WorldWideScience

Sample records for avoiding confidential statement

  1. 5 CFR 3902.102 - Employees required to submit FCC Form A54A, “Confidential Supplemental Statement of Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employees required to submit FCC Form... REQUIREMENTS FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION § 3902.102 Employees required to submit FCC... file FCC Form A54A, “Confidential Supplemental Statement of Employment and Financial Interests.”...

  2. 37 CFR 382.14 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential information. 382... Confidential information. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, “Confidential Information” shall include the statements of account and any information contained therein, including the amount of...

  3. 37 CFR 261.5 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential information. 261... THE MAKING OF EPHEMERAL REPRODUCTIONS § 261.5 Confidential information. (a) For purposes of this part, “Confidential Information” shall include the statements of account, any information contained therein,...

  4. 37 CFR 384.5 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential information. 384... BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENT SERVICES § 384.5 Confidential information. (a) Definition. For purposes of this part, “Confidential Information” shall include the statements of account, any information contained therein,...

  5. Computer Security: Printing confidentially

    CERN Document Server

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever hesitated to print a confidential document using CERN printers? Or perhaps you have rushed quickly to the printer after hitting the “print” button in order to avoid someone else getting hold of and reading your document? These times are over now with the new printing infrastructure!   Indeed, many of us regularly print out confidential documents like our salary slips, MARS forms, tendering documents and drafts of preliminary papers. The upcoming CERN data protection policy will require all of us to respect the confidentiality of such documents and, as the word “confidential” implies, access to “confidential” or sensitive documents will be tightly controlled. What can we do about the public printers located in many buildings, floors and shared spaces - accessible not only to CERN staff and users but also to visitors and guests? Some printers are located in the vicinity of restaurants, cafeterias or close to paths taken b...

  6. 37 CFR 380.5 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential information. 380... information. (a) Definition. For purposes of this part, “Confidential Information” shall include the statements of account and any information contained therein, including the amount of royalty payments,...

  7. 37 CFR 262.5 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential information. 262... information. (a) Definition. For purposes of this part, “Confidential Information” shall include the statements of account, any information contained therein, including the amount of royalty payments, and...

  8. Confidentiality and personal integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, A

    1994-06-01

    This paper uses the social theory of Erving Goffman in order to argue that confidentiality should be understood in relation to the mundane social skills by which individuals present and respect specific self-images of themselves and others during social interaction. The breaching of confidentiality is analysed in terms of one person's capacity to embarrass another, and so to expose that person as incompetent. Respecting confidentiality may at once serve to protect the vulnerable from an unjust society, and yet also protect the guilty from just accusation. Ethical reasoning about confidentiality must therefore recognize the dangers of prejudice and violence inherent in decisions to breach or to respect confidentiality. Case studies are used to illustrate the efficacy of this account, culminating with analyses of three examples from the UKCC document Confidentiality.

  9. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 47.85 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement... trade secret chemical identity to the health purposes indicated in the written statement of need;...

  10. Does Confidential Proxy Voting Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Roberta

    2002-01-01

    Confidential voting in corporate proxies is a principal recommendation in activist institutional investors' guidelines for corproate governance reforms. This paper examins the impact of the adoption of confidential corporate proxy voting on proposal outcoms through a panel data set of shareholder and management proposals submitted from 1986-98 to the 130 firms that adopted confidential voting in those years. Institutional investors promoting confidential voting maintain that private sector in...

  11. Does Confidential Proxy Voting Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Roberta

    2002-01-01

    Confidential voting in corporate proxies is a principal recommendation in activist institutional investors' guidelines for corproate governance reforms. This paper examins the impact of the adoption of confidential corporate proxy voting on proposal outcoms through a panel data set of shareholder and management proposals submitted from 1986-98 to the 130 firms that adopted confidential voting in those years. Institutional investors promoting confidential voting maintain that private sector ...

  12. Does Confidential Proxy Voting Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Romano

    2002-01-01

    Confidential voting in corporate proxies is a principal recommendation in activist institutional investors' guidelines for corporate governance reforms. This paper examines the impact of the adoption of confidential voting on proposal outcomes through a panel data set of shareholder and management proposals submitted from 1986-98 to 130 firms that adopted confidential voting in those years. Institutional investors promoting confidential voting maintain that private sector institutions have co...

  13. Confidentiality and Huntington's chorea.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J.

    1990-01-01

    A doctor has duties towards his patients of both confidentiality and veracity and at times these may conflict, as in the following case. A mother who has the symptoms of Huntington's chorea does not wish her daughters to know. The doctor must try to make her realise how valuable the information can be to the daughters, and thus obtain her consent to inform them. If the mother's consent cannot be obtained, then the doctor must tell the mother that he cannot allow her attitude to deprive the da...

  14. Ombuds’ corner: Confidentiality

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2011-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.    Jane* came to the Ombuds to share her concerns about the actions of Mike*, one of her senior colleague supervisors, and insisted on the absolute confidentiality. The Ombuds promised to keep the information confidential following the terms of his mandate. During the discussion it appeared that the whole group was affected by the situation, spending a lot of time discussing how to resolve the problem instead of focusing on their main responsibilities. The risks for the Organization seemed very high and could possibly endanger the safety of the operations.  On one side, the Ombuds believed that it was essential to bring this matter to the attention of senior managem...

  15. Bioethics for clinicians: 8. Confidentiality

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, I; Baylis, F; Rodgers, S; P. Singer

    1997-01-01

    Physicians are obliged to keep information about their patients secret. The understanding that the physician will not disclose private information about the patient provides a foundation for trust in the therapeutic relationship. Respect for confidentiality is firmly established in codes of ethics and in law. It is sometimes necessary, however, for physicians to breach confidentiality. Physicians should familiarize themselves with legislation in their own province governing the disclosure of ...

  16. Detection and Avoidance of SQL Injection Attack In Multi-Tier Web Based Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. S.Raichal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prevent sql injection attack using stored procedure. In SQL injection attack,an attacker might deliver malicious SQL query segments as user input which could effect in a different database request. Using SQL injection attacks, an attacker might thus obtain and modify confidential information. An attacker could even use a SQL injection vulnerability as a basic IP or Port scanner of the internal corporate network. The stored procedure does not permit conditional statement there by the hacker cannot identify the IDs. The stored procedure is the new approach that is executed. Stored procedure avoids the attack which is more secured one where the conditional statements are not permitted. In sql injection input is set as conditional statements and the user can able to login into the website. But in this paper every condition are checked in the procedural language of stored procedure.Once it notices the condition statement the user will be blocked to log into the website. Only the correct form of passwords is acceptable.

  17. Financial Statements in Particular Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Hořáková, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The thesis delivers suggestions to improve procedures in a financial statement from particular company according to an analysis of individual financial statement pieces and tests of a financial statement report. The first part of the literature search is devoted to an analysis of preparing pieces of the Financial Statement, necessary to carry out at the end of any accounting year to avoid distorting in accounting. After counting all issues, the accounting entity is to close all accounting...

  18. Confidentiality in gamete donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Yavari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades, the third person intervention in human artificial insemination has created new hopes for infertile couples. However these new progresses have propounded new ethical and legal concerns for families. One of them is confidentiality regarding gamete donor's identity, and its disclosure to the future child and others. Of course, negligence to this ethical issue would produce a big barrier for efficient health care services."nFor compiling this article we searched different websites including Pubmed, Ovid, Elsevier, Google and etc and the resulting articles were investigated carefully. "nIn this article, the history of gamete donation in different countries is reviewed initially and the mentioned reasons for anonymity with that of disclosure are compared. "nBecause of the different cultures and values of various societies, it is not justifiable to propose a unique method regarding this issue; however, there have to be clear rules in this regard, in each country. In order to facilitate this process, pretreatment counseling courses should be established to explain different aspects of this issue for the recipients.

  19. Evaluation in a competitive utility environment: the threat of confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    information needs and sources and revise existing policies. 2. Review process for handling confidentiality claims and revise existing policies. 3. Monitor restructuring activities. 4. Develop framework and specific guidelines. 5. Develop standards of conduct. 6. Hold workshops on confidentiality. 7. Design and implement a pilot project. 8. Establish and support consumer advocates. 9. Support more research on confidentiality. Utilities will be reluctant to support these activities and develop the new rules of the game. Regulators need to be more proactive and conduct the above activities promptly in order to avoid paralysis and inertia and to maintain the regulatory balance. The lack of a regulatory framework and specific policies for information access may only make existing problems more severe. The issue of confidentiality has broad sociopolitical dimensions. In the next few years, commissions will be asked to create information policies that will demonstrate the degree of their support for public access to utility- held information. These policies will be important since they can ''profoundly affect the manner in which an individual in a society, indeed a society itself, makes political, economic and social choices.'' Finally, in all likelihood, evaluators will need to adapt to an environment where utility data will be more difficult to obtain and disseminate. It is premature to see how increased confidentiality will affect the objectivity, usefulness, validity, and reliability of evaluations. If the evaluation community wishes to maintain the high its work, creative solutions will most needed

  20. Contractual Protection of Confidential Business Information: In Norwegian Employment- and Business Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, Sarah Lea

    2013-01-01

    Confidential information can be one of the most valuable assets in a business. By avoiding the disclosure of such information, companies are able to maintain their competitive advantage. The main purpose of this thesis is to establish how and to what extent companies can protect confidential business information by contractual regulations according to Norwegian law. This thesis was written with a scholarship from the research project "Nordic Restatement of Contract Law".

  1. 19 CFR 200.735-114 - Employees required to submit statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employees required to submit statements. 200.735... Employees required to submit statements. Except as provided in § 200.735-114a, the following employees shall submit confidential statements of employment and financial interests: (a)(1) Employees in grade GS-13...

  2. Data Confidentiality Challenges in Big Data Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Jian; Zhao, Dongfang

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we address the problem of data confidentiality in big data analytics. In many fields, much useful patterns can be extracted by applying machine learning techniques to big data. However, data confidentiality must be protected. In many scenarios, data confidentiality could well be a prerequisite for data to be shared. We present a scheme to provide provable secure data confidentiality and discuss various techniques to optimize performance of such a system.

  3. Confidentiality and integrity in crowdsourcing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ranj Bar, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Confidentiality and Integrity in Crowdsourcing Systems focuses on identity, privacy, and security related issues in crowdsourcing systems and in particular the confidentiality and integrity of online data created via crowdsourcing. This book begins with an introduction to crowdsourcing and then covers the privacy and security challenges of Confidentiality. The book examines integrity in these systems and the management and control of crowdsourcing systems.

  4. 7 CFR 983.65 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 983.65 Section 983.65..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Reports, Books and Records § 983.65 Confidential information. All reports and records furnished or submitted by handlers to the committee which include confidential data or...

  5. Confidential data in a competitive utility environment: A regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.

    1996-08-01

    Historically, the electric utility industry has been regarded as one of the most open industries in the United States in sharing information but their reputation is being challenged by competitive energy providers, the general public, regulators, and other stakeholders. As the prospect of competition among electricity power providers has increased in recent years, many utilities have been requesting that the data they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to have serious and significant policy implications with respect to: (1) consumer education, the pursuit of truth, mutual respect among parties, and social cooperation; (2) the creation of a fair market for competitive energy services; (3) the regulatory balance; (4) regional and national assessments of energy-savings opportunities; (5) research and development; and (6) evaluations of utility programs, plans, and policies. In a telephone survey of all public utility commissions (PUCs) that regulate electric and gas utilities in the U.S., we found that almost all PUCs have received requests from utility companies for data to be filed as confidential, and confidential data filings appear to have increased (both in scope and in frequency) in those states where utility restructuring is being actively discussed. The most common types of data submitted as confidential by utilities dealt with specific customer data, market data, avoided costs, and utility costs.

  6. The banker customer confidential relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Alqayem, Ameera

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Conscious of the limitations of the petroleum-based economy in Bahrain, the Bahraini government aims to improve other industries, such as finance. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to study the current status of banking confidentiality in Bahrain, and to discover the possibilities for improvement in the banking sector in Bahrain, so that the country can succeed in being the financ...

  7. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    is submitted: power of attorney; cofirmation on presenting the invention at an international exhibition; certified copy of the first patent application; statement on the basis of entitlement to file an application; statement by the inventor if he does not want to be mentioned in the patent application; proof of the payment of the patent application fee; statement of a joint representative if there are more applicants. Conclusion In order that a confidential invention receive  patent or petty patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. A confidential patent application is a very comprehensive document which has to be compiled with expert knowledge from both the technical field to which the application relates and the field of intellectual property protection. The shown content of the confidential patent application with an example can be useful for inventors in their attempts to draw up their own patent applications. [1] The structure and the content of a confidential patent application  is identical  to the content and the form of a patent application submitted to the Intellectual Property Office,a competent state institution for the protection of intellectual property. 

  8. Perturbing Nonnormal Confidential Attributes: The Copula Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rathindra Sarathy; Krishnamurty Muralidhar; Rahul Parsa

    2002-01-01

    Protecting confidential, numerical data in databases from disclosure is an important issue both for commercial organizations as well as data-gathering and disseminating organizations (such as the Census Bureau). Prior studies have shown that perturbation methods are effective in protecting such confidential data from snoopers. Perturbation methods have to provide legitimate users with accurate (unbiased) information, and also provide adequate security against disclosure of confidential inform...

  9. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  10. Confidentiality and American semen donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, A M

    1993-01-01

    Most American donor insemination programs include a policy of complete confidentiality concerning the donor of the semen. This is the result of a long legal tradition of American constitutional law. However, some slight abridgement of this body of legal decisions might be very much in the best interests of children arising from donor insemination, and even--in most cases, in fact--the donors themselves. With regard to the children, the factors involved are both those of genetic counseling, should the need arise, and psychological development. Of course, as at present, the donor must be relieved of all responsibility, both legal and financial. PMID:8348162

  11. 49 CFR 537.12 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.12 Confidential information. (a) Information made available under § 537.11 for public inspection does not include information for... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidential information. 537.12 Section...

  12. 46 CFR 249.11 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality. 249.11 Section 249.11 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS APPROVAL OF UNDERWRITERS FOR MARINE HULL INSURANCE § 249.11 Confidentiality. (a) If the data submitted under this...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.607 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 1210.607 Section 1210.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... PROMOTION PLAN Referendum Procedures § 1210.607 Confidential information. All ballots cast and...

  14. 7 CFR 926.19 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 926.19 Section 926.19... Confidential information. All reports and records furnished or submitted pursuant to this part which include data or information constituting a trade secret or disclosing the trade position or financial...

  15. 7 CFR 930.73 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 930.73 Section 930.73... Handling Reports and Records § 930.73 Confidential information. All reports and records furnished or submitted by handlers to the Board and its authorized agents which include data or information...

  16. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79... Regulating Handling Reports, Books, and Other Records § 984.79 Confidential information. All reports and records submitted by handlers to the Board, which include data or information constituting a trade...

  17. 7 CFR 985.63 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 985.63 Section 985.63... Confidential information. All reports and records furnished or submitted by handlers to, or obtained by the employees of the Committee, which contain data or information constituting a trade secret or disclosing...

  18. 7 CFR 996.72 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 996.72 Section 996.72... Confidential information. All reports and records furnished or submitted by handlers and importers to USDA which include data or information constituting a trade secret or disclosing a trade position,...

  19. 7 CFR 993.71 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 993.71 Section 993.71... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Books and Other Records § 993.71 Confidential information... information constituting a trade secret or disclosing of the trade position, financial condition, or...

  20. 7 CFR 28.960 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 28.960 Section 28.960 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tests § 28.960 Confidential information. No information concerning individual tests under...

  1. 7 CFR 989.75 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 989.75 Section 989.75... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 989.75 Confidential information. All... to no person, except the Secretary upon request therefor, data or information obtained or...

  2. 7 CFR 900.309 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 900.309 Section 900.309... to Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as Amended § 900.309 Confidential information. The... information furnished to, compiled by, or in the possession of the referendum agent, shall be regarded...

  3. 7 CFR 900.407 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 900.407 Section 900.407... to the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as Amended § 900.407 Confidential information... voted or the manner in which any person voted) and all information furnished to, compiled by, or...

  4. 7 CFR 900.352 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 900.352 Section 900.352... Determining the Qualification of Cooperative Milk Marketing Associations § 900.352 Confidential information. The documents and other information submitted by an applicant association and otherwise obtained...

  5. 7 CFR 982.70 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 982.70 Section 982.70... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Records and Reports § 982.70 Confidential information. All reports and records furnished or submitted by handlers to the Board, which include data or information constituting...

  6. 7 CFR 929.65 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 929.65 Section 929.65... Confidential information. All reports and records furnished or submitted by handlers to the committee and its authorized agents which include data or information constituting a trade secret or disclosing the...

  7. 7 CFR 932.63 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 932.63 Section 932.63... Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.63 Confidential information. All reports and information... any person, other than the Secretary upon request therefor, data, or information obtained or...

  8. 7 CFR 54.1033 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 54.1033 Section 54.1033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... and Poultry Products § 54.1033 Confidential treatment. Every design review specialist...

  9. 7 CFR 1150.278 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Confidential treatment. 1150.278 Section 1150.278 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... of Milk Producer Organizations § 1150.278 Confidential treatment. All documents and other...

  10. Application-Oriented Confidentiality and Integrity Dynamic Union Security Model Based on MLS Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mingfu; Hu, Aiqun; He, Chunlong

    We propose a new security model based on MLS Policy to achieve a better security performance on confidentiality, integrity and availability. First, it realizes a combination of BLP model and Biba model through a two-dimensional independent adjustment of integrity and confidentiality. And, the subject's access range is adjusted dynamically according to the security label of related objects and the subject's access history. Second, the security level of the trusted subject is extended to writing and reading privilege range respectively, following the principle of least privilege. Third, it adjusts the objects' security levels after adding confidential information to prevent the information disclosure. Fourth, it uses application-oriented logic to protect specific applications to avoid the degradation of security levels. Thus, it can ensure certain applications operate smoothly. Lastly, examples are presented to show the effectiveness and usability of the proposed model.

  11. 7 CFR 1425.5 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.5 Confidentiality... officers, agents, and employees of CCC and the Department of Agriculture except as required to be...

  12. 15 CFR 806.5 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.5 Confidentiality. Information... the customer of such person where the information supplied is identifiable as being derived from the records of such customer....

  13. 15 CFR 705.6 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS EFFECT OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 705.6 Confidential information. (a) Any... the investigation that would disclose national security classified information or...

  14. Resonating Statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2015-01-01

    IT projects are often complex arrangements of technological components, social actions, and organizational transformation that are difficult to manage in practice. This paper takes an analytical discourse perspective to explore the process of legitimizing IT projects. We introduce the concept...... of resonating statements to highlight how central actors navigate in various discourses over time. Particularly, the statements and actions of an IT project manager are portrayed to show how individuals can legitimize actions by connecting statements to historically produced discourses. The case study...... of an IT project in a Danish local government spans a two-year time period and demonstrates a double-loop legitimization process. First, resonating statements are produced to localize a national IT initiative to support the specificity of a local government discourse. Second, the resonating statements are used...

  15. THE INFORMATION CONFIDENTIALITY AND CYBER SECURITY IN MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABAU-POPA CLAUDIA DIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The information confidentiality and cyber security risk affects the right to confidentiality and privacy of the patient, as regulated in Romania by the Law 46/2002. The manifestation of the cyber security risk event affects the reputation of the healthcare institution and is becoming more and more complex and often due to the: development of network technology, the medical equipment connected to wifi and the electronic databases. The databases containing medical records were implemented due to automation. Thus, transforming data into medical knowledge contribute to a better understanding of the disease. Due to these factors, the measures taken by the hospital management for this type of risk are adapted to the cyber changes. The hospital objectives aim: the implementation of a robust information system, the early threats identifications and the incident reporting. Neglecting this type of risk can generate financial loss, inability to continue providing health care services for a certain period of time, providing an erroneous diagnosis, medical equipment errors etc. Thus, in a digital age the appropriate risk management for the information security and cyber risk represent a necessity. The main concern of hospitals worldwide is to align with international requirements and obtain credentials in terms of data security from the International Organisation for Standardization, which regulates the management of this type of risk. Romania is at the beginning in terms of concerns regarding the management, avoidance and mitigation of information security, the health system being most highly exposed to its manifestation. The present paper examines the concerns of the health system to the confidentiality of information and cyber security risk and its management arrangements. Thus, a set of key risk indicators is implemented and monitored for 2011-2013, using a user interface, a Dashboard, which acts as an early warning system of the manifestation of the

  16. 13 CFR 120.1060 - Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information. 120.1060 Section 120.1060 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision §...

  17. Making a Difference--The Impact of the Confidential Inquiry into Premature Deaths of People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Pauline; Marriott, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The Confidential Inquiry into premature deaths of people with learning disabilities (CIPOLD) was commissioned by the Department of Health in England in 2010 to investigate the avoidable or premature deaths of people with learning disabilities through retrospective reviews of deaths. Both the process of conducting CIPOLD and the findings of the…

  18. EPS Confidentiality and Integrity mechanisms Algorithmic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Orhanou, Ghizlane; Bentaleb, Youssef; Laassiri, Jalal

    2011-01-01

    The Long Term Evolution of UMTS is one of the latest steps in an advancing series of mobile telecommunications systems. Many articles have already been published on the LTE subject but these publications have viewed the subject from particular perspectives. In the present paper, a different approach has been taken. We are interested in the security features and the cryptographic algorithms used to ensure confidentiality and integrity of the transmitted data. A closer look is taken to the two EPS confidentiality and integrity algorithms based on the block cipher algorithm AES: the confidentiality algorithm EEA2 and the integrity algorithm EIA2. Furthermore, we focused on the implementation of both algorithms in C language in respect to the specifications requirements. We have tested our implementations according to the testsets given by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) implementation document. Some examples of the implementation tests are presented bellow.

  19. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  20. What Does Confidentiality Inside The Arbitration Mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana - Loredana HOGAŞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The principle of confidentiality is one of the highlights of the institution of arbitration. Its application is not uniform in the national legislation. The parties to an arbitration agreement may experience various unpleasant situations such as unwanted disclosure of issues they wanted to keep secret, although they had relied on the fact that the private nature of arbitration would protect them from prying eyes and unwanted third parties. In this article we take a brief foray into national and international legislation, analyzing the way in which the principle of confidentiality is applied.

  1. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  2. 40 CFR 716.55 - Confidentiality claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality claims. 716.55 Section 716.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... for commercial distribution (including for test marketing purposes and for use in research...

  3. 28 CFR 0.29f - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality. 0.29f Section 0.29f Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the... investigation, disclose the identity of an employee who submits a complaint to the OIG without the...

  4. 42 CFR 59.11 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.11 Confidentiality. All information as to personal facts and circumstances obtained by the project staff about individuals receiving services must be...

  5. 7 CFR 1215.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1215.62 Section 1215.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.203 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1260.203 Section 1260.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1216.62 Section 1216.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  8. 7 CFR 1280.227 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality. 1280.227 Section 1280.227 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1206.62 Section 1206.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  11. 7 CFR 1212.72 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1212.72 Section 1212.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND...

  12. 7 CFR 1209.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1209.62 Section 1209.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION,...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.340 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1205.340 Section 1205.340 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.243 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1220.243 Section 1220.243 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  15. 7 CFR 1250.354 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1250.354 Section 1250.354 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.352 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1207.352 Section 1207.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND...

  17. 7 CFR 1160.403 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Confidential treatment. 1160.403 Section 1160.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk...

  18. 7 CFR 1210.352 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1210.352 Section 1210.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH...

  19. 7 CFR 1150.173 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Confidential treatment. 1150.173 Section 1150.173 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  20. 7 CFR 1218.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1218.62 Section 1218.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION,...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.127 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1221.127 Section 1221.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  2. 46 CFR 502.405 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality. 502.405 Section 502.405 Shipping... integrity of dispute resolution proceedings in general by reducing the confidence of parties in future cases... integrity of dispute resolution proceedings in general by reducing the confidence of parties in future...

  3. 7 CFR 987.67 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 987.67 Section 987.67... information. All data or other information constituting a trade secret or disclosing a trade position or... the Committee and information which would reveal the circumstances of a single handler shall...

  4. Confidentiality of Accounting Academics: Consequences of Nonconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, Emmanuel B.; Boateng, Peter Agyekum; Onuoha, Luke N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined ways by which nonconformity to confidentiality among accounting academics could lead to increased-recruitment-and-legal-costs to their employing universities in Ghana that offered accounting degree programmes. With a cross-sectional design, data collected from 1,225 accountants analysed via Cronbach's alpha,…

  5. 7 CFR 1219.108 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 1219.108 Section 1219.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION,...

  6. Rio 2016 financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These documents include the report from independent auditors balance sheet, the statement of income, the statement of changes in equity, the statement of cash flows and the explanatory notes to the financial statements.

  7. Maglev suspension in soundproofing cabins for confidential talks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Bogolepov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the idea of providing sound insulation of the room by using a magnetic suspension. It is based on the invention of the Abrakitov V. E.: sound bridge problem is solved by the avoidance of mechanical contact between the panel and the main structure by a magnetic suspension of sound-insulating vacuum panel. The problem is considered on the example of the cabin for private talks.The implementation of sound insulation from airborne sound is technically uncomplicated task, but there are some problems with the structural component of the sound - the sound energy transfer from box floor to office floor and further through the building structures, sometimes at great distance. Modern methods of eavesdropping can use successfully this way. This paper suggests using a magnetic suspension in soundproof rectangular cabins for confidential talks, which excludes leakage of speech information by more effective isolation of the structural sound. If it is necessary to stop the voice information leakage fundamentally by both air sound and structural sound ways, the authors propose to make a cabin from two steel spherical shells, exhausting all air between the walls and supporting the inner shell by the magnetic suspension in suspended condition. In addition, a spherical cabin is the only effective way of isolation from infrasound.The proposed soundproof rectangular and spherical cabins for confidential talks should be designed, manufactured and tested by experts in the field of acoustic, magnetic suspension, autonomous air regeneration and providing a vacuum. Only in this case the necessary acoustic, technological and operational characteristics of a new hi-tech product will be provided.

  8. 16 CFR 801.90 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions or devices for avoidance. 801.90 Section 801.90 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND... Transactions or devices for avoidance. Any transaction(s) or other device(s) entered into or employed for...

  9. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aldabbas, Hamza; Janicke, Helge; Al-Bayatti, Ali; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4117

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis. These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours' data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters) and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nod...

  10. Confidential benchmarking based on multiparty computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Damgård, Kasper Lyneborg; Nielsen, Kurt;

    ' and the consultancy house's data stays confidential, the banks as clients learn nothing but the computed benchmarking score. In the concrete business application, the developed prototype help Danish banks to find the most efficient customers among a large and challenging group of agricultural customers with too much...... state during the computation. We ran the system with two servers doing the secure computation using a database with information on about 2500 users. Answers arrived in about 25 seconds....

  11. Obscuring provenance confidential information via graph transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Jamal; Moreau, Luc; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2015-01-01

    Provenance is a record that describes the people, institutions, entities, and activities involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing. In particular, the provenance of information is crucial in deciding whether information is to be trusted. PROV is a recent W3C specification for sharing provenance over the Web. However, provenance records may expose confidential information, such as identity of agents or specific attributes of entities or activities. It is ther...

  12. A study of confidential unit exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, C A; Hsueh, Y; Querin, J J; Keating, L J; Allensworth, D D

    1990-10-01

    The effectiveness of the confidential unit exclusion (CUE) procedure recommended by the Food and Drug Administration has been questioned by the blood banking community. The purpose of this study was to determine whether donors were informing the blood center correctly regarding the disposition (transfuse or do not transfuse) of their donated blood. A letter explaining the confidential study and requesting permission to send the participant a questionnaire noting his or her self-exclusion choice was mailed to 230 donors who had chosen transfuse and 276 donors who had chosen do not transfuse. After consent was obtained, participants were sent a second packet and asked to indicate whether they had chosen correctly and, if not, to identify reasons for that incorrect choice. A seven-word terminology quiz made up of words from the CUE form was also enclosed. All participants who had chosen transfuse indicated that this was the correct choice. Approximately 50 percent of those who had chosen do not transfuse indicated that this was an incorrect choice; the most common reason was that "I was not paying attention." The most frequently misunderstood term was "confidential." Donors who chose do not transfuse had a significantly higher rate of error on the terminology quiz (p less than 0.01) than did those who chose transfuse. PMID:2219257

  13. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis.These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours’ data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nodes. We evaluate our framework using the Network Simulator (NS-2 to check whether the privacy and confidentiality of the originator are met. For this we implemented the Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs, as NS-2 agents that manage and enforce the policies attached to packets at every node in the MANET.

  14. Improved Message Authentication and Confidentiality Checking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most confusing areas of the secured network communications are the message authentication and confidentiality checking. The attacks and the counter measures have become so convoluted that the users in this area begin to account for all contingencies. Two session-key generation techniques are used here to generate two separate session keys K1 and K2; and both the sender and the reveiver share these keys for higher degree of authentication and confidentiality. For this, the message is first encrypted by the key K1, and then the intermediary message authenticatin code (MAC) is generated by encrypting the encrypted message using the key K2. Then, the encrypted message and the intermediary MAC is again encrypted by using the K2 and concatenated with the encrypted message and sent to the destination. At the receiving end, first, the received ciphertext is encrypted by using key K2 and compared to the received MAC. The received ciphertext again is decrypted by the key K2 and compared with the first decrypted MAC twice by the key K2. The plaintext is obtained by decrypting the received ciphertext first by K2 and then by K1, using the corresponding decryption techniques respectively. The encryption techniques with key K2 provides the authentication and with key K1 provides the confidentiality checking of the transmitted message. The developed technique can be applied to both academic and commercial applications in online or offline electronic transactions for security.(authors)

  15. Practical State Machine Replication with Confidentiality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibin [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

    2016-01-01

    We study how to enable arbitrary randomized algorithms in Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) settings. We formalize a randomized BFT protocol and provide a simple and efficient construction that can be built on any existing BFT protocols while adding practically no overhead. We go one step further to revisit a confidential BFT protocol (Yin et al., SOSP '03). We show that their scheme is potentially susceptible to safety and confidentiality attacks. We then present a new protocol that is secure in the stronger model we formalize, by extending the idea of a randomized BFT protocol. Our protocol uses only efficient symmetric cryptography, while Yin et al.'s uses costly threshold signatures. We implemented and evaluated our protocols on microbenchmarks and real-world use cases. We show that our randomized BFT protocol is as efficient as conventional BFT protocols, and our confidential BFT protocol is two to three orders of magnitude faster than Yin et al.'s, which is less secure than ours.

  16. CRAC: Confidentiality Risk Assessment and IT-Architecture Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Morali, Ayse; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roel

    2010-01-01

    CRAC is an IT-architecture-based method for assessing and comparing confidentiality risks of distributed IT systems. The method determines confidentiality risks by taking into account the effects of the leakage of confidential information (e.g. industrial secrets), and the paths that may be followed by different attackers (e.g. insider and outsider). We evaluate its effectiveness by applying it to a real-world outsourcing case.

  17. Processing of confidential information in distributed systems by fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Jean-Charles; Pérennou, Tanguy

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses how object orientation in application design enables confidentiality aspects to be handled more easily than in conventional approaches. The approach is based on the Fragmentation-Redundancy-Scattering technique developed at LAAS–CNRS for several years. This technique and previous developments are briefly summarized. The idea developed in this paper is based on object fragmentation at design time for reducing data processing in confidential objects; the more non confidenti...

  18. Leaking confidential Information by non-malicious User Behavior in Enterprise Systems - An Empirical Study : 6. Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS 2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadasch, Frank; Mueller, Benjamin; Mädche, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Information assets of enterprises are vulnerable to theft and need to be protected to avoid information leakage to unauthorized parties. Technical countermeasures to protect confidential information fall to short, as information leaks can emerge from non-malicious behavior of users while they execut

  19. Enhance Confidentiality of Threshold Signature for MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; XIONG Zhongwei

    2006-01-01

    The participating wireless mobile node that mobile ad hoc network (MANET) communications need to forward may be malicious. That means not only adversary might be able to acquire some sensitive information of the threshold signatures from the compromised node, but also the partial signatures may be fabricated by malicious node, the advantages of threshold signatures would disappear. Signing and encrypting the sensitive information of the threshold signatures, and only the specified receiver can recover it, which will improve the confidentiality of threshold signatures. The security analysis shows the method is suitable for the secure characteristic of MANET that has the malicious nodes, and the message transmission is secure can against the attack.

  20. 28 CFR 40.10 - Records-nature; confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records-nature; confidentiality. 40.10 Section 40.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE STANDARDS FOR INMATE GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES Minimum Standards for Inmate Grievance Procedures § 40.10 Records—nature; confidentiality. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 511.66 - Confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Cases of Violation of Average Fuel Economy Standards § 511.66 Confidential business information... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidential business information. 511.66 Section... view information in support of a petition for settlement which has been determined to be...

  2. 50 CFR 600.130 - Protection of confidentiality of statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statistics. 600.130 Section 600.130 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Fishery Management Councils § 600.130 Protection of confidentiality of statistics. Each Council must establish appropriate procedures for ensuring the confidentiality of the statistics that may be submitted...

  3. 7 CFR 2903.14 - Conflicts of interest and confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Evaluation § 2903.14 Conflicts of interest and confidentiality. (a) During the peer evaluation process... or evaluation. Determinations of conflicts of interest will be based on the academic and... peer evaluations, will be kept confidential, except to those involved in the review process, to...

  4. 38 CFR 17.501 - Confidential and privileged documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... were produced by or for the VA in the process of conducting systematic healthcare reviews for the purpose of improving the quality of health care or improving the utilization of healthcare resources in VA... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.501 Confidential...

  5. 10 CFR 207.4 - Confidentiality of energy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of energy information. 207.4 Section 207.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL COLLECTION OF INFORMATION Collection of Information Under the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 § 207.4 Confidentiality of energy information....

  6. 29 CFR 4010.13 - Confidentiality of information submitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality of information submitted. 4010.13 Section... Confidentiality of information submitted. In accordance with § 4901.21(a)(3) of this chapter and ERISA section 4010(c), any information or documentary material that is not publicly available and is submitted...

  7. 22 CFR 130.15 - Confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidential business information. 130.15 Section 130.15 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.15 Confidential business information. (a) Any person who is...

  8. Ombuds’ corner: Open door and confidentiality

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    For the Open Days, CERN will be transparent for all visitors. It's also the occasion to remember that the Ombuds' door is fully open every day of the year for all persons working for or on behalf of CERN.   The door is open, but as soon as it's closed for a discussion, the office becomes a place where total confidentiality is preserved. This may appear as a contradiction, no? The Ombuds is available to help everyone in all circumstances, but his clause of confidentiality prevents him from acting without the consent of his “visitors”. How can he possibly resolve the in-house conflicts in groups, or units, if all the parties do not voluntarily participate in its resolution? The answer is clear: the job of the Ombuds is to help the parties resolve their conflict by themselves. He will provide a few rules of communication, a process of mutual respect, suggest some possibilities that the parties may want to follow, and mediate the dispute so that people...

  9. [Some current threats to confidentiality in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría B, Carlos; Goic G, Alejandro; Herrera C, Carolina; Quintana V, Carlos; Rojas O, Alberto; Ruiz-Esquide, Gonzalo; Salinas R, Rodrigo; Serani M, Alejandro; Taboada R, Paulina; Vacarezza Y, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    Social, technical and legal conditions of the current practice of medicine make it necessary to insist on certain actions and circumstances that may jeopardize the confidentiality of information, offered by patients to their health providers. Therefore, some effects of the current Chilean law are analyzed in this respect, regarding access to data from the clinical record of a patient. Also, the risks of putting certain data on social networking sites are analyzed, as well as some of its effects on clinical practice. The reasons because of mandatory reporting of diseases, meaning danger to public health, is allowed, are mentioned. We also discuss the difficulties involved in managing the results of preventative health screenings and its knowledge by third parties, as well as some possible violations of personal privacy, regarding dissemination of some people health information and its further mention or figuration in mass media. We conclude that it is a must for both physicians and other health team members, to safeguard confidentiality of data to which they have had access, as well as the need to know the relevant law, in order to respect human dignity of patients, each one as a person. We address the attention to the possibility that, practicing in a different way, it could endanger the reliability of clinical records, also impairing the quality of people's health care. PMID:26005823

  10. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be sent to...

  11. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be...

  12. 26 CFR 1.533-2 - Statement required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders § 1.533-2 Statement... shareholders, the amounts that would be payable to each of the shareholders if the income of the...

  13. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  14. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaizauskiene, A.; Gurevicius, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death ...

  15. Avoidant personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  16. 5 CFR 2634.901 - Policies of confidential financial disclosure reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.901 Policies of confidential financial disclosure reporting. (a) The confidential financial reporting system set forth in this subpart is designed to complement... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policies of confidential...

  17. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  18. Position Statement On Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The North Carolina Environmental Justice Network (NCEJN), a coalition of grassroots organizations, developed a statement to explain our environmental justice perspective on climate change to predominantly white environmental groups that seek to partner with us. NCEJN opposes strategies that reduce greenhouse emissions while maintaining or magnifying existing social, economic, and environmental injustices. Wealthy communities that consume a disproportionate share of resources avoid the most severe consequences of their consumption by displacing pollution on communities of color and low income. Therefore, the success of climate change activism depends on building an inclusive movement based on principles of racial, social and economic justice, and self-determination for all people.

  19. Position Statement On Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The North Carolina Environmental Justice Network (NCEJN), a coalition of grassroots organizations, developed a statement to explain our environmental justice perspective on climate change to predominantly white environmental groups that seek to partner with us. NCEJN opposes strategies that reduce greenhouse emissions while maintaining or magnifying existing social, economic, and environmental injustices. Wealthy communities that consume a disproportionate share of resources avoid the most severe consequences of their consumption by displacing pollution on communities of color and low income. Therefore, the success of climate change activism depends on building an inclusive movement based on principles of racial, social and economic justice, and self-determination for all people. PMID:26920851

  20. Confidentiality versus duty to inform--an empirical study on attitudes towards the handling of genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Katharina; Brun, Wibecke; Kvale, Gerd; Nordin, Karin

    2007-01-15

    We set out to investigate whether potential relatives want to be informed about the existence of hereditary conditions within their family and under which conditions they want healthcare providers to breach confidentiality to inform them. We hypothesized that the willingness to be informed about a hereditary condition in the family would be influenced by characteristics of the disease and by individual characteristics. Surveys were administered to a Norwegian random sample (N = 2,400) to a Swedish random sample (N = 1,200), and to a Norwegian student sample (n = 607). Eight different disease scenarios were constructed, systematically varying three disease characteristics: fatality, penetrance, and availability of treatment. Results show that a majority of participants wished to be informed about the existence of a hereditary disease within their family. The desire to be informed and the acceptability of breaches of confidentiality were predicted by the treatability of the disease, uncertainty avoidance, and age, but not by self-efficacy or worry.

  1. Protecting the Confidentiality of the Therapeutic Relationship: "Jaffee v. Redmond."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Vicki

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Supreme Court's 1996 decision in "Jaffee v. Redmond" and its importance for the social work profession. Maintains that the Court's establishment of a psychotherapy privilege acknowledges the importance of confidentiality in the psychotherapeutic relationship. (GCP)

  2. 28 CFR 549.14 - Confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.14 Confidentiality of information. Any disclosure of... System of Records Notice entitled “Inmate Physical and Mental Health Record System, JUSTICE/BOP-007”;...

  3. Rio 2016 financial statements 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This document includes the report from independent auditors, the balance sheet, the statement of income, the statement of changes in equity, the statement of cash flows and the explanatory notes to the financial statements as of December 2011.

  4. Confidential database-as-a-service approaches: taxonomy and survey

    OpenAIRE

    J. Köhler; Jünemann, K.; Hartenstein, H.

    2015-01-01

    Outsourcing data to external providers has gained momentum with the advent of cloud computing. Encryption allows data confidentiality to be preserved when outsourcing data to untrusted external providers that may be compromised by attackers. However, encryption has to be applied in a way that still allows the external provider to evaluate queries received from the client. Even though confidential database-as-a-service (DaaS) is still an active field of research, various techniques already add...

  5. Financial Statements Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.

  6. Financial Statements Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.

  7. Financial Statement Math

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this interactive exercise is to help you understand the math in the income statement and balance sheet., Give the proper mathematical computations in order to correctly prepare the income statement and the balance sheet.The exercise is divided into 3 parts: The income Statement, The Balance Sheet - Assets, The Balance Sheet - Liabilities,

  8. Plagiarism in Personal Statements of Anesthesiology Residency Applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lance J; Sizemore, Daniel C; Johnstone, Robert E

    2016-02-15

    Plagiarism by residency applicants in their personal statements, as well as sites that sell personal statements, have been described, and led in 2011 to advice to avoid plagiarism and the caution that plagiarism detection software was available. We screened personal statements of 467 anesthesiology residency applicants from 2013-2014 using Viper Plagiarism Scanner software, and studied them for plagiarism. After quotes and commonly used phrases were removed, 82 statements contained unoriginal content of 8 or more consecutive words. After the study, 13.6% of personal statements from non-United States medical school graduates, and 4.0% from United States medical school graduates, contained plagiarized material, a significant difference. Plagiarized content ranged up to 58%. Plagiarism continues to occur in anesthesiology residency personal statements, with a higher incidence among graduates of non-United States medical schools.

  9. Plagiarism in Personal Statements of Anesthesiology Residency Applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lance J; Sizemore, Daniel C; Johnstone, Robert E

    2016-02-15

    Plagiarism by residency applicants in their personal statements, as well as sites that sell personal statements, have been described, and led in 2011 to advice to avoid plagiarism and the caution that plagiarism detection software was available. We screened personal statements of 467 anesthesiology residency applicants from 2013-2014 using Viper Plagiarism Scanner software, and studied them for plagiarism. After quotes and commonly used phrases were removed, 82 statements contained unoriginal content of 8 or more consecutive words. After the study, 13.6% of personal statements from non-United States medical school graduates, and 4.0% from United States medical school graduates, contained plagiarized material, a significant difference. Plagiarized content ranged up to 58%. Plagiarism continues to occur in anesthesiology residency personal statements, with a higher incidence among graduates of non-United States medical schools. PMID:26462161

  10. Financial Statement Preparing.

    OpenAIRE

    Benešová, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    Financial statement can be regarded as a key document made on the balancing day (the date of closing of books) in case of annual financial statement, or on another day than balancing day, in which case it is called a special-purpose or interim financial statement. Financial statement is defined by Act No. 563/1991 Coll., on accounting, as an indivisible whole, consisting of a balance sheet, a profit and loss statement and a supplement. Selected accounting entities under § 20 par. 1 further...

  11. Myelin Avoids the JAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follis, Rose M; Carter, Bruce D

    2016-08-17

    In this issue of Neuron, Redmond et al. (2016) identify junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitor of somatodendritic myelination in spinal cord neurons, thereby elucidating how myelin forms on axons but avoids dendrites and cell bodies. PMID:27537479

  12. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  13. Research on preserving User Confidentiality in Cloud Computing – Design of a Confidentiality Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Dwivedula

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing creates a dynamicresource sharing platform that provides dataanalytically to the proficient users who are atdemand to access data present in the cloud. Asthis data is stored outside the data owner's boundaries, they are skeptical for utilizingcloud technology in order to store or accesstheir data from those external cloudproviders who are outside their own controlenvironment. There are many issues for theseactive clients (companies or individuals to bepetrified at the thought of using cloudcomputing paradigm. Some of the main issuesthat make the clients swear against Cloud Computing are generated from threeimportant security aspects: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.In this Research, we focused only on securitymodels that relate Confidentiality issues. We performed a literature Review foranalyzing the existing confidentialityframeworks and security models. We thendesigned a new theoretical framework forconfidentiality in Cloud computing byextracting this literature. We expect this Framework when implemented practically inthe cloud computing paradigm, may generatehuge successful results that motivate the clients to transform their businesses on to Cloud.

  14. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  15. 77 FR 26709 - Swap Data Repositories: Interpretative Statement Regarding the Confidentiality and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... considering concepts of international law and comity in evaluating the extraterritorial scope of federal... held by trade repositories is a concept under discussion and development among international regulators... respect to questions relating to international consultation and coordination: Jacqueline Mesa,...

  16. AVOIDING MANUSCRIPT MISTAKES

    OpenAIRE

    Grindstaff, Terry L.; Saliba, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Writing a scientific manuscript can be a consuming, but rewarding task with a number of intrinsic and extrinsic benefits. The ability to write a scientific manuscript is typically not an emphasized component of most entry‐level professional programs. The purpose of this overview is to provide authors with suggestions to improve manuscript quality and to provide mechanisms to avoid common manuscript mistakes that are often identified by journal reviewers and editors.

  17. Indonesia : Avoiding the Trap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Within the next two decades Indonesia aspires to generate prosperity, avoid a middle-income trap and leave no one behind as it tries to catch up with high-income economies. These are ambitious goals. Realizing them requires sustained high growth and job creation, as well as reduced inequality. Can Indonesia achieve them? This report argues that the country has the potential to rise and bec...

  18. Computer Security: confidentiality is everybody’s business

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a zip file with confidential information was mistakenly made public on one of CERN’s websites. Although the file was only intended for members of an internal committee, when placing it onto the CERN website, someone made a mistake when setting the access permissions and, thus, made the file accessible to everyone visiting the site!   Unfortunately, this is but one example of such mistakes. We have seen other documents made accessible to a much wider audience than originally intended… CERN takes serious measures to ensure the confidentiality of data. Confidential or “sensitive” documents (following the nomenclature set out in the CERN Data Protection Policy) deserve professional handling and access protections given only to the people who really need to access them. As such, they must not be widely circulated as attachments in e-mails and, most definitely, must not be stored on random public websites for the sole purpose of shari...

  19. Independent consultants : fiduciary duties, trade secrets and confidential information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of cutbacks and downsizing within the petroleum industry, it has become one of the largest users of contract personnel to provide services that were previously provided by senior levels of management. This paper explored the application of common law fiduciary duties and the duty of confidence to the independent workforce. It examined to what extent fiduciary duties apply to independent consultants and the best way for the employer to protect itself from the potential misuse of confidential information. Part 1 of the paper described fiduciary duties. A fiduciary relationship was described as one that possesses the following three characteristics: (1) the fiduciary has scope for the exercise of some discretion of power, (2) the fiduciary can unilaterally exercise that power to affect the beneficiary's practical interests, and (3) the beneficiary is peculiarly vulnerable to the fiduciary holding the discretion of power. Three examples of how the courts treated some arguments regarding fiduciaries were presented. Part 2 of this paper discussed how trade secrets and confidential information should be handled. It was explained, that regardless of fiduciary duties, the unauthorized use of confidential information by an independent contractor can give rise to liability and an award of damages by the courts. Some examples where the Supreme Court of Canada found breach of confidence by a party were presented. Information communicated from an employer to an employee can be divided into the following three categories: (1) publicly accessible and not confidential, (2) confidential and must be treated as such while an employee is employed, but if learned becomes part of the employees skill and knowledge, and (3) specific confidential trade secrets that cannot lawfully be used for anyone's benefit but the employer's. Issues regarding defining rights and obligations by contract were also discussed

  20. 77 FR 69585 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... started on October 16, 2012 (77 FR 63538). This document announces the extension of the deadline for... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality... rule titled ``Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality...

  1. 75 FR 28070 - Comment Request for Information Collection: “Confidentiality & Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Request for Information Collection: ``Confidentiality & Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation... Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information final rule and State Income and.... ADDRESSEE: Submit written comments to the Employment and Training Administration, Office of...

  2. 77 FR 69820 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Electronic Consulting Services, Inc., and Its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Electronic Consulting Services, Inc., and Its... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Electronic Consulting... claimed or determined to be Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the...

  3. 75 FR 70235 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated AGENCY... will authorize its contractor, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc) to access Confidential Business..., Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc) will assist the Office of Enforcement and Compliance...

  4. Public expectations concerning confidentiality protection of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An adolescent's right to confidential healthcare is protected by international law and professional consensus. However, parental and social support for confidential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, in particular, varies greatly. This study documents Lithuanian residents' ...

  5. On partitions avoiding right crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Sherry H. F.; Xu, Yuexiao

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Chen et al. derived the generating function for partitions avoiding right nestings and posed the problem of finding the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings. In this paper, we derive the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings via an intermediate structure of partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossings and right nestings. We show that there is a bijection between partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossing and right nestings and partitions...

  6. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  7. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  8. CRAC: Confidentiality Risk Analysis and IT-Architecture Comparison of Business Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, Ayse; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roel

    2009-01-01

    The leakage of confidential information (e.g.\\ industrial secrets, patient records and user credentials) is one of the risks that have to be accounted for and mitigated by organizations dealing with confidential data. Unfortunately, assessing confidentiality risk is challenging, particularly in the

  9. 75 FR 1053 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated AGENCY... will authorize its contractor, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc) to access Confidential Business... Confidential Business Information Under EPA Contracts No. EP-W-6-065 and EP07H000213, Industrial...

  10. 45 CFR 5.65 - Exemption four: Trade secrets and confidential commercial or financial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be expected if the information is disclosed? (c) Designation of certain confidential information. A... Exemption four: Trade secrets and confidential commercial or financial information. We will withhold trade... confidential. (a) Trade secrets. A trade secret is a secret, commercially valuable plan, formula, process,...

  11. Confidencialidad e intimidad Confidentiality and privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iraburu

    2006-01-01

    patients frequently continues to be violated, perhaps because we live in a society that trivialises these questions, and the health milieu is not immune to this way of thinking. Besides, the new information technologies have added a new danger by enormously facilitating access to personal data. This article reviews the ethical and legal aspects of this issue, the results of research carried out on the way the professionals of eight Spanish hospitals deal with confidentiality, and some recommendations are outlined in an attempt to encourage reflection by the professionals who interact in a scenario where the patient is obliged to lay himself bare in body and soul.

  12. Data confidentiality and data handling in research: a workshop report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hinds

    2008-12-01

    Outputs Workshop delegates were largely supportive of the recommendations made in the draft consensus document. Key recommendations included: a campaign at a national and local level highlighting the need to use personal patient records to inform research; standard operating procedures to ensure clearly defined processes are being followed; and the requirement for all patient data to be treated as confidential.

  13. 24 CFR 5.2007 - Certification of status and confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of status and confidentiality. 5.2007 Section 5.2007 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of...

  14. Decisions about Confidentiality in Medical Student Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenthal, Jacob Jay; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined responses of psychologists and psychiatrists in medical schools (N=59) to vignettes representing student problems. Results suggested practitioners were generally unwilling to break confidentiality in response to problems involving suicidal tendencies, sexual coercion/seduction, social transgressions, or falsifying data. Only suggestions…

  15. 28 CFR 0.39b - Confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Office of Professional Responsibility § 0.39b Confidentiality of information. The Counsel shall not disclose the identity of any person submitting an allegation of misconduct or reprisal pursuant to 28 CFR 0.39a(a)(1) or (2) unless the person consents to the disclosure of his identity or the disclosure...

  16. 48 CFR 1552.227-76 - Project employee confidentiality agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Project employee confidentiality agreement. 1552.227-76 Section 1552.227-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... electrical services, provisions which shall conform substantially to the language of this clause,...

  17. 15 CFR 295.9 - Protection of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... confidential basis in connection with the activities of any business or joint research and development venture...) Information on the business operation of any member of the business or joint venture; (2) Trade secrets possessed by any business or any member of the joint venture....

  18. [Confidentiality in medical oaths: (When the white crow becomes gray...)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, R J; Pérez, M L; Rancich, A M; Mainetti, J A

    2000-01-01

    Confidentiality, together with the ethical principles of beneficence and non-maleficence, is the most important rule in Medical Oaths at the present time. However, the scientific-technical advances in medicine have made this rule one of the most controversial ones because of its exceptions. In consequence, the aim of the present paper is to comparatively analyze the rule of confidentiality in Medical Oaths of different places, times, origins and in different versions of the Hippocratic Oath in order to determine what should be kept a secret and with what degree of commitment (absolute or "prima facie"). Of the thirty six analyzed Oaths, twenty-seven manifest this rule and nine do not. No relation was found between the manifestation of this rule and the place, time, origin and different versions of the Hippocratic Oath. Most pledges suggest not to reveal what has been seen or heard during the medical act, the same as in the Hippocratic Oath. Seven texts point out that confidentiality should be absolute and four give exceptions in connection with beneficence and justice principles and the moral duty of causing no damage to third parties. Two pledges specify protection of privacy. In conclusion, today confidentiality is considered to be a moral duty for the benefit of the patient and out of consideration for his autonomy; however, at the present time in medicine the duty of keeping absolute secrecy is being reconsidered.

  19. 50 CFR 229.11 - Confidential fisheries data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidential fisheries data. 229.11 Section 229.11 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.532 - Confidential books, records, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential books, records, and reports. 1210.532 Section 1210.532 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.540 - Confidential books, records, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential books, records, and reports. 1205.540 Section 1205.540 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.540 - Confidential books, records, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential books, records, and reports. 1207.540 Section 1207.540 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Effective verification of confidentiality for multi-threaded programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, Minh Tri; Stoelinga, Mariëlle; Huisman, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how confidentiality properties of multi-threaded programs can be verified efficiently by a combination of newly developed and existing model checking algorithms. In particular, we study the verification of scheduler-specific observational determinism (SSOD), a property that charac

  4. IT Confidentiality Risk Assessment for an Architecture-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, Ayse; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Overbeek, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Information systems require awareness of risks and a good understanding of vulnerabilities and their exploitations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for the systematic assessment and analysis of confidentiality risks caused by disclosure of operational and functional information. The appro

  5. 15 CFR 30.60 - Confidentiality of Electronic Export Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of Electronic Export Information. 30.60 Section 30.60 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Administrative...

  6. Analysis of LYSA-calculus with explicit confidentiality annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased research interest in applying process calculi in the verification of cryptographic protocols due to their ability to formally model protocols. This work presents LYSA with explicit confidentiality annotations for indicating the expected behavior of target prot...

  7. Secondary School Administrators' Attitudes toward Confidentiality in School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, William P.

    2012-01-01

    The school counseling literature emphasizes the importance of confidentiality in the counseling relationship. In some circumstances, school policy may require disclosure of content discussed in counseling unrelated to threat of harm to self or others. This pilot study investigated secondary school principals' attitudes toward the practice of…

  8. Opening statements and general statements by delegation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    23 delegations have submitted general reports and statements on the situation and evolution of the nuclear fuel cycle. Each report reflects the particular interests of the country that submitted it. All in all, these reports provide general background information on the subject of the conference

  9. 75 FR 79016 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Newmont Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Newmont... in the Final EIS. Measures to avoid or minimize environmental impacts and to assure the...

  10. Farm and Ranch Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, Clark; Feuz, Dillon

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet is a brief overview of the financial statements and budgeting tools that are likely a part of most farm financial record keeping systems. Links are provided for additional detail on any one financial report or topic. A brief description of a Balance Sheet, a Profit Loss Statement or Income Statement, Statement of Cash Flows and Enterprise Analysis is included.

  11. Audit of Financial Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Černá, Helena

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the work is the audit of financial statement of the selected subject and suggestions to improve process of audit and accounting to display the reality fair and accurately. The process of audit is simplified for small firms. Theoretic part is dedicated to laws and regulations, which are obligatory for audit, and technical literature for audit. In the second practical part, audit procedures for real company financial statement verification are implemented. This part is divide...

  12. An efficient steganography method for hiding patient confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dmour, Hayat; Al-Ani, Ahmed; Nguyen, Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the important issue of security and confidentiality of patient information when exchanging or storing medical images. Steganography has recently been viewed as an alternative or complement to cryptography, as existing cryptographic systems are not perfect due to their vulnerability to certain types of attack. We propose in this paper a new steganography algorithm for hiding patient confidential information. It utilizes Pixel Value Differencing (PVD) to identify contrast regions in the image and a Hamming code that embeds 3 secret message bits into 4 bits of the cover image. In order to preserve the content of the region of interest (ROI), the embedding is only performed using the Region of Non-Interest (RONI).

  13. [Ethics in pediatric emergencies: Care access, communication, and confidentiality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, J; Berdah, L; Carlier-Gonod, A; Guillou, T; Kouche, C; Patte, M; Schneider, M; Talcone, S; Chappuy, H

    2015-05-01

    Children suffer most from today's increasing precariousness. In France, access to care is available for all children through various structures and existing measures. The support for foreign children is overseen by specific legislation often unfamiliar to caregivers. Pediatric emergencies, their location, organization, actors, and patient flow are a particular environment that is not always suitable to communication and may lead to situations of abuse. Communication should not be forgotten because of the urgency of the situation. The place of the child in the dialogue is often forgotten. Considering the triangular relationship, listening to the child and involving the parents in care are the basis for a good therapeutic alliance. Privacy and medical confidentiality in pediatric emergencies are governed by law. However, changes in treatments and medical practices along with the variety of actors involved imply both individual and collective limitations, to the detriment of medical confidentiality.

  14. Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, V I O

    2009-02-01

    A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

  15. An efficient steganography method for hiding patient confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dmour, Hayat; Al-Ani, Ahmed; Nguyen, Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the important issue of security and confidentiality of patient information when exchanging or storing medical images. Steganography has recently been viewed as an alternative or complement to cryptography, as existing cryptographic systems are not perfect due to their vulnerability to certain types of attack. We propose in this paper a new steganography algorithm for hiding patient confidential information. It utilizes Pixel Value Differencing (PVD) to identify contrast regions in the image and a Hamming code that embeds 3 secret message bits into 4 bits of the cover image. In order to preserve the content of the region of interest (ROI), the embedding is only performed using the Region of Non-Interest (RONI). PMID:25569937

  16. Legal issues of the electronic dental record: security and confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, D G; Milam, S; Khademi, J A

    1996-01-01

    Computer-based, electronic dental record keeping involves complex issues of patient privacy and the dental practitioner's ethical duty of confidentiality. Federal and state law is responding to the new legal issues presented by computer technology. Authenticating the electronic record in terms of ensuring its reliability and accuracy is essential in order to protect its admissibility as evidence in legal actions. Security systems must be carefully planned to limit access and provide for back-up and storage of dental records. Carefully planned security systems protect the patient from disclosure without the patient's consent and also protect the practitioner from the liability that would arise from such disclosure. Human errors account for the majority of data security problems. Personnel security is assured through pre-employment screening, employment contracts, policies, and staff education. Contracts for health information systems should include provisions for indemnification and ensure the confidentiality of the system by the vendor. PMID:8594098

  17. Is patient confidentiality compromised with the electronic health record?: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ilse M

    2015-02-01

    In order for electronic health records to fulfill their expected benefits, protection of privacy of patient information is key. Lack of trust in confidentiality can lead to reluctance in disclosing all relevant information, which could have grave consequences. This position paper contemplates whether patient confidentiality is compromised by electronic health records. The position that confidentiality is compromised was supported by the four bioethical principles and argued that despite laws and various safeguards to protect patients' confidentiality, numerous data breaches have occurred. The position that confidentiality is not compromised was supported by virtue ethics and a utilitarian viewpoint and argued that safeguards keep information confidential and the public feels relatively safe with the electronic health record. The article concludes with an ethically superior position that confidentiality is compromised with the electronic health record. Although organizational and governmental ways of enhancing the confidentiality of patient information within the electronic health record facilitate confidentiality, the ultimate responsibility of maintaining confidentiality rests with the individual end-users and their ethical code of conduct. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for nurses calls for nurses to be watchful with data security in electronic communications. PMID:25532832

  18. Confidential Data Hiding Using Wavlet Based Ecg Stegnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malashree K S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the growing number of aging population and a significant portion of that suffering from cardiac diseases, it is conceivable that remote ECG patient monitoring systems are expected to be widely used as Point-of-Care (PoC applications in hospitals around the world. Therefore, huge amount of ECG signal collected by Body Sensor Networks (BSNs from remote patients at homes will be transmitted along with other physiological readings such as blood pressure, temperature, glucose level etc. and diagnosed by those remote patient monitoring systems. It is utterly important that patient confidentiality is protected while data is being transmitted over the public network as well as when they are stored in hospital servers used by remote monitoring systems. In this project, a wavelet based steganography technique has been introduced which combines encryption and scrambling technique to protect patient confidential data. The proposed method allows ECG signal to hide its corresponding patient confidential data and other physiological information thus guaranteeing the integration between ECG and the rest.

  19. Privacy, confidentiality and abortion statistics: a question of public interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Jean V; Jones, June

    2012-01-01

    The precise nature and scope of healthcare confidentiality has long been the subject of debate. While the obligation of confidentiality is integral to professional ethical codes and is also safeguarded under English law through the equitable remedy of breach of confidence, underpinned by the right to privacy enshrined in Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, it has never been regarded as absolute. But when can and should personal information be made available for statistical and research purposes and what if the information in question is highly sensitive information, such as that relating to the termination of pregnancy after 24 weeks? This article explores the case of In the Matter of an Appeal to the Information Tribunal under section 57 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, concerning the decision of the Department of Health to withhold some statistical data from the publication of its annual abortion statistics. The specific data being withheld concerned the termination for serious fetal handicap under section 1(1)d of the Abortion Act 1967. The paper explores the implications of this case, which relate both to the nature and scope of personal privacy. It suggests that lessons can be drawn from this case about public interest and use of statistical information and also about general policy issues concerning the legal regulation of confidentiality and privacy in the future. PMID:21708829

  20. Data Classification Based on Confidentiality in Virtual Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munwar Ali Zardari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide suitable security to data based on the security needs of data. It is very difficult to decide (in cloud which data need what security and which data do not need security. However it will be easy to decide the security level for data after data classification according to their security level based on the characteristics of the data. In this study, we have proposed a data classification cloud model to solve data confidentiality issue in cloud computing environment. The data are classified into two major classes: sensitive and non-sensitive. The K-Nearest Neighbour (K-NN classifier is used for data classification and the Rivest, Shamir and Adelman (RSA algorithm is used to encrypt sensitive data. After implementing the proposed model, it is found that the confidentiality level of data is increased and this model is proved to be more cost and memory friendly for the users as well as for the cloud services providers. The data storage service is one of the cloud services where data servers are virtualized of all users. In a cloud server, the data are stored in two ways. First encrypt the received data and store on cloud servers. Second store data on the cloud servers without encryption. Both of these data storage methods can face data confidentiality issue, because the data have different values and characteristics that must be identified before sending to cloud severs.

  1. Communication Avoiding ILU0 Preconditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Grigori, Laura; Moufawad, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a communication avoiding ILU0 preconditioner for solving large linear systems of equations by using iterative Krylov subspace methods. Recent research has focused on communication avoiding Krylov subspace methods based on so called s-step methods. However there is no communication avoiding preconditioner yet, and this represents a serious limitation of these methods. Our preconditioner allows to perform s iterations of the iterative method with no communication, throu...

  2. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  3. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. PMID:26970365

  4. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  5. Statement of changes in equity.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo Ramiro, M V; Hernández Gañán, S

    2010-01-01

    Since the new General Chart of Accounts was passed, the amount of financial information that is required to the corporations had increased. There have been two new financial statements too: Statement of Changes in Equity and Cash Flow Statement. We analyze the Statement of Changes in Equity on this paper, and the changes result of the new financial statement. Also, the statement of changes in equity has two new accounts: 8th group “Expenditure of Equity” and 9th group “Income of Equity”. The ...

  6. Acquaintance Rape: Effective Avoidance Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-MacCombie, Joyce; Koss, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Determined that acknowledged and unacknowledged acquaintance rape victims and rape avoiders could be discriminated by situational variables and response strategies. Avoiders were less likely to have experienced passive or internalizing emotions at the time of the assault, perceived the assault as less violent, and were more likely to have utilized…

  7. CRAC: Confidentiality Risk Analysis and IT-Architecture Comparison of Business Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Morali, Ayse; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roel

    2009-01-01

    The leakage of confidential information (e.g.\\ industrial secrets, patient records and user credentials) is one of the risks that have to be accounted for and mitigated by organizations dealing with confidential data. Unfortunately, assessing confidentiality risk is challenging, particularly in the presence of cross- organization cooperation, like in the case of outsourcing. This is due to the complexity of business networks. This paper presents an IT-architecture based method for assessing a...

  8. THE STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS USING FINANCIAL STATEMENT EQUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Fletcher; Thomas Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses one of the more difficult topics in teaching MBA level financial management, the statement of cash flows. By employing financial statement equations in preparing the statement of cash flows, students: (1) are employing tools that they are more familiar and comfortable with which mitigates their anxiety and enhances their understanding, (2) are better able to understand the logic of the statement of cash flows and the relationships that exist between it and the income stat...

  9. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS UNDER IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor; Calotă Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    This article is focuses on accounting consolidation techniques and the preparation of consolidation worksheets for the components of financial statements (statement of comprehensive income, statement of changes in equity, and financial position). The presented group includes parent company, two subsidiaries (only one fully controlled by the parent company) and a jointly controlled entity. The financial statements are presented under the following standards IFRS 3 Business Combination, IAS 27 ...

  10. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... issued statements addressing constitutional or other legal questions upon signing bills into law (signing... of the use of signing statements to raise constitutional objections to statutory provisions. There is no doubt that the practice of issuing such statements can be abused. Constitutional...

  11. Fundamentals of Financial Statements Audit

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. The objective of an audit of financial statements is to enable an auditor to express an opinion as to whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards or another identified financial reporting fr...

  12. Institutional review boards' use and understanding of certificates of confidentiality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Beskow

    Full Text Available Certificates of Confidentiality, issued by agencies of the U.S. government, are regarded as an important tool for meeting ethical and legal obligations to safeguard research participants' privacy and confidentiality. By shielding against forced disclosure of identifying data, Certificates are intended to facilitate research on sensitive topics critical to the public's health. Although Certificates are potentially applicable to an extensive array of research, their full legal effect is unclear, and little is known about stakeholders' views of the protections they provide. To begin addressing this challenge, we conducted a national survey of institutional review board (IRB chairs, followed by telephone interviews with selected chairs, to learn more about their familiarity with and opinions about Certificates; their institutions' use of Certificates; policies and practices concerning when Certificates are required or recommended; and the role Certificates play in assessments of research risk. Overall, our results suggest uncertainty about Certificates among IRB chairs. On most objective knowledge questions, most respondents chose the incorrect answer or 'unsure'. Among chairs who reported more familiarity with Certificates, composite opinion scores calculated based on five survey questions were evenly distributed among positive, neutral/middle, and negative views. Further, respondents expressed a variety of ideas about the appropriate use of Certificates, what they are intended to protect, and their effect on research risk. Nevertheless, chairs who participated in our study commonly viewed Certificates as a potentially valuable tool, frequently describing them as an 'extra layer' of protection. These findings lead to several practical observations concerning the need for more stakeholder education about Certificates, consideration of Certificates for a broader range of studies, the importance of remaining vigilant and using all tools available to

  13. Case Reports on the Web Redux: Confidentiality Still in Jeopardy

    OpenAIRE

    Markovitz, Barry P; Goodman, Kenneth W

    2003-01-01

    We reported at AMIA 1999 on the apparent lack of privacy protection for the subjects of case reports at 32 websites. It has been clear for some time that print journal editors and Institutional Review Boards require informed consent from patients or their surrogates if they can be potentially identified in publications.1–3 We found in 1999 that this level of confidentiality protection was not being applied to case reports on the Internet.4 This report is a follow up evaluation of those and 26...

  14. Panic disorder and exercise avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo W. Muotri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To identify whether patients with panic disorder in general and those with the respiratory subtype in particular actively avoid exercise; 2 to investigate physiological differences in cardiopulmonary function parameters in patients with panic disorder in general, patients with the respiratory subtype of panic disorder, and healthy controls upon exercise challenge. Methods: Patients with panic disorder were classified as having either the respiratory or the non-respiratory subtype. Both groups were compared to controls in terms of exercise avoidance patterns and performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: Patients with panic disorder exhibited higher exercise avoidance scores and worse performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing as compared with controls. No differences were found between patients with the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes. Conclusions: Exercise avoidance is present in panic disorder and is associated with poorer performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. These findings are not limited to patients with the respiratory subtype of the disorder.

  15. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using biologically-inspired neuromorphic optic flow algorithms is a novel approach in collision avoidance for UAS. Traditional computer vision algorithms rely on...

  16. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  17. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Plath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre, we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1 that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2 that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  18. 29 CFR 4901.24 - Special rules for trade secrets and confidential commercial or financial information submitted to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... confidential business information and designate, with appropriate markings, the portion(s) of the submission to... secret or is commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential. Facts...

  19. 7 CFR 981.75 - Confidential nature of records and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential nature of records and reports. 981.75 Section 981.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Records and Reports § 981.75 Confidential nature...

  20. 29 CFR 1208.5 - Material relating to mediation function-confidential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material relating to mediation function-confidential. 1208.5 Section 1208.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.5 Material relating to mediation function—confidential. (a) All...

  1. 45 CFR 303.21 - Safeguarding and disclosure of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of confidential information. (a) Definitions—(1) Confidential information means any information... computerized support enforcement systems, the IV-D agency shall establish appropriate safeguards to comply with... subject to any State and Federal statutes that impose legal sanctions for such disclosure. Effective...

  2. 76 FR 69722 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Protection Strategies Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Protection Strategies Incorporated AGENCY... access to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) confidential business information and to provide notice... contractor, PSI of Arlington, VA, to access information which has been submitted to EPA under all sections...

  3. Attitude of Lithuanian residents to confidentiality of adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-01-01

    To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents.......To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents....

  4. 30 CFR 291.111 - How does MMS treat the confidential information I provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations at 43 CFR part 2 to give submitters an opportunity to object to disclosure. (c) MMS retains the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS treat the confidential information... SHELF LANDS ACT § 291.111 How does MMS treat the confidential information I provide? (a) Any person...

  5. 19 CFR 206.7 - Confidential business information; furnishing of nonconfidential summaries thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidential business information; furnishing of... NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW OF RELIEF ACTIONS General § 206.7 Confidential business...

  6. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color...

  7. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of drug abuse patient records were initially authorized by section...

  8. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of alcohol abuse patient records were initially...

  9. 42 CFR 405.215 - Confidential commercial and trade secret information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidential commercial and trade secret... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Medical... trade secret information. To the extent that CMS relies on confidential commercial or trade...

  10. 34 CFR 21.32 - Confidentiality of information about net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... established procedures under the Freedom of Information Act (34 CFR part 5). (Authority: 5 U.S.C. 504(c)(1)) ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality of information about net worth. 21.32... One Apply for an Award? § 21.32 Confidentiality of information about net worth. (a) In a proceeding...

  11. 47 CFR 51.335 - Notice of network changes: Confidential or proprietary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of network changes: Confidential or proprietary information. 51.335 Section 51.335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Carriers § 51.335 Notice of network changes: Confidential or proprietary information. (a) If an...

  12. 19 CFR 210.39 - In camera treatment of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In camera treatment of confidential information....39 In camera treatment of confidential information. (a) Definition. Except as hereinafter provided... protective orders or orders granting in camera treatment are not made part of the public record and are...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 718 - Confidential Business Information Declared or Reported *

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential Business Information Declared or Reported * No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 718 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 718, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to...

  14. Confidential Communication Through Chaos Encryption in Wireless Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shuai; ZHONG Xian-xin

    2007-01-01

    A new byte block cipher algorithm with discrete chaos and Feistel structure has been studied for confidential communication in wireless sensor network to improve security. After permutation, the byte block was encrypted through a Feistel structure in multiple turns and afterwards replaced again. The child keys are the composite sequence of discrete chaos and linear congruence sequences. Both the plain text and cipher text are of 8 bits. The number of keys is alterable. A nonlinear encryption function in the Feistel structure with chaos was constructed. The cipher algorithm was realized in the Micaz node,and the confidential communication experiment in wireless sensor network was completed successfully. Additional ROM memory required for the cipher algorithm is 4144 bytes and an additional RAM memory 61 bytes. The cipher algorithm is nonlinear chaos and the Feistel structure holds the best of the RC6, DES and SKIPJACK cipher algorithms.The result shows that the algorithm needs a little memory and is safe at a high level.

  15. HIPAA-protecting patient confidentiality or covering something else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A case of a physician fired from the Veterans Administration (VA for violation of the Health Care Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA illustrates a problem with both the law and the VA. Anil Parikh, a VA physician at the Jesse Brown VA in Chicago, was dismissed on a charge of making unauthorized disclosures of confidential patient information on October 19, 2007. On January 3, 2011 the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB reversed Dr. Parikh’s removal. Dr. Parikh's initially made disclosures to the VA Office of Inspector General and to Senator Barack Obama and Congressman Luis Gutierrez, in whose district the Jesse Brown VA lies. Dr. Parikh alleged that there were systematic problems within the Jesse Brown VA that resulted in untimely and inadequate patient care. The confidential patient information Parikh disclosed included examples of the misdiagnoses and misdirection of patients within the hospital. Specifically, Dr. Parikh alleged that …

  16. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-09-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  17. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  18. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  19. 75 FR 24688 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Guident Technologies Inc.’s Identified Subcontractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Guident Technologies Inc.'s Identified... information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the..., maintenance, and operations for the Confidential Business Information Systems and for Test...

  20. Perceptions of healthcare professionals for colleague confidentiality. A descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkasina Α.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cooperation among nurses is related to Colleague’s Confidentiality Protection, according to Nursing Deontology and their Code of Ethics.The purpose of this study was the evaluation of nursing personnel attitudes, perceptions and behavior towards Colleague’s Confidentiality. Methodology: This study was conducted on the basis of the Master Studies in “Management of health services and crisis management” of University of Peloponnese from July till November of 2011. The sample of the study included nursing personnel of General Hospital of Sparta, of Molai and of Panarkadian Hospital of Tripolis. Based on the study of literature a questionnaire was constructed. Data consistency was tested by Cronbach α (α= 0,81. Specifically, the questionnaire reflected the attitudes and perceptions related to the behavior of the nursing staff regarding the cooperation among them and their collaboration with patients. It also included questions investigating actions made by the participants in case a colleague put in danger patient’s life or risked an infection. Finally, there were questions regarding the participants’ satisfaction from actions taken in case they made a report for a nursing error to the ward they were working. 200 questionnaires were distributed and 177 were finally answered (88.5% respone rate. For the statistical analysis the statistical program SPSS V.16 was used. Results: 9.7% of the participants were men and the rest 90,3% were women. Mean age of the sample was 36,8 years with the lowest to be 20 years old and the highest 58 years old. The majority of the participants (40% said that they had reported an error but they didn’t do it officially. The main reason for non-reporting it was because of the Colleague’s Confidentiality’s Protection. A rate of 48% of the nurses knew Nurses’ Code of Ethics and the law existence supporting it. A rate of 32.5% of the participants considered that by reporting an error, the

  1. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  2. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author′s experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.

  3. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance. PMID:19186631

  4. Plagiarism Avoidance in Academic Submissions

    OpenAIRE

    Cully, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide undergraduate students with an introductory resource focusing on plagiarism avoidance. It sets out to identify often confusing associated nuances. From the perspective of paraphrasing, the requirements attaching to the necessary provision of proper citations are explored. The paper concludes by pondering the topic of reliability of sources.

  5. Avoidance: grammatical or semantic causes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Hulstijn; E. Marchena

    1989-01-01

    This article follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs, such as ‘let down’, while preferring one-word verbs, such as ‘;disappoint’, since phrasal verbs do not exist in Hebrew. A corollary derived from Dagut and Laufer's study is t

  6. Attacker Control and Impact for Confidentiality and Integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Askarov, Aslan

    2011-01-01

    Language-based information flow methods offer a principled way to enforce strong security properties, but enforcing noninterference is too inflexible for realistic applications. Security-typed languages have therefore introduced declassification mechanisms for relaxing confidentiality policies, and endorsement mechanisms for relaxing integrity policies. However, a continuing challenge has been to define what security is guaranteed when such mechanisms are used. This paper presents a new semantic framework for expressing security policies for declassification and endorsement in a language-based setting. The key insight is that security can be characterized in terms of the influence that declassification and endorsement allow to the attacker. The new framework introduces two notions of security to describe the influence of the attacker. Attacker control defines what the attacker is able to learn from observable effects of this code; attacker impact captures the attacker's influence on trusted locations. This ap...

  7. Talking about suicide: confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Susanne; Benson, Outi; Brand, Sarah L

    2013-02-01

    While it is acknowledged that there is a need for more qualitative research on suicide, it is also clear that the ethics of undertaking such research need to be addressed. This article uses the case study of the authors' experience of gaining ethics approval for a research project that asks people what it is like to feel suicidal to (a) analyse the limits of confidentiality and anonymity and (b) consider the ways in which the process of ethics review can shape and constrain suicide research. This leads to a discussion of the ways in which ethics committees assess and monitor qualitative research more generally and some preliminary suggestions for how this might be improved.

  8. Presentation of Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows under IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor; Calota Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements must includ a specific statement, regarding cash flows from all activities of the entity, called „consolidated statement of cash flow”. Information for preparing cash flow statements can be found in all other components of the financial statements, such as financial position, statement of comprehensive income and statement of changes in equity. The cash flow statement shall report cash flows during the period classified by operating, investing and financi...

  9. [Health professionals may have a dilemma about confidentiality healthcare of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisen, Kirsten; Adolphsen, Caroline; Svensson, Jannet; Jensen, Rikke; Teilmann, Grete

    2016-09-01

    Confidentiality is paramount in healthcare, yet according to Danish guidelines, health professionals have to inform parents about their child´s situation until the age of 18 years. This is in contrast to Danish legislation regarding informed consent, where adolescents aged 15 years can consent to treatment. Young people value confidentiality, although they are unaware of the current guidelines. International guidelines on youth-friendly health services recommend split visits and confidential care while at the same time acknowledging parents' caretaking role, especially in adolescents with chronic illness. PMID:27593236

  10. Obstacle Avoidance Through Visual Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Keerio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel controlling approach forHumanoid Robot to work safely in critical situations like badlight environment using Visual Teleoperation. In this regardmodeling environments for Humanoid Teleoperation Systemis developed. Here virtual reality modeling environmentincludes development of virtual Humanoid BHR-2, andvirtual objects like table etc. The main goal of this work is toenhance our visual teleoperation system for BHR-2 in orderto avoid any collision during real time operation. SoftwareMaya is used for modeling and simulations. Maya plug-insin VC++ provides efficient modeling rule, real timeinteraction, and time saving rendering approach in a virtualenvironment. In this paper the validity of proposed scheme isshown by conducting experiments using offline step overtrajectory to avoid obstacle in bad light environment.

  11. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tordeux, Antoine; Lassarre, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed...

  12. Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Il-Horn Hann; Kai-Lung Hui; Sang-Yong Tom Lee; Ivan Png

    2005-01-01

    We introduce consumer avoidance into analytical marketing research. We show that consumer efforts to conceal themselves and to deflect marketing have a crucial impact on sellers¡¯ marketing strategy. Under reasonable conditions, seller marketing is a strategic complement with consumer concealment. Hence, consumer measures to conceal themselves from marketing will increase its cost-effectiveness and lead sellers to market more. Policies that encourage consumers to conceal their identities woul...

  13. EU Universities’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Arcimaviciene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years, a highly productive space of metaphor analysis has been established in the discourse studies of media, politics, business, and education. In the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis, the restored metaphorical patterns are especially valued for their implied ideological value as realized both conceptually and linguistically. By using the analytical framework of Critical Metaphor Analysis and procedurally employing Pragglejaz Group’s Metaphor Identification Procedure, this study aims at analyzing the implied value of the evoked metaphors in the mission statements of the first 20 European Universities, according to the Webometrics ranking. In this article, it is proposed that Universities’ mission statements are based on the positive evaluation of the COMMERCE metaphor, which does not fully correlate with the ideological framework of sustainability education but is rather oriented toward consumerism in both education and society. Despite this overall trend, there are some traceable features of the conceptualization reflecting the sustainability approach to higher education, as related to freedom of speech, tolerance, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, these are suppressed by the metaphoric usages evoking traditional dogmas of the conservative ideology grounded in the concepts of the transactional approach to relationship, competitiveness for superiority, the importance of self-interest and strength, and quantifiable quality.

  14. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  15. Reading and understanding financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    Feeling comfortable reading and understanding financial statements is critical to the success of healthcare executives and physicians involved in management. Businesses use three primary financial statements: a balance sheet represents the equation, Assets = Liabilities + Equity; an income statement represents the equation, Revenues - Expenses = Net Income; a statement of cash flows reports all sources and uses of cash during the represented period. The balance sheet expresses financial indicators at one particular moment in time, whereas the income statement and the statement of cash flows show activity that occurred over a stretch of time. Additional information is disclosed in attached footnotes and other supplementary materials. There are two ways to prepare financial statements. Cash-basis accounting recognizes revenue when it is received and expenses when they are paid. Accrual-basis accounting recognizes revenue when it is earned and expenses when they are incurred. Although cash-basis is acceptable, periodically using the accrual method reveals important information about receivables and liabilities that could otherwise remain hidden. Become more engaged with your financial statements by spending time reading them, tracking key performance indicators, and asking accountants and financial advisors questions. This will help you better understand your business and build a successful future. PMID:16095076

  16. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  17. MLA Statement of Professional Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADE Bulletin, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Intends for this statement to embody reasonable norms for ethical conduct in teaching, research, and related public service activities in the modern languages and literatures. Lists seven governing premises of the statement. Examines ethical conduct in academic relationships, discussing obligations to students, colleagues, staff members, the…

  18. 37 CFR 201.29 - Access to, and confidentiality of, Statements of Account, Verification Auditor's Reports, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reports, and any other verification information. (2) Audit and Verification Information means the reports....30, and all information relating to a manufacturing or importing party. (3) DART Access Form means... is not an employee or officer of an interested copyright party or a manufacturing or importing...

  19. 76 FR 37111 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified... contractor, Computer Sciences Corporation of Chantilly, VA and Its Identified Subcontractors, to...

  20. 49 CFR 40.351 - What confidentiality requirements apply to service agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.351... the same confidentiality regulations as the employer with respect to the use and release of...

  1. 77 FR 76028 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and... (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Science Applications International... access information which has been submitted to EPA under all sections of the Toxic Substances Control...

  2. 75 FR 78238 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and...: EPA has authorized its contractor, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of San Diego, CA, and Its Identified Subcontractors, to access information which has been submitted to EPA...

  3. 76 FR 10360 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Guident Technologies Inc. and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Guident Technologies Inc. and Its Identified Subcontractors AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Guident Technologies, Inc. of Herndon, VA and Its Identified Subcontractors, to...

  4. 77 FR 10434 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule: Confidentiality Determinations and Best Available...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of ] Fluorinated GHGs'' rule (75 FR 74774, hereinafter... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ70 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule: Confidentiality... technical information, contact the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule Hotline at:...

  5. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. In an investigation...

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and awareness of Croatian dentists concerning patients' confidentiality and privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Vice; Cerjan-Letica, Gordana; Budimir, Jozo; Macan, Darko

    2013-03-01

    Confidentiality and privacy have always been a vital part of the health care provider-patient relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the knowledge, attitudes, and awareness of dentists in Croatia concerning patients' confidentiality and privacy and to determine the degree to which they were protecting patients' confidentiality and privacy in everyday practice. Survey data were collected from seventy of the approximately 4,000 dentists in Croatia who had been randomly selected using the registry of the Croatian Chamber of Dental Medicine. Our strategy for data collection included visits to the dental offices and clinics. The data showed that dentists displayed a lack of awareness and had a poor attitude toward respecting patients' rights to confidentiality and privacy. This study indicated the need to educate dentists about their responsibilities and legal obligations. PMID:23486904

  7. Confidentiality and parental involvement in adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-01-01

    was sent to a random sample of 607 Lithuanian GPs. The purpose of this questionnaire was to gain knowledge about current practices of GPs in informing parents on the importance of confidentiality as well as in protecting the privacy of minors. GPs' knowledge of the current legal age limit...... of confidentiality protection in patient-provider settings was also assessed. RESULTS: Although 67.5% of the responding GPs (response rate 73.5%) stated that they inform the parents or guardians of adolescent patients about the importance of confidentiality, 82.9% of them only did so if the opportunity arose. When...... consulting on general sexual issues, more than 70% stated that they would guarantee their minor patients confidentiality. However, when cases involved sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy, nearly the same percentage said they would inform the parents. 62.3% of GPs incorrectly believed that the law...

  8. 75 FR 56096 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics Incorporated AGENCY... Economics Incorporated (IEI) of Cambridge, MA, to access information which has been submitted to EPA...

  9. Discrete Memoryless Interference and Broadcast Channels with Confidential Messages: Secrecy Rate Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ruoheng; Maric, Ivana; Spasojevic, Predrag; Yates, Roy D.

    2007-01-01

    We study information-theoretic security for discrete memoryless interference and broadcast channels with independent confidential messages sent to two receivers. Confidential messages are transmitted to their respective receivers with information-theoretic secrecy. That is, each receiver is kept in total ignorance with respect to the message intended for the other receiver. The secrecy level is measured by the equivocation rate at the eavesdropping receiver. In this paper, we present inner an...

  10. Controls Mitigating the Risk of Confidential Information Disclosure by Facebook: Essential Concern in Auditing Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Ognyanov Kuyumdzhiev

    2014-01-01

    Facebook allows people to easily share information about themselves which in some cases could be classified as confidential or sensitive in the organisation they’re working for. In this paper we discuss the type of data stored by Facebook and the scope of the terms “confidential” and “sensitive data”. The intersection of these areas shows that there is high possibility for confidential data disclosure in organisations with none or ineffective security policy. This paper proposes a strategy fo...

  11. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  12. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Khanna; George Filobbos

    2013-01-01

    The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suc...

  13. Attitudes toward medical and genetic confidentiality in the Saudi research biobank: An exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-03-01

    Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy.

  14. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram; Levine, Simon P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  15. Adaptive avoidance of reef noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Simpson

    Full Text Available Auditory information is widely used throughout the animal kingdom in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some marine species are dependent on reefs for adult survival and reproduction, and are known to use reef noise to guide orientation towards suitable habitat. Many others that forage in food-rich inshore waters would, however, benefit from avoiding the high density of predators resident on reefs, but nothing is known about whether acoustic cues are used in this context. By analysing a sample of nearly 700,000 crustaceans, caught during experimental playbacks in light traps in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, we demonstrate an auditory capability in a broad suite of previously neglected taxa, and provide the first evidence in any marine organisms that reef noise can act as a deterrent. In contrast to the larvae of species that require reef habitat for future success, which showed an attraction to broadcasted reef noise, taxa with a pelagic or nocturnally emergent lifestyle actively avoided it. Our results suggest that a far greater range of invertebrate taxa than previously thought can respond to acoustic cues, emphasising yet further the potential negative impact of globally increasing levels of underwater anthropogenic noise.

  16. When security and medicine missions conflict: confidentiality in prison settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott A; Aburabi, Raed

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - It is a simple fact that prisons cannot exist - practically, legally, ethically or morally - without the support of physicians and other health professionals. Access to adequate healthcare is one of the fundamental measures of the legitimacy of a jail or prison. At the same time, there is a fundamental tension in the missions of the prison and doctor. The primary mission of the prison is security and often punishment. Reform and rehabilitation have intermittently been stated goals of prisons in the last century, but in practice those humane goals have rarely governed prison administrative culture. The primary mission of the physician is to promote the health and welfare of his or her patient. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - At times, what is required to serve the patient's best interest is at odds with the interests of security. Much of the work of the prison physician does not conflict with the operation of security. Indeed, much of the work of the prison physician is allowed to proceed without much interference from the security regime. But given the fundamental discord in the legitimate missions of security vs medicine, conflict between the doctor and the warden is inevitable. Findings - In this paper, the authors consider the example of patient confidentiality to illustrate this conflict, using case examples inspired by real cases from the experience of the authors. Originality/value - The authors provide an ethical and practical framework for health professionals to employ when confronting these inevitable conflicts in correctional settings.

  17. Confidentiality Protection of Digital Health Records in Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyh-Wei; Chiang, Dai Lun; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Lai, Feipei; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Electronic medical records containing confidential information were uploaded to the cloud. The cloud allows medical crews to access and manage the data and integration of medical records easily. This data system provides relevant information to medical personnel and facilitates and improve electronic medical record management and data transmission. A structure of cloud-based and patient-centered personal health record (PHR) is proposed in this study. This technique helps patients to manage their health information, such as appointment date with doctor, health reports, and a completed understanding of their own health conditions. It will create patients a positive attitudes to maintain the health. The patients make decision on their own for those whom has access to their records over a specific span of time specified by the patients. Storing data in the cloud environment can reduce costs and enhance the share of information, but the potential threat of information security should be taken into consideration. This study is proposing the cloud-based secure transmission mechanism is suitable for multiple users (like nurse aides, patients, and family members).

  18. Confidentiality Protection of Digital Health Records in Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyh-Wei; Chiang, Dai Lun; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Lai, Feipei; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Electronic medical records containing confidential information were uploaded to the cloud. The cloud allows medical crews to access and manage the data and integration of medical records easily. This data system provides relevant information to medical personnel and facilitates and improve electronic medical record management and data transmission. A structure of cloud-based and patient-centered personal health record (PHR) is proposed in this study. This technique helps patients to manage their health information, such as appointment date with doctor, health reports, and a completed understanding of their own health conditions. It will create patients a positive attitudes to maintain the health. The patients make decision on their own for those whom has access to their records over a specific span of time specified by the patients. Storing data in the cloud environment can reduce costs and enhance the share of information, but the potential threat of information security should be taken into consideration. This study is proposing the cloud-based secure transmission mechanism is suitable for multiple users (like nurse aides, patients, and family members). PMID:27059737

  19. Lists of environmental statements projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is a collection of five lists of the Environmental Statements Projects related to nuclear power reactors, consumer products in which by-product radionuclides may be used, ERDA facilities, and, for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Modular Integrated Utilities Systems. The lists are arranged by (1) Project name, (2) Project docket number, (3) NRC Environmental Project Manager, (4) ORNL Task Group Leader, and (5) ORNL editor. In each list, the first issue date listed for each project is the issue date of its Draft Environmental Statement (DES), and the second issue date is that of the Final Environmental Statement (FES). The lists will be updated as the Environmental Statements Project continues. (U.S.)

  20. Financial statement and final accounts

    OpenAIRE

    ČERNÁ, Ilona

    2011-01-01

    The main task of accounting is to inform truthfully and accurately show business assets, the sources from which assets were acquired and the financial situation - the economic result for a certain period of time. These users will find information in public documents of final accounts, which are made statements - balance sheet, profit and loss account and the annex to these financial statements. To ensure the correctness and completeness of the data in the accounting process is an important ba...

  1. Would Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance Undermine a National Retail Sales Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew N.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that shifting to an indirect tax system (a national sales tax) will not necessarily reduce tax avoidance and tax evasion behavior by businesses and individuals, particularly if the tax rate is set high to maintain revenue neutrality. Lack of experience in administering a high-rate, indirect tax system precludes definitive statements regarding the likely extent of tax base erosion under a national sales tax.

  2. Hinkley Point 'C': a summary of the Environmental Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Statement describes the potentially significant environmental effects of the proposed pressurized water reactor station at Hinkley Point in Somerset, and the ways in which the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) intends to avoid, reduce or remedy these effects. It also explains the CEGB's reasons for proposing a PWR at Hinkley Point. The Environmental Statement has been produced to inform local authorities, the public and the Secretary of State for Energy about the CEGB's proposals. The Secretary of State has to decide whether or not consent for construction of Hinkley Point 'C' power station should be given, and in reaching that decision has to consider, amongst other matters, the environmental effects of the project. This summary and the Environmental Statement also describe the CEGB's plans for developing Hinkley Point 'C. Some details are yet to be finalised and may be subject to change, but this will not affect the overall validity of the environmental analysis given in these documents. Greater detail can be found in the full Environmental Statement. (author)

  3. Financial Report - Financial Statements of Company

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the closing of books and the final accounts, or more precisely final accounts in a broader sense, of the business entity in the Czech Republic. The theoretical part focuses on the preparatory work before closing the books that lead to the preparation of financial statements, it means the balance sheet, income statement, notes to the financial statements, alternatively cash flow statement and statement of changes in the equity. Preparatory works mean such as inventory...

  4. When security and medicine missions conflict: confidentiality in prison settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott A; Aburabi, Raed

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - It is a simple fact that prisons cannot exist - practically, legally, ethically or morally - without the support of physicians and other health professionals. Access to adequate healthcare is one of the fundamental measures of the legitimacy of a jail or prison. At the same time, there is a fundamental tension in the missions of the prison and doctor. The primary mission of the prison is security and often punishment. Reform and rehabilitation have intermittently been stated goals of prisons in the last century, but in practice those humane goals have rarely governed prison administrative culture. The primary mission of the physician is to promote the health and welfare of his or her patient. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - At times, what is required to serve the patient's best interest is at odds with the interests of security. Much of the work of the prison physician does not conflict with the operation of security. Indeed, much of the work of the prison physician is allowed to proceed without much interference from the security regime. But given the fundamental discord in the legitimate missions of security vs medicine, conflict between the doctor and the warden is inevitable. Findings - In this paper, the authors consider the example of patient confidentiality to illustrate this conflict, using case examples inspired by real cases from the experience of the authors. Originality/value - The authors provide an ethical and practical framework for health professionals to employ when confronting these inevitable conflicts in correctional settings. PMID:27219904

  5. Telemedicine and security. Confidentiality, integrity, and availability: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennett, P; Watanabe, M; Igras, E; Premkumar, K; Hall, W

    1996-01-01

    The health care system is undergoing major reform, characterized by organized delivery systems (regionalization, decentralization, devolution, etc); shifts in care delivery sites; changing health provider roles; increasing consumer responsibilities; and accountability. Rapid advances in information technology and telecommunications have led to a new type of information infrastructure which can play a major role in this reform. Compatible health information systems are now being integrated and connected across institutional, regional, and sectorial boundaries. In the near future, these information systems will readily be accessed and shared by health providers, researchers, policy makers, health consumers, and the public. SECURITY is a critical characteristic of any health information system. This paper will address three fields associated with SECURITY: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. These will be defined and examined as they relate to specific aspects of Telemedicine, such as electronic integrated records and clinical databases; electronic transfer of documents; as well as data storage and disposal. The guiding principles, standards, and safeguards being considered and put in place to ensure that telemedicine information intrastructures can protect and benefit all stakeholders' rights and needs in both primary and secondary uses of information will be reviewed. Implemented, proposed, and tested institutional, System, and Network solutions will be discussed; for example, encryption-decryption methods; data transfer standards; individual and terminal access and entry I.D. and password levels; smart card access and PIN number control; data loss prevention strategies; interference alerts; information access keys; algorithm safeguards; and active marketing to users of standards and principles. Issues such as policy, implementation, and ownership will be addressed. PMID:10163762

  6. Maternal mortality in Bahrain 1987-2004: an audit of causes of avoidable death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, A K; Mustafa, F E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this report was to establish the national maternal mortality rate in Bahrain over the period 1987-2004, to identify preventable factors in maternal deaths and to make recommendations for safe motherhood. There were 60 maternal deaths out of 243 232 deliveries giving an average maternal mortality rate of 24.7 per 100 000 total births. The main causes of death were sickle-cell disease (25.0%), hypertension (18.3%), embolism (13.3%), haemorrhage (13.3%), heart disease (11.7%), infection (8.3%) and other (10.0%). In an audit of care, 17 (28.3%) out of 60 deaths were judged to be avoidable, nearly half of which were due to a shortage of intensive care beds. We recommend that a confidential enquiry of maternal deaths be conducted at the national level every 3 to 5 years.

  7. [Confidentiality in HIV-infection/AIDS--a comment on the Communicable Disease Control Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frich, J C

    1995-05-10

    The new Communicable Diseases Control Act has come into force in Norway. It makes it compulsory for a physician to warn a third party if it is obvious that a HIV-positive patient, with a high degree of certainty, puts the third party at risk of being infected with HIV. Some philosophers characterize medical confidentiality as an intransigent and absolute obligation, others as a prima facie duty. This article supports the latter view, but the author still argues that strict conditions have to be fulfilled before a physician should consider breaking medical confidentiality: The doctor must try repeatedly to gain the consent or co-operation of the patient involved. Possible negative long-term consequences for the preventive HIV-work support strict medical confidentiality.

  8. Nuclear security information: A balancing act between confidentiality and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear information security - the control of access to sensitive information as well as classification and control measures for nuclear security information - is one of the principles of nuclear security culture. On the other hand the genera l public should be aware, that security is a key consideration for nuclear plant operation and transports of nuclear material. The internet has influenced society and today in all areas access to information is quite easy and taken for granted. Nuclear security is no exception and general information about security is necessary. It is clear that details relating to sensitive security arrangements cannot be divulged to the general public but the release of appropriate information can be helpful in acquiring public confidence and support for nuclear security. The particular content and mode of disseminating this information is a balancing act between confidentiality and transparency. It may vary according to local and national circumstances, the particular public being addressed and prevailing circumstances and conditions. Taking up examples from the nuclear and the non-nuclear field, the paper will focus on some reflections on what could or should be observed, when giving information in sensitive areas and in particular on nuclear security matters. Reflections such as: When evaluating the pros and cons of a transparent policy in the field of nuclear security and trying to evaluate what information may be disclosed, we have to be aware, that we are acting in the delicate field of the nuclear discussion. Further our behaviour will be compared with the information policy in nuclear safety, where in general absolutely open information is applied. Information in general is spread by Medias. When entering in the information business. we have to understand and care about how the Medias work and behave. We have to decide who will enter in contact with the Medias and which information has to be given to whom, at what time and

  9. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2016-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  10. Do self-statements enhance the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy? A comparative evaluation in acrophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijn, M; Emmelkamp, P M G; Olafsson, R P; Schuemie, Martijn J; van der Mast, Charles A P G

    2007-06-01

    There is a clear need for more detailed analysis of the role of cognitive self-statements in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET). To date, no research on this topic has been done. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether coping self-statements would enhance the effectiveness of VRET. In a randomized crossover design, 26 patients with acrophobia (DSM-IV diagnosis of specific phobia) were randomly assigned to two sessions of VRET followed by two sessions of VRET plus coping self-statements, or the other way around: first two sessions of VRET plus coping self-statements followed by two sessions of VRET. Results showed that VRET, regardless of addition of coping self-statements, decreased anxiety of heights, decreased avoidance of height situations, and improved attitudes towards heights. However, at 6-month follow-up, most gains during treatment were not fully retained.

  11. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  12. 49 CFR 512.17 - How long should it take to determine whether information is entitled to confidential treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long should it take to determine whether information is entitled to confidential treatment? 512.17 Section 512.17 Transportation Other Regulations... TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Agency Determination § 512.17 How long should it take...

  13. 49 CFR 512.20 - How does the agency treat information submitted pursuant to this part before a confidentiality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the agency treat information submitted pursuant to this part before a confidentiality determination is made? 512.20 Section 512.20 Transportation... Confidential § 512.20 How does the agency treat information submitted pursuant to this part before...

  14. Confidentiality Protection of User Data and Adaptive Resource Allocation for Managing Multiple Workflow Performance in Service-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, two interrelated problems of service-based systems (SBS) are addressed: protecting users' data confidentiality from service providers, and managing performance of multiple workflows in SBS. Current SBSs pose serious limitations to protecting users' data confidentiality. Since users' sensitive data is sent in…

  15. 21 CFR 814.9 - Confidentiality of data and information in a premarket approval application (PMA) file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES... secret or confidential commercial or financial information under § 20.61. (3) Any adverse reaction report...: (i) Any information that constitutes trade secret or confidential commercial or financial...

  16. 10 CFR 709.26 - Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to... Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. (a) DOE owns all CI evaluation records, including polygraph examination records...

  17. Lithuanian general practitioners' knowledge of confidentiality laws in adolescent sexual and reproductive healthcare: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania, the legislation addressing confidentiality in adolescent healthcare is contradictory and vague. Previous studies have also revealed that medico-legal knowledge among physicians is poor, and attitudes play a correspondingly greater role than legal knowledge in ensuring the confidenti...

  18. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Confidentiality Policies for Advanced Knowledge Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, D

    2003-03-01

    Knowledge Discovery (KD) processes can create new information within a Knowledge Management (KM) system. In many domains, including government, this new information must be secured against unauthorized disclosure. Applying an appropriate confidentiality policy achieves this. However, it is not evident which confidentiality policy to apply, especially when the goals of sharing and disseminating knowledge have to be balanced with the requirements to secure knowledge. This work proposes to solve this problem by developing a cost-benefit analysis technique for examining the tradeoffs between securing and sharing discovered knowledge.

  19. Application of information technology may increase the efficacy of Confidential Unit Exclusion (CUE) in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Jalalian, Mehrdad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    Confidential Unit Exclusion (CUE) refers to a procedure by which a blood donor designates confidentially whether his or her blood might not be safe for transfusion. It applies to situations in which an individual who is not eligible for blood donation in terms of blood safety feel pressured by others to donate his or her blood. A potential problem in the CUE system is misunderstanding of the procedure and its significance by blood donors as well as the lack of their confidence regarding the c...

  20. Statement of The American Society of Human Genetics on cystic fibrosis carrier screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The identification in 1989 of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene and its most common mutation immediately raised the possibility of CF carrier detection by DNA analysis. The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) issued a statement recommending that CF carrier testing should be made available to individuals with a family history of CF. It was also stated that screening of individuals or couples in the general population should not be offered until the rate of CF carrier detection improves. An additional prerequisite emphasized the need for the establishment of effective educational and counseling programs consistent with previous widely accepted principles. An NIH workshop reached similar conclusions. ASHG recommendations are that screening be limited to individuals with a family history of CF, testing should be accompanied by education and counseling, screening should be voluntary and confidential with appropriate laboratory quality controls, and efforts should be expanded to educate health care providers and the public.

  1. Developing cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Slevin, Terry; Pratt, Iain S; Glance, David; Liang, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence of the increased cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption, but this is not well understood by the general public. This study investigated the acceptability among drinkers of cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Australian drinkers to develop a series of cancer-related warning statements for alcohol products. Eleven cancer warning statements and one general health warning statement were subse...

  2. COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. CONVERGENCE VERSUS DIVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ECOBICI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.

  3. In Brief: Geoengineering draft statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-04-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) has prepared a draft policy statement on geoengineering the climate system, which the AMS Council is considering for approval. The statement notes, “Geoengineering will not substitute for either aggressive mitigation or proactive adaptation. It could contribute to a comprehensive risk management strategy to slow climate change and alleviate its negative impacts, but the potential for adverse and unintended consequences implies a need for adequate research, appropriate regulation, and transparent consideration.” The statement, if adopted, indicates that AMS recommends enhanced research on the scientific and technological potential for geoengineering the climate system; additional study of the historical, ethical, legal, political, and societal aspects of the geoengineering issues; and the development and analysis of policy options to promote transparency and international cooperation in exploring geoengineering options along with restrictions on reckless efforts to manipulate the climate system. AMS is accepting comments on the draft statement until 23 April. For more information, visit http://ametsoc.org/policy/draftstatements/index.html#draft.

  4. Mission Statements: One More Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detomasi, Don

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that well-conceived college and university mission statements can be useful in setting objectives for planning and for public information dissemination and marketing. The experience of the University of Calgary (Alberta) illustrates a successful process of drafting and reaching agreement on such a document. (MSE)

  5. Avoiding Disclosure of Individually Identifiable Health Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio I. Prada

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving data and information dissemination without harming anyone is a central task of any entity in charge of collecting data. In this article, the authors examine the literature on data and statistical confidentiality. Rather than comparing the theoretical properties of specific methods, they emphasize the main themes that emerge from the ongoing discussion among scientists regarding how best to achieve the appropriate balance between data protection, data utility, and data dissemination. They cover the literature on de-identification and reidentification methods with emphasis on health care data. The authors also discuss the benefits and limitations for the most common access methods. Although there is abundant theoretical and empirical research, their review reveals lack of consensus on fundamental questions for empirical practice: How to assess disclosure risk, how to choose among disclosure methods, how to assess reidentification risk, and how to measure utility loss.

  6. Computer Security: improve software, avoid blunder

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a severe vulnerability has been made public about how Apple devices are wrongly handling encryption. This vulnerability rendered SSL/TLS protection useless, and permitted attackers checking out a wireless network to capture or modify data in encrypted sessions.   In other words, all confidential data like passwords, banking information, etc. could have been siphoned off by a targeted attack. While Apple has been quick in providing adequate security patches for iOS devices and Macs, it is an excellent example of how small mistakes can lead to big security holes. Here is the corresponding code from Apple’s Open Source repository. Can you spot the issue? 1 static OSStatus 2 SSLVerifySignedServerKeyExchange(SSLContext *ctx, bool isRsa, SSLBuffer signedParams, uint8_t *signature, UInt16 signatureLen) 3 { 4              OSStatus &nb...

  7. Adolescents' attitudes toward confidentiality between the school counsellor and the adolescent client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, N; Knowles, A D

    1995-11-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that confidentiality is relative rather than absolute in any counselling relationship. This is particularly the case for minors receiving counselling at school, where third parties such as parents and teachers frequently have access to information about an adolescent client. The Australian Psychological Society's Code of Professional Conduct (1986) states that minors are unable to provide voluntary, informed consent in consulting relationships, although current research does not necessarily support this view. The current study investigated adolescents' attitudes to confidentiality in situations that may commonly arise in school counselling. The study also investigated the third parties to whom adolescents believed information should be disclosed by a counsellor. Respondents were 303 male and 254 female students attending three single-sex nongovernment schools. Ages ranged from 13 to 18 years. Results suggested that the adolescents' attitudes to confidentiality generally corresponded with adult views. Many adolescents wanted more autonomy regarding disclosure of information obtained in a counselling situation than the APS code provides. Parents were the only third party to whom the adolescents generally believed disclosure should be made. There were few age differences, but a wide range of opinions were evident, with female adolescents consistently more strongly in favor of confidentiality than males. PMID:17144046

  8. 6 CFR 25.10 - Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... protection of Intellectual Property. (a) General. The Secretary, in consultation with the Office of... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property. 25.10 Section 25.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE...

  9. Wavelet-Based ECG Steganography for Protecting Patient Confidential Information in Point-of-Care Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaida, Ayman; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2013-12-01

    With the growing number of aging population and a significant portion of that suffering from cardiac diseases, it is conceivable that remote ECG patient monitoring systems are expected to be widely used as point-of-care (PoC) applications in hospitals around the world. Therefore, huge amount of ECG signal collected by body sensor networks from remote patients at homes will be transmitted along with other physiological readings such as blood pressure, temperature, glucose level, etc., and diagnosed by those remote patient monitoring systems. It is utterly important that patient confidentiality is protected while data are being transmitted over the public network as well as when they are stored in hospital servers used by remote monitoring systems. In this paper, a wavelet-based steganography technique has been introduced which combines encryption and scrambling technique to protect patient confidential data. The proposed method allows ECG signal to hide its corresponding patient confidential data and other physiological information thus guaranteeing the integration between ECG and the rest. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique on the ECG signal, two distortion measurement metrics have been used: the percentage residual difference and the wavelet weighted PRD. It is found that the proposed technique provides high-security protection for patients data with low (less than 1%) distortion and ECG data remain diagnosable after watermarking (i.e., hiding patient confidential data) and as well as after watermarks (i.e., hidden data) are removed from the watermarked data.

  10. 75 FR 60452 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Water... standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA). Interested persons may submit comments on this intended...

  11. 78 FR 79692 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information AGENCY: Environmental... access to CBI submitted to EPA under Section 308 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and in connection with... authorized Abt Associates, Inc. (Abt), its subcontractors, and its consultants to access...

  12. 77 FR 60962 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 2 Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information AGENCY... Clean Water Act and in connection with various programs and are providing notice and an opportunity to... under the Clean Water Act (CWA). The information being transferred was or will be collected under...

  13. 75 FR 55577 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Water... of section 308 of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Some information being transferred from the pulp,...

  14. 42 CFR 423.136 - Privacy, confidentiality, and accuracy of enrollee records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... records. 423.136 Section 423.136 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 423.136 Privacy, confidentiality, and accuracy of enrollee...

  15. 40 CFR 68.152 - Substantiating claims of confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiating claims of confidential business information. 68.152 Section 68.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan §...

  16. 40 CFR 68.151 - Assertion of claims of confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assertion of claims of confidential business information. 68.151 Section 68.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan §...

  17. 40 CFR 260.2 - Availability of information; confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of information; confidentiality of information. 260.2 Section 260.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL General § 260.2...

  18. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  19. 19 CFR 206.47 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... Investigations for Relief From Market Disruption § 206.47 Limited disclosure of certain confidential...

  20. 77 FR 12284 - Access to Confidential Business Information; Protection Strategies Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information; Protection Strategies Incorporated AGENCY... Strategies Incorporated (PSI) of Arlington, VA, to access information which has been submitted to EPA under all sections of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Some of the information may be claimed...

  1. 76 FR 52659 - Access by EPA Contractors to Confidential Business Information (CBI) Related to the Greenhouse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... AGENCY Access by EPA Contractors to Confidential Business Information (CBI) Related to the Greenhouse Gas... be submitted to EPA under the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program that may be designated or claimed as...), EPA created the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP), 40 CFR part 98 (part 98), which...

  2. Confidentiality Issues when Minor Children Disclose Family Secrets in Family Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Kenneth G.; Murray, Kenneth C.

    2003-01-01

    The literature addressing ethical issues involved in the disclosure of family secrets in counseling has typically focused on secrets disclosed by adults, ignoring the ethical issues surrounding individual disclosure by minor children and confidentiality within the family counseling context. This article explores family secrets, confidentiality…

  3. 45 CFR 61.14 - Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the Healthcare Integrity... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity...

  4. 77 FR 10506 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Syracuse Research Corporation, Inc., and Its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Syracuse Research Corporation, Inc., and Its...: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC), Inc., of North Syracuse, NY, and its identified subcontractor BeakerTree Corporation to access information which has...

  5. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Investigations Relating to Global Safeguard Actions § 206.17 Limited disclosure of certain confidential business... business information under administrative protective order. 206.17 Section 206.17 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  6. 78 FR 47421 - Scope of the Copyright Royalty Judges Authority to Adopt Confidentiality Requirements upon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Phonorecords II, 77 FR 29259 (May 17, 2012). The proposed regulations included ``confidentiality requirements... of the settling parties to a distribution and rate proceeding'' Id. at 8, citing 74 FR 4510, 4514.... at 8-9, citing 74 FR 4537, 4540 (Jan. 26, 2009). The Settling Participants point out that the...

  7. Providing integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality for header and pixel data of DICOM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Exchange of medical images over public networks is subjected to different types of security threats. This has triggered persisting demands for secured telemedicine implementations that will provide confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity for the transmitted images. The medical image exchange standard (DICOM) offers mechanisms to provide confidentiality for the header data of the image but not for the pixel data. On the other hand, it offers mechanisms to achieve authenticity and integrity for the pixel data but not for the header data. In this paper, we propose a crypto-based algorithm that provides confidentially, authenticity, and integrity for the pixel data, as well as for the header data. This is achieved by applying strong cryptographic primitives utilizing internally generated security data, such as encryption keys, hashing codes, and digital signatures. The security data are generated internally from the header and the pixel data, thus a strong bond is established between the DICOM data and the corresponding security data. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated extensively using DICOM images of different modalities. Simulation experiments show that confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity have been achieved as reflected by the results we obtained for normalized correlation, entropy, PSNR, histogram analysis, and robustness.

  8. 32 CFR 727.8 - Confidential and privileged character of service provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... legal sense as outlined in the Code of Professional Responsibility, as opposed to confidential in the... individual legal assistance client by name or any other particular, such as social security number, shall be... fear that their confidence will be abused or used against them in any way. While case files are...

  9. 77 FR 25475 - Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims Regarding Waste Import...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... AGENCY Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims Regarding Waste Import... notices similar to this one in the Federal Register, the latest one being at 76 FR 362, January 4, 2011... information at issue: the preliminary inquiry and the notice of opportunity to comment. a. Inquiry To...

  10. 75 FR 4812 - Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... AGENCY Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims AGENCY: Environmental... Information EPA has previously published notices similar to this one in the Federal Register, at 74 FR 20293, May 1, 2009, and 72 FR 21006, April 27, 2007 that address issues similar to those raised by...

  11. 76 FR 362 - Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims AGENCY: Environmental... previously published notices similar to this one in the Federal Register, the latest one being at 75 FR 4812... issue: The preliminary inquiry and the notice of opportunity to comment. a. Inquiry To Learn...

  12. 77 FR 109 - Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims Regarding Waste Import...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... AGENCY Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims Regarding Waste Import... published notices similar to this one in the Federal Register, the latest one being at 76 FR 362, January 4... and the notice of opportunity to comment. a. Inquiry To Learn Whether Affected Businesses (Other...

  13. 75 FR 44951 - Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... AGENCY Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims AGENCY: Environmental... previously published notices similar to this one in the Federal Register, the latest one being at 75 FR 4812... issue: The preliminary inquiry and the notice of opportunity to comment. a. Inquiry To Learn...

  14. 21 CFR 822.23 - Is the information in my submission considered confidential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE FDA Review and Action § 822.23 Is the... with the Freedom of Information Act. We will continue to protect trade secret and confidential... patients. You may wish to indicate in your submission which information you consider trade secret...

  15. The Confidentiality of Medical Secrets of Patients by the Nursing Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkias Theodoros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article you will find a critical discussion about the significance of confidentiality of "medical secrets" (keeping the secrets of ill people by nurses. Special cases are mentioned regarding the need to keep, or reveal the secret.

  16. 78 FR 2669 - Waste Import and Export; Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... responses to this notice must be in the English language. 5. The Effect of Failure To Respond to This Notice... AGENCY Waste Import and Export; Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality... comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ- OECA-2012-0957, by one of the following methods:...

  17. 75 FR 75593 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... confidentiality.\\13\\ This distinction is set forth in the final rule's second rule of construction and reflects... financial institutions to report suspicious activity without fear of reprisal--leans heavily in favor of... applicable to all persons not authorized in the rules of construction to receive such information....

  18. 77 FR 29635 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Several Student Services Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Several Student Services Contractors AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA will be authorizing several Student Services contractors to access information which has been submitted to EPA under all sections of the Toxic...

  19. 76 FR 9012 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Electronic Consulting Services, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Electronic Consulting Services, Inc. AGENCY... Consulting Services, Inc. (ECS) of Fairfax, VA, to access information which has been submitted to EPA under all sections of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Some of the information may be claimed...

  20. 76 FR 77816 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Guident Technologies, Inc. and Subcontractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Guident Technologies, Inc. and Subcontractor...: EPA has authorized its contractor, Guident Technologies, Inc. of Herndon, VA and subcontractor, Impact Innovations Systems, Inc. of Manassas, VA to access information which has been submitted to EPA under...

  1. 75 FR 70672 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified... contractor, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) of Chantilly, VA and Its Identified Subcontractors, to access... whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will...

  2. 78 FR 29367 - Access to Confidential Business Information by ABT Associates, Incorporated; Perry Johnson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by ABT Associates, Incorporated; Perry Johnson Registrars, Inc.; SGS North America, Inc.; SAI Global, Inc.; Orion Registrar, Inc.; NSF-ISR International... Global; Orion Registrar, Inc.; NSF- ISR International, and T V S D America, Inc., also known as...

  3. Build a Positive Classroom Environment: Avoid Competition!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Nancy S.

    2009-01-01

    Elementary teachers often instigate competition among their students through such common statements as: "Students who make 100 on the spelling test may have 10 minutes of extra center time" and "The most creatively written story this week will be placed on the bulletin board." While such pronouncements motivate some students into action, they…

  4. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) (b) Where two or more licensees are assigned a common...

  5. Breaking patient confidentiality: comparing Chilean and French viewpoints regarding the conditions of its acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Olivari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the conditions under which lay people and health professionals living in Chile find it acceptable for a physician to break confidentiality to protect the wife of a patient with a sexually transmitted disease (STD. One hundred sixty-nine lay persons, 10 physicians, 17 psychologists, and 11 paramedical professionals indicated the acceptability of breaking confidentiality in 48 scenarios. The scenarios were all possible combinations of five factors: disease severity (severe, lethal; time taken to discuss this with the patient (little time, much time; patient’s intent to inform his spouse about the disease (none, one of these days, immediately; patient’s intent to adopt protective behaviors (no intent, intent; and physician’s decision to consult an STD expert (yes, no, 2 x 2 x 3 x 2 x 2. The study also compared Chilean and French views, using data gathered previously in France. A cluster analysis conducted on the overall set of raw data revealed groups of participants that found breaking confidentiality “always acceptable” (9%, requiring “consultation with an expert” (5%, “depending on the many circumstances” (70%, and “never acceptable” (11%”. Despite clear differences in legislation and official codes of ethics between their two countries, Chilean and French lay people did not differ much in their personal convictions regarding the circumstances in which patient confidentiality can be broken or must not be broken. By contrast, Chilean physicians, in agreement with their code of ethics, were much less supportive than French physicians of complete respect of patient confidentiality in all cases

  6. Analysis of the ethical aspects of professional confidentiality in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of deontological ethics, privacy is a moral right that patients are entitled to and it is bound to professional confidentiality. Otherwise, the information given by patients to health professionals would not be reliable and a trustable relationship could not be established. The aim of the present study was to assess, by means of questionnaires with open and closed questions, the awareness and attitudes of 100 dentists working in the city of Andradina, São Paulo State, Brazil, with respect to professional confidentiality in dental practice. Most dentists (91.43% reported to have instructed their assistants on professional confidentiality. However, 44.29% of the interviewees showed to act contradictorily as reported talking about the clinical cases of their patients to their friends or spouses. The great majority of professionals (98.57% believed that it is important to have classes on Ethics and Bioethics during graduation and, when asked about their knowledge of the penalties imposed for breach of professional confidentiality, only 48.57% of them declared to be aware of it. Only 28.57% of the interviewees affirmed to have exclusive access to the files; 67.14% reported that that files were also accessed by their secretary; 1.43% answered that their spouses also had access, and 2.86% did not answer. From the results of the present survey, it could be observed that, although dentists affirmed to be aware of professional confidentiality, their attitudes did not adhere to ethical and legal requirements. This stand of health professionals has contributed to violate professional ethics and the law itself, bringing problems both to the professional and to the patient.

  7. Consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The following overview and accompanying audited financial statements have been prepared for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 to report the financial position and the results of operations of the Department of Energy. These statements include the consolidated Statement of Financial Position and the consolidated Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position. The statements have been prepared in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 94-01, Form and Content for Agency Financial Statements, and were developed in accordance with the hierarchy of accounting standards described therein. The overview provides a narrative on the Department of Energy`s mission, activities, and accomplishments. Utilizing performance measures as the primary vehicle for communicating Departmental accomplishments and results, this overview discusses the most significant measures while others are discussed in the supplemental information to the financial statements.

  8. Confidentiality of the medical records of HIV-positive patients in the United Kingdom – a medicolegal and ethical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mike WilliamsHead of Service, Cambridge University Dental Service, Cambridge, UKAbstract: This article examines the legal and ethical issues that surround the confidentiality of medical records, particularly in relation to patients who are HIV positive. It records some historical background of the HIV epidemic, and considers the relative risks of transmission of HIV from individual to individual. It explains the law as it pertains to confidentiality, and reports the professional guidance in these matters. It then considers how these relate to HIV-positive individuals in particular.Keywords: HIV/AIDS, confidentiality, medical records

  9. Conjecture on Avoidance of Big Crunch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Yi; ZHANG De-Hai

    2006-01-01

    By conjecturing the physics at the Planck scale, we modify the definition of the Hawking temperature and modify the Friedmann equation. It is found that we can avoid the singularity of the big crunch and obtain a bouncing cosmological model.

  10. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: ...

  11. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  12. Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159681.html Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity Good relationship with parents, especially between fathers and ... develop healthy habits that may protect them against obesity, a new study suggests. The researchers also found ...

  13. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  14. GSA IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — GSA IT provides data related to Agency IT initiatives that save or avoid expenditures. This data is provided as a requirement of OMB's Integrated Data Collection...

  15. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  16. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  17. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required. PMID:24785995

  18. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in radar technology have resulted in commercial, automotive collision avoidance radars. These radar systems typically use 37GHz or 77GHz interferometry...

  19. How to avoid overheating during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000865.htm How to avoid overheating during exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... condition can get heat illness. Stay Cool During Exercise Try these tips to help prevent heat-related ...

  20. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....

  1. Confidential dominance relation based rough approximation model%基于置信优势关系的粗糙集近似模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟光磊; 王国胤; 利节; 吴迪

    2014-01-01

    不完备有序信息处理是现实生活中的常见问题。多种拓展优势关系及其粗糙集模型被提出并用于解决不完全的偏好决策问题,但均未考虑序关系特性,与现实语义存在矛盾。对此,提出一种置信优势关系及其粗糙集近似模型,讨论了基于置信优势关系的粗糙集模型与已有模型的关系。与现有的拓展关系相比,该置信优势关系满足序关系特性,避免了语义上的矛盾。定理证明和实例分析表明,置信优势关系粗糙集近似模型的近似精度和分类精度更优。%Incomplete ordered information processing is a common problem in the real life. Various extended dominance relation rough set models are already proposed to solve the incomplete ordinal decision problem. But there exits some ambivalence over the real semantics because the characteristics of the order relation are not considered. Therefore, the confidence dominance relation and its rough set approximation model are presented. Relationships between the confidential dominance relation based rough set model and existing models are discussed. Compared with the current expansion relations, confidence dominance relation fits the characteristics of the order relation to avoid semantic contradiction. Theorem proving and example analysis show that the confidential dominance relation based rough approximation model has better approximate accuracy and classification accuracy.

  2. Mobile Robot Collision Avoidance in Human Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingqi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance is a fundamental requirement for mobile robots. Avoiding moving obstacles (also termed dynamic obstacles with unpredictable direction changes, such as humans, is more challenging than avoiding moving obstacles whose motion can be predicted. Precise information on the future moving directions of humans is unobtainable for use in navigation algorithms. Furthermore, humans should be able to pursue their activities unhindered and without worrying about the robots around them. In this paper, both active and critical regions are used to deal with the uncertainty of human motion. A procedure is introduced to calculate the region sizes based on worst‐case avoidance conditions. Next, a novel virtual force field‐based mobile robot navigation algorithm (termed QVFF is presented. This algorithm may be used with both holonomic and nonholonomic robots. It incorporates improved virtual force functions for avoiding moving obstacles and its stability is proven using a piecewise continuous Lyapunov function. Simulation and experimental results are provided for a human walking towards the robot and blocking the path to a goal location. Next, the proposed algorithm is compared with five state‐of‐the‐art navigation algorithms for an environment with one human walking with an unpredictable change in direction. Finally, avoidance results are presented for an environment containing three walking humans. The QVFF algorithm consistently generated collision‐free paths to the goal.

  3. Changes in public attitudes towards confidential adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in Lithuania after the introduction of new legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sauliune, Skirmante;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Lithuania, the right to confidentiality in healthcare for adolescents over the age of 16 was guaranteed in 2010 through the adoption of new legislation. This study sets out to explore changes in Lithuanian residents' attitudes towards confidentiality protection in adolescent sexual...... to 73% in 2012. Regardless of their belief in the importance of confidentiality, in 2012 respondents more often indicated positive outcomes on the relations between the physician and the minor patient, such as increased trust of the adolescent in the physician and more frequent visits to physicians...... outcomes if laws were enacted to further protect adolescent confidentiality. CONCLUSIONS: This study uncovers the dynamics of public attitudes towards the socially and ethically sensitive issue of adolescent SRH. Our study suggests that legislation could be a factor prompting changes in public opinion...

  4. The break of medical confidentiality for the benefit of public health: a controversial topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou Ε.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper refers to the decision made by the Greek Government to publish photographs and personal data of HIV positive sex workers on the grounds of protecting public health. Method: Initially, the law and theoretical background of medical confidentiality and its break were reviewed and then the conditions and data that led to the specific decision made by the Greek Authorities were investigated. Also the contribution of NGOs in the prevention of Public Health was studied. Conclusion: The survey showed that in this particular case the break of confidentiality was excessive and biased due to the origin and illegal activity of the women. A proper solution to the HIV/AIDS outbreak would be the intensification of prevention. In this sector, NGOs can and should play an active role considering that the primary care in Greece, especially during the economic crisis, shows organizational and operational weaknesses.

  5. Controls Mitigating the Risk of Confidential Information Disclosure by Facebook: Essential Concern in Auditing Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ognyanov Kuyumdzhiev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Facebook allows people to easily share information about themselves which in some cases could be classified as confidential or sensitive in the organisation they’re working for. In this paper we discuss the type of data stored by Facebook and the scope of the terms “confidential” and “sensitive data”. The intersection of these areas shows that there is high possibility for confidential data disclosure in organisations with none or ineffective security policy. This paper proposes a strategy for managing the risks of information leakage. We define five levels of controls against posting non-public data on Facebook - security policy, applications installed on employees’ workstations, specific router software or firmware, software in the cloud, Facebook itself. Advantages and disadvantages of every level are evaluated. As a result we propose developing of new control integrated in the social media.

  6. Violating confidentiality to warn of a risk of HIV infection: ethical work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, B

    1991-12-01

    The old literature on whether medical confidentiality may be breached to warn a spouse of a risk of contracting syphilis from his/her partner - a deep and rich literature - has become relevant once again in the context of HIV infection and AIDS. This paper examines the reasoning and method employed in: the Catholic approach centered around the patient's (property) right to the secret; a (generic) model of justice, utilizing minimal principles of non-aggression and restitution; and an approach involving the elimination of unstable alternatives: the view that public health officials, but not the spouse, may/must be notified; and, that maintaining that the physician is at liberty to disclose but is not obliged to do so. The theory and method behind confidentiality turns out to be deeper than you might have anticipated.

  7. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988

  8. Financial Statement Fraud Detection using Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan Gupta; Nasib Singh Gill

    2013-01-01

    Data mining techniques have been used enormously by the researchers’ community in detecting financial statement fraud. Most of the research in this direction has used the numbers (quantitative information) i.e. financial ratios present in the financial statements for detecting fraud. There is very little or no research on the analysis of text such as auditor’s comments or notes present in published reports. In this study we propose a text mining approach for detecting financial statement frau...

  9. Safeguarding critical e-documents implementing a program for securing confidential information assets

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Practical, step-by-step guidance for corporations, universities and government agencies to protect and secure confidential documents and business records Managers and public officials are looking for technology and information governance solutions to "information leakage" in an understandable, concise format. Safeguarding Critical E-Documents provides a road map for corporations, governments, financial services firms, hospitals, law firms, universities and other organizations to safeguard their internal electronic documents and private communications.Provides practical, step-by-step guidance o

  10. Medical confidentiality in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: an Anglo-German comparison1

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Professional secrecy of doctors became an issue of considerable medico-legal and political debate in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in both Germany and England, although the legal preconditions for this debate were quite different in the two countries. While in Germany medical confidentiality was a legal obligation and granted in court, no such statutory recognition of doctors’ professional secrecy existed in England. This paper is a comparative analysis of medical secrecy ...

  11. Using Social Networking Sites for Communicable Disease Control: Innovative Contact Tracing or Breach of Confidentiality?

    OpenAIRE

    Mandeville, KL; Harris, M; Thomas, HL; Chow, Y; Seng, C.

    2013-01-01

    Social media applications such as Twitter, YouTube and Facebook have attained huge popularity, with more than three billion people and organizations predicted to have a social networking account by 2015. Social media offers a rapid avenue of communication with the public and has potential benefits for communicable disease control and surveillance. However, its application in everyday public health practice raises a number of important issues around confidentiality and autonomy. We report here...

  12. Security and confidentiality approach for the Clinical E-Science Framework (CLEF)

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, D.; Singleton, P; Ingram, D.; Milan, J.; Mackay, J.; Detmer, D.; Rector, A.

    2005-01-01

    CLEF is an MRC sponsored project in the E-Science programme that aims to establish policies and infrastructure for the next generation of integrated clinical and bioscience research. One of the major goals of the project is to provide a pseudonymised repository of histories of cancer patients that can be accessed by researchers. Robust mechanisms and policies are needed to ensure that patient privacy and confidentiality are preserved while delivering a repository of such med...

  13. Spatial confidentiality and GIS: re-engineering mortality locations from published maps about Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitner Michael

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic Information Systems (GIS can provide valuable insight into patterns of human activity. Online spatial display applications, such as Google Earth, can democratise this information by disseminating it to the general public. Although this is a generally positive advance for society, there is a legitimate concern involving the disclosure of confidential information through spatial display. Although guidelines exist for aggregated data, little has been written concerning the display of point level information. The concern is that a map containing points representing cases of cancer or an infectious disease, could be re-engineered back to identify an actual residence. This risk is investigated using point mortality locations from Hurricane Katrina re-engineered from a map published in the Baton Rouge Advocate newspaper, and a field team validating these residences using search and rescue building markings. Results We show that the residence of an individual, visualized as a generalized point covering approximately one and half city blocks on a map, can be re-engineered back to identify the actual house location, or at least a close neighbour, even if the map contains little spatial reference information. The degree of re-engineering success is also shown to depend on the urban characteristic of the neighborhood. Conclusion The results in this paper suggest a need to re-evaluate current guidelines for the display of point (address level data. Examples of other point maps displaying health data extracted from the academic literature are presented where a similar re-engineering approach might cause concern with respect to violating confidentiality. More research is also needed into the role urban structure plays in the accuracy of re-engineering. We suggest that health and spatial scientists should be proactive and suggest a series of point level spatial confidentiality guidelines before governmental decisions are made

  14. IT architecture-based confidentiality risk assessment in networks of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Morali, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    Today almost every organization benefits from business opportunities created by digitalization. Digitalization allows, among others, to develop software products on shared platforms, to remotely access and alter patient records or remotely control power generators. This change in the technical environment has triggered changes in the legal environment, and introduced new compliance requirements. Consequently, protecting the confidentiality of digital information assets has become a major conc...

  15. Confidentiality and data sharing: vulnerabilities of the Mexican Genomics Sovereignty Act

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas-Martínez, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    A law known as “Genomic Sovereignty Act”, instituted in 2011, regulates research on the human genome in Mexico. This law establishes Government regulations for the exportation of DNA samples from Mexican nationals for population genetics studies. The Genomic Sovereignty Act protects fundamental human values, as confidentiality and non-discrimination based on personal genetic information. It also supports the development of the genome-based medical biotechnology and the bio-economy. Current la...

  16. Embedding patients confidential data in ECG signal for healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaida, Ayman; Khalil, Ibrahim; Al-Shammary, Dhiah

    2010-01-01

    In Wireless tele-cardiology applications, ECG signal is widely used to monitor cardiac activities of patients. Accordingly, in most e-health applications, ECG signals need to be combined with patient confidential information. Data hiding and watermarking techniques can play a crucial role in ECG wireless tele-monitoring systems by combining the confidential information with the ECG signal since digital ECG data is huge enough to act as host to carry tiny amount of additional secret data. In this paper, a new steganography technique is proposed that helps embed confidential information of patients into specific locations (called special range numbers) of digital ECG host signal that will cause minimal distortion to ECG, and at the same time, any secret information embedded is completely extractable. We show that there are 2.1475 × 10(9) possible special range numbers making it extremely difficult for intruders to identify locations of secret bits. Experiments show that percentage residual difference (PRD) of watermarked ECGs can be as low as 0.0247% and 0.0678% for normal and abnormal ECG segments (taken from MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database) respectively.

  17. Confidentiality and data sharing: vulnerabilities of the Mexican Genomics Sovereignty Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Augusto

    2015-07-01

    A law known as "Genomic Sovereignty Act", instituted in 2011, regulates research on the human genome in Mexico. This law establishes Government regulations for the exportation of DNA samples from Mexican nationals for population genetics studies. The Genomic Sovereignty Act protects fundamental human values, as confidentiality and non-discrimination based on personal genetic information. It also supports the development of the genome-based medical biotechnology and the bio-economy. Current laws for the protection of the genomic confidentiality, however, are inexplicit and insufficient, and the legal and technological instruments are primitive and insufficient to safeguard this bioethical principle. In addition, this law may undermine efforts of the national and international scientific communities to cooperate with big-data analysis for the development of the genome-based biomedical sciences. The argument of this article is that deficiencies in the protection of the confidentiality of genomic information and limitations in data sharing severely weaken the objectives and scope of the Genomic Sovereignty Act. In addition, the Act may compromise the national biomedical development and the international cooperation for research and development in the field of human genomics. PMID:25990230

  18. Financial Statement Fraud Detection using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining techniques have been used enormously by the researchers’ community in detecting financial statement fraud. Most of the research in this direction has used the numbers (quantitative information i.e. financial ratios present in the financial statements for detecting fraud. There is very little or no research on the analysis of text such as auditor’s comments or notes present in published reports. In this study we propose a text mining approach for detecting financial statement fraud by analyzing the hidden clues in the qualitative information (text present in financial statements.

  19. Intellectual Capital Statements -When Rhetoric meets Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Lotte

    of representation is calculus and mathematical rules. To illustrate the importance of describing a firm by not only using numbers the article illustrates the differences between intellectual capital statements and traditional balance sheets. The intellectual capital statement is often accused of not being a valid...... document to assess a company's value by, but this article argues that although intellectual capital statements make use of another way of presenting arguments than traditional balance sheets do they are still valid for describing a firm. The article argues that the intellectual capital statement uses...

  20. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  1. 78 FR 13082 - Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental...: The Bureau of Reclamation has made available for public review and comment the draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS/EIS) for the...

  2. Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Canada, we have not yet decommissioned a nuclear power plant, although there are some prototypes in safe store. However, we have decommissioned a commercial isotope production facility and a small research reactor facility, and the sites were ultimately released from regulatory control. We are currently involved in regulating the decommissioning of Atomic Energy of Canada's research facility at Whiteshell in Manitoba and various small infrastructure programmes at the Chalk River National Laboratories. For these type of projects, IAEA guidance forms the basis for our regulatory decisions. Clearance of materials is based on IAEA guidance criteria. These criteria are used for material contaminated with artificial radiation or with technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material. We have not established clearance criteria for material bound for recycle or reuse for the simple reason that the industries that would receive such material have taken a 'zero tolerance' stance. Scrap steel recyclers are loath to take material with any level of contamination in case it cannot be passed on. The main decommissioning or remediation experience in Canada is with historical uranium mines and their associated tailings, and with contaminated lands associated with the historical use of radium and uranium.These are really intervention activities. While Canadian nuclear regulation does not contain explicit criteria for the release of buildings or sites from regulatory control, our current regulatory scheme does specify that the regulator may order the cleanup of unlicensed sites that could give rise to doses greater than 1 mSv/a We have therefore taken that criterion of a potential dose of 1 mSv/a to be the upper bound for cleanup for historically contaminated sites and then apply as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) considerations to establish site specific clearance levels. Since many of these sites are in rural areas with a very low population density and varying traditional uses, we take site specific approaches to assessing potential doses. For example, as well as establishing maximum acceptable gamma dose rates, we acquire information on local hunting, fishing and product gathering practices and estimates of the typical times that could be spent on the land in question. As you can imagine, this requires extensive consultation with the local population.We believe this approach is a good one as it helps build confidence in the local population that their situation is understood, and is particularly important when we are dealing with communities which still obtain a significant portion of their diet directly from the local area. In some situations, sites have been released completely from regulatory control. In other situations, regulatory controls could be reduced to requirements for posting of warning signs, public education programmes and filing of information on recommended restrictions with the local government land registry. In summary, Canada is taking a site by site approach to decommissioning and remediation projects using criteria consistent with international guidance. (author)

  3. Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally up to the operator to propose to the regulator some dismantling strategy. The regulator hence has to judge if these strategies are safe and sustainable. Regulators often propose strategies that involve large waiting periods before dismantling. Their arguments are based on: Favourable effect of radioactive decay; Possibility of benefiting from new dismantling technologies; Benefits of waiting from a financial point of view. For all these reasons, the regulator should promote in most cases immediate dismantling. The main reason for deferred dismantling would be if large amounts of waste cannot be eliminated and would be kept safer within the facility. Entombment is definitely not a sustainable option as it requires, as for long term storage, permanent surveillance and maintenance. If a waste elimination pathway (such as a disposal facility) does not exist for certain categories of waste, a choice has to be made by the operator between: Proposing deferred dismantling because the waste is considered safer if it is enclosed in the facility; and developing and building a specific waste storage facility. Recent experience involving the nuclear industry as well as the conventional industry has shown the necessity to keep track of past uses of land and to at least define the minimum use restrictions when a facility handling hazardous materials has been occupying the site. Contaminated soil can be left in place, provided that optimization has been done and that it is not justified to intervene on a cost/effect basis. This topic has of course to be dealt with in an open discussion organized with stakeholders. An impact study has to be provided and land use restrictions have to be put in place and, as a precaution, possibly continuous monitoring of the funded site

  4. Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The question of clearance of materials, buildings and sites from regulatory control is one of the most controversial and discussed questions, if not the most, at all conferences, workshops and working groups dealing with decommissioning. In fact, the aspects of clearance, recycling and reuse have a major influence on global decommissioning costs. Furthermore, these questions involve different stakeholders: on the one hand the owner and operator of the plant, on the other hand the general public and, between both, the regulator. Finally, the recent evolution of the regulations related to the use within the non-nuclear industry of materials containing natural radioactivity and to the cleanup of contaminated sites from post activities leads necessarily to the comparison of criteria to be handled in both industries. What are the differences between these industries? One difference is certainly the public relationship to those industries, and thus the public perception of the risk from the material handled in both industries. On the one hand, it is fissile material, which must be dangerous; on the other hand it is fertilizer, which nearly everybody spreads over his or her land.That cannot be dangerous, it is accepted because it is part of normal life such as driving a car, and the risk is considered normal. But one more becquerel in a car arising from cleared steel from the nuclear industry is not normal, and thus not accepted. The nuclear industry is thus faced with a public perception leading to a public acceptance of zero additional doses from that industry, while a non-negligible additional dose from medicine and normal life such as flying are accepted. Another difference is certainly the type of material contaminated with radionuclides and the type of radioactivity. On the one hand, we have mainly metals and concrete contaminated or activated. And there is even a difference between contaminated and activated structures. In fact, existing decontamination techniques make it more or less easy to decontaminate most structures with only surface contamination, whatever are the clearance limits; it is possible to recover the basic material behind the removable contaminated layer. In the case of activated shielding structures, however, the thickness of the layer considered as radioactive depends greatly on the clearance criteria. On the other hand, stakeholders have to deal with enormous amounts of slightly contaminated raw material or process residues, mostly with isotopes from the U and Th families. I would like to finish this introduction with a few observations from a remediation project of a storage area where Ra contaminated residues and debris from a former non-licensed Ra production facility are stored. The authorities in my country are now dealing with this remediation programme. The disposed amount of contaminated material is in the range of 220 000 m3, between three and four times the amount of low level waste arising from all the licensed practices in the country since the beginning of nuclear activities and including future waste from the decommissioning of existing plants.The activity concentration of the Ra storage area is of the order of 10 000 Bq/g at some places, but the average concentration is somewhere between 10 and probably 100 Bq/g. Should we now treat this material in the same way as contaminated material from controlled areas? Or should we manage the waste from decommissioning as we will manage that from this Ra contaminated storage? Or should we use different strategies? These are some of the questions for discussion. (author)

  5. Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to meet the requirement of the informatization construction in our country, and to expand the academic exchange channel for the authors, SPAT has acceded to Chinese Academic Journal-CD(CAJ-CD), Chinajournal net and ChinaInfo. The fee of the copyright for the authors will be paid together with the author's remuneration at same time. Those who don't want their articles to be edited into this database may declare at the moment the manuscripts submitted to us so that we can appropriately deal with them. Editorial Board of SPAT

  6. Avoiding barriers in control of mowing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Bai-jing; QIAN Guo-hong; XIANG Zhong-ping; LI Zuo-peng

    2006-01-01

    Due to complicated barriers,it is difficult to track the path of the mowing robot and to avoid barriers.In order to solve the problem,a method based on distance-measuring sensors and fuzzy control inputs was proposed.Its track was composed of beelines and was easy to tail.The fuzzy control inputs were based on the front barrier distance and the difference between the left and right barrier distance measured by ultrasonic sensors;the output was the direction angle.The infrared sensors around the robot improved its safety in avoiding barriers.The result of the method was feasible,agile,and stable.The distance between the robot and the barriers could be changed by altering the inputs and outputs of fuzzy control and the length of the beelines.The disposed sensors can fulfill the need of the robot in avoiding barriers.

  7. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L;

    1997-01-01

    cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly......Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all...

  8. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Latiolais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.

  9. Is avoiding an aversive outcome rewarding? Neural substrates of avoidance learning in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackjin Kim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance learning poses a challenge for reinforcement-based theories of instrumental conditioning, because once an aversive outcome is successfully avoided an individual may no longer experience extrinsic reinforcement for their behavior. One possible account for this is to propose that avoiding an aversive outcome is in itself a reward, and thus avoidance behavior is positively reinforced on each trial when the aversive outcome is successfully avoided. In the present study we aimed to test this possibility by determining whether avoidance of an aversive outcome recruits the same neural circuitry as that elicited by a reward itself. We scanned 16 human participants with functional MRI while they performed an instrumental choice task, in which on each trial they chose from one of two actions in order to either win money or else avoid losing money. Neural activity in a region previously implicated in encoding stimulus reward value, the medial orbitofrontal cortex, was found to increase, not only following receipt of reward, but also following successful avoidance of an aversive outcome. This neural signal may itself act as an intrinsic reward, thereby serving to reinforce actions during instrumental avoidance.

  10. A collision avoidance system for workpiece protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Novak, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maslakowski, J.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes an application of Sandia`s non-contact capacitive sensing technology for collision avoidance during the manufacturing of rocket engine thrust chambers. The collision avoidance system consists of an octagon shaped collar with a capacitive proximity sensor mounted on each face. The sensors produced electric fields which extend several inches from the face of the collar and detect potential collisions between the robot and the workpiece. A signal conditioning system processes the sensor output and provides varying voltage signals to the robot controller for stopping the robot.

  11. 48 CFR 222.406-6 - Payrolls and statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payrolls and statements... Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 222.406-6 Payrolls and statements. (a) Submission..., Statement of Compliance, with each payroll report....

  12. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  13. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2010-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM. M

  14. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  15. Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2012-01-01

    In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about ...

  16. Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem manifests in school avoidance, the initial goal will be to get the youngster back to school as soon as possible. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy In many cases, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy techniques are effective in addressing adolescent anxiety disorders. ...

  17. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Arnaudova

    2015-01-01

    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both side

  18. Oscillations in two-person avoidance control

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Social interaction dynamics are a special type of group interactions that play a large part in our everyday lives. They dictate how and with whom a certain individual will interact. One of such interactions can be termed "avoidance control". This everyday situation occurs when two fast-walking persons suddenly realize that they are on a frontal collision course and begin maneuvering to avoid collision. If the two walkers' initial maneuverings are in the same direction that can lead to oscillations that lengthen time required to reach a stable avoidance trajectory. We introduce a dynamical model with a feedback loop to understand the origin and properties of this oscillation. For the emergence of the oscillatory behavior, two conditions must be satisfied: i) the persons must initiate the avoidance maneuver in the same direction; ii) the time delays in the feedback loop must reverse the phase of the players' positions at the oscillation frequency. The oscillation can be terminated at any time if one of the walk...

  19. Pathogen evolution under host avoidance plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David V; Day, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Host resistance consists of defences that limit pathogen burden, and can be classified as either adaptations targeting recovery from infection or those focused upon infection avoidance. Conventional theory treats avoidance as a fixed strategy which does not vary from one interaction to the next. However, there is increasing empirical evidence that many avoidance strategies are triggered by external stimuli, and thus should be treated as phenotypically plastic responses. Here, we consider the implications of avoidance plasticity for host-pathogen coevolution. We uncover a number of predictions challenging current theory. First, in the absence of pathogen trade-offs, plasticity can restrain pathogen evolution; moreover, the pathogen exploits conditions in which the host would otherwise invest less in resistance, causing resistance escalation. Second, when transmission trades off with pathogen-induced mortality, plasticity encourages avirulence, resulting in a superior fitness outcome for both host and pathogen. Third, plasticity ensures the sterilizing effect of pathogens has consequences for pathogen evolution. When pathogens castrate hosts, selection forces them to minimize mortality virulence; moreover, when transmission trades off with sterility alone, resistance plasticity is sufficient to prevent pathogens from evolving to fully castrate. PMID:26336170

  20. The Advocacy or Avoidance of Only Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    A brief review of the psychological literature on the characteristics of only children is presented in order to determine if the one-child family should be avoided or advocated. The relevant literature is found to be limited in quantity and conceptualization of the only child. Previous literature is divided into three types of study: those with…

  1. Obsessive compulsive disorder with pervasive avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Parul; Sharma Ravi; Kumar Ramesh; Sharma Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common disorder, but some of its atypical presentations are uncommon and difficult to diagnose. We report one such case which on initial presentation appeared to be psychotic protocol but after detailed workup was diagnosed as OCD with marked avoidance symptoms.

  2. Obesity and Healthcare Avoidance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D McGuigan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the issue of health care avoidance and obesity. English language journal articles published between 1990 and 2012 that addressed the review question|“is being overweight or obese an unrecognized factor in healthcare avoidance?” were located using major databases. A modified JADAD scoring system was then used to assess papers. Ten papers were identified which directly addressed the review question. A positive relationship exists between obesity and healthcare avoidance. The major contributory factors were being female, have a diagnosed mental health problem and perceived or actual bias and discrimination by health professionals. The review also highlights the importance of the relationship between healthcare professionals and their patients, and the physical environment in which interactions occur as these may contribute to avoidance behaviors. Concern about obesity is rising and while there has been much discussion about strategies to reduce obesity this review highlights the need for thinking more broadly about the way in which overweight and obese individuals interact with preventative health strategies.

  3. HOW TO AVOID SEXIST LANGUAGE IN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuZhiqing

    2004-01-01

    Use of Sexist language is one of the serious yet often-neglected mistakes in the English writing and speaking of Chineselearners of English. Sexist language in English can be classifiedinto two categories : ambiguity of referent and stereotyping. Thispaper focuses on some common sexist language in the Englishwriting and speaking of Chinese learners of English and givessome suggestions about how to avoid them.

  4. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  5. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  6. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication. PMID:16736662

  7. Simple Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Rehabilitation Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, F.H.A.; Römer, G.R.B.; Stuyt, H.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm fo

  8. Specific Language Impairment at Adolescence: Avoiding Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuller, Laurice; Henry, Celia; Sizaret, Eva; Barthez, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study explores complex language in adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) with the aim of finding out how aspects of language characteristic of typical syntactic development after childhood fare and, in particular, whether there is evidence that individuals with SLI avoid using structures whose syntactic derivation involves…

  9. Working with Avoidant Children: A Clinical Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Nancy; Meisburger, Diana

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies for interviewing and assisting highly avoidant children who may be victims of maltreatment. Discusses factors inhibiting their self-disclosure, the importance of managing child safety, and establishing and maintaining rapport. Describes strategies including pacing the interview, empowering the child, and using distancing…

  10. 19 CFR 10.511 - Supporting statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... relevant facts. (c) Language. The supporting statement required to be submitted under paragraph (a) of this section must be completed in the English language. (d) Applicability of supporting statement....

  11. 14 CFR 313.6 - Energy statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy statements. 313.6 Section 313.6... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.6 Energy statements. (a) Each major... action taken or to be taken upon energy efficiency and conservation. The administrative law judge or...

  12. Climate Change Position Statement, Dissenting View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielke, R. A.

    2013-08-01

    I served on the AGU panel to draft the updated position statement on climate change. We were charged by AGU to provide "an up-to-date statement [that] will assure that AGU members, the public, and policy makers have a more current point of reference for discussion of climate change science that is intrinsically relevant to national and international policy."

  13. 27 CFR 5.63 - Mandatory statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....” (2) Optional statement. In addition, the advertisement may also state the alcohol content in degrees... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory statements. 5.63 Section 5.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  14. 27 CFR 7.52 - Mandatory statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory statements. 7.52 Section 7.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....52 Mandatory statements. (a) Responsible advertiser. The advertisement shall state the name...

  15. 27 CFR 4.62 - Mandatory statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory statements. 4.62 Section 4.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... statements. (a) Responsible advertiser. The advertisement shall state the name and address of the...

  16. 78 FR 31924 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Policy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Statements on the date set forth below. \\1\\ 77 FR 52721 (Aug. 30, 2012). \\2\\ The 50 States, the District of... education, experience requirements, and examination. Three of the five Commenters addressing this proposed... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Policy Statements AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee...

  17. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  18. Consensus statement on genetic research in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikkert, M.G. Olde; der, V van; Burns, A.;

    2008-01-01

    procedure fuelled the development of the consensus statement, which is presented in this paper. The consensus statement aims to stimulate ethically acceptable research in the field of dementia and the protection of vulnerable elderly patients with dementia from application of inadequate research methods...

  19. Avoided by association: acquisition, extinction, and renewal of avoidance tendencies toward conditioned fear stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Krypotos; M. Effting; I. Arnaudova; M. Kindt; T. Beckers

    2013-01-01

    Traditional theoretical models hold that avoidance reflects the interplay of Pavlovian and instrumental learning. Here we suggest that avoidance tendencies to intrinsically neutral cues may be established by mere Pavlovian association. Following fear conditioning, in which pictures of one object wer

  20. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes - bursts - that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing - the auditory receptor - already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2's sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  1. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  2. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  3. Classification rule with simple select SQL statement

    CERN Document Server

    H, Spits Warnars H L

    2010-01-01

    A simple sql statement can be used to search learning or rule in relational database for data mining purposes particularly for classification rule. With just only one simple sql statement, characteristic and classification rule can be created simultaneously. Collaboration sql statement with any other application software will increase the ability for creating t-weight as measurement the typicality of each record in the characteristic rule and d-weight as measurement the discriminating behavior of the learned classification/discriminant rule, specifically for further generalization in characteristic rule. Handling concept hierarchy into tables based on concept tree will influence for the successful simple sql statement and by knowing the right standard knowledge to transform each of concept tree in concept hierarchy into one table as to transform concept hierarchy into table, the simple sql statement can be run properly.

  4. Resonating Statements: Discursive acts in IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2015-01-01

    IT projects are often complex arrangements of technological components, social actions, and organizational transformation that are difficult to manage in practice. This paper takes an analytical discourse perspective to explore the process of legitimizing IT projects. We introduce the concept...... of resonating statements to highlight how central actors navigate in various discourses over time. Particularly, the statements and actions of an IT project manager are portrayed to show how individuals can legitimize actions by connecting statements to historically produced discourses. The case study...... of an IT project in a Danish local government spans a two-year time period and demonstrates a double-loop legitimization process. First, resonating statements are produced to localize a national IT initiative to support the specificity of a local government discourse. Second, the resonating statements are used...

  5. Converging evidence of social avoidant behavior in schizophrenia from two approach-avoidance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-10-01

    Many people with schizophrenia suffer from social impairments characterized by active social avoidance, which is related to social phobia common in schizophrenia, while motivational impairments can also result in passive social withdrawal. Although social avoidance is frequently reported in this population, this is the first study to directly compare approach-avoidance tendencies in schizophrenia patients (N = 37) and healthy controls (N = 29). Participants performed two tasks: a computerized approach-avoidance task (AAT) to assess response tendencies toward images of happy and angry faces with direct or averted gaze and a one-to-one personal space test (PST) to gauge more naturalistic approach-avoidance behaviors toward a real person bearing a neutral expression. The AAT results showed that both groups showed faster avoidance responses to angry faces and faster approach responses to happy faces with a direct gaze. Happy faces with averted gaze, however, resulted in faster avoidance responses in the patient group only. On the PST, the patients approached the experimenter less than healthy controls did. This measure of interpersonal distance was positively related to positive symptom severity. Delusions of reference and increased sensitivity to social rejection may explain the patients' avoidance tendencies in response to pictures of happy faces with averted gaze and in the presence of an actual person. The current findings demonstrate the importance of others adopting positive and unambiguous attitudes when interacting with schizophrenia patients to minimize behavioral avoidance patterns, which is particularly relevant for relatives and clinicians whose interactions with the patients are crucial to facilitating treatment and promoting healthy social relationships.

  6. The Feasibility of Avoiding Future Climate Impacts: Results from the AVOID Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J. A.; Warren, R.; Arnell, N.; Buckle, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AVOID programme and its successor, AVOID2, have focused on answering three core questions: how do we characterise potentially dangerous climate change and impacts, which emissions pathways can avoid at least some of these impacts, and how feasible are the future reductions needed to significantly deviate from a business-as-usual future emissions pathway. The first AVOID project succeeded in providing the UK Government with evidence to inform its position on climate change. A key part of the work involved developing a range of global emissions pathways and estimating and understanding the corresponding global impacts. This made use of a combination of complex general circulation models, simple climate models, pattern-scaling and state-of-the art impacts models. The results characterise the range of avoidable impacts across the globe in several key sectors including river and coastal flooding, cooling and heating energy demand, crop productivity and aspects of biodiversity. The avoided impacts between a scenario compatible with a 4ºC global warming and one with a 2ºC global warming were found to be highly sector dependent and avoided fractions typically ranged between 20% and 70%. A further key aspect was characterising the magnitude of the uncertainty involved, which is found to be very large in some impact sectors although the avoided fraction appears a more robust metric. The AVOID2 programme began in 2014 and will provide results in the run up to the Paris CoP in 2015. This includes new post-IPCC 5th assessment evidence to inform the long-term climate goal, a more comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty ranges of feasible emission pathways compatible with the long-term goal and enhanced estimates of global impacts using the latest generation of impact models and scenarios.

  7. Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  8. Construction dispute research conceptualisation, avoidance and resolution

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    There are three specific purposes of Construction Dispute Research. First, this volume aims to summarise studies on construction dispute. Second, apart from the theoretical constructs, where appropriate empirical tests are also included. This approach serves to go beyond the commonly used anecdotal approach for the subject matters. Third, it is the sincere hope of the authors that this book will help shaping research agenda of construction dispute.  The studies are mostly framed from a management perspective drawing on methods and concepts in contract law, economics, psychology and management science.   The book has twenty chapters that are arranged in four parts covering conceptualisation, avoidance, negotiation and mediation. Part 1 is devoted for dispute conceptualisation. A building is only as strong as its foundation. Thus it is no better start to study construction dispute by conceptualisation. The theme of Part 2 is dispute avoidance. The conventional wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ se...

  9. Inhibited Sexual Desire and Sexual Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, William I.

    1985-01-01

    Inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions, especially in women. Family physicians have an opportunity to recognize ISD before the associated problems become entrenched, and to guide couples toward satisfactory resolution. A summary is presented of current thinking on ISD and its causes. Case reports and observations about frequency of and treatment for ISD are included. Much less has been written about sexual avoidance in the presence of desire. A definition ...

  10. Anorexia nervosa and food avoidance emotional disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, J F; Goodyer, I M; Birch, J.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective and longitudinal study was carried out on all children and adolescents who presented to a child psychiatry service over a period of 26 years to identify the nature, course, and outcome of cases meeting criteria for anorexia nervosa (n = 27). Two groups of the same age were identified for comparison, firstly those with food avoidance and emotional disorders (n = 23), and secondly those with emotional disorders but no symptoms associated with eating (n = 22). The results confirm...

  11. Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claire; Duca, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/

  12. Can subjectivity be avoided in translation evaluation?

    OpenAIRE

    Segers, Winibert; Kockaert, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    The didactics of translation and interpreting Testing and assessment criteria and methods Can subjectivity be avoided in translation evaluation? Winibert Segers & Hendrik J Kockaert, KU Leuven Camiel Paulusstraat 8, 2630 Aartselaar, België Is translation evaluation a subjective, personal matter? Is evaluating translations the same as beer tasting or listening to a piece of music? Is the judgment determined by personal taste? We will try to answe...

  13. Normal coronary arteriogram. An avoidable test?

    OpenAIRE

    Ilsley, C; Stockley, A; Clitsakis, D; Layton, C

    1982-01-01

    Between 10 and 20% of coronary arteriograms in patients with chest pain show normal vessels, often in association with a history of "atypical" angina. Conventional non-invasive tests are inaccurate in this group of patients compared with those with classical angina. This study prospectively evaluates combined 12 lead exercise electrocardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy as a screening test in patients with atypical angina in order to determine whether normal arteriograms are avoidable in...

  14. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  15. Granting silence to avoid wireless collisions

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il

    2010-10-01

    We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.

  16. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    The concept of avoidable deaths suggests that certain deaths ought not occur in a given society because it is possible to prevent or treat the disease or condition. A list of avoidable deaths is time and community specific as it reflects the socioeconomic conditions, professional medical capacity...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...

  17. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  18. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M

    2014-09-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.

  19. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  20. Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of bio-metric information – finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some otherchemical and biological modified genes related information - transfer through low bandwidth andunreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essentialrequirement in this fast developing communication world. Thus, in this paper, we propose efficient andeffective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by usingarithmetic encoding representation over low bandwidth and unreliable channel. It enhances the speed ofencryption, decryption and authentication process. It uses arithmetic encoding scheme and public keycryptography e.g. modified version of RSA algorithm called RSA-2 algorithm.

  1. Cyber-Security Challenges with SMEs in Developing Economies: Issues of Confidentiality, Integrity & Availability (CIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei

    The essence of this study is first to highlight the cyber-security challenges confronting SMEs in developing economies, and to model a framework for safeguarding their assets, to ensure continuous optimal business operations, and to participate and compete securely in the ubiquitous cyber-market......, to develop customer-centric strategies. While connectivity is indispensable for achieving business success, being connected also implies being exposed to a myriad of cyber-security challenges, such as vulnerabilities of confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA). As vulnerabilities are exploited...

  2. Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Raju

    2011-01-01

    The security of bio-metric information - finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some other chemical and biological modified genes related information - transfer through low bandwidth and unreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essential requirement in this fast developing communication world. Thus, in this paper, we propose efficient and effective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by using arithmetic encoding representation over low bandwidth and unreliable channel. It enhances the speed of encryption, decryption and authentication process. It uses arithmetic encoding scheme and public key cryptography e.g. modified version of RSA algorithm called RSA-2 algorithm.

  3. Substandard emergency obstetric care - a confidential enquiry into maternal deaths at a regional hospital in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Bjarke Lund; Elsass, Peter; Nielsen, Brigitte Bruun;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (i) To identify clinical causes of maternal deaths at a regional hospital in Tanzania and through confidential enquiry (CE) assess major substandard care and make a comparison to the findings of the internal maternal deaths audits (MDAs); (ii) to describe hospital staff reflections...... in 46 (74%) of the 62 cases reviewed. During the same time period MDA identified substandard care in 18 cases. Staff perceived poor organization of work and lack of training as important causes for substandard care. Local MDA was considered useful although time-consuming and sometimes threatening...

  4. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  5. See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative collision avoidance radar and communication technology to detect and track both cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The system...

  6. Cash flow statement in financial statement analysis for small and medium sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Hyvönen, Valtteri

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION A new EU's accounting directive (2013/34/EU) focuses on the reliefs for financial statement disclosures of SMEs. Although directive 2013/34/EU is not taking a stand on cash flow preparation, in Finland a working group set by the Ministry of employment and economy has proposed that only large companies would be obliged to prepare cash flow statement as a part of financial statement. The Finnish parliament accepted the proposal in the part of renewed accounting law...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.445 - Periodic financial statements and audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the lender's analysis of the statements to the Agency. (a) Audited financial statements. Except as... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Periodic financial statements and audits. 1980.445... Program § 1980.445 Periodic financial statements and audits. All borrowers will be required to...

  8. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  9. 12 CFR 328.3 - Official advertising statement requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... institution. (d) Types of advertisements which do not require the official advertising statement. The following types of advertisements do not require use of the official advertising statement: (1) Statements... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official advertising statement...

  10. 21 CFR 201.61 - Statement of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of identity. 201.61 Section 201.61 Food...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.61 Statement of identity. (a) The... features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be in terms...

  11. 21 CFR 801.61 - Statement of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of identity. 801.61 Section 801.61 Food... DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.61 Statement of identity. (a... principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be...

  12. 12 CFR 263.105 - Statement of net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 263.105 Section 263.105... Statement of net worth. (a) General rule. A statement of net worth shall be filed with the application for an award of fees. The statement shall reflect the net worth of the applicant and all affiliates...

  13. 12 CFR 308.177 - Statement of net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 308.177 Section 308.177... § 308.177 Statement of net worth. (a) General rule. A statement of net worth must be filed with the application for an award of fees. The statement shall reflect the net worth of the applicant and...

  14. Council approves statement on natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a scientific society, AGU may adopt positions of advocacy on geophysical science isues based on their intrinsic merits and needs. On December 18, 1996, the AGU Council approved a Union position statement regarding scientific research and education in natural hazards. The complete position statement follows and also is posted at the Union Web Site, http://www.agu.org. Other Union position statements and information about proposing a position statement are in the AGU Handbook and at the Union Web Site.Few locations on Earth are immune from droughts, storms, floods, fires, earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, sea level changes, water course changes, atmospheric electrical storms, and impacts from comets and asteroids. Humans and technological systems are also threatened by natural hazards that occur in space. The effects of space weather, for example, can wreak havoc with the satellites we use to provide communications, weather forecasts, and defense and positioning information.

  15. Online, Batch and CICS Social Security Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A database that contains client preference information for the SSA initiated Social Security Statement as well as other data including SSN, disposition for paper SS...

  16. Financial Statement Analysis for Nonprofit Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Travaglini, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    A financial statement analysis framework for nonprofit organizations is proposed, based on Nonprofit Commission of Certified Public Accountants Association (Commissione Aziende Nonprofit Ordine Nazionale Dottori Commercialisti) for Italian Nonprofits.

  17. Annual report and accounting statements 2007: ELETROBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the actives of the ELETROBRAS during the year 2007 related to: electricity market, international activities, strategic planning, financial indicators, business analysis, relationship with investors, energy marketing, operational research, technological development, financial statements, social responsibility and environment

  18. 33 CFR 385.7 - Concurrency statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN General Provisions § 385.7 Concurrency statements. The administrative record of the programmatic regulations in this part..., Jacksonville District, 701 San Marco Blvd., Jacksonville, Florida 32207, or by accessing the...

  19. [When the violation of medical confidentiality is imposed by law: Another side effect of Law N° 20.584].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jorge; Quintana, María Soledad

    2016-02-01

    A law of rights and duties of patients was recently enacted in Chile (Law N° 20.584). When someone dies, the law allows his inheritors to have access to part or the totality of the medical record. Therefore, they may become acquainted of information that the patient gave in confidence to his physician, protected by "the medical confidentiality". The original bill included the possibility that a doctor could deny information that could cause harm to the former holder of the clinical record, but this precaution was banned by congressmen, seriously damaging the institution of "medical confidentiality", a cornerstone of the medical-patient relationship since the beginning of medicine. PMID:27092681

  20. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  1. An Integrated Algorithm supporting Confidentiality and Integrity for secured Access and Storage of DICOM Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Jaganathan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In healthcare industry, the patient\\'s medical data plays a vital role because diagnosis of any ailments is done by using those data. The high volume of medical data leads to scalability and maintenance issues when using health-care provider\\'s on-site picture archiving and communication system (PACS and network oriented storage system. Therefore a standard is needed for maintaining the medical data and for better diagnosis. Since the medical data reflects in a similar way to individuals’ personal information, secrecy should be maintained. Maintaining secrecy can be done by encrypting the data, but as medical data involves images and videos, traditional text based encryption/decryption schemes are not adequate for providing confidentiality. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for securing the DICOM format medical archives by providing better confidentiality and maintaining their integrity. Our contribution in this algorithm is of twofold: (1 Development of Improved Chaotic based Arnold Cat Map for encryption/decryption of DICOM files and (2 Applying a new hash algorithm based on chaotic theory for those encrypted files for maintaining integrity. By applying this algorithm, the secrecy of medical data is maintained. The proposed algorithm is tested with various DICOM format image archives by studying the following parameters i PSNR - for quality of images and ii Key - for security.

  2. Cloudy confidentiality: clinical and legal implications of cloud computing in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolina A

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has grown into a world of its own, and its ethereal space now offers capabilities that could aid physicians in their duties in numerous ways. In recent years software functions have moved from the individual's local hardware to a central server that operates from a remote location. This centralization is called cloud computing. Privacy laws that speak to the protection of patient confidentiality are complex and often difficult to understand in the context of an ever-growing cloud-based technology. This article is a review of the legal background of protected health records, as well as cloud technology and physician applications. An attempt is made to integrate both concepts and examine Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliance for each of the examples discussed. The legal regulations that may inform care and standards of practice are reviewed, and the difficulties that arise in assessment and monitoring of the current situation are analyzed. For forensic psychiatrists who may be asked to provide expert opinions regarding malpractice situations pertaining to confidentiality standards, it is important to become acquainted with the new digital language from which these questions may arise.

  3. A data-hiding technique with authentication, integration, and confidentiality for electronic patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hui-Mei; Hsu, Chin-Ming; Miaou, Shaou-Gang

    2002-03-01

    A data-hiding technique called the "bipolar multiple-number base" was developed to provide capabilities of authentication, integration, and confidentiality for an electronic patient record (EPR) transmitted among hospitals through the Internet. The proposed technique is capable of hiding those EPR related data such as diagnostic reports, electrocardiogram, and digital signatures from doctors or a hospital into a mark image. The mark image could be the mark of a hospital used to identify the origin of an EPR. Those digital signatures from doctors and a hospital could be applied for the EPR authentication. Thus, different types of medical data can be integrated into the same mark image. The confidentiality is ultimately achieved by decrypting the EPR related data and digital signatures with an exact copy of the original mark image. The experimental results validate the integrity and the invisibility of the hidden EPR related data. This newly developed technique allows all of the hidden data to be separated and restored perfectly by authorized users. PMID:11936596

  4. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  5. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  6. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  7. How to avoid unnatural hierarchical thermal leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    A one-flavour naturalness argument suggests that the Type I seesaw model cannot naturally explain neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via hierarchical thermal leptogenesis. We prove that there is no way to avoid this conclusion in a minimal three-flavour setup. We then comment on the simplest ways out. In particular, we focus on a resolution utilising a second Higgs doublet. Such models predict an automatically SM-like Higgs boson, (maximally) TeV-scale scalar states, and low- to intermediate-scale hierarchical leptogenesis with $10^3\\text{ GeV}\\lesssim M_{N_1}\\lesssim 10^7\\text{ GeV}$.

  8. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  9. Understanding, Avoiding, and Managing Severe Filler Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzany, Berthold; DeLorenzi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Any injectable filler may elicit moderate-to-severe adverse events, ranging from nodules to abscesses to vascular occlusion. Fortunately, severe adverse events are uncommon for the majority of fillers currently on the market. Because these are rare events, it is difficult to identify the relevant risk factors and to design the most efficacious treatment strategies. Poor aesthetic outcomes are far more common than severe adverse events. These in contrast should be easily avoidable by ensuring that colleagues receive proper training and follow best practices. PMID:26441099

  10. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission. PMID:24568425

  11. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY VERSUS TAX AVOIDANCE PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Ciprian-Dumitru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide crisis has made multinational companies that are engaged in corporate social responsibility actions to manage their businesses through the lens of various tax avoidance practices. The content of this paper is important due to the fact that tries to identify the impact in case of companies active in corporate social responsibility actions versus their tax structures orientation. Corporate social responsibility literature did not paid enough attention on the impact of the tax avoidance practices of companies. Tax, as a concept, brings in itself an important corporate financial impact with subsequent effects for the life of multiple citizens in countries where private entities are operating. Even though companies are usually expressing their ethical and responsible conduct in respect of the social environment, there are many cases when the business practices were not aligned with the declared corporate behavior. This paper seeks firstly to examine whether companies engaged in tax avoidance practices (ex. offshore tax havens consider that continue to act socially responsible. Secondly, the paper examines the influence on attending the stakeholders’ goals for those companies practicing tax avoidance and its implications on corporate social responsibility actions. Moreover, the paper focuses also on the aspects described before from the perspective of the corporate entities operating in Romania. This paper’s intention is to use and to develop the results of previous research carried out by Lutz Preus (University of London and, subsequently, by Senators Levin, Coleman and Obama in their “Stop Tax Haven Abuse Bill”. The implications and the objectives of this material are to highlight, to identify and to spot clearly the relations and the influences of the tax haven practices of corporations versus their undertaken social responsibility actions. Moreover, this paper brings a fresh perspective of this topic from the

  12. Transparency in Central Bank Financial Statement Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Sullivan

    2000-01-01

    The IMF's development of the Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies and the introduction of safeguards assessments have increased emphasis on transparency of the disclosures made in central bank financial statements. This paper, which updates WP/00/186, looks at the disclosure requirements for central banks under International Financial Reporting Standards and provides practical guidance for those responsible for preparing central bank financial statements.

  13. The Benefits of Financial Statement Comparability

    OpenAIRE

    de Franco, Gus; Kothari, S.P.; Verdi, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Investors, regulators, academics, and researchers all emphasize the importance of financial statement comparability. However, an empirical construct of comparability is typically not specified. In addition, little evidence exists on the benefits of comparability to users. This study attempts to fill these gaps by developing a measure of financial statement comparability. Empirically, this measure is positively related to analyst following and forecast accuracy, and negatively related to analy...

  14. LEGAL-EASE:Analyzing Chinese Financial Statements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EDWARD; MA

    2008-01-01

    In this article,we will focus on under- standing and analyzing the typical accounts of Chinese financial statements,including the balance sheet and income statement. Accounts are generally incorrectly prepared. This can be due to several factors,incom- petence,as well as more serious cases of deliberate attempts to deceive.Regardless, accounts can be understood and errors or specific acts of misrepresentation uncovered. We will conduct some simple analysis to demonstrate how these can be spotted.

  15. How to Write an Outcome Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2015-09-01

    Educators within the health professions are increasingly asked to demonstrate outcomes of educational interventions. Within academia and clinical practice, educators are expected to measure, monitor, and, in many cases, report outcomes of their work. As continuing education transitions to a more deliberate emphasis on outcomes, common questions include how to identify and measure outcomes and how to write an outcome statement. This article will focus on how to write an outcome statement. PMID:26352037

  16. Financial Statements and book-closing

    OpenAIRE

    Boušová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the process of creating financial statement preceded by certain preparation works and closing of individual accounts. In its initial part, the thesis describes legal regulations governing the area of the financial statement process. Then it informs about the individual steps of preparation works, which precede closing of accounts. These operations are important for objective accuracy and completeness of accountancy. Next part of the thesis describes accounting s...

  17. BELTracker: evidence sentence retrieval for BEL statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Biological expression language (BEL) is one of the main formal representation models of biological networks. The primary source of information for curating biological networks in BEL representation has been literature. It remains a challenge to identify relevant articles and the corresponding evidence statements for curating and validating BEL statements. In this paper, we describe BELTracker, a tool used to retrieve and rank evidence sentences from PubMed abstracts and full-text articles for a given BEL statement (per the 2015 task requirements of BioCreative V BEL Task). The system is comprised of three main components, (i) translation of a given BEL statement to an information retrieval (IR) query, (ii) retrieval of relevant PubMed citations and (iii) finding and ranking the evidence sentences in those citations. BELTracker uses a combination of multiple approaches based on traditional IR, machine learning, and heuristics to accomplish the task. The system identified and ranked at least one fully relevant evidence sentence in the top 10 retrieved sentences for 72 out of 97 BEL statements in the test set. BELTracker achieved a precision of 0.392, 0.532 and 0.615 when evaluated with three criteria, namely full, relaxed and context criteria, respectively, by the task organizers. Our team at Mayo Clinic was the only participant in this task. BELTracker is available as a RESTful API and is available for public use.Database URL: http://www.openbionlp.org:8080/BelTracker/finder/Given_BEL_Statement. PMID:27173525

  18. Avoidance of strobe lights by zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Martin J.; Richards, Nathan S.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Underwater strobe lights can influence the behavior and distribution of fishes and are increasingly used as a technique to divert fish away from water intake structures on dams. However, few studies examine how strobe lights may affect organisms other than targeted species. To gain insight on strobe lighting effects on nontarget invertebrates, we investigated whether underwater strobe lights influence zooplankton distributions and abundance in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Zooplankton were collected using vertical tows at 3 discrete distances from an underwater strobe light to quantify the influence of light intensity on zooplankton density. Samples were collected from 3 different depth ranges (0–10 m, 10–20 m and 20–30 m) at zooplankton sampled from 17 August to 15 September 2004. Night time zooplankton densities significantly decreased in surface waters when strobe lights were activated. Copepods exhibited the greatest avoidance patterns, while Daphnia avoidance varied throughout sampling depths. These results indicate that zooplankton display negative phototaxic behavior to strobe lights and that researchers must be cognizant of potential effects to the ecosystem such as altering predator–prey interactions or affecting zooplankton distribution and growth.

  19. Shape optimization of self-avoiding curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shawn W.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a softened notion of proximity (or self-avoidance) for curves. We then derive a sensitivity result, based on shape differential calculus, for the proximity. This is combined with a gradient-based optimization approach to compute three-dimensional, parameterized curves that minimize the sum of an elastic (bending) energy and a proximity energy that maintains self-avoidance by a penalization technique. Minimizers are computed by a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) method where the bending energy and proximity energy are approximated by a finite element method. We then apply this method to two problems. First, we simulate adsorbed polymer strands that are constrained to be bound to a surface and be (locally) inextensible. This is a basic model of semi-flexible polymers adsorbed onto a surface (a current topic in material science). Several examples of minimizing curve shapes on a variety of surfaces are shown. An advantage of the method is that it can be much faster than using molecular dynamics for simulating polymer strands on surfaces. Second, we apply our proximity penalization to the computation of ideal knots. We present a heuristic scheme, utilizing the SQP method above, for minimizing rope-length and apply it in the case of the trefoil knot. Applications of this method could be for generating good initial guesses to a more accurate (but expensive) knot-tightening algorithm.

  20. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    Cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) operations near Space Station Freedom will require positive collision avoidance maneuver (CAM) capability to preclude any change of collision, even in the event of CTV failures. The requirements for CAM are discussed, and the CAM design approach and design of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed; this design met requirements for OMV operation near the Space Station, provided a redundant collision avoidance maneuver capability. Significant portions of the OMV CAM design should be applicable to CTV. The key features of the OMV design are summarized and related to the CTV mission design to that of OMV's. CAM is a defined sequence of events executed by the CTV to place the vehicle in a safe position relative to a target such as the Space Station. CAM can be performed through software commands to the propulsion system, or through commands pre-stored in hardware. Various techniques for triggering CAM are considered, and the risks associated with CAM enable and execution in phases are considered. OMV CAM design features both hardware and software CAM capability, with analyses conducted to assess the ability to meet the collision-free requirement during all phases of the mission.

  1. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

  2. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  3. Facilitator--and Self-Directed Groups: A Statement-by-Statement Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyne, Robert K.; Rapin, Lynn S.

    1977-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of facilitator-directed and self-directed personal growth group treatments toward inducing therapeutic verbal interaction. An interaction process analysis approach, the Hill Interaction Matrix (HIM) statement-by-statement system, was used to examine treatment differences. (Author)

  4. Mars Rover Local Navigation And Hazard Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Gennery, D. B.; Mishkin, A. H.

    1989-03-01

    A Mars rover sample return mission has been proposed for the late 1990's. Due to the long speed-of-light delays between Earth and Mars, some autonomy on the rover is highly desirable. JPL has been conducting research in two possible modes of rover operation, Computer-Aided Remote Driving and Semiautonomous Navigation. A recently-completed research program used a half-scale testbed vehicle to explore several of the concepts in semiautonomous navigation. A new, full-scale vehicle with all computational and power resources on-board will be used in the coming year to demonstrate relatively fast semiautonomous navigation. The computational and power requirements for Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance are discussed.

  5. Avoiding Quantum Chaos in Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, G P; Izrailev, F M; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2001-01-01

    We study a one-dimensional chain of nuclear $1/2-$spins in an external time-dependent magnetic field. This model is considered as a possible candidate for experimental realization of quantum computation. According to the general theory of interacting particles, one of the most dangerous effects is quantum chaos which can destroy the stability of quantum operations. According to the standard viewpoint, the threshold for the onset of quantum chaos due to an interaction between spins (qubits) strongly decreases with an increase of the number of qubits. Contrary to this opinion, we show that the presence of a magnetic field gradient helps to avoid quantum chaos which turns out to disappear with an increase of the number of qubits. We give analytical estimates which explain this effect, together with numerical data supporting

  6. Collision Avoidance of Trains Using Arm7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. R. R. Mohan Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Railways are the popular mode of Transport in almost all major cities of the World. Railways are the most widely used and comfortable modes of transportation system. The major cause for railway accidents is collision of trains on the same track. The main aim of this anti collision system is to identify collision points and to report these error cases to main control room nearer to the station as well as grid control station. Majority of accidents occurred due to improper communication among the network between drivers and control room, due to wrong signaling, worst atmospheric condition, immediate change of route. The train driver doesn’t get proper information in time leading to hazardous situations. So this system by using zigbee protocol provides communication in between trains, which provide information or track id of one train to another train to avoid collision.

  7. 49 CFR 510.3 - Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims for confidential treatment, and terms of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.: (1) Subpoenas; (2) Information gathering hearings; (3) Administrative depositions; (4) General or special orders... confidentiality made during an information gathering hearing or an administrative deposition may be made orally...

  8. 21 CFR 170.102 - Confidentiality of information in a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food contact substance (FCN). (a) During the 120-day period of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Confidentiality of information in a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN). 170.102 Section 170.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  9. Avoiding Braess' Paradox Through Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert , David H.; Tumer, Kagan

    1999-01-01

    In an Ideal Shortest Path Algorithm (ISPA), at each moment each router in a network sends all of its traffic down the path that will incur the lowest cost to that traffic. In the limit of an infinitesimally small amount of traffic for a particular router, its routing that traffic via an ISPA is optimal, as far as cost incurred by that traffic is concerned. We demonstrate though that in many cases, due to the side-effects of one router's actions on another routers performance, having routers use ISPA's is suboptimal as far as global aggregate cost is concerned, even when only used to route infinitesimally small amounts of traffic. As a particular example of this we present an instance of Braess' paradox for ISPA'S, in which adding new links to a network decreases overall throughput. We also demonstrate that load-balancing, in which the routing decisions are made to optimize the global cost incurred by all traffic currently being routed, is suboptimal as far as global cost averaged across time is concerned. This is also due to "side-effects", in this case of current routing decision on future traffic. The theory of COllective INtelligence (COIN) is concerned precisely with the issue of avoiding such deleterious side-effects. We present key concepts from that theory and use them to derive an idealized algorithm whose performance is better than that of the ISPA, even in the infinitesimal limit. We present experiments verifying this, and also showing that a machine-learning-based version of this COIN algorithm in which costs are only imprecisely estimated (a version potentially applicable in the real world) also outperforms the ISPA, despite having access to less information than does the ISPA. In particular, this COIN algorithm avoids Braess' paradox.

  10. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  11. Confidentiality in genetic testing: legal and ethical issues in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, B M

    1993-01-01

    This comparative legal study on confidentiality in genetic testing examines three levels of communication of genetic information: the personal; the familial; and the institutional third parties. At the first two levels, it is argued that the approach is one that recognizes genetic individuality and reciprocity within the physician-patient relationship without legislative interference. This stands in contrast to the possible use of genetic information by economic third parties or, even, that of the state with respect to the DNA profiling of the genetic identity of criminals, the approach for both areas being the promulgation of 'genetic-specific' or human rights legislation with the hope of preventing discrimination. This rush to constrain the impact of genetic information through legislation is criticized since it may well lead to further stigmatization. The author proposes the promotion of the concept of genetic privacy within the broader rubric of informational self-determination. PMID:8183065

  12. AROCRYPT: A CONFIDENTIALITY TECHNIQUE FOR SECURING ENTERPRISE’s DATA IN CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. L. Arockiam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud dominates the IT enterprises by way of its computing services. One of the services provided by the cloud is data storage. Cloud storage mainly supports Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs by reducing their capital investments and maintenance of storage servers. Most of the SMEs are outsourcing their data to cloud storage. Enterprises’ data that are forwarded to the cloud have to be kept in the public cloud storage. Safety and security are the top most issues in cloud storage. The confidentiality parameter provides data storage security. This paper proposes a security service algorithm named AROcrypt to ensure the security of data stored in cloud storage. It also describes Security as a Service (SEaaS in the cloud environment. Simulation was conducted using a security analysis tool with existing techniques. The proposed technique provides better performance and good security when compared with existing techniques.

  13. 42 CFR 2.22 - Notice to patients of Federal confidentiality requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) A statement that reports of suspected child abuse and neglect made under State law to appropriate... qualified personnel for research, audit, or program evaluation. Violation of the Federal law and regulations... suspected child abuse or neglect from being reported under State law to appropriate State or...

  14. Final environmental statement for the geothermal leasing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-12-31

    This second of the four volumes of the Geothermal Leasing Program final impact statement contains the individual environmental statements for the leasing of federally owned geothermal resources for development in three specific areas: Clear Lake-Geysers; Mono Lake-Long Valley; and Imperial Valley, all in California. It also includes a summary of the written comments received and departmental responses relative to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement issued in 1971; comments and responses on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement; consultation and coordination in the development of the proposal and in the preparation of the Draft Environmental Statement; and coordination in the review of the Draft Environmental Statement.

  15. Avoidance orientation moderates the effect of threatening messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Vries, de H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people's dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after wh

  16. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut. PMID:16828543

  17. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data...

  18. Conjunctions and Collision Avoidance with Electrodynamic Tethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E.

    2013-09-01

    Electrodynamic propulsion technology is currently in development by NASA, ESA, and JAXA for the purpose of affordable removal of large debris objects from LEO. At the same time, the Naval Research Laboratory is preparing a 3U CubeSat with a 1-km electrodynamic tether for a flight demonstration of electrodynamic propulsion. This type of propulsion does not require fuel. The electrodynamic thrust is the Lorentz force acting on the electric current in a long conductor (tether) in the geomagnetic field. Electrons are collected from the ambient plasma on one end and emitted back into the plasma from the other end. The electric current loop is closed through the ionosphere, as demonstrated in two previous flights. The vehicle is solar powered. To support safe navigation of electrodynamic tethers, proper conjunction analysis and collision avoidance strategies are needed. The typical lengths of electrodynamic tethers for near-term applications are measured in kilometers, and the conjunction geometry is very different from the geometry of conjunctions between compact objects. It is commonly thought that the collision cross-section in a conjunction between a tether and a compact object is represented by the product of the tether length and the size of the object. However, rigorous analysis shows that this is not the case, and that the above assumption leads to grossly overestimated collision probabilities. The paper will present the results of a detailed mathematical analysis of the conjunction geometry and collision probabilities in close approaches between electrodynamic tethers and compact objects, such as satellites, rocket bodies, and debris fragments. Electrodynamic spacecraft will not require fuel, and therefore, can thrust constantly. Their orbit transfers can take many days, but can result in major orbit changes, including large rotations of the orbital plane, both in the inclination and the node. During these orbit transfers, the electrodynamic spacecraft will

  19. Unobserved Tax Avoidance and the Tax Elasticity of FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Merlo, Valeria; Wamser, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the tax responsiveness of multinational firms’ investment decisions in foreign countries, distinguishing firms that are able to avoid taxes (avoiders) from those that are not (non-avoiders). From a theoretical point of view, the tax responsiveness of firms crucially depends on this distinction. Empirically, however, a firm’s ability to avoid profit taxes is inherently unobservable to the researcher. To address this problem, we use a finite mixture modeling approach whi...

  20. Effects of vasopressin on active and passive avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Ader, R.; Wied, D. de

    1972-01-01

    Male rats were trained in an active avoidance and/or a “step-through” type of passive avoidance situation. Lysine vasopressin administration resulted in resistance to extinction of active avoidance behavior if it was injected 1 hr prior to the third and final acquisition session; peptide treatment 6

  1. Social anxiety predicts avoidance behaviour in virtual encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinck, M.; Rörtgen, T.; Lange, W.G.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Avoidant behaviour is critical in social anxiety and social phobia, being a major factor in the maintenance of anxiety. However, almost all previous studies of social avoidance were restricted to using self-reports for the study of intentional aspects of avoidance. In contrast, the current study use

  2. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 121.356 Section... Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision Avoidance Systems If you operate...

  3. Effects of optimism on creativity under approach and avoidance motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Icekson, Tamar; Roskes, Marieke; Moran, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on avoiding failure or negative outcomes (avoidance motivation) can undermine creativity, due to cognitive (e.g., threat appraisals), affective (e.g., anxiety), and volitional processes (e.g., low intrinsic motivation). This can be problematic for people who are avoidance motivated by natur

  4. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 129.18 Section... § 129.18 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you, as a foreign air... Avoidance Systems If you operate in the United States any . . . Then you must operate that airplane with:...

  5. 14 CFR 437.65 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.65 Collision avoidance... permittee must obtain a collision avoidance analysis from United States Strategic Command. (b) The...

  6. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 417.231..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis...

  7. 20 CFR 606.23 - Avoidance of tax credit reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Avoidance of tax credit reduction. 606.23... Tax Credit Reduction § 606.23 Avoidance of tax credit reduction. (a) Applicability. Subsection (g) of... receipts and benefit outlays under the law in effect for the year for which avoidance is requested, as...

  8. Avoidance learning : a review of theoretical models and recent developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance is a key characteristic of adaptive and maladaptive fear. Here, we review past and contemporary theories of avoidance learning. Based on the theories, experimental findings and clinical observations reviewed, we distill key principles of how adaptive and maladaptive avoidance behavior is a

  9. 20 CFR 606.24 - Application for avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for avoidance. 606.24 Section 606... Credit Reduction § 606.24 Application for avoidance. (a) Application. (1) The Governor of the State shall... respect to which a State requests avoidance of tax credit reduction. The Governor is required to...

  10. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510 Section 600.510 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds...

  11. 78 FR 35262 - Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts AGENCY... and the private sector regarding the electronic parts detection and avoidance coverage proposed to be... about the requirements for detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts in DoD contracts....

  12. Deforestation, leakage and avoided deforestation policies: a spatial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DELACOTE, Philippe; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Roussel, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that deforestation choices in one area influence deforestation decisions in nearby patches. We explore the interplay between forest landscapes comprising heterogeneous patches, localised spatial displacement, and avoided deforestation policies. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payments for Environmental Services (PES) policie...

  13. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  14. Avoiding sexual harassment liability in veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F

    1996-05-15

    Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure. PMID:8641947

  15. Can low metallicity binaries avoid merging?

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Pols, O R

    2007-01-01

    Rapid mass transfer in a binary system can drive the accreting star out of thermal equilibrium, causing it to expand. This can lead to a contact system, strong mass loss from the system and possibly merging of the two stars. In low metallicity stars the timescale for heat transport is shorter due to the lower opacity. The accreting star can therefore restore thermal equilibrium more quickly and possibly avoid contact. We investigate the effect of accretion onto main sequence stars with radiative envelopes with different metallicities. We find that a low metallicity (Z<0.001), 4 solar mass star can endure a 10 to 30 times higher accretion rate before it reaches a certain radius than a star at solar metallicity. This could imply that up to two times fewer systems come into contact during rapid mass transfer when we compare low metallicity. This factor is uncertain due to the unknown distribution of binary parameters and the dependence of the mass transfer timescale on metallicity. In a forthcoming paper we w...

  16. The amygdala: securing pleasure and avoiding pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushka B P Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food or aversive (e.g. electric shock. We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala’s mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes.

  17. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    as the total market-adjusted return that could be earned from investment strategies based on foreknowledge of financial statement information. It answers the question: Are investments based on financial statement information able to capture progressively less information in security returns over time......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period...

  18. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  19. ISASS Policy Statement – Lumbar Artificial Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this Policy Statement is to educate patients, physicians, medical providers, reviewers, adjustors, case managers, insurers, and all others involved or affected by insurance coverage decisions regarding lumbar disc replacement surgery. Procedures This Policy Statement was developed by a panel of physicians selected by the Board of Directors of ISASS for their expertise and experience with lumbar TDR. The panel's recommendation was entirely based on the best evidence-based scientific research available regarding the safety and effectiveness of lumbar TDR. PMID:25785243

  20. Corporate Statements in the Facilities Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus

    In today’s services business domain, especially in facility services and facilities management (FM), customers are becoming more informed as to the level of choice and competition for their custom. This has led businesses to develop and maintain strategic elements of corporate statements...... statements from FM organizations was selected and linked to financial data. The article reveals that the FM services industry would benefit from the concept of capability coherence. Findings showed that FM organizations showing higher scores of capability coherence have higher profitability scores....