WorldWideScience

Sample records for avoiding negative outcomes

  1. Avoiding negative vs. achieving positive outcomes in hard and prosperous economic times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millet, K.; Lamey, L.; Van den Bergh, B.

    2012-01-01

    Three studies suggest that business cycle fluctuations trigger distinct motivational orientations that selectively affect economic judgment and decision making. Economic contractions induce avoidance motivation and affect negative economic sentiment, but leave approach motivation and positive

  2. Avoidance orientation and the escalation of negative communication in intimate relationships.

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    Kuster, Monika; Bernecker, Katharina; Backes, Sabine; Brandstätter, Veronika; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Bradbury, Thomas N; Martin, Mike; Sutter-Stickel, Dorothee; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Avoidance goals heighten the salience of negative social experiences, and in intimate relationships such an orientation may contribute to communication difficulties and the perpetuation of avoidance. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with stronger avoidance goals would be particularly prone to engage in escalating levels of negative communication with their intimate partner, and we tested this prediction by conducting sequential analyses on videotaped observational data (28,470 observations) collected from 365 heterosexual couples engaging in a relationship-related conflict. While less avoidance-oriented spouses showed a decline in their likelihood of negative communication over the course of the 8-min conflict discussion, the likelihood that more avoidance-oriented spouses would display negative communication behaviors remained at a high level. The likelihood of negative communication even increased when avoidance-oriented spouses were confronted with negative communication behavior of their partners. The effects of avoidance orientation were independent of relationship satisfaction and neuroticism. These findings demonstrate that avoidance goals underlie individuals' heightened reactivity to the partner's negative behavior, while also clarifying 1 possible reason why some individuals engage in communication behaviors that may prove maladaptive to their relationship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Interdependent Followers Prefer Avoidant Leaders: Followers’ Cultural Orientation Moderates Leaders’ Avoidance Relationships with Followers’ Work Outcomes

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    Konstantinos G. Kafetsios

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies examining leader–follower interaction in Greece, a collectivistic culture, paradoxically find that leaders’ emotion suppression-related personality traits (attachment avoidance, emotion suppression, emotion control are associated with followers’ positive emotional and work attitude outcomes. These findings have been explained with reference to followers’ implicit cultural schemas, interdependence in particular. Yet, this conjuncture has not been directly tested. The present study directly examined, in a field setting, how followers’ independent and interdependent (cultural self-construal moderate the relationship between leaders’ attachment orientation and followers’ emotion and satisfaction outcomes at the work place. As hypothesized, leaders’ higher avoidance was associated with followers’ job satisfaction, group cohesion, and deep acting as well as lower negative affect and loneliness for followers higher on interdependent self-construal. The results underline perceptual processes involved in followers’ interdependent self-construal in relation to leaders’ emotion suppression-related traits.

  4. A Transient Dopamine Signal Represents Avoidance Value and Causally Influences the Demand to Avoid

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    Pultorak, Katherine J.; Schelp, Scott A.; Isaacs, Dominic P.; Krzystyniak, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Abstract While an extensive literature supports the notion that mesocorticolimbic dopamine plays a role in negative reinforcement, recent evidence suggests that dopamine exclusively encodes the value of positive reinforcement. In the present study, we employed a behavioral economics approach to investigate whether dopamine plays a role in the valuation of negative reinforcement. Using rats as subjects, we first applied fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to determine that dopamine concentration decreases with the number of lever presses required to avoid electrical footshock (i.e., the economic price of avoidance). Analysis of the rate of decay of avoidance demand curves, which depict an inverse relationship between avoidance and increasing price, allows for inference of the worth an animal places on avoidance outcomes. Rapidly decaying demand curves indicate increased price sensitivity, or low worth placed on avoidance outcomes, while slow rates of decay indicate reduced price sensitivity, or greater worth placed on avoidance outcomes. We therefore used optogenetics to assess how inducing dopamine release causally modifies the demand to avoid electrical footshock in an economic setting. Increasing release at an avoidance predictive cue made animals more sensitive to price, consistent with a negative reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a worse outcome than expected). Increasing release at avoidance made animals less sensitive to price, consistent with a positive reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a better outcome than expected). These data demonstrate that transient dopamine release events represent the value of avoidance outcomes and can predictably modify the demand to avoid. PMID:29766047

  5. Individual differences in heart rate variability are associated with the avoidance of negative emotional events.

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    Katahira, Kentaro; Fujimura, Tomomi; Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2014-12-01

    Although the emotional outcome of a choice generally affects subsequent decisions, humans can inhibit the influence of emotion. Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as an objective measure of individual differences in the capacity for inhibitory control. In the present study, we investigated how individual differences in HRV at rest are associated with the emotional effects of the outcome of a choice on subsequent decision making using a decision-making task in which emotional pictures appeared as decision outcomes. We used a reinforcement learning model to characterize the observed behaviors according to several parameters, namely, the learning rate and the motivational value of positive and negative pictures. Consequently, we found that individuals with a lower resting HRV exhibited a greater negative motivational value in response to negative pictures, suggesting that these individuals tend to avoid negative pictures compared with individuals with a higher resting HRV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative emotions and emotional eating: the mediating role of experiential avoidance.

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    Litwin, Rachel; Goldbacher, Edie M; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks

    2017-03-01

    Emotional eating is a risk factor for eating pathology across the life- and weight-span. Research demonstrates that negative emotions are a precipitant of emotional eating, particularly among female college students. However, the underlying factors that explain this relationship are unclear. Experiential avoidance, a propensity toward being unwilling to remain in contact with aversive private experiences, may explain the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. The purpose of this study was to examine whether experiential avoidance would mediate the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. A sample of 132 women (17.4 % African American, 59.8 % White) completed measures of mood, experiential avoidance and emotional eating. Bias-corrected bootstrapping mediational analyses were conducted. Experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating b = -0.21, 95 % BC CI [-0.43, -0.07]. The indirect effect through experiential avoidance accounted for 9 % of the variance, which represents a medium effect (k 2  = 0.09, 95 % BC CI [0.03, 0.18]). Results suggest that experiential avoidance is important for understanding the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating and may inform potential strategies for prevention and treatment.

  7. Disrupted avoidance learning in functional neurological disorder: Implications for harm avoidance theories

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    Laurel S. Morris

    Full Text Available Background: Functional neurological disorder (FND is an elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms alongside aberrant cognitive processing and negative affect, often associated with amygdala reactivity. Methods: We examined the effect of negative conditioning on cognitive function and amygdala reactivity in 25 FND patients and 20 healthy volunteers (HV. Participants were first conditioned to stimuli paired with negative affective or neutral (CS+/CS− information. During functional MRI, subjects then performed an instrumental associative learning task to avoid monetary losses in the context of the previously conditioned stimuli. We expected that FND patients would be better at learning to avoid losses when faced with negatively conditioned stimuli (increased harm avoidance. Multi-echo resting state fMRI was also collected from the same subjects and a robust denoising method was employed, important for removing motion and physiological artifacts. Results: FND subjects were more sensitive to the negative CS+ compared to HV, demonstrated by a reinforcement learning model. Contrary to expectation, FND patients were generally more impaired at learning to avoid losses under both contexts (CS+/CS−, persisting to choose the option that resulted in a negative outcome demonstrated by both behavioural and computational analyses. FND patients showed enhanced amygdala but reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses when they received negative feedback. Patients also had increased resting state functional connectivity between these two regions. Conclusions: FND patients had impaired instrumental avoidance learning, findings that parallel previous observations of impaired action-outcome binding. FND patients further show enhanced behavioural and neural sensitivity to negative information. However, this did not translate to improved avoidance learning. Put together, our findings do not support the theory of harm avoidance in FND

  8. Sex-specific positive and negative consequences of avoidance training during childhood on adult active avoidance learning in mice

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    Almuth eSpröwitz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In humans and animals cognitive training during childhood plays an important role in shaping neural circuits and thereby determines learning capacity later in life. Using a negative feedback learning paradigm, the two-way active avoidance (TWA learning, we aimed to investigate in mice (i the age-dependency of TWA learning, (ii the consequences of pretraining in childhood on adult learning capacity and (iii the impact of sex on the learning paradigm in mice. Taken together, we show here for the first time that the beneficial or detrimental outcome of pretraining in childhood depends on the age during which TWA training is encountered, indicating that different, age-dependent long-term memory traces might be formed, which are recruited during adult TWA training and thereby either facilitate or impair adult TWA learning. While pretraining during infancy results in learning impairment in adulthood, pretraining in late adolescence improved avoidance learning.The experiments revealed a clear sex difference in the group of late-adolescent mice: female mice showed better avoidance learning during late adolescence compared to males, and the beneficial impact of late-adolescent pretraining on adult learning was more pronounced in females compared to males.

  9. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Striatal Reward Responses Relate to Approach-Avoidance Learning and Encoding of Positive-Negative Prediction Errors in Dopaminergic Midbrain Regions.

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    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-10-28

    Some individuals are better at learning about rewarding situations, whereas others are inclined to avoid punishments (i.e., enhanced approach or avoidance learning, respectively). In reinforcement learning, action values are increased when outcomes are better than predicted (positive prediction errors [PEs]) and decreased for worse than predicted outcomes (negative PEs). Because actions with high and low values are approached and avoided, respectively, individual differences in the neural encoding of PEs may influence the balance between approach-avoidance learning. Recent correlational approaches also indicate that biases in approach-avoidance learning involve hemispheric asymmetries in dopamine function. However, the computational and neural mechanisms underpinning such learning biases remain unknown. Here we assessed hemispheric reward asymmetry in striatal activity in 34 human participants who performed a task involving rewards and punishments. We show that the relative difference in reward response between hemispheres relates to individual biases in approach-avoidance learning. Moreover, using a computational modeling approach, we demonstrate that better encoding of positive (vs negative) PEs in dopaminergic midbrain regions is associated with better approach (vs avoidance) learning, specifically in participants with larger reward responses in the left (vs right) ventral striatum. Thus, individual dispositions or traits may be determined by neural processes acting to constrain learning about specific aspects of the world. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514491-10$15.00/0.

  10. Avoiding negative populations in explicit Poisson tau-leaping.

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    Cao, Yang; Gillespie, Daniel T; Petzold, Linda R

    2005-08-01

    The explicit tau-leaping procedure attempts to speed up the stochastic simulation of a chemically reacting system by approximating the number of firings of each reaction channel during a chosen time increment tau as a Poisson random variable. Since the Poisson random variable can have arbitrarily large sample values, there is always the possibility that this procedure will cause one or more reaction channels to fire so many times during tau that the population of some reactant species will be driven negative. Two recent papers have shown how that unacceptable occurrence can be avoided by replacing the Poisson random variables with binomial random variables, whose values are naturally bounded. This paper describes a modified Poisson tau-leaping procedure that also avoids negative populations, but is easier to implement than the binomial procedure. The new Poisson procedure also introduces a second control parameter, whose value essentially dials the procedure from the original Poisson tau-leaping at one extreme to the exact stochastic simulation algorithm at the other; therefore, the modified Poisson procedure will generally be more accurate than the original Poisson procedure.

  11. Maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and infant outcomes: Avoidant affective processing as a potential mechanism.

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    Choi, Karmel W; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Vythilingum, Bavi; Geerts, Lut; Faure, Sheila C; Watt, Melissa H; Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J

    2017-03-15

    Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year. Structural equation models tested postpartum depression as a mediator between maternal experiences of childhood trauma and children's outcomes. A subset of women (N=33) also participated in a lab-based emotional Stroop paradigm, and their responses to fearful stimuli at six weeks were explored as a potential mechanism linking maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and child outcomes. Women with childhood trauma experienced greater depressive symptoms through six months postpartum, which then predicted negative child outcomes at one year. Mediating effects of postpartum depression were significant, and persisted for maternal-infant bonding and infant growth after controlling for covariates and antenatal distress. Maternal avoidance of fearful stimuli emerged as a potential affective mechanism. Limitations included modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Findings suggest a mediating role of postpartum depression in the intergenerational transmission of negative outcomes. Perinatal interventions that address maternal trauma histories and depression, as well as underlying affective mechanisms, may help interrupt cycles of disadvantage, particularly in high-trauma settings such as South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning.

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    von Borries, A K L; Verkes, R J; Bulten, B H; Cools, R; de Bruijn, E R A

    2013-12-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model predicts an FRN on negative prediction errors, as well as implying a role for the FRN in learning and the adaptation of behavior. However, these predictions have recently been challenged. Notably, studies so far have used tasks in which the outcomes have been contingent on the response. In these paradigms, the need to adapt behavioral responses is present only for negative, not for positive feedback. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of positive as well as negative violations of expectancy on FRN amplitudes, without the usual confound of behavioral adjustments. A reversal-learning task was employed in which outcome value and outcome expectancy were orthogonalized; that is, both positive and negative outcomes were equally unexpected. The results revealed a double dissociation, with effects of valence but not expectancy on the FRN and, conversely, effects of expectancy but not valence on the P300. While FRN amplitudes were largest for negative-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome expectancy, P300 amplitudes were largest for unexpected-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome valence. These FRN effects were interpreted to reflect an evaluation along a good-bad dimension, rather than reflecting a negative prediction error or a role in behavioral adaptation. By contrast, the P300 reflects the updating of information relevant for behavior in a changing context.

  13. Affect and craving: positive and negative affect are differentially associated with approach and avoidance inclinations.

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    Schlauch, Robert C; Gwynn-Shapiro, Daniel; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Molnar, Danielle S; Lang, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    Research on reactivity to alcohol and drug cues has either ignored affective state altogether or has focused rather narrowly on the role of negative affect in craving. Moreover, until recently, the relevant analyses of affect and craving have rarely addressed the ambivalence often associated with craving itself. The current study investigated how both negative and positive affect moderate approach and avoidance inclinations associated with cue-elicited craving in a clinical sample diagnosed with substance use disorders. One hundred forty-four patients (age range of 18-65, mean 42.0; n=92 males) were recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit for substance abuse. Participants completed a baseline assessment of both positive and negative affect prior to completing a cue-reactivity paradigm for which they provided self-report ratings of inclinations to approach (use) and avoid (not use) alcohol, cigarettes, and non-psychoactive control substances (food and beverages). Participants with elevated negative affect reported significantly higher approach ratings for cigarette and alcohol cues, whereas those high in positive affect showed significantly higher levels of avoidance inclinations for both alcohol and cigarette cues and also significantly lower approach ratings for alcohol cues, all relative to control cues. Results for negative affect are consistent with previous cue reactivity research, whereas results for positive affect are unique and call attention to its clinical potential for attenuating approach inclinations to substance use cues. Further, positive affect was related to both approach and avoidance inclinations, underscoring the utility of a multidimensional conceptualization of craving in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Internalized societal attitudes moderate the impact of weight stigma on avoidance of exercise.

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    Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A

    2011-04-01

    Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts.

  15. Playing it safe but losing anyway--serotonergic signaling of negative outcomes in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in the context of risk-aversion.

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    Macoveanu, Julian; Rowe, James B; Hornboll, Bettina; Elliott, Rebecca; Paulson, Olaf B; Knudsen, Gitte M; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2013-08-01

    Risk avoidance is an important determinant of human behavior. The neurotransmitter serotonin has been implicated in processing negative outcomes caused by risky decisions. However, it is unclear whether serotonin provides a neurobiological link between making a risk aversive decision and the response to a negative outcome. Using pharmacological fMRI, we manipulated the availability of serotonin in healthy volunteers while performing a gambling task. The same group of participants was studied in three fMRI sessions: (i) during intravenous administration of the SSRI citalopram to increase the serotonergic tone, (ii) after acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to reduce central serotonin levels, or (iii) without interventions. ATD and citalopram had opposite effects on outcome related activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and amygdala. Relative to the control condition, ATD increased and citalopram decreased the neural response to negative outcomes in dmPFC. Conversely, ATD decreased and citalopram increased the neural response to negative outcomes in left amygdala. Critically, these pharmacological effects were restricted to negative outcomes that were caused by low-risk decisions and led to a high missed reward. ATD and citalopram did not alter the neural response to positive outcomes in dmPFC, but relative to ATD, citalopram produced a bilateral increase in the amygdala response to large wins caused by high-risk choices. The results show a selective involvement of the serotonergic system in neocortical processing of negative outcomes resulting from risk-averse decisions, thereby linking risk aversion and processing of negative outcomes in goal-directed behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Engaging in Earnings Management to Avoid Negative Earnings

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    Imam Subekti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the earnings management behavior of companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (ISE. Specifically, the study investigates whether companies engaging in real earnings management or accrual management intent to avoid negative earnings; it also examines whether earnings management behavior supports efficient contracting or opportunistic behavior perspective. The sample of this study comprised 166 firm-years of manufacturing industrial sector during the period 2004 – 2005. Using multiple regressions, the study finds evidence that the companies engage in both earnings management, which are discretionary expenses (proxy of real earnings management and accruals management. This evidence supports the studies of Graham, Harvey, & Rajgopal (2005 and Roychowdhury (2006. Another result shows that the real earnings management conducted by the companies is efficient partially, while the accruals management is opportunistic.

  17. Goal setting in psychotherapy: the relevance of approach and avoidance goals for treatment outcome.

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    Wollburg, Eileen; Braukhaus, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    The present study is the first aimed at investigating the influence of goal definition on treatment outcome in a sample of depressed patients. Data from 657 inpatients admitted to a psychosomatic clinic in Germany being treated in a cognitive-behavioral therapy program were analyzed. Treatment goals were identified as either approach or avoidance, and the sample was classified accordingly. Patients who identified approach goals only were placed in the approach group, and those who identified at least one avoidance goal were placed in the avoidance group. Results showed that framing goals using avoidance terms was associated with less symptomatic improvement but did not affect goal attainment. Findings from this research should be utilized in practice not only for process management such as individual treatment planning but also to control outcome quality. Furthermore, goal definition should be considered as a control variable in research on depression.

  18. The Moderating Effect of Interaction Avoidance Between Abusive Supervision and Subordinates' Job Promotions.

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    Peltokorpi, Vesa

    2017-10-03

    While abusive supervision is shown to have negative stress-related effects on targets, less is known about the factors capable of mitigating these negative effects and their career-related outcomes. In this paper, we drew on the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1986) and the upward mobility theory (Turner, 1960) to explore the moderating effect of subordinates' interaction avoidance between abusive supervision and job promotions. To test this moderating effect, we collected data from 604 full-time employees at three points in time over a 12-month time period in Japan. The findings suggest that interaction avoidance moderates the relationship between abusive supervision and promotions, such that this relationship will be less negative as interaction avoidance increases.

  19. Avoidant Coping and Treatment Outcome in Rape-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

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    Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…

  20. The neural correlates of anomalous habituation to negative emotional pictures in borderline and avoidant personality disorder patients.

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    Koenigsberg, Harold W; Denny, Bryan T; Fan, Jin; Liu, Xun; Guerreri, Stephanie; Mayson, Sarah Jo; Rimsky, Liza; New, Antonia S; Goodman, Marianne; Siever, Larry J

    2014-01-01

    Extreme emotional reactivity is a defining feature of borderline personality disorder, yet the neural-behavioral mechanisms underlying this affective instability are poorly understood. One possible contributor is diminished ability to engage the mechanism of emotional habituation. The authors tested this hypothesis by examining behavioral and neural correlates of habituation in borderline patients, healthy comparison subjects, and a psychopathological comparison group of patients with avoidant personality disorder. During fMRI scanning, borderline patients, healthy subjects, and avoidant personality disorder patients viewed novel and repeated pictures, providing valence ratings at each presentation. Statistical parametric maps of the contrasts of activation during repeated versus novel negative picture viewing were compared between groups. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was employed to examine functional connectivity differences between groups. Unlike healthy subjects, neither borderline nor avoidant personality disorder patients exhibited increased activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex when viewing repeated versus novel pictures. This lack of an increase in dorsal anterior cingulate activity was associated with greater affective instability in borderline patients. In addition, borderline and avoidant patients exhibited smaller increases in insula-amygdala functional connectivity than healthy subjects and, unlike healthy subjects, did not show habituation in ratings of the emotional intensity of the images. Borderline patients differed from avoidant patients in insula-ventral anterior cingulate functional connectivity during habituation. Unlike healthy subjects, borderline patients fail to habituate to negative pictures, and they differ from both healthy subjects and avoidant patients in neural activity during habituation. A failure to effectively engage emotional habituation processes may contribute to affective instability in borderline

  1. Stuttering Thoughts: Negative Self-Referent Thinking Is Less Sensitive to Aversive Outcomes in People with Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms.

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    Iijima, Yudai; Takano, Keisuke; Boddez, Yannick; Raes, Filip; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Learning theories of depression have proposed that depressive cognitions, such as negative thoughts with reference to oneself, can develop through a reinforcement learning mechanism. This negative self-reference is considered to be positively reinforced by rewarding experiences such as genuine support from others after negative self-disclosure, and negatively reinforced by avoidance of potential aversive situations. The learning account additionally predicts that negative self-reference would be maintained by an inability to adjust one's behavior when negative self-reference no longer leads to such reward. To test this prediction, we designed an adapted version of the reversal-learning task. In this task, participants were reinforced to choose and engage in either negative or positive self-reference by probabilistic economic reward and punishment. Although participants were initially trained to choose negative self-reference, the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed to prompt a shift toward positive self-reference (Study 1) and a further shift toward negative self-reference (Study 2). Model-based computational analyses showed that depressive symptoms were associated with a low learning rate of negative self-reference, indicating a high level of reward expectancy for negative self-reference even after the contingency reversal. Furthermore, the difficulty in updating outcome predictions of negative self-reference was significantly associated with the extent to which one possesses negative self-images. These results suggest that difficulty in adjusting action-outcome estimates for negative self-reference increases the chance to be faced with negative aspects of self, which may result in depressive symptoms.

  2. Stuttering Thoughts: Negative Self-Referent Thinking Is Less Sensitive to Aversive Outcomes in People with Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms

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    Yudai Iijima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning theories of depression have proposed that depressive cognitions, such as negative thoughts with reference to oneself, can develop through a reinforcement learning mechanism. This negative self-reference is considered to be positively reinforced by rewarding experiences such as genuine support from others after negative self-disclosure, and negatively reinforced by avoidance of potential aversive situations. The learning account additionally predicts that negative self-reference would be maintained by an inability to adjust one’s behavior when negative self-reference no longer leads to such reward. To test this prediction, we designed an adapted version of the reversal-learning task. In this task, participants were reinforced to choose and engage in either negative or positive self-reference by probabilistic economic reward and punishment. Although participants were initially trained to choose negative self-reference, the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed to prompt a shift toward positive self-reference (Study 1 and a further shift toward negative self-reference (Study 2. Model-based computational analyses showed that depressive symptoms were associated with a low learning rate of negative self-reference, indicating a high level of reward expectancy for negative self-reference even after the contingency reversal. Furthermore, the difficulty in updating outcome predictions of negative self-reference was significantly associated with the extent to which one possesses negative self-images. These results suggest that difficulty in adjusting action-outcome estimates for negative self-reference increases the chance to be faced with negative aspects of self, which may result in depressive symptoms.

  3. Conservatives Anticipate and Experience Stronger Emotional Reactions to Negative Outcomes.

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    Joel, Samantha; Burton, Caitlin M; Plaks, Jason E

    2014-02-01

    The present work examined whether conservatives and liberals differ in their anticipation of their own emotional reactions to negative events. In two studies, participants imagined experiencing positive or negative outcomes in domains that do not directly concern politics. In Study 1, 190 American participants recruited online (64 male, Mage  = 32 years) anticipated their emotional responses to romantic relationship outcomes. In Study 2, 97 Canadian undergraduate students (26 male, Mage  = 21 years) reported on their anticipated and experienced emotional responses to academic outcomes. In both studies, more conservative participants predicted they would feel stronger negative emotions following negative outcomes than did more liberal participants. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow-up of Study 2 participants revealed that more conservative participants actually felt worse than more liberal participants after receiving a lower-than-desired exam grade. These effects remained even when controlling for the Big Five traits, prevention focus, and attachment style (Study 1), and optimism (Study 2). We discuss how the relationship between political orientation and anticipated affect likely contributes to differences between conservatives and liberals in styles of decision and policy choices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

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    Hui-yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  5. Myopic Regret Avoidance: Feedback Avoidance and Learning in Repeated Decision Making

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    Reb, Jochen; Connolly, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Decision makers can become trapped by "myopic regret avoidance" in which rejecting feedback to avoid short-term "outcome regret" (regret associated with counterfactual outcome comparisons) leads to reduced learning and greater long-term regret over continuing poor decisions. In a series of laboratory experiments involving repeated choices among…

  6. Linking Individual Learning Styles to Approach-Avoidance Motivational Traits and Computational Aspects of Reinforcement Learning.

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    Kristoffer Carl Aberg

    Full Text Available Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning and avoid punishments (avoidance learning is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits.

  7. Linking Individual Learning Styles to Approach-Avoidance Motivational Traits and Computational Aspects of Reinforcement Learning

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    Carl Aberg, Kristoffer; Doell, Kimberly C.; Schwartz, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning) and avoid punishments (avoidance learning) is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance) learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance) trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative) outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits. PMID:27851807

  8. Negative life events have detrimental effects on in-vitro fertlization outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Nafiye; Kahyaoglu, İnci; İnal, Hasan Ali; Görkem, Ümit; Devran, Aysun; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of negative life events on in-vitro-fertilization (IVF) outcome. Depression and negative life events were measured using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and List of Recent Events in 83 women attending the IVF clinic of a tertiary research and education hospital with the diagnosis of unexplained infertility between January 2013 and August 2013. Demographic features, stimulation parameters, depression scores, and negative life events of pregnant and non-pregnant participants were compared and the relation between negative life events, depression scores, and IVF outcome was investigated. Women who did not achieve a pregnancy experienced more negative life events than women who became pregnant (77.2% vs. 23.1%) (p > 0.001). The number of patients with moderate-to-severe depression (BDI scores > 16) was higher in the non-pregnant group than pregnant group (49.1% vs. 26.9%), however the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.057). Clinical pregnancy showed a significant moderate negative correlation with the number of negative life events (r = -0.513, p = 0.001), but the correlation between clinical pregnancy and BDI scores was not statistically significant (r = -0.209, p = 0.059). Stressful life events have a negative influence on the quality of life, which eventually affects in IVF outcome, possibly through maladaptive lifestyle behavior.

  9. Negative Symptoms and Avoidance of Social Interaction: A Study of Non-Verbal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worswick, Elizabeth; Dimic, Sara; Wildgrube, Christiane; Priebe, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped. Symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale. Independent raters later analysed the videos for non-verbal behaviour, using a modified version of the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI). Patients with a higher level of negative symptoms displayed significantly fewer prosocial (e.g., nodding and smiling), gesture, and displacement behaviours (e.g., fumbling), but significantly more flight behaviours (e.g., looking away, freezing). No gender differences were found, and these associations held true when adjusted for antipsychotic medication dosage. Negative symptoms are associated with both a lower level of actively engaging non-verbal behaviour and an increased active avoidance of social contact. Future research should aim to identify the mechanisms behind flight behaviour, with implications for the development of treatments to improve social functioning. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions and Generalized Anxiety‏ ‏Severity: The ‎Mediating Role of Experiential Avoidance and Repetitive‏ ‏Negative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh‏ ‏ Mohammadkhani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder is one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general ‎population. Several studies suggest that anxiety sensitivity is a vulnerability factor in generalized ‎anxiety severity. However, some other studies suggest that negative repetitive thinking and ‎experiential avoidance as response factors can explain this relationship. Therefore, this study ‎aimed to investigate the mediating role of experiential avoidance and negative repetitive thinking ‎in the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and generalized anxiety severity.‎Method: This was a cross-sectional and correlational study. A sample of 475 university students was ‎selected through stratified sampling method. The participants completed Anxiety Sensitivity ‎Inventory-3, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire, and ‎Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, multiple ‎regression analysis and path analysis.‎Results: The results revealed a positive relationship between anxiety sensitivity, particularly cognitive ‎anxiety sensitivity, experiential avoidance, repetitive thinking and generalized anxiety severity. In ‎addition, findings showed that repetitive thinking, but not experiential avoidance, fully mediated ‎the relationship between cognitive anxiety sensitivity and generalized anxiety severity. α Level ‎was p<0.005.‎Conclusion: Consistent with the trans-diagnostic hypothesis, anxiety sensitivity predicts generalized anxiety‏ ‏severity, but its effect is due to the generating repetitive negative thought.‎

  11. Individual differences in response to positive and negative stimuli: endocannabinoid-based insight on approach and avoidance behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eLaricchiuta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approach and avoidance behaviors - the primary responses to the environmental stimuli of danger, novelty and reward - are associated with the brain structures that mediate cognitive functionality, reward sensitivity and emotional expression. Individual differences in approach and avoidance behaviors are modulated by the functioning of amygdaloid-hypothalamic-striatal and striatal-cerebellar networks implicated in action and reaction to salient stimuli. The nodes of these networks are strongly interconnected and by acting on them the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems increase the intensity of appetitive or defensive motivation. This review analyzes the approach and avoidance behaviors in humans and rodents, addresses neurobiological and neurochemical aspects of these behaviors, and proposes a possible synaptic plasticity mechanism, related to endocannabinoid-dependent long-term potentiation and depression that allows responding to salient positive and negative stimuli.

  12. Reducing negative affect and increasing rapport improve interracial mentorship outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jordan B; Ayduk, Özlem; Boykin, C Malik; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that interracial mentoring relationships are strained by negative affect and low rapport. As such, it stands to reason that strategies that decrease negative affect and increase rapport should improve these relationships. However, previous research has not tested this possibility. In video-chats (Studies 1 and 2) and face-to-face meetings (Study 3), we manipulated the degree of mutual self-disclosure between mentees and mentors, a strategy that has been shown to reduce negative affect and increase rapport. We then measured negative affect and rapport as mediators, and mentee performance (quality of speech delivered; Studies 1 and 3) and mentor performance (warmth and helpfulness; Studies 2 and 3) as key outcomes. Results revealed that increased self-disclosure decreased negative affect and increased rapport for both mentees and mentors. Among mentees, decreased negative affect predicted better performance (Studies 1 and 3). Among mentors, increased rapport predicted warmer feedback (Studies 2 and 3). These effects remained significant when we meta-analyzed data across studies (Study 4), and also revealed the relationship of rapport to more helpful feedback. Findings suggest that affect and rapport are key features in facilitating positive outcomes in interracial mentoring relationships.

  13. The relevance of goal-orientation for motivation in high versus low proneness to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Engel, Maike; Fladung, Anne-Katharina; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-06-01

    The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i.e., perceiving goals as less feasible and important and being less committed to them). Based on the continuum model of negative symptoms, we identified two parallelized extreme groups with high and low levels of NSLE (n = 37, respectively) in an ad-hoc online-sample of healthy individuals (N = 262) using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. In an online study, these participants were instructed to generate approach and avoidance goals and to rate each goal in terms of feasibility, importance and goal-commitment. Participants with low levels of NSLE generated more approach than avoidance goals. Participants with high levels of NSLE showed no such difference due to increased numbers of avoidance goals. Furthermore, avoidance goal-orientation predicted reduced subjective feasibility and importance of goals and less goal-commitment. Results are based on a healthy sample rather than people with psychosis. No longitudinal or behavioral data for goal-striving was collected. People with NSLE generate more avoidance goals than controls. This is dysfunctional because it correlates with feeling less committed to reach one's goals. Optimizing goal-setting could be a promising starting-point for psychological interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures-that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  15. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  16. Predictors of avoiding medical care and reasons for avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Viji Diane; Veazie, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Delayed medical care has negative health and economic consequences; interventions have focused on appraising symptoms, with limited success in reducing delay. To identify predictors of care avoidance and reasons for avoiding care. Using the Health Information National Trends Survey (2007), we conducted logistic regressions to identify predictors of avoiding medical visits deemed necessary by the respondents; and, we then conducted similar analyses on reasons given for avoidance behavior. Independent variables included geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, personal health, health behavior, health care system, and cognitive characteristics. Approximately one third of adults avoided doctor visits they had deemed necessary. Although unadjusted associations existed, avoiding needed care was not independently associated with geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Avoidance behavior is characterized by low health self-efficacy, less experience with both quality care and getting help with uncertainty about health, having your feelings attended to by your provider, no usual source of care, negative affect, smoking daily, and fatalistic attitude toward cancer. Reasons elicited for avoidance include preference for self-care or alternative care, dislike or distrust of doctors, fear or dislike of medical treatments, time, and money; respondents also endorsed discomfort with body examinations, fear of having a serious illness, and thoughts of dying. Distinct predictors distinguish each of these reasons. Interventions to reduce patient delay could be improved by addressing the health-related behavioral, belief, experiential, and emotional traits associated with delay. Attention should also be directed toward the interpersonal communications between patients and providers.

  17. Clinical presentation and outcome of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a Japanese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Nin, Kazuko; Noma, Shun'ichi; Hamagaki, Seiji; Takagi, Ryuro; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a study of the clinical presentation and outcome in patients with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), aged 15-40years, and compared this group to an anorexia nervosa (AN) group in a Japanese sample. A retrospective chart review was completed on 245 patients with feeding and eating disorders (FEDs), analyzing prevalence, clinical presentation, psychopathological properties, and outcomes. Using the DSM-5 criteria, 27 (11.0%) out of the 245 patients with a FED met the criteria for ARFID at entry. All patients with ARFID were women. In terms of eating disorder symptoms, all patients with ARFID had restrictive eating related to emotional problems and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. However, none of the ARFID patients reported food avoidance related to sensory characteristics or functional dysphagia. Additionally, none of them exhibited binge eating or purging behaviors, and none of them reported excessive exercise. The ARFID group had a significantly shorter duration of illness, lower rates of admission history, and less severe psychopathology than the AN group. The ARFID group reported significantly better outcome results than the AN group. These results suggest that patients with ARFID in this study were clinically distinct from those with AN and somewhat different from pediatric patients with ARFID in previous studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental modification of interpretation bias about animal fear in young children: effects on cognition, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Field, Andy P; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation biases toward or away from threat about ambiguous situations involving Australian marsupials. Children rapidly learned to select outcomes of ambiguous situations, which were congruent with their assigned condition. Furthermore, following positive modification, children's threat biases about novel ambiguous situations significantly decreased, whereas threat biases significantly increased after negative modification. In response to a stress-evoking behavioral avoidance test, positive modification attenuated behavioral avoidance compared to negative modification. However, no significant effects of bias modification on anxiety vulnerability or physiological responses to this stress-evoking Behavioral Avoidance Task were observed.

  19. Avoidant personality disorder as a social anxiety phenotype: risk factors, associations and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies research trends and synthesizes information from recent studies of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). AVPD and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share genetic vulnerability, but may have distinct environmental risk factors that shape qualitative differences. Negative self-concept, shame proneness, and interpersonal hypersensitivity are characteristic of AVPD and may be predisposed to by heritable traits of high negative affectivity and low positive affectivity, and experiences of neglectful or emotionless parents. The interpersonal difficulties of AVPD may be associated with both anxious and avoidant attachment. Most individuals with AVPD do not also meet criteria for SAD. Integrative treatments incorporating cognitive behavioral strategies effective in SAD but also targeting shame aversion and avoidance may be most helpful for AVPD. Therapy adapted to both anxious attachment, associated with heightened interpersonal sensitivity and distress, and avoidant attachment, associated with experiential avoidance, may be optimal, though this is yet to be tested. Effective treatment of AVPD may enhance the outcome of comorbid conditions. More research is needed which compares three social anxiety groups (SAD alone, AVPD alone, and SAD plus AVPD) to further explore these disorders which are highly related, but which may have differences that are clinically relevant for individuals.

  20. Drinking motives and alcohol outcome expectancies as mediators of the association between negative urgency and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenien, Amber M; Lembo, Jordanna; Neighbors, Clayton

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether the effects of negative urgency, a unique facet of impulsivity marked by engaging in potentially unhealthy and rash behaviors in order to cope with anxiety or negative moods, on drinking behavior can be explained by positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies and specific drinking motives (i.e., coping and enhancement). College students (N=194) completed web-based surveys in exchange for course credit. Students completed measures of negative urgency, comprehensive effects of alcohol, drinking motives, and alcohol use behaviors. Results of path analysis indicated significant indirect effects of negative urgency and alcohol use through both alcohol outcome expectancies and enhancement motives. The effects of enhancement motives on drinking were mediated by positive alcohol outcome expectancies. The effects of coping motives on drinking were not attributable to negative expectancies. Individuals high on negative urgency may consume alcohol in order to ameliorate their emotional distress due to strong desires to increase positive and decrease negative experiences associated with drinking. Emotion-focused impulsivity's influence on drinking outcomes can be ascribed to enhancement motives for drinking as well as positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Prevention efforts should target drinking motives and alcohol outcome expectancies among those higher in negative urgency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lesions of the lateral habenula facilitate active avoidance learning and threat extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mihee; Jo, Yong Sang; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Choi, June-Seek

    2017-02-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain structure that provides strong projections to midbrain monoaminergic systems that are involved in motivation, emotion, and reinforcement learning. LHb neurons are known to convey information about aversive outcomes and negative prediction errors, suggesting a role in learning from aversive events. To test this idea, we examined the effects of electrolytic lesions of the LHb on signaled two-way active avoidance learning in which rats were trained to avoid an unconditioned stimulus (US) by taking a proactive shuttling response to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). The lesioned animals learned the avoidance response significantly faster than the control groups. In a separate experiment, we also investigated whether the LHb contributes to Pavlovian threat (fear) conditioning and extinction. Following paired presentations of the CS and the US, LHb-lesioned animals showed normal acquisition of conditioned response (CR) measured with freezing. However, extinction of the CR in the subsequent CS-only session was significantly faster. The enhanced performance in avoidance learning and in threat extinction jointly suggests that the LHb normally plays an inhibitory role in learning driven by absence of aversive outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of fear avoidance beliefs as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients with nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertli, Maria M; Rasmussen-Barr, Eva; Weiser, Sherri; Bachmann, Lucas M; Brunner, Florian

    2014-05-01

    Psychological factors including fear avoidance beliefs are believed to influence the development of chronic low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic importance of fear avoidance beliefs as assessed by the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for clinically relevant outcomes in patients with nonspecific LBP. The design of this study was a systematic review. In October 2011, the following databases were searched: BIOSIS, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, OTSeeker, PeDRO, PsycInfo, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science. To ensure the completeness of the search, a hand search and a search of bibliographies was conducted and all relevant references included. A total of 2,031 references were retrieved, leaving 566 references after the removal of duplicates. For 53 references, the full-text was assessed and, finally, 21 studies were included in the analysis. The most convincing evidence was found supporting fear avoidance beliefs to be a prognostic factor for work-related outcomes in patients with subacute LBP (ie, 4 weeks-3 months of LBP). Four cohort studies, conducted by disability insurance companies in the United States, Canada, and Belgium, included 258 to 1,068 patients mostly with nonspecific LBP. These researchers found an increased risk for work-related outcomes (not returning to work, sick days) with elevated FABQ scores. The odds ratio (OR) ranged from 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.09) to 4.64 (95% CI, 1.57-13.71). The highest OR was found when applying a high cutoff for FABQ Work subscale scores. This may indicate that the use of cutoff values increases the likelihood of positive findings. This issue requires further study. Fear avoidance beliefs in very acute LBP (3 months) was mostly not predictive. Evidence suggests that fear avoidance beliefs are prognostic for poor outcome in subacute LBP, and thus early treatment, including interventions to reduce fear

  3. The outcome of infected total knee arthroplasty: culture-positive versus culture-negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-01

    We studied the outcome in culture-positive and culture-negative infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We retrospectively reviewed 140 patients with culture-positive and 102 patients with culture-negative infected TKAs. We determined the infection control rate and clinical outcome after repeated debridement, and repeated 2-stage TKA in the culture-positive and culture-negative groups. The mean follow-up was 9.3 years (range 5-14 years) in the culture-positive group and 10.6 years (5-22) in the culture-negative group. The overall infection control rate was 56 % in both groups after the first treatment. The overall infection control rate was 90 % in the culture-positive group and 95 % in the culture-negative group. A functional knee was obtained in 90 % in the culture-positive group and 95 % in the culture-negative group. The data suggest that treatment according to the types of infection in both culture-positive and culture-negative groups after TKA controlled infection and maintained functional TKA with a firm level of fixation for most patients. Repeated debridement and repeated two-stage exchange TKA further improved infection control rates after the initial treatment and increased the likelihood of maintaining a functional TKA.

  4. Reducing Negative Outcomes of Online Consumer Health Information: Qualitative Interpretive Study with Clinicians, Librarians, and Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Thoër, Christine; Rodriguez, Charo

    2018-01-01

    Background There has been an exponential increase in the general population’s usage of the internet and of information accessibility; the current demand for online consumer health information (OCHI) is unprecedented. There are multiple studies on internet access and usage, quality of information, and information needs. However, few studies explored negative outcomes of OCHI in detail or from different perspectives, and none examined how these negative outcomes could be reduced. Objective The aim of this study was to describe negative outcomes associated with OCHI use in primary care and identify potential preventive strategies from consumers’, health practitioners’, and health librarians’ perspectives. Methods This included a two-stage interpretive qualitative study. In the first stage, we recruited through a social media survey, a purposeful sample of 19 OCHI users who had experienced negative outcomes associated with OCHI. We conducted semistructured interviews and performed a deductive-inductive thematic analysis. The results also informed the creation of vignettes that were used in the next stage. In the second stage, we interviewed a convenient sample of 10 key informants: 7 health practitioners (3 family physicians, 2 nurses, and 2 pharmacists) and 3 health librarians. With the support of the vignettes, we asked participants to elaborate on (1) their experience with patients who have used OCHI and experienced negative outcomes and (2) what strategies they suggest to reduce these outcomes. We performed a deductive-inductive thematic analysis. Results We found that negative outcomes of OCHI may occur at three levels: internal (such as increased worrying), interpersonal (such as a tension in the patient-clinician relationship), and service-related (such as postponing a clinical encounter). Participants also proposed three types of strategies to reduce the occurrence of these negative outcomes, namely, providing consumers with reliable OCHI, educating

  5. Maternal Dysphoric Mood, Stress, and Parenting Practices in Mothers of Head Start Preschoolers: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Sarah E.; Coyne, Lisa W.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dysphoria predicts behavioral difficulties in preschool-aged children, and may contribute to negative child outcomes by exacerbating parenting stress. Parenting stress increases the likelihood of maladaptive parenting practices, especially when mothers face multiple contextual stressors. We explored maternal experiential avoidance (EA) as…

  6. Insight in paranoia: The role of experiential avoidance and internalized stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carmen; Provencio, Maria; Espinosa, Regina; Duque, Almudena; Everts, Franziska

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggests that insight in psychosis has been related to treatment adherence, recovery and good prognosis, but also to depression, low self-esteem, and diminished quality of life. Thus, insight might not be advantageous under all circumstances. Internalized-stigma (i.e. self-acceptance of stigmatizing images of illness) and experiential avoidance (i.e. unwillingness to experience negative private events) have been proposed as moderating variables between insight, and psychological health variables and/or distress. We investigated the patterns of association of insight with satisfaction with life, self-esteem, depression, anxiety and psychotic psychopathology as moderated by self-stigmatizing beliefs and experiential avoidance, in a sample of 47 participants with persecutory beliefs and diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. Moderation analyses confirm the importance of internalized-stigma and experiential avoidance. The presence of insight was associated with more depression when there were high levels of self-stigma. Whereas, the absence of insight was associated with a greater life satisfaction when there were high levels of experiential avoidance. To summarize, our results help understand the complex relationship between insight, psychological health variables and emotional distress, pointing to a differential pattern of moderation for negative and positive outcomes. We discuss the implications of these results for research and treatment of paranoia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors and short-term outcome in patients with angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbjerg, Sara Maria; Larsen, Carl Christian; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify prognostic factors for clinical outcome in patients with non-traumatic, angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate if patients on anticoagulant therapy may have a more unfavorable outcome than patients...

  8. Relationship between drug interactions and drug-related negative clinical outcomes in two community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug interactions may represent an iatrogenic risk that should be controlled in community pharmacies at the dispensing level. Aim: We analyzed the association between potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs and negative clinical outcomes.Methods: We used dispensing data from two community pharmacies: instances where drug dispensing was associated with a potential DDI and a comparison group of randomized dispensing operations with no potential DDI. In cases where potential DDIs were detected, we analyzed the underlying negative clinical outcomes. Age and gender data were included in the analysis.Results: During the study period, we registered 417 potential DDIs. The proportion of women and age were higher in the study group than in the comparison group. The average potential DDIs per patient was 1.31 (SD=0.72. The Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Farmacéuticos (CGCOF database did not produce an alert in 2.4% of the cases. Over-the-counter medication use was observed in 5% of the potential DDI cases. The drugs most frequently involved in potential DDIs were acenocoumarol, calcium salts, hydrochlorothiazide, and alendronic acid, whereas the most predominant potential DDIs were calcium salts and bisphosphonates, oral antidiabetics and thiazide diuretics, antidiabetics and glucose, and oral anticoagulant and paracetamol. The existence of a drug-related negative clinical outcome was observed only in 0.96% of the potential DDI cases (50% safety cases and 50% effectiveness cases. Conclusions: Only a small proportion of the detected potential DDIs lead to medication negative outcomes. Considering the drug-related negative clinical outcomes encountered, tighter control would be recommended in potential DDIs with NSAIDs or benzodiazepines.

  9. Modeling Avoidance in Mood and Anxiety Disorders Using Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchian, Anahit; Aylward, Jessica; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2017-10-01

    Serious and debilitating symptoms of anxiety are the most common mental health problem worldwide, accounting for around 5% of all adult years lived with disability in the developed world. Avoidance behavior-avoiding social situations for fear of embarrassment, for instance-is a core feature of such anxiety. However, as for many other psychiatric symptoms the biological mechanisms underlying avoidance remain unclear. Reinforcement learning models provide formal and testable characterizations of the mechanisms of decision making; here, we examine avoidance in these terms. A total of 101 healthy participants and individuals with mood and anxiety disorders completed an approach-avoidance go/no-go task under stress induced by threat of unpredictable shock. We show an increased reliance in the mood and anxiety group on a parameter of our reinforcement learning model that characterizes a prepotent (pavlovian) bias to withhold responding in the face of negative outcomes. This was particularly the case when the mood and anxiety group was under stress. This formal description of avoidance within the reinforcement learning framework provides a new means of linking clinical symptoms with biophysically plausible models of neural circuitry and, as such, takes us closer to a mechanistic understanding of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative outcomes evoke cyclic irrational decisions in Rock, Paper, Scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Benjamin James; Wilbiks, Jonathan Michael Paul; Sandhu, Raj; Papanicolaou, Georgios; Lintag, Jaimie

    2016-02-04

    Rock, Paper, Scissors (RPS) represents a unique gaming space in which the predictions of human rational decision-making can be compared with actual performance. Playing a computerized opponent adopting a mixed-strategy equilibrium, participants revealed a non-significant tendency to over-select Rock. Further violations of rational decision-making were observed using an inter-trial analysis where participants were more likely to switch their item selection at trial n + 1 following a loss or draw at trial n, revealing the strategic vulnerability of individuals following the experience of negative rather than positive outcome. Unique switch strategies related to each of these trial n outcomes were also identified: after losing participants were more likely to 'downgrade' their item (e.g., Rock followed by Scissors) but after drawing participants were more likely to 'upgrade' their item (e.g., Rock followed by Paper). Further repetition analysis revealed that participants were more likely to continue their specific cyclic item change strategy into trial n + 2. The data reveal the strategic vulnerability of individuals following the experience of negative rather than positive outcome, the tensions between behavioural and cognitive influences on decision making, and underline the dangers of increased behavioural predictability in other recursive, non-cooperative environments such as economics and politics.

  11. Posture as index for approach-avoidance behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eerland

    Full Text Available Approach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures (passively viewing phase. Then they had to move their body to the left or the right (lateral movement phase to make the next picture appear. We recorded movements in the anterior-posterior direction to examine approach and avoidant behavior. During passively viewing, people approached pleasant pictures. They avoided unpleasant ones while they made a lateral movement. These findings provide support for the idea that we tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations.

  12. Association between changes on the Negative Symptom Assessment scale (NSA-16) and measures of functional outcome in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velligan, Dawn I; Alphs, Larry; Lancaster, Scott; Morlock, Robert; Mintz, Jim

    2009-09-30

    We examined whether changes in negative symptoms, as measured by scores on the 16-item Negative Symptom Assessment scale (NSA-16), were associated with changes in functional outcome. A group of 125 stable outpatients with schizophrenia were assessed at baseline and at 6 months using the NSA-16, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and multiple measures of functional outcome. Baseline adjusted regression coefficients indicated moderate correlations between negative symptoms and functional outcomes when baseline values of both variables were controlled. Results were nearly identical when we controlled for positive symptoms. Cross-lag panel correlations and Structural Equation Modeling were used to examine whether changes in negative symptoms drove changes in functional outcomes over time. Results indicated that negative symptoms drove the changes in the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS) rather than the reverse. Measures of Quality of Life and measures of negative symptoms may be assessing overlapping constructs or changes in both may be driven by a third variable. Negative symptoms were unrelated over time to scores on a performance-based measure of functional capacity. This study indicates that the relationship between negative symptom change and the change in functional outcomes is complex, and points to potential issues in selection of assessments.

  13. Cross-lagged relations between teacher and parent ratings of children's task avoidance and different literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Hirvonen, Riikka; Manolitsis, George; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2017-09-01

    Task avoidance is a significant predictor of literacy skills. However, it remains unclear whether the relation between the two is reciprocal and whether it is affected by the type of literacy outcome, who is rating children's task avoidance, and the children's gender. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the cross-lagged relations between teacher and parent ratings of children's task avoidance and different literacy skills. One hundred and seventy-two Greek children (91 girls, 81 boys) were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Children were assessed on reading accuracy, reading fluency, and spelling to dictation. Parents and teachers rated the children's task-avoidant behaviour. Results of structural equation modelling showed that the cross-lagged relations varied as a function of the literacy outcome, who rated the children's task avoidance, and children's gender. Earlier reading and spelling performance predicted subsequent parent-rated task avoidance, but parent-rated task avoidance did not predict subsequent reading and spelling performance (with the exception of spelling in Grade 3). Teacher-rated task avoidance and reading fluency/spelling had a reciprocal relationship over time. In addition, the effects of teacher-rated task avoidance on future spelling were significantly stronger in boys than in girls. This suggests that poor reading and spelling performance can lead to subsequent task avoidance in both classroom and home situations. The fact that task avoidance permeates across different learning environments is alarming and calls for joint action from both parents and teachers to mitigate its negative impact on learning. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Client Predictors of Short-term Psychotherapy Outcomes among Asian and White American Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E.; Zane, Nolan W.; Blozis, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine predictors of psychotherapy outcomes, focusing on client characteristics that are especially salient for culturally diverse clients. Method Sixty clients (31 women; 27 White Americans, 33 Asian Americans) participated in this treatment study. Client characteristics were measured at pre-treatment, and outcomes were measured post-fourth session via therapist ratings of functioning and symptomatology. Regression analyses were utilized to test for predictors of outcomes, and bootstrap analyses were utilized to test for mediators. Results Higher levels of somatic symptoms predicted lower psychosocial functioning at post-treatment. Avoidant coping style predicted more negative symptoms and more psychological discomfort. Non-English language preference predicted worse outcomes; this effect was mediated by an avoidant coping style. Conclusions Language preference, avoidant coping style, and somatic symptoms predicted treatment outcome in a culturally diverse sample. Findings suggest that race/ethnicity-related variables may function through mediating proximal variables to affect outcomes. PMID:22836681

  15. Avoidance-based human Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrea H.; Niznikiewicz, Michael A.; Delamater, Andrew R.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm probes the influence of Pavlovian cues over instrumentally learned behavior. The paradigm has been used extensively to probe basic cognitive and motivational processes in studies of animal learning but, more recently, PIT and its underlying neural basis have been extended to investigations in humans. These initial neuroimaging studies of PIT have focused on the influence of appetitively conditioned stimuli on instrumental responses maintained by positive reinforcement, and highlight the involvement of the striatum. In the current study, we sought to understand the neural correlates of PIT in an aversive Pavlovian learning situation when instrumental responding was maintained through negative reinforcement. Participants exhibited specific PIT, wherein selective increases in instrumental responding to conditioned stimuli occurred when the stimulus signaled a specific aversive outcome whose omission negatively reinforced the instrumental response. Additionally, a general PIT effect was observed such that when a stimulus was associated with a different aversive outcome than was used to negatively reinforce instrumental behavior, the presence of that stimulus caused a non-selective increase in overall instrumental responding. Both specific and general PIT behavioral effects correlated with increased activation in corticostriatal circuitry, particularly in the striatum, a region involved in cognitive and motivational processes. These results suggest that avoidance-based PIT utilizes a similar neural mechanism to that seen with PIT in an appetitive context, which has implications for understanding mechanisms of drug-seeking behavior during addiction and relapse. PMID:24118624

  16. Does avoidant personality disorder impact on the outcome of treatment for bulimia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sarah L; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Carter, Frances A; Frampton, Chris; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2010-07-01

    To examine the impact of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) on bulimia nervosa (BN) treatment outcome over 3 years. Women with BN were participating in a randomized treatment trial. The sample was split into: AVPD (n = 37), other PD (n = 37), and no PD (n = 60). Eating disorder symptomatology, depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning were examined at pretreatment and follow-up. Multiple regression was conducted to control for high axis I comorbidity. There were no significant differences across the groups at pretreatment or follow-up on eating disorder symptoms. AVPD had worse depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning at pretreatment which continued 3 years post-treatment. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the presence of any lifetime mood disorder contributed to these significant results. These findings suggest AVPD is not a significant predictor of BN outcome. However, AVPD is associated with poorer psychiatric symptoms although much of this variance appears to be attributable to the lifetime presence of any mood disorder. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reduction in Memory Specificity Following an Approach/Avoidance Scrambled Sentences Task Relates to Cognitive Avoidant Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J. Mark G.; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    "Overgeneral autobiographical memory" (OGM) refers to the tendency to retrieve less specific personal memories. According to the functional avoidance hypothesis, OGM might act as a cognitive strategy to avoid emotionally distressing details of negative memories. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an experimentally…

  18. Preoperative cow-side lactatemia measurement predicts negative outcome in Holstein dairy cattle with right abomasal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, G; Francoz, D; Doré, E; Dufour, S; Veillette, M; Badillo, M; Bélanger, A-M; Buczinski, S

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were (1) to determine the gain in prognostic accuracy of preoperative l-lactate concentration (LAC) measured on farm on cows with right displaced abomasum (RDA) or abomasal volvulus (AV) for predicting negative outcome; and (2) to suggest clinically relevant thresholds for such use. A cohort of 102 cows with on-farm surgical diagnostic of RDA or AV was obtained from June 2009 through December 2011. Blood was drawn from coccygeal vessels before surgery and plasma LAC was immediately measured by using a portable clinical analyzer. Dairy producers were interviewed by phone 30 d following surgery and the outcome was determined: a positive outcome if the owner was satisfied of the overall evolution 30 d postoperatively, and a negative outcome if the cow was culled, died, or if the owner reported being unsatisfied 30 d postoperatively. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for LAC was 0.92 and was significantly greater than the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve of heart rate (HR; 0.77), indicating that LAC, in general, performed better than HR to predict a negative outcome. Furthermore, the ability to predict a negative outcome was significantly improved when LAC measurement was considered in addition to the already available HR data (area under the curve: 0.93 and 95% confidence interval: 0.87, 0.99). Important inflection points of the misclassification cost term function were noted at thresholds of 2 and 6 mmol/L, suggesting the potential utility of these cut-points. The 2 and 6 mmol/L thresholds had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for predicting a negative outcome of 76.2, 82.7, 53.3, and 93.1%, and of 28.6, 97.5, 75, and 84%, respectively. In terms of clinical interpretation, LAC ≤2 mmol/L appeared to be a good indicator of positive outcome and could be used to support a surgical treatment decision. The

  19. Attention Bias of Avoidant Individuals to Attachment Emotion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ding, Yi; Lu, Luluzi; Chen, Xu

    2017-01-27

    How attachment style affects emotion processing is tightly connected with individuals' attention bias. This experiment explored avoidant individuals' attentional engagement and attentional disengagement using a cue-target paradigm in fMRI. The experimental group consisted of 17 avoidant participants, while the control group consisted of 16 secure participants; these were identified by the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory and the Relationship Questionnaire. Each reacted to pictures of positive parent-child attachment, negative parent-child attachment, positive romantic attachment, negative romantic attachment, and neutral non-attachment. Behaviorally, avoidant individuals were slower than secure individuals in responding to emotions and their attentional disengagement effect for negative parent-child emotions was stronger than positive ones. fMRI results showed that avoidant compared to secure individuals activated more strongly in the right superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and the left medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cingulate gyrus. They also showed stronger activation in disengaging from positive than negative emotions in the bilateral fusiform and middle occipital gyri. In conclusion, avoidant individuals could detect emotions as effective as secure individuals in attentioal engaging stages. They can disengage from positive emotions with effective cognitive resources and were harder to get rid of negative emotions with insufficient resource.

  20. Attachment avoidance, but not anxiety, minimizes the joys of caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine; Borelli, Jessica L; River, Laura M

    2017-10-01

    Perhaps unlike other social roles that people may hold, caring for children offers opportunities for both immense joy and incredible frustration. Yet what predicts how parents will feel during caregiving experiences? In the current study, we examined parents' (N = 152) positive emotion, negative emotion, and felt meaning during caregiving using the Day Reconstruction Method. In addition, we tested attachment anxiety and avoidance as predictors of parents' emotion during caregiving relative to their other daily experiences. We found that attachment avoidance was associated with elevated negative emotion and reduced positive emotion and meaning in life across the entire day, whereas attachment anxiety was associated with elevated negative emotion and marginally greater meaning in life, but not positive emotion, across the entire day. Furthermore, caregiving was associated with greater positive emotion and meaning, but not negative emotion, compared to parents' other daily activities. Finally, attachment avoidance, but not anxiety, was associated with lower levels of positive emotion, negative emotion, and felt meaning during caregiving compared to other daily activities. These findings are consistent with other evidence that attachment avoidance is associated with deactivation of emotion in close relationships and suggest that attachment avoidance minimizes the joys of parenting.

  1. 3 Tesla MRI-negative focal epilepsies: Presurgical evaluation, postoperative outcome and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogias, Evangelos; Klingler, Jan-Helge; Urbach, Horst; Scheiwe, Christian; Schmeiser, Barbara; Doostkam, Soroush; Zentner, Josef; Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias

    2017-12-01

    To investigate presurgical diagnostic modalities, clinical and seizure outcome as well as predictive factors after resective epilepsy surgery in 3 Tesla MRI-negative focal epilepsies. This retrospective study comprises 26 patients (11 males/15 females, mean age 34±12years, range 13-50 years) with 3 Tesla MRI-negative focal epilepsies who underwent resective epilepsy surgery. Non-invasive and invasive presurgical diagnostic modalities, type and localization of resection, clinical and epileptological outcome with a minimum follow-up of 1year (range 1-11 years, mean 2.5±2.3years) after surgery as well as outcome predictors were evaluated. All patients underwent invasive video-EEG monitoring after implantation of intracerebral depth and/or subdural electrodes. Ten patients received temporal and 16 extratemporal or multilobar (n=4) resections. There was no perioperative death or permanent morbidity. Overall, 12 of 26 patients (46%) were completely seizure-free (Engel IA) and 65% had a favorable outcome (Engel I-II). In particular, seizure-free ratio was 40% in the temporal and 50% in the extratemporal group. In the temporal group, long duration of epilepsy correlated with poor seizure outcome, whereas congruent unilateral FDG-PET hypometabolism correlated with a favorable outcome. In almost two thirds of temporal and extratemporal epilepsies defined as "non-lesional" by 3 Tesla MRI criteria, a favorable postoperative seizure outcome (Engel I-II) can be achieved with accurate multimodal presurgical evaluation including intracranial EEG recordings. In the temporal group, most favorable results were obtained when FDG-PET displayed congruent unilateral hypometabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Playing it safe but losing anyway-Serotonergic signaling of negative outcomes in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in the context of risk-aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Rowe, James B; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    and the response to a negative outcome. Using pharmacological fMRI, we manipulated the availability of serotonin in healthy volunteers while performing a gambling task. The same group of participants was studied in three fMRI sessions: (i) during intravenous administration of the SSRI citalopram to increase...... and citalopram decreased the neural response to negative outcomes in dmPFC. Conversely, ATD decreased and citalopram increased the neural response to negative outcomes in left amygdala. Critically, these pharmacological effects were restricted to negative outcomes that were caused by low-risk decisions and led...

  3. What you want to avoid is what you see: Social avoidance motivation affects the interpretation of emotional faces

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of habitual social approach and avoidance motivation on the classification of facial expressions of different visual clarity. Participants (N = 78) categorized partially masked emotional faces expressing either anger or happiness as positive or negative. Participants generally tended to interpret the facial expressions in a positive way. This positivity effect was reduced when persons were highly avoidance motivated. Social avoidance motivation predicted fe...

  4. Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P

    2017-02-01

    Negativity in parent-child relationships during adolescence has been viewed as a risk factor for teens' future personal and interpersonal adjustment. This study examined support from romantic partners and close friends during late adolescence as protective against maternal negativity experienced during early adolescence. A combination of observational, self-report, and peer-report measures were obtained from a community sample of 97 youth (58 % female), their mothers, closest friends, and romantic partners assessed at ages 13, 18, and 20. Moderating effects suggested a protective effect of romantic support against maternal negativity across a variety of psychosocial outcomes, including depressive symptoms, self-worth, social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior. Protective effects were found even after controlling for initial levels of outcome behavior and observed support from close friends throughout adolescence. Receiving support from a romantic partner may provide teens with new, positive ways of coping with adversity and help them avoid more serious distress that may be predicted from maternal negativity when such support is not available.

  5. The Moderating Effect of Attachment Styles (Anxiety And Avoidance on Consumer Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Afonso Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper investigates firm-focused customer attachment styles relationship, rather than general or interpersonal attachment styles. We proposed a theoretical framework and analyzed the customers’ attachment styles and their moderating effect on happiness, commitment, loyalty, satisfaction and preference for closeness. In Study 1, we survey clients from main banks in Brazil, who evaluated their relationship with banks. In Study 2, we survey clients from insurance agent broker. The results showed that the anxiety × avoidance interaction had negative association with switching intention. Second, the outcomes suggested that the anxiety × avoidance interaction attenuates the main effect of all marketing variables on repurchase intention and switching intention, creating a three-way interaction. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  6. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  7. Negative relationship behavior is more important than positive: Correlates of outcomes during stressful life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Alannah Shelby; Sanford, Keith

    2018-04-01

    When people who are married or cohabiting face stressful life situations, their ability to cope may be associated with two separate dimensions of interpersonal behavior: positive and negative. These behaviors can be assessed with the Couple Resilience Inventory (CRI). It was expected that scales on this instrument would correlate with outcome variables regarding life well-being, stress, and relationship satisfaction. It was also expected that effects for negative behavior would be larger than effects for positive and that the effects might be curvilinear. Study 1 included 325 married or cohabiting people currently experiencing nonmedical major life stressors and Study 2 included 154 married or cohabiting people with current, serious medical conditions. All participants completed an online questionnaire including the CRI along with an alternate measure of couple behavior (to confirm scale validity), a measure of general coping style (to serve as a covariate), and measures of outcome variables regarding well-being, quality of life, perceived stress, and relationship satisfaction. The effects for negative behavior were larger than effects for positive in predicting most outcomes, and many effects were curvilinear. Notably, results remained significant after controlling for general coping style, and scales measuring positive and negative behavior demonstrated comparable levels of validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Posture as index for approach-avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerland, A.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franken, Ingmar; Zwaan, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Approach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed pleasant,

  9. Posture as index for Approach-Avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Eerland (Anita); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractApproach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed

  10. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  11. Failure of introduction of food allergens after negative oral food challenge tests in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. van der Valk; R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); Y. Vergouwe; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractOne of the purposes to perform an oral food challenge (FC) test is to avoid unnecessary elimination of food allergens. In case of a negative FC test result, the food can be introduced. It is, however, unknown if patients act according to the outcome of the test. This study evaluates the

  12. Spanking, corporal punishment and negative long-term outcomes: a meta-analytic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    Social scientists continue to debate the impact of spanking and corporal punishment (CP) on negative child outcomes including externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and cognitive performance. Previous meta-analytic reviews have mixed long- and short-term studies and relied on bivariate r, which may inflate effect sizes. The current meta-analysis focused on longitudinal studies, and compared effects using bivariate r and better controlled partial r coefficients controlling for time-1 outcome variables. Consistent with previous findings, results based on bivariate r found small but non-trivial long-term relationships between spanking/CP use and negative outcomes. Spanking and CP correlated .14 and .18 respectively with externalizing problems, .12 and .21 with internalizing problems and -.09 and -.18 with cognitive performance. However, when better controlled partial r coefficients (pr) were examined, results were statistically significant but trivial (at or below pr = .10) for externalizing (.07 for spanking, .08 for CP) and internalizing behaviors (.10 for spanking, insufficient studies for CP) and near the threshold of trivial for cognitive performance (-.11 for CP, insufficient studies for spanking). It is concluded that the impact of spanking and CP on the negative outcomes evaluated here (externalizing, internalizing behaviors and low cognitive performance) are minimal. It is advised that psychologists take a more nuanced approach in discussing the effects of spanking/CP with the general public, consistent with the size as well as the significance of their longitudinal associations with adverse outcomes.

  13. Evaluation of coping resources and self-esteem as moderators of the relationship between threat appraisals and avoidance of activities after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gerard A; Dennis, Rebecca K; Powell, Theresa

    2010-12-01

    It is not uncommon for people after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) to develop anxieties about possible negative outcomes (i.e., threat appraisals) in relation to participating in valued activities. Some respond to this anxiety by avoiding the activities, but others maintain their participation. The present study investigated two factors that may help explain this variation across individuals in their response to threat appraisals - self-esteem and the evaluation of coping resources. Forty-one individuals with a TBI completed the Avoidance and Threat Appraisals Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Coping Resources Questionnaire. The study's hypotheses were supported: Those low in self-esteem, and those with a negative evaluation of their ability to cope with the TBI, were significantly more likely to respond to threat appraisals with avoidance. Those whose injury was more recent and those whose injury was the result of an assault were also more likely to respond with avoidance. The theoretical and therapeutic implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jessica L; Clayton, Russell B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and consequences associated with Instagram selfie posting. Thus, this study explored whether body image satisfaction predicts Instagram selfie posting and whether Instagram selfie posting is then associated with Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes. A total of 420 Instagram users aged 18 to 62 years (M = 29.3, SD = 8.12) completed an online survey questionnaire. Analysis of a serial multiple mediator model using bootstrapping methods indicated that body image satisfaction was sequentially associated with increased Instagram selfie posting and Instagram-related conflict, which related to increased negative romantic relationship outcomes. These findings suggest that when Instagram users promote their body image satisfaction in the form of Instagram selfie posts, risk of Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes might ensue. Findings from the current study provide a baseline understanding to potential and timely trends regarding Instagram selfie posting.

  15. Negative decision outcomes are more common among people with lower decision-making competence: An item-level analysis of the Decision Outcome Inventory (DOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Parker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Most behavioral decision research takes place in carefully controlled laboratory settings, and examination of relationships between performance and specific real-world decision outcomes is rare. One prior study shows that people who perform better on hypothetical decision tasks, assessed using the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC measure, also tend to experience better real-world decision outcomes, as reported on the Decision Outcomes Inventory (DOI. The DOI score reflects avoidance of outcomes that could result from poor decisions, ranging from serious (e.g., bankruptcy to minor (e.g., blisters from sunburn. The present analyses go beyond the initial work, which focused on the overall DOI score, by analyzing the relationships between specific decision outcomes and A-DMC performance. Most outcomes are significantly more likely among people with lower A-DMC scores, even after taking into account two variables expected to produce worse real-world decision outcomes: younger age and lower socio-economic status. We discuss the usefulness of DOI as a measure of successful real-world decision making.

  16. Implicit and explicit measures of spider fear and avoidance behavior: Examination of the moderating role of working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effting, Marieke; Salemink, Elske; Verschuere, Bruno; Beckers, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Avoidance behavior is central to several anxiety disorders. The current study tested whether avoidance behavior for spiders depends on a dynamic interplay between implicit and explicit processes, moderated by the availability to exert control through working memory capacity (WMC). A total of 63 participants completed an approach-avoidance task, an implicit association test, a spider fear questionnaire and a behavioral avoidance test that included an assessment of approach distance as well as approach speed. WMC was measured by a complex operation span task. It was hypothesized that in individuals with low WMC, implicit avoidance tendencies and implicit negative associations predict avoidance behavior for a spider better than the explicit measure, whereas in high WMC individuals, the explicit measure should better predict avoidance behavior than the implicit measures. Results revealed that WMC moderated the influence of implicit negative associations, but not implicit avoidance tendencies, on spider approach distance but not the speed of approaching. Although explicit spider fear directly influenced avoidance behavior, its impact was not modulated by WMC. Participants in our study were from a non-clinical sample, which limits the generalizability of our findings. These findings suggest that implicit processes might become more pertinent for fear behavior as the ability to control such processes wanes, which may be particularly relevant for anxiety disorders given their association with lowered executive control functioning. As such, training procedures that specifically target implicit processes or control abilities might improve treatment outcomes for anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Context Matters: Outcome Probability and Expectation Mismatch Modulate the Feedback Negativity When Self-Evaluation of Response Correctness Is Possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Cano Rodilla, Carmen; Beauducel, André

    2015-01-01

    Individuals typically evaluate whether their performance and the obtained feedback match. Previous research has shown that feedback negativity (FN) depends on outcome probability and feedback valence. It is, however, less clear to what extent previous effects of outcome probability on FN depend on self-evaluations of response correctness. Therefore, we investigated the effects of outcome probability on FN amplitude in a simple go/no-go task that allowed for the self-evaluation of response correctness. We also investigated effects of performance incompatibility and feedback valence. In a sample of N = 22 participants, outcome probability was manipulated by means of precues, feedback valence by means of monetary feedback, and performance incompatibility by means of feedback that induced a match versus mismatch with individuals' performance. We found that the 100% outcome probability condition induced a more negative FN following no-loss than the 50% outcome probability condition. The FN following loss was more negative in the 50% compared to the 100% outcome probability condition. Performance-incompatible loss resulted in a more negative FN than performance-compatible loss. Our results indicate that the self-evaluation of the correctness of responses should be taken into account when the effects of outcome probability and expectation mismatch on FN are investigated.

  18. Emotional valence and contextual affordances flexibly shape approach-avoidance movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina eSaraiva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour is influenced by the emotional content – or valence – of stimuli in our environment. Positive stimuli facilitate approach, whereas negative stimuli facilitate defensive actions such as avoidance (flight and attack (fight. Facilitation of approach or avoidance movements may also be influenced by whether it is the self that moves relative to a stimulus (self-reference or the stimulus that moves relative to the self (object-reference, adding flexibility and context-dependence to behaviour. Alternatively, facilitation of approach avoidance movements may happen in a predefined and muscle-specific way, whereby arm flexion is faster to approach positive (e.g. flexing the arm brings a stimulus closer and arm extension faster to avoid negative stimuli (e.g. extending the arm moves the stimulus away. While this allows for relatively fast responses, it may compromise the flexibility offered by contextual influences. Here we asked under which conditions approach-avoidance actions are influenced by contextual factors (i.e. reference-frame. We manipulated the reference-frame in which actions occurred by asking participants to move a symbolic manikin (representing the self towards or away from a positive or negative stimulus, and move a stimulus towards or away from the manikin. We also controlled for the type of movements used to approach or avoid in each reference. We show that the reference-frame influences approach-avoidance actions to emotional stimuli, but additionally we find muscle-specificity for negative stimuli in self-reference contexts. We speculate this muscle-specificity may be a fast and adaptive response to threatening stimuli. Our results confirm that approach-avoidance behaviour is flexible and reference-frame dependent, but can be muscle-specific depending on the context and valence of the stimulus. Reference-frame and stimulus-evaluation are key factors in guiding approach-avoidance behaviour towards emotional stimuli in our

  19. A test of the functional avoidance hypothesis in the development of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallford, D J; Austin, D W; Raes, F; Takano, K

    2018-04-18

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to the failure to recall memories of specific personally experienced events, which occurs in various psychiatric disorders. One pathway through which OGM is theorized to develop is the avoidance of thinking of negative experiences, whereby cumulative avoidance may maladaptively generalize to autobiographical memory (AM) more broadly. We tested this, predicting that negative experiences would interact with avoidance to predict AM specificity. In Study 1 (N = 281), negative life events (over six months) and daily hassles (over one month) were not related to AM specificity, nor was avoidance, and no interaction was found. In Study 2 (N = 318), we revised our measurements and used an increased timeframe of 12 months for both negative life events and daily hassles. The results showed no interaction effect for negative life events, but they did show an interaction for daily hassles, whereby increased hassles and higher avoidance of thinking about them were associated with reduced AM specificity, independent of general cognitive avoidance and depressive symptoms. No evidence was found that cognitive avoidance or AM specificity moderated the effect of negative experiences on depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that life events over 6-12 months are not associated with AM specificity, but chronic daily hassles over 12 months predict reduced AM specificity when individuals avoid thinking about them. The findings provide evidence for the functional-avoidance hypothesis of OGM development and future directions for longitudinal studies.

  20. Outcome Assessments and Cost Avoidance of an Oral Chemotherapy Management Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siu-Fun; Bounthavong, Mark; Nguyen, Cham P; Chen, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    Increasing use of oral chemotherapy drugs increases the challenges for drug and patient management. An oral chemotherapy management clinic was developed to provide patients with oral chemotherapy management, concurrent medication (CM) education, and symptom management services. This evaluation aims to measure the need and effectiveness of this practice model due to scarce published data. This is a case series report of all patients referred to the oral chemotherapy management clinic. Data collected included patient demographics, depression scores, CMs, and types of intervention, including detection and management outcomes collected at baseline, 3-day, 7-day, and 3-month follow-ups. Persistence rate was monitored. Secondary analysis assessed potential cost avoidance. A total of 86 evaluated patients (32 men and 54 women, mean age of 63.4 years) did not show a high risk for medication nonadherence. The 3 most common cancer diagnoses were rectal, pancreatic, and breast, with capecitabine most prescribed. Patients had an average of 13.7 CMs. A total of 125 interventions (detection and management of adverse drug event detection, compliance, drug interactions, medication error, and symptom management) occurred in 201 visits, with more than 75% of interventions occurring within the first 14 days. A persistence rate was observed in 78% of 41 evaluable patients. The total estimated annual cost avoidance per 1.0 full time employee (FTE) was $125,761.93. This evaluation demonstrated the need for additional support for patients receiving oral chemotherapy within standard of care medical service. A comprehensive oral chemotherapy management referral service can optimize patient care delivery via early interventions for adverse drug events, drug interactions, and medication errors up to 3 months after initiation of treatment. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  1. Routes to positive interracial interactions: approaching egalitarianism or avoiding prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G; Peruche, Michelle B

    2010-09-01

    The current work examined factors that contribute to positive interracial interactions. It argues that the source of people's motivation to respond without prejudice and the goals and strategies they pursue in interracial interactions influence the quality of these interactions. Three studies show that non-Black participants who are highly internally motivated to respond without prejudice tend to focus on strategies and behaviors in interactions with Black people that approach a positive (i.e., egalitarian) outcome. As a result of engaging in these approach behaviors, their interracial interactions go more smoothly for both themselves and their interaction partners as compared to people less internally motivated. In contrast, externally motivated people tend to focus on avoiding negative (i.e., prejudiced) outcomes, which ironically results in their coming across to their partners as prejudiced. The implications of the findings for smoothing out the rocky road to positive intergroup interactions are discussed.

  2. LGB and questioning students in schools: the moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L; Koenig, Brian

    2009-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam, J School Health 62(7):352-357, 1992). This study examined how school contextual factors such as homophobic victimization and school climate influence negative outcomes in LGB and questioning middle school students. Participants were 7,376 7th and 8th grade students from a large Midwestern county (50.7% Female, 72.7% White, 7.7% Biracial, 6.9% Black, 5.2% Asian, 3.7% Hispanic, and 2.2% reported "other"). LGB and sexually questioning youth were more likely to report high levels of bullying, homophobic victimization, and various negative outcomes than heterosexual youth. Students who were questioning their sexual orientation reported the most bullying, the most homophobic victimization, the most drug use, the most feelings of depression and suicidality, and more truancy than either heterosexual or LGB students. A positive school climate and a lack of homophobic victimization moderated the differences among sexual orientation status and outcomes. Results indicate that schools have the ability to lessen negative outcomes for LGB and sexually questioning students through creating positive climates and reducing homophobic teasing.

  3. [Stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Eiji

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescents. Adolescent students (N=1500) completed a questionnaire that measured attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping. Analysis of date yielded, two factors of the attitudes toward negative emotions: "Negative feelings about negative emotions" and "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions". In order to examine the theoretical relationships among attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping, a hypothetical model was tested by covariance structure analysis. This model predicted that students who have a high level of attitudes toward negative emotions would report enhanced problem solving which promoted stress coping. The results indicated that "Negative feelings about negative emotions" enhanced avoidable coping, and avoidable coping enhanced stress reactions. "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions" was related to a decrease of avoidable coping. Based on the results from covariance structure analysis and a multiple population analysis, the clinical significance and developmental characteristics were discussed.

  4. Approach and Avoidance Sexual Goals in Couples with Provoked Vestibulodynia: Associations with Sexual, Relational, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Impett, Emily A; Boudreau, Gillian K

    2015-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. PVD adversely impacts women's and their partners' sexual relationship and psychological well-being. Over 80% of women with PVD continue to have intercourse, possibly because of sexual goals that include wanting to pursue desirable outcomes (i.e., approach goals; such as a desire to maintain intimacy) and avoid negative outcomes (i.e., avoidance goals; such as avoiding a partner's disappointment). The aim of this study was to investigate associations between approach and avoidance sexual goals and women's pain, as well as the sexual, relational, and psychological well-being of affected couples. Women with PVD (N = 107) and their partners completed measures of sexual goals, sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and depression. Women also completed measures of pain during intercourse and sexual functioning. (1) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (2) Dyadic Adjustment Scale-Revised or the Couple Satisfaction Index, (3) Beck Depression Inventory-II, (4) numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, and (5) Female Sexual Function Index. When women reported higher avoidance sexual goals, they reported lower sexual and relationship satisfaction, and higher levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, when partners of women reported higher avoidance sexual goals, they reported lower relationship satisfaction. When women reported higher approach sexual goals, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. Targeting approach and avoidance sexual goals could enhance the quality and efficacy of psychological couple interventions for women with PVD and their partners. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Between- and within-person associations between negative life events and alcohol outcomes in adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M; Pedersen, Sarah L; Louie, Kristine T; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2017-09-01

    Escalations in alcohol use during adolescence may be linked with exposure to negative life events, but most of this research has focused on between-person associations. Moreover, adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be an especially vulnerable population, reporting more life events and alcohol involvement and may even be more sensitive to the effects of life events on alcohol outcomes compared with those without ADHD. We tested the between- and within-person effects of the number and perceptions of negative life events on the development of alcohol use outcomes from age 14 to 17 years in 259 adolescents with and without ADHD using generalized estimating equations. Between-person differences in exposure to negative life events across adolescence, but not the perception of those events, were associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol use and drunkenness at age 17 years. Within-person differences in life events were associated with alcohol use above and beyond that predicted by an adolescents' typical trajectory over time. Parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with more negative perceptions of life events and with greater alcohol use and drunkenness at age 17 years, but symptoms did not moderate the life event-alcohol association. Interventions should consider the variables that produce vulnerability to life events as well as the immediate impact of life events. That the accumulation of life events, rather than their perceived negativity, was associated with alcohol outcomes indicates that interventions targeting the reduction of negative events, rather than emotional response, may be more protective against alcohol use in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.

  7. Focusing on the Negative: Cultural Differences in Expressions of Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Tsai, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet, we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted four studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contained less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in “avoided negative affect” mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans felt focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) to “push negative images away” (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect), or (2) to “pull negative images closer” to themselves (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect). Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the “push negative away” condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the “pull negative closer” condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect, and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs

  8. Focusing on the negative: cultural differences in expressions of sympathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Tsai, Jeanne L

    2014-12-01

    Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted 4 studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contain less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in "avoided negative affect" mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans feel focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) to "push negative images away" (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect) from or (b) to "pull negative images closer" (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect) to themselves. Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the "push negative away" condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the "pull negative closer" condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs. positive). We discuss the

  9. The ranking of negative-cost emissions reduction measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A flaw has been identified in the calculation of the cost-effectiveness in marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs). The problem affects “negative-cost” emissions reduction measures—those that produce a return on investment. The resulting ranking sometimes favours measures that produce low emissions savings and is therefore unreliable. The issue is important because incorrect ranking means a potential failure to achieve the best-value outcome. A simple mathematical analysis shows that not only is the standard cost-effectiveness calculation inadequate for ranking negative-cost measures, but there is no possible replacement that satisfies reasonable requirements. Furthermore, the concept of negative cost-effectiveness is found to be unsound and its use should be avoided. Among other things, this means that MACCs are unsuitable for ranking negative-cost measures. As a result, MACCs produced by a range of organizations including UK government departments may need to be revised. An alternative partial ranking method has been devised by making use of Pareto optimization. The outcome can be presented as a stacked bar chart that indicates both the preferred ordering and the total emissions saving available for each measure without specifying a cost-effectiveness. - Highlights: ► Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are used to rank emission reduction measures. ► There is a flaw in the standard ranking method for negative-cost measures. ► Negative values of cost-effectiveness (in £/tC or equivalent) are invalid. ► There may be errors in published MACCs. ► A method based on Pareto principles provides an alternative ranking method.

  10. Examining an underlying mechanism between perceived stress and smoking cessation-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Hogan, Julianna; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    The mediational role of negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies in the relation between perceived stress and (1) perceived barriers to cessation, (2) severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and (3) smoking-specific experiential avoidance (AIS) was examined. Data were drawn from a baseline assessment of a larger clinical trial. Participants included 332 adult treatment-seeking smokers (47.3% female; Mage=38.45; SD=.50; age range: 18-65 years). Results indicated that perceived stress was indirectly related to perceived barriers to smoking cessation, severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and AIS through negative reinforcement outcome expectancies. These results were evident after accounting for the variance explained by gender, negative affectivity, and alternative outcome expectancies for smoking. The present findings suggest that smokers with greater perceived stress experience greater negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, which in turn, may be related to numerous processes involved in the maintenance of smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Infant Attachment Moderates Paths From Early Negativity to Preadolescent Outcomes for Children and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna; Jonas, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Although infant attachment has been long seen as key for development, its long-term effects may be complex. Attachment may be a catalyst or moderator of future developmental sequelae rather than a source of main effects. In 102 mothers, fathers, and infants, attachment was assessed at 15 months; children's negativity (rejection of parental rules and modeling attempts) at 25, 38, 52, and 67 months; and developmental outcomes (the child's parent-rated externalizing problems and the parent-child observed relationship quality) at ages 10 and 12. In both mother-child and father-child relationships, children's higher negativity was associated with more detrimental outcomes but only in dyads with formerly insecure infants. Infant insecurity appears to amplify detrimental cascades, whereas infant security appears to defuse such risks. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Angiographically Negative Acute Arterial Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Incidence, Predictive Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Chae, Eun Young; Myung, Seung Jae; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of angiographically negative acute arterial upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. From 2001 to 2008, 143 consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for acute arterial upper or lower GI bleeding were examined. The angiographies revealed a negative bleeding focus in 75 of 143 (52%) patients. The incidence of an angiographically negative outcome was significantly higher in patients with a stable hemodynamic status (p < 0.001), or in patients with lower GI bleeding (p = 0.032). A follow-up of the 75 patients (range: 0-72 months, mean: 8 ± 14 months) revealed that 60 of the 75 (80%) patients with a negative bleeding focus underwent conservative management only, and acute bleeding was controlled without rebleeding. Three of the 75 (4%) patients underwent exploratory surgery due to prolonged bleeding; however, no bleeding focus was detected. Rebleeding occurred in 12 of 75 (16%) patients. Of these, six patients experienced massive rebleeding and died of disseminated intravascular coagulation within four to nine hours after the rebleeding episode. Four of the 16 patients underwent a repeat angiography and the two remaining patients underwent a surgical intervention to control the bleeding. Angiographically negative results are relatively common in patients with acute GI bleeding, especially in patients with a stable hemodynamic status or lower GI bleeding. Most patients with a negative bleeding focus have experienced spontaneous resolution of their condition

  13. Angiographically Negative Acute Arterial Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Incidence, Predictive Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Chae, Eun Young; Myung, Seung Jae; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To evaluate the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of angiographically negative acute arterial upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. From 2001 to 2008, 143 consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for acute arterial upper or lower GI bleeding were examined. The angiographies revealed a negative bleeding focus in 75 of 143 (52%) patients. The incidence of an angiographically negative outcome was significantly higher in patients with a stable hemodynamic status (p < 0.001), or in patients with lower GI bleeding (p = 0.032). A follow-up of the 75 patients (range: 0-72 months, mean: 8 {+-} 14 months) revealed that 60 of the 75 (80%) patients with a negative bleeding focus underwent conservative management only, and acute bleeding was controlled without rebleeding. Three of the 75 (4%) patients underwent exploratory surgery due to prolonged bleeding; however, no bleeding focus was detected. Rebleeding occurred in 12 of 75 (16%) patients. Of these, six patients experienced massive rebleeding and died of disseminated intravascular coagulation within four to nine hours after the rebleeding episode. Four of the 16 patients underwent a repeat angiography and the two remaining patients underwent a surgical intervention to control the bleeding. Angiographically negative results are relatively common in patients with acute GI bleeding, especially in patients with a stable hemodynamic status or lower GI bleeding. Most patients with a negative bleeding focus have experienced spontaneous resolution of their condition.

  14. Models of Workplace Incivility: The Relationships to Instigated Incivility and Negative Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Holm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate workplace incivility as a social process, examining its components and relationships to both instigated incivility and negative outcomes in the form of well-being, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and sleeping problems. The different components of incivility that were examined were experienced and witnessed incivility from coworkers as well as supervisors. In addition, the organizational factors, social support, control, and job demands, were included in the models. A total of 2871 (2058 women and 813 men employees who were connected to the Swedish Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results from structural equation modelling indicate that whereas instigated incivility to a large extent was explained by witnessing coworker incivility, negative outcomes were to a high degree explained by experienced supervisor incivility via mediation through perceived low social support, low control, and high job demands. Unexpectedly, the relationships between incivility (experienced coworker and supervisor incivility, as well as witnessed supervisor incivility and instigated incivility were moderated by perceived high control and high social support. The results highlight the importance of including different components of workplace incivility and organizational factors in future studies of the area.

  15. Models of Workplace Incivility: The Relationships to Instigated Incivility and Negative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Kristoffer; Torkelson, Eva; Bäckström, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate workplace incivility as a social process, examining its components and relationships to both instigated incivility and negative outcomes in the form of well-being, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and sleeping problems. The different components of incivility that were examined were experienced and witnessed incivility from coworkers as well as supervisors. In addition, the organizational factors, social support, control, and job demands, were included in the models. A total of 2871 (2058 women and 813 men) employees who were connected to the Swedish Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results from structural equation modelling indicate that whereas instigated incivility to a large extent was explained by witnessing coworker incivility, negative outcomes were to a high degree explained by experienced supervisor incivility via mediation through perceived low social support, low control, and high job demands. Unexpectedly, the relationships between incivility (experienced coworker and supervisor incivility, as well as witnessed supervisor incivility) and instigated incivility were moderated by perceived high control and high social support. The results highlight the importance of including different components of workplace incivility and organizational factors in future studies of the area.

  16. Effect of physical activity on frailty and associated negative outcomes: the LIFE randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Limited evidence suggests that physical activity may prevent frailty and associated negative outcomes in older adults. Definitive data from large, long-term, randomized trials are lacking. Objective: To determine whether a long-term structured moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) p...

  17. The role of anxiety sensitivity in the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and negative outcomes in trauma-exposed adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Brittany B; Phares, Vicky; Salloum, Alison; Storch, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    The development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSs) following a trauma is related to impairment, diminished quality of life, and physical health issues. Yet it is not clear why some trauma-exposed individuals experience negative outcomes while others do not. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of several influential factors related to PTS severity and negative outcomes. One hundred and twenty-two trauma-exposed adults were administered the following self-report measures: the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, the Trauma History Questionnaire-Short, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale 21, Sheehan Disability Scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, and an abbreviated Patient Health Questionnaire. PTS severity was positively correlated with depressive symptom severity (r = 0.54, p effects were found for PTS severity (β = -0.38, p life. No interaction was found between PTS severity and AS with any negative outcome. PTS severity mediated the relationship between AS and physical health issues (0.05; 95% CI: 0.02-0.08). This study helps clarify the role of various factors in the relationship between trauma and negative outcomes. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  18. Integrating rapid diagnostics and antimicrobial stewardship improves outcomes in patients with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Katherine K; Olsen, Randall J; Musick, William L; Cernoch, Patricia L; Davis, James R; Peterson, Leif E; Musser, James M

    2014-09-01

    An intervention for Gram-negative bloodstream infections that integrated mass spectrometry technology for rapid diagnosis with antimicrobial stewardship oversight significantly improved patient outcomes and reduced hospital costs. As antibiotic resistance rates continue to grow at an alarming speed, the current study was undertaken to assess the impact of this intervention in a challenging patient population with bloodstream infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. A total of 153 patients with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia hospitalized prior to the study intervention were compared to 112 patients treated post-implementation. Outcomes assessed included time to optimal antibiotic therapy, time to active treatment when inactive, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, all-cause 30-day mortality, and total hospital expenditures. Integrating rapid diagnostics with antimicrobial stewardship improved time to optimal antibiotic therapy (80.9 h in the pre-intervention period versus 23.2 h in the intervention period, P Gram-negatives. The intervention decreased hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, total hospital costs, and reduced all-cause 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Reported positive and negative outcomes associated with a self-practice/self-reflection cognitive-behavioural therapy exercise for CBT trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendelow, Jason S; Butler, Lisa J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify outcomes of a self-practice/self-reflection (SP/SR) exercise for trainee clinical psychologists. Thirty-two trainees enrolled in their first year of a UK university doctoral clinical psychology training programme completed an online questionnaire following an eight-week exercise. Findings indicated an endorsement of many previously reported benefits of exercise participation, but also the identification of negative outcomes. Thematic analysis of qualitative data revealed that outcomes could be grouped into two main thematic domains (individual task outcomes and task organization issues) along with several subordinate themes. SP/SR is a useful tool in the development of trainee CBT therapist competences. There has been limited previous recognition of potential negative outcomes from this type of exercise. However, these can provide additional impetus for therapist skill development.

  20. Surgical outcome of MRI-negative refractory extratemporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianguo; Lacuey, Nuria; Lhatoo, Samden

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine outcome of resective epilepsy surgery in MRI-negative extratemporal lobe epilepsy (MNETLE) patients who underwent invasive evaluations and to determine factors governing outcome. We studied 28 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery for MNETLE from August 2006 to November 2015, in whom complete follow-up information was available. Electro-clinical, pathological and surgical data were evaluated. 24 patients (82.8%) were explored with intracranial EEG (9 stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG), 7 subdural grids and 8 both). All patients were followed for at least 6 months. During a mean follow up period of 32 [6-113] months, 13 (46.4%) patients became seizure-free (ILAE 1) and 18 (64.3%) had a good (ILAE 1, 2, 3) outcome. 21 (75.0%) patients had focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Univariate analysis showed that more restricted (regional) interictal and ictal epileptiform discharges in surface EEG were significantly associated with seizure freedom (P=0.016 and P=0.024). Multivariate analysis confirmed that having ≥120 electrode contacts in the evaluation is an independent variable predicting seizure freedom (HR=4.283, 95% CI=1.342-13.676, P=0.014). Invasive EEG is a powerful tool in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with MNETLE. Invasive EEG implantation that include the irritative zone and EEG onset zone as indicated by surface EEG, as well as wider brain coverage predict seizure freedom, contingent upon a sound anatomo-electro-clinical hypothesis for implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between interpersonal problems, negative cognitions, and outcomes from cognitive behavioral group therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula

    2013-09-05

    Interpersonal functioning is a key determinant of psychological well-being, and interpersonal problems (IPs) are common among individuals with psychiatric disorders. However, IPs are rarely formally assessed in clinical practice or within cognitive behavior therapy research trials as predictors of treatment attrition and outcome. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IPs, depressogenic cognitions, and treatment outcome in a large clinical sample receiving cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for depression in a community clinic. Patients (N=144) referred for treatment completed measures of IPs, negative cognitions, depression symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) before and at the completion of a 12-week manualized CBGT protocol. Two IPs at pre-treatment, 'finding it hard to be supportive of others' and 'not being open about problems,' were associated with higher attrition. Pre-treatment IPs also predicted higher post-treatment depression symptoms (but not QoL) after controlling for pre-treatment symptoms, negative cognitions, demographics, and comorbidity. In particular, 'difficulty being assertive' and a 'tendency to subjugate one's needs' were associated with higher post-treatment depression symptoms. Changes in IPs did not predict post-treatment depression symptoms or QoL when controlling for changes in negative cognitions, pre-treatment symptoms, demographics, and comorbidity. In contrast, changes in negative cognitions predicted both post-treatment depression and QoL, even after controlling for changes in IPs and the other covariates. Correlational design, potential attrition bias, generalizability to other disorders and treatments needs to be evaluated. Pre-treatment IPs may increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes, but changes in negative cognitions during treatment were most strongly associated with improvement in symptoms and QoL during CBGT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Public speaking avoidance as a treatment moderator for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesri, Bita; Niles, Andrea N; Pittig, Andre; LeBeau, Richard T; Haik, Ethan; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have both garnered empirical support for the effective treatment of social anxiety disorder. However, not every patient benefits equally from either treatment. Identifying moderators of treatment outcome can help to better understand which treatment is best suited for a particular patient. Forty-nine individuals who met criteria for social anxiety disorder were assessed as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing 12 weeks of CBT and ACT. Pre-treatment avoidance of social situations (measured via a public speaking task and clinician rating) was investigated as a moderator of post-treatment, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up social anxiety symptoms, stress reactivity, and quality of life. Public speaking avoidance was found to be a robust moderator of outcome measures, with more avoidant individuals generally benefitting more from CBT than ACT by 12-month follow-up. In contrast, clinician-rated social avoidance was not found to be a significant moderator of any outcome measure. Results were found only at 12-month follow-up. More comprehensive measures of avoidance would be useful for the field moving forward. Findings inform personalized medicine, suggesting that social avoidance measured behaviorally via a public speaking task may be a more robust factor in treatment prescription compared to clinician-rated social avoidance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Workaholism, work engagement and work-home outcomes: exploring the mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malissa A; Michel, Jesse S; Stevens, Gregory W; Howell, Julia W; Scruggs, Ross S

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the mechanisms through which workaholism and work engagement impact work-home conflict and enrichment, respectively. Specifically, we examine the mediating role of positive and negative emotions (e.g. joviality and guilt) in the relationship between workaholism, work engagement and work-home outcomes. Results, based on a sample of 340 working adults participating in a two-wave study, indicate that negative emotions-particularly anxiety, anger and disappointment-mediate the relationship between workaholism and work-home conflict and positive emotions-particularly joviality and self-assurance-mediate the relationship between work engagement and work-home enrichment. These results provide further evidence that workaholism and work engagement are related to distinct sets of emotional variables and disparate work and home outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The role of positive/negative outcome expectancy and refusal self-efficacy of Internet use on Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2008-08-01

    Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, this study was designed to examine positive and negative outcome expectancy and refusal self-efficacy of Internet use and their contribution to Internet addiction among college students by using hierarchical multiple regression analyses in a cross-sectional study design. Schools were first stratified into technical or nontechnical colleges and then into seven majors. A cluster random sampling by department was further applied to randomly choose participants from each major. A representative sample of 4,456 college students participated in this study. The Outcome Expectancy and Refusal Self-Efficacy of Internet Use Questionnaire and the Chen Internet Addiction Scale were used to assess the cognitive factors and the levels of Internet addiction. Results showed that both positive outcome expectancy and negative outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with Internet addiction, and refusal self-efficacy of Internet use was significantly and negatively related to Internet addiction. Further analyses revealed that refusal self-efficacy of Internet use directly and negatively predicted Internet addiction. Moreover, we discovered that positive outcome expectancy positively predicted Internet addiction via refusal self-efficacy of Internet use; however, surprisingly, negative outcome expectancy had both a direct and indirect positive relationship in predicting Internet addiction via the refusal self-efficacy of Internet use. These results give empirical evidence to verify the theoretical effectiveness of the three cognitive factors to Internet addiction and should be incorporated when designing prevention programs and strategies for Internet addicted college students.

  5. Nurses' intention to resign and avoidance of emergency department violence: A moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Fang; Chao, Minston; Shih, Chih-Ting

    2017-10-10

    Studies that examined the negative impact of violence in emergency departments on nurses' leave and avoidance behavior are well-documented. However, few studies provided an integrated model of how and when violence influences their leave and avoidance behavior. The study adopted Affective Events Theory to propose and examine a model of violent events, negative emotions, and (leave and avoidance) behaviors on nurses in emergency departments and further analyzed whether the model is salient to nurses' occupational burnout, nursing experience, and nursing rank. The sample included 123 emergency department nurses at a teaching hospital in northern, Taiwan. All participants had experienced violent incidents within the preceding 6 months. Moderated mediation analysis suggested that nurses experienced one of two emotional processes following violent incidents: "violence-negative feelings toward work-intention to resign" or "violence-negative emotion and physical symptoms-avoidance tendencies." Moreover, nurses with high burnout levels expressed weaker intention to resign after violent incidents, while nurses with more experience and higher rank were less likely to avoid violence after violent incidents. Emergency nurses do not simply elect to escape but may engage in avoidance behavior. This study revealed that how violent incidents affect nurses' resignation or avoidance behaviors depends on how they feel. Occupational burnout and nurses' attributes affected their behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Healthcare provider counseling to quit smoking and patient desire to quit: The role of negative smoking outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Shadel, William G; Klein, David J

    2018-05-21

    The U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline on treating tobacco use and dependence recommends providing advice to quit to every tobacco user seen in a healthcare setting. However, the mechanism through which counseling encourages patients to quit has not been adequately studied. This study tests whether the association between receiving healthcare provider counseling and desire to quit is accounted for by negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies of smoking. Data were collected online from 721 adult smokers who had seen a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Associations between counseling to quit, negative outcome expectancies of smoking, and desire to quit were tested, as well as whether outcome expectancies and desire to quit differed by type of counseling (counseling only vs. counseling plus assistance) and level of smoking. Bivariate associations indicated a stronger desire to quit among patients receiving counseling, particularly when it included healthcare provider assistance to quit. SEM results indicated that the association between counseling and desire to quit was fully accounted for by patients' negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies for smoking. These associations were found across levels of smoking in the case of health expectancies, but were limited to moderate and heavy smokers in the case of psychosocial expectancies. Results suggest that the time devoted to counseling patients about smoking should include providing some assistance to quit, such as recommending a product, prescription or program. Regardless of smoking level, this counseling should incorporate techniques to elicit patients' negative health and psychosocial expectancies of smoking. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and early adolescents' positive and negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Harper, James M; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-08-01

    The current study examined the role of adolescents' self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and adolescent outcomes, after controlling for the quality of the parent-child relationship. Participants were 395 families (282 two parent; 113 single parent) with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 1 = 11.15, SD = .96, 49% female) who took part in [project name masked for blind review] at both Time 1 and Time 2. Path analysis via structural equation modeling suggested that sibling affection was longitudinally and positively related to self-regulation and prosocial behaviors, and negatively related to externalizing behaviors; while sibling hostility was positively, and having a sister was negatively related to internalizing behaviors (in general, paths were stronger for adolescents from two- vs. single-parent families). There was also evidence that adolescents' self-regulation partially mediated the relation between sibling affection and positive and negative adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on the importance of continued research examining the mechanisms through which the sibling relationship influences development during adolescence.

  8. Outcomes of single organism peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis: gram negatives versus gram positives in the Network 9 Peritonitis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunke, C M; Brier, M E; Golper, T A

    1997-08-01

    The use of the "peritonitis rate" in the management of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis is assuming importance in comparing the prowess of facilities, care givers and new innovations. For this to be a meaningful outcome measure, the type of infection (causative pathogen) must have less clinical significance than the number of infections during a time interval. The natural history of Staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas, and fungal peritonitis would not support that the outcome of an episode of peritonitis is independent of the causative pathogen. Could this concern be extended to other more frequently occurring pathogens? To address this, the Network 9 Peritonitis Study identified 530 episodes of single organism peritonitis caused by a gram positive organism and 136 episodes caused by a single non-pseudomonal gram negative (NPGN) pathogen. Coincidental soft tissue infections (exit site or tunnel) occurred equally in both groups. Outcomes of peritonitis were analyzed by organism classification and by presence or absence of a soft tissue infection. NPGN peritonitis was associated with significantly more frequent catheter loss, hospitalization, and technique failure and was less likely to resolve regardless of the presence or absence of a soft tissue infection. Hospitalization and death tended to occur more frequently with enterococcal peritonitis than with other gram positive peritonitis. The outcomes in the NPGN peritonitis group were significantly worse (resolution, catheter loss, hospitalization, technique failure) compared to coagulase negative staphylococcal or S. aureus peritonitis, regardless of the presence or absence of a coincidental soft tissue infection. Furthermore, for the first time, the poor outcomes of gram negative peritonitis are shown to be independent of pseudomonas or polymicrobial involvement or soft tissue infections. The gram negative organism appears to be the important factor. In addition, the outcome of peritonitis caused by S. aureus

  9. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors and Negative Health Outcomes in Army and Marine Corps Personnel during the First Tour of Duty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyer, Cherrie B; Shafer, Mary-Ann

    2007-01-01

    .... The common thread through these negative health outcomes is volitional behavior. Such behaviors do not only result in illness or injury, but also negatively impact performance of military duties and threaten military readiness...

  10. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors and Negative Health Outcomes in Army and Marine Corps Personnel During the First Tour of Duty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyer, Cherrie B; Shafer, Mary-Ann

    2006-01-01

    .... The common thread through these negative health outcomes is volitional behavior. Such behaviors do not only result in illness or injury, but also negatively impact performance of military duties and threaten military readiness...

  11. Elevated amygdala activity during reappraisal anticipation predicts anxiety in avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Bryan T; Fan, Jin; Liu, Xun; Ochsner, Kevin N; Guerreri, Stephanie; Mayson, Sarah Jo; Rimsky, Liza; McMaster, Antonia; New, Antonia S; Goodman, Marianne; Siever, Larry J; Koenigsberg, Harold W

    2015-02-01

    Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by pervasive anxiety, fear of criticism, disapproval, and rejection, particularly in anticipation of exposure to social situations. An important but underexplored question concerns whether anxiety in avoidant patients is associated with an impaired ability to engage emotion regulatory strategies in anticipation of and during appraisal of negative social stimuli. We examined the use of an adaptive emotion regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal, in avoidant patients. In addition to assessing individual differences in state and trait anxiety levels, self-reported affect as well as measures of neural activity were compared between 17 avoidant patients and 21 healthy control participants both in anticipation of and during performance of a reappraisal task. Avoidant patients showed greater state and trait-related anxiety relative to healthy participants. In addition, relative to healthy participants, avoidant patients showed pronounced amygdala hyper-reactivity during reappraisal anticipation, and this hyper-reactivity effect was positively associated with increasing self-reported anxiety levels. Our finding of exaggerated amygdala activity during reappraisal anticipation could reflect anxiety about the impending need to reappraise, anxiety about the certainty of an upcoming negative image, or anxiety relating to anticipated scrutiny of task responses by the experimenters. While we believe that all of these possibilities are consistent with the phenomenology of avoidant personality disorder, future research may clarify this ambiguity. These results suggest that amygdala reactivity in anticipation of receiving negative social information may represent a key component of the neural mechanisms underlying the heightened anxiety present in avoidant patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Long-term course of negative symptom subdomains and relationship with outcome in patients with a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiekema, Annemarie P M; Islam, Md Atiqul; Liemburg, Edith J; Castelein, Stynke; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; van Weeghel, Jaap; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard; van der Meer, Lisette

    2018-03-01

    The longitudinal course of the negative symptoms subdomains social amotivation (SA) and expressive deficits (ED) remains largely unknown. We investigated i) the longitudinal course of SA and ED subdomain scores, ii) whether subgroups based on the course of SA and ED subdomain scores could be identified, iii) whether baseline SA and ED subdomain scores were related to functioning and quality of life six years later and iv) the longitudinal relationship between subgroups and outcomes. Measurements at baseline, three and six years from 1067 patients participating in the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) project were used. We applied mixed models analysis, regression analysis and trajectory analyses. SA and ED subdomain scores decreased over time. Within both subdomains, four subgroups were identified: for both SA and ED a steady low course (±60%), increased (±15%) and decreased course (±15%). Within SA only, a higher level decreased course (±6%) and within ED only, a course with relatively stable high ED scores (±6%) was found. Lower symptom levels at baseline were related to better functioning (SA & ED) and quality of life (SA) at six years. Overall, low SA and low ED subgroups showed better outcomes than the other subgroups. In many patients the course of negative symptoms is unstable and related to the course of outcome. Patients who do show steady low negative symptom levels (60%) may complicate the interpretation of treatment evaluation studies, as they may average out possible effects in subgroups with fluctuating symptom levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Analysis of ACAS-Xu and DAIDALUS Detect-and-Avoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jason T.; Wu, Minghong G.

    2018-01-01

    The Detect and Avoid (DAA) capability of a recent version (Run 3) of the Airborne Collision Avoidance System-Xu (ACAS-Xu) is measured against that of the Detect and AvoID Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems (DAIDALUS), a reference algorithm for the Phase 1 Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for DAA. This comparative analysis of the two systems' alerting and horizontal guidance outcomes is conducted through the lens of the Detect and Avoid mission using flight data of scripted encounters from a recent flight test. Results indicate comparable timelines and outcomes between ACAS-Xu's Remain Well Clear alert and guidance and DAIDALUS's corrective alert and guidance, although ACAS-Xu's guidance appears to be more conservative. ACAS-Xu's Collision Avoidance alert and guidance occurs later than DAIDALUS's warning alert and guidance, and overlaps with DAIDALUS's timeline of maneuver to remain Well Clear. Interesting discrepancies between ACAS-Xu's directive guidance and DAIDALUS's "Regain Well Clear" guidance occur in some scenarios.

  14. Impact of positive and negative lesion site remodeling on clinical outcomes: insights from PROSPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Shinji; Mintz, Gary S; Farhat, Naim Z; Fajadet, Jean; Dudek, Dariusz; Marzocchi, Antonio; Templin, Barry; Weisz, Giora; Xu, Ke; de Bruyne, Bernard; Serruys, Patrick W; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated coronary artery remodeling patterns associated with clinical outcomes. In the prospective, multicenter PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree: An Imaging Study in Patients With Unstable Atherosclerotic Lesions) study, reported predictors of nonculprit lesion (NCL) major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) minimal lumen area (MLA) ≤4 mm(2), a plaque burden ≥70%, and a IVUS-virtual histology (VH) thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), but not lesion site remodeling. Overall, 697 consecutive patients with an acute coronary syndrome were enrolled and underwent 3-vessel gray-scale and IVUS-VH; 3,223 NCLs were identified by IVUS. The remodeling index (RI) was calculated as the external elastic membrane area at the MLA site divided by the average of the proximal and distal reference external elastic membrane areas. First, one third of the patients were randomly selected to determine RI cutoffs related to NCL MACE (development cohort). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that there were 2 separate cut points that predicted NCL MACE: RI = 0.8789 and RI = 1.0046 (area under the curve = 0.663). These cut points were used to define negative remodeling as an RI 1.00. Second, we used the remaining two-thirds of patients to validate these cut points with respect to lesion morphology and clinical outcomes (validation cohort). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis in the validation cohort showed that NCL MACE occurred more frequent (and equally) in negative and positive remodeling lesions compared with intermediate remodeling lesions. In this cohort, negative remodeling lesions had the smallest MLA, positive remodeling lesions had the largest plaque burden, and VH TCFA, especially VH TCFA with multiple necrotic cores, was most common in negatively remodeling lesions. The present study showed the novel concept that positive and negative lesion site remodeling was

  15. Relationship between negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and mental health outcomes of Black and White female survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Dehnad; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Gobin, Robyn L

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of race on the relationship between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and the psychological sequelae such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and problem drinking in female sexual assault survivors. Using hierarchical regression in an ethnically diverse community sample of 622 female adult sexual assault victims, we assessed for sexual assault; negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure; and symptom severity for PTSD, depression, and problem drinking. Negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosures were significantly associated with negative mental health outcomes across race. Race moderated the influence of negative disclosure reactions on psychological symptoms; however, the moderation was not similar across racial groups and psychological outcome measures. Although Black and White survivors evidenced distress through depression, PTSD, and substance use, Black women who received low to moderate negative reactions to their disclosures of assault were more likely to show increases in PTSD and depression whereas high negative reactions to disclosure were related to higher PTSD and depression similarly for both Black and White women. In addition, Black and White women who experienced more negative social reactions had greater substance abuse, with no difference by race. The results provide further support for detrimental effects of negative reactions on Black and White survivors and highlight the importance of educating people in the community about sexual assault and how to respond in more supportive ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Larger error signals in major depression are associated with better avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F eCavanagh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is particularly reactive to signals of error, punishment, and conflict in the service of behavioral adaptation and it is consistently implicated in the etiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. This association makes conceptual sense, given that MDD has been associated with hyper-reactivity in neural systems associated with punishment processing. Yet in practice, depression-related variance in measures of mPFC functioning often fails to relate to performance. For example, neuroelectric reflections of mediofrontal error signals are often found to be larger in MDD, but a deficit in post-error performance suggests that these error signals are not being used to rapidly adapt behavior. Thus, it remains unknown if depression-related variance in error signals reflects a meaningful alteration in the use of error or punishment information. However, larger mediofrontal error signals have also been related to another behavioral tendency: increased accuracy in avoidance learning. The integrity of this error-avoidance system remains untested in MDD. In this study, EEG was recorded as 21 symptomatic, drug-free participants with current or past MDD and 24 control participants performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. Depressed participants had larger mPFC EEG responses to error feedback than controls. The direct relationship between error signal amplitudes and avoidance learning accuracy was replicated. Crucially, this relationship was stronger in depressed participants for high conflict lose-lose situations, demonstrating a selective alteration of avoidance learning. This investigation provided evidence that larger error signal amplitudes in depression are associated with increased avoidance learning, identifying a candidate mechanistic model for hypersensitivity to negative outcomes in depression.

  17. Perceived social pressure not to experience negative emotion is linked to selective attention for negative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Pe, Madeline Lee; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Social norms and values may be important predictors of how people engage with and regulate their negative emotional experiences. Previous research has shown that social expectancies (the perceived social pressure not to feel negative emotion (NE)) exacerbate feelings of sadness. In the current research, we examined whether social expectancies may be linked to how people process emotional information. Using a modified classical flanker task involving emotional rather than non-emotional stimuli, we found that, for those who experienced low levels of NE, social expectancies were linked to the selective avoidance of negative emotional information. Those who experienced high levels of NE did not show a selective avoidance of negative emotional information. The findings suggest that, for people who experience many NEs, social expectancies may lead to discrepancies between how they think they ought to feel and the kind of emotional information they pay attention to.

  18. Comparison of Outcomes for Normal Saline and an Antiseptic Solution for Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Oliver, Noah; Garwood, Caitlin; Evans, Karen K; Steinberg, John S; Lavery, Larry A

    2015-11-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is an adjunctive treatment that uses periodic instillation of a solution and negative pressure for a wide diversity of wounds. A variety of solutions have been reported, with topical antiseptics as the most frequently chosen option. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of normal saline versus an antiseptic solution for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds. This was a prospective, randomized, effectiveness study comparing 0.9% normal saline versus 0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds that required hospital admission and operative débridement. One hundred twenty-three patients were eligible, with 100 patients randomized for the intention-to-treat analysis and 83 patients for the per-protocol analysis. The surrogate outcomes measured were number of operative visits, length of hospital stay, time to final surgical procedure, proportion of closed or covered wounds, and proportion of wounds that remained closed or covered at the 30-day follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic profiles in the two cohorts except for a larger proportion of male patients (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the surrogate outcomes with the exception of the time to final surgical procedure favoring normal saline (p = 0.038). The authors' results suggest that 0.9% normal saline may be as effective as an antiseptic (0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine) for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive inpatient management of infected wounds. Therapeutic, II.

  19. Young Chinese children's beliefs about the implications of subtypes of social withdrawal: A first look at social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J; Sang, Biao; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Cheng, Chen

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine young Chinese children's beliefs about the implications of different subtypes of social withdrawal (e.g., shyness, unsociability), including for the first time, social avoidance. Participants were 133 children in kindergarten (n = 58, Mage  = 70.85 months) and grade 1 (n = 75, Mage  = 83.49 months). Children were presented with vignettes describing hypothetical peers displaying shy, unsociable, avoidant, and socially competent behaviours and were then asked a series of questions to assess their beliefs about the implications of these different behaviours. Young children made distinctions between social withdrawal subtypes in terms of underlying motivations and emotions. Children also appeared to hold differential beliefs about the implications of different forms of social withdrawal: Of note, they anticipated that socially avoidant peers would experience the most negative outcomes. These findings provide some of the first evidence to suggest that social avoidance represents a distinct form of social withdrawal among young Chinese children. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of distinguishing between different subtypes of social withdrawal in Chinese culture. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Use of cffDNA to avoid administration of anti-D to pregnant women when the fetus is RhD-negative: implementation in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soothill, P W; Finning, K; Latham, T; Wreford-Bush, T; Ford, J; Daniels, G

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether a policy of offering cffDNA testing to all RhD-negative women at about 16 weeks' gestation to avoid anti-D administration when the fetus is RhD-negative could be implemented successfully in the NHS without additional funding. Prospectively planned observational service implementation pilot and notes audit. Three maternity services in the South West of England. All RhD-negative women in a 6-month period. Prospective, intervention, cross-sectional observational study, using pre-intervention data as controls. Proportion of suitable women who offered and accepted the test. Accuracy of the cffDNA result as assessed by cord blood group result. Fall in anti-D doses administered. 529 samples were received; three were unsuitable. The results were reported as RhD-positive (n = 278), RhD-negative (n = 185) or inconclusive, treat as positive (n = 63). Cord blood results were available in 502 (95%) and the only incorrect result was one case of a false positive (cffDNA reported as positive, cord blood negative - and so given anti-D unnecessarily). The notes audit showed that women who declined this service were correctly managed and that anti-D was not given when the fetus was predicted to be RhD-negative. The total use of anti-D doses fell by about 29% which equated to about 35% of RhD-negative women not receiving anti-D in their pregnancy unnecessarily. We recommend this service is extended to all UK NHS services. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Disasters of endoscopic surgery and how to avoid them: error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troidl, H

    1999-08-01

    For every innovation there are two sides to consider. For endoscopic surgery the positive side is more comfort for the patient, and the negative side is new complications, even disasters, such as injuries to organs (e.g., the bowel), vessels, and the common bile duct. These disasters are rare and seldom reported in the scientific world, as at conferences, at symposiums, and in publications. Today there are many methods for testing an innovation (controlled clinical trials, consensus conferences, audits, and confidential inquiries). Reporting "complications," however, does not help to avoid them. We need real methods for avoiding negative failures. The failure analysis is the method of choice in industry. If an airplane crashes, error analysis starts immediately. Humans make errors, and making errors means punishment. Failure analysis means rigorously and objectively investigating a clinical situation to find clinical relevant information for avoiding these negative events in the future. Error analysis has four important steps: (1) What was the clinical situation? (2) What has happened? (3) Most important: Why did it happen? (4) How do we avoid the negative event or disaster in the future. Error analysis has decisive advantages. It is easy to perform; it supplies clinically relevant information to help avoid it; and there is no need for money. It can be done everywhere; and the information is available in a short time. The other side of the coin is that error analysis is of course retrospective, it may not be objective, and most important it will probably have legal consequences. To be more effective in medicine and surgery we must handle our errors using a different approach. According to Sir Karl Popper: "The consituation is that we have to learn from our errors. To cover up failure is therefore the biggest intellectual sin.

  2. On the role of subsecond dopamine release in conditioned avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik B Oleson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: 1 fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, 2 the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, 3 over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety 4 the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain’s incentive-motivational circuitry.

  3. Five year colorectal cancer outcomes in a large negative CT colonography screening cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, David H.; Pooler, B.D.; Pickhardt, Perry J. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Weiss, Jennifer M. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To assess the 5-year incidence of clinically presenting colorectal cancers following a negative CT colonography (CTC) screening examination, as few patient outcome data regarding a negative CTC screening result exist. Negative CTC screening patients (n = 1,050) in the University of Wisconsin Health system over a 14-month period were included. An electronic medical record (EMR) review was undertaken, encompassing provider, colonoscopy, imaging and histopathology reports. Incident colorectal cancers and other important GI tumours were recorded. Of the 1,050 cohort (mean [{+-}SD] age 56.9 {+-} 7.4 years), 39 (3.7%) patients were excluded owing to lack of follow-up within our system beyond the initial screening CTC. The remaining 1,011 patients were followed for an average of 4.73 {+-} 1.15 years. One incident colorectal adenocarcinoma represented a crude cancer incidence of 0.2 cancers per 1,000 patient years. EMR revealed 14 additional patients with clinically important GI tumours including: advanced adenomas (n = 11), appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (n = 1), appendiceal mucinous adenoma (n = 1) and metastatic ileocolonic carcinoid (n = 1). All positive patients including the incident carcinoma are alive at the time of review. Clinically presenting colorectal adenocarcinoma is rare in the 5 years following negative screening CTC, suggesting that current strategies, including non-reporting of diminutive lesions, are appropriate. (orig.)

  4. Five year colorectal cancer outcomes in a large negative CT colonography screening cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, David H.; Pooler, B.D.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Weiss, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the 5-year incidence of clinically presenting colorectal cancers following a negative CT colonography (CTC) screening examination, as few patient outcome data regarding a negative CTC screening result exist. Negative CTC screening patients (n = 1,050) in the University of Wisconsin Health system over a 14-month period were included. An electronic medical record (EMR) review was undertaken, encompassing provider, colonoscopy, imaging and histopathology reports. Incident colorectal cancers and other important GI tumours were recorded. Of the 1,050 cohort (mean [±SD] age 56.9 ± 7.4 years), 39 (3.7%) patients were excluded owing to lack of follow-up within our system beyond the initial screening CTC. The remaining 1,011 patients were followed for an average of 4.73 ± 1.15 years. One incident colorectal adenocarcinoma represented a crude cancer incidence of 0.2 cancers per 1,000 patient years. EMR revealed 14 additional patients with clinically important GI tumours including: advanced adenomas (n = 11), appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (n = 1), appendiceal mucinous adenoma (n = 1) and metastatic ileocolonic carcinoid (n = 1). All positive patients including the incident carcinoma are alive at the time of review. Clinically presenting colorectal adenocarcinoma is rare in the 5 years following negative screening CTC, suggesting that current strategies, including non-reporting of diminutive lesions, are appropriate. (orig.)

  5. Negative Control Outcomes and the Analysis of Standardized Mortality Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cooper, Glinda

    2015-09-01

    In occupational cohort mortality studies, epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in the cohort to the expected number obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the study cohort by the mortality rate in an external reference population. Interpretation of the result may be difficult due to noncomparability of the occupational cohort and reference population with respect to unmeasured risk factors for the outcome of interest. We describe an approach to estimate an adjusted standardized mortality ratio (aSMR) to control for such bias. The approach draws on methods developed for the use of negative control outcomes. Conditions necessary for unbiased estimation are described, as well as looser conditions necessary for bias reduction. The approach is illustrated using data on bladder cancer mortality among male Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. The SMR for bladder cancer was elevated among hourly-paid males (SMR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 2.7) but not among monthly-paid males (SMR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.67, 1.3). After indirect adjustment using the proposed approach, the mortality ratios were similar in magnitude among hourly- and monthly-paid men (aSMR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.2; and, aSMR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 2.8, respectively). The proposed adjusted SMR offers a complement to typical SMR analyses.

  6. Generalized atmospheric sampling of self-avoiding walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rensburg, E J Janse; Rechnitzer, A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new Monte Carlo method for sampling lattice self-avoiding walks. The method, which we call 'GAS' (generalized atmospheric sampling), samples walks along weighted sequences by implementing elementary moves generated by the positive, negative and neutral atmospheric statistics of the walks. A realized sequence is weighted such that the average weight of states of length n is proportional to the number of self-avoiding walks from the origin c n . In addition, the method also self-tunes to sample from uniform distributions over walks of lengths in an interval [0, n max ]. We show how to implement GAS using both generalized and endpoint atmospheres of walks and analyse our data to obtain estimates of the growth constant and entropic exponent of self-avoiding walks in the square and cubic lattices.

  7. Mad genius revisited: Vulnerability to psychopathology, biobehavioral approach-avoidance, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2016-06-01

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Increased traffic exposure and negative birth outcomes: a prospective cohort in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Lee-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women exposed to traffic pollution have an increased risk of negative birth outcomes. We aimed to investigate the size of this risk using a prospective cohort of 970 mothers and newborns in Logan, Queensland. Methods We examined two measures of traffic: distance to nearest road and number of roads around the home. To examine the effect of distance we used the number of roads around the home in radii from 50 to 500 metres. We examined three road types: freeways, highways and main roads. Results There were no associations with distance to road. A greater number of freeways and main roads around the home were associated with a shorter gestation time. There were no negative impacts on birth weight, birth length or head circumference after adjusting for gestation. The negative effects on gestation were largely due to main roads within 400 metres of the home. For every 10 extra main roads within 400 metres of the home, gestation time was reduced by 1.1% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.5; p-value = 0.001. Conclusions Our results add weight to the association between exposure to traffic and reduced gestation time. This effect may be due to the chemical toxins in traffic pollutants, or because of disturbed sleep due to traffic noise.

  9. The development and initial evaluation of the Pornography-Use Avoidance Self-Efficacy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Rosenberg, Harold; Martino, Steve; Nich, Charla; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims This study employed a newly developed questionnaire to evaluate whether men's self-efficacy to avoid using pornography in each of 18 emotional, social, or sexually arousing situations was associated with either their typical frequency of pornography use or their hypersexuality. Methods Using an Internet-based data collection procedure, 229 male pornography users (M age  = 33.3 years, SD = 12.2) who had sought or considered seeking professional help for their use of pornography completed questionnaires assessing their situationally specific self-efficacy, history of pornography use, self-efficacy to employ specific pornography-reduction strategies, hypersexuality, and demographic characteristics. Results Frequency of pornography use was significantly negatively associated with level of confidence in 12 of the 18 situations. In addition, lower hypersexuality and higher confidence to employ pornography-use-reduction strategies were associated with higher confidence to avoid using pornography in each of the 18 situations. A principal axis factor analysis yielded three clusters of situations: (a) sexual arousal/boredom/opportunity, (b) intoxication/locations/easy access, and (c) negative emotions. Discussion and conclusions This questionnaire could be employed to identify specific high-risk situations for lapse or relapse and as a measure of treatment outcome among therapy clients, but we recommend further examination of the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the questionnaire in treatment samples. Because only one of the three clusters reflected a consistent theme, we do not recommend averaging self-efficacy within factors to create subscales.

  10. The development and initial evaluation of the Pornography-Use Avoidance Self-Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold; Martino, Steve; Nich, Charla; Potenza, Marc N.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims This study employed a newly developed questionnaire to evaluate whether men’s self-efficacy to avoid using pornography in each of 18 emotional, social, or sexually arousing situations was associated with either their typical frequency of pornography use or their hypersexuality. Methods Using an Internet-based data collection procedure, 229 male pornography users (Mage = 33.3 years, SD = 12.2) who had sought or considered seeking professional help for their use of pornography completed questionnaires assessing their situationally specific self-efficacy, history of pornography use, self-efficacy to employ specific pornography-reduction strategies, hypersexuality, and demographic characteristics. Results Frequency of pornography use was significantly negatively associated with level of confidence in 12 of the 18 situations. In addition, lower hypersexuality and higher confidence to employ pornography-use-reduction strategies were associated with higher confidence to avoid using pornography in each of the 18 situations. A principal axis factor analysis yielded three clusters of situations: (a) sexual arousal/boredom/opportunity, (b) intoxication/locations/easy access, and (c) negative emotions. Discussion and conclusions This questionnaire could be employed to identify specific high-risk situations for lapse or relapse and as a measure of treatment outcome among therapy clients, but we recommend further examination of the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the questionnaire in treatment samples. Because only one of the three clusters reflected a consistent theme, we do not recommend averaging self-efficacy within factors to create subscales. PMID:28889754

  11. Social anxiety disorders in clinical practice: differentiating social phobia from avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    To outline the problems around overlap between social phobia (SAD) and avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and provide guidelines that may assist clinicians to differentiate these conditions. A constellation of symptoms can be identified that may distinguish AVPD from SAD, with key features being a strong and pervasively negative self-concept, a view of rejection as equating to a global evaluation of the individual as being of little worth and a sense of not fitting in socially that dates from early childhood. It is important to identify the presence of AVPD in order to anticipate potential problems with engagement and retention in therapy, to target treatment interventions and optimise outcome. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  13. Neural markers of negative symptom outcomes in distributed working memory brain activity of antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, Ayna B.; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Ebdrup, Bjørn H.

    2013-01-01

    Since working memory deficits in schizophrenia have been linked to negative symptoms, we tested whether features of the one could predict the treatment outcome in the other. Specifically, we hypothesized that working memory-related functional connectivity at pre-treatment can predict improvement...

  14. Avoidant Personality Disorder: a Current Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, Anna; Schulze, Lars; Boettcher, Johanna; Renneberg, Babette

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on recent research on diagnostic aspects, etiology, and treatment of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Current studies stress the close relation between AVPD and social anxiety disorder, the influence of genetic factors in the development of AVPD, and the relative stability of symptoms. Treatment approaches should target the pervasive patterns of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Empirical evidence for cognitive-behavior and schema therapy is promising. Few other therapeutic approaches have been developed, but until now, these have only been investigated in case studies. We conclude that AVPD qualifies as a neglected disorder and that more research specifically on avoidant personality disorder symptoms and its treatment is needed.

  15. The causes and consequences of an avoidance-focus for interracial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, E Ashby; Butz, David A

    2006-06-01

    The current work examined the causes and consequences of non-Black people's desire to avoid interracial interactions (an avoidance-focus). Expecting to respond with racial bias in inter-racial interactions was argued to result in an avoidance-focus for such interactions, which was hypothesized to have negative implications for the quality of interracial interactions. Across three studies, feedback indicating that non-Black participants would respond with racial bias in interactions with Black people resulted in anxiety and the desire to avoid the interaction. In addition, when participants with an avoidance-focus interacted with a Black confederate (Study 2), they had shorter interactions that were rated as less pleasant by the confederate and participant as compared to those without an avoidance-focus. Avoidance-focused participants were less interested in future interactions and came across as more avoidant and biased to their partner than less avoidance-focused participants. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for racial relations.

  16. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  17. A new Integrated Negative Symptom structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in schizophrenia using item response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anzalee; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Opler, Mark; Yavorsky, Christian; Rothman, Brian; Lucic, Luka

    2013-10-01

    Debate persists with regard to how best to categorize the syndromal dimension of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The aim was to first review published Principle Components Analysis (PCA) of the PANSS, and extract items most frequently included in the negative domain, and secondly, to examine the quality of items using Item Response Theory (IRT) to select items that best represent a measurable dimension (or dimensions) of negative symptoms. First, 22 factor analyses and PCA met were included. Second, using a large dataset (n=7187) of participants in clinical trials with chronic schizophrenia, we extracted items loading on one or more PCA. Third, items not loading with a value of ≥ 0.5, or loading on more than one component with values of ≥ 0.5 were discarded. Fourth, resulting items were included in a non-parametric IRT and retained based on Option Characteristic Curves (OCCs) and Item Characteristic Curves (ICCs). 15 items loaded on a negative domain in at least one study, with Emotional Withdrawal loading on all studies. Non-parametric IRT retained nine items as an Integrated Negative Factor: Emotional Withdrawal, Blunted Affect, Passive/Apathetic Social Withdrawal, Poor Rapport, Lack of Spontaneity/Conversation Flow, Active Social Avoidance, Disturbance of Volition, Stereotyped Thinking and Difficulty in Abstract Thinking. This is the first study to use a psychometric IRT process to arrive at a set of negative symptom items. Future steps will include further examination of these nine items in terms of their stability, sensitivity to change, and correlations with functional and cognitive outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An avoidance layer in hierarchical process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Callatay, A.

    1994-01-01

    A project of layered software architecture is proposed: a safety-critical real-time non-stop simple kernel system includes a layer avoiding threatening actions from operators or programs in other control systems. Complex process-control applications (such as fuzzy systems) are useful for the smooth operation of the system, optimum productivity, efficient diagnostics, and safe management of degraded modes of operation. Defects in these complex process-control applications do not have an impact on safety if their commands have first to be accepted by a safety-critical module. The development, testing, and certification of complex applications computed in the outside layers can be made simpler and less expensive than for those in the kernel. Avoidance systems use rule-base systems having negative fuzzy conditions and actions. Animal and human behaviour cannot be explained without active avoidance

  19. Indecision and avoidant procrastination: the role of morningness-eveningness and time perspective in chronic delay lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Ferrari, Joseph R; Cohen, Joseph R

    2008-07-01

    The authors examined how time orientation and morningness-eveningness relate to 2 forms of procrastination: indecision and avoidant forms. Participants were 509 adults (M age = 49.78 years, SD = 6.14) who completed measures of time orientation, morningness-eveningness, decisional procrastination (i.e., indecision), and avoidant procrastination. Results showed that morningness was negatively related to avoidant procrastination but not decisional procrastination. Overall, the results indicated different temporal profiles for indecision and avoidant procrastinations. Avoidant procrastination related to low future time orientation and low morningness, whereas indecision related to both (a) high negative and high positive past orientations and (b) low present-hedonistic and low future time orientations. The authors inferred that distinct forms of procrastination seem different on the basis of dimensions of time.

  20. The attraction of sugar : An association between body mass index and impaired avoidance action tendencies of sweet snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Woud, M.L.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E. S.; Wiers, R. W.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated implicit approach-avoidance action tendencies towards snack foods (pictorial Approach-Avoidance Task), and implicit approach-avoidance associations (verbal approach-avoidance Single-Target IAT) and affective associations (verbal positive-negative Single-Target IAT)

  1. Avoidance of Novelty Contributes to the Uncanny Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoshiro Sasaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A hypothesis suggests that objects with a high degree of visual similarity to real humans trigger negative impressions (i.e., the uncanny valley. Previous studies have suggested that difficulty in object categorization elicits negative emotional reactions to enable the avoidance of potential threats. The present study further investigated this categorization-difficulty hypothesis. In an experiment, observers categorized morphed images of photographs and human doll faces as “photograph” or “doll” and evaluated the perceived eeriness of the images. Additionally, we asked the observers to answer questionnaires on behavioral inhibition systems (BIS. The results indicated that individual differences in the BIS score were associated with enhanced eeriness in the objects with a specific human likeness. These findings suggest that the tendency to avoid a potentially threatening novel experience contributes to promoting the perceived eeriness of objects with some degree of visual similarity to real humans.

  2. Is rumination after bereavement linked with loss avoidance? Evidence from eye-tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten C Eisma

    Full Text Available Rumination is a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement. It is associated with and predicts psychopathology after loss. Yet, the function of rumination in bereavement remains unclear. In the past, researchers often assumed rumination to be a maladaptive confrontation process. However, based on cognitive avoidance theories of worry in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD and rumination after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, others have suggested that rumination may serve to avoid painful aspects of the loss, thereby contributing to complicated grief. To examine if rumination is linked with loss avoidance, an eye-tracking study was conducted with 54 bereaved individuals (27 high and 27 low ruminators. On 24 trials, participants looked for 10 seconds at a picture of the deceased and a picture of a stranger, randomly combined with negative, neutral or loss-related words. High ruminators were expected to show initial vigilance followed by subsequent disengagement for loss stimuli (i.e., picture deceased with a loss word in the first 1500 ms. Additionally, we expected high ruminators to avoid these loss stimuli and to show attentional preference for non-loss-related negative stimuli (i.e., picture stranger with a negative word on longer exposure durations (1500-10000 ms. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence for an effect of rumination on vigilance and disengagement of loss stimuli in the first 1500 ms. However, in the 1500-10000 ms interval, high ruminators showed shorter gaze times for loss stimuli and longer gaze times for negative (and neutral non-loss-related stimuli, even when controlling for depression and complicated grief symptom levels. Effects of rumination on average fixation times mirrored these findings. This suggests that rumination and loss avoidance are closely associated. A potential clinical implication is that rumination and grief complications after bereavement may be reduced through the use of exposure and acceptance

  3. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Latino Youth: The Moderating Role of Active and Avoidant Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G; Stiles, Allison A; Diaz, Kathleen I

    2018-06-01

    Despite high rates of exposure to community violence among Latino youth in urban communities, there is considerable variability in individual outcomes. This study examined (a) associations between coping and indices of Latino culture, (b) main effects of active/avoidant coping on psychopathology, and (c) whether coping moderates the impact of violence exposure on mental health in Latino youth. Participants included 168 Latino youth (56% female; ages 11-14) that took part in a short-term longitudinal study. Results indicate that youth acculturation was positively associated with active coping, but enculturation level and immigrant status were not associated with coping. Structural equation models suggested that active coping was negatively associated with internalizing problems (p = .046) while avoidant coping was positively associated with internalizing problems (p = .013) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (p = .024). Moderation analyses revealed that violence exposure was more strongly associated with internalizing problems as reliance on avoidance coping increased. However, at high levels of violence exposure, a greater reliance on active coping was related to increased posttraumatic stress problems. Findings suggest that consideration of the specific stressor, level of stress exposure, and mental health problem-type may be crucial in determining the effectiveness of a coping strategy. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  4. Unhappiness Intensifies the Avoidance of Frequent Losses While Happiness Overcomes It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad; Telpaz, Ariel; Krupenia, Stas; Rafaeli, Anat

    2016-01-01

    The implication of spontaneous and induced unhappiness to people's decision style is examined. It is postulated that unhappy individuals have a greater tendency to avoid frequent losses because these can have depleting effects, and unhappy individuals are more sensitive to such effects. This is evaluated in Study 1 by using an annoying customer call manipulation to induce negative affect; and by examining the effect of this manipulation on choices in an experiential decision task (the Iowa Gambling task). In Study 2 we examined the association between self-reported (un)happiness and choices on the same decision task. In Study 1 the induction of negative affect led to avoidance of choice alternatives with frequent losses, compared to those yielding rarer but larger losses. Specifically, this pertained to the advantageous alternatives with frequent vs. non-frequent losses. In Study 2 unhappiness was similarly associated with less exposure to frequent losses; while extreme high happiness was associated with no tendency to avoid frequent losses when these were part of an advantageous alternative. The findings clarify the role of happiness in decision making processes by indicating that unhappiness induces sensitivity to the frequency rather than to the total effect of negative events.

  5. Life-threatening event reduces subjective well-being through activating avoidance motivation: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Dina; Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Heller, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Drawing on the approach-avoidance theory, we have examined the role of avoidance motivation in explaining the negative effects of a life-threatening event on subjective well-being (SWB). Residents of the south of Israel were surveyed during heavy missile attacks in January 2009 (T1; n = 283), and again after 6 months (T2; n = 212) and 1 year (T3; n = 154). During the missile attacks, we also surveyed a group from the center of the country (T1; n = 102), not exposed to the attacks. The results indicate that avoidance motivation was activated by the life threat and further mediated its detrimental influence on SWB measures (positive/negative affects, anxiety, and subjective health). Moreover, within the southern sample, the drop in avoidance motivation over time mediated the parallel drop in SWB. In contrast to avoidance motivation, approach motivation remained stable over time and was related to positive emotions. The role of avoidance and approach motivations in life-threatening situations is further discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. The mnemonic mover: nostalgia regulates avoidance and approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Elena; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Zhou, Xinyue; He, Wuming; Routledge, Clay; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2014-06-01

    In light of its role in maintaining psychological equanimity, we proposed that nostalgia--a self-relevant, social, and predominantly positive emotion--regulates avoidance and approach motivation. We advanced a model in which (a) avoidance motivation triggers nostalgia and (b) nostalgia, in turn, increases approach motivation. As a result, nostalgia counteracts the negative impact of avoidance motivation on approach motivation. Five methodologically diverse studies supported this regulatory model. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design and showed that avoidance motivation was positively associated with nostalgia. Nostalgia, in turn, was positively associated with approach motivation. In Study 2, an experimental induction of avoidance motivation increased nostalgia. Nostalgia then predicted increased approach motivation. Studies 3-5 tested the causal effect of nostalgia on approach motivation and behavior. These studies demonstrated that experimental nostalgia inductions strengthened approach motivation (Study 3) and approach behavior as manifested in reduced seating distance (Study 4) and increased helping (Study 5). The findings shed light on nostalgia's role in regulating the human motivation system.

  7. Outcome of intracranial electroencephalography monitoring and surgery in magnetic resonance imaging-negative temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ricky W; Hoogs, Marietta M; Burkholder, David B; Trenerry, Max R; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Shih, Jerry J; Doll, Karey E; Tatum, William O; Cascino, Gregory D; Marsh, W Richard; Wirrell, Elaine C; Worrell, Gregory A; So, Elson L

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the outcomes of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recording and subsequent resective surgery in patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Thirty-two patients were identified from the Mayo Clinic Epilepsy Surgery Database (Arizona, Florida, and Minnesota). Eight (25.0%) had chronic iEEG monitoring that recorded neocortical temporal seizure onsets; 12 (37.5%) had mesial temporal seizure onsets; 5 (15.6%) had independent neocortical and mesial temporal seizure onsets; and 7 (21.9%) had simultaneous neocortical and mesial seizure onsets. Neocortical temporal lobe seizure semiology was the only factor significantly associated with neocortical temporal seizure onsets on iEEG. Only 33.3% of patients who underwent lateral temporal neocorticectomy had an Engel class 1 outcome, whereas 76.5% of patients with iEEG-guided anterior temporal lobectomy that included the amygdala and the hippocampus had an Engel class 1 outcome. Limitations in cohort size precluded statistical analysis of neuropsychological test data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of Statin Use on Outcomes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Stauder, Michael C.; Allen, Pamela; Reddy, Sangeetha; Lakoski, Susan; Atkinson, Bradley; Reddy, Jay; Amaya, Diana; Guerra, William; Ueno, Naoto; Caudle, Abigail; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to investigate if the use of HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins) has an impact on outcomes among patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods: We reviewed the cases of women with invasive, non-metastatic TNBC, diagnosed 1997-2012. Clinical outcomes were compared based on statin use (defined as ever use during treatment vs. never use). We identified a subset of women for whom a 5-value lipid panel (5VLP) was available, including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate median overall survival (OS), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), and local-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to test the statistical significance of prognostic factors. Results: 869 women were identified who met inclusion criteria, with a median follow-up time of 75.1 months (range 2.4-228.9 months). 293 (33.7%) patients used statins and 368 (42.3%) had a 5VLP. OS, DMFS, and LRRFS were not significant based on statin use or type. Controlling for the 5VLP values, on multivariable analysis, statin use was significantly associated with OS (HR 0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.76), but not with DMFS (HR 0.14, 95% CI 0.01-1.40) nor LRRFS (HR 0.10 95% CI 0.00-3.51). Conclusions: Statin use among patients with TNBC is not associated with improved OS, although it may have a benefit for a subset of patients. Prospective assessment would be valuable to better assess the potential complex correlation between clinical outcome, lipid levels, and statin use. PMID:28819403

  9. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Associations between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Outcomes Associated with Alcohol Consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Madson, Michael B.; Ricedorf, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes.…

  10. Predictors of task-persistent and fear-avoiding behaviors in women with sexual pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Marieke; Lakeman, Mariëlle; van Lunsen, Rik; Laan, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Dyspareunia and vaginismus are the most common sexual pain disorders (SPDs). Literature suggests that many women with dyspareunia continue with intercourse despite pain (task persistence), whereas many women with vaginismus avoid penetrative activities that may cause pain (fear avoidance). Both forms of sexual pain behavior may maintain or aggravate complaints. This study examined (i) whether women with SPD differ from pain-free controls in motives for sexual intercourse, sexual autonomy, maladaptive beliefs regarding vaginal penetration, and partner responses to pain; and (ii) which of these factors best predict whether women with SPD stop or continue painful intercourse (attempts). Women with superficial dyspareunia (n = 50), women with lifelong vaginismus (n = 20), and pain-free controls (n = 45) completed questionnaires. For Aim 1, the main outcome measures were (i) motives for intercourse; (ii) sexual autonomy; (iii) maladaptive beliefs regarding vaginal penetration; and (iv) partner responses to pain. For Aim 2, sexual pain behavior (to continue or discontinue with painful intercourse) was the outcome measure. (i) Women with dyspareunia exhibited more mate guarding and duty/pressure motives for intercourse and were less sexually autonomous than controls. (ii) Symptomatic women had more maladaptive penetration-related beliefs than controls, with women with vaginismus reporting the strongest maladaptive beliefs. (iii) Partners of women with dyspareunia self-reported more negative responses to pain than those of women with vaginismus. (iv) The factors that best predicted sexual pain behavior were the partner responses to pain and the woman's maladaptive beliefs regarding vaginal penetration. Our findings reveal support for task persistence in women with dyspareunia and fear avoidance in women with lifelong vaginismus. As such, it is important to consider these distinct types of responding to sexual pain when treating SPD. © 2014 International

  11. Negative effects of paternal age on children's neurocognitive outcomes can be explained by maternal education and number of siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Edwards

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest advanced paternal age may be associated with impaired child outcomes, in particular, neurocognitive skills. Such patterns are worrisome given relatively universal trends in advanced countries toward delayed nuptiality and fertility. But nature and nurture are both important for child outcomes, and it is important to control for both when drawing inferences about either pathway.We examined cross-sectional patterns in six developmental outcome measures among children in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (n = 31,346. Many of these outcomes at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y of age (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test are negatively correlated with paternal age when important family characteristics such as maternal education and number of siblings are not included as covariates. But controlling for family characteristics in general and mother's education in particular renders the effect of paternal age statistically insignificant for most developmental measures.Assortative mating produces interesting relationships between maternal and paternal characteristics that can inject spurious correlation into observational studies via omitted variable bias. Controlling for both nature and nurture reveals little residual evidence of a link between child neurocognitive outcomes and paternal age in these data. Results suggest that benefits associated with the upward trend in maternal education may offset any negative effects of advancing paternal age.

  12. Outcomes following negative prostate biopsy for patients with persistent disease after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Cohen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: When faced with biochemical recurrence after definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, clinicians must determine whether the recurrence is local or systemic. Post radiotherapy prostate biopsies to detect persistent local disease are difficult to interpret histopathologically and are subject to sampling error. Our study examines outcomes for patients with a negative prostate biopsy performed for rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels after prostate radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 238 prostate cancer patients with a negative biopsy following definitive radiotherapy. Seventy-five of these patients had biochemical recurrence at the time of biopsy. A negative biopsy was defined as the absence of prostate cancer without radiation-treatment effect in the specimen. RESULTS: Patients underwent biopsy at a mean of 41 months after the completion of radiation. They had a mean PSA of 6. Patients were followed for an average of 63 months. Thirty-two patients (43% developed metastasis, and 11 (15% died of prostate cancer despite a negative post-radiation biopsy. Five of nine patients (56% with sequential biopsies had a positive second biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PSA recurrence and a negative post-radiation biopsy have a high chance of persistent local disease, progression, and death from prostate cancer. Furthermore, an initial negative biopsy does not rule-out local recurrence. Patients with biochemical recurrence after radiotherapy for prostate cancer need to be evaluated earlier for local recurrence.

  13. The Effect of Positive and Negative Feedback on Risk-Taking across Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losecaat Vermeer, Annabel B; Sanfey, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options after a financial loss, while generally choosing safer options after a monetary gain. However, it is unclear what exactly contributes to these preference shifts as a function of prior outcomes, as these gain/loss outcomes are usually confounded with participant performance, and therefore it is unclear whether these effects are driven purely by the monetary gains or losses, or rather by success or failure at the actual task. Here, we experimentally separated the effects of monetary gains/losses from performance success/failure prior to a standard risky choice. Participants performed a task in which they experienced contextual effects: 1) monetary gain or loss based directly on performance, 2) monetary gain or loss that was randomly awarded and was, crucially, independent from performance, and 3) success or failure feedback based on performance, but without any monetary incentive. Immediately following these positive/negative contexts, participants were presented with a gain-loss gamble that they had to decide to either play or pass. We found that risk preferences for identical sets of gambles were biased by positive and negative contexts containing monetary gains and losses, but not by contexts containing performance feedback. This data suggests that the observed framing effects are driven by aversion for monetary losses and not simply by the positive or negative valence of the context, or by potential moods resulting from positive or negative contexts. These results highlight the specific context dependence of risk preferences.

  14. Behavioral predispositions to approach or avoid emotional words in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevos, Jessica; Grosselin, Anne; Fedotova, Tatyana; Massoubre, Catherine

    2016-07-30

    Many data suggest a disjunction between decreased emotional expressions and relatively preserved experience of and ability to assess emotions in schizophrenia. Based in an embodied approach of cognition, several studies have highlighted affective stimulus-response congruency effect in healthy subjects that show a direct link between the perception of emotion and associated motor responses. This study investigated whether the categorization of emotional words involves an automatic sensorimotor simulation of approach and avoidance behaviors. We asked 28 subjects with schizophrenia and 28 controls to execute arm movements of approach or avoidance to categorize emotional words, according to their valence (positive or negative). Controls were faster to respond to a positive stimulus with a movement of approach and a negative stimulus with a movement of avoidance (congruent condition) than to perform the inverted response movements (incongruent condition). However, responses of patients with schizophrenia did not differ according to congruence condition. Our results support the apparent non-involvement of covert sensorimotor simulation of approach and avoidance in the categorization of emotional stimuli by patients with schizophrenia, despite their understanding of the emotional valence of words. This absence of affective stimulus-response compatibility effect would imply a decoupling between emotional and bodily states in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Analysis of Avoidant and Approach Coping as Mediators of the Relationship Between Paternal and Maternal Attachment Security and Outcomes in Child Victims of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Martine; Daspe, Marie-Ève; Cyr, Mireille

    2017-10-05

    Prior studies have documented the potential role of nonoffending parent support in promoting recovery of adult survivors following sexual abuse (SA). However, few studies have distinguished the maternal and paternal role and the mechanisms by which quality of the parent-child relationship might foster more positive outcomes in child victims. The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies as mediators of the link between mother-child and father-child relationship and outcomes following child SA. A sample of 505 children (339 girls and 166 boys) ages 6-13 years completed measures evaluating perceived attachment security to mother and father (Kerns Security Scale; Kerns, Klepac, & Cole, 1996), as well as coping strategies related to the SA experienced (Self-Reported Coping Scale; Causey & Dubow, 1992). Outcomes evaluated were posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS; Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-II [CITES-II]; Wolfe, 2002) and self-esteem (Harter, 1985). Results indicated that, in girls, both attachment security to the mother and to the father are associated with lower PSS symptoms and higher self-esteem through a lesser use of avoidant coping. Avoidance coping mediated the link between attachment security to the mother and outcomes in boys. In addition, security in the relationship with the same-sex parent was associated with approach coping, which in turn was associated with both outcomes for girls and with PSS for boys. Findings highlight the importance of involving both parents in interventions for sexually abused children as mothers and fathers appear to play different, yet complementary roles in sustaining children's recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation across Life Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to…

  17. Pathogen-avoidance mechanisms and the stigmatization of obese people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Justin H.; Schaller, Mark; Crandall, Christian S.

    2007-01-01

    Humans possess pathogen-avoidance mechanisms that respond to the visual perception of morphological anomalies in others. We investigated whether obesity may trigger these mechanisms. Study I revealed that people who are chronically concerned about pathogen transmission have more negative attitudes

  18. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, I.; Iqbal, R.; Khan, S.U.; Munir, K.; Nazir, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  19. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  20. Do fibrin sealants impact negative outcomes after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jason; Jayram, Gautam; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Ball, Mark W; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary rates of postoperative hemorrhage after partial nephrectomy (PN) are low. Commercially available hemostatic agents are commonly used during this surgery to reduce this risk despite a paucity of data supporting the practice. We assessed the impact of fibrin sealant hemostatic agents, a costly addition to surgeries, during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). Between 2007 and 2011, 114 consecutive patients underwent RAPN by a single surgeon (MEA). Evicel fibrin sealant was used in the first 74 patients during renorraphy. The last 40 patients had renorraphy performed without the use of any hemostatic agents. Clinicopathologic, operative, and complication data were compared between groups. Multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association between the use of fibrin sealants and operative outcomes. Patient demographic data and clinical tumor characteristics were similar between groups. The use of fibrin sealant did not increase operative time (166.3 vs 176.1 minutes, P=0.28), warm ischemia time (WIT) (14.4 vs 16.1 minutes, P=0.18), or length of hospital stay (2.6 vs 2.4 days, P=0.35). The omission of these agents did not increase estimated blood loss (116.6 vs 176.1 mL, P=0.8) or postoperative blood transfusion (0% vs 2.5%, P=0.17). Univariate analysis demonstrated no association between use of fibrin sealants and increased complications (P>0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed no statistically significant predictive value of omission of hemostatic agents for perioperative outcomes (P>0.05). Perioperative hemorrhage and other major complications after contemporary RAPN are rare in experienced hands. In our study, the use of fibrin sealants during RAPN does not decrease the rate of complications, blood loss, or hospital stay. Furthermore, no impact is seen on operative time, WIT, or other negative outcomes. Omitting these agents during RAPN could be a safe, effective, cost-saving measure.

  1. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. INFANT AVOIDANCE DURING A TACTILE TASK PREDICTS AUTISM SPECTRUM BEHAVIORS IN TODDLERHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Micah A; Moore, Ginger A; Scaramella, Laura V; Reiss, David; Ganiban, Jody M; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-01-01

    The experience of touch is critical for early communication and social interaction; infants who show aversion to touch may be at risk for atypical development and behavior problems. The current study aimed to clarify predictive associations between infant responses to tactile stimuli and toddler autism spectrum, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors. This study measured 9-month-old infants' (N = 561; 58% male) avoidance and negative affect during a novel tactile task in which parents painted infants' hands and feet and pressed them to paper to make a picture. Parent reports on the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP), Internalizing, and Externalizing scales of the Child Behavior Checklist were used to measure toddler behaviors at 18 months. Infant observed avoidance and negative affect were significantly correlated; however, avoidance predicted subsequent PDP scores only, independent of negative affect, which did not predict any toddler behaviors. Findings suggest that incorporating measures of responses to touch in the study of early social interaction may provide an important and discriminating construct for identifying children at greater risk for social impairments related to autism spectrum behaviors. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. PDYN rs2281285 variant association with drinking to avoid emotional or somatic discomfort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich W Preuss

    Full Text Available One of the proposed psychobiological pathways of craving attributes the desire for drinking in the context of tension, discomfort or unpleasant emotions, to "negative" (or "relief" craving. The aim of this study was to replicate a previously reported association of the PDYN rs2281285 variant with negative craving using a different phenotyping approach.The TaqMan® Genotyping Assay was used to genotype the rs2281285 variant in 417 German alcohol-dependent subjects. The presence of negative/relief craving was assessed by asking if participants ever ingested alcohol to avoid unwanted emotional or somatic discomfort.The minor allele of rs2281285 was associated with an increased risk of drinking to avoid/escape unwanted emotional or somatic events (OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.08-4.85, p=0.0298.Despite the use of a different phenotyping approach to the measurement of negative craving, our results confirm the association between negative craving and PDYN rs2281285. Genetic markers of negative craving may help to identify subgroups of alcohol-dependent individuals vulnerable to relapse in the context of negative emotions or somatic discomfort, leading to the development of specifically tailored treatment strategies.

  4. Using Thermal Radiation in Detection of Negative Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    A method of automated detection of negative obstacles (potholes, ditches, and the like) ahead of ground vehicles at night involves processing of imagery from thermal-infrared cameras aimed at the terrain ahead of the vehicles. The method is being developed as part of an overall obstacle-avoidance scheme for autonomous and semi-autonomous offroad robotic vehicles. The method could also be applied to help human drivers of cars and trucks avoid negative obstacles -- a development that may entail only modest additional cost inasmuch as some commercially available passenger cars are already equipped with infrared cameras as aids for nighttime operation.

  5. Does adult attachment style mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mental and physical health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Kozakowski, Sandra Sepulveda; Chauhan, Preeti

    2018-02-01

    Attachment theory has been proposed as one explanation for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood. This study seeks to determine whether: (1) childhood physical abuse and neglect lead to different attachment styles in adulthood, (2) adult attachment styles predict subsequent mental and physical health outcomes, and (3) adult attachment styles mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and neglect and mental and physical health outcomes. Children with documented cases of physical abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) were matched with children without these histories and followed up in adulthood. Adult attachment style was assessed at mean age 39.5 and outcomes at 41.1. Separate path models examined mental and physical health outcomes. Individuals with histories of childhood neglect and physical abuse had higher levels of anxious attachment style in adulthood, whereas neglect predicted avoidant attachment as well. Both adult attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted mental health outcomes (higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower levels of self-esteem), whereas only anxious adult attachment style predicted higher levels of allostatic load. Path analyses revealed that anxious attachment style in adulthood in part explained the relationship between childhood neglect and physical abuse to depression, anxiety, and self-esteem, but not the relationship to allostatic load. Childhood neglect and physical abuse have lasting effects on adult attachment styles and anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles contribute to understanding the negative mental health consequences of childhood neglect and physical abuse 30 years later in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Avoiding Dirty Air (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    As summertime approaches and warmer weather moves in, air pollution will become an increasing problem across the U.S. People with asthma are especially impacted by deteriorating air quality. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Beavers discusses ways to avoid the negative impacts of air pollution.

  7. The Effect of Positive and Negative Feedback on Risk-Taking across Different Contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel B Losecaat Vermeer

    Full Text Available Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options after a financial loss, while generally choosing safer options after a monetary gain. However, it is unclear what exactly contributes to these preference shifts as a function of prior outcomes, as these gain/loss outcomes are usually confounded with participant performance, and therefore it is unclear whether these effects are driven purely by the monetary gains or losses, or rather by success or failure at the actual task. Here, we experimentally separated the effects of monetary gains/losses from performance success/failure prior to a standard risky choice. Participants performed a task in which they experienced contextual effects: 1 monetary gain or loss based directly on performance, 2 monetary gain or loss that was randomly awarded and was, crucially, independent from performance, and 3 success or failure feedback based on performance, but without any monetary incentive. Immediately following these positive/negative contexts, participants were presented with a gain-loss gamble that they had to decide to either play or pass. We found that risk preferences for identical sets of gambles were biased by positive and negative contexts containing monetary gains and losses, but not by contexts containing performance feedback. This data suggests that the observed framing effects are driven by aversion for monetary losses and not simply by the positive or negative valence of the context, or by potential moods resulting from positive or negative contexts. These results highlight the specific context dependence of risk preferences.

  8. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armfield, J.M.; Ketting, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from

  9. A 10-Day Developmental Voyage: Converging Evidence from Three Studies Showing that Self-Esteem May Be Elevated and Maintained without Negative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, S.; Hunter, J. A.; Hayhurst, J.; Boyes, M.; Thomson, R. L.; Clarke, H.; Grocott, A. M.; Stringer, M.; O'Brien, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that educational experiences in the context of the outdoors lead to elevated self-esteem. Although elevated self-esteem is widely assumed to promote beneficial outcomes, recent evidence suggests that elevated self-esteem may also facilitate a variety of negative outcomes (i.e., increased prejudice, aggression, drug and…

  10. A Comparison of Approach and Avoidance Sexual Goals in Couples With Vulvodynia and Community Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Justin P; Bergeron, Sophie; Muise, Amy; Impett, Emily A; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent form of vulvodynia that interferes with the sexual and relational functioning of affected couples. Approach and avoidance sexual goals are associated with the sexual and relationship well-being of women with PVD and their partners. However, whether sexual goals differ in couples coping with PVD compared with community couples is unknown. To compare the approach and avoidance sexual goals of women with PVD and their partners with a control sample of community women and their partners to build on an established motivational model and to compare the sexual goals of women with PVD with those of their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD and their partners (n = 161) and control couples (n = 172) completed measures of approach and avoidance sexual goals. Approach and Avoidance Sexual Goals Questionnaire. Women with PVD reported lower approach and higher avoidance sexual goals than control women, whereas partners of women with PVD did not differ from control partners in their sexual goals. Women with PVD also reported lower approach and higher avoidance sexual goals compared with their partners, whereas there were no differences between partners in the control sample. Given that avoidance sexual goals have been linked to negative sexual and relational outcomes, clinicians could strive to help couples with PVD become aware of their sexual motives, with the aim of weakening avoidance sexual goals and bolstering approach sexual goals. This is the first study to empirically document differences in sexual goals between couples affected by PVD and community couples. Limitations include the study's correlational design, differences in demographic characteristics between samples, and the homogeneity of participants' sexual orientation. Findings suggest that the sexual goals of women affected by PVD differ from those of community women and from their partners and support sexual goals as targets for psychological interventions to help

  11. Failure-Avoidance: Parenting, the Achievement Environment of the Home and Strategies for Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws together the as yet nascent literature on the development of failure-avoidant patterns of behaviour. These are behaviours intended to minimise risk to self-worth in the event of failure, thereby avoiding the negative impact of poor performance in terms of damage to self-worth. Self-worth protection, self-handicapping, impostor…

  12. Tibial internal rotation negatively affects clinical outcomes in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panni, Alfredo Schiavone; Ascione, Francesco; Rossini, Marco; Braile, Adriano; Corona, Katia; Vasso, Michele; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the effect of tibial rotational alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on clinical outcomes and assess the eventual cut-off values for tibial TKA rotation leading to poor outcomes. A detailed and systematic search from 1997 to 2017 of the Pubmed, Medline, Cochrane Reviews, and the Google Scholar databases was performed using the keyword terms "total knee arthroplasty", "total knee replacement", "tibial alignment", "tibial malalignement", "tibial rotation", "rotational error", "axis", "angle", "tibial malrotation", "clinical outcome", in several combinations. The modified Coleman scoring methodology (mCMS) was used. All the primary TKAs studies analyzing correlation between clinical results and tibial rotation were included. Five articles met the inclusion criteria. A total of 333 arthroplasties were included in this review; 139 had tibial component malalignment, while 194 were in control groups. The mean age of patients was 67.3 (SD 0.57) years. The mean average postoperative follow-up delay was 34.7 months (range 21-70). The mean mCMS score was 59.2 points indicating good methodological quality in the included studies. Functional outcomes were assessed through KSS, OKS, KOOS and VAS, negatively related to tibial internal rotation. Our review confirmed that excessive internal rotation of the tibial TKA component represents a significant risk factor for pain and inferior functional outcomes after TKA (> 10° of internal rotation demonstrated the common value), since external rotation does not affect the results. However, a universal precise cut-off value has not been found in the available literature and there remains a debate about CT rotation assessment and surgical intra-operative landmarks. III.

  13. Affinity-seeking, social loneliness, and social avoidance among Facebook users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Robert; Lajoie, Sean; Trainor, Nathan E

    2013-04-01

    This study explored the relations between use of the social networking site Facebook and scores on affinity-seeking, social loneliness, and social avoidance by 313 college students. Social loneliness and social avoidance, but not affinity-seeking, were positively and statistically significantly related to time spent using Facebook. The number of close Facebook friends was negatively and statistically significantly related to social loneliness and social avoidance. Women perceived Facebook as a more integral part of daily interactions than did men. 38% of the 283 Facebook members indicated their accounts contained information and/or a picture that could embarrass them, with men having significantly more embarrassing content than women. The findings are discussed within the context of social compensation.

  14. Identification of a subset of perpheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, characterized by FOXP3-positive regulatory T-cell phenotype, HTLV-1 negativity and poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bjerregård; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques; Bendix, Knud

    2014-01-01

    Identification of a subset of perpheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, characterized by FOXP3-positive regulatory T-cell phenotype, HTLV-1 negativity and poor outcome.......Identification of a subset of perpheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, characterized by FOXP3-positive regulatory T-cell phenotype, HTLV-1 negativity and poor outcome....

  15. The amygdala: securing pleasure and avoiding pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushka B P Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food or aversive (e.g. electric shock. We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala’s mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes.

  16. Optimism Moderates the Influence of Pain Catastrophizing on Shoulder Pain Outcome: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A; Simon, Corey B; Lentz, Trevor A; Gay, Charles W; Mackie, Lauren N; George, Steven Z

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data. Background An abundance of evidence has highlighted the influence of pain catastrophizing and fear avoidance on clinical outcomes. Less is known about the interaction of positive psychological resources with these pain-associated distress factors. Objective To assess whether optimism moderates the influence of pain catastrophizing and fear avoidance on 3-month clinical outcomes in patients with shoulder pain. Methods Data from 63 individuals with shoulder pain (mean ± SD age, 38.8 ± 14.9 years; 30 female) were examined. Demographic, psychological, and clinical characteristics were obtained at baseline. Validated measures were used to assess optimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), fear avoidance (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity subscale), shoulder pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory), and shoulder function (Pennsylvania Shoulder Score function subscale). Shoulder pain and function were reassessed at 3 months. Regression models assessed the influence of (1) pain catastrophizing and optimism and (2) fear avoidance and optimism. The final multivariable models controlled for factors of age, sex, education, and baseline scores, and included 3-month pain intensity and function as separate dependent variables. Results Shoulder pain (mean difference, -1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.1, -1.2) and function (mean difference, 2.4; 95% CI: 0.3, 4.4) improved over 3 months. In multivariable analyses, there was an interaction between pain catastrophizing and optimism (β = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.35) for predicting 3-month shoulder function (F = 16.8, R 2 = 0.69, Poptimism lessened the influence of pain catastrophizing on function. There was no evidence of significant moderation of fear-avoidance beliefs for 3-month shoulder pain (P = .090) or function (P = .092). Conclusion Optimism decreased the negative influence of pain

  17. The relationship between self-control and health: The mediating effect of avoidant coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boals, Adriel; Vandellen, Michelle R; Banks, Jonathan B

    2011-08-01

    Trait self-control is related to a number of positive outcomes, including mental health, interpersonal success, academic success and health-related behaviours. This study sought to explore the relationships between self-control, reports of mental and physical health symptoms and coping styles. The results revealed that higher self-control was related to fewer mental and physical health symptoms and less avoidance coping. There was not a significant relationship between self-control and problem-focused or emotion-focused coping styles. Further, the relationships between self-control and mental and physical health outcomes were partially mediated by avoidance coping style. Specifically, the data suggest lower self-control is associated with unhealthy coping strategies (avoidance coping), which in turn are associated with worse mental health outcomes and greater reports of physical health symptoms. Thus lower trait self-control can serve as an indicator, suggesting circumstances in which individuals' tendencies to engage in unhealthy coping strategies are increased. These findings add to a growing body of literature underscoring the importance of trait self-control.

  18. Preliminary study into the components of the fear-avoidance model of LBP: change after an initial chiropractic visit and influence on outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newell Dave

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade the sub grouping of low back pain (LBP patients according to their likely response to treatment has been identified as a research priority. As with other patient groups, researchers have found few if any factors from the case history or physical examination that are helpful in predicting the outcome of chiropractic care. However, in the wider LBP population psychosocial factors have been identified that are significantly prognostic. This study investigated changes in the components of the LBP fear-avoidance beliefs model in patients pre- and post- their initial visit with a chiropractor to determine if there was a relationship with outcomes at 1 month. Methods Seventy one new patients with lower back pain as their primary complaint presenting for chiropractic care to one of five clinics (nine chiropractors completed questionnaires before their initial visit (pre-visit and again just before their second appointment (post-visit. One month after the initial consultation, patient global impression of change (PGIC scores were collected. Pre visit and post visit psychological domain scores were analysed for any association with outcomes at 1 month. Results Group mean scores for Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB, catastrophisation and self-efficacy were all improved significantly within a few days of a patient's initial chiropractic consultation. Pre-visit catastrophisation as well as post-visit scores for catastrophisation, back beliefs (inevitability and self-efficacy were weakly correlated with patient's global impression of change (PGIC at 1 month. However when the four assessed psychological variables were dichotomised about pre-visit group medians those individuals with 2 or more high variables post-visit had a substantially increased risk (OR 36.4 (95% CI 6.2-213.0 of poor recovery at 1 month. Seven percent of patients with 1 or fewer adverse psychological variables described poor benefit compared to 73% of those

  19. Avoiding Complications with MPFL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marvin K; Werner, Brian C; Diduch, David R

    2018-05-12

    To discuss the potentially significant complications associated with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Additionally, to review the most current and relevant literature with an emphasis on avoiding these potential complications. Multiple cadaveric studies have characterized the anatomy of the MPFL and the related morphologic abnormalities that contribute to recurrent lateral patellar instability. Such abnormalities include patella alta, excessive tibial tubercle to trochlear grove (TT-TG) distance, trochlear dysplasia, and malalignment. Recent studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes associated with the treatment of concomitant pathology in combination with MPFL reconstruction, which is critical in avoiding recurrent instability and complications. Although there remains a lack of consensus regarding various critical aspects of MPFL reconstruction, certain concepts remain imperative. Our preferred methods and rationales for surgical techniques are described. These include appropriate work up, a combination of procedures to address abnormal morphology, anatomical femoral insertion, safe and secure patellar fixation, appropriate graft length fixation, and thoughtful knee flexion during fixation.

  20. Attachment insecurity, biased perceptions of romantic partners' negative emotions, and hostile relationship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Mechanism underlying the inner membrane retention of Escherichia coli lipoproteins caused by Lol avoidance signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2003-10-10

    Escherichia coli lipoproteins are localized to either the inner or outer membrane depending on the residue at position 2. The inner membrane retention signal, Asp at position 2 in combination with certain residues at position 3, functions as a Lol avoidance signal, i.e. the signal inhibits the recognition of lipoproteins by LolCDE that releases lipoproteins from the inner membrane. To understand the role of the residue at position 2, outer membrane-specific lipoproteins with Cys at position 2 were subjected to chemical modification followed by the release reaction in reconstituted proteoliposomes. Sulfhydryl-specific introduction of nonprotein molecules or a negative charge to Cys did not inhibit the LolCDE-dependent release. In contrast, oxidation of Cys to cysteic acid resulted in generation of the Lol avoidance signal, indicating that the Lol avoidance signal requires a critical length of negative charge at the second residue. Furthermore, not only modification of the carboxylic acid of Asp at position 2 but also that of the amine of phosphatidylethanolamine abolished the Lol avoidance function. Based on these results, the Lol avoidance mechanism is discussed.

  2. Cross-cultural generality and specificity in self-regulation: avoidance personal goals and multiple aspects of well-being in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Sedikides, Constantine; Murayama, Kou; Tanaka, Ayumi; Thrash, Todd M; Mapes, Rachel R

    2012-10-01

    The authors examined avoidance personal goals as concurrent (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) predictors of multiple aspects of well-being in the United States and Japan. In both studies, participants adopted more avoidance personal goals in Japan relative to the United States. Both studies also demonstrated that avoidance personal goals were significant negative predictors of the most relevant aspects of well-being in each culture. Specifically, avoidance personal goals were negative predictors of intrapersonal and eudaimonic well-being in the United States and were negative predictors of interpersonal and eudaimonic well-being in Japan. The findings clarify and extend puzzling findings from prior empirical work in this area, and raise provocative possibilities about the nature of avoidance goal pursuit.

  3. Treatment of avoidance behavior as an adjunct to exposure therapy: Insights from modern learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, Michael; Barry, Tom J

    2017-09-01

    Pathological avoidance of benign stimuli is a hallmark of anxiety and related disorders, and exposure-based treatments have often encouraged the removal of avoidance, or safety behaviors, due to their negative effects on extinction learning. Unfortunately, empirical evidence suggests that avoidance behaviors can persist following treatment, and the mere availability of avoidance behavior can be sufficient to renew fear following successful extinction learning. The present paper critically examines the function of avoidance behavior through the lens of modern learning theory, and speculates on novel behavioral and pharmacological strategies for targeting avoidance as an adjunct to current evidence-based treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. MULTIDIMETIONAL OUTCOME AND LONG-TERM EVALUATION OF NON-AVOIDANCE STUTTERUNG THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka GEORGIEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available nternational Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF, WHO, 2001 is a constructive framework for quality assessment and treatment in Logopedics (Speech Language Therapy. The current research study makes an attempt to introduce this standard into logopedical practice and applied research to measure the quality of life of persons with fluency disorders, such as stuttering. The quality of life is a modern multidimensional construct that covers health-medical, psychological, social and economic factors. Good level of communication and stabilized fluency is of key importance to improve the quality of life of persons who stutter. The purpose of the study was to show a model of assessment, treatment and evaluation of the efficacy of the non-avoidance approach in adult stuttering therapy. According to the results of the Index of disability, 47% of the people with multiple sclerosis have limited independence in providing daily activities leading up to 31% of the examinees with rare participation in the everyday social activities, the result obtained by the Frenchay Index of activities. We can conclude that the Index of disability is higher with older respondents and it is often followed by a drop of the daily activity frequency. Methods: CharlesVan Riper’s non-avoidance approach for an intensive therapy. Participants were 15 adults who stutter with an average age 25.2 years. Results: Specific significant decreasing of the two main parameters: index of dysfluencies immediately after the intensive therapy as well as duration of disfluences in seconds. The changes in speech fluency before and after the intensive therapy as well as 3 years after this therapy were obtained regarding the duration of disfluencies and index of dysfluency. Conclusion: The present model of an intensive non-avoidance therapy format for adults with stuttering disorders was successfully applied for the Bulgarian conditions. Improved fluency is an important factor

  5. Preoperative digital planning versus postoperative outcomes in total hip arthroplasty using a calcar-guided short stem: frequent valgization can be avoided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Karl Philipp; Pfeil, Joachim; Kovacevic, Mark Predrag

    2017-07-01

    Modern total hip arthroplasty is largely dependent on the successful preservation of hip geometry. Thus, a successful implementation of the preoperative planning is of great importance. The present study evaluates the accuracy of anatomic hip reconstruction predicted by 2D digital planning using a calcar-guided short stem of the newest generation. A calcar-guided short stem was implanted in 109 patients in combination with a cementless cup using the modified anterolateral approach. Preoperative digital planning was performed including implant size, caput-collum-diaphyseal angle, offset, and leg length using mediCAD II software. A coordinate system and individual scale factors were implemented. Postoperative outcome was evaluated accordingly and was compared to the planning. Intraoperatively used stem sizes were within one unit of the planned stem sizes. The postoperative stem alignment showed a minor and insignificant (p = 0.159) mean valgization of 0.5° (SD 3.79°) compared to the planned caput-collum-diaphyseal angles. Compared to the planning, mean femoral offset gained 2.18 (SD 4.24) mm, while acetabular offset was reduced by 0.78 (SD 4.36) mm during implantation resulting in an increased global offset of 1.40 (SD 5.51) mm (p = 0.0094). Postoperative femoroacetabular height increased by a mean of 5.00 (SD 5.98) mm (p planning in calcar-guided short-stem total hip arthroplasty assures a satisfying implementation of the intended anatomy. Valgization, which has been frequently observed in previous short-stem designs, negatively affecting offset, can be avoided. However, surgeons have to be aware of a possible leg lengthening.

  6. TAX AVOIDANCE, RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS, CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND THE CORPORATE CASH DIVIDEND POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Kartika Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between tax avoidance, related party transactions and the corporate dividend policy. Furthermore, this study will also investigate the moderating effects of the implementation of Corporate Governance (CG on the relationship between tax avoidance, Related Party Transactions (RPT and corporate dividend policies. Our sample covers companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2011-2014. The results provide moderate support for the proposed hypotheses. First, the greater tax avoidance that a company makes will increase the size of the firm's RPT. Second, the higher that the company's RPT is, this will lower the company's cash dividend payout rate. Third, the greater the tax avoidance is, the lower the company's cash dividend payout rate will be, which is done through a related party transaction.Fourth, the impact of the implementation of strong CG will weaken the positive relationship between corporate tax avoidance and the company’s RPT size, strengthen the negative relationship between the RPT’s size and the cash dividend payout policy of the firm, and strengthen the negative relationship between the company’s tax avoidance and the company's cash dividend payout policy which is mediated by the company’s RPT. This study makes three contributions. First, this study shows an indirect relationship between tax avoidance and cash dividend payments, mediated by RPT. Second, this study tries to examine the effect of CG’s moderation on the relationship between tax avoidance and RPT, as well as the effect of CG’s moderation on the relationship between tax avoidance and cash dividend payments, mediated by RPT. Third, this study developed RPT measurements by looking at the RPT’s components more specifically (looking at components of transactions outside of the main business of the company - the "others" component.

  7. When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, G A; Keltner, D; Holen, A; Horowitz, M J

    1995-11-01

    It has been widely assumed that emotional avoidance during bereavement leads to either prolonged grief, delayed grief, or delayed somatic symptoms. To test this view, as well as a contrasting adaptive hypothesis, emotional avoidance was measured 6 months after a conjugal loss as negative verbal-autonomic response dissociation (low self-rated negative emotion coupled with heightened cardiovascular activity) and compared with grief measured at 6 and 14 months. The negative dissociation score evidenced reliability and validity but did not evidence the assumed link to severe grief. Rather, consistent with the adaptive hypothesis, negative dissociation at 6 months was associated with minimal grief symptoms across 14 months. Negative dissociation scores were also linked to initially high levels of somatic symptoms, which dropped to a low level by 14 months. Possible explanations for the initial cost and long-term adaptive quality of emotional avoidance during bereavement, as well as implications and limitations of the findings, are discussed.

  8. Patient characteristics and outcomes in adolescents and young adults with classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Prajwal; Masarova, Lucia; Verstovsek, Srdan; Strati, Paolo; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge; Estrov, Zeev; Pierce, Sherry; Pemmaraju, Naveen

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the outcomes of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in adolescents and young adults (AYA). We reviewed all patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis (MF) treated at our institution from 1988 to 2016 who were aged 16 to 39 years (AYA) and described their outcomes in comparison to older MPN population. Of 2206 patients, 185 (8.3%) were identified as AYA: 105 (57%) ET, 43 (23%) PV, and 37 (20%) MF. The median age was 33 years [range, 16-39], and median follow-up time 3 years [range, 0.04-25]. JAK2 allele burdens were significantly lower among AYA JAK2V617F-mutated patients in both PV (p = 0.001) and MF (p = 0.005). Seven percent of MPN AYA patients were diagnosed with a thrombotic event at, or prior to, diagnosis. Over the short median follow-up, 4 thrombotic (PV = 1, MF = 3) and 3 leukemia (ET = 2, MF = 1) events occurred. In multivariate analysis, AYA did not predict for thrombotic or transformational events across three cohorts. In the MF cohort, there was a reduced frequency of negative prognostic variables of anemia (p = 0.011) and leukocytosis (p = 0.048) in AYA when compared with non-AYA. Overall survival was significantly superior in the AYA cohorts in all three MPN groups, namely MF (p < 0.001), PV (p < 0.001), and ET (p = 0.002). Our findings suggest that MPN AYA patients exhibit an indolent clinical phenotype characterized by favorable survival outcomes.

  9. Anticholinergic drugs and negative outcomes in the older population: from biological plausibility to clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collamati, Agnese; Martone, Anna Maria; Poscia, Andrea; Brandi, Vincenzo; Celi, Michela; Marzetti, Emanuele; Cherubini, Antonio; Landi, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The use of medication with anticholinergic properties is widespread among older subjects. Many drugs of common use such as antispasmodics, bronchodilators, antiarrhythmics, antihistamines, anti-hypertensive drugs, antiparkinson agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, and psychotropic drugs have been demonstrated to have an anticholinergic activity. The most frequent adverse effects are dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, urinary retention, blurred vision, tachycardia and neurologic impairment such as confusion, agitation and coma. A growing evidence from experimental studies and clinical observations suggests that drugs with anticholinergic properties can cause physical and mental impairment in the elderly population. However, the morbidity and management issues associated with unwanted anticholinergic activity are underestimated and frequently overlooked. Moreover, their possible relation with specific negative outcome in the elderly population is still not firmly established. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the relationship between the use of drugs with anticholinergic activity and negative outcomes in older persons. We searched PubMed and Cochrane combining the search terms "anticholinergic", "delirium", "cognitive impairment", "falls", "mortality" and "discontinuation". Medicines with anticholinergic properties may increase the risks of functional and cognitive decline, morbidity, institutionalization and mortality in older people. However, such evidences are still not conclusive probably due to possible confounding factors. In particular, more studies are needed to investigate the effects of discontinuation of drug with anticholinergic properties. Overall, minimizing anticholinergic burden should always be encouraged in clinical practice to improve short-term memory, confusion and delirium, quality of life and daily functioning.

  10. A prospective 2-year examination of cognitive and behavioral correlates of provoked vestibulodynia outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth N P; Bergeron, Sophie; Bois, Katy; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak M; Steben, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common genital pain disorder in women that is associated with sexual dysfunction and lowered sexual satisfaction. A potentially applicable cognitive-behavioral model of chronic pain and disability is the fear-avoidance model (FAM) of pain. The FAM posits that cognitive variables, such as pain catastrophizing, fear, and anxiety lead to avoidance of pain-provoking behaviors (eg, intercourse), resulting in continued pain and disability. Although some of the FAM variables have been shown to be associated with PVD pain and sexuality outcomes, the model as a whole has never been tested in this population. An additional protective factor, pain self-efficacy (SE), is also associated with PVD, but has not been tested within the FAM model. Using a 2-year longitudinal design, we examine (1) whether initial levels (T1) of the independent FAM variables and pain SE were associated with changes in pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction over the 2-year time period; (2) the prospective contribution of changes in cognitive-affective (FAM) variables to changes in pain, and sexuality outcomes; and (3) whether these were mediated by behavioral change (avoidance of intercourse). A sample of 222 women with PVD completed self-report measures of FAM variables, SE, pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction at time 1 and at a 2-year follow-up. Structural equation modeling with Latent Difference Scores was used to examine changes and to examine mediation between variables. Questionnaires included the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Scale, and Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Female Sexual Function Index. Participants who reported higher SE at T1 reported greater declines in pain, greater increases in sexual satisfaction, and greater declines in sexual function over the 2 time points. The overall change model did not support the FAM using negative cognitive

  11. Outcome Following a Negative CT Angiogram for Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Victoria, E-mail: drvictoriac@gmail.com; Tse, Donald, E-mail: donald.tse@gmail.com; Dixon, Shaheen, E-mail: shaheen7noorani@gmail.com [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Level 2 (United Kingdom); Shrivastava, Vivek, E-mail: vivshriv@yahoo.com [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Bratby, Mark, E-mail: mark.bratby@ouh.nhs.uk; Anthony, Suzie, E-mail: suzie.anthony@ouh.nhs.uk; Patel, Rafiuddin, E-mail: rafiuddin.patel@ouh.nhs.uk; Tapping, Charles, E-mail: charles.tapping@ouh.nhs.uk; Uberoi, Raman, E-mail: raman.uberoi@orh.nhs.uk [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Level 2 (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the role of a negative computed tomography angiogram (CTA) in patients who present with gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage.MethodsA review of all patients who had CTAs for GI hemorrhage over an 8-year period from January 2005 to December 2012 was performed. Data for patient demographics, location of hemorrhage, hemodynamic stability, and details of angiograms and/or the embolization procedure were obtained from the CRIS/PACS database, interventional radiology database, secure electronic medical records, and patient’s clinical notes.ResultsA total of 180 patients had 202 CTAs during the 8-year period: 87 CTAs were performed for upper GI hemorrhage (18 positive for active bleeding, 69 negative) and 115 for lower GI hemorrhage (37 positive for active bleeding, 78 negative); 58.7 % (37/63) of patients with upper GI bleed and 77.4 % (48/62) of patients with lower GI bleed who had an initial negative CTA did not rebleed without the need for radiological or surgical intervention. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.04). The relative risk of rebleeding, following a negative CTA, in lower GI bleeding versus upper GI bleeding patients is 0.55 (95 % confidence interval 0.32–0.95).ConclusionsPatients with upper GI bleed who had negative CTAs usually require further intervention to stop the bleeding. In contrast, most patients presenting with lower GI hemorrhage who had a negative first CTA were less likely to rebleed.

  12. Outcome Following a Negative CT Angiogram for Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Victoria; Tse, Donald; Dixon, Shaheen; Shrivastava, Vivek; Bratby, Mark; Anthony, Suzie; Patel, Rafiuddin; Tapping, Charles; Uberoi, Raman

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the role of a negative computed tomography angiogram (CTA) in patients who present with gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage.MethodsA review of all patients who had CTAs for GI hemorrhage over an 8-year period from January 2005 to December 2012 was performed. Data for patient demographics, location of hemorrhage, hemodynamic stability, and details of angiograms and/or the embolization procedure were obtained from the CRIS/PACS database, interventional radiology database, secure electronic medical records, and patient’s clinical notes.ResultsA total of 180 patients had 202 CTAs during the 8-year period: 87 CTAs were performed for upper GI hemorrhage (18 positive for active bleeding, 69 negative) and 115 for lower GI hemorrhage (37 positive for active bleeding, 78 negative); 58.7 % (37/63) of patients with upper GI bleed and 77.4 % (48/62) of patients with lower GI bleed who had an initial negative CTA did not rebleed without the need for radiological or surgical intervention. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.04). The relative risk of rebleeding, following a negative CTA, in lower GI bleeding versus upper GI bleeding patients is 0.55 (95 % confidence interval 0.32–0.95).ConclusionsPatients with upper GI bleed who had negative CTAs usually require further intervention to stop the bleeding. In contrast, most patients presenting with lower GI hemorrhage who had a negative first CTA were less likely to rebleed

  13. Prognostic factors for seizure outcome in patients with MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yao; Hu, Wenhan; Shao, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Kai

    2016-05-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify predictors of postoperative seizure freedom in patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative temporal lobe epilepsy. Publications were screened from electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE), epilepsy archives, and bibliographies of relevant articles that were written in English. We recorded all possible risk factors that might predict seizure outcome after surgery. We calculated odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of predictors for postoperative seizure freedom. Heterogeneity was assessed with I(2). All meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager. Epilepsy duration (OR=2.57, 95% CI=1.21-5.47, ptemporal lobe (OR=3.89, 95% CI=1.66-9.08, pepilepsy duration and scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) signals localized precisely in the temporal lobe predicted a better seizure outcome in patients with MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Religious Justification, Elitist Outcome: Are Religious Schools Being Used to Avoid Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel Ben Shahar, Tammy; Berger, Eyal

    2018-01-01

    Despite ongoing efforts to promote ethnic, racial and socio-economic integration, segregation continues to challenge education administrators and legal scholars. Privileged parents seeking to avoid integration employ various strategies such as attending private schools or buying houses in neighbourhoods with good school. This paper offers a…

  15. Mismatch negativity is a stronger indicator of functional outcomes than neurocognition or theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sung, Kyongae; Lee, Kyong-Sang; Moon, Eunok; Kim, Chang-Gyu

    2014-01-03

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. The present study explored the relationships of MMN with neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia, 21 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls were recruited. We examined symptom severity, neurocognition, theory of mind, functional outcomes, and MMN. MMN amplitudes decreased in order of patients with schizophrenia, then first-degree relatives, then healthy controls. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. However, the most powerful correlations were those between MMN in the frontal region and measures of functional outcomes. The power and frequency of the correlations were weaker in first-degree relatives and healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functional outcomes (relative to measures of neurocognition and theory of mind) constituted the most powerful predictor of MMN. Our results suggest that MMN reflects functional outcomes more efficiently than do measures of neurocognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013.

  16. Screening for pain-persistence and pain-avoidance patterns in fibromyalgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of patients regarding pain-related cognitive-behavioral mechanisms, such as pain-avoidance and pain-persistence patterns, has been proposed to underlie varying treatment outcomes in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). PURPOSE: To investigate the validity of a screening

  17. PDYN rs2281285 Variant Association with Drinking to Avoid Emotional or Somatic Discomfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Ulrich W.; Winham, Stacey J.; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Geske, Jennifer R.; Bakalkin, Georgy; Koller, Gabriele; Zill, Peter; Soyka, Michael; Karpyak, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction One of the proposed psychobiological pathways of craving attributes the desire for drinking in the context of tension, discomfort or unpleasant emotions, to “negative” (or “relief”) craving. The aim of this study was to replicate a previously reported association of the PDYN rs2281285 variant with negative craving using a different phenotyping approach. Methods The TaqMan® Genotyping Assay was used to genotype the rs2281285 variant in 417 German alcohol-dependent subjects. The presence of negative/relief craving was assessed by asking if participants ever ingested alcohol to avoid unwanted emotional or somatic discomfort. Results The minor allele of rs2281285 was associated with an increased risk of drinking to avoid/escape unwanted emotional or somatic events (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.08–4.85, p = 0.0298). Discussion Despite the use of a different phenotyping approach to the measurement of negative craving, our results confirm the association between negative craving and PDYN rs2281285. Genetic markers of negative craving may help to identify subgroups of alcohol-dependent individuals vulnerable to relapse in the context of negative emotions or somatic discomfort, leading to the development of specifically tailored treatment strategies. PMID:24223163

  18. outcome of foam versus gauze dressings in negative pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is one of .... Presence of necrotic material. If present ..... an alternative dressing interface and other vacuum sources .... edge micro-vascular blood flow: Effects of negative pressure ...

  19. A regressional analysis of maladaptive rumination, illness perception and negative emotional outcomes in Asian patients suffering from depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanxia; Tang, Catherine; Liow, Chiew Shan; Ng, Winnie Wei Ni; Ho, Cyrus Su Hui; Ho, Roger Chun Mun

    2014-12-01

    Although illness perception has been shown to be associated with illness outcomes in various chronic physical diseases, the association of illness perception and rumination are not well elucidated in mental disorders. This study aims to investigate the mediational effects of adaptive and maladaptive rumination in the relationship between illness perception and negative emotions (depression, anxiety and stress) in male and female patients (N=110) suffering from depressive disorders. The results showed that maladaptive rumination mediated the relationship between illness perception and negative emotions in both male and female depressive patients. However, no mediating effects of adaptive rumination were found in the relationship between illness perception and negative emotion. Maladaptive rumination mediated the relationship between perceived identity, chronicity of illness, consequences of illness and emotional representation of illness and negative emotions in males. It also mediated the relationship between perceived identity and emotional representation of illness and negative emotions in females. The results, possible clinical implications and limitations of this study are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A meta-analysis of fear-avoidance and pain intensity: The paradox of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Emily B

    2016-10-01

    The fear-avoidance model of chronic pain has established avoidance as a predictor of negative outcomes in chronic pain patients. Avoidance, or deliberate attempts to suppress or prevent unwanted experiences (e.g., pain), has been studied extensively, with multiple reviews implicating this behavior as a predictor of disability, physical disuse, and depression. Despite hundreds of studies examining the associations between different components of this model (i.e., catastrophizing, fear, avoidance, depression), the association between fear-avoidance and pain intensity has remained unclear. The present study seeks to clarify this association across samples. The present analyses synthesize the literature (articles from PsycInfo, PubMed, and ProQuest) to determine if fear-avoidance and pain intensity are consistently correlated across studies, samples, and measures. Eligible studies measured pain intensity and fear-avoidance cross-sectionally in chronic pain patients. The search resulted in 118 studies eligible for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to estimate the weighted mean effect size. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software was used for all analyses. Moderation analyses elucidate the variables that affect the strength of this association. Meta-regression and meta-ANOVA analyses were conducted to examine moderating variables. Moderator variables include demographic characteristics, pain characteristics, study characteristics, and national cultural characteristics (using Hofstede's cultural dimensions). Publication bias was examined using the funnel plot and the p-curve. Results indicate a small-to-moderate positive association between fear-avoidance and pain intensity. The results were stable across characteristics of the sample, including mean age, gender distribution, marital status, and duration of pain. Moderation analyses indicate that the measures utilized and cultural differences affect the strength of this association. Weaker effect sizes were observed

  1. The impact of experiential avoidance on the relations between illness representations, pain catastrophising and pain interference in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Karekla, Maria; Flouri, Magdalini; Vasiliou, Vasilis S; Kasinopoulos, Orestis; Papacostas, Savvas S

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of experiential avoidance (EA) on the indirect relationship of chronic pain patients' illness representations to pain interference, through pain catastrophising Design and main outcome measure: The sample consisted of 162 patients diagnosed with an arthritis-related or a musculoskeletal disorder. The effects of EA on the pathway between illness representations, pain catastrophising and pain interference were examined with PROCESS, a computational tool for SPSS Results: After controlling for patient and illness-related variables and pain severity, the 'illness representations-pain catastrophising-pain interference' pathway was interrupted at the higher levels of EA. The reason was that, at the high levels of EA, either the relation of illness representations to pain catastrophising or the relation of pain catastrophising to pain interference was not statistically significant. The findings indicate that EA is not a generalised negative response to highly aversive conditions, at least as far as the factors examined in this study are concerned. EA may rather reflect a coping reaction, the impact of which depends on its specific interactions with the other aspects of the self-regulation mechanism. At least in chronic pain, EA should become the focus of potential intervention only when its interaction with the illness-related self-regulation mechanism results in negative outcomes.

  2. Faith community nursing demonstrates good stewardship of community benefit dollars through cost savings and cost avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ameldia R; Coppola, Patricia; Giacona, Marian; Petriches, Anne; Stockwell, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Health systems seeking responsible stewardship of community benefit dollars supporting Faith Community Nursing Networks require demonstration of positive measurable health outcomes. Faith Community Nurses (FCNs) answer the call for measurable outcomes by documenting cost savings and cost avoidances to families, communities, and health systems associated with their interventions. Using a spreadsheet tool based on Medicare reimbursements and diagnostic-related groupings, 3 networks of FCNs have together shown more than 600 000 (for calendar year 2008) healthcare dollars saved by avoidance of unnecessary acute care visits and extended care placements. The cost-benefit ratio of support dollars to cost savings and cost avoidance demonstrates that support of FCNs is good stewardship of community benefit dollars.

  3. Masculinity impediments: Internalized masculinity contributes to healthcare avoidance in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Mary S; Sanchez, Diana T

    2016-07-01

    Gender beliefs contribute to men's healthcare avoidance, but little research examines these outcomes in women. This article models healthcare avoidance related to masculine contingencies of self-worth in men and women. Nested path modelling tested relationships between social role beliefs, masculine contingencies of self-worth, barriers to help seeking and avoidance of health care in university and non-university-student adult samples. Results indicated social role beliefs predicted masculine contingencies of self-worth in men but not in women. Regardless of gender, masculine contingencies of self-worth predicted barriers to help seeking, which predicted healthcare avoidance in both men and women. Thus, masculine contingencies of self-worth have downstream consequences for men and women through barriers to help seeking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The relationship of corporate tax avoidance, cost of debt and institutional ownership: Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kholbadalov, Utkir

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this study are to identify whether there is any relationship between corporate tax avoidance and the cost of debt, and whether the level of institutional ownership moderates this relationship, with two hypotheses tests on sample of 110 listed firms in the main board of Bursa Malaysia during the year 2005 - 2009. This study supports prior papers with negative relationship between tax avoidance and the cost of debt, suggesting corporate tax avoidance activity can reduce the ...

  5. Unsupported or Turned Against: Understanding How Two Types of Negative Social Reactions to Sexual Assault Relate to Post-Assault Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Mark; Ullman, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Social reactions to disclosures of sexual assault have significant effects on women's post-assault outcomes (see Ullman, 2010, for a review). The Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ; Ullman, 2000) measures these reactions (as reported by survivors) and aggregates them into positive and negative scales. However, studies indicate that only some "negative" reactions have a negative valence for survivors whereas others produce a mixed (positive and negative) valence. The current study compares a one-primary-factor model of "negative reactions" to a model with two primary factors that we have labeled "turning against" and "unsupportive acknowledgement." Results showed that although one primary factor was plausible, two primary factors provided a better fit to the data. To assess the discriminant validity of the two factors, we performed regressions predicting social support, psychological adjustment, and coping behaviors. Analyses supported the hypotheses that reactions of being turned against were related to social withdrawal, increased self-blame, and decreased sexual assertiveness whereas reactions of unsupportive acknowledgment were related to both adaptive and maladaptive coping. Against predictions, depression and PTSD were more related to receiving unsupportive acknowledgment than to receiving turning against reactions. Implications for interventions and research are discussed. Importantly, almost all women (94%) in our sample received reactions that acknowledged that an assault occurred but failed to provide support, and this lack of support was associated with worse coping than even more hostile reactions such as being blamed or stigmatized. Therefore, there seems a great need for effective programs to train community members to respond to survivors with the kind of emotional and tangible support that promotes better outcomes.

  6. Give what you get: capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes to conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Leimgruber

    Full Text Available The breadth of human generosity is unparalleled in the natural world, and much research has explored the mechanisms underlying and motivating human prosocial behavior. Recent work has focused on the spread of prosocial behavior within groups through paying-it-forward, a case of human prosociality in which a recipient of generosity pays a good deed forward to a third individual, rather than back to the original source of generosity. While research shows that human adults do indeed pay forward generosity, little is known about the origins of this behavior. Here, we show that both capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes in an identical testing paradigm. These results suggest that a cognitively simple mechanism present early in phylogeny and ontogeny leads to paying forward positive, as well as negative, outcomes.

  7. Outcomes of Breast Cancer Patients With Triple Negative Receptor Status Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J. Ben; Reid, Robert E.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Chen, Peter Y.; Mitchell, Christine K.; Wallace, Michelle F.; Marvin, Kimberly S.; Grills, Inga S.; Margolis, Jeffrey M.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Triple negative receptor status (TNRS) of patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy treated with whole-breast irradiation has been associated with increased distant metastasis and decreased disease-free and overall survival. This paper reports the outcomes of TNRS patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: We studied 455 patients who received APBI at our institution, using interstitial, intracavitary, and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. TNRS was assigned if a patient tested negative for all three (ER [estrogen receptor], PR [progesterone receptor], and HER2/neu) receptors. Of 202 patients with all receptor results available, 20 patients were designated TNRS, and 182 patients had at least one receptor positive (RP). We analyzed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). Results: Mean follow-up was 4.1 years for the TNRS group and 5.1 years for the RP cohort (p = 0.11). TNRS patients had a higher histologic grade (59% TNRS vs. 13% RP; p 0.52). OS for the RP cohort was 93% at 5 years (p > 0.28). Conclusions: In our patient population, TNRS conferred a clinical outcome similar to that of patients with RP disease treated with APBI. Further investigation with larger patient populations and longer follow-up periods is warranted to confirm that APBI is a safe and effective treatment for patients with localized TNRS breast cancer.

  8. Outcomes of breast cancer patients with triple negative receptor status treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J Ben; Reid, Robert E; Shaitelman, Simona F; Chen, Peter Y; Mitchell, Christine K; Wallace, Michelle F; Marvin, Kimberly S; Grills, Inga S; Margolis, Jeffrey M; Vicini, Frank A

    2011-11-01

    Triple negative receptor status (TNRS) of patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy treated with whole-breast irradiation has been associated with increased distant metastasis and decreased disease-free and overall survival. This paper reports the outcomes of TNRS patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). We studied 455 patients who received APBI at our institution, using interstitial, intracavitary, and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. TNRS was assigned if a patient tested negative for all three (ER [estrogen receptor], PR [progesterone receptor], and HER2/neu) receptors. Of 202 patients with all receptor results available, 20 patients were designated TNRS, and 182 patients had at least one receptor positive (RP). We analyzed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). Mean follow-up was 4.1 years for the TNRS group and 5.1 years for the RP cohort (p = 0.11). TNRS patients had a higher histologic grade (59% TNRS vs. 13% RP; p 0.52). OS for the RP cohort was 93% at 5 years (p > 0.28). In our patient population, TNRS conferred a clinical outcome similar to that of patients with RP disease treated with APBI. Further investigation with larger patient populations and longer follow-up periods is warranted to confirm that APBI is a safe and effective treatment for patients with localized TNRS breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxytocin attenuates social and non-social avoidance: Re-thinking the social specificity of Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari-Dahan, Osnat; Bernstein, Amit

    2017-07-01

    Re-examining decades of the social construal of Oxytocin, the General Approach-Avoidance Hypothesis of Oxytocin (GAAO) predicts that Oxytocin will modulate responding to emotionally-evocative and personally-relevant social and non-social stimuli due to its action on the neural substrate of approach and avoidance motivation. We report the first critical experimental test of GAAO predictions by means of a double-blind intra-nasal administration of Oxytocin vs. placebo in 90 healthy adults (N=90, 50% women). As predicted, we found that among men and women for whom negative emotion (anxious arousal) is motivationally-relevant, intra-nasal administration of Oxytocin reduced behavioral avoidance of emotionally-evocative negatively-valenced social and non-social stimuli, but not closely matched emotionally-neutral stimuli. Findings cannot be explained by extant social theories of Oxytocin. We discuss the implications of the present findings for basic and translational clinical Oxytocin research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Avoiding Dirty Air (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-01

    As summertime approaches and warmer weather moves in, air pollution will become an increasing problem across the U.S. People with asthma are especially impacted by deteriorating air quality. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Beavers discusses ways to avoid the negative impacts of air pollution.  Created: 5/1/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/1/2014.

  11. Severity and Justness Do Not Moderate the Relation between Corporal Punishment and Negative Child Outcomes: A Multicultural and Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alampay, Liane Peña; Godwin, Jennifer; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Giunta, Laura Di; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana M. Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario

    2017-01-01

    There is strong evidence of a positive association between corporal punishment and negative child outcomes, but previous studies have suggested that the manner in which parents implement corporal punishment moderates the effects of its use. This study investigated whether severity and justness in the use of corporal punishment moderate the…

  12. Learned Avoidance in the Male Syrian Hamster: Investigating the Outcome of a Glucocorticoid Antagonist on Reconsolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Haugsnes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we used our Conflict Alleyway Apparatus and a glucocorticoid antagonist, mifepristone, to investigate the role of glucocorticoids in the reconsolidation of learned avoidance in defeated male Syrian hamsters. Subjects were tested for memory deficits 48 hours and 96 hours after the drug/vehicle was administered. It were hypothesized that mifepristone administration would produce memory deficits when the defeat memory had been reactivated, and that this deficit would be present 48 hours and 96 hours after the administration. Prolonged deficits that are dependent upon memory reactivation would suggest that glucocorticoids play a role in reconsolidation of learned avoidance. Our results indicated a strong evidence for learned avoidance after defeat; however, we did not find any significant drug effect.

  13. Incidence and Outcome of BRCA Mutations in Unselected Patients with Triple Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the incidence of germline and somatic BRCA1\\/2 mutations in unselected patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and determine the prognostic significance of carrying a mutation. Methods: DNA was obtained from 77 TNBC and normal tissues. BRCA1\\/2 exons\\/flanking regions were sequenced from tumor and patients classified as mutant or wild type (WT). Sequencing was repeated from normal tissue to identify germline and somatic mutations. Patient characteristics were compared with chi-square. Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine the independent association of mutation status with outcome.

  14. Multiple cluster axis II comorbidity and functional outcome in severe patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Nerea; McMaster, Antonia; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; de la Vega, Irene; Montes, Ana; Carrasco, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    Current literature suggests that personality disorder comorbidity negatively contributes to both the severity and prognosis of other disorders; however, little literature has been devoted to its influence on borderline personality disorder (BPD). The objective of the present work is to study comorbidity with other personality disorders in a severe clinical sample of patients with BPD, and its relationship with global functionality. A sample of 65 patients with severe borderline personality disorder was included in the study. Clinical and functionality measures were applied in order to study comorbidity of BPD with other disorders and its relationship with functionality. Associations with other comorbid PDs were analyzed with t-tests and linear correlations. Most patients (87%) presented comorbidity with other PDs. Almost half of the sample (42%) presented more than two PDs, and cluster A (paranoid) and C (obsessive and avoidant) PD were more frequent than cluster B (histrionic and antisocial). Only the presence of avoidant PD predicted a worse functional outcome in the long term (U Mann Withney ppersonality disorder might negatively predict for prognosis.

  15. European breast cancer service screening outcomes: a first balance sheet of the benefits and harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig; Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen William

    2014-07-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer death being avoided by population-based mammography screening of appropriate quality is more than that of overdiagnosis by screening. These outcomes should be communicated to women offered service screening in Europe. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Measuring the Cognitions, Emotions, and Motivation Associated With Avoidance Behaviors in the Context of Pain: Preliminary Development of the Negative Responsivity to Pain Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Ward, L Charles; Thorn, Beverly E; Ehde, Dawn M; Day, Melissa A

    2017-04-01

    We recently proposed a Behavioral Inhibition System-Behavioral Activation System (BIS-BAS) model to help explain the effects of pain treatments. In this model, treatments are hypothesized to operate primarily through their effects on the domains within 2 distinct neurophysiological systems that underlie approach (BAS) and avoidance (BIS) behaviors. Measures of the model's domains are needed to evaluate and modify the model. An item pool of negative responses to pain (NRP; hypothesized to be BIS related) and positive responses (PR; hypothesized to be BAS related) were administered to 395 undergraduates, 325 of whom endorsed recurrent pain. The items were administered to 176 of these individuals again 1 week later. Analyses were conducted to develop and validate scales assessing NRP and PR domains. Three NRP scales (Despondent Response to Pain, Fear of Pain, and Avoidant Response to Pain) and 2 PR scales (Happy/Hopeful Responses and Approach Response) emerged. Consistent with the model, the scales formed 2 relatively independent overarching domains. The scales also demonstrated excellent internal consistency, and associations with criterion variables supported their validity. However, whereas the NRP scales evidenced adequate test-retest stability, the 2 PR scales were not adequately stable. The study yielded 3 brief scales assessing NRP, which may be used to further evaluate the BIS-BAS model and to advance research elucidating the mechanisms of psychosocial pain treatments. The findings also provide general support for the BIS-BAS model, while also suggesting that some minor modifications in the model are warranted.

  17. Faculty Perceptions of Conflict with Administrators: An Analysis of the Associations between the Nature of Conflict and Positive and Negative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancks, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of faculty members regarding conflict experiences with administrators. It is driven by the question, "To what extent are faculty perceptions of positive and negative outcomes of faculty-administrator conflict associated with domain, nature and disciplinary context of the conflict," where domain refers…

  18. Discharged from a mental health admission ward: is it safe to go home? A review on the negative outcomes of psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loch AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Andrade LochLaboratory of Neurosciences, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Before psychiatry emerged as a medical discipline, hospitalizing individuals with mental disorders was more of a social stigmatizing act than a therapeutic act. After the birth of the mental health disciplines, psychiatric hospitalization was legitimized and has proven to be indispensable, preventing suicides and helping individuals in need. However, despite more than a century passing since this legitimization occurred, psychiatric hospitalization remains a controversial issue. There is the question of possible negative outcomes after a psychiatric admission ceases to take its protective effect, and even of whether the psychiatric admission itself is related to a negative setback after discharge. This review aims to summarize some of the most important negative outcomes after discharge from a psychiatric institution. These experiences were organized into two groups: those after a brief psychiatric hospitalization, and those after a long-stay admission. The author further suggests possible ways to minimize these adversities, emphasizing the need of awareness related to this important issue.Keywords: suicide, stigma, rehabilitation, relapse, rehospitalisation

  19. Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious attention in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-11-01

    Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Animal to human translational paradigms relevant for approach avoidance conflict decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlic, Namik; Young, Jared; Aupperle, Robin L

    2017-09-01

    Avoidance behavior in clinical anxiety disorders is often a decision made in response to approach-avoidance conflict, resulting in a sacrifice of potential rewards to avoid potential negative affective consequences. Animal research has a long history of relying on paradigms related to approach-avoidance conflict to model anxiety-relevant behavior. This approach includes punishment-based conflict, exploratory, and social interaction tasks. There has been a recent surge of interest in the translation of paradigms from animal to human, in efforts to increase generalization of findings and support the development of more effective mental health treatments. This article briefly reviews animal tests related to approach-avoidance conflict and results from lesion and pharmacologic studies utilizing these tests. We then provide a description of translational human paradigms that have been developed to tap into related constructs, summarizing behavioral and neuroimaging findings. Similarities and differences in findings from analogous animal and human paradigms are discussed. Lastly, we highlight opportunities for future research and paradigm development that will support the clinical utility of this translational work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. You Can't See the Real Me: Attachment Avoidance, Self-Verification, and Self-Concept Clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lydia F; Gardner, Wendi L; Carswell, Kathleen L; Finkel, Eli J

    2018-03-01

    Attachment shapes people's experiences in their close relationships and their self-views. Although attachment avoidance and anxiety both undermine relationships, past research has primarily emphasized detrimental effects of anxiety on the self-concept. However, as partners can help people maintain stable self-views, avoidant individuals' negative views of others might place them at risk for self-concept confusion. We hypothesized that avoidance would predict lower self-concept clarity and that less self-verification from partners would mediate this association. Attachment avoidance was associated with lower self-concept clarity (Studies 1-5), an effect that was mediated by low self-verification (Studies 2-3). The association between avoidance and self-verification was mediated by less self-disclosure and less trust in partner feedback (Study 4). Longitudinally, avoidance predicted changes in self-verification, which in turn predicted changes in self-concept clarity (Study 5). Thus, avoidant individuals' reluctance to trust or become too close to others may result in hidden costs to the self-concept.

  2. Aberrant approach-avoidance conflict resolution following repeated cocaine pre-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David; Schumacher, Anett; Erb, Suzanne; Ito, Rutsuko

    2015-10-01

    Addiction is characterized by persistence to seek drug reinforcement despite negative consequences. Drug-induced aberrations in approach and avoidance processing likely facilitate the sustenance of addiction pathology. Currently, the effects of repeated drug exposure on the resolution of conflicting approach and avoidance motivational signals have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The present study sought to investigate the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on conflict resolution using novel approach-avoidance paradigms. We used a novel mixed-valence conditioning paradigm to condition cocaine-pre-exposed rats to associate visuo-tactile cues with either the delivery of sucrose reward or shock punishment in the arms in which the cues were presented. Following training, exploration of an arm containing a superimposition of the cues was assessed as a measure of conflict resolution behavior. We also used a mixed-valence runway paradigm wherein cocaine-pre-exposed rats traversed an alleyway toward a goal compartment to receive a pairing of sucrose reward and shock punishment. Latency to enter the goal compartment across trials was taken as a measure of motivational conflict. Our results reveal that cocaine pre-exposure attenuated learning for the aversive cue association in our conditioning paradigm and enhanced preference for mixed-valence stimuli in both paradigms. Repeated cocaine pre-exposure allows appetitive approach motivations to gain greater influence over behavioral output in the context of motivational conflict, due to aberrant positive and negative incentive motivational processing.

  3. Avoidance behaviour testing of Eisenia andrei in biodegradable plastic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Tichá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance behaviour test with the earthworms (ISO 17512-1:2008 is a rapid screening test for the evaluation of soil and the influence of pollutants and chemicals on the behaviour of earthworms. The purpose of the testing is to determine the avoidance behaviour of earthworm (in this case Eisenia andrei was used which can be used as an organism for the composting and occur naturally in soil environment. The methodology was modified according to the needs of the avoidance behaviour testing of earthworms in biodegradable plastic environment. It is a biodegradable thermoplastic material Mater-Bi, which is produced from corn starch. Californian earthworm (Eisenia andrei was chosen as a test organism. The two-chamber test was used in testing. 10 earthworms were used, which were exposed to a number of concentrations of the test substance, which was mixed into the compost environment. It was recorded both a positive result, avoidance reaction, as well as a negative result, non-avoidance reaction and also there was a case, where individuals prefer both substrates equally. Organisms showed no escape reaction and were fairly evenly distributed in both halves of the test vessel, it can be assessed that organisms prefer both substrates equally. In testing, the mortality was zero, none of the individuals died, at the conclusion of the test there were not found any dead individuals. Avoidance higher than 80 % didn’t occur; it cannot be said that the substrate is toxic or degraded.

  4. Family Avoidance of Communication about Cancer: A Dyadic Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Jooyeon; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Cho, Juhee; Youm, Jung Ho; Choi, Gyu Seog; Hong, Nam Soo; Cho, BeLong; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the following questions: to what extent do patients and caregivers perceive their family members to be avoidant of communication regarding patient's cancer, and to what extent do these perceptions interrelate; and how do such perceptions influence their own and each other's communication behaviors, communication outcome, mental health, and quality of life. A national survey was performed with 990 patient-caregiver dyads (participation rate, 76.2%). To examine the dyadic interaction, we developed linked patient and family member questionnaires, including the Family Avoidance of Communication about Cancer (FACC) scale. The mean scores (standard deviations) of patient- and caregiver-perceived FACC were low at 10.9 (15.5) and 15.5 (17.5), respectively (p communication, as well as lower levels of mental health outcome and quality of life. The same was true for caregivers (all p communication difficulty within the family. Future research would benefit from the measurement of FACC from both patients and caregivers, and promote family intervention to enhance openness to communication, which would be helpful for improving mental health and quality of life for both patients and caregivers.

  5. Common pitfalls to avoid during workover operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byars, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Remedial well work has been, and will continue to be, an integral part of oil company operations. More than 16,000 workover operations were performed during 1993 in the US. The economic impact from workover operations is usually immediate due to flowlines, tank batteries and other equipment being in place and ready for service prior to the workover. Similarly, problems encountered during workover operations contribute an immediate negative impact to project economics. Guidelines for common mistake avoidance are presented. They will be especially helpful for those individuals not well trained in workover preparation and supervision

  6. Common TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kirstine Marie; Lindboe, Sarah Bjerre; Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa

    2007-01-01

    consecutive adult patients with culture proven Gram negative bacteremia admitted to a Danish hospital between 2000 and 2002. Analysis for commonly described SNPs of tumor necrosis-alpha, (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), CD14...... hazard regression analysis, increasing age, polymicrobial infection and haemoglobin levels were associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: We did not find any association between TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms and outcome of Gram negative sepsis. Other host factors...... appear to be more important than the genotypes studied here in determining the severity and outcome of Gram negative sepsis....

  7. Is there an association between fear avoidance beliefs, and pain and disability in patients with orofacial pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, S L; Enriquez, C S; Millner, M H; Nasri-Heir, C; Heir, G M

    2017-06-01

    Numerous psychosocial factors have been shown to contribute to the development and perpetuation of orofacial pain. One well-recognized model for explaining the link between psychosocial factors and chronic pain is the fear avoidance model. To date, this proposed link has not been studied in subjects with orofacial pain. During the initial evaluation of subjects with orofacial pain, we collected data on fear avoidance beliefs using the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and disability and pain. At between 6 and 8 weeks follow-up, we re-collected these data, as well as data addressing subjects' perceived change in their condition. Data were analyzed using correlation coefficients and linear regression. Fear avoidance beliefs at intake were inversely correlated with intake disability, There were no significant associations between fear avoidance beliefs at initial evaluation or in changes in fear avoidance beliefs during the 6-8 weeks follow-up period; and changes in disability, pain or perceived change in condition at 6-8 weeks follow-up. Of note, fear avoidance beliefs increased over the follow-up period, despite improvements in all outcome measures. There was insufficient evidence to suggest that high levels of fear avoidance beliefs at initial evaluation are associated with higher levels of disability or pain at intake, or with change in disability, pain or perceived change in condition at 6-8 weeks follow-up. Similarly, there was insufficient evidence to suggest that changes in fear avoidance beliefs during treatment are associated with any of these outcome measures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Peer conflict avoidance: associations with loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H D; LaVoie, J C; Spenceri, M C; Mahoney-Wernli, M A

    2001-02-01

    Failure to resolve peer conflict is associated with children's reports of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance. Although these relationships are well established, researchers have not examined the association between the avoidance of peer conflict and various adjustment characteristics. The current study examined the association between avoidance of conflict and measures of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance for 59 pupils in Grade 4 (31 boys and 28 girls) and 47 in Grade 8 (22 boys and 25 girls). Volunteers indicated that conflict avoidance based on autonomy, e.g., independence issues, and interpersonal issues, e.g., closeness and cohesion, was associated with scores on loneliness for boys and girls, respectively. Conflict avoidance for emotional and physical well-being and fear of punishment was associated with increased reports of loneliness and social anxiety for children in Grade 4.

  9. Chasing probabilities — Signaling negative and positive prediction errors across domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meder, David; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Hulme, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    of the two. We acquired functional MRI data while volunteers performed four probabilistic reversal learning tasks which differed in terms of outcome valence (reward-seeking versus punishment-avoidance) and domain (abstract symbols versus facial expressions) of outcomes. We found that ventral striatum...

  10. The Talking Cure of Avoidant Personality Disorder: Remission through Earned-Secure Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey

    The concept of earned security is important and has significant implications for psychotherapy. Understanding how individuals with insecure attachment styles can develop secure attachment styles through reparative relationships, such as the therapeutic relationship, can assist psychotherapists in helping patients to overcome the effects of early negative life experiences. Personality disorders are commonly associated with negative experiences, such as abuse, neglect, and other empathic failures. These disorders are particularly difficult to treat because of their pervasive nature and the resultant defense mechanisms that often thwart psychotherapy. However, an understanding of the role that attachment can play in the etiology, symptomatology, and treatment of psychopathology can greatly enhance the therapeutic process. This case report describes the long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy of a woman with a history of childhood trauma, avoidant attachment style, and avoidant personality disorder. Through the therapeutic relationship, she developed a secure attachment, and her symptoms remitted, and her life drastically improved.

  11. Combining usability evaluations to highlight the chain that leads from usability flaws to usage problems and then negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watbled, Ludivine; Marcilly, Romaric; Guerlinger, Sandra; Bastien, J-M Christian; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Beuscart, Régis

    2018-02-01

    Poor usability of health technology is thought to diminish work system performance, increase error rates and, potentially, harm patients. The present study (i) used a combination of usability evaluation methods to highlight the chain that leads from usability flaws to usage problems experienced by users and, ultimately, to negative patient outcomes, and (ii) validated this approach by studying two different discharge summary production systems. To comply with quality guidelines, the process of drafting and sending discharge summaries is increasingly being automated. However, the usability of these systems may modify their impact (or the absence thereof) in terms of production times and quality, and must therefore be evaluated. Here, we applied three successive techniques for usability evaluation (heuristic evaluation, user testing and field observation) to two discharge summary production systems (underpinned by different technologies). The systems' main usability flaws led respectively to an increase in the time need to produce a discharge summary and the risk of patient misidentification. Our results are discussed with regard to the possibility of linking the usability flaws, usage problems and the negative outcomes by successively applying three methods for evaluating usability (heuristic evaluation, user testing and in situ observations) throughout the system development life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. For Which Side the Bell Tolls: The Laterality of Approach-Avoidance Associative Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    The two hemispheres of the brain appear to play different roles in emotion and/or motivation. A great deal of previous research has examined the valence hypothesis (left hemisphere = positive; right = negative), but an increasing body of work has supported the motivational hypothesis (left hemisphere = approach; right = avoidance) as an alternative. The present investigation ( N = 117) sought to provide novel support for the latter perspective. Left versus right hemispheres were briefly activated by neutral lateralized auditory primes. Subsequently, participants categorized approach versus avoidance words as quickly and accurately as possible. Performance in the task revealed that approach-related thoughts were more accessible following left-hemispheric activation, whereas avoidance-related thoughts were more accessible following right-hemispheric activation. The present results are the first to examine such lateralized differences in accessible motivational thoughts, which may underlie more "downstream" manifestations of approach and avoidance motivation such as judgments, decision making, and behavior.

  13. Treatment and Outcome of Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Blood-Stream Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pooja G; Shah, Sweta R

    2015-07-01

    Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria constitute a major challenge for current medical practice. To describe treatment and outcome of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) blood-stream infection (BSI) caused by these organisms at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. Carbapenem-resistant isolates from blood cultures were collected from January 2013 to April 2013. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using Vitek 2 analyzer (Biomerieux Ltd.). Carbapenemase production was detected by modified Hodge's test (MHT). Patient's medical history, treatment and co-morbid conditions were noted. Outcomes of BSIs were evaluated. Forty-two isolates of carbapenem-resistant GNB isolated from BSIs were Enterobacteriaceae spp. (19), Acinetobacter baumannii (15), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8). Colistin had maximum in vitro activity with 97% against Enterobacteriaceae, 100% against Acinetobacter, and 100% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Positivity of MHT was 92.9%. Outcome of colistin mono and combination therapy was comparable with 83% and 79%, respectively. Outcome of colistin and carbapenem combination therapy was found to be 100 percent. High incidences of bacteremia by carbapenem-resistant GNB including Enterobacteriaceae is a worrisome trend. Treatment options are compromised and only available option is colistin which has its own limitation. Colistin monotherapy may be non-inferior compared to combination therapy for treating BSIs caused by isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for colistin as ≤0.5 mg/l. Combined use of the colistin and carbapenem may provide good therapeutic options for BSI caused by carbapenem-resistant GNB and warrants further investigations.

  14. Effects of traumatic experiences on obsessive-compulsive and internalizing symptoms: The role of avoidance and mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Emily B; Miller, Michelle L; Roche, Anne I; Kroska, Sydney K; O'Hara, Michael W

    2018-01-01

    Trauma exposure is associated with adverse psychological outcomes including anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a period of vulnerability for the onset of these types of psychological symptoms. The current study explored the mediating roles of experiential avoidance and mindfulness processes in the association between retrospective reports of childhood trauma and current internalizing and OC symptoms in adolescents. A group of at-risk adolescents (N = 51) and a group of college students (N = 400) reported on childhood trauma, experiential avoidance, mindfulness, anxiety, depressive, and OC symptoms. Mediation analyses were performed to examine the mechanistic roles of avoidance and mindfulness in the association between trauma and internalizing and OC-specific symptoms. In the group of at-risk adolescents, experiential avoidance and mindfulness both significantly mediated the association between childhood trauma and OC symptoms. In the college student sample, experiential avoidance mediated the association between trauma and OC symptoms. Experiential avoidance, as well as the observe, act with awareness, and nonjudgmental facets of mindfulness all significantly mediated the association between trauma and internalizing symptoms. The group of at-risk adolescents was small, and the college student group was demographically homogeneous. All data was self-report and cross-sectional. The current study demonstrated that experiential avoidance and mindfulness processes may be the mechanisms through which the association between trauma and obsessive-compulsive and trauma and internalizing symptoms exist in adolescents. These findings provide potential targets for clinical intervention to improve outcomes for adolescents who have experienced trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups: Considering random avoidance patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuping; Cai, Yifei; Ke, Ruimin; Yang, Jiwei

    2017-06-01

    Grouping is a common phenomenon in pedestrian crowds and group modeling is still an open challenging problem. When grouping pedestrians avoid each other, different patterns can be observed. Pedestrians can keep close with group members and avoid other groups in cluster. Also, they can avoid other groups separately. Considering this randomness in avoidance patterns, we propose a collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups. In our model, the avoidance model is proposed based on velocity obstacle method at first. Then grouping model is established using Distance constrained line (DCL), by transforming DCL into the framework of velocity obstacle, the avoidance model and grouping model are successfully put into one unified calculation structure. Within this structure, an algorithm is developed to solve the problem when solutions of the two models conflict with each other. Two groups of bidirectional pedestrian experiments are designed to verify the model. The accuracy of avoidance behavior and grouping behavior is validated in the microscopic level, while the lane formation phenomenon and fundamental diagrams is validated in the macroscopic level. The experiments results show our model is convincing and has a good expansibility to describe three or more pedestrian groups.

  16. Next-generation negative symptom assessment for clinical trials: validation of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Keller, William R; Buchanan, Robert W; Gold, James M; Fischer, Bernard A; McMahon, Robert P; Catalano, Lauren T; Culbreth, Adam J; Carpenter, William T; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), a next-generation rating instrument developed in response to the NIMH sponsored consensus development conference on negative symptoms. Participants included 100 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who completed a clinical interview designed to assess negative, positive, disorganized, and general psychiatric symptoms, as well as functional outcome. A battery of anhedonia questionnaires and neuropsychological tests were also administered. Results indicated that the BNSS has excellent internal consistency and temporal stability, as well as good convergent and discriminant validity in its relationships with other symptom rating scales, functional outcome, self-reported anhedonia, and neuropsychological test scores. Given its brevity (13-items, 15-minute interview) and good psychometric characteristics, the BNSS can be considered a promising new instrument for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Experiential Avoidance on the Inference of Characters' Emotions: Evidence for an Emotional Processing Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Scott M; Kurby, Christopher A

    2010-12-01

    Experiential avoidance is a functional class of maladaptive strategies that contribute to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Although previous research has demonstrated group differences in the interpretation of aversive stimuli, there is limited work on the influence of experiential avoidance during the online processing of emotion. An experimental design investigated the influence of self-reported experiential avoidance during emotion processing by assessing emotion inferences during the comprehension of narratives that imply different emotions. Results suggest that experiential avoidance is partially characterized by an emotional information processing bias. Specifically, individuals reporting higher experiential avoidance scores exhibited a bias towards activating negative emotion inferences, whereas individuals reporting lower experiential avoidance scores exhibited a bias towards activating positive emotion inferences. Minimal emotional inference was observed for the non-bias affective valence. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications of experiential avoidance as a cognitive vulnerability for psychopathology.

  18. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  19. The psychology of doing nothing: forms of decision avoidance result from reason and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    Several independent lines of research bear on the question of why individuals avoid decisions by postponing them, failing to act, or accepting the status quo. This review relates findings across several different disciplines and uncovers 4 decision avoidance effects that offer insight into this common but troubling behavior: choice deferral, status quo bias, omission bias, and inaction inertia. These findings are related by common antecedents and consequences in a rational-emotional model of the factors that predispose humans to do nothing. Prominent components of the model include cost-benefit calculations, anticipated regret, and selection difficulty. Other factors affecting decision avoidance through these key components, such as anticipatory negative emotions, decision strategies, counterfactual thinking, and preference uncertainty, are also discussed.

  20. "I'd only let you down": Guilt proneness and the avoidance of harmful interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Cohen, Taya R

    2014-11-01

    Five studies demonstrated that highly guilt-prone people may avoid forming interdependent partnerships with others whom they perceive to be more competent than themselves, as benefitting a partner less than the partner benefits one's self could trigger feelings of guilt. Highly guilt-prone people who lacked expertise in a domain were less willing than were those low in guilt proneness who lacked expertise in that domain to create outcome-interdependent relationships with people who possessed domain-specific expertise. These highly guilt-prone people were more likely than others both to opt to be paid on their performance alone (Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) and to opt to be paid on the basis of the average of their performance and that of others whose competence was more similar to their own (Studies 2 and 5). Guilt proneness did not predict people's willingness to form outcome-interdependent relationships with potential partners who lacked domain-specific expertise (Studies 4 and 5). It also did not predict people's willingness to form relationships when poor individual performance would not negatively affect partner outcomes (Study 4). Guilt proneness therefore predicts whether, and with whom, people develop interdependent relationships. The findings also demonstrate that highly guilt-prone people sacrifice financial gain out of concern about how their actions would influence others' welfare. As such, the findings demonstrate a novel way in which guilt proneness limits free-riding and therefore reduces the incidence of potentially unethical behavior. Lastly, the findings demonstrate that people who lack competence may not always seek out competence in others when choosing partners.

  1. Harm avoidance in adolescents modulates late positive potentials during affective picture processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei; Ni, Ziyin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang

    2013-08-01

    Research in adults has shown that individual differences in harm avoidance (HA) modulate electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli. To determine whether HA in adolescents modulates affective information processing, we collected event-related potentials from 70 adolescents while they viewed 90 pictures from the Chinese affective picture system. Multiple regressions revealed that HA negatively predicted late positive potential (LPP) for positive pictures and positively predicted for negative pictures; however, HA did not correlate with LPP for neutral pictures. The results suggest that at the late evaluative stage, high-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures while low-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures. Moreover, these dissociable attentional patterns imply that individual differences in adolescents' HA modulate the late selective attention mechanism of affective information. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Approach/avoidance motivation, message framing and skin cancer prevention: a test of the congruency hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevey, David; Dolan, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    The congruency hypothesis posits that approach-orientated individuals are persuaded to engage in prevention behaviours by positively framed messages; conversely, negatively framed messages are more persuasive in encouraging those who are avoidance-orientated. A 2 (frame: loss vs gain) × 2 (motivation: avoidance vs approach) design examined the effects of skin cancer information on sun-protective intentions and free sunscreen sample requests among 533 young adults. Gain-framed messages had the strongest effect on sun-protective intentions for approach-oriented individuals, whereas loss-framed messages had the strongest effect on avoidance-oriented individuals. Message framing effects on precautionary sun behaviour intentions were moderated by motivational differences. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college.

  4. Math Avoidance: A Barrier to American Indian Science Education and Science Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rayna

    1978-01-01

    For American Indian students, math anxiety and math avoidance are the most serious obstacles to general education and to the choice of scientific careers. Indian students interviewed generally exhibited fear and loathing of mathematics and a major lack of basic skills which were caused by a missing or negative impression of the mathematics…

  5. Reconstruction of fingertip injuries: surgical tips and avoiding complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panattoni, Joao B; De Ona, Ignacio Roger; Ahmed, Mohammed M

    2015-05-01

    The fingertip is the most commonly injured part of the hand. When replantation of a fingertip amputation is not possible, flap reconstruction may be necessary for a functional and aesthetically pleasing outcome. This paper reviews commonly utilized reconstruction techniques with a focus on technical tricks and potential complications and how to avoid them, with illustrative cases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrophysiological Correlates of Cue-Related Processing in a Gambling Task: Early Outcome Evaluation or Outcome Expectation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have suggested that cues that predict outcomes elicit a feedback-related-like negativity (FRN-like negativity reflecting initial appraisals of whether desired outcomes are probable. Some other studies, however, have found that the cues that predict outcomes elicited event-related potentials (ERPs that reflect the expectation to outcomes (e.g., outcome expectations. Given these mixed findings, this study aimed to examine whether the brain activity elicited by predictive cues in a gambling task reflected the initial evaluations of the outcomes, the outcome expectations, or both. We used a gambling task in which the participants were told to guess which of two doors hid a reward. At the beginning of each trial, a cue was presented to inform the participants of how many doors hid a reward. We found that these predictive cues elicited a FRN-like negativity at the frontal sites within around 200–300 ms. However, this negativity did not significantly differ between the cues that fully predicted gains and the cues that fully predicted losses. Furthermore, predictive cues elicited an expectation-related slow wave, and cues that predicted gains with a 50% probability elicited a larger expectation-related slow wave than cues that fully predicted gains or losses. Our results suggest that cues predicting outcomes reflect outcome expectations rather than initial evaluations of the forthcoming outcomes.

  7. Are women positive for the One Step but negative for the Two Step screening tests for gestational diabetes at higher risk for adverse outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissutti, Claudia; Khalifeh, Adeeb; Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if women meeting criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the One Step test as per International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria but not by other less strict criteria have adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with GDM-negative controls. The primary outcome was the incidence of macrosomia, defined as birthweight > 4000 g. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until May 2017. All studies identifying pregnant women negative at the Two Step test, but positive at the One Step test for IADPSG criteria were included. We excluded studies that randomized women to the One Step vs. the Two Step tests; studies that compared different criteria within the same screening method; randomized studies comparing treatments for GDM; and studies comparing incidence of GDM in women doing the One Step test vs. the Two Step test. Eight retrospective cohort studies, including 29 983 women, were included. Five study groups and four control groups were identified. The heterogeneity between the studies was high. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and large for gestational age, as well as in some analyses cesarean delivery, macrosomia and preterm birth, were significantly more frequent, and small for gestational age in some analyses significantly less frequent, in women GDM-positive by the One Step, but not the Two Step. Women meeting criteria for GDM by IADPSG criteria but not by other less strict criteria have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and large for gestational age, compared with GDM-negative controls. Based on these findings, and evidence from other studies that treatment decreases these adverse outcomes, we suggest screening for GDM using the One Step IADPSG criteria. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Illness anxiety and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Cognitive-behavioral conceptualization and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren A; Urbach, John R; Stewart, Karen E

    2015-12-01

    Eating difficulties are commonly present in medical and psychiatric settings. Some eating problems are resultant from fears about food consumption and can be conceptualized as anxiety disorders conditioned by perception of feared outcomes associated with eating and maintained by avoidance. The authors present a case in which a female patient with limited food intake is successfully treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Illness anxiety disorder and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, both newly included in DSM-V, are applied in this case. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Body image flexibility: A predictor and moderator of outcome in transdiagnostic outpatient eating disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzer, Mia L; Waller, Glenn; Wade, Tracey D

    2018-04-01

    Predictors of attrition and predictors and moderators of outcome were explored in a transdiagnostic sample of patients who received ten-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-T) for nonunderweight eating disorders. Body image flexibility, a protective positive body image construct, was hypothesized to be a significant moderator. Data from two case series were combined to form a sample of 78 participants who received CBT-T. Baseline measures of body image, negative affect, personality, and motivation (readiness to change and self-efficacy) were included as potential predictors. Global eating disorder psychopathology at each assessment point (baseline, mid- and post-treatment, 1- and 3-month follow-up) was the outcome variable. Predictors of attrition were assessed using logistic regression, and multilevel modeling was applied for predictors and moderators of outcome. Body image flexibility emerged as the strongest predictor and moderator of global eating disorder psychopathology, followed by body image avoidance. Body checking, negative affect, personality beliefs, and self-efficacy were significant predictors of global eating disorder psychopathology. Higher body image flexibility predicted lower global eating disorder psychopathology at every assessment point. Further research is required to replicate findings and explore the benefit of focusing on positive body image in treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Effects of Social Anxiety and State Anxiety on Visual Attention: Testing the Vigilance-Avoidance Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J Suzanne; Capozzoli, Michelle C; Dodd, Michael D; Hope, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    A growing theoretical and research literature suggests that trait and state social anxiety can predict attentional patterns in the presence of emotional stimuli. The current study adds to this literature by examining the effects of state anxiety on visual attention and testing the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis, using a method of continuous visual attentional assessment. Participants were 91 undergraduate college students with high or low trait fear of negative evaluation (FNE), a core aspect of social anxiety, who were randomly assigned to either a high or low state anxiety condition. Participants engaged in a free view task in which pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented and eye movements were continuously monitored. Overall, participants with high FNE avoided angry stimuli and participants with high state anxiety attended to positive stimuli. Participants with high state anxiety and high FNE were avoidant of angry faces, whereas participants with low state and low FNE exhibited a bias toward angry faces. The study provided partial support for the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis. The findings add to the mixed results in the literature that suggest that both positive and negative emotional stimuli may be important in understanding the complex attention patterns associated with social anxiety. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  11. Main and combined effects of musculoskeletal pain frequency and avoidant coping on sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Hougaard, Charlotte Orsted

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Musculoskeletal pain and avoidant coping predicts sickness absence, but how these 2 predictors relate to each other is unknown. We examined the main and combined effects of musculoskeletal pain and avoidant, behavioural coping on incidence of sickness absence. Design and subjects......: Prospective cohort study of a sample of middle-aged Danes, economically active in 2006, reporting functional limitations due to musculoskeletal pain, n = 3115. Methods: Data included surveys from 2000 and 2006 and register data from 2007. Outcome was sickness absence exceeding 2 consecutive weeks in 2007....... The main effect of self-reported pain frequency and avoidant coping on sickness absence was analysed by multivariate logistic regression. The combined effect was calculated as departure from multiplicativity and by the inclusion of a product term. Results: Daily pain and use of avoidant coping were both...

  12. Negative (but not Positive) Parenting Interacts with Infant Negative Affect to Predict Infant Approach: Evidence of Diathesis-Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Jacob B; Burt, Nicole M; Edwards, Erin S; Rosinski, Leanna D; Bridgett, David J

    2018-01-01

    Temperament by parenting interactions may reflect that individuals with greater risk are more likely to experience negative outcomes in adverse contexts (diathesis-stress) or that these individuals are more susceptible to contextual influences in a 'for better or for worse' pattern (differential susceptibility). Although such interactions have been identified for a variety of child outcomes, prior research has not examined approach characteristics - excitement and approach toward pleasurable activities - in the first year of life. Therefore, the current study investigated whether 6-month maternal reported infant negative affect - a phenotypic marker of risk/susceptibility - interacted with 8-month observed parenting behaviors (positive parenting, negative parenting) to predict 12-month infant behavioral approach. Based a sample of mothers and their infants ( N =150), results indicated that negative parenting was inversely associated with subsequent approach for infants with high, but not low, levels of early negative affect. Similar results did not occur regarding positive parenting. These findings better fit a diathesis-stress model rather than a differential susceptibility model. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

  13. Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with cardiorenal syndrome and negatively influences clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, A; Rosato, E; Barbano, B; Di Mario, F; Di Lazzaro-Giraldi, G; Gasperini, M L; Pofi, R; Laviano, A

    2018-01-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) describes the concurrent failure of cardiac and renal function, each influencing the other. Malnutrition and cachexia frequently develop in patients with heart failure or kidney failure. However, no information is currently available on the prevalence of malnutrition in CRS patients. We studied CRS patients admitted to an internal medicine ward during a 5-month period and evaluated their clinical characteristics and nutritional status. Malnutrition risk was assessed by using the validated screening tool NRS-2002 whilst body composition was assessed by bioimpedance analysis and muscle function was measured by handgrip (HG) strength. Cardiac mass was also recorded. Length of stay, hospital readmission and 6-month mortality were registered. During the study period, 22 CRS patients were studied. Twenty patients were diagnosed with either CRS type 1 or CRS type 5. In CRS patients, fat-free mass showed a trend toward representing a protective factor for 6-month mortality (OR=0.904; p=0.06). Also, fat-free mass correlated with HG strength and cardiac ejection fraction. Malnutrition risk was diagnosed in 45% of the patients, whereas 8 patients met the definition of cachexia. Even without statistical significance, CRS patients with malnutrition had lower BMI (Body Mass Index) (p=0.038) and fat-free mass (p= n.s.). However, CRS malnutrition was associated to higher 6-month mortality (p= 0.05), and appears to negatively influence the outcome in CRS (OR= 9; p= 0.06). Our results show that malnutrition is prevalent in CRS patients and influences the clinical outcome. The assessment of nutritional status, and particularly body composition, should be implemented in daily practice of patients with CRS.

  14. Neurons for hunger and thirst transmit a negative-valence teaching signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rong; Magnus, Christopher J.; Yu, Yang; Sternson, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis is a biological principle for regulation of essential physiological parameters within a set range. Behavioural responses due to deviation from homeostasis are critical for survival, but motivational processes engaged by physiological need states are incompletely understood. We examined motivational characteristics and dynamics of two separate neuron populations that regulate energy and fluid homeostasis by using cell type-specific activity manipulations in mice. We found that starvation-sensitive AGRP neurons exhibit properties consistent with a negative-valence teaching signal. Mice avoided activation of AGRP neurons, indicating that AGRP neuron activity has negative valence. AGRP neuron inhibition conditioned preference for flavours and places. Correspondingly, deep-brain calcium imaging revealed that AGRP neuron activity rapidly reduced in response to food-related cues. Complementary experiments activating thirst-promoting neurons also conditioned avoidance. Therefore, these need-sensing neurons condition preference for environmental cues associated with nutrient or water ingestion, which is learned through reduction of negative-valence signals during restoration of homeostasis. PMID:25915020

  15. Higher threat avoidance costs reduce avoidance behaviour which in turn promotes fear extinction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattel, Julina A; Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task. After differential acquisitions of shock-expectancy to a predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+), participants underwent extinction where they could either take a risky shortcut, while anticipating shock signaled by the CS+, or choose a costly avoidance option (lengthy detour); thus, they were faced with an approach-avoidance conflict. Groups with higher avoidance costs (longer detours) showed lower proportions of avoiders. Avoiders gave heightened shock-expectancy ratings post-extinction, demonstrating 'protecting from extinction', i.e. failure to extinguish. Moreover, there was an indirect effect of avoidance costs on protection from extinction through avoidance behaviour. No moderating role of trait-anxiety was found. Theoretical implications of avoidance behaviour are discussed, considering the involvement of instrumental learning in the maintenance of fear responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reported emergency department avoidance, use, and experiences of transgender persons in Ontario, Canada: results from a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R; Scheim, Ayden I; Deutsch, Madeline B; Massarella, Carys

    2014-06-01

    Transgender, transsexual, or transitioned (trans) people have reported avoiding medical care because of negative experiences or fear of such experiences. The extent of trans-specific negative emergency department (ED) experiences, and of ED avoidance, has not been documented. The Trans PULSE Project conducted a survey of trans people in Ontario, Canada (n=433) in 2009 to 2010, using respondent-driven sampling, a tracked network-based method for studying hidden populations. Weighted frequencies and bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the trans population in Ontario and for the subgroup (n=167) reporting ED use in their felt gender. Four hundred eight participants completed the ED experience items. Trans people were young (34% aged 16 to 24 years and only 10% >55 years); approximately half were female-to-male and half male-to-female. Medically supervised hormones were used by 37% (95% CI 30% to 46%), and 27% (95% CI 20% to 35%) had at least 1 transition-related surgery. Past-year ED need was reported by 33% (95% CI 26% to 40%) of trans Ontarians, though only 71% (95% CI 40% to 91%) of those with self-reported need indicated that they were able to obtain care. An estimated 21% (95% CI 14% to 25%) reported ever avoiding ED care because of a perception that their trans status would negatively affect such an encounter. Trans-specific negative ED experiences were reported by 52% (95% CI 34% to 72%) of users presenting in their felt gender. This first exploratory analysis of ED avoidance, utilization, and experiences by trans persons documented ED avoidance and possible unmet need for emergency care among trans Ontarians. Additional research, including validation of measures, is needed. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. No Exit: Identifying Avoidable Terminal Oncology Intensive Care Unit Hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantel, Andrew; Wroblewski, Kristen; Balachandran, Jay S.; Chow, Selina; DeBoer, Rebecca; Fleming, Gini F.; Hahn, Olwen M.; Kline, Justin; Liu, Hongtao; Patel, Bhakti K.; Verma, Anshu; Witt, Leah J.; Fukui, Mayumi; Kumar, Aditi; Howell, Michael D.; Polite, Blase N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Terminal oncology intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations are associated with high costs and inferior quality of care. This study identifies and characterizes potentially avoidable terminal admissions of oncology patients to ICUs. Methods: This was a retrospective case series of patients cared for in an academic medical center’s ambulatory oncology practice who died in an ICU during July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013. An oncologist, intensivist, and hospitalist reviewed each patient’s electronic health record from 3 months preceding terminal hospitalization until death. The primary outcome was the proportion of terminal ICU hospitalizations identified as potentially avoidable by two or more reviewers. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify characteristics associated with avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations. Results: Seventy-two patients met inclusion criteria. The majority had solid tumor malignancies (71%), poor performance status (51%), and multiple encounters with the health care system. Despite high-intensity health care utilization, only 25% had documented advance directives. During a 4-day median ICU length of stay, 81% were intubated and 39% had cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Forty-seven percent of these hospitalizations were identified as potentially avoidable. Avoidable hospitalizations were associated with factors including: worse performance status before admission (median 2 v 1; P = .01), worse Charlson comorbidity score (median 8.5 v 7.0, P = .04), reason for hospitalization (P = .006), and number of prior hospitalizations (median 2 v 1; P = .05). Conclusion: Given the high frequency of avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations, health care leaders should develop strategies to prospectively identify patients at high risk and formulate interventions to improve end-of-life care. PMID:27601514

  18. MRI-negative focal cortical dysplasias and seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, K; Dimova, P.; Penkov, M.; Nachev, G.; Kostadinova, I.; Zlatareva, D.; Gabrovsky, K.; Naydenov, E.; Romansky, K.; Marinov, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are a main cause of drug-resistant epilepsies. The MRI appearance of FCD is specific but some FCD remain hidden for the MRI. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the success rate of epilepsy surgery in patients with FCD and especially MRI-negative FCD during the first 6 years of the epilepsy surgery program of University Hospital 'St. Ivan Rilski', Sofia. Material and methods: Fourteen patients with drug resistant epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasias were operated on from January 2006 to april 2012. The mean age at surgery was 13 years (7-35 years) and the mean age of epilepsy onset was 7 years (1 year - 19 years). The presurgical work-up have included preoperative MRI (1.5T, GE) and seizures registration with video- EEG in all patients, PET-CT in 4 patients and invasive EEG in 5 patients. Eleven patients have MRI-positive cortical dysplasia and 3 patients were MRI negative. Results: Complete seizure control (Engel class I) was achieved in 9 patients, significant improvement (Engel class II) was observed in 3 patients and two patients remain without improvement (Engel class IV). In the small group of 3 patients with MRI-negative FCD, complete seizure control was achieved in two patients. No significant improvement was observed in one patient with MRI-negative FCD and one patient with MRI-positive FCD. Discussion: FCD type I are frequently invisible for the MRI and the localization of the epileptogenic zone is a difficult problem. Many studies have demonstrated the negative predictive value of MRI-negative FCD regarding seizure control after epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy. Conclusions: Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and MRI-negative FCD are good candidates for epilepsy surgery but need comprehensive presurgical workup including PET-CT and invasive-EEG.

  19. A Crowd Avoidance Method Using Circular Avoidance Path for Robust Person Following

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Morishita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A life-support service robot must avoid both static and dynamic obstacles for working in a real environment. Here, a static obstacle means an obstacle that does not move, and a dynamic obstacle is the one that moves. Assuming the robot is following a target person, we discuss how the robot avoids a crowd through which the target person passes and arrives at the target position. The purpose of this paper is to propose a crowd avoidance method that makes a robot to be able to avoid both static and dynamic obstacles. The method uses the surface points of the obstacles to form an avoidance region, and the robot moves along the edge of the region. We conducted experiments assuming various situations such that the robot was blocked, there was a wide gap in the crowd, or a person in the crowd yielded for the robot to pass through. As an experimental result, it was confirmed the robot could avoid the crowd even when the obstacles were aligned in an “inverted wedge” shape.

  20. Reward Devaluation: Dot-Probe Meta-Analytic Evidence of Avoidance of Positive Information in Depressed Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, E. Samuel; Salem, Taban

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression and anxiety have traditionally emphasized the role of attentional biases in the processing of negative information. The dot-probe task has been widely used to study this phenomenon. Recent findings suggest that biased processing of positive information might also be an important aspect of developing psychopathological symptoms. However, despite some evidence suggesting persons with symptoms of depression and anxiety may avoid positive information, many dot-probe studies have produced null findings. The present review used conventional and novel meta-analytic methods to evaluate dot-probe attentional biases away from positive information and, for comparison, toward negative information, in depressed and anxious individuals. Results indicated that avoidance of positive information is a real effect exhibiting substantial evidential value among persons experiencing psychopathology, with individuals evidencing primary symptoms of depression clearly demonstrating this effect. Different theoretical explanations for these findings are evaluated, including those positing threat-processing structures, even-handedness, self-regulation, and reward devaluation, with the novel theory of reward devaluation emphasized and expanded. These novel findings and theory suggest that avoidance of prospective reward helps to explain the cause and sustainability of depressed states. Suggestions for future research and methodological advances are discussed. PMID:26619211

  1. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  2. Behavioral and neural correlates of loss aversion and risk avoidance in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley-Levenson, Emily E; Van Leijenhorst, Linda; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are frequently faced with risky decisions involving the potential for both gain and loss. Exploring the role of both potential gains and potential losses in predicting risk taking is critical to understanding how adolescents and adults make the choice to engage in or avoid a real-life risk. This study aimed to examine the impact of potential losses as well as gains on adolescent decisions during risky choice in a laboratory task. Adolescent (n=18) and adult (n=16) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a mixed gambles task, and completed questionnaires measuring real-world risk-taking behaviors. While potential loss had a significantly greater effect on choice than potential gain in both adolescents and adults and there were no behavioral group differences on the task, adolescents recruited significantly more frontostriatal circuitry than adults when choosing to reject a gamble. During risk-seeking behavior, adolescent activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was negatively correlated with self-reported likelihood of risk taking. During risk-avoidant behavior, mPFC activation of in adults was negatively correlated with self-reported benefits of risk-taking. Taken together, these findings reflect different neural patterns during risk-taking and risk-avoidant behaviors in adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changing implicit attitudes toward smoking: results from a web-based approach-avoidance practice intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2015-02-01

    Implicit attitudes have been shown to predict smoking behaviors. Therefore, an important goal is the development of interventions to change these attitudes. This study assessed the effects of a web-based intervention on implicit attitudes toward smoking and receptivity to smoking-related information. Smokers (N = 284) were recruited to a two-session web-based study. In the first session, baseline data were collected. Session two contained the intervention, which consisted of assignment to the experimental or control version of an approach-avoidance task and assignment to an anti-smoking or control public service announcement (PSA), and post-intervention measures. Among smokers with less education and with plans to quit, implicit attitudes were more negative for those who completed the approach-avoidance task. Smokers with more education who viewed the anti-smoking PSA and completed the approach-avoidance task spent more time reading smoking-related information. An approach-avoidance task is a potentially feasible strategy for changing implicit attitudes toward smoking and increasing receptivity to smoking-related information.

  4. Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

  5. Comorbidity negatively influences the outcomes of diagnostic tests for musculoskeletal pain in the orofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutris, Michail; Visscher, Corine M; Lobbezoo, Frank; Naeije, Machiel

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether diagnostic tests for musculoskeletal pain in the orofacial region [temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain] are influenced by the presence of comorbid conditions, and to determine whether this influence decreases when the presence of "familiar pain" is used as outcome measure. In total, 117 patients (35 men, 82 women; 75 TMD-pain patients, 42 pain-free patients; mean age ± SD = 42.94 ± 14.17 years) were examined with palpation tests and dynamic/static tests. After each test, they were asked whether any pain was provoked and whether this pain response was familiar or not. For four clinical outcome measures (pain on palpation, familiar pain on palpation, pain on dynamic/static tests, and familiar pain on dynamic/static tests), multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with the presence of TMD pain as the primary predictor and regional (neck/shoulder) pain, widespread pain, depression, and somatization as comorbid factors. Pain on palpation was not associated with the primary predictor but with regional pain [P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 4.59] and somatization (P = 0.011, OR = 8.47), whereas familiar pain on palpation was associated with the primary predictor (P = 0.003, OR = 5.23), but also with widespread pain (P = 0.001, OR = 2.02). Pain on dynamic/static tests was associated with the primary predictor (P pain on dynamic/static tests was only associated with the primary predictor (P diagnostic tests are negatively influenced by the presence of comorbidity. This influence decreases when the presence of familiar pain is used as outcome measure. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An Avalanche of Ignoring-A Qualitative Study of Health Care Avoidance in Women With Malignant Breast Cancer Wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Midtgaard, Julie; Rørth, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: A contributing factor to development of malignant wounds is patient-related delay caused by health care avoidance. OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of health care avoidance in women with advanced breast cancer who have developed malignant wounds....... METHODS:: A qualitative study was conducted based on semistructured interviews. Seventeen women with advanced breast cancer (median age, 69 years; range, 47-90 years) who had avoided medical treatment despite development of malignant wounds participated. Systematic text-condensation analysis was used....... RESULTS:: The women deliberately avoided health care for a median of 24 months (minimum, 3 months; maximum, 84 months). Despite being aware of the development of a malignant wound from a breast lump, the women avoided health care because of negative health care experiences and extremely burdening life...

  7. Screening Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in children: Outcomes from utilitarian versus specialist psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Aldridge, Victoria K; Martin, Clarissa I; Wilken, Markus; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the specificity and sensitivity of two commonly used psychometric methods to assess ARFID in children. To achieve this, a sample of 329 mothers and one father completed the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) and the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that both measures were able to successfully differentiate a known clinical sample from those of typically developing population. Although the BPFAS was more accurate at differentiating ARFID from the general population, the CFNS was acceptable and on some metrics better than its longer counterpart. The ability of a food neophobia scale to differentiate clinical and population samples, and detect gradation of food avoidance within the population sample, suggests that the multitude of psychometric measures available may be measuring similar constructs. Therefore, confidence can be expected in cross-site comparisons despite each using different psychometric measures of food avoidance in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuroscience and approach/avoidance personality traits: a two stage (valuation-motivation) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; McNaughton, Neil

    2012-11-01

    Many personality theories link specific traits to the sensitivities of the neural systems that control approach and avoidance. But there is no consensus on the nature of these systems. Here we combine recent advances in economics and neuroscience to provide a more solid foundation for a neuroscience of approach/avoidance personality. We propose a two-stage integration of valuation (loss/gain) sensitivities with motivational (approach/avoidance/conflict) sensitivities. Our key conclusions are: (1) that valuation of appetitive and aversive events (e.g. gain and loss as studied by behavioural economists) is an independent perceptual input stage--with the economic phenomenon of loss aversion resulting from greater negative valuation sensitivity compared to positive valuation sensitivity; (2) that valuation of an appetitive stimulus then interacts with a contingency of presentation or omission to generate a motivational 'attractor' or 'repulsor', respectively (vice versa for an aversive stimulus); (3) the resultant behavioural tendencies to approach or avoid have distinct sensitivities to those of the valuation systems; (4) while attractors and repulsors can reinforce new responses they also, more usually, elicit innate or previously conditioned responses and so the perception/valuation-motivation/action complex is best characterised as acting as a 'reinforcer' not a 'reinforcement'; and (5) approach-avoidance conflict must be viewed as activating a third motivation system that is distinct from the basic approach and avoidance systems. We provide examples of methods of assessing each of the constructs within approach-avoidance theories and of linking these constructs to personality measures. We sketch a preliminary five-element reinforcer sensitivity theory (RST-5) as a first step in the integration of existing specific approach-avoidance theories into a coherent neuroscience of personality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exaggerated acquisition and resistance to extinction of avoidance behavior in treated heroin-dependent males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheynin, Jony; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Beck, Kevin D.; Servatius, Richard J.; Casbolt, Peter A.; Haber, Paul; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Hogarth, Lee; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Addiction is often conceptualized as a behavioral strategy for avoiding negative experiences. In rodents, opioid intake has been associated with abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these findings would generalize to human opioid-dependent subjects. Method Adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for heroin-dependence and treated with opioid medication (n=27), and healthy controls (n=26), were recruited between March–October 2013 and given a computer-based task to assess avoidance behavior. On this task, subjects controlled a spaceship and could either gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship, or hide in safe areas to avoid on-screen aversive events. Results While groups did not differ on escape responding (hiding) during the aversive event, heroin-dependent males (but not females) made more avoidance responses during a warning signal that predicted the aversive event (ANOVA, sex × group interaction, p=0.007). This group was also slower to extinguish the avoidance response when the aversive event no longer followed the warning signal (p=0.011). This behavioral pattern resulted in reduced opportunity to obtain reward without reducing risk of punishment. Results suggest that differences in avoidance behavior cannot be easily explained by impaired task performance or by exaggerated motor activity in male patients. Conclusion This study provides evidence for abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in opioid-dependent patients. Interestingly, data suggest abnormal avoidance is demonstrated only by male patients. Findings shed light on cognitive and behavioral manifestations of opioid addiction, and may facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to help affected individuals. PMID:27046310

  10. How avoidant attachment influences subjective well-being: an investigation about the age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H

    2014-01-01

    Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.

  11. Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to Define Different Domains of Negative Symptoms: Prediction of Everyday Functioning by Impairments in Emotional Expression and Emotional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Khan, Anzalee; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-12-01

    Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sample of people with schizophrenia was used as the data source of this study. Using regression analyses, the authors predicted the three different aspects of everyday functioning, first with just the two Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors and then with a global negative symptom factor. Finally, we added neurocognitive performance and functional capacity as predictors. Results: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale reduced emotional experience factor accounted for 21 percent of the variance in everyday social functioning, while reduced emotional expression accounted for no variance. The total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor accounted for less variance (19%) than the reduced experience factor alone. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expression factor accounted for, at most, one percent of the variance in any of the functional outcomes, with or without the addition of other predictors. Implications: Reduced emotional experience measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, often referred to as "avolition and anhedonia," specifically predicted impairments in social outcomes. Further, reduced experience predicted social impairments better than emotional expression or the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor. In this cross-sectional study, reduced emotional experience was specifically related with social outcomes, accounting for essentially no variance in work or everyday activities, and being the

  12. Stereotyping by Omission: Eliminate the Negative, Accentuate the Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Leslie, Lisa M.; Constantine, Vanessa S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Communicators, motivated by strategic self-presentation, selectively underreport negative content in describing their impressions of individuals and stereotypes of groups, particularly for targets whom they view ambivalently with respect to warmth and competence. Communicators avoid overtly inaccurate descriptions, preferring to omit negative information and emphasize positive information about mixed individual targets (Study 1). With more public audiences, communicators increasingly prefer negativity omission to complete accuracy (Study 2), a process driven by self-presentation concerns (Study 3), and moderated by bidimensional ambivalence. Similarly, in an extension of the Princeton Trilogy studies, reported stereotypes of ethnic and national outgroups systematically omitted negative dimensions over 75 years—as anti-prejudice norms intensified—while neutral and positive stereotype dimensions remained constant (Study 4). Multiple assessment methods confirm this stereotyping-by-omission phenomenon (Study 5). Implications of negativity omission for innuendo and stereotype stagnation are discussed. PMID:22448889

  13. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  14. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance.

  15. The Relationship Between Brain-Behavioral Systems and Negative and Positive Affect in Patients With Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovharifard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a chronic headache disorder that affects approximately 12% of the general population. Migraine is known as recurrent headache, pulsating, moderate with severe power, which lasts for 4 to 72 hours, aggravated by daily physical activity along with nausea, vomiting, photophobia or photophobia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and negative and positive affects in patients with migraine. Patients and Methods The research population included patients, who had referred to neurology clinics. One hundred and twenty cases were selected by accessible sampling based on the neurologist’s diagnosis of migraine headaches. They completed the Gray-Wilson (1989 Personality Questionnaire as well as Watson, Clark and Telligent (1988 positive and negative affect scale. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software, correlation and stepwise regression. Results The results showed that positive affect had a significant positive correlation with active avoidance parameters and negative significant correlation with passive avoidance and extinction parameters. The findings also indicated that negative affect had a positive and significant relationship with passive avoidance and extinction. Conclusions It can be concluded that brain-behavioral systems may be the foundation of behavioral and emotional tendencies in patients with migraine headaches.

  16. Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.

  17. Medical Error Avoidance in Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring: The Communication Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stan; Holdefer, Robert; McAuliffe, John J; Sala, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Error avoidance in medicine follows similar rules that apply within the design and operation of other complex systems. The error-reduction concepts that best fit the conduct of testing during intraoperative neuromonitoring are forgiving design (reversibility of signal loss to avoid/prevent injury) and system redundancy (reduction of false reports by the multiplication of the error rate of tests independently assessing the same structure). However, error reduction in intraoperative neuromonitoring is complicated by the dichotomous roles (and biases) of the neurophysiologist (test recording and interpretation) and surgeon (intervention). This "interventional cascade" can be given as follows: test → interpretation → communication → intervention → outcome. Observational and controlled trials within operating rooms demonstrate that optimized communication, collaboration, and situational awareness result in fewer errors. Well-functioning operating room collaboration depends on familiarity and trust among colleagues. Checklists represent one method to initially enhance communication and avoid obvious errors. All intraoperative neuromonitoring supervisors should strive to use sufficient means to secure situational awareness and trusted communication/collaboration. Face-to-face audiovisual teleconnections may help repair deficiencies when a particular practice model disallows personal operating room availability. All supervising intraoperative neurophysiologists need to reject an insular or deferential or distant mindset.

  18. House dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for treating eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankervis, Helen; Pynn, Emma V; Boyle, Robert J; Rushton, Lesley; Williams, Hywel C; Hewson, Deanne M; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2015-01-19

    included only adults. Interventions to reduce or avoid exposure to house dust mite included covers for mattresses and bedding, increased or high-quality vacuuming of carpets and mattresses, and sprays that kill house dust mites.Four studies assessed our first primary outcome of 'Clinician-assessed eczema severity using a named scale'. Of these, one study (n = 20) did not show any significant short-term benefit from allergen impermeable polyurethane mattress encasings and acaricide spray versus allergen permeable cotton mattress encasings and placebo acaricide spray. One study (n = 60) found a modest statistically significant benefit in the Six Area, Six Sign Atopic Dermatitis (SASSAD) scale over six months (mean difference of 4.2 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 6.7), P = 0.008) in favour of a mite impermeable bedding system combined with benzyltannate spray and high-filtration vacuuming versus mite permeable cotton encasings, water with a trace of alcohol spray, and a low-filtration vacuum cleaner. The third study (n = 41) did not compare the change in severity of eczema between the two treatment groups. The fourth study (n = 86) reported no evidence of a difference between the treatment groups.With regard to the secondary outcomes 'Participant- or caregiver-assessed global eczema severity score' and the 'Amount and frequency of topical treatment required', one study (n = 20) assessed these outcomes with similar results being reported for these outcomes in both groups. Four studies (n = 159) assessed 'Sensitivity to house dust mite allergen using a marker'; there was no clear evidence of a difference in sensitivity levels reported between treatments in any of the four trials.None of the seven included studies assessed our second primary outcome 'Participant- or caregiver-assessed eczema-related quality of life using a named instrument' or the secondary outcome of 'Adverse effects'.We were unable to combine any of our results because of variability in the interventions and

  19. Clinical validation of an epigenetic assay to predict negative histopathological results in repeat prostate biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Alan W; Van Neste, Leander; Klein, Eric A; Marks, Leonard S; Gee, Jason R; Troyer, Dean A; Rieger-Christ, Kimberly; Jones, J Stephen; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Mangold, Leslie A; Trock, Bruce J; Lance, Raymond S; Bigley, Joseph W; Van Criekinge, Wim; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2014-10-01

    The DOCUMENT multicenter trial in the United States validated the performance of an epigenetic test as an independent predictor of prostate cancer risk to guide decision making for repeat biopsy. Confirming an increased negative predictive value could help avoid unnecessary repeat biopsies. We evaluated the archived, cancer negative prostate biopsy core tissue samples of 350 subjects from a total of 5 urological centers in the United States. All subjects underwent repeat biopsy within 24 months with a negative (controls) or positive (cases) histopathological result. Centralized blinded pathology evaluation of the 2 biopsy series was performed in all available subjects from each site. Biopsies were epigenetically profiled for GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 relative to the ACTB reference gene using quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. Predetermined analytical marker cutoffs were used to determine assay performance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate all risk factors. The epigenetic assay resulted in a negative predictive value of 88% (95% CI 85-91). In multivariate models correcting for age, prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, first biopsy histopathological characteristics and race the test proved to be the most significant independent predictor of patient outcome (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.60-4.51). The DOCUMENT study validated that the epigenetic assay was a significant, independent predictor of prostate cancer detection in a repeat biopsy collected an average of 13 months after an initial negative result. Due to its 88% negative predictive value adding this epigenetic assay to other known risk factors may help decrease unnecessary repeat prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive and negative volume-outcome relationships in the geriatric trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Kazuhide; Schaefer, Eric W; Won, Eugene J; Armen, Scott B; Indeck, Matthew C; Soybel, David I

    2014-04-01

    In trauma populations, improvements in outcome are documented in institutions with higher case volumes. However, it is not known whether improved outcomes are attributable to the case volume within specific higher-risk groups, such as the elderly, or to the case volume among all trauma patients treated by an institution. To test the hypothesis that outcomes of trauma care for geriatric patients are affected differently by the volume of geriatric cases and nongeriatric cases of an institution. This retrospective cohort study using a statewide trauma registry was set in state-designated levels 1 and 2 trauma centers in Pennsylvania. It included 39 431 eligible geriatric trauma patients (aged >65 years) in the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study. In-hospital mortality, major complications, and mortality after major complications (failure to rescue). Between 2001 and 2010, 39 431 geriatric trauma patients and 105 046 nongeriatric patients were captured in a review of outcomes in 20 state-designated levels 1 and 2 trauma centers. Larger volumes of geriatric trauma patients were significantly associated with lower odds of in-hospital mortality, major complications, and failure to rescue. In contrast, larger nongeriatric trauma volumes were significantly associated with higher odds of major complications in geriatric patients. Higher rates of in-hospital mortality, major complications, and failure to rescue were associated with lower volumes of geriatric trauma care and paradoxically with higher volumes of trauma care for younger patients. These findings offer the possibility that outcomes might be improved with differentiated pathways of care for geriatric trauma patients.

  1. Dietary assessment in children adhering to a food allergen avoidance diet for allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van der Heide, S; Bijleveld, C M A; Kukler, J; Duiverman, E J; Wolt-Plompen, S A A; Dubois, A E J

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to verify if avoidance of allergenic foods in children adhering to a food allergen avoidance diet from birth was complete and feasible, and whether dietary assessment can be used as a tool in predicting the outcome of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs). Children adhering to an allergen avoidance diet from birth underwent DBPCFCs. The investigator-dietician verified whether the elimination was complete, using food frequency questionnaires for common allergenic foods. University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands. Thiry-eight children aged 1-13 years, who were consecutively referred to the University Medical Centre Groningen for DBPCFC between January 2002 and February 2004. Among the 38 children undergoing DBPCFCs, there were 15 challenges with egg, 15 with peanut, five with hazelnut and three with soy. Fifteen food challenges (39%) were positive. Small quantities of allergenic foods were inadvertently present in the diets of 13 patients (34%), were possibly present in the diets of 14 patients (37%) and could not be identified in the diets of 11 patients (29%). Seven patients (54%) who had inadvertently ingested small quantities of allergenic foods without sequelae had a positive DBPCFC. Dietary avoidance was incomplete and not feasible in most cases. Tolerance of small amounts of allergenic foods does not preclude positive challenge reactions. Dietary assessment does not seem a useful tool in predicting the outcome of DBPCFC in children adhering to an elimination diet. The Stichting Astma Bestrijding (Foundation for the Prevention of Asthma), The Netherlands.

  2. Negative control exposure studies in the presence of measurement error: implications for attempted effect estimate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Eleanor; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Davey Smith, George

    2018-04-01

    Negative control exposure studies are increasingly being used in epidemiological studies to strengthen causal inference regarding an exposure-outcome association when unobserved confounding is thought to be present. Negative control exposure studies contrast the magnitude of association of the negative control, which has no causal effect on the outcome but is associated with the unmeasured confounders in the same way as the exposure, with the magnitude of the association of the exposure with the outcome. A markedly larger effect of the exposure on the outcome than the negative control on the outcome strengthens inference that the exposure has a causal effect on the outcome. We investigate the effect of measurement error in the exposure and negative control variables on the results obtained from a negative control exposure study. We do this in models with continuous and binary exposure and negative control variables using analysis of the bias of the estimated coefficients and Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that measurement error in either the exposure or negative control variables can bias the estimated results from the negative control exposure study. Measurement error is common in the variables used in epidemiological studies; these results show that negative control exposure studies cannot be used to precisely determine the size of the effect of the exposure variable, or adequately adjust for unobserved confounding; however, they can be used as part of a body of evidence to aid inference as to whether a causal effect of the exposure on the outcome is present.

  3. Comparing Angular and Curved Shapes in Terms of Implicit Associations and Approach/Avoidance Responses.

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    Letizia Palumbo

    Full Text Available Most people prefer smoothly curved shapes over more angular shapes. We investigated the origin of this effect using abstract shapes and implicit measures of semantic association and preference. In Experiment 1 we used a multidimensional Implicit Association Test (IAT to verify the strength of the association of curved and angular polygons with danger (safe vs. danger words, valence (positive vs. negative words and gender (female vs. male names. Results showed that curved polygons were associated with safe and positive concepts and with female names, whereas angular polygons were associated with danger and negative concepts and with male names. Experiment 2 used a different implicit measure, which avoided any need to categorise the stimuli. Using a revised version of the Stimulus Response Compatibility (SRC task we tested with a stick figure (i.e., the manikin approach and avoidance reactions to curved and angular polygons. We found that RTs for approaching vs. avoiding angular polygons did not differ, even in the condition where the angles were more pronounced. By contrast participants were faster and more accurate when moving the manikin towards curved shapes. Experiment 2 suggests that preference for curvature cannot derive entirely from an association of angles with threat. We conclude that smoothly curved contours make these abstract shapes more pleasant. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of such a preference.

  4. Neural activity in ventral medial prefrontal cortex is modulated more before approach than avoidance during reinforced and extinction trial blocks.

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    Gentry, Ronny N; Roesch, Matthew R

    2018-04-16

    Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is thought to provide regulatory control over Pavlovian fear responses and has recently been implicated in appetitive approach behavior, but much less is known about its role in contexts where appetitive and aversive outcomes can be obtained and avoided, respectively. To address this issue, we recorded from single neurons in vmPFC while male rats performed our combined approach and avoidance task under reinforced and non-reinforced (extinction) conditions. Surprisingly, we found that cues predicting reward modulated cell firing in vmPFC more often and more robustly than cues preceding avoidable shock; additionally, firing of vmPFC neurons was both response (press or no-press) and outcome (reinforced or extinction) selective. These results suggest a complex role for vmPFC in regulating behavior and supports its role in appetitive contexts during both reinforced and non-reinforced conditions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Selecting context-appropriate behaviors to gain reward or avoid punishment is critical for survival. While the role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in mediating fear responses is well-established, vmPFC has also been implicated in the regulation of reward-guided approach and extinction. Many studies have used indirect methods and simple behavioral procedures to study vmPFC, which leaves the literature incomplete. We recorded vmFPC neural activity during a complex cue-driven combined approach and avoidance task and during extinction. Surprisingly, we found very little vmPFC modulation to cues predicting avoidable shock, while cues predicting reward approach robustly modulated vmPFC firing in a response- and outcome-selective manner. This suggests a more complex role for vmPFC than current theories suggest, specifically regarding context-specific behavioral optimization. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  5. Neonatal Outcomes of Rh-Negative Pregnancies in a Tertiary Level Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective Study

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    Chacham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Rhesus incompatibility is a preventable cause for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, hydrops fetalis and still births. The prevalence of the Rh-negative blood group among Indian woman varies from 2% - 10%. Despite declining the incidence of Rhesus incompatibility, due to availability of anti-D immunoglobulin, and improved antenatal care of the Rh-negative pregnant woman, it still accounts for a significant proportion of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and neuro-morbidity. The prevalence of Rh-negative women having Rh-positive neonates is 60%. Objectives This study aimed to estimate the incidence of Rh iso-immunization and evaluate the outcomes of Rh iso-immunized neonates. Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit, Princess Esra hospital, Deccan college of medical sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Consecutive intramural and extramural neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit with the Rh-negative mother’s blood group and hyperbilirubinemia were enrolled. Neonates born to Rh+ve mothers were excluded. Neonatal gestational age, birth weight, age at admission, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, neonatal examination and investigations were recorded in a predesigned, pretested performa. Results A total of 90 neonates were born to Rh-negative mothers, of which 70% (63 had the Rh-positive blood group and 30% had the Rh-negative blood group. Of these 63 neonates, 48 (76.2% had hyperbilirubinemia and 43 neonates (68.3% had significant hyperbilirubinemia (total serum bilirubin > 15mg/dL. Among them, 2%, 75% and 23% were born to primi, multi and grandmutli, respectively. Also, 14.5% of the neonates were large for dates (LFD, 75% appropriate for dates (AFD and 10.5% were small for dates (SFD. Premature and SFD neonates had higher incidence of hyperbilirubinemia. Significantly higher incidence of jaundice occurred within 72 hours of life. The mean

  6. Avoidant coping partially mediates the relationship between patient problem behaviors and depressive symptoms in spousal Alzheimer caregivers.

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    Mausbach, Brent T; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Grant, Igor

    2006-04-01

    Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer disease is a highly stressful experience that is associated with significant depressive symptoms. Previous studies indicate a positive association between problem behaviors in patients with Alzheimer disease (e.g., repeating questions, restlessness, and agitation) and depressive symptoms in their caregivers. Moreover, the extant literature indicates a robust negative relationship between escape-avoidance coping (i.e., avoiding people, wishing the situation would go away) and psychiatric well-being. The purpose of this study was to test a mediational model of the associations between patient problem behaviors, escape-avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer caregivers. Ninety-five spousal caregivers (mean age: 72 years) completed measures assessing their loved ones' frequency of problem behaviors, escape-avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was tested to determine if escape-avoidant coping partially mediated the relationship between patient problem behaviors and caregiver depressive symptoms. Patient problem behaviors were positively associated with escape-avoidance coping (beta = 0.38, p avoidance coping was positively associated with depressive symptoms (beta = 0.33, p avoidance coping. Sobel's test confirmed that escape-avoidance coping significantly mediated the relationship between problem behaviors and depressive symptoms (z = 2.07, p avoidance coping partially mediates the association between patient problem behaviors and depressive symptoms among elderly caregivers of spouses with dementia. This finding provides a specific target for psychosocial interventions for caregivers.

  7. Smoking-Specific Experiential Avoidance is Indirectly Associated with Trait Worry and Smoking Processes among Treatment-Seeking Smokers.

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    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Norton, Peter J; Hogan, Julianna; Smith, Angela H; Talkovsky, Alexander M; Garey, Lorra; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-01

    Limited work has examined worry, or apprehensive anticipation about future negative events, in terms of smoking. One potential explanatory factor is the tendency to respond inflexibly and with avoidance in the presence of smoking-related distress (smoking-specific experiential avoidance). Participants (n = 465) were treatment-seeking daily smokers. Cross-sectional (pre-treatment) self-report data were utilized to assess trait worry, smoking-specific experiential avoidance, and four smoking criterion variables: nicotine dependence, motivational aspects of quitting, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms reported in past quit attempts. Trait worry was significantly associated with greater levels of nicotine dependence, motivation to quit smoking, perceived barriers for smoking cessation, and more severe problems while quitting in the past; associations occurred indirectly through higher levels of smoking-specific experiential avoidance. Findings provide initial support for the potential role of smoking-specific experiential avoidance in explaining the association between trait worry and a variety of smoking processes.

  8. Negative Advertisements and Voter Turnout: The Evidence from Mexico

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    Víctor A. Hernández-Huerta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant research in the field of negative campaigns, there is still inconclusive evidence about their effects on voter turnout. Additionally, the extant literature has focused mostly on the United States and more research is needed to understand the effects of negative campaigns in other contexts. In 2007, Mexican political parties amended the Constitution and banned the use of negative advertisements as a measure to avoid a “further damage to electoral participation,” despite arguments that this measure might impair freedom of speech. In this article, I hypothesize that the effects of negative advertisements on turnout are negligible in the Mexican case because it can be characterized as a fairly institutionalized multiparty system. Using a post-electoral survey of the 2006 presidential election in Mexico, I find that negative advertisements do not seem to have had an impact on turnout.

  9. The Impact of Childhood Emotional Abuse and Experiential Avoidance on Maladaptive Problem Solving and Intimate Partner Violence

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    Bell, Kathryn M.; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570

  10. The impact of childhood emotional abuse and experiential avoidance on maladaptive problem solving and intimate partner violence.

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    Bell, Kathryn M; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-04-16

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person's ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk.

  11. Within Your Control? When Problem Solving May Be Most Helpful.

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    Sarfan, Laurel D; Gooch, Peter; Clerkin, Elise M

    2017-08-01

    Emotion regulation strategies have been conceptualized as adaptive or maladaptive, but recent evidence suggests emotion regulation outcomes may be context-dependent. The present study tested whether the adaptiveness of a putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategy-problem solving-varied across contexts of high and low controllability. The present study also tested rumination, suggested to be one of the most putatively maladaptive strategies, which was expected to be associated with negative outcomes regardless of context. Participants completed an in vivo speech task, in which they were randomly assigned to a controllable ( n = 65) or an uncontrollable ( n = 63) condition. Using moderation analyses, we tested whether controllability interacted with emotion regulation use to predict negative affect, avoidance, and perception of performance. Partially consistent with hypotheses, problem solving was associated with certain positive outcomes (i.e., reduced behavioral avoidance) in the controllable (vs. uncontrollable) condition. Consistent with predictions, rumination was associated with negative outcomes (i.e., desired avoidance, negative affect, negative perception of performance) in both conditions. Overall, findings partially support contextual models of emotion regulation, insofar as the data suggest that the effects of problem solving may be more adaptive in controllable contexts for certain outcomes, whereas rumination may be maladaptive regardless of context.

  12. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation

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    Calcott, Rebecca D.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects’ ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects’ motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects’ preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states. PMID:26000735

  13. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

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    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  14. Organizational Justice and Perceived Organizational Support: Impact on Negative Work-Home Interference and Well-being Outcomes

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    Audrey Babic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that negative work-home interference (NegWHI impacts upon several work attitudes and behaviors. In the interests of both organizational effectiveness and employee well-being, it is important to identify concepts related to NegWHI and investigate their effects on well-being outcomes. This study examines the mediating role of (1 perceived organizational support (POS in the relationship between organizational justice (OJ and NegWHI; and (2 NegWHI in the relationships between POS and four well-being outcomes. A total of 509 employees of a Belgian hospital were surveyed. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and the bootstrapping method. Results showed that POS partially mediates the relationships between distributive and passive procedural justice and NegWHI, and fully mediates the relationship between the other justice dimensions and NegWHI. NegWHI partially mediates the relationships between POS and both job satisfaction and intention to quit, and fully mediates the relationship between POS and job strain. Furthermore, POS is positively related to job engagement. This study showed that organizations can help employees to better manage their work and family lives and reduce the impact of NegWHI by enhancing employees’ feeling that they are supported by their organization. In order to increase POS, organizations need to promote justice in the workplace.

  15. The effect of partial reinforcement on instrumental successive negative contrast in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low- (RLA-I) Avoidance rats.

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    Cuenya, L; Sabariego, M; Donaire, R; Fernández-Teruel, A; Tobeña, A; Gómez, M J; Mustaca, A; Torres, C

    2012-03-20

    Frustration is an emotional response that can be induced by the sudden devaluation of a reinforcer in the presence of greater reinforcement expectancies (e.g. instrumental successive negative contrast, iSNC). This emotional response seems to be similar to anxiety and can be attenuated by previous experiences of reward loss (e.g. partial reinforcement, PR, as opposed to continuous reinforcement, CR). In this study we used iSNC and PR procedures in order to compare the performance of two strains of rats psychogenetically selected on the basis of their emotional reactivity: the inbred Roman High- (RHA-I, low anxiety) and Low- (RLA-I, high anxiety) Avoidance rats. Animals were exposed to a straight alley, where they were changed from 12 pellets in the preshift phase (presented in 100% of trials-CR vs. 50% of trials-PR) to 2 pellets in the postshift phase, or exposed to 2 pellets throughout the training. The results indicated that the iSNC only appeared in RLA-I rats exposed to CR, as opposed to RLA-I animals exposed to PR and to RHA-I rats exposed to PR or CR. These data seem to support the implication of emotional responses in both iSNC and PR situations, and indicate that the behavioral reactivity to reward loss experiences is modulated by genetic variables. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

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    Fei Ma

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous disease with no definitive prognostic markers. As a major component of tight junctions, claudins (CLDNs presumably play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between the expression of CLDNs and the clinical outcomes of TNBCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical specimens of primary breast tumors from a consecutive cohort of 173 TNBC patients were retrospectively collected. The membranous expression of CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. Then, the associations between CLDN expression, clinicopathological features, and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Positive CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 membrane expression was detected in 44.5%, 54.9%, 76.9%, and 73.4% of the cohort specimens, respectively. A lack of CLDN1 expression was related to only lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014. The rate of CLDN4-positive tumors was significantly increased in tumors of a higher grade (P = 0.003. Importantly, negative CLDN1 expression was associated with worse relapse-free survival (RFS in both lymph node positive (LN+ and negative (LN- cases (both P<0.001. Similarly it was also associated with shorter overall survival (OS(P = 0.003 in LN+ cases; P = 0.018 in LN- cases. In the LN+ subgroup, CLDN2-negative cases had a significantly higher risk of recurrence (P = 0.008. Multivariate analysis revealed that negative CLDN1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for high risk of both recurrence and death (HR 5.529, 95% CI 2.664-11.475, P<0.001; HR 3.459, 95% CI 1.555-7.696, P = 0.002. However, neither CLDN4 nor CLDN7 expression was associated with survival. CONCLUSION: In TNBC, the CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts a high risk of recurrence and death. The absence of CLDN1 expression is strongly suggested to be an independent adverse prognostic factor

  17. Behavioral avoidance tests to evaluate effects of cattle slurry and dairy sludge application to soil¹

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    Mariana Matos-Moreira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of organic wastes to agricultural soils is not risk-free and can affect soil invertebrates. Ecotoxicological tests based on the behavioral avoidance of earthworms and springtails were performed to evaluate effects of different fertilization strategies on soil quality and habitat function for soil organisms. These tests were performed in soils treated with: i slurry and chemical fertilizers, according to the conventional fertilization management of the region, ii conventional fertilization + sludge and iii unfertilized reference soil. Both fertilization strategies contributed to soil acidity mitigation and caused no increase in soil heavy metal content. Avoidance test results showed no negative effects of these strategies on soil organisms, compared with the reference soil. However, results of the two fertilization managements differed: Springtails did not avoid soils fertilized with dairy sludge in any of the tested combinations. Earthworms avoided soils treated with sludge as of May 2004 (DS1, when compared with conventional fertilization. Possibly, the behavioral avoidance of earthworms is more sensitive to soil properties (other than texture, organic matter and heavy metal content than springtails

  18. Organisational stressors, coping, and outcomes in competitive sport.

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    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David; Daniels, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Organisational stressors are associated with positive and negative outcomes in extant literature; however, little is known about which demands predict which outcomes. Extant theory and literature also suggests that coping style may influence an individual's resilience or vulnerability to stressors and, subsequently, their psychological responses and outcomes. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine the main effects of organisational stressors and coping styles on various outcomes (e.g., positive and negative affect, performance satisfaction). Sport performers (n = 414) completed measures of organisational stressors, coping styles, positive and negative affect, and performance satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses revealed positive relationships of both goals and development stressors (duration and intensity) and team and culture stressors (frequency and intensity) on negative affect. Furthermore, problem-focused coping was positively related to positive affect, and emotion-focused coping was positively related to negative affect. This study furthers theoretical knowledge regarding the associations that both organisational stressors (and their dimensions) and coping styles can have with various outcomes, and practical understanding regarding the optimal design of stress management interventions.

  19. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

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    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  20. Common TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis

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    Eugen-Olsen Jesper

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genes associated with sepsis and septic shock with conflicting results. Only few studies have combined the analysis of multiple SNPs in the same population. Methods Clinical data and DNA from consecutive adult patients with culture proven Gram negative bacteremia admitted to a Danish hospital between 2000 and 2002. Analysis for commonly described SNPs of tumor necrosis-α, (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 was done. Results Of 319 adults, 74% had sepsis, 19% had severe sepsis and 7% were in septic shock. No correlation between severity or outcome of sepsis was observed for the analyzed SNPs of TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 or TLR-4. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, increasing age, polymicrobial infection and haemoglobin levels were associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion We did not find any association between TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms and outcome of Gram negative sepsis. Other host factors appear to be more important than the genotypes studied here in determining the severity and outcome of Gram negative sepsis.

  1. Regret associated with the decision for breast reconstruction: the association of negative body image, distress and surgery characteristics with decision regret.

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    Sheehan, Joanne; Sherman, Kerry A; Lam, Thomas; Boyages, John

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of psychosocial and surgical factors on decision regret among 123 women diagnosed with breast cancer who had undergone immediate (58%) or delayed (42%) breast reconstruction following mastectomy. The majority of participants (52.8%, n = 65) experienced no decision regret, 27.6% experienced mild regret and 19.5% moderate to strong regret. Bivariate analyses indicated that decision regret was associated with negative body image and psychological distress - intrusion and avoidance. There were no differences in decision regret either with respect to methods or timing patterns of reconstructive surgery. Multinominal logistic regression analysis showed that, when controlling for mood state and time since last reconstructive procedure, increases in negative body image were associated with increased likelihood of experiencing decision regret. These findings highlight the need for optimal input from surgeons and therapists in order to promote realistic expectations regarding the outcome of breast reconstruction and to reduce the likelihood of women experiencing decision regret.

  2. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

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    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The importance of self-regulatory and goal-conflicting processes in the avoidance of drunk driving among Greek young drivers.

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    Liourta, Elissavet; van Empelen, Pepijn

    2008-05-01

    The present study examined self-regulatory and goal-conflicting processes in the avoidance of drunk driving among Greek young drivers. A total of 361 university students in Greece completed a questionnaire, using a retrospective cross-sectional survey design. One-third reported to have driven under the influence of alcohol. Although prior intentions were clearly related to actual avoidance of drunk driving, one out of five respondents had not complied with their intention. An examination of post-intentional correlates of avoidance of drunk driving among positive intenders showed that avoidance of drunk driving was positively related to alcohol limitation plans and alcohol limitation self-efficacy, whereas negative relations were found for goal conflict and behavioural willingness. The present study suggests that people should not only be motivated but also be equipped with self-regulatory strategies aiming at the avoidance of drinking. Finally, goal commitment should be enhanced by increasing the salience of the avoidance goal.

  4. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale as a long-term outcome measurement tool in patients receiving clozapine ODT- A Pilot Study.

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    Shankar G

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This pilot, twelve-week, open-label study examined the effect of clozapine orally disintegrating tablet or ODT in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder utilizing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS as a long-term outcome measurement tool.Methods: The final study sample consisted of nineteen subjects who were residents a long-term care psychiatric facility in Pomona, California. Subjects were using clozapine ODT (FazaClo® at the most clinically effective dosage depending on their symptoms and at the discretion of the psychiatrist and psychopharm consultant. PANSS were administered at baseline, week-4, week-8 and week-12. Paired sample t-tests were used to calculate the statistical significance of the mean differences for scores at baseline and week-12. Results: Mean differences from baseline indicated significant improvement on total score, as well as positive, negative, cognitive and general psychopathology subscales after twelve weeks of treatment. The greater average reduction in the negative syndrome subscale across the twelve weeks possibly illustrates the ability of clozapine ODT in improving negative symptoms, including cognitive function which is their ability to participate in their personal care and creative expressions in dance, arts, games, poetry to a greater extent their overall, quality of life and living along with the effect on positive symptoms.Conclusion: Overall, clozapine proved to affect a broad range of psychopathology including cognitive functions in this schizophrenic sample.

  5. Emotional rigidity negatively impacts remission from anxiety and recovery of well-being.

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    Wiltgen, Anika; Shepard, Christopher; Smith, Ryan; Fowler, J Christopher

    2018-08-15

    Emotional rigidity is described in clinical literature as a significant barrier to recovery; however, few there are few empirical measures of the construct. The current study had two aims: Study 1 aimed to identify latent factors that may bear on the construct of emotional rigidity while Study 2 assessed the potential impact of the latent factor(s) on anxiety remission rates and well-being. This study utilized data from 2472 adult inpatients (1176 females and 1296 males) with severe psychopathology. Study 1 utilized exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to identify latent factors of emotional rigidity. Study 2 utilized hierarchical logistic regression analyses to assess the relationships among emotional rigidity factors and anxiety remission and well-being recovery at discharge. Study 1 yielded a two-factor solution identified in EFA was confirmed with CFA. Factor 1 consisted of neuroticism, experiential avoidance, non-acceptance of emotions, impaired goal-directed behavior, impulse control difficulties and limited access to emotion regulation strategies when experiencing negative emotions. Factor 2 consisted of lack of emotional awareness and lack of emotional clarity when experiencing negative emotions. Results of Study 2 indicated higher scores on Factor 1 was associated with lower remission rates from anxiety and poorer well-being upon discharge. Factor 2 was not predictive of outcome. Emotional rigidity appears to be a latent construct that negatively impacts remission rates from anxiety. Limitations of the present study include its retrospective design, and inefficient methods of assessing emotional rigidity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Outcomes of CSF spectrophotometry in cases of suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage with negative CT: two years retrospective review in a Birmingham hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A; Silva, D; Cramb, R; Flint, G; Foroughi, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence to current guidelines for the investigation of suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage and the prevalence and outcome of computed tomography (CT)-negative aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A retrospective review in a single large tertiary referral centre. A total of 796 patients, aged 16-90 years, who underwent lumbar puncture (LP) for suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) following a negative or equivocal CT scan between January 2012 and November 2013 (23 months). Xanthochromia reports were obtained using the hospital's department of biochemistry database and clinical data for these patients were reviewed using patient notes. Of 796 CSF reports reviewed, 728 (91%) were negative for xanthochromia, 31 (4%) were positive and 37 (5%) were equivocal. Only 2 out of the 31 patients with positive spectrophotometry results were subsequently found to have an underlying aneurysm on CT angiography. A further 9 out of these 31 patients underwent digital subtraction angiography, with no cerebral aneurysms being detected. Amongst the 37 patients with equivocal xanthochromia reports, 13 underwent CT angiography and only 1 cerebral aneurysm was detected. In patients with clinically suspected SAH but who have negative or questionable CT findings, CSF analysis is likely to be negative in the vast majority of cases, which was 91% in our series. In patients yielding positive or equivocal CSF results the likelihood of an aneurysm being detected is low, amounting to three out of 68 or approximately one in 23 (approximately 4%). Overall in suspected SAH cases where CT scan has been negative, the rate for the detection of cerebral aneurysm is three out of 796 cases (0.4%).

  7. Interval lung cancer after a negative CT screening examination: CT findings and outcomes in National Lung Screening Trial participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierada, David S.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Duan, Fenghai; Garg, Kavita; Hart, Eric M.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Nath, Hrudaya; Watts, Jubal R.; Aberle, Denise R.

    2017-01-01

    This study retrospectively analyses the screening CT examinations and outcomes of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had interval lung cancer diagnosed within 1 year after a negative CT screen and before the next annual screen. The screening CTs of all 44 participants diagnosed with interval lung cancer (cases) were matched with negative CT screens of participants who did not develop lung cancer (controls). A majority consensus process was used to classify each CT screen as positive or negative according to the NLST criteria and to estimate the likelihood that any abnormalities detected retrospectively were due to lung cancer. By retrospective review, 40/44 cases (91%) and 17/44 controls (39%) met the NLST criteria for a positive screen (P < 0.001). Cases had higher estimated likelihood of lung cancer (P < 0.001). Abnormalities included pulmonary nodules ≥4 mm (n = 16), mediastinal (n = 8) and hilar (n = 6) masses, and bronchial lesions (n = 6). Cancers were stage III or IV at diagnosis in 32/44 cases (73%); 37/44 patients (84%) died of lung cancer, compared to 225/649 (35%) for all screen-detected cancers (P < 0.0001). Most cases met the NLST criteria for a positive screen. Awareness of missed abnormalities and interpretation errors may aid lung cancer identification in CT screening. (orig.)

  8. Interval lung cancer after a negative CT screening examination: CT findings and outcomes in National Lung Screening Trial participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierada, David S. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Pinsky, Paul F. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Duan, Fenghai [Brown University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Sciences, Providence, RI (United States); Garg, Kavita [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Mail Stop F726, Box 6510, Aurora, CO (United States); Hart, Eric M. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kazerooni, Ella A. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nath, Hrudaya; Watts, Jubal R. [University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Department of Radiology-JTN370, Birmingham, AL (United States); Aberle, Denise R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This study retrospectively analyses the screening CT examinations and outcomes of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had interval lung cancer diagnosed within 1 year after a negative CT screen and before the next annual screen. The screening CTs of all 44 participants diagnosed with interval lung cancer (cases) were matched with negative CT screens of participants who did not develop lung cancer (controls). A majority consensus process was used to classify each CT screen as positive or negative according to the NLST criteria and to estimate the likelihood that any abnormalities detected retrospectively were due to lung cancer. By retrospective review, 40/44 cases (91%) and 17/44 controls (39%) met the NLST criteria for a positive screen (P < 0.001). Cases had higher estimated likelihood of lung cancer (P < 0.001). Abnormalities included pulmonary nodules ≥4 mm (n = 16), mediastinal (n = 8) and hilar (n = 6) masses, and bronchial lesions (n = 6). Cancers were stage III or IV at diagnosis in 32/44 cases (73%); 37/44 patients (84%) died of lung cancer, compared to 225/649 (35%) for all screen-detected cancers (P < 0.0001). Most cases met the NLST criteria for a positive screen. Awareness of missed abnormalities and interpretation errors may aid lung cancer identification in CT screening. (orig.)

  9. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.

  10. Alleged Approach-Avoidance Conflict for Food Stimuli in Binge Eating Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth J Leehr

    Full Text Available Food stimuli are omnipresent and naturally primary reinforcing stimuli. One explanation for the intake of high amounts of food in binge eating disorder (BED is a deviant valuation process. Valuation of food stimuli is supposed to influence approach or avoidance behaviour towards food. Focusing on self-reported and indirect (facial electromyography valuation process, motivational aspects in the processing of food stimuli were investigated.We compared an overweight sample with BED (BED+ with an overweight sample without BED (BED- and with normal weight controls (NWC regarding their self-reported and indirect (via facial electromyography valuation of food versus non-food stimuli.Regarding the self-reported valuation, the BED+ sample showed a significantly stronger food-bias compared to the BED- sample, as food stimuli were rated as significantly more positive than the non-food stimuli in the BED+ sample. This self-reported valuation pattern could not be displayed in the indirect valuation. Food stimuli evoked negative indirect valuation in all groups. The BED+ sample showed the plainest approach-avoidance conflict marked by a diverging self-reported (positive and indirect (negative valuation of food stimuli.BED+ showed a deviant self-reported valuation of food as compared to BED-. The valuation process of the BED+ sample seems to be characterized by a motivational ambivalence. This ambivalence should be subject of further studies and may be of potential use for therapeutic interventions.

  11. Experiential avoidance as a generalized psychological vulnerability: comparisons with coping and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Barrios, Velma; Forsyth, John P; Steger, Michael F

    2006-09-01

    Extending previous work, we conducted two studies concerning the toxic influences of experiential avoidance (EA) as a core mechanism in the development and maintenance of psychological distress, and disruption of pleasant, engaging, and spontaneous activity. Of particular interest was whether EA accounted for relationships between coping and emotion regulation strategies on anxiety-related pathology (Study 1) and psychological distress and hedonic functioning over the course of a 21-day monitoring period (Study 2). In Study 1, EA mediated the effects of maladaptive coping, emotional responses styles, and uncontrollability on anxiety-related distress (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, trait anxiety, suffocation fears, and body sensation fears). In Study 2, EA completely mediated the effects of two emotion regulation strategies (i.e., suppression and reappraisal) on daily negative and positive experiences and was associated with diminished daily positive affective experiences and healthy life appraisals, diminished frequency of positive events and more frequent negative life events, and greater negative affective experiences. The present data show that cognitive reappraisal, a primary process of traditional cognitive-behavior therapy, was much less predictive of the quality of psychological experiences and events in everyday life compared with EA. Further consideration of experiential avoidance as a generalized diathesis and toxic process will be useful in improving our understanding of the etiology, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety conditions, general human suffering, and disruptions in hedonic capacity.

  12. Toward the next generation of negative symptom assessments: the collaboration to advance negative symptom assessment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Jack J; Kring, Ann M; Horan, William P; Gur, Raquel

    2011-03-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are related to poor functional outcome, persistent over time, a source of burden for caregivers, and only minimally responsive to currently available medications. A major challenge to developing efficacious interventions concerns the valid and reliable assessment of negative symptoms. In a recent consensus statement on negative symptoms, a central recommendation was the need to develop new assessment approaches that address the limitations of existing instruments. In the current report, we summarize the background and rationale for the Collaboration to Advance Negative Symptom Assessment in Schizophrenia (CANSAS). The CANSAS project is an National Institute of Mental Health-funded multisite study that is constructing a next-generation negative symptom scale, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). The CAINS is being developed within a data-driven iterative process that seeks to ensure the measure's reliability, validity, and utility for both basic psychopathology and treatment development research.

  13. Avoidance behavior by prairie grouse: implications for development of wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Christin L; Patten, Michael A; Wolfe, Donald H

    2009-10-01

    New wind-energy facilities and their associated power transmission lines and roads are being constructed at a rapid pace in the Great Plains of North America. Nevertheless, little is known about the possible negative effects these anthropogenic features might have on prairie birds, one of the most threatened groups in North America. We examined radiotelemetry tracking locations of Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) and Greater Prairie-Chickens (T. cupido) in two locations in Oklahoma to determine whether these birds avoided or changed movement behavior near power lines and paved highways. We tracked 463 Lesser Prairie-Chickens (15,071 tracking locations) and 216 Greater Prairie-Chickens (5,750 locations) for 7 and 3 years, respectively. Individuals of both species avoided power lines by at least 100 m and Lesser Prairie-Chickens avoided one of the two highways by 100 m. Prairie-chickens crossed power lines less often than expected if birds moved randomly (p 0.05). In addition, home ranges of Lesser Prairie-Chickens overlapped the power line less often than would be expected by chance placement of home ranges; this result was supported by kernel-density estimation of home ranges. It is likely that new power lines (and other tall structures such as wind turbines) will lead to avoidance of previously suitable habitat and will serve as barriers to movement. These two factors will likely increase fragmentation in an already fragmented landscape if wind energy development continues in prairie habitats.

  14. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  15. Effect of electrode materials on a negative ion production in a cesium seeded negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Morishita, Takutoshi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Iga, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imai, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Effects of plasma grid materials on the negative ion production efficiency in a cesium seeded ion source have been experimentally studied. Grid materials of Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, and Mo were examined. A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was utilized in the experiment to avoid contamination of tungsten from filament cathode. Relations between the negative ion currents and work functions of the grid were measured for these materials. Influence of the contamination by tungsten on the grid was also investigated. If was clarified that the negative ion production efficiency was determined only by the work function of the grid. The efficiency did not depend on the material itself. The lowest work function of 1.42 eV was obtained for Au grid with Cs, and a high H{sup -} production efficiency of 20.7 mA/kW was measured. This efficiency is about 1.3 times larger than that of Cs/Mo and Cs/Cu. Further improvement of the production efficiency was observed by covering the plasma grid with tungsten and cesium simultaneously. Such co-deposition of W and Cs on the plasma grid produced the negative ion production efficiency of 1.7 times higher than that from the tungsten grid simply covered with Cs. (author)

  16. Injury-related fear-avoidance and symptoms of posttraumatic stress in parents of children with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, M; Sveen, J

    2016-03-01

    Parents of children with burns experience a range of psychological reactions and symptoms, and parents' health is known to impact children's health. So far, there is little research into potential mechanisms that maintain parents' symptoms. The aim was to investigate parental injury-related fear-avoidance, and its associations with injury severity and health measures. Parents (n=107) of children aged 0.4-18 years that sustained burns 0.1-9.0 years previously completed questionnaires on fear-avoidance, posttraumatic stress, and health of the child. Analyses showed that the average level of fear-avoidance was low and positively associated with measures of injury severity and parents' symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and negatively associated with parents' ratings of their child's health. In two separate multiple regressions with parents' symptoms of PTSD and the child's health as dependent variables, fear-avoidance made the largest contribution in both models while injury severity was non-significant. Results were not related to comorbid conditions of the child, scarring, or parent-related socio-demographic variables. In summary, injury-related fear-avoidance is more likely among parents whose children sustain more severe burns. In turn, fear-avoidance contributes significantly to parents' symptoms of PTSD and to poorer health ratings regarding the child, irrespective of injury severity or child comorbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. In-hospital delirium risk assessment, diagnosis and management; medications to avoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clegg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delirium is a common, but potentially preventable complication of acute illness that is associated with important adverse outcomes including increased length of hospital admission, risk of dementia and admission to long-term care. In-hospital risk assessment and diagnosis: Age over 65, severe illness, current hip fracture and presence of cognitive impairment or dementia are important risk factors for delirium. Assess people with any of these risk factors for recent changes or fluctuations in behaviour that might indicate delirium. If any indicators are present, complete a full cognitive assessment to confirm the diagnosis of delirium. In-hospital risk management: Multicomponent delirium prevention interventions can reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital by around one third and should be provided to people with any of the important risk factors that do not have delirium at admission. A medication review that considers both the number and type of prescribed medications is an important part of the multicomponent delirium prevention intervention. Which medications to avoid in people at risk of delirium: For people at risk of delirium, avoid new prescriptions of benzodiazepines or consider reducing or stopping these medications where possible. Opioids should be prescribed with caution in people at risk of delirium but this should be tempered by the observation that untreated severe pain can itself trigger delirium. Caution is also required when prescribing dihydropyridines and antihistamine H1 antagonists for people at risk of delirium and considered individual patient assessment is advocated. Conclusion: Delirium is common, distressing to patients, relatives and carers and is associated with important adverse outcomes. Multicomponent delirium prevention interventions can reduce the incidence of delirium by approximately one third and usually incorporate a medication review. Identification of which medications to avoid in people at

  18. Amygdala Lesions Reduce Anxiety-like Behavior in a Human Benzodiazepine-Sensitive Approach-Avoidance Conflict Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Vunder, Johanna; Miró, Júlia; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Hurlemann, Rene; Bach, Dominik R

    2017-10-01

    Rodent approach-avoidance conflict tests are common preclinical models of human anxiety disorder. Their translational validity mainly rests on the observation that anxiolytic drugs reduce rodent anxiety-like behavior. Here, we capitalized on a recently developed approach-avoidance conflict computer game to investigate the impact of benzodiazepines and of amygdala lesions on putative human anxiety-like behavior. In successive epochs of this game, participants collect monetary tokens on a spatial grid while under threat of virtual predation. In a preregistered, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we tested the effect of a single dose (1 mg) of lorazepam (n = 59). We then compared 2 patients with bilateral amygdala lesions due to Urbach-Wiethe syndrome with age- and gender-matched control participants (n = 17). Based on a previous report, the primary outcome measure was the effect of intra-epoch time (i.e., an adaptation to increasing potential loss) on presence in the safe quadrant of the spatial grid. We hypothesized reduced loss adaptation in this measure under lorazepam and in patients with amygdala lesions. Lorazepam and amygdala lesions reduced loss adaptation in the primary outcome measure. We found similar results in several secondary outcome measures. The relative reduction of anxiety-like behavior in patients with amygdala lesions was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from an impact of anterior hippocampus lesions found in a previous report. Our results establish the translational validity of human approach-avoidance conflict tests in terms of anxiolytic drug action. We identified the amygdala, in addition to the hippocampus, as a critical structure in human anxiety-like behavior. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of syphilitic uveitis in HIV-negative patients in China: A retrospective case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Jiang, Yuan; Shi, Yewen; Zheng, Bo; Xu, Zhiguo; Jia, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Syphilitic chorioretinitis should be included in differential diagnosis of any form of ocular inflammation. A significantly higher proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with ocular syphilis as compared to HIV-negative cases have been reported in published studies. However, the clinical signs and symptoms are more insidious in HIV-negative patients who are easily misdiagnosed. We report a series of cases of ocular syphilis and describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of syphilitic chorioretinitis in HIV-negative patients in China.This was a retrospective case series study. The clinical records of patients with syphilis chorioretinitis were reviewed. Demographic information and findings of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were analyzed. All patients received the standard treatment. Ophthalmology examination and laboratory evaluation were repeated every 3 months. All changes were recorded. The treatment was considered successful if the patients had no inflammation in both eyes and rapid plasma reagin titer was negative after therapy.The study examined 41 eyes of 28 HIV-negative patients. The main complaints were blurry vision, floaters, and visual field defect. Twenty-seven eyes presented with panuveitis, and all had posterior involvement, including uveitis, vasculitis, chorioretinitis, and optic neuritis. The most common manifestations were uveitis and retinal vasculitis. Disc hyperfluorescence and persistent dark spots were the most common findings on FFA and ICGA. The ill-defined inner segment/outer segment junction was the most frequent manifestation on SD-OCT. Patients were diagnosed with syphilitic uveitis based on positive serological tests. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was improved in 34 eyes after treatment. Eleven patients were misdiagnosed before serological tests were performed. The delay in treatment

  20. A simple negative selection method to identify adenovirus recombinants using colony PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The negative selection method to identify AdEasy adenovirus recombinants by colony PCR can identify the recombined colony within a short time-period, and maximally avoid damage to the recombinant plasmid by limiting recombination time, resulting in improved adenovirus packaging.

  1. MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy-What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhofer, Wolfgang; Tan, Yee-Leng; Mueller, Susanne G; Knowlton, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common focal epilepsy in adults. TLE has a high chance of becoming medically refractory, and as such, is frequently considered for further evaluation and surgical intervention. Up to 30% of TLE cases, however, can have normal ("nonlesional" or negative) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results, which complicates the presurgical workup and has been associated with worse surgical outcomes. Helped by contributions from advanced imaging techniques and electrical source localization, the number of surgeries performed on MRI-negative TLE has increased over the last decade. Thereby new epidemiologic, clinical, electrophysiologic, neuropathologic, and surgical data of MRI-negative TLE has emerged, showing characteristics that are distinct from those of lesional TLE. This review article summarizes what we know today about MRI-negative TLE, and discusses the comprehensive assessment of patients with MRI-negative TLE in a structured and systematic approach. It also includes a concise description of the most recent developments in structural and functional imaging, and highlights postprocessing imaging techniques that have been shown to add localization value in MRI-negative epilepsies. We evaluate surgical outcomes of MRI-negative TLE, identify prognostic makers of postoperative seizure freedom, and discuss strategies for optimizing the selection of surgical candidates in this group. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Clinical characteristics of Helicobacter pylori-negative drug-negative peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo Chul; Jeon, Eun Jung; Kim, Dae Bum; Sung, Hea Jung; Kim, Yeon-Ji; Lim, Eun Sun; Kim, Min-Ah; Oh, Jung Hwan

    2015-07-28

    To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of idiopathic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative and drug-negative] peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). A consecutive series of patients who experienced PUB between 2006 and 2012 was retrospectively analyzed. A total of 232 patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into four groups according to the etiologies of PUB: idiopathic, H. pylori-associated, drug-induced and combined (H. pylori-associated and drug-induced) types. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes between the groups. When the silver stain or rapid urease tests were H. pylori-negative, we obtained an additional biopsy specimen by endoscopic re-examination and performed an H. pylori antibody test 6-8 wk after the initial endoscopic examination. For a diagnosis of idiopathic PUB, a negative result of an H. pylori antibody test was confirmed. In all cases, re-bleeding was confirmed by endoscopic examination. For the risk assessment, the Blatchford and the Rockall scores were calculated for all patients. For PUB, the frequency of H. pylori infection was 59.5% (138/232), whereas the frequency of idiopathic cases was 8.6% (20/232). When idiopathic PUB was compared to H. pylori-associated PUB, the idiopathic PUB group showed a higher rate of re-bleeding after initial hemostasis during the hospital stay (30% vs 7.4%, P = 0.02). When idiopathic PUB was compared to drug-induced PUB, the patients in the idiopathic PUB group showed a higher rate of re-bleeding after initial hemostasis upon admission (30% vs 2.7%, P ulcer (77% vs 49%, P < 0.01). However, the Blatchford and the Rockall scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Among the patients who experienced drug-induced PUB, no significant differences were found with respect to clinical characteristics, irrespective of H. pylori infection. Idiopathic PUB has unique clinical characteristics such as re-bleeding after initial hemostasis upon admission

  3. Lack of behavioural evidence for kin avoidance in mate choice in a hymenopteran parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, D; Hance, T

    2009-05-01

    Mechanisms for inbreeding avoidance should be prevalent in insects that reproduce by arrhenotokous haplodiploidy because of the higher potential production of unviable diploid males in inbred matings. Few studies have focused on mating strategies in insect parasitoids and even less on kinship relationships during mate choice. In this study we tested avoidance of kin as mate in the parasitic wasp Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using an ethological approach. Key mating parameters, such as male wing fanning, latent period before genitalia contact and duration of copulation were measured. No evidence for kin avoidance in mate choice in both A. matricariae males and females was observed in our behaviour (no choice or choice tests) tests. This lack of ethological sib mating avoidance could be due to different factors such as sex determination rule different than the single locus complementary sex determination, making lower the proportion of diploid males in case of sib matings and thus its negative consequence. The existence of other inbreeding avoidance strategies and mechanisms that reduce the probability of 2 receptive relatives meeting in nature may be common, for example, inbred mating may be rare through differential dispersal, delayed maturation, or protandry.

  4. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itismita Mohanty

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia's only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services.The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM, University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database.The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children's health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index.The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children's health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage.

  5. Family Rejection, Social Isolation, and Loneliness as Predictors of Negative Health Outcomes (Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Sexual Risk Behavior) among Thai Male-to-Female Transgender Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Meinhold-Bergmann, Mallika E.; Ho, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family rejection, social isolation, and loneliness on negative health outcomes among Thai male-to-female transgender adolescents. The sample consisted of 260 male respondents, of whom 129 (49.6%) were self-identified as transgender and 131 (50.4%) were self-identified as cisgender (nontransgender). Initial…

  6. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  7. Outcome of Transplantation Using Organs From Donors Infected or Colonized With Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularoni, A; Bertani, A; Vizzini, G; Gona, F; Campanella, M; Spada, M; Gruttadauria, S; Vitulo, P; Conaldi, P; Luca, A; Gridelli, B; Grossi, P

    2015-10-01

    Donor-derived infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria are a growing problem in solid organ transplantation, and optimal management options are not clear. In a 2-year period, 30/214 (14%) recipients received an organ from 18/170 (10.5%) deceased donors with infection or colonization caused by a carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria that was unknown at the time of transplantation. Among them, 14/30 recipients (47%) received a transplant from a donor with bacteremia or with infection/colonization of the transplanted organ and were considered at high risk of donor-derived infection transmission. The remaining 16/30 (53%) recipients received an organ from a nonbacteremic donor with colonization of a nontransplanted organ and were considered at low risk of infection transmission. Proven transmission occurred in 4 of the 14 high-risk recipients because donor infection was either not recognized, underestimated, or not communicated. These recipients received late, short or inappropriate posttransplant antibiotic therapy. Transmission did not occur in high-risk recipients who received appropriate and prompt antibiotic therapy for at least 7 days. The safe use of organs from donors with multidrug-resistant bacteria requires intra- and inter-institutional communication to allow appropriate management and prompt treatment of recipients in order to avoid transmission of infection. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Measuring Population Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Parrish, R. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    An ideal population health outcome metric should reflect a population's dynamic state of physical, mental, and social well-being. Positive health outcomes include being alive; functioning well mentally, physically, and socially; and having a sense of well-being. Negative outcomes include death, loss of function, and lack of well-being. In contrast to these health outcomes, diseases and injuries are intermediate factors that influence the likelihood of achieving a state of health. On the basis...

  9. Negativity bias and task motivation: testing the effectiveness of positively versus negatively framed incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kelly; Dhar, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    People are frequently challenged by goals that demand effort and persistence. As a consequence, philosophers, psychologists, economists, and others have studied the factors that enhance task motivation. Using a sample of undergraduate students and a sample of working adults, we demonstrate that the manner in which an incentive is framed has implications for individuals' task motivation. In both samples we find that individuals are less motivated when an incentive is framed as a means to accrue a gain (positive framing) as compared with when the same incentive is framed as a means to avoid a loss (negative framing). Further, we provide evidence for the role of the negativity bias in this effect, and highlight specific populations for whom positive framing may be least motivating. Interestingly, we find that people's intuitions about when they will be more motivated show the opposite pattern, with people predicting that positively framed incentives will be more motivating than negatively framed incentives. We identify a lay belief in the positive correlation between enjoyment and task motivation as one possible factor contributing to the disparity between predicted and actual motivation as a result of the framing of the incentive. We conclude with a discussion of the managerial implications for these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Evidence for negative feature guidance in visual search is explained by spatial recoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Valerie M; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Theories of attention and visual search explain how attention is guided toward objects with known target features. But can attention be directed away from objects with a feature known to be associated only with distractors? Most studies have found that the demand to maintain the to-be-avoided feature in visual working memory biases attention toward matching objects rather than away from them. In contrast, Arita, Carlisle, and Woodman (2012) claimed that attention can be configured to selectively avoid objects that match a cued distractor color, and they reported evidence that this type of negative cue generates search benefits. However, the colors of the search array items in Arita et al. (2012) were segregated by hemifield (e.g., blue items on the left, red on the right), which allowed for a strategy of translating the feature-cue information into a simple spatial template (e.g., avoid right, or attend left). In the present study, we replicated the negative cue benefit using the Arita et al. (2012), method (albeit within a subset of participants who reliably used the color cues to guide attention). Then, we eliminated the benefit by using search arrays that could not be grouped by hemifield. Our results suggest that feature-guided avoidance is implemented only indirectly, in this case by translating feature-cue information into a spatial template. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Clinical outcome of node‐negative oligometastatic non–small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyohiro; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Kaoru; Okuda, Takeshi; Kato, Amami; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Koyama, Atsuko; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The concept of “oligometastasis” has emerged as a basis on which to identify patients with stage IV non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who might be most amenable to curative treatment. Limited data have been available regarding the survival of patients with node‐negative oligometastatic NSCLC. Patients and methods Consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC who attended Kindai University Hospital between January 2007 and January 2016 were recruited to this retrospective study. Patients with regional lymph node–negative disease and a limited number of metastatic lesions (≤5) per organ site and a limited number of affected organ sites (1 or 2) were eligible. Results Eighteen patients were identified for analysis during the study period. The most frequent metastatic site was the central nervous system (CNS, 72%). Most patients (83%) received systemic chemotherapy, with only three (17%) undergoing surgery, for the primary lung tumor. The CNS failure sites for patients with CNS metastases were located outside of the surgery or radiosurgery field. The median overall survival for all patients was 15.9 months, with that for EGFR mutation–positive patients tending to be longer than that for EGFR mutation–negative patients. Conclusion Cure is difficult to achieve with current treatment strategies for NSCLC patients with synchronous oligometastases, although a few long‐term survivors and a smaller number of patients alive at last follow‐up were present among the study cohort. There is an urgent clinical need for prospective evaluation of surgical resection as a treatment for oligometastatic NSCLC, especially negative for driver mutations. PMID:27755813

  12. The Treatment of School Avoidance in Children and Adolescents With Psychiatric Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, Volker; Jost, Diana; Krahn, Ulrike; Knollmann, Martin; Weschenfelder, Ann-Kathrin; Neumann, Anja; Wasem, Jürgen; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-09-25

    5-10% of schoolchildren in Germany are absent from school without an excuse more than five times per year. We investigate the effectiveness of manual-based, multimodal cognitive behavioral therapy focusing on school-avoidant behavior and on the underlying mental disorders. 112 school avoiders were recruited from an outpatient child and adolescent psychiatric clinic and adaptively randomized into two treatment groups. The first group received manual-based multimodal treatment (MT), the second group treatment as usual (TAU) in the child and adolescent mental health care system. The primary outcome of the study was the percentage of classes attended in the five days prior to first measurement (before the intervention), as well as 6 and 12 months afterward. In each of these periods, school attendance was characterized as regular, partial, or none. Secondary outcomes were the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and quality of family life. In both treatment arms, the percentage of regular school attenders rose to about 60% in 6 months, regardless of the intervention (MT 60.6%, TAU 58.3%; odds ratio [OR] for changes over baseline 6.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.98-12.12, preintegration in school and on the differential indicators for outpatient versus inpatient treatment.

  13. Effects of loss aversion on neural responses to loss outcomes: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokmotou, Katerina; Cook, Stephanie; Xie, Yuxin; Wright, Hazel; Soto, Vicente; Fallon, Nicholas; Giesbrecht, Timo; Pantelous, Athanasios; Stancak, Andrej

    2017-05-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of the same amount. To shed light on the spatio-temporal processes underlying loss aversion, we analysed the associations between individual loss aversion and electrophysiological responses to loss and gain outcomes in a monetary gamble task. Electroencephalographic feedback-related negativity (FRN) was computed in 29 healthy participants as the difference in electrical potentials between losses and gains. Loss aversion was evaluated using non-linear parametric fitting of choices in a separate gamble task. Loss aversion correlated positively with FRN amplitude (233-263ms) at electrodes covering the lower face. Feedback related potentials were modelled by five equivalent source dipoles. From these dipoles, stronger activity in a source located in the orbitofrontal cortex was associated with loss aversion. The results suggest that loss aversion implemented during risky decision making is related to a valuation process in the orbitofrontal cortex, which manifests during learning choice outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Adaptive disengagement buffers self-esteem from negative social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jordan B; Hehman, Eric; Deegan, Matthew P; Jones, James M

    2014-11-01

    The degree to which self-esteem hinges on feedback in a domain is known as a contingency of self-worth, or engagement. Although previous research has conceptualized engagement as stable, it would be advantageous for individuals to dynamically regulate engagement. The current research examined whether the tendency to disengage from negative feedback accounts for variability in self-esteem. We created the Adaptive Disengagement Scale (ADS) to capture individual differences in the tendency to disengage self-esteem from negative outcomes. Results demonstrated that the ADS is reliable and valid (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, in response to negative social feedback, higher scores on the ADS predicted greater state self-esteem (Study 3), and this relationship was mediated by disengagement (Study 4). These findings demonstrate that adaptive disengagement protects self-esteem from negative outcomes and that the ADS is a valid measure of individual differences in the implementation of this process. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Daily Stress, Coping, and Negative and Positive Affect in Depression: Complex Trigger and Maintenance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Lewkowski, Maxim; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Foley, J Elizabeth; Myhr, Gail; Westreich, Ruta

    2017-05-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by emotional dysfunction, but mood states in daily life are not well understood. This study examined complex explanatory models of daily stress and coping mechanisms that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (lower) positive affect in depression. Sixty-three depressed patients completed perfectionism measures, and then completed daily questionnaires of stress appraisals, coping, and affect for 7 consecutive days. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) demonstrated that, across many stressors, when the typical individual with depression perceives more criticism than usual, he/she uses more avoidant coping and experiences higher event stress than usual, and this is connected to daily increases in negative affect as well as decreases in positive affect. In parallel, results showed that perceived control, less avoidant coping, and problem-focused coping commonly operate together when daily positive affect increases. MSEM also showed that avoidant coping tendencies and ongoing stress, in combination, explain why people with depression and higher self-critical perfectionism maintain daily negative affect and lower positive affect. These findings advance a richer and more detailed understanding of specific stress and coping patterns to target in order to more effectively accomplish the two predominant therapy goals of decreasing patients' distress and strengthening resilience. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Safety of Intravenous Thrombolysis within 4.5 h of symptom onset in patients with negative post-treatment stroke imaging for cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Elias A; Khalid, Aisha; Zand, Ramin

    2011-08-01

    Patients with stroke symptoms but negative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) might have transient ischemic attacks (TIA) or stroke mimics. Brain DWI is important for the diagnosis of cerebral infarction but it is not available before thrombolysis for most patients to avoid treatment delay. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of IV thrombolysis in patients with a negative post-treatment DWI for cerebral infarction. We conducted a retrospective study of 89 patients treated with IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4.5 h after stroke symptom onset. The patients were identified in our acute stroke registry from January 2009 to September 2010. Information on patients' demographics, clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, treatment complications, and outcomes was obtained and analyzed. Out of 89 patients, 23 patients (26%) had a negative DWI on follow-up stroke imaging. Fourteen patients had a TIA and nine patients had a stroke mimic, including Todd's paralysis, complicated migraine, and somatoform disorder. We found significant differences between patients with a positive and a negative DWI in mean age (62 years vs. 52 years; P scale score (11 points versus 6 points; P negative DWI had symptomatic or asymptomatic ICH. Our results suggest that the administration of IV rt-PA within the first 4.5 h of symptom onset in patients with suspected ischemic stroke is safe even when post-treatment DWI does not demonstrate cerebral infarction.

  17. Constraints that help or hinder creative performance : A motivational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Threatening situations, in which people fear negative outcomes or failure, evoke avoidance motivation. Avoidance motivation, in turn, evokes a focused, systematic and effortful way of information processing that has often been linked to reduced creativity. This harmful effect of avoidance motivation

  18. [Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD) and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE)--reliability and the preliminary assessment of validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Klasa, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of reliability, cross-validity and usefulness in everyday clinical practice of two related tools: Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD) and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE). Analysis of tests results of 453 females and 172 males diagnosed in the years 2008-2010 in the Outpatient Clinic for Neurotic and Behavioral Disorders of the Cracow University Hospital, including, inter alia, results of the questionnaires SAD and FNE. The scales have been, with the consent of their authors (R. Friend) and the copyright holder (APA), translated into Polish and back-translated. Subjects also completed the symptom checklist KO '0'(n = 512), and neurotic personality questionnaire KON-2006 (n = 505), as well as the NEO-PI-R personality inventory (n = 46). The reliability and cross-validity coefficients of Polish versions were assessed in the patient population and their results were compared with those of the group of 75 medical students. The translation was verified by retranslation. The reliability coefficients of Polish version of the SAD and FNE scales turned out to be high--Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.94 for both scales, Guttman's split-half reliability coefficient 0.93. Correlations with symptom checklist KO '0 'and neurotic personality questionnaire KON-2006, as well as with the NEO -PI-R personality inventory were significant and indicate a good cross-validity of the analyzed tools. The average results in the patient population for both scales were significantly higher than the results in the preliminary control group of medical students. Polish versions of SAD and FNE questionnaires, like their other translations from English, proved to be reliable and have a high cross-validity with other original Polish tools used in the diagnosis of neurotic disorders, which allows to recommend them to be used in further studies, also in comparing healthy persons with those suffering from a variety of neurotic disorders.

  19. A dual-process model of diversity outcomes: The case South African police service in the Pretoria area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T.B. Jackson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study addresses the question of how employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS cope with intercultural relations in an increasingly diverse organisation. Research purpose: A dual-process model of diversity outcomes was tested in which a distinction is made between a positive (work-related stream that links positive diversity conditions through active coping to work outcomes and a relatively independent health related stream of negative antecedents, mediating passive coping skills and ill-health related outcomes. Motivation for the study: To test the viability of a dual-process model to understand diversity outcomes in the workplace. Research design, approach and methods: A convenience sample (n= 158 was recruited from members of the SAPS in Gauteng, using a cross-sectional design. Instruments used in previous acculturation research were adapted to measure contextual factors, coping and diversity outcomes. Main findings: A very good fit for the proposed hypothetical model was found. Approach coping partially mediated the relationship between positive acculturation conditions and the subjective experience of work success whereas avoidance coping fully mediated the relationship between discrimination, and ill-health symptoms are related to ill-health symptoms. Practical/managerial implications: Mainstream-facilitating conditions and discrimination influence individual coping styles, which in turn impact on ill-health and the subjective experience of work success. In addition, ill-health also impacts negatively on work-success experiences amongst the sampled SAPS members. It would thus make sense for the SAPS to sanction discrimination. Contribution/value added: A variation of the mediated dual-process model for diversity (Jackson & Van de Vijver, in press, using coping strategies as mediators was supported. The model adds new insights in diversity in organisations.

  20. Psychiatric, behavioral, and attitudinal correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology in patients with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2010-01-01

    We examined correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology--with respect to psychiatric comorbidity, eating disorder psychopathology, and associated psychologic factors--in patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Three hundred forty-seven treatment-seeking patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), research criteria for BED were reliably assessed with semistructured interviews to evaluate DSM-IV Axis I disorders, personality disorders, and behavioral and attitudinal features of eating disorder psychopathology. Fifteen percent of subjects had avoidant personality disorder features, 12% had obsessive-compulsive personality disorder features, 8% had features of both disorders, and 66% had features of neither. These groups differed significantly in the frequencies of depressive and anxiety disorders, as well as on measures of psychologic functioning (negative/depressive affect and self-esteem) and eating disorder attitudes (shape and weight concerns). There were no group differences on measures of eating behaviors. The avoidant and obsessive-compulsive groups had more psychiatric comorbidity than the group without these personality features but less than the combined group. The group without these features scored significantly lower than all other groups on negative/depressive affect and significantly higher than the avoidant and combined groups on self-esteem. The combined group had the greatest severity on shape and weight concerns. Avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality features are common in patients with BED. Among BED patients, these forms of personality psychopathology--separately and in combination--are associated with clinically meaningful diagnostic, psychologic, and attitudinal differences. These findings have implications for the psychopathologic relationship between BED and personality psychopathology and may also have implications for assessment and treatment. Copyright

  1. The ventral hippocampus, but not the dorsal hippocampus is critical for learned approach-avoidance decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Anett; Vlassov, Ekaterina; Ito, Rutsuko

    2016-04-01

    The resolution of an approach-avoidance conflict induced by ambivalent information involves the appraisal of the incentive value of the outcomes and associated stimuli to orchestrate an appropriate behavioral response. Much research has been directed at delineating the neural circuitry underlying approach motivation and avoidance motivation separately. Very little research, however, has examined the neural substrates engaged at the point of decision making when opposing incentive motivations are experienced simultaneously. We hereby examine the role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (HPC) in a novel approach-avoidance decision making paradigm, revisiting a once popular theory of HPC function, which posited the HPC to be the driving force of a behavioral inhibition system that is activated in situations of imminent threat. Rats received pre-training excitotoxic lesions of the dorsal or ventral HPC, and were trained to associate different non-spatial cues with appetitive, aversive and neutral outcomes in three separate arms of the radial maze. On the final day of testing, a state of approach-avoidance conflict was induced by simultaneously presenting two cues of opposite valences, and comparing the time the rats spent interacting with the superimposed 'conflict' cue, and the neutral cue. The ventral HPC-lesioned group showed significant preference for the conflict cue over the neutral cue, compared to the dorsal HPC-lesioned, and control groups. Thus, we provide evidence that the ventral, but not dorsal HPC, is a crucial component of the neural circuitry concerned with exerting inhibitory control over approach tendencies under circumstances in which motivational conflict is experienced. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

    2012-09-05

    Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111-140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581-604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.

  3. Cognitive-behavioral mechanisms in a pain-avoidance and a pain-persistence treatment for high-risk fibromyalgia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Thieme, K.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The heterogeneity of cognitive-behavioral patterns in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) has been proposed to underlie the variability in treatment outcomes. It has previously been shown that pain-avoidance and pain-persistence treatments tailored to the patient's pattern are effective in

  4. Attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and gender: Examining their associations with distress disclosure tendencies and event-specific disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Julia I; Cox, Daniel W; Kahn, Jeffrey H; Wu, Amery D

    2018-01-01

    Distress disclosure has been linked with reduced psychological distress, increased wellbeing, and successful psychotherapeutic outcome. Because of the importance of distress disclosure, researchers have worked to develop and improve theoretical models of disclosure to facilitate counseling practices that reduce impediments to disclosure. Presently, we conducted a 2-part study to investigate distress disclosure's associations with attachment avoidance, gender, and alexithymia-3 constructs frequently linked with disclosure. In Part 1, we examined the extent to which attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and gender predicted general disclosure tendencies. In Part 2, we examined the extent to which attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and gender predicted event-specific disclosure. Participants were recruited from a crowdsourcing website (N = 178 in Part 1; N = 108 in Part 2). In Part 1, alexithymia partially mediated the association between attachment avoidance and disclosure tendencies, and the link between attachment avoidance and alexithymia was stronger for men than women. In Part 2, the association between distress intensity and event-specific disclosure was weaker for people with high levels of alexithymia. Implications for counseling theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Mediation analysis of decisional balance, sun avoidance and sunscreen use in the precontemplation and preparation stages for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Velicer, Wayne F; Redding, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Mediation analyses of sun protection were conducted testing structural equation models using longitudinal data with three waves. An effect was said to be mediated if the standardised path between processes of change, decisional balance and sun protection outcomes was significant. Longitudinal models of sun protection using data from individuals in the precontemplation (N = 964) and preparation (N = 463) stages who participated of an expert system intervention. Nine processes of change for sun protection, decisional balance constructs of sun protection (pros and cons), sun avoidance behaviour and sunscreen use. With the exception of two processes in the preparation stage, processes of change predicted the pros (r = .126-.614), and the pros predicted the outcomes (r = .181-.272). Three models with the cons as mediator in the preparation stage, and none in the precontemplation stage, showed a mediated relationship between processes and outcomes. In general, mediation analyses found both the process of change-to-pros and pros-to-behaviour paths significant for both precontemplation and preparation stages, and for both sun avoidance and sunscreen use outcomes. Findings provide support for the importance of assessing the role of underlying risk cognitions in improving sun protection adherence.

  6. Flexibility in the face of fear: Hippocampal-prefrontal regulation of fear and avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscarello, Justin M; Maren, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    Generating appropriate defensive behaviors in the face of threat is essential to survival. Although many of these behaviors are 'hard-wired', they are also flexible. For example, Pavlovian fear conditioning generates learned defensive responses, such as conditioned freezing, that can be suppressed through extinction. The expression of extinguished responses is highly context-dependent, allowing animals to engage behavioral responses appropriate to the contexts in which threats are encountered. Likewise, animals and humans will avoid noxious outcomes if given the opportunity. In instrumental avoidance learning, for example, animals overcome conditioned defensive responses, including freezing, in order to actively avoid aversive stimuli. Recent work has greatly advanced understanding of the neural basis of these phenomena and has revealed common circuits involved in the regulation of fear. Specifically, the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex play pivotal roles in gating fear reactions and instrumental actions, mediated by the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, respectively. Because an inability to adaptively regulate fear and defensive behavior is a central component of many anxiety disorders, the brain circuits that promote flexible responses to threat are of great clinical significance.

  7. Individual differences in sensitivity to reward and punishment and neural activity during reward and avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hee; Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Hackjin; Hamann, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    In this functional neuroimaging study, we investigated neural activations during the process of learning to gain monetary rewards and to avoid monetary loss, and how these activations are modulated by individual differences in reward and punishment sensitivity. Healthy young volunteers performed a reinforcement learning task where they chose one of two fractal stimuli associated with monetary gain (reward trials) or avoidance of monetary loss (avoidance trials). Trait sensitivity to reward and punishment was assessed using the behavioral inhibition/activation scales (BIS/BAS). Functional neuroimaging results showed activation of the striatum during the anticipation and reception periods of reward trials. During avoidance trials, activation of the dorsal striatum and prefrontal regions was found. As expected, individual differences in reward sensitivity were positively associated with activation in the left and right ventral striatum during reward reception. Individual differences in sensitivity to punishment were negatively associated with activation in the left dorsal striatum during avoidance anticipation and also with activation in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during receiving monetary loss. These results suggest that learning to attain reward and learning to avoid loss are dependent on separable sets of neural regions whose activity is modulated by trait sensitivity to reward or punishment. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  9. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  10. Associating crash avoidance maneuvers with driver attributes and accident characteristics: a mixed logit model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    The current study focuses on the propensity of drivers to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers in relation to driver attributes, critical events, crash characteristics, vehicles involved, road characteristics, and environmental conditions. The importance of avoidance maneuvers derives from the key role of proactive and state-aware road users within the concept of sustainable safety systems, as well as from the key role of effective corrective maneuvers in the success of automated in-vehicle warning and driver assistance systems. The analysis is conducted by means of a mixed logit model that represents the selection among 5 emergency lateral and speed control maneuvers (i.e., "no avoidance maneuvers," "braking," "steering," "braking and steering," and "other maneuvers) while accommodating correlations across maneuvers and heteroscedasticity. Data for the analysis were retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the year 2009 by considering drivers for which crash avoidance maneuvers are known. The results show that (1) the nature of the critical event that made the crash imminent greatly influences the choice of crash avoidance maneuvers, (2) women and elderly have a relatively lower propensity to conduct crash avoidance maneuvers, (3) drowsiness and fatigue have a greater negative marginal effect on the tendency to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers than alcohol and drug consumption, (4) difficult road conditions increase the propensity to perform crash avoidance maneuvers, and (5) visual obstruction and artificial illumination decrease the probability to carry out crash avoidance maneuvers. The results emphasize the need for public awareness campaigns to promote safe driving style for senior drivers and warning about the risks of driving under fatigue and distraction being comparable to the risks of driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs. Moreover, the results suggest the need to educate drivers about hazard perception, designing

  11. Poor Renal Outcome of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Negative Pauci-immune Glomerulonephritis in Taiwanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peir-Haur Hung

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study illustrates the necessity for pathologic diagnosis of pauci-immune GN despite ANCA negativity. The poor prognosis associated with ANCA negativity in this study may be partly due to delayed diagnosis since these patients frequently lacked systemic involvement.

  12. Normative evaluations and frequency expectations regarding positive versus negative outcome allocations between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanz, M; Mummendey, A; Otten, S

    1997-01-01

    Data from several recent studies consistently show a positive-negative asymmetry in social discrimination: within a minimal social situation tendencies cowards ingroup favouritism which usually appear in allocations of positively valenced resources are absent in the domain of negatively valenced

  13. Effects of psychotropic agents on extinction of lever-press avoidance in a rat model of anxiety vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilu eJiao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance and its perseveration represent key features of anxiety disorders. Both pharmacological and behavioral approaches (i.e. anxiolytics and extinction therapy have been utilized to modulate avoidance behavior in patients. However, the outcome has not always been desirable. Part of the reason is attributed to the diverse neuropathology of anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of psychotropic drugs that target various monoamine systems on extinction of avoidance behavior using lever-press avoidance task. Here we used the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat, a unique rat model that exhibits facilitated avoidance and extinction resistance along with malfunction of the dopamine (DA system. Sprague Dawley (SD and WKY rats were trained to acquire lever-press avoidance. WKY rats acquired avoidance faster and to a higher level compared to SD rats. During pharmacological treatment, bupropion, and desipramine significantly reduced avoidance response selectively in WKY rats. However, after the discontinuation of drug treatment, only those WKY rats that were previously treated with desipramine exhibited lower avoidance response compared to the control group. In contrast, none of the psychotropic drugs facilitated avoidance extinction in SD rats. Instead, desipramine impaired avoidance extinction and increased non-reinforced response in SD rats. Interestingly, paroxetine, a widely used antidepressant and anxiolytic, exhibited the weakest effect in WKY rats and no effects at all in SD rats. Thus, our data suggest that malfunctions in brain catecholamine system could be one of the underlying etiologies of anxiety-like behavior, particularly avoidance perseveration. Pharmacological manipulation targeting DA and norepinephrine is more effective to facilitate extinction learning in this strain. The data from the present study may shed light on new pharmacological approaches to treat patients with anxiety disorders who are not responding to serotonin re

  14. How sacrifice impacts the giver and the recipient: insights from approach-avoidance motivational theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Gere, Judith; Kogan, Aleksandr; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how sacrificing for approach versus avoidance goals shapes the giver's and the recipient's emotions and relationship quality. A sample of 80 dating couples participated in a three-part study in which they discussed sacrifice in the laboratory (Part 1), reported on their daily sacrifices for 14 days (Part 2), and completed a follow-up survey 3 months later (Part 3). When partners discussed a sacrifice they had made for approach goals, they experienced greater relationship quality, whereas when they discussed a sacrifice they had made for avoidance goals, they experienced poorer relationship quality. These effects were replicated with outside observer reports. On days when partners sacrificed for approach goals, both partners experienced increased relationship quality, but on days when people sacrificed for avoidance goals, the giver experienced decreased relationship quality. These effects were mediated by positive and negative emotions, respectively. Approach sacrifice goals predicted increases in relationship quality and avoidance sacrifice goals predicted decreases in relationship quality, as reported by both partners 3 months later. Sacrifice per se does not help or harm relationships, but the goals that people pursue when they give up their own interests can critically shape the quality of intimate bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes among healthy Middle-Eastern females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, Tatiana; Abi Tayeh, Georges; Sibai, Darine; Hout, Hala; Melki, Imad; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the relative impact of body mass index in women in childbearing age and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes are scarce in the Middle East. The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal outcomes. The effect of maternal age and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was also examined. This is a retrospective cross sectional observational study of 1000 full term deliveries of women enrolled thru the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network, in Lebanon. Maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and GWG and neonatal outcomes such as weight, height, head circumference and Apgar score were the primary studied variables in this study. Total maternal weight gain were compared to the guidelines depicted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The negative outcomes of newborns such as lean body weight and macrosomia were significantly present in women who gained respectively below or above the IOM's cut-off points. Pregestational body mass index influenced significantly the infants' birth weight, in both the underweight and obese categories. Birth height, head circumference and Apgar score were not influenced by pregestational body mass index or gestational weight gain. No significant associations were found between maternal age and pregestational body mass index and gestational weight gain. Studies evaluating the impact of weight before and during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes and anthropometrics measurements are lacking in the Middle East. Our results highlight the importance of nutritional counseling in order to shed the extra weights before conceiving and monitor weight gain to avoid the negative impact on feto-maternal health.

  16. Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes among healthy Middle-Eastern females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Papazian

    Full Text Available Studies on the relative impact of body mass index in women in childbearing age and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes are scarce in the Middle East.The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG on neonatal outcomes. The effect of maternal age and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was also examined.This is a retrospective cross sectional observational study of 1000 full term deliveries of women enrolled thru the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network, in Lebanon. Maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and GWG and neonatal outcomes such as weight, height, head circumference and Apgar score were the primary studied variables in this study. Total maternal weight gain were compared to the guidelines depicted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM.The negative outcomes of newborns such as lean body weight and macrosomia were significantly present in women who gained respectively below or above the IOM's cut-off points. Pregestational body mass index influenced significantly the infants' birth weight, in both the underweight and obese categories. Birth height, head circumference and Apgar score were not influenced by pregestational body mass index or gestational weight gain. No significant associations were found between maternal age and pregestational body mass index and gestational weight gain.Studies evaluating the impact of weight before and during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes and anthropometrics measurements are lacking in the Middle East. Our results highlight the importance of nutritional counseling in order to shed the extra weights before conceiving and monitor weight gain to avoid the negative impact on feto-maternal health.

  17. Negative Effects of Reward on Intrinsic Motivation--A Limited Phenomenon: Comment on Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Prior meta analyses by J. Cameron and other researchers suggested that the negative effects of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation were limited and avoidable. E. Deci and others (2001) suggested that the analyses were flawed. This commentary makes the case that there is no inherent negative property of reward. (SLD)

  18. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  19. Information Framing Reduces Initial Negative Attitudes in Cancer Patients' Decisions About Hospice Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ilona; Glare, Paul A; Stabler, Stacy M; Epstein, Andrew S; Wiesenthal, Alison; Leblanc, Thomas W; Higgins, E Tory

    2018-06-01

    Negative attitudes toward hospice care might prevent patients with cancer from discussing and choosing hospice as they approach end of life. When making a decision, people often naturally focus on either expected benefits or the avoidance of harm. Behavioral research has demonstrated that framing information in an incongruent manner with patients' underlying motivational focus reduces their negative attitudes toward a disliked option. Our study tests this communication technique with cancer patients, aiming to reduce negative attitudes toward a potentially beneficial but often-disliked option, that is, hospice care. Patients (n = 42) with active cancer of different types and/or stages completed a paper survey. Participants read a vignette about a patient with advanced cancer and a limited prognosis. In the vignette, the physician's advice to enroll in a hospice program was randomized, creating a congruent message or an incongruent message with patients' underlying motivational focus (e.g., a congruent message for someone most interested in benefits focuses on the benefits of hospice, whereas an incongruent message for this patient focuses on avoiding harm). Patients' attitudes toward hospice were measured before and after receiving the physician's advice. Regression analyses indicated that information framing significantly influenced patients with strong initial negative attitudes. Patients were more likely to reduce intensity of their initial negative attitude about hospice when receiving an incongruent message (b = -0.23; P negative reactions toward hospice care. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The AA genotype of the regulatory BCL2 promoter polymorphism ( 938C>A) is associated with a favorable outcome in lymph node negative invasive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Hagen S; Otterbach, Friedrich; Callies, Rainer; Nückel, Holger; Bau, Maja; Schmid, Kurt W; Siffert, Winfried; Kimmig, Rainer

    2007-10-01

    Expression of the antiapoptotic and antiproliferative protein Bcl-2 has been repeatedly shown to be associated with better clinical outcome in breast cancer. We recently showed a novel regulatory (-938C>A) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the inhibitory P2 BCL2 gene promoter generating significantly different BCL2 promoter activities. Paraffin-embedded neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissues from 274 patients (161 still alive after a follow-up period of at least 80 months) with primary unilateral invasive breast carcinoma were investigated. Bcl-2 expression of tumor cells was shown by immunohistochemistry; nonneoplastic tissues were used for genotyping. Both the Bcl-2 expression and the (-938C>A) genotypes were correlated with the patients' survival. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed a significant association of the AA genotype with increased survival (P = 0.030) in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients, whereas no genotype effect could be observed in lymph node-positive cases. Ten-year survival rates were 88.6% for the AA genotype, 78.4% for the AC genotype, and 65.8% for the CC genotype. Multivariable Cox regression identified the BCL2 (-938CC) genotype as an independent prognostic factor for cancer-related death in lymph node-negative breast carcinoma patients (hazard ratio, 3.59; P = 0.032). Immunohistochemical Bcl-2 expression was significantly associated with the clinical outcome of lymph node-positive but not of lymph node-negative breast cancer patients. In lymph node-negative cases, the (-938C>A) SNP was both significantly related with the immunohistochemically determined level of Bcl-2 expression (P = 0.044) and the survival of patients with Bcl-2-expressing carcinomas (P = 0.006). These results suggest the (-938C>A) polymorphism as a survival prognosticator as well as indicator of a high-risk group within patients with lymph node-negative breast cancer.

  1. Time and outcome framing in intertemporal tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay-speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which an outcome is expected at a given time but then its timing is changed. The outcome framing model generalizes the approach taken by the hyperbolic discounting model (Loewenstein & Prelec, 1992): Not obtaining a positive outcome when expected is a worse than expected state, to which people are over-responsive, or hypersensitive, and not incurring a negative outcome when expected is a better than expected state, to which people are under-responsive, or hyposensitive. The time framing model takes a new approach: Delaying a positive outcome or speeding up a negative one involves a loss of time to which people are hypersensitive, and speeding up a positive outcome or delaying a negative one involves a gain of time to which people are hyposensitive. We compare the models on their quantitative predictions of indifference data from matching and preference data from choice. The time framing model systematically outperforms the outcome framing model. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Vaginismus: heightened harm avoidance and pain catastrophizing cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; Peters, Madelon L; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; de Jong, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Catastrophic appraisal of experienced pain may promote hypervigilance and intense pain, while the personality trait of harm avoidance (HA) might prevent the occurrence of correcting such experiences. Women inflicted with vaginismus may enter a self-perpetuating downward spiral of increasing avoidance of (anticipated) pain. In vaginismus the anticipation of pain may give rise to catastrophic pain ideation. This may establish hypervigilance toward painful sexual stimuli, which consequently results in negative appraisal of sexual cues. This process could impair genital and sexual responding, intensify pain and trigger avoidance, which in turn may contribute to the onset and persistence of symptoms in vaginismus and to certain extent also in dyspareunia. To investigate whether women suffering from vaginismus are characterized by heightened levels of habitual pain catastrophic cognitions, together with higher levels of HA. This study consisted of three groups: a lifelong vaginismus group (N = 35, mean age = 28.4; standard deviation [SD] = 5.8), a dyspareunia group (N = 33, mean age = 26.7; SD = 6.8), and women without sexual complaints (N = 54, mean age = 26.5; SD = 6.7). HA scale of Cloninger's tridimensional personality questionnaire, and the pain catastrophizing scale. Specifically women inflicted with vaginismus showed significantly heightened levels of catastrophic pain cognitions compared with the other two groups, as well as significant enhanced HA vs. the control group, and a trend vs. the dyspareunia group. Both traits were shown to have cumulative predictive validity for the presence of vaginismus. This study focused on the personality traits of catastrophizing pain cognitions and HA in women with lifelong vaginismus. Our findings showed that indeed, women suffering from vaginismus are characterized by trait of HA interwoven with habitual pain catastrophizing cognitions. This study could help in the refinement of the current conceptualization and might shed

  3. Dopamine Regulates Approach-Avoidance in Human Sensation-Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Winston, Joel S; Roiser, Jonathan P; Husain, Masud

    2015-04-09

    Sensation-seeking is a trait that constitutes an important vulnerability factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost. However, little is understood either about the mechanisms underlying motivation for intense sensory experiences or their neuropharmacological modulation in humans. Here, we first evaluate a novel paradigm to investigate sensation-seeking in humans. This test probes the extent to which participants choose either to avoid or self-administer an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric stimulation) orthogonal to performance on a simple economic decision-making task. Next we investigate in a different set of participants whether this behavior is sensitive to manipulation of dopamine D2 receptors using a within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In both samples, individuals with higher self-reported sensation-seeking chose a greater proportion of mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli, even when this involved sacrifice of monetary gain. Computational modelling analysis determined that people who assigned an additional positive economic value to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli exhibited speeding of responses when choosing these stimuli. In contrast, those who assigned a negative value exhibited slowed responses. These findings are consistent with involvement of low-level, approach-avoidance processes. Furthermore, the D2 antagonist haloperidol selectively decreased the additional economic value assigned to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli in individuals who showed approach reactions to these stimuli under normal conditions (behavioral high-sensation seekers). These findings provide the first direct evidence of sensation-seeking behavior being driven by an approach-avoidance-like mechanism, modulated by dopamine, in humans. They provide a framework for investigation of psychopathologies for which extreme sensation-seeking constitutes a vulnerability factor. © The Author 2015. Published by

  4. Do negative screening test results cause false reassurance? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grace C; Harvie, Michelle N; French, David P

    2017-11-01

    It has been suggested that receiving a negative screening test result may cause false reassurance or have a 'certificate of health effect'. False reassurance in those receiving a negative screening test result may result in them wrongly believing themselves to be at lower risk of the disease, and consequently less likely to engage in health-related behaviours that would lower their risk. The present systematic review aimed to identify the evidence regarding false reassurance effects due to negative screening test results in adults (over 18 years) screened for the presence of a disease or its precursors, where disease or precursors are linked to lifestyle behaviours. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for trials that compared a group who had received negative screening results to an unscreened control group. The following outcomes were considered as markers of false reassurance: perceived risk of disease; anxiety and worry about disease; health-related behaviours or intention to change health-related behaviours (i.e., smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption); self-rated health status. Nine unique studies were identified, reporting 55 measures in relation to the outcomes considered. Outcomes were measured at various time points from immediately following screening to up to 11 years after screening. Despite considerable variation in outcome measures used and timing of measurements, effect sizes for comparisons between participants who received negative screening test results and control participants were typically small with few statistically significant differences. There was evidence of high risk of bias, and measures of behaviours employed were often not valid. The limited evidence base provided little evidence of false reassurance following a negative screening test results on any of four outcomes examined. False reassurance should not be considered a significant harm of screening, but further research is warranted. Statement of contribution

  5. Vigilance-avoidance and disengagement are differentially associated with fear and avoidant behaviors in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Travis C; Walukevich, Katherine A; Britton, Jennifer C

    2016-07-15

    Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) often exhibit preferential attention for social threat, demonstrating abnormal orientation to threat (i.e., vigilance-avoidance) and/or difficulty disengaging from threat. However, no research has compared the relationship between attention indices (i.e., vigilance-avoidance, difficulty disengaging from threat) and characteristic features of the disorder such as fear during social situations (social fear) and avoidant behaviors (social avoidance). To address this issue, seventy adults (19.29±1.47 years, 33 females) were separated into low (n=37) or high (n=33) socially anxious groups using clinical cutoff scores on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Participants in both groups completed a dot-probe task with congruent, incongruent, and neutral trials to obtain measures of vigilance-avoidance and difficulty disengaging. Using linear regression, we examined the associations each attention index shared with self-reported social fear and social avoidance. Exclusively in the high anxious group, greater vigilance towards threat was associated with higher self-reported social fear, but not with social avoidance. However, difficulty disengaging was not associated with either social measure. In the low anxiety group, no relationships between attention indices and either social measure emerged. Future research with clinical samples is necessary to replicate and extend these findings. The small sample size studied may have limited our ability to detect other smaller effects. Indices of attention bias may contribute differently to the etiology and maintenance of SAD, which offers important implications for novel treatments that target attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The relative importance of avoidance and restoration-oriented stressors for grief and depression in bereaved parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Mairi; O'Connor, Rory C; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has identified a number of individual risk factors for parental bereavement including the sex of the parent, the sex of the child, avoidance-focussed coping style and time since death. These factors emerged from research where variables were tested univariately and their relative importance is currently unknown. The current research, therefore, aims to investigate which risk factors are important, multivariately, for the outcomes of grief and depression in parents following the death of their child. Psychosocial measures were completed by 106 bereaved parents four years post-loss, recruited from death records in Scotland. The cause of the child's death included long-term illness and stillbirths as well as sudden and violent deaths. In multivariate regression analyses, depression was predicted by higher avoidance-focussed coping and higher number of restoration-oriented stressors such as relationship difficulties, problems at work and financial issues. Grief was predicted by higher avoidance, restoration stressors and level of continuing bonds. The present study adds to the knowledge about the phenomenon of parental bereavement with participants recruited directly from death records rather than through support, clinical or obituary sources. Factors previously found to be associated with outcomes when tested univariately such as sudden, violent death or sex of the parent were not significant when tested multivariately. This study highlights that different vulnerability factors exist for grief and depression in bereaved parents.

  7. Conflict Avoidance in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Allan E.; Wood, Lorinda

    2005-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores patterns of conflict avoidance among university students, professors, administrators and staff. Analysis of their narratives of conflict avoidance suggests that avoidance can be beneficial in some circumstances, depending upon personality issues, cost?benefit analysis, power imbalance, type of work, length of…

  8. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  9. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-06

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  10. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  11. Threat to Freedom and the Detrimental Effect of Avoidance Goal Frames: Reactance as a Mediating Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Graupmann, Verena; Fryer, James W.; Frey, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined how individuals respond to a restriction presented within an approach versus an avoidance frame. In Study 1, working on a problem-solving task, participants were initially free to choose their strategy, but for a second task were told to change their strategy. The message to change was embedded in either an approach or avoidance frame. When confronted with an avoidance compared to an approach frame, the participants’ reactance toward the request was greater and, in turn, led to impaired performance. The role of reactance as a response to threat to freedom was explicitly examined in Study 2, in which participants evaluated a potential change in policy affecting their program of study herein explicitly varying whether a restriction was present or absent and whether the message was embedded in an approach versus avoidance frame. When communicated with an avoidance frame and as a restriction, participants showed the highest resistance in terms of reactance, message agreement and evaluation of the communicator. The difference in agreement with the change was mediated by reactance only when a restriction was present. Overall, avoidance goal frames were associated with more resistance to change on different levels of experience (reactance, performance, and person perception). Reactance mediated the effect of goal frame on other outcomes only when a restriction was present. PMID:27242572

  12. The Global Attack on Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Franck, Gustav Grønborg; Runchel, Daniel Theis; Mac, Martin Tuannhien; Ahmed, Jahanzeeb; Bang, Lars Seneca

    2015-01-01

    The issue of tax avoidance has been subject for recommended regulations by the G20 countries in collaboration with OECD. We examine the usefulness of market failure theory to explain the economic and political issues of tax avoidance. We test our hypothesis using theory through a deductive approach incorporating content analysis to find convergence(s) between tax avoidance methods identified and the efforts of the G20 BEPS action plan to respond to those methods. The issue of tax avoidance...

  13. The Pervasive Negative Effects of Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: Response to Cameron (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.; Koestner, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Replies to commentary by J. Cameron asserting that the negative results of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation are limited and avoidable. Suggests that the most recent meta analysis by Cameron and others shares methodological weaknesses with an earlier analysis, lacking ecological validity. (SLD)

  14. Negative Affect, Decision Making, and Attentional Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ana Raquel; Ramírez, Encarnación; Colmenero, José María; García-Viedma, Ma Del Rosario

    2017-02-01

    This study focuses on whether risk avoidance in decision making depends on negative affect or it is specific to anxious individuals. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task was used to obtain an objective measure in a risk situation with anxious, depressive, and control individuals. The role of attentional networks was also studied using the Attentional Network Test-Interaction (ANT-I) task with neutral stimuli. A significant difference was observed between anxious and depressive individuals in assumed risk in decision making. We found no differences between anxious and normal individuals in the alert, orientation, and congruency effects obtained in the ANT-I task. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between the risk avoidance and the indexes of alertness, orienting, and control. Future research shall determine whether emotionally relevant stimulation leads to attentional control deficit or whether differences between anxious and no anxious individuals are due to the type of strategy followed in choice tasks.

  15. SECURE BASE SCRIPT CONTENT EXPLAINS THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ATTACHMENT AVOIDANCE AND EMOTION-RELATED CONSTRUCTS IN PARENTS OF YOUNG CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Burkhart, Margaret L; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Brody, Robin; Sbarra, David A

    2017-03-01

    The secure base script (SBS) framework is one method of assessing implicit internal working models of attachment; recently, researchers have applied this method to analyze narratives regarding relationship experiences. This study examines the associations between attachment avoidance and SBS content when parents recall a positive moment of connection between themselves and their children (relational savoring) as well as their association with parental emotion and reflective functioning (RF). Using a sample of parents (N = 155, 92% female) of young children (53% boys, M age = 12.76 months), we found that parental attachment avoidance is inversely associated with SBS content during relational savoring, and that SBS content is an indirect effect explaining the association between attachment avoidance and postsavoring (positive and negative) emotion as well as avoidance and poststressor RF. Findings have implications for understanding attachment and parenting. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Ketting, Manon

    2015-09-01

    It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from those found in people with lower dental anxiety (LDA). Study participants (n = 596; response rate = 41.1%) comprised a random cross-sectional sample of the Australian adult population who completed a mailed self-complete questionnaire containing items relating to the use and accessibility of dental services, trust in dental professionals, dental anxiety, dental experiences, self-perceived oral health, vulnerability-related perceptions of visiting the dentist, and psychological health. Multiple imputation was used to replace missing values and statistically significant variables in bivariate analyses were entered into a multivariable logistic generalized linear model. More than two-thirds of participants with HDA were currently avoiding or delaying a dental visit. Among people with HDA, dental avoidance was independently and significantly predicted by difficulty paying a $300 dental bill, having no or only little trust in the last-visited dentist, perceived treatment need and dental anxiety. Among people with LDA, only perceived treatment need and dental anxiety predicted avoidance. In addition to their high anxiety, a number of additional barriers to dental visiting were found for people with HDA. These barriers, especially cost and communication issues with dentists, need to be addressed to assist people with HDA obtain necessary, regular dental care. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Outpatient psychodynamic group psychotherapy - outcomes related to personality disorder, severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarstein, Elfrida Hartveit; Nordviste, Ola; Dragland, Lone; Wilberg, Theresa

    2017-02-01

    Outpatient group psychotherapy is frequent within specialist services, recruits a mixed population, but effects are poorly documented. This study investigates long-term outcomes for patients with personality disorder (PD) treated in outpatient, psychodynamic groups within secondary mental health service. A naturalistic study (N = 103) with repeated assessments of process and clinical outcomes. Longitudinal statistics are linear mixed models. The main PDs were avoidant, borderline and NOS PD, mean number of PDs 1.4(SD0.7), 60% females and mean initial age 38(SD10) years. Mean treatment duration was 1.5(SD 0.9) years. Therapist alliance and experienced group climate was satisfactory and stable. Improvements were significant (symptom distress, interpersonal problems, occupational functioning and additional mental health services), irrespective of general PD-severity, but not of PD-type, age or gender. The study demonstrates PD NOS benefits across all outcomes, occupational improvements for avoidant PD, despite prevailing symptoms, but generally poorer outcomes for males and age >38 years. For borderline PD, experienced conflict was stronger, treatment duration shorter and outcomes poor for early drop-outs (28%). Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is a recommendable treatment for moderate PDs, which may address avoidant strategies, but may not meet clinical challenges of borderline PD. The outcome differences related to gender and age are noteworthy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Help-Negation and Suicidal Ideation: The Role of Depression, Anxiety and Hopelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Help-negation is expressed behaviorally by the refusal or avoidance of available help and cognitively by the inverse relationship between self-reported symptoms of psychological distress and help-seeking intentions. The current study examined the association between suicidal ideation and intentions to seek help from friends, family and…

  19. Avoiding Institutional Outcomes for Older Adults Living with Disability: The Use of Community-Based Aged Care Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Caroline; White, Amy; Chapman, Libby

    2011-01-01

    Background: Most people with a disability want to remain living in their own home as they age. Without additional support, people with a disability may not be able to avoid moving into residential aged care, attending day programs, or becoming isolated from participation in the wider community. This study examined whether participants perceived…

  20. Self-Verification Strivings in Children Holding Negative Self-Views: The Mitigating Effects of a Preceding Success Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Thomaes, Sander; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Telch, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Research among adults has consistently shown that people holding negative self-views prefer negative over positive feedback. The present study tested the hypothesis that this preference is less robust among pre-adolescents, such that it will be mitigated by a preceding positive event. Pre-adolescents (n = 75) holding positive or negative global self-esteem were randomized to a favorable or unfavorable peer evaluation outcome. Next, preferences for positive versus negative feedback were assessed using an unobtrusive behavioral viewing time measure. As expected, results showed that after being faced with the success outcome children holding negative self-views were as likely as their peers holding positive self-views to display a significant preference for positive feedback. In contrast, children holding negative self-views displayed a stronger preference for negative feedback after being faced with the unfavorable outcome that matched their pre-existing self-views.

  1. When Salespeople Harbor Negative Stereotypes of their Corporate Headquarters : How Harmful is it and How can it be Avoided

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Christian; Wieseke, Jan; Lukas, Bryan A.; Mikolon, Sven

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the performance implications that organizations may suffer when their salespeople develop negative stereotypes of their corporate headquarters. How such stereotypes can be remedied through managerial action is also examined. The study draws on matched data from four different sources: sales managers, salespeople, customers, and company reports. Findings indicate that negative headquarters stereotypes among salespeople are associated with poor marketing-related performance ...

  2. Stereotypes as stumbling-blocks: how coping with stereotype threat affects life outcomes for people with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Arielle M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, the concern about being judged in light of negative stereotypes, causes underperformance in evaluative situations. However, less is known about how coping with stereotypes can aggravate underperformance over time. We propose a model in which ongoing stereotype threat experiences threaten a person's sense of self-integrity, which in turn prompts defensive avoidance of stereotype-relevant situations, impeding growth, achievement, and well-being. We test this model in an important but understudied population: the physically disabled. In Study 1, blind adults reporting higher levels of stereotype threat reported lower self-integrity and well-being and were more likely to be unemployed and to report avoiding stereotype-threatening situations. In Study 2's field experiment, blind students in a compensatory skill-training program made more progress if they had completed a values-affirmation, an exercise that bolsters self-integrity. The findings suggest that stereotype threat poses a chronic threat to self-integrity and undermines life outcomes for people with disabilities. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Two spatiotemporally distinct value systems shape reward-based learning in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouragnan, Elsa; Retzler, Chris; Mullinger, Karen; Philiastides, Marios G

    2015-09-08

    Avoiding repeated mistakes and learning to reinforce rewarding decisions is critical for human survival and adaptive actions. Yet, the neural underpinnings of the value systems that encode different decision-outcomes remain elusive. Here coupling single-trial electroencephalography with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging, we uncover the spatiotemporal dynamics of two separate but interacting value systems encoding decision-outcomes. Consistent with a role in regulating alertness and switching behaviours, an early system is activated only by negative outcomes and engages arousal-related and motor-preparatory brain structures. Consistent with a role in reward-based learning, a later system differentially suppresses or activates regions of the human reward network in response to negative and positive outcomes, respectively. Following negative outcomes, the early system interacts and downregulates the late system, through a thalamic interaction with the ventral striatum. Critically, the strength of this coupling predicts participants' switching behaviour and avoidance learning, directly implicating the thalamostriatal pathway in reward-based learning.

  4. Alternative outcomes create biased expectations regarding the received outcome: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Déborah; Bentin, Shlomo; Deouell, Leon Y

    2018-05-01

    After choosing between uncertain options, one might get feedback on both the outcome of the chosen option and the outcome of the unchosen option (the alternative). Behavioral research has shown that in such cases people engage in outcome comparison, and that the alternative outcome influences the way one evaluates his own received outcome. Moreover, this influence differs whether one was responsible or not for the choice made. In two studies, we looked for the electrophysiological correlates of outcome comparison. Subjects chose one of two boxes shown on the screen, each box contained a gain or a loss. The alternative outcome was always revealed first, followed by the received outcome. In half of the trials the software picked one box instead of subjects. We tested whether the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P3 elicited by the received reflect outcome comparison. As expected, we found that the FRN and P3 were more positive when the received outcome was a gain (vs. a loss). The FRN and P3 were also sensitive to the value of the alternative outcome, but contrary to our predictions, they were more positive when the alternative outcome was a gain (vs. a loss). As the FRN and P3 are sensitive to expectations, we hypothesized that our findings might result from subjects' biased expectations: subjects might have wrongly believed that a good (bad) alternative outcome signaled a bad (good) received outcome. This hypothesis, coined as the Alternative Omen Effect, was confirmed in parallel in a series of behavioral experiments: people see an illusory negative correlation between the uncorrelated outcomes of choice options (reported in Marciano-Romm et al. (2016)). A challenge for future research will be to disentangle the effects of expectation from those of outcome comparison. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of positive and negative feedback on risk-taking across different contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Losecaat Vermeer, A.B.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options after a financial loss, while generally choosing safer options after a monetary gain. However, it is unclear what exactly contributes to these preference shifts as a function of prior outcomes, as the...

  6. Earthworm avoidance of silver nanomaterials over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Amorim, Mónica J B; Jensen, John

    2018-01-01

    Avoidance behaviour offers a highly relevant information as it reveals the ability to avoid (or not) possible toxic compounds in the field, hence it provides information on reasons for the presence/absence in the field. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was used to study avoidance behaviour to four si...... exposure durations and showed a continuous higher avoidance with time (based on EC50 values). The AgNMs avoidance was in the order NM300Ksoil solution fraction that correlated with EC50 across materials....

  7. A Two-Factor Model Better Explains Heterogeneity in Negative Symptoms: Evidence from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Choi, Hye-Im; Park, Soohyun; Jaekal, Eunju; Lee, Ga-Young; Cho, Young Il; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging separable factors underlying negative symptoms may lead to better understanding and treatment of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study aimed to test whether the negative symptoms factor (NSF) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) would be better represented by expressive and experiential deficit factors, rather than by a single factor model, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two hundred and twenty individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the PANSS; subsamples additionally completed the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR). CFA results indicated that the two-factor model fit the data better than the one-factor model; however, latent variables were closely correlated. The two-factor model's fit was significantly improved by accounting for correlated residuals between N2 (emotional withdrawal) and N6 (lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation), and between N4 (passive social withdrawal) and G16 (active social avoidance), possibly reflecting common method variance. The two NSF factors exhibited differential patterns of correlation with subdomains of the BNSS and MAP-SR. These results suggest that the PANSS NSF would be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor one, and support the two-factor model's adequate criterion-related validity. Common method variance among several items may be a potential source of measurement error under a two-factor model of the PANSS NSF.

  8. Praise for regret: People value regret above other negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffrey, Colleen; Summerville, Amy; Roese, Neal J

    2008-03-01

    What do people think about the emotion of regret? Recent demonstrations of the psychological benefits of regret have been framed against an assumption that most people find regret to be aversive, both when experienced but also when recalled later. Two studies explored lay evaluations of regret experiences, revealing them to be largely favorable rather than unfavorable. Study 1 demonstrated that regret, but not other negative emotions, was dominated by positive more than negative evaluations. In both studies 1 and 2, although participants saw a great deal of benefit from their negative emotions, regret stood out as particularly beneficial. Indeed, in study 2, regret was seen to be the most beneficial of 12 negative emotions on all five functions of: making sense of past experiences, facilitating approach behaviors, facilitating avoidance behaviors, gaining insights into the self, and in preserving social harmony. Moreover, in study 2, individuals made self-serving ascriptions of regret, reporting greater regret experiences for themselves than for others. In short, people value their regrets substantially more than they do other negative emotions.

  9. Acculturative stress and experiential avoidance: relations to depression, suicide, and anxiety symptoms among minority college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Robles, Zuzuky; Sharp, Carla

    2016-11-01

    Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45.3% Hispanic, 32.5% Asian, and 7.1% other races/ethnicities. Results provided empirical evidence of an interaction between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance for suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms among the studied sample. Inspection of the significant interactions revealed that acculturative stress was related to greater levels of suicidal symptoms, social anxiety, and anxious arousal among minority college students with higher, but not lower, levels of experiential avoidance. However, in contrast to prediction, there was no significant interaction for depressive symptoms. Together, these data provide novel empirical evidence for the clinically-relevant interplay between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in regard to a relatively wide array of negative emotional states among minority college students.

  10. A cross-cultural investigation of attachment style, catastrophizing, negative pain beliefs, and symptom severity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, C D; Gerson, M-J; Chang, L; Corazziari, E S; Dumitrascu, D; Ghoshal, U C; Porcelli, P; Schmulson, M; Wang, W-A; Zali, M

    2015-04-01

    Little information exists regarding whether psychosocial variables in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) vary by geographic location. Adult attachment is an important psychological concept rooted in childhood relationship experience that has not been previously studied in IBS. Catastrophizing and negative pain beliefs have been described in IBS and may be affected by attachment. In this cross-cultural study, we determined: (i) whether attachment differs between IBS patients and controls, (ii) whether geographic location has a significant effect on attachment style, catastrophizing and negative pain beliefs, and (iii) how all three variables correlate with IBS symptom severity. 463 IBS patients, with moderate to severe symptom scores, and 192 healthy controls completed validated questionnaires about attachment, catastrophizing, negative pain beliefs and IBS-SSS in nine locations, USA (New York, Los Angeles), Mexico, Italy (Rome, Bari), Romania, Iran, India, and China. Attachment anxiety and avoidance scores were significantly higher in IBS patients than in controls (p < 0.001). This was particularly true for the fearful-avoidant attachment category, especially in China and Romania. Path analysis showed that attachment anxiety and avoidance had indirect effects on IBS-SSS through catastrophizing (p < 0.0001) and negative pain beliefs (p = 0.005). All three psychosocial measures varied significantly depending on location. In the IBS population studied, attachment style was significantly different in IBS compared to a control population. Geographic differences in attachment, catastrophizing and negative pain beliefs were documented and their correlation with symptom severity and thus, research of psychosocial variables in IBS should take into account the location of the population studied. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Feedback-controlled diffusion: From self-trapping to true self-avoiding walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, B.M.; Trimper, S.; Schulz, M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of a Brownian particle under the influence of a dynamical feedback by numerical simulations and analytical considerations. The feedback is controlled by a memory coupling of strength λ. Whereas a negative memory strength yields a true self avoiding walk, a positive memory leads to a self-trapping of the particle. The localization is manifested by a constant mean square displacement in the long time limit which appears after an initial diffusive regime. The probability distribution function of the trapping distance shows an exponential decay. The numerical simulations are compared with an analytical modeling

  12. Subjective health complaints, functional ability, fear avoidance beliefs, and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation - a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyeflaten, Irene; Opsahl, Jon; Eriksen, Hege R; Braathen, Tore Norendal; Lie, Stein Atle; Brage, Søren; Ihlebæk, Camilla M; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-05-23

    Long-term sick leave and withdrawal from working life is a concern in western countries. In Norway, comprehensive inpatient work rehabilitation may be offered to sick listed individuals at risk of long-term absence from work. Knowledge about prognostic factors for work outcomes after long-term sick leave and work rehabilitation is still limited. The aim of this study was to test a mediation model for various hypothesized biopsychosocial predictors of continued sick leave after inpatient work rehabilitation. One thousand one hundred fifty-five participants on long-term sick leave from eight different work rehabilitation clinics answered comprehensive questionnaires at arrival to the clinic, and were followed with official register data on sickness benefits for 3 years. Structural equation models were conducted, with days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation as the outcome. Fear avoidance beliefs for work mediated the relation between both musculoskeletal complaints and education on days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation. The relation between musculoskeletal complaints and fear avoidance beliefs for work was furthermore fully mediated by poor physical function. Previous sick leave had a strong independent effect on continued sick leave after work rehabilitation. Fear avoidance beliefs for work did not mediate the small effect of pseudoneurological complaints on continued sick leave. Poor coping/interaction ability was neither related to continued sick leave nor fear avoidance beliefs for work. The mediation model was partly supported by the data, and provides some possible new insight into how fear avoidance beliefs for work and functional ability may intervene with subjective health complaints and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation.

  13. Anxiety Sensitivity and Smoking Behavior Among Trauma-Exposed Daily Smokers: The Explanatory Role of Smoking-Related Avoidance and Inflexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Zvolensky, Michael J; Salazar, Adriana; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), defined as the extent to which individuals believe that anxiety-related sensations have harmful consequences, is associated with smoking processes and poorer clinical outcomes among trauma-exposed smokers. Yet the specific mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility is a construct implicated in multiple manifestations of mood regulation that may underlie smoking behavior. The current study examined the explanatory role of smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility in terms of the relation between AS and indices of smoking behavior among trauma-exposed smokers. The sample consisted of 217 treatment-seeking adult smokers (44% female; M age = 37.8; SD = 13.2; age range: 18-65 years), who were exposed to at least one lifetime Criterion A trauma event (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR] Criterion A for trauma exposure). Bootstrap analysis (5,000 re-samples) revealed that AS was indirectly related to the (a) number of cigarettes smoked per day, (b) number of years being a daily smoker, (c) number of failed quit attempts, and (d) heaviness of smoking index among trauma-exposed smokers through its relation with smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility. These findings provide initial evidence suggesting that smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility may be an important construct in better understanding AS-smoking relations among trauma-exposed smokers. Future work is needed to explore the extent to which smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility account for relations between AS and other smoking processes (e.g., withdrawal, cessation outcome) in the context of trauma and smoking comorbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Event-related potential studies of outcome processing and feedback-guided learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René eSan Martín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to control behavior in an adaptive manner the brain has to learn how some situations and actions predict positive or negative outcomes. During the last decade cognitive neuroscientists have shown that the brain is able to evaluate and learn from outcomes within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. This research has been primarily focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P3, two event-related potential (ERP components that are elicited by outcomes. The FRN is a frontally distributed negative-polarity ERP component that typically reaches its maximal amplitude 250 ms after outcome presentation and tends to be larger for negative than for positive outcomes. The FRN has been associated with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. The P3 (~300-600 ms is a parietally distributed positive-polarity ERP component that tends to be larger for large magnitude than for small magnitude outcomes. The neural sources of the P3 are probably distributed over different regions of the cortex. This paper examines the theories that have been proposed to explain the functional role of these two ERP components during outcome processing. Special attention is paid to extant literature addressing how these ERP components are modulated by outcome valence (negative vs. positive, outcome magnitude (large vs. small, outcome probability (unlikely vs. likely and behavioral adjustment. The literature offers few generalizable conclusions, but is beset with a number of inconsistencies across studies. This paper discusses the potential reasons for these inconsistencies and points out some challenges that will shape the field over the next decade.

  15. Negative adsorption due to electrostatic exclusion of micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaran, P; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P; Deo, Puspendu

    2005-10-15

    Interactions of surfactants with solid substrates are important in the controlling of processes such as flotation, coating, flocculation and sedimentation. These interactions usually lead to adsorption on solids, but can also result in an exclusion of the reagents with dire consequences. In this work electrostatic exclusion of negatively charged dodecylbenzene sulfonate micelles from quartz/water, Bio-Sil/water and alumina/water interfaces has been investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength. Measurable negative adsorption of these surfactants from similarly charged solid/liquid interface was observed in the micellar region. In the case of porous samples with large surface area, comparison of pore size with the micelle size is necessary to avoid any erroneous conclusions regarding the role of electrostatic exclusion in a given system. A theoretical model for the electrostatic exclusion of micelles is developed and used to calculate the adsorption of negatively charged dodecylbenzene sulfonate on negatively charged quartz (pH 7), silica (Bio-Sil A, pH 3) and alumina (pH 11) in the micellar concentration region. The micellar exclusion values calculated using the model are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Biological characteristics and clinical outcome of triple negative primary breast cancer in older women - comparison with their younger counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binafsha M Syed

    Full Text Available Triple negative (ER, PgR and HER2 negative breast cancers (TNBCs are often considered as a poor prognostic phenotype. There is dearth of evidence showing the prevalence and biological behaviour of TNBCs in older women. This study aimed to analyse their biological characteristics in comparison with a well characterised younger series from a single centre with long term clinical follow-up. Over 37 years (1973-2010, 1,758 older (≥70 years women with early operable (<5 cm primary breast cancer were managed in a dedicated clinic and have complete clinical information available. Of these 813 patients underwent primary surgery and 575 had good quality tumour samples available for tissue microarray analysis using indirect immunohistochemistry. A total of 127 patients (22.1% had TNBCs and full biological analysis of 15 biomarkers was performed. The results were compared with those of their younger (<70 years counterparts 342 (18.9% from a previously characterised, consecutive series of primary breast cancer treated in the same unit (1986-1998. The 127 older patients with TNBCs showed lower rates of Ki67 and CK 7/8 positivity and high rates of bcl2 and CK18 positivity when compared with their younger counterparts (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the long term clinical outcome between the two age groups, despite the fact that 47% of the younger patients had adjuvant chemotherapy, while none in the older cohort received such treatment. EGFR, axillary stage and pathological size showed prognostic significance in older women with TNBCs on univariate analysis. Despite not having received adjuvant chemotherapy, the older series had clinical outcome similar to the younger patients almost half of whom had chemotherapy. This appears to be related to other biomarkers (in addition to ER/PgR/HER2 eg Ki67, bcl2 and cytokeratins which have different expression patterns influencing prognosis.

  17. Attributions of responsibility and affective reactions to decision outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, M; van der Pligt, J; de Vries, N K

    2000-06-01

    Immediate affective reactions to outcomes are more intense following decisions to act than following decisions not to act. This finding holds for both positive and negative outcomes. We relate this "actor-effect" to attribution theory and argue that decision makers are seen as more responsible for outcomes when these are the result of a decision to act as compared to a decision not to act. Experiment 1 (N = 80) tests the main assumption underlying our reasoning and shows that affective reactions to decision outcomes are indeed more intense when the decision maker is seen as more responsible. Experiment 2 (N = 40) tests whether the actor effect can be predicted on the basis of differential attributions following action and inaction. Participants read vignettes in which active and passive actors obtained a positive or negative outcome. Action resulted in more intense affect than inaction, and positive outcomes resulted in more intense affect than negative outcomes. Experiment 2 further shows that responsibility attributions and affective reactions to outcomes are highly correlated; that is, more extreme affective reactions are associated with more internal attributions. We discuss the implications for research on post-decisional reactions.

  18. The effects of confrontation and avoidance coping in response to workplace incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovis, M Sandy; Cameron, Ann-Frances; Gervais, Loie; Bozeman, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    Workplace incivility has significant adverse consequences for targets. However, we know remarkably little about how targets of incivility cope and even less about which coping strategies are effective. Drawing on the coping process of the transactional model of stress, we examine confrontation as a form of problem-focused coping and avoidance as a form of emotion-focused coping in response to incivility. We examine the effects of these coping strategies on reoccurrence of incivility, incivility enacted by targets, psychological forgiveness, and emotional exhaustion. Focusing on the target's perspective of a series of uncivil interactions between a target and perpetrator, we conducted a 3-wave study of employees from various occupations. Employing the critical incident technique, participants reported on an incident of workplace incivility, and then answered a series of questions over 3 waves of data collection regarding their interactions with this perpetrator. Our findings suggest that confrontation and avoidance are ineffective in preventing reoccurrence of incivility. Avoidance can additionally lead to increased emotional exhaustion, target-enacted incivility, and lower psychological forgiveness. However, confrontation coping has promise with regards to eliciting positive outcomes such as psychological forgiveness that are beneficial to interpersonal workplace relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. ITI-signals and prelimbic cortex facilitate avoidance acquisition and reduce avoidance latencies, respectively, in male WKY rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Beck

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a model of anxiety disorder vulnerability, male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats acquire lever-press avoidance behavior more readily than outbred Sprague Dawley rats, and their acquisition is enhanced by the presence of a discrete signal presented during the inter-trial intervals (ITIs, suggesting it is perceived as a safety signal. A series of experiments were conducted to determine if this is the case. Additional experiments investigated if the avoidance facilitation relies upon processing through medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. The results suggest that the ITI-signal facilitates acquisition during the early stages of the avoidance acquisition process, when the rats are initially acquiring escape behavior and then transitioning to avoidance behavior. Post-avoidance introduction of the visual ITI-signal into other associative learning tasks failed to confirm that the visual stimulus had acquired the properties of a conditioned inhibitor. Shortening the signal from the entirety of the 3 min ITI to only the first 5 s of the 3 min ITI slowed acquisition during the first 4 sessions, suggesting the flashing light is not functioning as a feedback signal. The prelimbic (PL cortex showed greater activation during the period of training when the transition from escape responding to avoidance responding occurs. Only combined PL+infralimbic cortex lesions modestly slowed avoidance acquisition, but PL cortex lesions slowed avoidance response latencies. Thus, the flashing light ITI-signal is not likely perceived as a safety signal nor is it serving as a feedback signal. The functional role of the PL cortex appears to be to increase the drive towards responding to the threat of the warning signal. Hence, avoidance susceptibility displayed by male WKY rats may be driven, in part, both by external stimuli (ITI signal as well as by enhanced threat recognition to the warning signal via the PL cortex.

  20. A Multi-Sample Cs-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.A.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Reed, C.A.; Williams, C.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-sample Cs sputter negative-ion source, equipped with a conical-geometry, W-surface-ionizer has been designed and fabricated that permits sample changes without disruption of on-line accelerator operation. Sample changing is effected by actuating an electro-pneumatic control system located at ground potential that drives an air-motor-driven sample-indexing-system mounted at high voltage; this arrangement avoids complications associated with indexing mechanisms that rely on electronic power-supplies located at high potential. In-beam targets are identified by LED indicator lights derived from a fiber-optic, Gray-code target-position sensor. Aspects of the overall source design and details of the indexing mechanism along with operational parameters, ion optics. intensities, and typical emittances for a variety of negative-ion species will be presented in this report

  1. A Multi-Sample Cs-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.A.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Reed, C.A.; Williams, C.

    1998-10-05

    A multi-sample Cs sputter negative-ion source, equipped with a conical-geometry, W-surface-ionizer has been designed and fabricated that permits sample changes without disruption of on-line accelerator operation. Sample changing is effected by actuating an electro-pneumatic control system located at ground potential that drives an air-motor-driven sample-indexing-system mounted at high voltage; this arrangement avoids complications associated with indexing mechanisms that rely on electronic power-supplies located at high potential. In-beam targets are identified by LED indicator lights derived from a fiber-optic, Gray-code target-position sensor. Aspects of the overall source design and details of the indexing mechanism along with operational parameters, ion optics. intensities, and typical emittances for a variety of negative-ion species will be presented in this report.

  2. Attractiveness of food and avoidance from contamination as conflicting stimuli to habitat selection by fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Rodríguez, Elizabeth N V; Salvatierra, David; Cedeño-Macias, Luis A; Vera-Vera, Victoria C; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Habitat selection by fish is the outcome of a choice between different stimuli. Typically, the presence of food tends to attract organisms, while contamination triggers an avoidance response to prevent toxic effects. Given that both food and contaminants are not homogeneously distributed in the environment and that food can be available in contaminated zones, a key question has been put forward in the present study: does a higher availability of food in contaminated areas interfere in the avoidance response to contaminants regardless of the contamination level? Tilapia fry (Oreochromis sp.; 2.5-3.0 cm and 0.5-0.8 g) were exposed to two different effluent samples, diluted along a free-choice, non-forced exposure system simulating a contamination gradient. Initially, avoidance to the effluents was checked during a one hour exposure. Afterwards, food was added to the system so that the availability of food increased with the increase in the level of contamination, and the avoidance response to contamination was checked during another hour. Results clearly showed a concentration-dependent avoidance response for both effluents during the first hour (i.e., with no food). However, in presence of the food, the avoidance pattern was altered: organisms were propelled to intermittently move towards contaminated areas where food availability was higher. The incursions were taken regardless of the potential risk linked to the toxic effects. In conclusion, even when the risk of toxicity was imminent, tilapia fry were more intensively stimulated by the attractiveness of the food than by repulsion to the contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in long-standing eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabel, Karianne R; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Oyvind; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2010-08-01

    Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current 5-year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (a) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (b) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long-standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. A mixed model was used to examine the predictors. Avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse interacted in predicting high levels of eating disorder over a long-term course. These results suggest that eating disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and sequelae after child sexual abuse are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  4. The effect of positive and negative feedback on risk-taking across different contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Losecaat Vermeer, A.B.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options

  5. The Effect of Positive and Negative Feedback on Risk-Taking across Different Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Losecaat Vermeer, A.B.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options

  6. When is success not satisfying? Integrating regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories to explain the relation between core self-evaluation and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, D Lance; Johnson, Russell E; Rosen, Christopher C; Djurdjevic, Emilija; Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Tan, James A

    2013-03-01

    Integrating implications from regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories, we present a framework wherein motivational orientations toward positive (approach motivation orientation) or negative (avoidance motivation orientation) stimuli interact with workplace success to mediate the relation of core self-evaluation (CSE) with job satisfaction. Using data collected from supervisor-subordinate dyads (Sample 1) and time-lagged data (Sample 2), we found that the results from two studies indicated that the interaction of workplace success and avoidance motivation orientation mediated relations of CSE with job satisfaction. Although approach motivation orientation did not interact with workplace success, it did mediate the CSE-job satisfaction relation on its own. Implications for the CSE and approach/avoidance literatures are discussed.

  7. Stressors and anxiety in dementia caregiving: multiple mediation analysis of rumination, experiential avoidance, and leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moreno, R; Losada, A; Márquez-González, M; Mausbach, B T

    2016-11-01

    Despite the robust associations between stressors and anxiety in dementia caregiving, there is a lack of research examining which factors contribute to explain this relationship. This study was designed to test a multiple mediation model of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and anxiety that proposes higher levels of rumination and experiential avoidance and lower levels of leisure satisfaction as potential mediating variables. The sample consisted of 256 family caregivers. In order to test a simultaneously parallel multiple mediation model of the BPSD to anxiety pathway, a PROCESS method was used and bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping method was used to test confidence intervals. Higher levels of stressors significantly predicted anxiety. Greater stressors significantly predicted higher levels of rumination and experiential avoidance, and lower levels of leisure satisfaction. These three coping variables significantly predicted anxiety. Finally, rumination, experiential avoidance, and leisure satisfaction significantly mediated the link between stressors and anxiety. The explained variance for the final model was 47.09%. Significant contrasts were found between rumination and leisure satisfaction, with rumination being a significantly higher mediator. The results suggest that caregivers' experiential avoidance, rumination, and leisure satisfaction may function as mechanisms through which BPSD influence on caregivers' anxiety. Training caregivers in reducing their levels of experiential avoidance and rumination by techniques that foster their ability of acceptance of their negative internal experiences, and increase their level of leisure satisfaction, may be helpful to reduce their anxiety symptoms developed by stressors.

  8. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors.

  9. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  10. Extinction of avoidance behavior by safety learning depends on endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, Vincenzo; Stepan, Jens; Jurik, Angela; Pamplona, Fabricio A; Marsch, Rudolph; Drago, Filippo; Eder, Matthias; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2017-07-01

    The development of exaggerated avoidance behavior is largely responsible for the decreased quality of life in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Studies using animal models have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of avoidance responses. However, much less is known about its extinction. Here we provide evidence in mice that learning about the safety of an environment (i.e., safety learning) rather than repeated execution of the avoided response in absence of negative consequences (i.e., response extinction) allowed the animals to overcome their avoidance behavior in a step-down avoidance task. This process was context-dependent and could be blocked by pharmacological (3 mg/kg, s.c.; SR141716) or genetic (lack of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors) inactivation of CB1 receptors. In turn, the endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor AM404 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) facilitated safety learning in a CB1-dependent manner and attenuated the relapse of avoidance behavior 28 days after conditioning. Safety learning crucially depended on endocannabinoid signaling at level of the hippocampus, since intrahippocampal SR141716 treatment impaired, whereas AM404 facilitated safety learning. Other than AM404, treatment with diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) impaired safety learning. Drug effects on behavior were directly mirrored by drug effects on evoked activity propagation through the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit in brain slices: As revealed by voltage-sensitive dye imaging, diazepam impaired whereas AM404 facilitated activity propagation to CA1 in a CB1-dependent manner. In line with this, systemic AM404 enhanced safety learning-induced expression of Egr1 at level of CA1. Together, our data render it likely that AM404 promotes safety learning by enhancing information flow through the trisynaptic circuit to CA1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  12. Development and Validation of the Behavioral Avoidance Test-Back Pain (BAT-Back) for Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Sebastian; Riecke, Jenny; Rief, Winfried; Schneider, Jessica; Glombiewski, Julia A

    2016-11-01

    Pain-related fear and avoidance of physical activities are central elements of the fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain. Pain-related fear has typically been measured by self-report instruments. In this study, we developed and validated a Behavioral Avoidance Test (BAT) for chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with the aim of assessing pain-related avoidance behavior by direct observation. The BAT-Back was administered to a group of CLBP patients (N=97) and pain-free controls (N=31). Furthermore, pain, pain-related fear, disability, catastrophizing, and avoidance behavior were measured using self-report instruments. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach α. Validity was assessed by examining correlation and regression analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the BAT-Back avoidance score was r=0.76. Internal consistency was α=0.95. CLBP patients and controls differed significantly on BAT-Back avoidance scores as well as self-report measures. BAT-Back avoidance scores were significantly correlated with scores on each of the self-report measures (rs=0.27 to 0.54). They were not significantly correlated with general anxiety and depression, age, body mass index, and pain duration. The BAT-Back avoidance score was able to capture unique variance in disability after controlling for other variables (eg, pain intensity and pain-related fear). Results indicate that the BAT-Back is a reliable and valid measure of pain-related avoidance behavior. It may be useful for clinicians in tailoring treatments for chronic pain as well as an outcome measure for exposure treatments.

  13. Affective states leak into movement execution: Automatic avoidance of threatening stimuli in fear of spider is visible in reach trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buetti, S.; Juan, E.; Rinck, M.; Kerzel, D.

    2012-01-01

    Approach-like actions are initiated faster with stimuli of positive valence. Conversely, avoidance-like actions are initiated faster with threatening stimuli of negative valence. We went beyond reaction time measures and investigated whether threatening stimuli also affect the way in which an action

  14. Anticipatory pleasure and approach motivation in schizophrenia-like negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maike; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2013-12-15

    Previous research of negative symptoms in schizophrenia has emphasized an anticipatory pleasure deficit, yet the relationship of this deficit to patients' motivation in everyday life is poorly understood. This study tested the link between anticipatory pleasure and two broad motivational systems that are said to regulate the intensity of approach and avoidance behavior, the Behavioral Inhibition system (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS). It was hypothesized that high vulnerability for negative symptoms would be associated with low reward responsiveness and that this association will be mediated by the amount of anticipated pleasure. Students (n=171) with varying vulnerability for negative symptoms (assessed by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences) completed questionnaires regarding (a) anticipatory and consummatory pleasure, and (b) responsiveness to threat and reward. As hypothesized, anticipatory pleasure correlated significantly negatively with subclinical negative symptoms (r=-0.21) and significantly positively with BAS (r=0.55). Furthermore, evidence for a partial mediation effect was found. The findings support the notion of a close association between negative symptoms, the ability to anticipate pleasure and approach motivation that is evident even in healthy persons. It is suggested that the behavioral deficits immanent to negative symptoms reflect difficulties in the ability to translate emotions into motivation. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Avoided intersections of nodal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble

  16. Gram-negative prosthetic joint infection: outcome of a debridement, antibiotics and implant retention approach. A large multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pardo, D; Pigrau, C; Lora-Tamayo, J; Soriano, A; del Toro, M D; Cobo, J; Palomino, J; Euba, G; Riera, M; Sánchez-Somolinos, M; Benito, N; Fernández-Sampedro, M; Sorli, L; Guio, L; Iribarren, J A; Baraia-Etxaburu, J M; Ramos, A; Bahamonde, A; Flores-Sánchez, X; Corona, P S; Ariza, J

    2014-11-01

    We aim to evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of gram-negative prosthetic joint infection (GN-PJI) treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR), identify factors predictive of failure, and determine the impact of ciprofloxacin use on prognosis. We performed a retrospective, multicentre, observational study of GN-PJI diagnosed from 2003 through to 2010 in 16 Spanish hospitals. We define failure as persistence or reappearance of the inflammatory joint signs during follow-up, leading to unplanned surgery or repeat debridement>30 days from the index surgery related death, or suppressive antimicrobial therapy. Parameters predicting failure were analysed with a Cox regression model. A total of 242 patients (33% men; median age 76 years, interquartile range (IQR) 68-81) with 242 episodes of GN-PJI were studied. The implants included 150 (62%) hip, 85 (35%) knee, five (2%) shoulder and two (1%) elbow prostheses. There were 189 (78%) acute infections. Causative microorganisms were Enterobacteriaceae in 78%, Pseudomonas spp. in 20%, and other gram-negative bacilli in 2%. Overall, 19% of isolates were ciprofloxacin resistant. DAIR was used in 174 (72%) cases, with an overall success rate of 68%, which increased to 79% after a median of 25 months' follow-up in ciprofloxacin-susceptible GN-PJIs treated with ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin treatment exhibited an independent protective effect (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.23; 95% CI, 0.13-0.40; pInfection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. [Diagnostic and therapeutic management of Gram-negative infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Repetto, Ernestina

    2008-04-01

    Among Gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing strains, Acinetobacter spp, in particular the multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are the most implicated micrororganisms in the ever more increasing problem of bacterial resistance. Possible solutions have to be searched, on one hand, in the use of new drugs but, on the other hand, in the re-evaluation of those already available drugs, possibly considering a new role for old drugs such as colistine and fosfomycin. Concerning ESBL-producing strains, the most recent data provided by EARSS report, in Italy, an incidence rate of 10-25 percent. The insurgence of an infection sustained by an ESBL+ve strain is strictly related to some well known risk factors, like the hospital stay itself, the disease severity, the length of stay in ICU, intubation and mechanical ventilation, catheterization, urinary or artery, and the past exposure to antibiotics. The raise in ESBL producing strains is closely related to the increasing use of cephalosporins. In the setting of a Gram negative infection, the combination therapy guarantees a higher coverage by reducing insurgence of possible resistance mechanisms, possibly resulting synergistic, and allowing a de-escalation therapy, although to this latter other problems, such as tolerability, costs and compliance, can be related. Another basic aspect to take into account of, in order to achieve the maximal efficacy of the antibiotic treatment, is the right dosage. In the idea to look for the best approach for the antibiotic treatment of a severe infection in a hospital setting, when a Gram negative aetiology is implicated, it can be possibly presumed that the right way consists in avoiding inappropriate antibiotic therapies, making therapeutic choices based on guidelines resulted from local epidemiological data, initiating the therapy promptly, avoiding excessive use of antibiotics, possibly

  18. Conflict Avoidance and University Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.

    The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…

  19. Negative reactions to monitoring: Do they undermine the ability of monitoring to protect adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D; Zeringue, Megan M; Lambert, Emily S

    2018-02-01

    This study focused on adolescents' negative reactions to parental monitoring to determine whether parents should avoid excessive monitoring because adolescents find monitoring behaviors to be over-controlling and privacy invasive. Adolescents (n = 242, M age = 15.4 years; 51% female) reported monitoring, negative reactions, warmth, antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and disclosure. Adolescents additionally reported antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and disclosure one to two years later. In cross-sectional analyses, less monitoring but more negative reactions were linked with less disclosure, suggesting that negative reactions can undermine parents' ability to obtain information. Although monitoring behaviors were not related to depressive symptoms, more negative reactions were linked with more depressive symptoms, suggesting that negative reactions also may increase depressive symptoms as a side effect of monitoring behavior. Negative reactions were not linked to antisocial behavior. There were no longitudinal links between negative reactions and changes in disclosure, antisocial behavior, or depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  2. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.

  3. Effects of IFRS adoption on tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nogueira Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigates the association between mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adoption and corporate tax avoidance. In this study, tax avoidance is defined as a reduction in the effective corporate income tax rate through tax planning activities, whether these are legal, questionable, or even illegal. Three measures of tax avoidance are used and factors at the country and firm level (that have already been associated with tax avoidance in prior research are controlled. Using samples that range from 9,389 to 15,423 publicly-traded companies from 35 countries, covering 1999 to 2014, it is found that IFRS adoption is associated with higher levels of corporate tax avoidance, even when the level of book-tax conformity required in the countries and the volume of accruals are controlled, both of which are considered potential determinants of this relationship. Furthermore, the results suggest that after IFRS adoption, firms in higher book-tax conformity environments engage more in tax avoidance than firms in lower book-tax conformity environments. It is also identified that engagement in tax avoidance after IFRS adoption derives not only from accruals management, but also from practices that do not involve accruals. The main conclusion is that companies engage more in tax avoidance after mandatory IFRS adoption.

  4. Tax Avoidance, Welfare Transfers, and Asset Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Gorea

    2013-01-01

    Does tax avoidance have any implications for financial markets? This paper quantifies the general equilibrium implications of tax avoidance by setting up an incomplete markets production economy model in which households pay capital gains taxes and have access to tax avoidance technologies provided by financial institutions. I find that changes in the level of tax avoidance have disproportionate effects on different groups of agents and generally benefit the old, wealthy and high income house...

  5. The clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of triple-negativity in node-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Jiyoung; Kim, Tae-You; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Jee Hyun; Im, Seock-Ah; Han, Wonshik; Ae Park, In; Noh, Dong-Young; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behaviour. We investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. Medical records were reviewed from patients with node-negative breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at Seoul National University Hospital between Jan. 2000 and Jun. 2003. Clinicopathologic variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Among 683 patients included, 136 had TN breast cancer and 529 had non-TN breast cancer. TN breast cancer correlated with younger age (< 35 y, p = 0.003), and higher histologic and nuclear grade (p < 0.001). It also correlated with a molecular profile associated with biological aggressiveness: negative for bcl-2 expression (p < 0.001), positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor (p = 0.003), and a high level of p53 (p < 0.001) and Ki67 expression (p < 0.00). The relapse rates during the follow-up period (median, 56.8 months) were 14.7% for TN breast cancer and 6.6% for non-TN breast cancer (p = 0.004). Relapse free survival (RFS) was significantly shorter among patients with TN breast cancer compared with those with non-TN breast cancer (4-year RFS rate 85.5% vs. 94.2%, respectively; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, young age, close resection margin, and triple-negativity were independent predictors of shorter RFS. TN breast cancer had higher relapse rate and more aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics than non-TN in node-negative breast cancer. Thus, TN breast cancer should be integrated into the risk factor analysis for node-negative breast cancer

  6. Promoting the avoidance of high-calorie snacks. The role of temporal message framing and eating self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Susan; Good, Anna; Pavey, Louisa

    2014-09-01

    Message framing outcomes of healthy behaviours as occurring 'every day' vs. 'every year' can influence the temporal proximity and perceived likelihood of these outcomes. However, it is not known how pre-existing beliefs such as confidence in one's ability to perform health-related behaviour interact with such messages. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether eating self-efficacy moderates the effect of temporal framing (day-frame vs. year-frame) on snacking behaviour. Participants (N = 95) completed the short form of the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL-SF) and read either a day-framed or year-framed message about the health benefits associated with avoiding snacking. Consumption of snacks was reported 7 days later. For those with low levels of eating self-efficacy (WEL-SF score framed message was associated with lower levels of snacking than the day-framed message. The current research identifies a key role for eating self-efficacy in shaping recipients' responses to temporally framed messages about the health benefits associated with the avoidance of snacking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spending more money, saving more lives? The relationship between avoidable mortality and healthcare spending in 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Richard; Koolman, Xander; Westert, Gert P

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare expenditures rise as a share of GDP in most countries, raising questions regarding the value of further spending increases. Against this backdrop, we assessed the value of healthcare spending growth in 14 western countries between 1996 and 2006. We estimated macro-level health production functions using avoidable mortality as outcome measure. Avoidable mortality comprises deaths from certain conditions "that should not occur in the presence of timely and effective healthcare". We investigated the relationship between total avoidable mortality and healthcare spending using descriptive analyses and multiple regression models, focussing on within-country variation and growth rates. We aimed to take into account the role of potential confounders and dynamic effects such as time lags. Additionally, we explored a method to estimate macro-level cost-effectiveness. We found an average yearly avoidable mortality decline of 2.6-5.3% across countries. Simultaneously, healthcare spending rose between 1.9 and 5.9% per year. Most countries with above-average spending growth demonstrated above-average reductions in avoidable mortality. The regression models showed a significant association between contemporaneous and lagged healthcare spending and avoidable mortality. The time-trend, representing an exogenous shift of the health production function, reduced the impact of healthcare spending. After controlling for this time-trend and other confounders, i.e. demographic and socioeconomic variables, a statistically significant relationship between healthcare spending and avoidable mortality remained. We tentatively conclude that macro-level healthcare spending increases provided value for money, at least for the disease groups, countries and years included in this study.

  8. SPECIFIC COURSE OF PREGNANCY, PERINATAL OUTCOMES AND TREATMENT RESULTS IN HIV NEGATIVE FEMALE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Nesterenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the specific course of pregnancy, perinatal outcomes and treatment results in HIV negative female patients.Subjects and Methods. Medical files of 109 pregnant tuberculosis patients were analyzed who were followed up in Krasnoyarsk Regional TB Dispensary no. 1 from 2010 to 2014.Results. The part of children prematurely born by mothers ill with tuberculosis was practically compatible with the overall national cohort of live-born children (6.8% in the analyzed group versus 5.7% in the national cohort for 2014. The part of children with congenital abnormalities born by mothers suffering from tuberculosis turned out to be twice lower versus the overall national cohort of live-born children (1.4% versus 3.0% in 2010 and 2.9% in 2014.The efficiency of the main treatment course in pregnant women without multiple drug resistant tuberculosis, of which 3.8 ± 0.3 months of tuberculosis treatment coincided with pregnancy was practically the same as treatment efficiency for the overall cohort of patients in Krasnoyarsky Kray (66.2% in the analyzed cohort versus 60.3-72.7% in the regional cohort for 2010-2014. In the pregnant with multiple drug resistant forms of tuberculosis, treatment efficiency was lower versus the regional cohort (30.4% in the analyzed cohort versus 41.1-60.2% in the regional cohort for 2010-2014. 

  9. Negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Outcome of 5-year follow-up in men with negative findings on initial MRI studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itatani, R., E-mail: banguliao@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Namimoto, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Atsuji, S.; Katahira, K.; Morishita, S. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Kitani, K.; Hamada, Y. [Department of Urology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Kitaoka, M. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Nakaura, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa Medical Center, Kameba 854-1, Amakusa, Kumamoto 863-0046 (Japan); Yamashita, Y. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We assess the negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. • Patients with positive prostate biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. • Patients with negative initial prostate biopsy findings were followed up for 5 years. • The negative predictive value was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. • MRI is a useful tool to rule out significant prostate cancer before biopsy. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the clinical negative predictive value (NPV) of multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) for prostate cancer in a 5-year follow-up. Materials and methods: One hundred ninety-three men suspected of harboring prostate cancer with negative MRI findings were included. Patients with positive transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. Patients with negative initial TRUS-guided biopsy findings were followed up and only patients with negative findings by digital rectal examination, MRI, and repeat biopsy and no increase in PSA at 5-year follow-up were defined as “clinically negative”. The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was calculated. For quantitative analysis, mean signal intensity on T2-weighted images and the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value on ADC maps of the initial MRI studies were compared between peripheral-zone (PZ) cancer and the normal PZ based on pathologic maps of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Results: The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. Small cancers, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy masking prostate cancer returned false-negative results. Quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between PZ cancer and the normal PZ. Conclusion: The mp-MRI revealed a high clinical NPV and is a useful tool to rule out clinically significant prostate cancer before biopsy.

  10. Negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Outcome of 5-year follow-up in men with negative findings on initial MRI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itatani, R.; Namimoto, T.; Atsuji, S.; Katahira, K.; Morishita, S.; Kitani, K.; Hamada, Y.; Kitaoka, M.; Nakaura, T.; Yamashita, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. • Patients with positive prostate biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. • Patients with negative initial prostate biopsy findings were followed up for 5 years. • The negative predictive value was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. • MRI is a useful tool to rule out significant prostate cancer before biopsy. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the clinical negative predictive value (NPV) of multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) for prostate cancer in a 5-year follow-up. Materials and methods: One hundred ninety-three men suspected of harboring prostate cancer with negative MRI findings were included. Patients with positive transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. Patients with negative initial TRUS-guided biopsy findings were followed up and only patients with negative findings by digital rectal examination, MRI, and repeat biopsy and no increase in PSA at 5-year follow-up were defined as “clinically negative”. The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was calculated. For quantitative analysis, mean signal intensity on T2-weighted images and the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value on ADC maps of the initial MRI studies were compared between peripheral-zone (PZ) cancer and the normal PZ based on pathologic maps of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Results: The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. Small cancers, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy masking prostate cancer returned false-negative results. Quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between PZ cancer and the normal PZ. Conclusion: The mp-MRI revealed a high clinical NPV and is a useful tool to rule out clinically significant prostate cancer before biopsy

  11. Self-esteem and other-esteem in college students with borderline and avoidant personality disorder features: An experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, David P; Armitage, Chris J; Drabble, Jennifer; Meyer, Björn

    2013-11-01

    An experimental study investigated self-esteem and other-esteem responses to either fully supportive or less supportive interpersonal feedback in college students with avoidant and borderline personality disorder features (APD and BPD respectively). Disturbances in self-esteem and in evaluations of others are central to definitions of both APD and BPD, but the extent to which such interpersonal appraisals are responsive to contextual features, such as evaluative feedback from others, is not yet clear. In theory, we would expect that individuals with pronounced PD features would show more inflexible and more negative self-evaluations and others- evaluations than those without PD features. In this study with 169 undergraduates, APD but not BPD features were associated with other-contingent state self-esteem and other-esteem. A significant interaction indicated that highly avoidant respondents felt particularly negatively about themselves and their close others in situations that conveyed subtle criticism but not in situations signalling unequivocal support. This suggests that their self-esteem and other-esteem, rather than being rigidly negative, are instead highly contingent upon interpersonal feedback. Such context contingency has implications for the trait-like description of diagnostic characteristics within current taxonomies and is in line with contemporary dynamic models of personality structure and process. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Influence of peer review on the reporting of primary outcome(s) and statistical analyses of randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Sally; Witt, Claudia M; Linde, Klaus; Icke, Katja; Adedire, Olubusola; Kirtley, Shona; Altman, Douglas G

    2018-01-11

    Selective reporting of outcomes in clinical trials is a serious problem. We aimed to investigate the influence of the peer review process within biomedical journals on reporting of primary outcome(s) and statistical analyses within reports of randomised trials. Each month, PubMed (May 2014 to April 2015) was searched to identify primary reports of randomised trials published in six high-impact general and 12 high-impact specialty journals. The corresponding author of each trial was invited to complete an online survey asking authors about changes made to their manuscript as part of the peer review process. Our main outcomes were to assess: (1) the nature and extent of changes as part of the peer review process, in relation to reporting of the primary outcome(s) and/or primary statistical analysis; (2) how often authors followed these requests; and (3) whether this was related to specific journal or trial characteristics. Of 893 corresponding authors who were invited to take part in the online survey 258 (29%) responded. The majority of trials were multicentre (n = 191; 74%); median sample size 325 (IQR 138 to 1010). The primary outcome was clearly defined in 92% (n = 238), of which the direction of treatment effect was statistically significant in 49%. The majority responded (1-10 Likert scale) they were satisfied with the overall handling (mean 8.6, SD 1.5) and quality of peer review (mean 8.5, SD 1.5) of their manuscript. Only 3% (n = 8) said that the editor or peer reviewers had asked them to change or clarify the trial's primary outcome. However, 27% (n = 69) reported they were asked to change or clarify the statistical analysis of the primary outcome; most had fulfilled the request, the main motivation being to improve the statistical methods (n = 38; 55%) or avoid rejection (n = 30; 44%). Overall, there was little association between authors being asked to make this change and the type of journal, intervention, significance of the

  13. Strategic mistakes (AVOIDABLE The topicality of Michel Porter’s generic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Adolfo Viltard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the topicality of Porter’s generic strategies, assessing about their applicability on two specific automotive industry projects: The Smart and the New Beetle.   After performing a documentation analysis on these two projects, it was concluded that both of them may be considered avoidable strategic mistakes as they show the risks of higher differentiation that is not being paid by the customer, no matter how if it is about recognized brands or icon products. Hazards and risks, like big losses and negative margins, are applicable to every firm.   This is a qualitative investigation with a not experimental and transversal research design.

  14. The Role of Age and Social Motivation in Developmental Transitions in Young and Old Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eNikitin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two diary studies investigated the role of social approach and avoidance motivation in important developmental transitions in young and old adulthood. Study 1 comprised a sample of young adults (N = 93, M = 21.5 years who moved out of their parental homes. The sample of Study 2 consisted of older adults (N = 69, M = 76.95 years who moved into senior housing. In both studies, participants reported their habitual social approach and avoidance motives as well as their daily social experience and subjective well-being over the course of two weeks. In line with the literature, social approach motives and age were related to higher subjective well-being, whereas social avoidance motives were negatively associated with subjective well-being. Time since the transition was an important moderator of the association between social avoidance motives and negative outcomes. With increasing time from the transition, the negative effects of social avoidance motives decreased. The positive effects of social approach motives remained fairly stable over time. Importantly, age did not moderate any of the associations between social motivation and outcomes. Results are discussed in terms of transition-related instability and age-related stability.

  15. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to record investor’s brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN and feedback-related negativity (FRN components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process.

  16. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to record investor's brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN) and feedback-related negativity (FRN) components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process. PMID:26557139

  17. The Role of Negative Affect on Headache-Related Disability Following Traumatic Physical Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, Maria L; Hruska, Bryce; George, Richard L; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2018-03-01

    Acute postinjury negative affect (NA) may contribute to headache pain following physical injury. Early psychiatric-headache comorbidity conveys increased vulnerability to chronic headache-related disability and impairment. Yet, it is unknown whether NA is involved in the transition to chronic headache related-disability after injury. This prospective observational study examined the role of acute postinjury NA on subacute and chronic headache-related disability above and beyond nonpsychiatric factors. Eighty adult survivors of single-incident traumatic physical injury were assessed for negative affect (NA): a composite of depression and anxiety symptoms, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSS) during the acute 2-week postinjury phase. NA was examined as the primary predictor of subacute (6-week) and chronic (3-month) headache-related disability; secondary analyses examined whether the individual NA components differentially impacted the outcomes. Hierarchical linear regression confirmed NA as a unique predictor of subacute (Cohen's f  2  = 0.130; P = .005) and chronic headache related-disability (Cohen's f  2  = 0.160; P = .004) beyond demographic and injury-related factors (sex, prior headaches, and closed head injury). Upon further analysis, PTSS uniquely predicted greater subacute (Cohen's f  2  = 0.105; P = .012) and chronic headache-related disability (Cohen's f  2  = 0.103; P = .022) above and beyond demographic and injury-related factors, depression, and anxiety. Avoidance was a robust predictor of subacute headache impairment (explaining 15% of the variance) and hyperarousal was a robust predictor of chronic headache impairment (10% of the variance). Although NA consistently predicted headache-related disability, PTSS alone was a unique predictor above and beyond nonpsychiatric factors, depression, and anxiety. These results are suggestive that early treatment of acute postinjury PTSS may correlate with

  18. A New Paradigm for Evaluating Avoidance/Escape Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Bouchekioua, Youcef; Mimura, Masaru; Tanaka, Kenji F

    2017-07-01

    Organisms have evolved to approach pleasurable opportunities and to avoid or escape from aversive experiences. These 2 distinct motivations are referred to as approach and avoidance/escape motivations and are both considered vital for survival. Despite several recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of motivation, most studies addressed approach but not avoidance/escape motivation. Here we develop a new experimental paradigm to quantify avoidance/escape motivation and examine the pharmacological validity. We set up an avoidance variable ratio 5 task in which mice were required to press a lever for variable times to avoid an upcoming aversive stimulus (foot shock) or to escape the ongoing aversive event if they failed to avoid it. We i.p. injected ketamine (0, 1, or 5 mg/kg) or buspirone (0, 5, or 10 mg/kg) 20 or 30 minutes before the behavioral task to see if ketamine enhanced avoidance/escape behavior and buspirone diminished it as previously reported. We found that the performance on the avoidance variable ratio 5 task was sensitive to the intensity of the aversive stimulus. Treatment with ketamine increased while that with buspirone decreased the probability of avoidance from an aversive stimulus in the variable ratio 5 task, being consistent with previous reports. Our new paradigm will prove useful for quantifying avoidance/escape motivation and will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of motivation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  19. Brand Avoidance : A study focusing on Marketing Communication within the Sportswear Industry in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, Anna-Sara; Almqvist, Therese; Forsberg, Moa

    2016-01-01

    Background Until today, branding in positive forms has been widely researched. It has been studied why consumers choose certain brands and how companies can increase brand loyalty. On the other hand, literature lacks studies on negative branding, which now becomes more interesting to gain more knowledge about. One knows that it is of equal importance to investigate why people would avoid a brand as what makes them purchase a brand. Hence, the topic of anti-consumption and in particular brand ...

  20. Brain potentials associated with the outcome processing in framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Feng, Yandong; Xu, Qing; Bian, Jun; Tang, Huixian

    2012-10-24

    Framing effect is a cognitive bias referring to the phenomenon that people respond differently to different but objectively equivalent descriptions of the same problem. By measuring event-related potentials, the present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the framing effect, especially how the negative and positive frames influence the outcome processing in our brain. Participants were presented directly with outcomes framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large and small group conditions, and were asked to rate the favorableness of each of them. The behavioral results showed that the framing effect occurred in both group size conditions, with more favorable evaluations associated with positive framing. Compared with outcomes in positive framing condition, a significant feedback-related negativity (FRN) effect was elicited by outcomes in negative framing condition, even though the outcomes in different conditions were objectively equivalent. The results are explained in terms of the associative model of attribute framing effect which states that attribute framing effect occurs as a result of a valence-based associative processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using decision trees to explore the association between the length of stay and potentially avoidable readmissions: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyahya, Mohammad S; Hijazi, Heba H; Alshraideh, Hussam A; Al-Nasser, Amjad D

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing concern that reduction in hospital length of stay (LOS) may raise the rate of hospital readmission. This study aims to identify the rate of avoidable 30-day readmission and find out the association between LOS and readmission. All consecutive patient admissions to the internal medicine services (n = 5,273) at King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan between 1 December 2012 and 31 December 2013 were analyzed. To identify avoidable readmissions, a validated computerized algorithm called SQLape was used. The multinomial logistic regression was firstly employed. Then, detailed analysis was performed using the Decision Trees (DTs) model, one of the most widely used data mining algorithms in Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS). The potentially avoidable 30-day readmission rate was 44%, and patients with longer LOS were more likely to be readmitted avoidably. However, LOS had a significant negative effect on unavoidable readmissions. The avoidable readmission rate is still highly unacceptable. Because LOS potentially increases the likelihood of avoidable readmission, it is still possible to achieve a shorter LOS without increasing the readmission rate. Moreover, the way the DT model classified patient subgroups of readmissions based on patient characteristics and LOS is applicable in real clinical decisions.

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Causes Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice Under Approach-Avoidance Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlu; Yan, Yixiu; Cheng, Jingjing; Xiao, Gang; Gu, Jueqing; Zhang, Luqi; Yuan, Siyu; Wang, Junlu; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal approach-avoidance behavior has been linked to deficits in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of the brain. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important pattern-recognition receptor in the innate immune system, can be directly activated by substances of abuse, resulting in an increase of the extracellular DA level in the nucleus accumbens. We thus hypothesized that TLR4-dependent signaling might regulate approach-avoidance behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared the novelty-seeking and social interaction behaviors of TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in an approach-avoidance conflict situation in which the positive motivation to explore a novel object or interact with an unfamiliar mouse was counteracted by the negative motivation to hide in exposed, large spaces. We found that TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced novelty-seeking and social interaction in the large open spaces. In less stressful test apparatuses similar in size to the mouse cage, however, TLR4(-/-) mice performed normally in both novelty-seeking and social interaction tests. The reduced exploratory behaviors under approach-avoidance conflict were not due to a high anxiety level or an enhanced fear response in the TLR4(-/-) mice, as these mice showed normal anxiety and fear responses in the open field and passive avoidance tests, respectively. Importantly, the novelty-seeking behavior in the large open field induced a higher level of c-Fos activation in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Partially inactivating the NAcSh via infusion of GABA receptor agonists restored the novelty-seeking behavior of TLR4(-/-) mice. These data suggested that TLR4 is crucial for positive motivational behavior under approach-avoidance conflict. TLR4-dependent activation of neurons in the NAcSh may contribute to this phenomenon.

  3. Negative Measures Are Not Enough, A Constructive Approach Is Needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1983-01-01

    This text is Broda’s contribution to the Pugwash Symposium 1983 in Bucharest. In this document Broda analyses the paramount problem of his time: peace and especially the avoidance of atomic war. He explains further that ‘negative measures’ like the demands for an atomic freeze and disarmament are not sufficient, but a constructive approach is needed. For this constructive approach Broda assigns an important role to international organizations like IAEA a.o. (nowak)

  4. Associations between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

    2011-01-01

    Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…

  5. Vigilance in the laboratory predicts avoidance in the real world: A dimensional analysis of neural, behavioral, and ecological momentary data in anxious youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca B. Price

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC could play a mechanistic role in this link. 78 clinically anxious youth completed a dot-probe task to assess vigilance to threat while undergoing fMRI. Real-world avoidance was assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA of self-reported suppression and distraction during negative life events. Vigilance toward threat was positively associated with EMA distraction and suppression. Functional connectivity between a right amygdala seed region and dorsomedial and right dorsolateral PFC regions was inversely related to EMA distraction. Dorsolateral PFC-amygdalar connectivity statistically mediated the relationship between attentional vigilance and real-world distraction. Findings suggest anxious youth showing attentional vigilance toward threat are more likely to use suppression and distraction to regulate negative emotions. Reduced PFC control over limbic reactivity is a possible neural substrate of this pattern. These findings lend ecological validity to laboratory vigilance assessments and suggest PFC-amygdalar connectivity is a neural mechanism bridging laboratory and naturalistic contexts.

  6. Bad is freer than good: Positive-negative asymmetry in attributions of free will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Baumeister, Roy F

    2016-05-01

    Recent findings support the idea that the belief in free will serves as the basis for moral responsibility, thus promoting the punishment of immoral agents. We theorized that free will extends beyond morality to serve as the basis for accountability and the capacity for change more broadly, not only for others but also for the self. Five experiments showed that people attributed higher freedom of will to negative than to positive valence, regardless of morality or intent, for both self and others. In recalling everyday life situations and in classical decision making paradigms, negative actions, negatives outcomes, and negative framing were attributed higher free will than positive ones. Free will attributions were mainly driven by action or outcome valence, but not intent. These findings show consistent support for the idea that free will underlies laypersons' sense-making for accountability and change under negative circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coping and mental health outcomes among Sierra Leonean war-affected youth: Results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manasi; Fine, Shoshanna L; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-02-01

    This study explored how coping with war-related traumatic events in Sierra Leone impacted mental health outcomes among 529 youth (aged 10-17 at baseline; 25% female) using longitudinal data from three time points (Time 1 in 2002, Time 2 in 2004, and Time 3 in 2008). We examined two types of coping items (approach and avoidance); used multiple regression models to test their relations with long-term mental health outcomes (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive/prosocial behaviors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms); and used mediation analyses to test whether coping explained the relation between previous war exposures (being raped, death of parent(s), or killing/injuring someone during the war) and those outcomes. We found that avoidance coping items were associated with lower internalizing and posttraumatic stress behaviors at Time 3, and provided some evidence of mediating the relation between death of parent(s) during the war and the two outcomes mentioned above. Approach coping was associated with higher Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors, whereas avoidance coping was associated with lower Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors. Avoidance coping may be a protective factor against mental illness, whereas approach coping may be a promotive factor for adaptive/prosocial behaviors in war-affected societies. This study has important implications for designing and implementing mental health interventions for youth in postconflict settings.

  8. Assessing the Level of Disability, Deep Cervical Flexor Endurance and Fear Avoidance Beliefs in Bankers with Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deptee Warikoo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of disability, the deep cervical flexor endurance and fear avoidance beliefs (FAB in bankers with neck pain and to find a correlation between disability and deep cervical muscle endurance, FAB and disability, FAB and deep flexor muscle endurance. Methods: It ws an observational study. The Subjects who had neck pain and minimum 5 years’ experience as a Banker participated in the study. Total 100 subjects were selected. All the subjects were assessed for their disability by the neck pain and disability score (NPDI, their deep cervical flexor endurance using Pressure Biofeedback using Cranio-Cervical flexion test (CCFT and Fear Avoidance Belief by using questionnaire( FABQ. Results: It was found that bankers have a moderate level of disability. The results showed an elevated fear avoidance belief with a mean value of FABQ-PA 21.61±4.42 and FABQ-W 37.81± 5.69. The results indicated that a negative correlation was found between NPDI and CCFT (r=0.855. A positive correlation was found between NPDI and FABQ-PA(r=0.337, FABQ-W(r=0.500. In the present study a negative correlation was found between CCFT and FABQ-W(r=0.553, FABQ-PA (0.348 and positive correlation (r=0.540 was found between FABQ-PA and FABQ-W. Conclusion: The present study concluded that there was a significant level of disability and significantly decreased endurance level and increased fear avoidance beliefs (both work and physical activity related among bankers with neck pain. In addition to that there was a significant correlation found between NPDI and CCFT, NPDI and FABQ, CCFT and FABQ, FABQ-W and FABQ-PA.

  9. Imagining intergroup contact can combat mental health stigma by reducing anxiety, avoidance and negative stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathi, Sofia; Tsantila, Katerina; Crisp, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated widespread negative attitudes held toward people with mental health problems. Our study investigated whether a new prejudice reduction technique, imagined intergroup contact (Crisp & Turner, 2009), could combat stigma against people with mental illness, and the mediating processes through which it may exert this beneficial effect. We found that compared to a control condition, participants who imagined a positive encounter with a schizophrenic person reported weakened stereotypes and formed stronger intentions to engage in future social interactions with schizophrenic people in general. Importantly, these intentions were formed due to reduced feelings of anxiety about future interactions. We discuss the implications of these findings for improving the social inclusion of people with mental health problems.

  10. Effect of Simultaneous Use of Ritalin with Grape Seed Extract on Passive Avoidance Learning in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Karimizadeh Moneh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Ritalin is one of the drugs used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of Ritalin with grape seed extract on passive avoidance learning in adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into 5 groups of 8 rats including control, sham and three experimental groups. The control group received no treatment. The sham group received 1 ml of distilled water per day. At the same time the experimental groups received 100 mg/kg grape seed extract, 1 mg/kg Ritalin or 100 mg/kg grape seed extract together with 1 mg/kg of Ritalin by gavage for 28 days. For measuring the amount of avoidance learning, Shuttle box was used. Data analyzed by ANOVA and consistent Tukey's tests using SPSS-18 software and p>0.05 considered as significant. Results: The results showed that Ritalin decreases the passive avoidance learning, while the grape seed extract alone or together with Ritalin increases passive avoidance learning. Conclusion:  The outcome of this research shows that taking Ritalin leads to decreasing passive avoidance learning. However, the simultaneous taking Ritalin with grape seed extract inhibits the Ritalin effect and increasing the learning.

  11. Incidental emotions influence risk preference and outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ding; Gu, Ruolei; Tang, Ping; Yang, Qiwei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-10-01

    Incidental emotions, which are irrelevant to the current decision, play a significant role in the decision-making process. In this study, to investigate the influence of incidental emotions on behavioral, psychological, and electrophysiological responses in the process of decision making, participants were required to perform a monetary gambling task. During the selection stage, an emotional picture, which was chosen from the Chinese Affective Picture System and fell into one of three categories: negative, neutral, and positive, was presented between two alternatives (small/large amount of bet). The pictures were provided to induce incidental emotions. ERPs and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Behavioral results showed that positive incidental emotions elicited risk preference, but emotional experiences to outcome feedback were not influenced by incidental emotions. The feedback-related negativity amplitudes were larger in the positive emotion condition than in the negative and neutral emotion conditions for small outcomes (including wins and losses), whereas there was no difference between the three conditions for large outcomes. In addition, the amplitudes of P3 were reduced overall in the negative emotion condition. We suggest that incidental emotions have modulated both the option assessment stage (manifested in behavioral choices) and the outcome evaluation stage (manifested in ERP amplitudes) of decision making unconsciously (indicated by unchanged subjective emotional experiences). The current findings have expanded our understanding of the role of incidental emotion in decision making. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybur, Joshua M.; Inbar, Yoel; Aarøe, Lene; Barclay, Pat; Barlow, Fiona Kate; de Barra, Mícheál; Becker, D. Vaughn; Borovoi, Leah; Choi, Incheol; Choi, Jong An; Consedine, Nathan S.; Conway, Alan; Conway, Jane Rebecca; Conway, Paul; Adoric, Vera Cubela; Demirci, Dilara Ekin; Fernández, Ana María; Ferreira, Diogo Conque Seco; Ishii, Keiko; Jakšić, Ivana; Ji, Tingting; van Leeuwen, Florian; Lewis, David M. G.; Li, Norman P.; McIntyre, Jason C.; Mukherjee, Sumitava; Park, Justin H.; Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Petersen, Michael Bang; Pizarro, David; Prodromitis, Gerasimos; Prokop, Pavol; Rantala, Markus J.; Reynolds, Lisa M.; Sandin, Bonifacio; Sevi, Bariş; De Smet, Delphine; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Tewari, Shruti; Wilson, Cameron; Yong, Jose C.; Žeželj, Iris

    2016-01-01

    People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations for these relationships. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that these relationships between pathogens and politics are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups, who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members. Results from a study surveying 11,501 participants across 30 nations are more consistent with the intragroup account than with the intergroup account. National parasite stress relates to traditionalism (an aspect of conservatism especially related to adherence to group norms) but not to social dominance orientation (SDO; an aspect of conservatism especially related to endorsements of intergroup barriers and negativity toward ethnic and racial outgroups). Further, individual differences in pathogen-avoidance motives (i.e., disgust sensitivity) relate more strongly to traditionalism than to SDO within the 30 nations. PMID:27791090

  13. Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybur, Joshua M; Inbar, Yoel; Aarøe, Lene; Barclay, Pat; Barlow, Fiona Kate; de Barra, Mícheál; Becker, D Vaughn; Borovoi, Leah; Choi, Incheol; Choi, Jong An; Consedine, Nathan S; Conway, Alan; Conway, Jane Rebecca; Conway, Paul; Adoric, Vera Cubela; Demirci, Dilara Ekin; Fernández, Ana María; Ferreira, Diogo Conque Seco; Ishii, Keiko; Jakšić, Ivana; Ji, Tingting; van Leeuwen, Florian; Lewis, David M G; Li, Norman P; McIntyre, Jason C; Mukherjee, Sumitava; Park, Justin H; Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Petersen, Michael Bang; Pizarro, David; Prodromitis, Gerasimos; Prokop, Pavol; Rantala, Markus J; Reynolds, Lisa M; Sandin, Bonifacio; Sevi, Bariş; De Smet, Delphine; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Tewari, Shruti; Wilson, Cameron; Yong, Jose C; Žeželj, Iris

    2016-11-01

    People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations for these relationships. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that these relationships between pathogens and politics are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups, who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members. Results from a study surveying 11,501 participants across 30 nations are more consistent with the intragroup account than with the intergroup account. National parasite stress relates to traditionalism (an aspect of conservatism especially related to adherence to group norms) but not to social dominance orientation (SDO; an aspect of conservatism especially related to endorsements of intergroup barriers and negativity toward ethnic and racial outgroups). Further, individual differences in pathogen-avoidance motives (i.e., disgust sensitivity) relate more strongly to traditionalism than to SDO within the 30 nations.

  14. Outcome of Acute Prosthetic Joint Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacilli Treated with Open Debridement and Retention of the Prosthesis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pastor, Juan C.; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Vilchez, Félix; García-Ramiro, Sebastián; Bori, Guillem; Sierra, Josep; Martínez, José A.; Font, Lluis; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) treated without implant removal. Patients with an acute PJI due to GNB diagnosed from 2000 to 2007 were prospectively registered. Demographics, comorbidity, type of implant, microbiology data, surgical treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded. Classification and regression tree analysis, the Kaplan-Meier survival method, and the Cox regression model were applied. Forty-seven patients were included. The mean age was 70.7 years, and there were 15 hip prostheses and 32 knee prostheses. The median number of days from the time of arthroplasty was 20. The most frequent pathogens were members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in 41 cases and Pseudomonas spp. in 20 cases. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, 14 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The median durations of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment were 14 and 64 days, respectively. A total of 35 (74.5%) patients were in remission after a median follow-up of 463 days (interquartile range, 344 to 704) days. By use of the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (P = 0.03) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone, when all GNB isolated were susceptible (P = 0.0009), were associated with a better outcome. By use of a Cox regression model, a CRP concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR], 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 12.5; P = 0.043) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone (OR, 9.09; 95% CI, 1.96 to 50; P = 0.005) were independently associated with better outcomes. Open debridement without removal of the implant had a success rate of 74.5%, and the factors associated with good prognosis were a CRP concentration at the time of diagnosis ≤15 mg/dl and treatment with a fluoroquinolone. PMID:19687237

  15. The experience of patients with fear-avoidance belief hospitalised for low back pain - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Dorte Barfred; Tegner, Heidi; Bendix, Tom

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Severe pain, anxiety, depression, and fear-avoidance belief (FAB) are widespread among patients hospitalised for acute low back pain (LBP). Research shows that these psychological factors impact negatively on rehabilitation. This study aimed to investigate and develop an understanding...... of pain in patients with fear avoidance belief hospitalised for LBP. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine patients selected by an FAB questionnaire: averaged FAB - physical activity score was 21 and FAB - work score was 30. All participants were recruited from a rheumatology ward...... metaphors and a need to be involved in the rehabilitation. During interviews, the participants did not indicate high FAB behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high scores, the FAB questionnaire might not be sufficient to detect FAB in patients hospitalised for acute LBP. It is important to include the deeper...

  16. Common Factor Mechanisms in Clinical Practice and Their Relationship with Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan-Sierra, Carolina; Hyland, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates three common factor mechanisms that could affect outcome in clinical practice: response expectancy, the affective expectation model and motivational concordance. Clients attending a gestalt therapy clinic (30 clients), a sophrology (therapeutic technique) clinic (33 clients) and a homeopathy clinic (31 clients) completed measures of expectancy and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) before their first session. After 1 month, they completed PANAS and measures of intrinsic motivation, perceived effort and empowerment. Expectancy was not associated with better outcome and was no different between treatments. Although some of the 54 clients who endorsed highest expectations showed substantial improvement, others did not: 19 had no change or deteriorated in positive affect, and 18 had the same result for negative affect. Intrinsic motivation independently predicted changes in negative affect (β = -0.23). Intrinsic motivation (β = 0.24), effort (β = 0.23) and empowerment (β = 0.20) independently predicted positive affect change. Expectancy (β = -0.17) negatively affected changes in positive affect. Clients found gestalt and sophrology to be more intrinsically motivating, empowering and effortful compared with homeopathy. Greater improvement in mood was found for sophrology and gestalt than for homeopathy clients. These findings are inconsistent with response expectancy as a common factor mechanism in clinical practice. The results support motivational concordance (outcome influenced by the intrinsic enjoyment of the therapy) and the affective expectation model (high expectations can lead for some clients to worse outcome). When expectancy correlates with