamics of public response. The unfolding scenario was presented in discrete episodes, allowing responses to be tracked over the episodes. The sample includes 600 respondents equally split by sex and by location, with half in the Washington, DC area, and half in the Los Angeles area. The results showed respondents' reactions to the flu epidemic increased as the disaster escalated. More importantly, there was considerable consistency across respondents' emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to the epidemic over the episodes. In addition, the reactions of respondents proximally closer to the epidemic increased more rapidly and with greater intensity than their distant counterparts. Finally, as the flu epidemic escalated, both terrorist and accidental flu releases were perceived as being less risky and were less likely to lead to avoidance behavior compared to the unknown flu release.

  6. How to Avoid Facial Nerve Injury in Mastoidectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Unexpected iatrogenic facial nerve paralysis not only affects facial disfiguration, but also imposes a devastating effect on the social, psychological, and economic aspects of an affected person's life at once. The aims of this study were to postulate where surgeons had mistakenly drilled or where obscured by granulations or by fibrous bands and to look for surgical approach with focused on the safety of facial nerve in mastoid surgery. We had found 14 cases of iatrogenic facial nerve injury (IFNI) during mastoid surgery for 5 years in Korea. The medical records of all the patients were obtained and analyzed injured site of facial nerve segment with surgical technique of mastoidectomy. Eleven patients underwent facial nerve exploration and three patients had conservative management. 43% (6 cases) of iatrogenic facial nerve injuries had occurred in tympanic segment, 28.5% (4 cases) of injuries in second genu combined with tympanic segment, and 28.5% (4 cases) of injuries in mastoid segment. Surgeons should try to identify the facial nerve using available landmarks and be kept in mind the anomalies of the facial nerve. With use of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring, the avoidance of in order to avoid IFNI would be possible in more cases. Many authors emphasized the importance of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring, even in primary otologic surgery. However, anatomical understanding of intratemporal landmarks with meticulous dissection could not be emphasized as possible to prevent IFNI. PMID:27626078

  7. Assessment of NSTX-U pedestal control and disruption avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Fil

    2015-11-01

    We report on the pedestal control and disruption avoidance strategies in NSTX-U. Edge localized modes (ELMs) represent a challenge to future fusion devices, due to the high heat fluxes on plasma facing surfaces. One aim of NSTX-U is to characterize the H-Mode pedestal structure at increased BT, Ip and NBI heating power and compare it to NSTX. We will assess the pedestal stability in both standard and snowflake configurations and identify the underlying mechanisms controlling the pedestal structure using the high spatial resolution edge diagnostics (e.g., BES, ME-SXR, bolometer). The new capabilities of NSTX-U will be used to effectively control the pedestal for optimum performance (e.g. LGI, molecular cluster injector). Control tools already deployed on EAST and DIII-D will be used. Disruptions also represent a major challenge for ITER and future devices due to the high heat fluxes on PFCs, electromagnetic forces on the structure and the generation of runaway electrons during the current quench. We will report on active resistive wall mode and plasma rotation control for disruption avoidance in NSTX-U. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Trust-based learning and behaviors for convoy obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Karlsen, Robert E.

    2015-05-01

    In many multi-agent systems, robots within the same team are regarded as being fully trustworthy for cooperative tasks. However, the assumption of trustworthiness is not always justified, which may not only increase the risk of mission failure, but also endanger the lives of friendly forces. In prior work, we addressed this issue by using RoboTrust to dynamically adjust to observed behaviors or recommendations in order to mitigate the risks of illegitimate behaviors. However, in the simulations in prior work, all members of the convoy had knowledge of the convoy goal. In this paper, only the lead vehicle has knowledge of the convoy goals and the follow vehicles must infer trustworthiness strictly from lead vehicle performance. In addition, RoboTrust could only respond to observed performance and did not dynamically learn agent behavior. In this paper, we incorporate an adaptive agent-specific bias into the RoboTrust algorithm that modifies its trust dynamics. This bias is learned incrementally from agent interactions, allowing good agents to benefit from faster trust growth and slower trust decay and bad agents to be penalized with slower trust growth and faster trust decay. We then integrate this new trust model into a trust-based controller for decentralized autonomous convoy operations. We evaluate its performance in an obstacle avoidance mission, where the convoy attempts to learn the best speed and following distances combinations for an acceptable obstacle avoidance probability.

  9. An Analytical Approach to Avoid Obstacles in Mobile Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos Brandão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear supervised globally stable controller is proposed to reactively guide a mobile robot to avoid obstacles while seeking a goal. Whenever the robot detects an object nearby, its orientation is changed to be aligned with the tangent to the border of the obstacle. Then, the robot starts following it, looking for a feasible path to its goal. The supervisor is responsible for deciding which path to take when the robot faces some particular obstacle configurations that are quite difficult to deal with. Several simulations and experiments were run to validate the proposal, some of which are discussed here. To run the experiments, the proposed controller is programmed into the onboard computer of a real unicycle mobile platform, equipped with a laser range scanner. As for the simulations, the models of the same experimental setup were used. The final conclusion is that the nonlinear supervised controller proposed to solve the problem of avoiding obstacles during goal seeking has been validated, based on the theoretical analysis, and the simulated and experimental results.

  10. WORMHOLE ATTACK MITIGATION IN MANET: A CLUSTER BASED AVOIDANCE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashis Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a self configuring, infrastructure less network of mobile devices connected by wireless links. Loopholes like wireless medium, lack of a fixed infrastructure, dynamic topology, rapid deployment practices, and the hostile environments in which they may be deployed, make MANET vulnerable to a wide range of security attacks and Wormhole attack is one of them. During this attack a malicious node captures packets from one location in the network, and tunnels them to another colluding malicious node at a distant point, which replays them locally. This paper presents a cluster based Wormhole attack avoidance technique. The concept of hierarchical clustering with a novel hierarchical 32- bit node addressing scheme is used for avoiding the attacking path during the route discovery phase of the DSR protocol, which is considered as the under lying routing protocol. Pinpointing the location of the wormhole nodes in the case of exposed attack is also given by using this method.

  11. Gustatory receptors required for avoiding the insecticide L-canavanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngseok; Kang, Min Jung; Shim, Jaewon; Cheong, Chae Uk; Moon, Seok Jun; Montell, Craig

    2012-01-25

    Insect survival depends on contact chemosensation to sense and avoid consuming plant-derived insecticides, such as L-canavanine. Members of a family of ∼60 gustatory receptors (GRs) comprise the main peripheral receptors responsible for taste sensation in Drosophila. However, the roles of most Drosophila GRs are unknown. In addition to GRs, a G protein-coupled receptor, DmXR, has been reported to be required for detecting L-canavanine. Here, we showed that GRs are essential for responding to L-canavanine and that flies missing DmXR displayed normal L-canavanine avoidance and L-canavanine-evoked action potentials. Mutations disrupting either Gr8a or Gr66a resulted in an inability to detect L-canavanine. We found that L-canavanine stimulated action potentials in S-type sensilla, which were where Gr8a and Gr66a were both expressed, but not in Gr66a-expressing sensilla that did not express Gr8a. L-canavanine-induced action potentials were also abolished in the Gr8a and Gr66a mutant animals. Gr8a was narrowly required for responding to L-canavanine, in contrast to Gr66a, which was broadly required for responding to other noxious tastants. Our data suggest that GR8a and GR66a are subunits of an L-canavanine receptor and that GR8a contributes to the specificity for L-canavanine. PMID:22279227

  12. Complication avoidance and management in anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Khoi D; Wang, Anthony C; Rahman, Shayan U; Wilson, Thomas J; Valdivia, Juan M; Park, Paul; La Marca, Frank

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this study was to review the literature to compare strategies for avoiding and treating complications from anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and thus provide a comprehensive aid for spine surgeons. A thorough review of databases from the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health was conducted. The complications of ALIF addressed in this paper include pseudarthrosis and subsidence, vascular injury, retrograde ejaculation, ileus, and lymphocele (chyloretroperitoneum). Strategies identified for improving fusion rates included the use of frozen rather than freeze-dried allograft, cage instrumentation, and bone morphogenetic protein. Lower cage heights appear to reduce the risk of subsidence. The most common vascular injury is venous laceration, which occurs less frequently when using nonthreaded interbody grafts such as iliac crest autograft or femoral ring allograft. Left iliac artery thrombosis is the most common arterial injury, and its occurrence can be minimized by intermittent release of retraction intraoperatively. The risk of retrograde ejaculation is significantly higher with laparoscopic approaches, and thus should be avoided in male patients. Despite precautionary measures, complications from ALIF may occur, but treatment options do exist. Bowel obstruction can be treated conservatively with neostigmine or with decompression. In cases of postoperative lymphocele, resolution can be attained by creating a peritoneal window. By recognizing ways to minimize complications, the spine surgeon can safely use ALIF procedures.

  13. Perfectionism, Coping, and Underachievement in Gifted Adolescents: Avoidance vs. Approach Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Mofield

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Perfectionism can influence how one approaches challenges and deals with setbacks, and, consequently, can inhibit or facilitate achievement. The present study (1 explored the relationship between Frost’s six dimensions of perfectionism and five types of coping strategies; (2 examined how dimensions of perfectionism predict coping in response to academic stress; and (3 investigated differences between gifted underachievers and other gifted students on perfectionism and coping among 130 American gifted students in grades 6–8. Results of stepwise regression models revealed approach coping was predicted by adaptive perfectionism (Positive Strivings-notably Organization, whereas avoidance coping (Internalizing, Externalizing, and Distancing was predicted by various combined models. Gifted underachievers displayed lower Positive Strivings perfectionism scores and lower positive coping when compared to achievers. This information is helpful when considering ways to guide gifted students to high levels of academic achievement while utilizing adaptive approaches.

  14. Novelty-seeking and avoidant coping strategies are associated with academic stress in Korean medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2012-12-30

    High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies.

  15. Generation of entangled states and error protection from adiabatic avoided level crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, N F; Volkas, R R; Wong, Y Y Y; Bell, Nicole F.; Volkas, Raymond R.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the environment-affected dynamics of $N$ self-interacting particles living in one-dimensional double wells. Two topics are dealt with. First, we consider the production of entangled states of two-level systems. We show that by adiabatically varying the well biases we may dynamically generate maximally entangled states, starting from initially unentangled product states. Entanglement degradation due to a common type of environmental influence is then computed by solving a master equation. However, we also demonstrate that entanglement production is unaffected if the system-environment coupling is of the type that induces ``motional narrowing''. As our second but related topic, we construct a different master equation that seamlessly merges error protection/detection dynamics for quantum information with the environmental couplings responsible for producing the errors in the first place. Adiabatic avoided crossing schemes are used in both topics.

  16. Social influence protects collective decision making from equality bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Romand-Monnier, Margaux; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-02-01

    A basic tenet of research on wisdom of the crowds-and key assumption of Condercet's (1785) Jury Theorem-is the independence of voters' opinions before votes are aggregated. However, we often look for others' opinions before casting our vote. Such social influence can push groups toward herding, leading to "madness of the crowds." To investigate the role of social influence in joint decision making, in Experiment 1 we had dyads of participants perform a visual oddball search task together. In the Independent (IND) condition participants initially made a private decision. If they disagreed, discussion and collective decision ensued. In the Influence (INF) condition no private decisions were made and collective decision was immediately negotiated. Dyads that did not accrue collective benefit under the IND condition improved with added social influence under the INF condition. In Experiment 2, covertly, we added noise to 1 of the dyad members' visual search display. The resulting increased heterogeneity in dyad members' performances impaired the dyadic performance under the IND condition (Bahrami et al., 2010). Importantly, dyadic performance improved with social influence under the INF condition, replicating results in Experiment 1. Further analyses revealed that under the IND condition, dyads exercised equality bias (Mahmoodi et al., 2015) by granting undue credit to the less-reliable partner. Under the INF condition, however, the more-reliable partner (correctly) dominated the joint decisions. Although social influence may impede collective success under ideal conditions, our results demonstrate how it can help the group members overcome factors such as equality bias, which could potentially lead to catastrophic failure. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Social influence protects collective decision making from equality bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Romand-Monnier, Margaux; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-02-01

    A basic tenet of research on wisdom of the crowds-and key assumption of Condercet's (1785) Jury Theorem-is the independence of voters' opinions before votes are aggregated. However, we often look for others' opinions before casting our vote. Such social influence can push groups toward herding, leading to "madness of the crowds." To investigate the role of social influence in joint decision making, in Experiment 1 we had dyads of participants perform a visual oddball search task together. In the Independent (IND) condition participants initially made a private decision. If they disagreed, discussion and collective decision ensued. In the Influence (INF) condition no private decisions were made and collective decision was immediately negotiated. Dyads that did not accrue collective benefit under the IND condition improved with added social influence under the INF condition. In Experiment 2, covertly, we added noise to 1 of the dyad members' visual search display. The resulting increased heterogeneity in dyad members' performances impaired the dyadic performance under the IND condition (Bahrami et al., 2010). Importantly, dyadic performance improved with social influence under the INF condition, replicating results in Experiment 1. Further analyses revealed that under the IND condition, dyads exercised equality bias (Mahmoodi et al., 2015) by granting undue credit to the less-reliable partner. Under the INF condition, however, the more-reliable partner (correctly) dominated the joint decisions. Although social influence may impede collective success under ideal conditions, our results demonstrate how it can help the group members overcome factors such as equality bias, which could potentially lead to catastrophic failure. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436525

  18. Ondansetron blocks LiCl-induced conditioned place avoidance but not conditioned taste/flavor avoidance in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaman, Linda; Saboury, Mitra; Litvina, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an experimental agent to support conditioned taste/flavor avoidance (CT/FA) in rats often is interpreted as sufficient evidence that the agent produced a state of malaise or nausea. Paradoxically, however, CT/FA also is induced by certain drugs that support conditioned preferences in rats, suggesting that CT/FA is insufficient to reveal a negative hedonic state. The present study tested the hypothesis that the anti-nausea drug ondansetron (OND) would block the ability of nauseo...

  19. 'You shall not pass!': quantifying barrier permeability and proximity avoidance by animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Hawthorne L; Gurarie, Eliezer; Börger, Luca; Panzacchi, Manuela; Basille, Mathieu; Herfindal, Ivar; Van Moorter, Bram; R Lele, Subhash; Matthiopoulos, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Impediments to animal movement are ubiquitous and vary widely in both scale and permeability. It is essential to understand how impediments alter ecological dynamics via their influence on animal behavioural strategies governing space use and, for anthropogenic features such as roads and fences, how to mitigate these effects to effectively manage species and landscapes. Here, we focused primarily on barriers to movement, which we define as features that cannot be circumnavigated but may be crossed. Responses to barriers will be influenced by the movement capabilities of the animal, its proximity to the barriers, and habitat preference. We developed a mechanistic modelling framework for simultaneously quantifying the permeability and proximity effects of barriers on habitat preference and movement. We used simulations based on our model to demonstrate how parameters on movement, habitat preference and barrier permeability can be estimated statistically. We then applied the model to a case study of road effects on wild mountain reindeer summer movements. This framework provided unbiased and precise parameter estimates across a range of strengths of preferences and barrier permeabilities. The quality of permeability estimates, however, was correlated with the number of times the barrier is crossed and the number of locations in proximity to barriers. In the case study we found that reindeer avoided areas near roads and that roads are semi-permeable barriers to movement. There was strong avoidance of roads extending up to c. 1 km for four of five animals, and having to cross roads reduced the probability of movement by 68·6% (range 3·5-99·5%). Human infrastructure has embedded within it the idea of networks: nodes connected by linear features such as roads, rail tracks, pipelines, fences and cables, many of which divide the landscape and limit animal movement. The unintended but potentially profound consequences of infrastructure on animals remain poorly understood

  20. Collision Avoidance Using Inter-Vehicle Ad-hoc Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh Panjwani; Humera Syed; Sumera Qazi

    2013-01-01

    The automobile industry is experiencing an exponential rise indemand, but its sustainability is an issue due to the dynamicnature of the market and environmental conditions. This paperdeals with the development of a system dynamic model tosimulate Indian automobile market dynamics. The focus of thepaper is to study the influence of three major dynamic factorsviz., accidents, ease of use, durability. The model has been usedto simulate the influence of these dynamic factors for a quarterof a ce...

  1. Attachment avoidance predicts inflammatory responses to marital conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Glaser, Ronald; Loving, Timothy J.; Malarkey, William B.; Stowell, Jeffrey; Houts, Carrie; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2008-01-01

    Marital stress has been associated with immune dysregulation, including increased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Attachment style, one’s expectations about the availability and responsiveness of others in intimate relationships, appears to influence physiological stress reactivity and thus could influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. Thirty-five couples were invited for two 24-hour admissions to a hospital research unit. The first visit included a structured social support...

  2. Implicit and explicit avoidance in sexual trauma victims suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Fleurkens

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Avoidance of stimuli that are associated with the traumatic event is a key feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Thus far, studies on the role of avoidance in the development and maintenance of PTSD focused primarily on strategic or explicit avoidance. However, patients may also show implicit avoidance behavior, which may remain even when explicit avoidance is reduced. Objectives: The present pilot study was designed to test the hypothesis that PTSD patients show implicit avoidance of threatening, trauma-related stimuli. In addition, it was tested whether this avoidance behavior also occurs for other stimuli. Methods: The Approach-Avoidance Task was used as an indirect measure of avoidance. Participants were 16 women suffering from PTSD who had experienced a sexual trauma, and 23 healthy non-traumatized women. Using a joystick, they pulled pictures closer to themselves or pushed them away. The pictures varied in content, being either high-threat sexual, non-threat sexual, high-threat accident, or positive. Results: Compared to control participants, PTSD patients avoided high-threat sexual pictures, and the degree of avoidance was predicted by self-reported arousal level. Moreover, PTSD patients with high levels of self-reported explicit avoidance, depressive symptoms, and PTSD symptom severity also avoided high-threat accident pictures. Conclusions: These findings point to the possible importance of threat value instead of trauma-relatedness in explaining implicit avoidance. The results are discussed in light of cognitive-behavioral models of PTSD, and clinical implications are suggested.

  3. An Investigation of Technology Avoidance Effect into Higher Education Environments: Some Empirical Evidence of Marketing Students' Background and Their Use of Personal Computers Outside the Academic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spais, George S.; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test a research hypothesis in order to explain the technology avoidance effect in higher educational environments. We addressed the core research themes of our study using a survey. Our intention was to test marketing students' perceptions in order to investigate the potent influence of a climate of…

  4. Safe practice of cosmetic dermatology: Avoiding legal tangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvajnamurthy A Sacchidanand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present day dermatologists, in addition to conventional skin physicians, are also dermatologic-surgeons and cosmetologists in their practice. The cosmetic procedures have the inherent risk of malpractice litigations leaving an unsatisfied patient and a troublesome lawsuit against the doctor. A MEDLINE search was conducted for article with words such as legal issues and dermatology, malpractice in dermatology, safe practice of cosmetology etc. The selected articles are scrutinized and compiled so as to help the young dermatologists to have a comprehensive overview of safe cosmetology practice. This article aims at sensitizing the young dermatologists for the possible complications and provides an overview of safe practice. It also provides a list of simple routine precautions which helps the dermatologist to avoid unnecessary trips to the courthouse.

  5. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Andersen, A;

    1997-01-01

    if alcohol drinking were eliminated. This corresponds to about 29% of all alcohol-related cancers, i.e. in the oesophagus (37%), oral cavity and pharynx (33%), larynx (29%) and liver (15%). About 2% of all cancers in men and 1% in women in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 will be caused......Alcohol intake is causally associated with cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and liver. In all five Nordic countries, alcohol consumption increased substantially between 1965 (6.5 litres per adult per year) and 1975 (10 litres), but remained at about 10 litres between 1975...... and 1985. The daily consumption of men during the period was substantially higher than that of women, and that of both men and women was higher in Denmark than in the other Nordic countries. In about 2000, an annual total of almost 1,300 cancer cases (1,000 in men and 300 in women) would be avoided...

  6. Engaging in Earnings Management to Avoid Negative Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Subekti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the earnings management behavior of companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (ISE. Specifically, the study investigates whether companies engaging in real earnings management or accrual management intent to avoid negative earnings; it also examines whether earnings management behavior supports efficient contracting or opportunistic behavior perspective. The sample of this study comprised 166 firm-years of manufacturing industrial sector during the period 2004 – 2005. Using multiple regressions, the study finds evidence that the companies engage in both earnings management, which are discretionary expenses (proxy of real earnings management and accruals management. This evidence supports the studies of Graham, Harvey, & Rajgopal (2005 and Roychowdhury (2006. Another result shows that the real earnings management conducted by the companies is efficient partially, while the accruals management is opportunistic.

  7. The Downside of Fat: Avoiding and Treating Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Irene A; Keller, Gregory; Groth, Michael J; Nabili, Vishad

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional facial volume restoration using fat has become widely accepted as an essential component of facial rejuvenation. Transplanted fat has benefits due to its inherently nonallergenic nature. The versatility of fat grafts allows for their use in all types of facial enhancement-improving the appearance of nasolabial folds, mesolabial grooves, flattened cheeks and upper lips, glabellar furrows, lipoatrophy, acne scars, and temporal hollowing. Yet despite its virtues as the ideal filler, autologous fat has its shortcomings with risks of complications. Our objective in this article is to present a systematic approach demonstrating the complications that can occur with each step of autologous fat grafting in facial rejuvenation and offering pearls to avoid and treat these complications.

  8. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on earnings management by investigating the frequency distribution of the reported earnings (changes) by use of the approach documented by Burgstahler & Dichev (1997). In this study, it is investigated whether Danish firms use earnings management to avoid earnings decreases (and...... losses) by examining the earnings (changes) frequency distribution. This approach captures neither the magnitude nor how earnings are managed. Consequently, the relation between main "manageable" elements of working capital, current assets (among these the key components inventory and accounts receivable......) and current liabilities, and reported earnings (changes) are examined. To address the problem further the modified Jones (1991) model is used to identify and separate discretionary accruals in order to identify pre-managed earnings (changes). The frequency distribution of these calculated premanaged earnings...

  9. Avoiding dual regulation of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) has successfully negotiated the issuance of a Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters Order that provides for exemption of RW from certain DOE directives. This exemption assures precedence of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements in radiation protection, nuclear safety (including quality assurance), and safeguards and security of nuclear materials. This Order is necessary to avoid the unwarranted cost and potential confusion resulting from dual regulation of RW facilities and activities by DOE and NRC. Development of this Order involved a systematic review of applicable DOE directives and NRC requirements to identify potential overlaps and duplication when applied to the RW program. Following this review and extensive negotiations with appropriate DOE organizations responsible for directives development, this Order was issued as HQ 1321.1 on December 22, 1993

  10. Application of an ADS-B Sense and Avoid Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Kotcher, Robert; Cavalin, Moshe; Dandachy, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California is leading a program aimed towards integrating unmanned aircraft system into the national airspace system (UAS in the NAS). The overarching goal of the program is to reduce technical barriers associated with related safety issues as well as addressing challenges that will allow UAS routine access to the national airspace. This research paper focuses on three novel ideas: (1) A design of an integrated UAS equipped with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast that constructs a more accurate state-based airspace model; (2) The use of Stratway Algorithm in a real-time environment; and (3) The verification and validation of sense and avoid performance and usability test results which provide a pilot's perspective on how our system will benefit the UAS in the NAS program for both piloted and unmanned aircraft.

  11. Nursing Home Resident Symptomatology Triggering Transfer: Avoiding Unnecessary Hospitalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyce S. Ashcraft

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe nursing home resident symptomatology and medical diagnoses associated with nursing home to hospital transfers. A retrospective chart review of documented transfers was conducted at a 120-bed, nonprofit urban Continuing Care Retirement Center nursing home facility located in the southwestern United States. The transferred residents (n=101 had seventy different medical diagnoses prior to hospital transfer with hypertension, coronary artery disease, and congestive heart failure most frequently reported. Most frequently reported symptomatology included fatigue, lethargy or weakness, shortness of breath, and change in level of consciousness. Multiple symptomatology was indicative of a wide variety of medical diagnoses. The diagnoses and symptomatology recorded in this paper identify the importance of strategic planning concerning assessment and communication of common nursing home resident symptomatology and the importance of basic nursing and diagnostic procedures for prevention of potentially avoidable hospitalizations.

  12. Self Avoiding Paths Routing Algorithm in Scale-Free Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rachadi, Abdeljalil; Zahid, Noureddine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new routing algorithm called "the Self Avoiding Paths Routing Algorithm". Its application to traffic flow in scale-free networks shows a great improvement over the so called "efficient routing" protocol while at the same time maintaining a relatively low average packet travel time. It has the advantage of minimizing path overlapping throughout the network in a self consistent manner with a relatively small number of iterations by maintaining an equilibrated path distribution especially among the hubs. This results in a significant shifting of the critical packet generation rate over which traffic congestion occurs, thus permitting the network to sustain more information packets in the free flow state. The performance of the algorithm is discussed both on a Bar\\'abasi-Albert (BA) network and real autonomous system (AS) network data.

  13. Avoided level crossings in very highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Scofield, J. H.; Brown, G. V.; Chen, M. H.; Hell, N.; Osterheld, A. L.; Vogel, D. A.; Wong, K. L.

    2016-05-01

    We report a systematic measurement of the (2p1/2 -13 d3/2) J =1 and (2s1/2 -13 p1/2) J =1 levels in 14 neonlike ions between Ba46 + and Pb72 + and document the effects of their avoided crossing near Z =68 . Strong mixing affects the oscillator strengths over a surprisingly wide range of atomic numbers and leads to the vanishing of one transition two atomic numbers below the crossing. The crossing voids the otherwise correct expectation that the (2p1/2 -13 d3/2) J =1 level energy is only weakly affected by quantum electrodynamics (QED). For about 10 atomic numbers surrounding the crossing, its QED contributions are anomalously large, attaining almost equality to those affecting the (2s1/2 -13 p1/2) J =1 level. As a result, the accuracy of energy level calculations appears compromised near the crossing.

  14. Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jeffrey Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

  15. Velocity Perception: Collision Handling Technique for Agent Avoidance Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazreen Abdullasim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance behavior is always about maintaining free collision between virtual objects. It is also about generating evasion routing for the agents in virtual environment such as in crowd simulation. It consists of three processes which are construction of Field of Vision, Collision handling and collision response. Constructing field of vision is always a daunting task and always in enigma for the designer because it is subjected towards agent’s perception which is varies to each of them. There are few attempts on designing field of vision based on the agent’s dynamic focus toward its surrounding. Therefore, we present a top down approach study from crowd simulation modeling until the collision handling level in order to identify the suitable crowd modeling for our approach. Hence, at the end of this paper we will be able to discuss the possible techniques for constructing agent’s field of vision and analyze its potential in crowd simulation environment.

  16. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry. PMID:26744049

  17. A Constrained Multibody System Dynamics Avoiding Kinematic Singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Fang; Yan, Chang-Dau; Jeng, Shyr-Long; Cheing, Wei-Hua

    In the analysis of constrained multibody systems, the constraint reaction forces are normally expressed in terms of the constraint equations and a vector of Lagrange multipliers. Because it fails to incorporate conservation of momentum, the Lagrange multiplier method is deficient when the constraint Jacobian matrix is singular. This paper presents an improved dynamic formulation for the constrained multibody system. In our formulation, the kinematic constraints are still formulated in terms of the joint constraint reaction forces and moments; however, the formulations are based on a second-order Taylor expansion so as to incorporate the rigid body velocities. Conservation of momentum is included explicitly in this method; hence the problems caused by kinematic singularities can be avoided. In addition, the dynamic formulation is general and applicable to most dynamic analyses. Finally the 3-leg Stewart platform is used for the example of analysis.

  18. Avoiding occlusal derangement in facial fractures: An evidence based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Mendonca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial fractures with occlusal derangement describe any fracture which directly or indirectly affects the occlusal relationship. Such fractures include dento-alveolar fractures in the maxilla and mandible, midface fractures - Le fort I, II, III and mandible fractures of the symphysis, parasymphysis, body, angle, and condyle. In some of these fractures, the fracture line runs through the dento-alveolar component whereas in others the fracture line is remote from the occlusal plane nevertheless altering the occlusion. The complications that could ensue from the management of maxillofacial fractures are predominantly iatrogenic, and therefore can be avoided if adequate care is exercised by the operating surgeon. This paper does not emphasize on complications arising from any particular technique in the management of maxillofacial fractures but rather discusses complications in general, irrespective of the technique used.

  19. Living with climate change: avoiding conflict through adaptation in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørstad, H.; Webersik, C.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, research on climate change and human security has received much attention among policy makers and academia alike. Communities in the Global South that rely on an intact resource base will especially be affected by predicted changes in temperature and precipitation. The objective of this article is to better understand under what conditions local communities can adapt to anticipated impacts of climate change and avoid conflict over the loss of resources. The empirical part of the paper answers the question to what extent local communities in the Chilwa Basin in Malawi have experienced climate change and how they are affected by it. Further, it assesses one of Malawi's adaptation projects designed to build resilience to a warmer and more variable climate, and points to some of its limitations. This research shows that not all adaptation strategies are suited to cope with a warmer and more variable climate.

  20. Avoiding obstacles by using a proximity infrared sensor skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhengcai; Fu Yili; Wu Qidi; Wang Shuguo; Wang Guangguo

    2007-01-01

    Placement and wiring of vast amount of sensor elements on the 3-dimensionally configured robot surface to form soft sensor skin is very difficult with the traditional technology, hi this paper we propose a new method to realize such a skin. By implanting infrared sensors array in an elastic body, we obtain an elastic and tough sensor skin that can be shaped freely. The developed sensor skin is a large-area, flexible array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities. Depending on the skin electronics, it endows its carrier with an ability to sense its surroundings. The structure, the method of infrared sensor signal processing, and basic experiments of sensor skin are presented. The validity of the infrared sensor skin is investigated by preliminary obstacle avoidance trial.