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Sample records for avoiding cod gadus

  1. Avoidance from petroleum hydrocarbons by the cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhle, Bjørn

    1982-01-01

    In laboratory experiments cod was presented a choice situation between different concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, appearing as "water soluble fraction" and emulsified droplets derived from Fuel Oil No. 2. In most experiments, the fishes seemed to avoid water containing hydrocarbons, though some fishes for periods was indifferent also to considerable contaminated water. The over all results indicates that a majority of the fishes avoided water containing total hyd...

  2. Selective haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) trawling: Avoiding cod (Gadus morhua) bycatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Holst, René; Madsen, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    The critical condition of the North Sea cod stocks has resulted in restrictions on not only cod, but also haddock and other species that are caught together with cod. Thus full exploitation of the haddock stock is unachievable unless cod can be excluded from the haddock catch. We designed a selec...... dependent: smaller cod escaped the trawl in greater numbers than did larger individuals. Whiting, saithe. lemon sole, and plaice were included in the analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Avoidance of petroleum hydrocarbons by the cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhle, Bjørn

    1986-01-01

    The experimental fish were held in two different aquaria, one with three and one with two compartments. Water containing "water soluble fraction" of Fuel Oil No. 2 was introduced in one of the compartments. By means of light- and sound-based detectors, the amount of time spent by the fish in the various compartments was recorded. Although the results were somewhat contradictory, it seems that the fish avoided water containing more than 100 µg/l of the petroleum hydrocarbons.

  4. The hypoxia avoidance behaviour of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) depends on the provision and pressure level of an O2 refuge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Skjaeraasen, Jon E.; Nilsen, Trygve;

    2011-01-01

    morhua L.) were exposed to a range of O(2) choices in a 2-way choice chamber at 11.4 degrees C over two different experiments. Cod in the first experiment were allowed access to a fixed O(2) refuge (fully air-saturated seawater) whilst oxygen pressure (PO(2)) on the other side was reduced in steps......The frequency of low O(2) (hypoxia) has increased in coastal marine areas but how fish avoid deleterious water masses is not yet clear. To assess whether the presence and oxygen pressure (PO(2)) level of an O(2) refuge affects the hypoxia avoidance behaviour of fish, individual Atlantic cod (Gadus...

  5. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.;

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters....... During a survey in 2005, stomach sample of 227 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and 64 Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) was collected in Godthaab and Sisimiut fiord systems in West Greenland waters. All cod were dissected for stomach contents and anisakid nematodes were removed from the visceral cavity. Third stage...... nematode species regarding prevalence of infection and mean infection intensity was evident, and there was no relationship between fish condition and the intensity of nematode infections. Standardised for size, capelin-eating cod were in better condition and more heavily infected than fish subsisting...

  6. Excess post hypoxic oxygen consumption in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, M.; Deurs, Mikael van; Steffensen, J.F.;

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic cod Gadus morhua experienced oxygen deficit (DO2 ) when exposed to oxygen levels below their critical level (c. 73% of pcrit) and subsequent excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption (CEPHO) upon return to normoxic conditions, indicative of an oxygen debt. The mean±s.e. CEPHO:DO2 was 6·9±1·......·9±1·5, suggesting that resorting to anaerobic energy production in severe hypoxia is energetically expensive...

  7. Automatic grunt detector and recognizer for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urazghildiiev, Ildar R; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2016-05-01

    Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) have been heavily overfished in recent years and have not yet recovered. Passive acoustic technology offers a new approach to identify the spatial location of spawning fish, as well as their seasonal and long term persistence in an area. To date, the lack of a species-specific detector has made searching for Atlantic cod grunts in large amounts of passive acoustic data cumbersome. To address this problem, an automatic grunt detection and recognition algorithm that processes yearlong passive acoustic data recordings was designed. The proposed technique is a two-stage hypothesis testing algorithm that includes detecting and recognizing all grunt-like sounds. Test results demonstrated that the algorithm provided a detection probability of 0.93 for grunts with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) higher than 10 dB, and a detection probability of 0.8 for grunts with the SNR ranging from 3 to 10 dB. This detector is being used to identify cod in current and historical data from U.S. waters. Its use has significantly reduced the time required to find and validate the presence of cod grunts. PMID:27250148

  8. Cod Gadus morhua and climate change: processes, productivity and prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2010-01-01

    the causes. Investigation of cod Gadus morhua populations across the whole North Atlantic Ocean has shown large-scale patterns of change in productivity due to lower individual growth and condition, caused by large-scale climate forcing. If a population is being heavily exploited then a drop in productivity......Environmental factors act on individual fishes directly and indirectly. The direct effects on rates and behaviour can be studied experimentally and in the field, particularly with the advent of ever smarter tags for tracking fishes and their environment. Indirect effects due to changes in food......, predators, parasites and diseases are much more difficult to estimate and predict. Climate can affect all life-history stages through direct and indirect processes and although the consequences in terms of growth, survival and reproductive output can be monitored, it is often difficult to determine...

  9. The effects of temperature and hatchery-rearing conditions on juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Theodorou, Panagiotis, 1983-

    2010-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a demersal gadoid that has been one of the most important species in the North Atlantic fisheries for more than 500 years, with major economic, ecological and cultural significance. However, in the past few decades many of the cod stocks have declined dramatically, because of overfishing and changes in the physical environment with major reorganizations of cod ecosystems. Early in their first year of life Atlantic cod juveniles undergo a transition from pela...

  10. Ribosomal RNA gene sequences confirm that protistan endoparasite of larval cod Gadus morhua is Ichthyodinium sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meyer, Stefan; Overton, Julia Lynne;

    2010-01-01

    An enigmatic protistan endoparasite found in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua and turbot Psetta maxima was isolated from Baltic cod larvae, and DNA was extracted for sequencing of the parasite's small Subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The endoparasite has previously been suggested...

  11. Population genetic structure in gadoid fish with focus on Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    OpenAIRE

    Guðni Magnús Eiríksson 1970

    2015-01-01

    In the present study genetic variation and population genetic structure in spawning Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, around Iceland was examined. Earlier research on population genetic structure in cod has not been conclusive and the use of different molecular methods have shown different patterns. It is important to determine why different methods show different patterns in order to describe the population genetic structure in cod. In the present study both microsatellite DNA variation and mitoch...

  12. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua hemoglobin genes: multiplicity and polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamperl A Kurt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin (Hb polymorphism, assessed by protein gel electrophoresis, has been used almost exclusively to characterize the genetic structure of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua populations and to establish correlations with phenotypic traits such as Hb oxygen binding capacity, temperature tolerance and growth characteristics. The genetic system used to explain the results of gel electrophoresis entails the presence of one polymorphic locus with two major alleles (HbI-1; HbI-2. However, vertebrates have more than one gene encoding Hbs and recent studies have reported that more than one Hb gene is present in Atlantic cod. These observations prompted us to re-evaluate the number of Hb genes expressed in Atlantic cod, and to perform an in depth search for polymorphisms that might produce relevant phenotypes for breeding programs. Results Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs led to the identification of nine distinct Hb transcripts; four corresponding to the α Hb gene family and five to the β Hb gene family. To gain insights about the Hb genes encoding these transcripts, genomic sequence data was generated from heterozygous (HbI-1/2 parents and fifteen progeny; five of each HbI type, i.e., HbI-1/1, HbI-1/2 and HbI-2/2. β Hb genes displayed more polymorphism than α Hb genes. Two major allele types (β1A and β1B that differ by two linked non-synonymous substitutions (Met55Val and Lys62Ala were found in the β1 Hb gene, and the distribution of these β1A and β1B alleles among individuals was congruent with that of the HbI-1 and HbI-2 alleles determined by protein gel electrophoresis. RT-PCR and Q-PCR analysis of the nine Hb genes indicates that all genes are expressed in adult fish, but their level of expression varies greatly; higher expression of almost all Hb genes was found in individuals displaying the HbI-2/2 electrophoretic type. Conclusion This study indicates that more Hb genes are present and expressed in adult

  13. Multidimensionality of behavioural phenotypes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Justin J; Fernö, Anders; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Järvi, Torbjörn; Rodewald, Petra; Sverdrup, Gisle; Winberg, Svante; Mayer, Ian

    2012-06-25

    Much of the inter-individual variation observed in animal behaviour is now attributed to the existence of behavioural phenotypes or animal personalities. Such phenotypes may be fundamental to fisheries and aquaculture, yet there have been few detailed studies of this phenomenon in exploited marine animals. We investigated the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), to situations reflecting critical ecological challenges: predator attacks and territorial challenges. Both hatchery-reared and wild fish were tested and behavioural profiles were compared with baseline conditions. We then used an objective, multivariate approach, rather than assigning individuals along one-dimensional behavioural axes, to examine whether distinct behavioural phenotypes were present. Our results indicate that two distinct behavioural phenotypes were evident in fish from each background. In hatchery-reared fish, phenotypes displayed divergent locomotor activity, sheltering, brain monoamine concentrations and responses to competitive challenges. In wild fish, phenotypes were distinguished primarily by locomotor activity, sheltering and responsiveness to predator stimuli. Hatcheries presumably represent a more stressful social environment, and social behaviour and neuroendocrine responses were important in discerning behavioural phenotypes in hatchery fish, whereas antipredator responses were important in discerning phenotypes in wild fish that have previously encountered predators. In both fish types, behavioural and physiological traits that classified individuals into phenotypes were not the same as those that were correlated across situations. These results highlight the multidimensionality of animal personalities, and that the processes that regulate one suite of behavioural traits may be very different to the processes that regulate other behaviours. PMID:22465310

  14. Vaccination of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) against atypical furunculosis using different adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Lemia M.O

    2003-01-01

    In recent years increased attention has been focussed on fish vaccines and vaccination against diseases in farmed fish. In this study, efficacy and side effects of vaccination against atypical furunculosis in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) were studied in an experimental trial by using different adjuvants. The different adjuvanted vaccines were administered by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) to Atlantic cod. The adjuvants used were CpG DNA, Aluminium hydroxide (Alhydrogel), an...

  15. Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing

    OpenAIRE

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 323–330.Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity in Denmark, practised by both anglers and passive gear fishers. However, the impact on the targeted stocks is unknown, so to estimate the 2009 harvest of cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla, two separate interview-based surveys were initiated and carried...

  16. Linking lipid dynamics with the reproductive cycle in Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna;

    2012-01-01

    of Baltic cod from spring/early summer to midsummer since the early 1990s remain unresolved and may partly be diet related. This study demonstrated that a substantial amount of lipid was invested in cod ovarian development, and that lipid composition varied substantially with the reproductive cycle......This study describes lipid composition and antioxidants of Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. during the reproductive cycle, and investigates whether they reflect its dominant prey and whether levels of fatty acids important for reproductive performance were low. Reasons for a shift in peak spawning time...... in cod diet, while the level of 16:1n-7 and astaxanthin indicated the presence of the isopod Saduria entomon in cod diet. It is likely that food web alterations in the Baltic ecosystem related to environmental and hydrographic changes caused a decrease in ARA availability. Low ARA content coincides...

  17. Do North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries maintain high catch rates at low stock size?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2008-01-01

    This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias in the assess......This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias......, the change was insufficient to compensate for the decrease in stock size, and catch rates of all fleets decreased. Two factors that could lead to nonconstant catchability were investigated: (i) the presence of decoupling between stock size and density ill high-density areas and (ii) the presence...

  18. Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua reproductive success, determined using experimental spawning groups and genetic paternity assignment of offspring, showed that within-group variance in male size correlated positively with the degree of male mating skew, predicting a decrease in male...... reproductive skew with decreasing size variation among males under natural conditions. (c) 2006 The Author Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  19. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2003-01-01

    Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate distinct changes in otolith increment width observed in demersal juveniles b......, performed vertical migrations during the second interval, and stayed in association with the seafloor in the subsequent interval, corresponding to the time after the breakdown of the thermocline....

  20. Analysing migrations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in the north‐east Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, S.; Righton, D.; Neat, F.;

    2013-01-01

    descriptions, separation of reproductively isolated populations, timing and areas of spawning, tidal transport and use of protected areas. The examples are based on archival tag data from the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Barents Sea and Faroese and Icelandic Waters. Besides presenting the state......-of-the-art geolocations for cod Gadus morhua in the north-east Atlantic Ocean, the major aim of this review is to raise awareness of gaps in knowledge and to identify ideas for new research...

  1. Effects of alkylphenols (C4-C7) on the reproductive system of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Sonnich

    2007-01-01

    The work in this thesis is a part of a strategic work at the Institute of Marine Research, which aims to develop a variety of methods to be used in investigating potential endocrine disruption in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Produced water, a by-product of offshore oil production, contains significant amounts of alkylphenols (APs). Many studies have shown that long-chain para-substituated APs cause endocrine disruption in freshwater fish, but relatively little is currently know...

  2. Differences in salinity tolerance and gene expression between two populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Meier, Kristian;

    2012-01-01

    in salinity tolerance and gene expression among Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from two populations distributed across a steep salinity gradient, we observed high mortality (45% North Sea cod and 80% Baltic Sea cod) in a reciprocal common garden setup. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for expression of hsp70 and Na....... The findings strongly suggest that Atlantic cod are adapted to local saline conditions, despite relatively low levels of neutral genetic divergence between populations...

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus juveniles in Mutsu Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takatsu, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yasuyuki; KOOKA, Kouji; Sugimoto, Kouichi; Takahashi, Toyomi

    2001-01-01

    The spatial distributions of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) juveniles and their food organisms were examined in Mutsu Bay from April to July during 1988-1997. In April, large larvae (≤25 mm in total length (TL)) and pelagic juveniles (>25 mm TL) were widely distributed in the bay, and were concentrated at the same depths as calanoid copepodites during daylight hours. Geographical changes in cod TLs might have been due to transport by the Tsugaru Warm Current. After mid- and late May, juven...

  4. Spatiotemporal SNP analysis reveals pronounced biocomplexity at the northern range margin of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hedeholm, R.B.;

    2013-01-01

    Accurate prediction of species distribution shifts in the face of climate change requires a sound understanding of population diversity and local adaptations. Previous modeling has suggested that global warming will lead to increased abundance of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the ocean around...... Greenland, but the dynamics of earlier abundance fluctuations are not well understood. We applied a retrospective spatiotemporal population genomics approach to examine the temporal stability of cod population structure in this region and to search for signatures of divergent selection over a 78-year period...

  5. Structure of chymotrypsin variant B from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Asgeirsson, B; Thórólfsson, M;

    1996-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of chymotrypsin variant B isolated from the pyloric caeca of Atlantic cod has been elucidated. The characterization of the primary structure is based on N-terminal Edman degradation and mass spectrometry of the native protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Chymotrypsi...

  6. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C) origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orton, D.C.; Makowiecki, D.; de Roo, T.;

    2011-01-01

    Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern...... of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years...

  7. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks.

  8. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division; Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mathieu, A. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS.

  9. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    , with progressively later spawning towards the east. Genetic stock structure and tagging indicate some degree of natal homing for spawning. The highly variable hydrodynamic conditions and the fact that cod eggs float in the water column cause their entrainment by currents, and their destination is determined...... by the prevailing winds and currents. Drift is almost exclusively to the east, but the magnitude and its impact on the structure of the affected stocks (Kattegat, western Baltic, and eastern Baltic) remains unresolved. Salinity limits the east–west exchange of eggs as a consequence of the stocks' differential...

  10. Feeding opportunities of larval and juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) in a Greenlandic fjord: temporal and spatial linkages between cod and their preferred prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne; Malanski, Evandro;

    2014-01-01

    preferences of the early-life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to quantify the availability of prey during a spring-summer season in a West Greenlandic fjord. We hypothesized that abundances of larval and juvenile cod at size were synchronized to optimal availability of preferred prey in space and time....... The present analysis is based on nine cruises each covering 5 stations visited between 24 May and 5 August 2010 comparing zooplankton abundance, cod gut content and distribution patterns. Cod 4–25 mm in length preferred prey of about 5 % of their own length. During ontogeny, their preferences changed from...

  11. Environmentally driven predator-prey overlaps determine the aggregate diet of the cod Gadus morhua in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Beyer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of oxygenated and saline deep water alternating with stagnation periods affect the consumption rates of the herring Clupea harengus L. and the sprat Sprattus sprattus L. by the cod Gadus morhua in the Bornholm basin of the Baltic Sea. We developed conceptual models for the effect of predator-prey overlaps...... on the aggregate diet of the predator population to test the hypothesis that the effects of inflows on the aggregate diet are mediated by changes in cod-clupeid overlaps. After estimating salinity and oxygen thresholds of the spatial distributions of cod and clupeids and calculating cod-clupeid overlaps from March...

  12. Walking the cod: an investigation into the relative robustness of cod, Gadus morhua, skeletal elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K.G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple experiment is described which details what happens to the bones of cod when they are walked on by a man. The pattern of fragmentation for various elements is illustrated and an index of robustness proposed for those elements in a cod skeleton most frequently recovered from archaeological sites.

  13. Effects of Loma morhua (Microsporidia) infection on the cardiorespiratory performance of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M D; Gamperl, A K

    2016-02-01

    The microsporidian Loma morhua infects Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the wild and in culture and results in the formation of xenomas within the gill filaments, heart and spleen. Given the importance of the two former organs to metabolic capacity and thermal tolerance, the cardiorespiratory performance of cod with a naturally acquired infection of Loma was measured during an acute temperature increase (2 °C h(-1) ) from 10 °C to the fish's critical thermal maximum (CTMax ). In addition, oxygen consumption and swimming performance were measured during two successive critical swimming speed (Ucrit ) tests at 10 °C. While Loma infection had a negative impact on cod cardiac function at warm temperatures, and on metabolic capacity in both the CTMax and Ucrit tests (i.e. a reduction of 30-40%), it appears that the Atlantic cod can largely compensate for these Loma-induced cardiorespiratory limitations. For example, (i) CTMax (21.0 ± 0.3 °C) and Ucrit (~1.75 BL s(-1) ) were very comparable to those reported in previous studies using uninfected fish from the same founder population; and (ii) our data suggest that tissue oxygen extraction, and potentially the capacity for anaerobic metabolism, is enhanced in fish infected with this microsporidian. PMID:25683657

  14. Predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) - Predictions from models on gastric evacuation and bioenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, S.; Rudstam, L. G.; Kitchell, J.F.; Hilden, M.; Johnson, B.L.; Peppard, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    We compared four different methods for estimating predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus moi hua). Three estimates, based on gastric evacuation rates, came from an ICES multispecies working group and the fourth from a bioenergetics model. The bioenergetics model was developed from a review of literature on cod physiology. The three gastric evacuation rate models produced very different prey consumption estimates for small (2 kg) fish. For most size and age classes, the bioenergetics model predicted food consumption rates intermediate to those predicted by the gastric evacuation models. Using the standard ICES model and the average population abundance and age structure for 1974-1989, annual, prey consumption by the North Sea cod population (age greater than or equal to 1) was 840 kilotons. The other two evacuation rate models produced estimates of 1020 and 1640 kilotons, respectively. The bioenergetics model estimate was 1420 kilotons. The major differences between models were due to consumption rate estimates for younger age groups of cod. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

  15. Bacterial Colonization of Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) Eggs in Marine Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Geir Høvik; Olafsen, Jan A.

    1989-01-01

    Aquaculture has brought about increased interest in mass production of marine fish larvae. Problems such as poor egg quality and mass mortality of fish larvae have been prevalent. The intensive incubation techniques that often result in bacterial overgrowth on fish eggs could affect the commensal relationship between the indigenous microflora and opportunistic pathogens and subsequently hamper egg development, hatching, larval health, and ongrowth. Little information about the adherent microflora on fish eggs is available, and the present study was undertaken to describe the microbial ecology during egg development and hatching of two fish species of potential commercial importance in marine aquaculture. Attachment and development of the bacterial flora on cod (Gadus morhua L.) eggs from fertilization until hatching was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The adherent microflora on cod (G. morhua L.) and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) eggs during incubation was characterized and grouped by cluster analysis. Marked bacterial growth could be demonstrated 2 h after fertilization, and at hatching eggs were heavily overgrown. Members of the genera Pseudomonas, Alteromonas, Aeromonas, and Flavobacterium were found to dominate on the surface of both cod and halibut eggs. The filamentous bacterium Leucothrix mucor was found on eggs from both species. While growth of L. mucor on halibut eggs was sparse, cod eggs with a hairy appearance due to overgrowth by this bacterium close to hatching were frequently observed. Vibrio fischeri could be detected on cod eggs only, and pathogenic vibrios were not detected. Members of the genera Moraxella and Alcaligenes were found only on halibut eggs. Caulobacter and Seliberia spp. were observed attached to eggs dissected from cod ovaries under sterile conditions, indicating the presence of these bacteria in ovaries before spawning. Adherent strains did not demonstrate antibiotic resistance above a normal level. Attempts to

  16. Temperature-mediated survival, development and hatching variation of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, X; Zhang, X; Sakrai, Y; Jin, X; Gao, T; Wan, R; Yamamoto, J

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory-validated data on the survival, development and hatching responses of fertilized Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus eggs from the northern Japan stock were determined through an incubation experiment. The optimum temperature for survival until hatching ranged from 4 to 8°C. No significant difference in development rates was found between the populations from Mutsu Bay, Japan, and western Canadian coastal waters even though the samples may belong to different G. macrocephalus stocks. Gadus macrocephalus larvae hatched asynchronously from egg batches despite incubation under the same environment during their development. Both incubation temperature and temperature-mediated hatch rank affect size and yolk reserve. These data suggest that variations in water temperatures within an ecological range markedly influence the development rates, survival and hatching of the eggs, as well as the stage at hatch larvae of G. macrocephalus. Asynchronous hatching and the production of offspring with variable sizes and yolk reserves are considered evolutionary bet-hedging strategies that enable the species to maximize their likelihood of survival in an environment with variable temperatures. PMID:24344879

  17. Distribution, diet, and energetic condition of age-0 walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jamal H.; Zaleski, Marilyn F.; Heintz, Ron A.

    2016-10-01

    Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are commercially and ecologically important species in Alaska waters. Little is known about their ecology after transitioning from larvae to free swimming fish until settlement to nursery habitats in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Differences in the distribution, diet, body size, and energetic status between the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska were investigated during summer months to better understand regional and interspecific differences in life history and ecology. The composition of zooplankton prey in the diets of walleye pollock and Pacific cod inhabiting shelf waters was more varied relative to those inhabiting the slope and basin. Body condition and total energy content of Pacific cod was greater than walleye pollock, however total energy content increased with length at a similar rate for both species. Walleye pollock inhabiting continental slope waters had higher energy stores relative to those inhabiting the continental shelf and basin, indicating an energetic advantage for individuals remaining off the shelf during summer months or potentially the advection of fish with higher energy reserves off of the shelf. Previous studies have documented the importance of energy stores for surviving winter and future studies should focus on understanding the mechanisms influencing lipid storage and somatic growth for walleye pollock and Pacific cod inhabiting the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska.

  18. Infection of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua L.) postlarvae and juveniles with the parasites Hysterothylacium aduncum Rudolphi and Caligus sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, F.; Bahlool, Q. M.; Skovgaard, A.;

    Parasitic infections of individual juvenile and adult Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) have been well studied for decades, but infections of early life stages and the impact of parasitism on population level have been less well elucidated. It is generally assumed that early developmental stages...... of fish are more vulnerable to infection compared to older age groups, but merely few investigations on parasitic infections in young cod are available. We have therefore performed a parasitological investigation of a total of 3361 specimens of Atlantic cod post larvae and juveniles sampled from the North...

  19. Environmental effects on recruitment and implications for biological reference points of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Vinther, Morten; MacKenzie, Brian;

    2009-01-01

    stock productivity. Long-term projections suggest that under adverse environmental conditions for reproduction, harvesting at fishing mortality determined as precautionary may not lead to a recovery of the stock to a biomass level considered precautionary. Thus, a revision of either the limit fishing......The decline of the Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stock from highest to lowest stock levels on record throughout the 1980s and early 1990s was caused by a combination of recruitment failure and increasing fishing pressure at declining stock sizes. The processes driving the reproductive success...... of limit reference points, but according to long-term simulations also for target fishing mortalities, being central parts of harvest control rules in several management plans....

  20. Does DNA extraction affect the physical and chemical composition of historical cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hüssy, Karin;

    2010-01-01

    conflicting interests regarding how the limited and irreplaceable otolith collections should be used. To resolve this, it is important to find out whether DNA extraction damages otoliths such that they can no longer be used for other research purposes or whether individual otoliths can be used in multiple...... applications. We examined the effects of three different DNA extraction methods on the elemental composition, the morphology, and the clarity of annual growth increments for successful age estimation of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths that had been archived for 0–31 years. The three extraction methods...... yielded DNA of comparable quality, and none of the methods caused major damage to the otoliths. Of the element concentrations measured, only Mg and Rb showed considerable changes resulting from DNA extraction. The physical properties of the otolith (morphology and clarity of annual growth increments) were...

  1. Prey exoskeletons influence the course of gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, C. S.; Andersen, N. G.; Audet, C.;

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prey exoskeleton characteristics on gastric evacuation patterns in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Three distinct stages were highlighted in the gastric evacuation of crustacean prey characterized by a robust exoskeleton. The experiments confirmed that the three shrimp...... of the prey exoskeleton all affected gastric evacuation: duration of initial delay, overall evacuation rate and a decreased evacuation rate at the end of the process. The power exponential function (PEF), with its shape parameter, described the course of evacuation for these prey types well, especially...... the initial delay. The PEF does not, however, allow describing evacuation by the current stomach content mass independent of meal size, which limits its usefulness in estimating consumption rates of wild G. morhua. To predict and describe gastric evacuation of prey with a robust exoskeleton, it is therefore...

  2. Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 323–330.Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity in Denmark, practised by both anglers and passive gear fishers...... mandatory Danish fishing licence. The second survey was designed to identify those who fish without a licence. It was estimated that 1231 t of cod were harvested in 2009, corresponding to 4.8% of the entire Danish cod yield (recreational harvest + commercial landings). Area differences were found, and, in...... certain areas, the recreational harvest of cod accounted for more than 30% of the total yield. The majority (81%) of the recreational cod harvest was taken by anglers. Eels, however, are almost exclusively caught with passive gear (fykenets) and a total of 104 t year−1 was harvested, which corresponds to...

  3. Comparative study of tranavirus isolates from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) with reference to other ranaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Holopainen, Riikka; Olesen, Niels Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    Two iridovirus isolates recovered from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) in Denmark were examined in parallel with a panel of other ranaviruses including frog virus 3 (FV3), the reference strain for the genus Ranavirus. The isolates were assessed according to their reactivity in immun......Two iridovirus isolates recovered from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) in Denmark were examined in parallel with a panel of other ranaviruses including frog virus 3 (FV3), the reference strain for the genus Ranavirus. The isolates were assessed according to their reactivity......). The challenge trials indicate that rainbow trout fry cultured at 15A degrees C are not target species for the virus isolates in the present panel. We suggest that the two isolates belong in the genus Ranavirus and propose the name Ranavirus maxima (Rmax) for the turbot isolate....

  4. Impacts of regular and random noise on the behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Simpson, Stephen D; Morley, Erica L; Nedelec, Brendan; Radford, Andrew N

    2015-10-22

    Anthropogenic noise impacts behaviour and physiology in many species, but responses could change with repeat exposures. As repeat exposures can vary in regularity, identifying regimes with less impact is important for regulation. We use a 16-day split-brood experiment to compare effects of regular and random acoustic noise (playbacks of recordings of ships), relative to ambient-noise controls, on behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Short-term noise caused startle responses in newly hatched fish, irrespective of rearing noise. Two days of both regular and random noise regimes reduced growth, while regular noise led to faster yolk sac use. After 16 days, growth in all three sound treatments converged, although fish exposed to regular noise had lower body width-length ratios. Larvae with lower body width-length ratios were easier to catch in a predator-avoidance experiment. Our results demonstrate that the timing of acoustic disturbances can impact survival-related measures during development. Much current work focuses on sound levels, but future studies should consider the role of noise regularity and its importance for noise management and mitigation measures. PMID:26468248

  5. Aerobic scope for activity in age 0 year Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S L; von Herbing, I Hunt

    2009-05-01

    Key components of swimming metabolism: standard metabolism (R(s)), active metabolism (R(a)) and absolute aerobic scope for activity (R(a)-R(s)) were determined for small age 0 year Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Gadus morhua juveniles grew from 0.50 to 2.89 g wet body mass (M(WB)) over the experimental period of 100 days, and growth rates (G) ranged from 1.4 to 2.9% day(-1), which decreased with increasing size. Metabolic rates were recorded by measuring changes in oxygen consumption over time at different activity levels using modified Brett-type respirometers designed to accommodate the small size and short swimming endurance of small fishes. Power performance relationships were established between oxygen consumption and swimming speed measurements were repeated for individual fish as each fish grew. Mass-specific standard metabolic rates (RsMWB-1) were calculated from the power performance relationships by extrapolating to zero swimming speed and decreased from 7.00 to 5.77 micromol O(2) g(-1) h(-1), mass-specific active metabolic rates (RaMWB-1) were calculated from extrapolation to maximum swimming speed (U(max)) and decreased from 26.18 to 14.35 micromol O(2) g(-1) h(-1) and mass-specific absolute scope for activity was calculated as the difference between active and standard metabolism (RaMWB-1-RsMWB-1) and decreased from 26.18 to 14.35 micromol O(2) g(-1) h(-1) as M(WB) increased. Small fish with low R(s) had bigger aerobic scopes but, as expected, R(s) was higher in smaller fish than larger fish. The measurements and results from this study are unique as R(s), R(a) and absolute aerobic scopes have not been previously determined for small age 0 year G. morhua.

  6. Biomarker candidate discovery in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) continuously exposed to North Sea produced water from egg to fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohne-Kjersem, Anneli; Bache, Nicolai; Meier, Sonnich;

    2010-01-01

    In this study Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exposed to different levels of North Sea produced water (PW) and 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)), a natural oestrogen, from egg to fry stage (90 days). By comparing changes in protein expression following E(2) exposure to changes induced by PW treatment, we...... changes that may be useful as biomarker candidates of produced water (PW) and oestradiol exposure in Atlantic cod fry. The biomarker candidates discovered in this study may, following validation, prove effective as diagnostic tools in monitoring exposure and effects of discharges from the petroleum...

  7. Transcriptomic analysis and biomarkers (Rag1 and Igμ) for probing the immune system development in Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ming-Guang; Li, Xing; Perálvarez-Marín, Alejandro; Jiang, Jie-Lan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Wen, Shi-Hui; Lü, Hui-Qian

    2015-06-01

    Mortality (>90%) is a big concern in larval rearing facilities of Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, limiting its culture presently still in the experimental stages. Understanding the immune system development of G. macrocephalus is crucial to optimize the aquaculture of this species, to improve the use of economic resources and to avoid abuse of antibiotics. For the transcriptome analysis, using an Illumina sequencing platform, 61,775,698 raw reads were acquired. After a de novo assembly, 77,561 unigenes were obtained. We have classified functionally these transcripts by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). 27 genes mainly related to hematopoietic or lymphoid organ development and somatic diversification of immune receptors have been reported for the first time in Pacific cod, and 14 Ig heavy chain (μ chain) locuses were assembled using Trinity. Based on our previous achievement, we have chosen Rag1 and Igμ as immune system development biomarkers. Full length cDNA of Rag1 and Igμ as biomarkers were obtained respectively using RACE PCR. Concerning Rag1, the deduced amino acid of Rag1 and protein immunodetection revealed a Rag1 isoform of 69 kDa, significantly different from other fish orthologs, such as Oncorhynchus mykiss (121 kDa). Phylogenetic analysis reveals a unique immune system for the Gadus genre, not exclusive for Atlantic cod, among vertebrates. Meanwhile, full length cDNA of Igμ included an ORF of 1710 bp and the deduced amino acid was composed of a leader peptide, a variable domain, CH1, CH2, Hinge, CH3, CH4 and C-terminus, which was in accordance with most teleost. Absolute quantification PCR revealed that significant expression of Rag1 appeared earlier than Igμ, 61 and 95 dph compared to 95 dph, respectively. Here we report the first transcriptomic analysis of G. macrocephalus as the starting point for genetic research on immune system development towards improving the Pacific cod aquaculture.

  8. Climate warming causes life-history evolution in a model for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Rebecca E.; Jørgensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Climate change influences the marine environment, with ocean warming being the foremost driving factor governing changes in the physiology and ecology of fish. At the individual level, increasing temperature influences bioenergetics and numerous physiological and life-history processes, which have consequences for the population level and beyond. We provide a state-dependent energy allocation model that predicts temperature-induced adaptations for life histories and behaviour for the North-East Arctic stock (NEA) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to climate warming. The key constraint is temperature-dependent respiratory physiology, and the model includes a number of trade-offs that reflect key physiological and ecological processes. Dynamic programming is used to find an evolutionarily optimal strategy of foraging and energy allocation that maximizes expected lifetime reproductive output given constraints from physiology and ecology. The optimal strategy is then simulated in a population, where survival, foraging behaviour, growth, maturation and reproduction emerge. Using current forcing, the model reproduces patterns of growth, size-at-age, maturation, gonad production and natural mortality for NEA cod. The predicted climate responses are positive for this stock; under a 2°C warming, the model predicted increased growth rates and a larger asymptotic size. Maturation age was unaffected, but gonad weight was predicted to more than double. Predictions for a wider range of temperatures, from 2 to 7°C, show that temperature responses were gradual; fish were predicted to grow faster and increase reproductive investment at higher temperatures. An emergent pattern of higher risk acceptance and increased foraging behaviour was also predicted. Our results provide important insight into the effects of climate warming on NEA cod by revealing the underlying mechanisms and drivers of change. We show how temperature-induced adaptations of behaviour and several life

  9. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  10. Development of a SNP resource and a genetic linkage map for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Brent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species with increasing economic significance for the aquaculture industry. The genetic improvement of cod will play a critical role in achieving successful large-scale aquaculture. While many microsatellite markers have been developed in cod, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is currently limited. Here we report the identification of SNPs from sequence data generated by a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST program, focusing on fish originating from Canadian waters. Results A total of 97976 ESTs were assembled to generate 13448 contigs. We detected 4753 SNPs that met our selection criteria (depth of coverage ≥ 4 reads; minor allele frequency > 25%. 3072 SNPs were selected for testing. The percentage of successful assays was 75%, with 2291 SNPs amplifying correctly. Of these, 607 (26% SNPs were monomorphic for all populations tested. In total, 64 (4% of SNPs are likely to represent duplicated genes or highly similar members of gene families, rather than alternative alleles of the same gene, since they showed a high frequency of heterozygosity. The remaining polymorphic SNPs (1620 were categorised as validated SNPs. The mean minor allele frequency of the validated loci was 0.258 (± 0.141. Of the 1514 contigs from which validated SNPs were selected, 31% have a significant blast hit. For the SNPs predicted to occur in coding regions (141, we determined that 36% (51 are non-synonymous. Many loci (1033 SNPs; 64% are polymorphic in all populations tested. However a small number of SNPs (184 that are polymorphic in the Western Atlantic were monomorphic in fish tested from three European populations. A preliminary linkage map has been constructed with 23 major linkage groups and 924 mapped SNPs. Conclusions These SNPs represent powerful tools to accelerate the genetic improvement of cod aquaculture. They have been used to build a genetic linkage map that can be applied to

  11. The fate of Lernaeocera branchialis (L.) (Crustacea; Copepoda) in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, J E; Smith, J L; Wootten, R; Sommerville, C

    2011-02-01

    Lernaeocera branchialis, a copepod crustacean parasite of gadoids, represents a potential threat to both wild and farmed cod, Gadus morhua. The pathological changes associated with the early stages of experimental infection have previously been reported in detail, and this article describes the lesions associated with later chronic stages of experimental infection. Chronic infection is characterised by extravascular granuloma formation and proliferation of fibrovascular tissue around intact and fragmented, degenerate parasites within both the gill arch and cardiac region. The majority of parasite granulomas are located within connective tissues of the gill arch or pericardium; however, low numbers are present within the wall of large vessels. The intraluminal parasites and thrombi of early stage infection are largely absent in these later lesions. We propose that organisation and incorporation of the parasite thrombus into the vessel wall with subsequent granuloma formation and extrusion into the surrounding connective tissue leads to the elimination of the parasite from the vascular system. Thus, rather than being a negative consequence of infection thrombosis is protective, allowing the host to survive the substantial initial vascular insult.

  12. Development of international fisheries for the eastern Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the late 1880s until 1938

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Karlsdottir, H.M.;

    2007-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries from the end of the 1880s until 1938, in order to improve the knowledge of long-term stock dynamics. The data compiled and included in the study comprise catches and economic values of exploited fish species, time series...... of indicators of fishing effort and qualitative information on developments in fishing technology. This information has been assembled for different countries and locations in the Baltic Sea. We first summarize the multi-decadal development of national cod fisheries and their relative importance during...... of the variations in the catches of different countries (e.g. decline in the late 1920s; increase in the late 1930s) were caused by factors other than fishery developments. These factors probably include ecosystem-induced variations in cod population dynamics and need further investigation. (c) 2007 Elsevier B...

  13. Impact of water-accommodated fractions of crude oil on Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua following chronic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the long-term effects of hydrocarbon exposure on the gonadal development of fish. Mature Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exposed to low concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an ambient flowthrough seawater system. Some PAH-exposed cod groups were depurated afterwards for 38 to 287 days. Mortality was rare, and external lesions occurred only in the PAH-exposed groups. The gonado-somatic index revealed that gonadal development was disrupted in both sexes and spawning and spermiation was delayed in the 33 depurated PAH-groups. The findings indicate that chronic exposure to WAFs in the water column may have an adverse effect on reproduction in Atlantic cod.

  14. Horizontal transmission of nervous necrosis virus between turbot Scophthalmus maximus and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua using cohabitation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsnes, Kjetil; Karlsbakk, Egil; Nylund, Are; Nerland, Audun Helge

    2012-05-15

    Experimental horizontal transmission of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) originating from halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus was studied through cohabitation of intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected fish with uninfected fish for 125 d. The experimental groups consisted of i.p. injected turbot Scophthalmus maximus or i.p. injected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with turbot, salmon or Atlantic cod Gadus morhua cohabitants. The initial weights were cod 10 g, salmon 40 g and turbot 3 g. NNV was detected in brain, eye and spleen by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in cod cohabitated with i.p. injected turbot after 90 and 125 d, suggesting NNV infection was transmitted horizontally from the turbot to cod. NNV was not detected in salmon that were cohabitated with i.p. challenged turbot or salmon. This study shows that NNV strains belonging to the Barfin Flounder Nervous Necrosis Virus (BFNNV) clade may be transmitted from halibut to cod via water. Hence there is a potential risk of horizontal transmission of the virus from farmed halibut to farmed and wild cod. The lack of detection of NNV in cohabitant salmon suggests that this fish species is less susceptible than cod, or not susceptible, to horizontal NNV transmission. This result might be influenced by the size of salmon, viral load in i.p. injected cohabitants or insufficient duration of the experiment.

  15. Effects of reproduction on growth and survival in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, assessed by comparison to triploids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trippel, Edward A.; Butts, Ian; Babin, Amanda;

    2014-01-01

    in captive iteroparous, batch-spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), utilizing diploids and triploids, knowing that triploid females invest little to no energy into gametogenesis. Based on annual specific growth rate, there was no evidence for a somatic cost of reproduction at ages 2 (virgin year) and 4....... years, but there was at age 3. years. At age 2. years, low investment in reproduction likely accounted for the lack of a somatic cost of reproduction, whereas at age 4 the absence was associated with heightened growth post-spawning enabling mature fish to catch up to immature fish. At age 3...

  16. Effect of temperature on quality-related changes in cod (Gadus morhua) during short- and long-term frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgaard, Maria Garver; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) was stored at eight temperatures (-10 to -80 degrees C) for 1 to 18 months, after which quality indicators were measuredincluding drip loss, water holding capacity, low field NMR spin-spin relaxation, color, amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and sarcoplasmic...... reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and lysosomal Cathepsin D activities. Results from samples stored up to 12 months showed no significant differences between -30 degrees C and lower temperatures. The NMR measurements, however, indicated some changes in the water distribution of samples stored at -30 degrees C for 12...

  17. Temperature Modulates the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Intestinal Ion Transport in Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Marian Y.; Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M.; Stumpp, Meike; Dupont, Sam; Tseng, Yung-Che; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid–base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for 4 weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1200, and 2200 μatm) covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C) and summer maximum temperature (18°C), respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3), Na+/HCO3− cotransporter (NBC1), pendrin-like Cl−/HCO3− exchanger (SLC26a6), V-type H+-ATPase subunit a (VHA), and Cl− channel 3 (CLC3) in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal HCO3− secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood HCO3− levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans. PMID:27313538

  18. Temperature modulates the effects of ocean acidification on intestinal ion transport in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Yong-An Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid–base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for four weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1,200 and 2,200 μatm covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C and summer maximum temperature (18°C, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA, Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3, Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC1, pendrin-like Cl-/HCO3- exchanger (SLC26a6, V-type H+-ATPase subunit a (VHA and Cl- channel 3 (CLC3 in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal HCO3- secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood HCO3- levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans.

  19. Variations in the drift of larval cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the Baltic Sea : combining field observations and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Coupled three-dimensional (3-D) physical oceanographic modelling and field sampling programmes were carried out in May 1988 and August 1991 to investigate the potential drift of larval cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. The goals were to predict the transport of cod...... for the time periods considered. Larval drift was simulated either by incorporation of passive drifters, or as the initial horizontal distribution of larvae implemented into the model. Drift model simulations of larval transport agreed relatively well with field observations. The influence of variations...... in the vertical distribution on a smaller scale, i.e. vertical deviations of +/- 6 m from the observed mean centre of mass, on the drift was examined, revealing no significant differences in the drift of larvae depending on their vertical distribution. The different wind forcing during the investigated time...

  20. An estrogen-responsive plasma protein expression signature in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) revealed by SELDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mari Mæland; Meyer, Sonnich; Larsen, Bodil Katrine;

    2011-01-01

    Compound-specific protein expression signatures( PESs) can be revealed by proteomic techniques. The SELDI-TOF MS approach is advantageous due to its simplicity and high-throughput capacity,however, there are concerns regarding the reproducibility of this method. The aim of this study was to define...... an estrogen-responsive PES in plasma of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) using the SELDI-TOF MS technique. Protein expression analysis of male cod exposed to 17 b-estradiol (E2) showed that 27 plasma peaks were differentially expressed following exposure.There producibility of this result was evaluated....... A targeted antibody-assisted SELDI-TOF MS approach was carried out in an attempt to identify the E2-responsive peaks. Results indicated that 2 peaks were fragments of the well-known biomarkers VTG and/or ZRP. In this study, the SELDI-TOF MS technology has shown its potential for defining compound...

  1. Differential Survival among Batches of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L. from Fertilisation through to Post-Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E Petersen

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production of cod has decreased from over 20,000 tonnes in 2009 to less than 2,000 tonnes in 2014 and the industry faces many challenges, one of which is high and unpredictably variable mortality rates in the early life stages. Hence, full-cycle farming with hatchery produced juveniles is still considered unprofitable compared to fisheries and on-growing of wild cod. In the present study, potential batch differences in progeny survival of wild-caught, hatchery-spawned Faroe Bank cod (Gadus morhua L. were investigated at two defined periods during early life history; i the embryo stage (60 day degrees post fertilisation and ii the fry stage (110 days post hatch, post metamorphosis. The fry stage experiment was conducted in three replicates (N = 300 per replicate, and a panel of three polymorphic microsatellite markers was used for parental analysis. Mean survival rate at the embryo stage was 69% (± 20% SD. Survival was positively associated with egg diameter (P < 0.01, explaining 90% of the variation in egg survival rates. The data were too scarce to conclude either way concerning a possible correlation between survival rates between the two periods (P < 0.10. Offspring from three batches (from a total of eight dominated in the fry stage, contributing over 90% of the progeny, and results were consistent over all three replicate tanks. The skewed batch representation observed may be of relevance to the effective management of selective breeding programmes for cod.

  2. Residency, site fidelity and habitat use of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at an offshore wind farm using acoustic telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubens, Jan T; Pasotti, Francesca; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-09-01

    Because offshore wind energy development is fast growing in Europe it is important to investigate the changes in the marine environment and how these may influence local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. One of the species affected by these ecosystem changes is Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), a heavily exploited, commercially important fish species. In this research we investigated the residency, site fidelity and habitat use of Atlantic cod on a temporal scale at windmill artificial reefs in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Acoustic telemetry was used and the Vemco VR2W position system was deployed to quantify the movement behaviour. In total, 22 Atlantic cod were tagged and monitored for up to one year. Many fish were present near the artificial reefs during summer and autumn, and demonstrated strong residency and high individual detection rates. When present within the study area, Atlantic cod also showed distinct habitat selectivity. We identified aggregation near the artificial hard substrates of the wind turbines. In addition, a clear seasonal pattern in presence was observed. The high number of fish present in summer and autumn alternated with a period of very low densities during the winter period. PMID:23937893

  3. Genotype by Environment Interaction for Growth in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L. in Four Farms of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Bangera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied genotype by environment interaction (G × E for body weight (BW of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. from the National cod breeding program in Norway. Records of 13,811 fish in a nucleus farm (NUC and two test farms (PENorth, PESouth in year-class (YC 2007, and for 9149 fish in NUC and one test farm in YC 2010 were available. Heterogeneity of variances and heritabilities ( were estimated using a univariate animal model with environmental effects common to full-sibs (full-model. Genetic correlations ( between farms were estimated using a multivariate full-model and a reduced-model (without for each YC. Heterogeneity of  was observed in both YC 2007 (0.10 to 0.16 and YC 2010 (0.08 to 0.26. The estimates of  between NUC and test farms were relatively high for both models (0.81 ± 0.19 to 0.96 ± 0.17 and (0.81 ± 0.08 to 0.86 ± 0.04, suggesting low re-ranking of genotypes. Strong re-ranking of genotypes between PESouth and PENorth may be less important because most cod producers are situated close to the breeding nucleus. In conclusion, G × E between NUC and test farms were low and at present there is no need for separate breeding programs for BW in cod.

  4. Influences of potential predictor variables on gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. feeding on fish prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2012-01-01

    The parameter values of a generic model of gastric evacuation were estimated from evacuation data on Atlantic cod Gadus morhua fed meals of four fish prey: herring Clupea harengus, sprat Sprattus sprattus, lesser sandeel Ammodytes tobianus and dab Limanda limanda. The effects on evacuation...... of photoperiod and pre-experimental treatment of prey were also tested. Freshly killed A. tobianus were evacuated from the stomach of G. morhua at a rate similar to the value estimated from conspecifics kept deep-frozen and subsequently thawed prior to the evacuation experiment. The evacuation rate in G. morhua...... exposed to continuous light did not differ from the rate obtained from fish maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod. The evacuation rates estimated from the latter fish in the dark and light periods, respectively, were likewise similar. These results indicate that the resistance of prey to the digestive...

  5. The influence of feeding behaviour on growth of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, Linnaeus, 1758) in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Pedersen, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to resolve key mechanisms driving individual growth patterns of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Growth dynamics were analysed by linking growth patterns with stomach content composition and environmental temperature. Samples were collected in August/September of the...... years 2009, 2010 and 2011 in the north-eastern part of the central North Sea. Prey selection was assessed by identification of individual prey items in the stomach content to species. Ten feeding groups were identified consisting of individuals with one prey type dominating their stomach contents (≥75...... opportunistic in their prey selection, but at the same time indicated that the total, broad feeding niche width of the population is dominated by individual diet specialization and that many individuals temporally show a preference for a particular prey type. The contribution of invertebrates and particularly...

  6. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild. PMID:27415626

  7. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild. PMID:27415626

  8. Composition and structure of the parasite faunas of cod, Gadus morhua L. (Teleostei: Gadidae, in the North East Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinova Aneta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous studies on parasites of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. have been conducted in the North Atlantic, comparative analyses on local cod parasite faunas are virtually lacking. The present study is based on examination of large samples of cod from six geographical areas of the North East Atlantic which yielded abundant baseline data on parasite distribution and abundance. Materials and Methods A total of 826 fish was sampled in the Baltic, Celtic, Irish and North seas, Icelandic waters and Trondheimsfjord (Norway in 2002 (spring and autumn and 2003 (spring. The gills and internal organs (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pyloric caeca, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and gonads were examined for macroparasites following a standardised protocol. The taxonomic consistency of the identification was ensured thorough the entire study. Results We discuss some problems in parasite identification, outline the composition of the parasite faunas in cod in the six North East Atlantic regions, provide novel data on parasite prevalence and abundance and a comparative assessment of the structure of the regional parasite faunas with respect to the higher-level taxonomic groupings, host specificity and zoogeographical distribution of the parasites. Altogether 57 different parasite forms were found including seven new host records (Diclidophora merlangi, Rhipidocotyle sp., Fellodistomum sp., Steringotrema sp., Cucullanus sp., Spinitectus sp., and Chondracanthus ornatus. The predominant groups of cod parasites were trematodes (19 species and nematodes (13 species including larval anisakids which comprised 58.2% of the total number of individuals. Conclusion Our study reveals relatively rich regional parasite faunas in cod from the North East Atlantic which are dominated by generalist parasites with Arcto-Boreal distribution. Further, it provides more detailed data on the distribution in the North East Atlantic of the majority

  9. Infection dynamics of two renal myxozoans in hatchery reared fry and juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, A S; Stewart, S; Tildesley, A; Wootten, R; Sommerville, C

    2010-09-01

    In order to study the infection dynamics of 2 renal myxozoans, Zschokkella hildae Auerbach, 1910 and Gadimyxa atlantica Køie, Karlsbakk and Nylund, 2007 in cultured Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. aged 3-19 months, a specific single-round PCR assay and a double-label in situ hybridization protocol were developed. The results demonstrated that the 2 myxozoans show spatial separation of their development with regard to spore formation inside the renal tubules versus the collecting ducts and ureters, as well as temporal separation with Z. hildae proliferating and developing spores only once the G. atlantica infection decreases, despite the presence of both myxozoans in the smallest fry studied. These results strongly suggest within-host competition of the 2 myxozoans with potential suppression of Z. hildae by G. atlantica until G. morhua acquires immunity against G. atlantica. The quantification of the G. atlantica infection inside the renal tubules before and after a 29-day experimental growth performance study using fry from hatcheries with differing filtration systems showed that the intensity of infection with G. atlantica seems to be controlled if prolonged exposure to the myxozoan transmission stages takes place from hatching onwards. Surprisingly, growth rates in the trial were inversely affected suggesting that G. atlantica does not negatively influence cod fry growth performance.

  10. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  11. Single and mixture effects of aquatic micropollutants studied in precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, Cristina; Eide, Marta; Hitchcock, Daniel J; Goksøyr, Anders; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren

    2016-08-01

    The low concentrations of most contaminants in the aquatic environment individually may not affect the normal function of the organisms on their own. However, when combined, complex mixtures may provoke unexpected effects even at low amounts. Selected aquatic micropollutants such as chlorpyrifos, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were tested singly and in mixtures at nM to μM concentrations using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Fish liver is a target organ for contaminants due to its crucial role in detoxification processes. In order to understand the effects on distinct key liver metabolic pathways, transcription levels of various genes were measured, including cyp1a1 and cyp3a, involved in the metabolism of organic compounds, including toxic ones, and the catabolism of bile acids and steroid hormones; cyp7a1, fabp and hmg-CoA, involved in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis; cyp24a1, involved in vitamin D metabolism; and vtg, a key gene in xenoestrogenic response. Only EE2 had significant effects on gene expression in cod liver slices when exposed singly at the concentrations tested. However, when exposed in combinations, effects not detected in single exposure conditions arose, suggesting complex interactions between studied pollutants that could not be predicted from the results of individual exposure scenarios. Thus, the present work highlights the importance of assessing mixtures when describing the toxic effects of micropollutants to fish liver metabolism. PMID:27388235

  12. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  13. Prediction of selectivity from morphological conditions: Methodology and a case study on cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    The FISHSELECT methodology. tools, and software were developed and used to measure the morphological parameters that determine the ability of cod to penetrate different mesh types, sizes, and openings. The shape of one cross-section at the cod's head was found to explain 97.6% of the mesh penetra......-haul and the between-haul variations previously reported from sea trials. Finally, based on the results obtained, ideas to improve the size selection of cod in towed gear are presented....

  14. Foraging behavior of larval cod ( Gadus morhua ) influenced by prey density and hunger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1995-01-01

    to 7 mm long) was observed visually, and prey attacks, swimming activity and gut contents were registered across a range of 1 to 120 copepod nauplii l(-1). When prey density decreased, larvae increased their swimming activity, increased their responsiveness to prey (distance of reaction) and decreased...... activity, prey selectivity, and hunger in a variable prey environment. Gadus morhua eggs were collected in March 1992 and 1993 from the Kattegat area, Denmark, fertilised and incubated in the laboratory. After hatching, the larvae were transferred to rearing tanks of 172 litres. The behaviour of larvae (6...

  15. Evaluation of Electrical Stunning of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Turbot (Psetta maxima) in Seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Digre, H.; Erikson, U.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess electrical stunning of Atlantic cod and turbot in seawater to develop a protocol for the process of stunning and killing. An induced general epileptiform insult (unconscious) had a duration of 40 ± 27 s (n =14) in cod (2.6 ± 0.5 kg) and 34 ± 18 s (n = 19) in turbo

  16. Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hovgård, Holger

    2002-01-01

    recruitment of the West Greenland cod stock. It is also shown that cod eggs and larvae occasionally drift from Southwest Iceland across the Denmark Strait to the East Greenland shelf from where a subsequent transport and immigration of juveniles to West Greenland waters can occur. Larval transport across the...

  17. Potential bias in estimates of abundance and distribution of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) due to strong winds prevailing prior or during a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Olesen, Hans Jakob; Pedersen, Eva Maria;

    2011-01-01

    The impact of strong winds on catches of cod (Gadus morhua) was studied using different fishing methods during small-scale surveys with commercial fishing vessels in the north-eastern central North Sea. Catch per unit effort of a flyshooter and a trawler were considerably lower in the shallower...... survey had significant effects on the catch rates in particular for the trawler. These results supports fishermen's opinion that strong winds may cause an underestimation of biomass of cod in shallow waters and a bias in the resulting spatial distribution derived from bottom trawl surveys....

  18. Spatiotemporal distribution and composition of mixed stock fishery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in West Greenlandic waters based on retrospective genetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanomi, Sara; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Hedeholm, Rasmus Berg;

    Historical samples of fish are a unique source of DNA to investigate the temporal dynamics of fish population structure and distribution over time. During the last century Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks have declined dramatically in Greenlandic Waters. Recent genetic investigations have...... in the contribution from the different spawning groups in population mixtures of cod in West Greenland Waters in response to climate variability and fisheries. Performing genetic assignment test, we found stable genetic composition of feeding aggregations over decades in some areas, whereas shifts in composition were...

  19. Automatic feeding and Harvesting of Juvenile Atlantic Cod (Gadus Morhua L. in a Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Øiestad

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of juvenile Atlantic cod has been carried out since 1980 in a saltwater pond. A break-through was obtained in 1983 with high survival rates of cod larvae to metamorphosis. In 1985 we made progress in two fiels, reduced cannibalism and automatic harvesting. Juvenile cod formed large schools while fed dry pellets in the currents set up by five propellers. An underwater loudspeaker was programmed to give sound pulses just before feeding. During harvesting dry pellets were released inside a fish trap while giving the sound signals the cod juveniles were conditioned to. The cod readily entered the trap and a computer-controlled fish pump transported the fish from the fish trap into a storing tank and grading grids. The trap gradually emptied the pond of fish and more than 80

  20. Hydroacoustic ex situ target strength measurements on juvenile cod ( Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo

    1999-01-01

    ) and length of live juvenile cod (7-10 cm and 15-20 cm) at 120 kHz. This was done by recording the variation in TS of freely swimming cod tracking single fish targets for the two size groups within the acoustic beam held. The experiment was set up in an open air 2000 m(3) tank where the small 5-10 cm long...

  1. Investigation of fixed wavelength fluorescence results for biliary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampanin, Daniela M; Kemppainen, Eeva K; Skogland, Karianne; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Sydnes, Magne O

    2016-02-01

    Fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) and synchronous fluorescence scanning (SFS) of fish bile are commonly used methods to analyze for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. A range of conjugated oxidation products from petrogenic PAHs are normally accumulated in the bile. Therefore their detection is important. In the present study, phenanthrene and naphthalene metabolites, formed in vivo in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), were used to study the response of these compounds in both FF and SFS analyses. The selected synthetic metabolites were (-)-(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydrophenanthrene-1,2-diol and (-)-(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol. The study findings showed that the recommended excitation and emission wavelengths for FF analysis do not comprise the maximum emission wavelengths for these metabolites, providing an incorrect estimation of the PAH exposure. A method developed in our laboratory for the synthesis of (-)-(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydrophenanthrene-1,2-diol is also described. PMID:26492423

  2. Fertilisation and hatching success of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs when exposed to various concentrations of produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the fertilization and hatching success of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs that were exposed to various dilutions of produced water from a natural gas production platform. A control group of eggs was fertilized in sea water without any produced water. Another set of eggs were fertilized in sea water with 4 different concentrations of produced water and held their respective concentrations for 24 hours to evaluate the success of the fertilization. Viable fertilized eggs were transferred to 96 well plates containing fresh sea water and incubated in the dark at approximately 6 degrees C until hatch. Eggs began hatching about 14 days after fertilization (DPF), peaked at about 17 DPF, then finished hatching by 21 DPF. Analysis of PAH content in the diluted produced water showed that at 0.32 percent, 1.08 percent and 3.6 percent concentrations, the fertilization success was greater than or equal to that of the control group. However, for the 12 percent concentration, there were no viable fertilized eggs present after the 24 hour period. Survivability of eggs during sea water incubation was similar for the 0 percent, 0.32 percent and 1.08 percent treatment groups, but egg mortality increased for the 3.60 percent concentration group, to about 61.5 percent mean cumulative mortality at 6 DPF, then remained constant. The mean hatching success for all dilutions was presented.

  3. Ocean warming and acidification modulate energy budget and gill ion regulatory mechanisms in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, C M; Michael, K; Lucassen, M; Jutfelt, F; Motyka, R; Dupont, S; Pörtner, H-O

    2015-10-01

    Ocean warming and acidification are threatening marine ecosystems. In marine animals, acidification is thought to enhance ion regulatory costs and thereby baseline energy demand, while elevated temperature also increases baseline metabolic rate. Here we investigated standard metabolic rates (SMR) and plasma parameters of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 3-4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550, 1200 and 2200 µatm) and at two temperatures (10, 18 °C). In vivo branchial ion regulatory costs were studied in isolated, perfused gill preparations. Animals reared at 18 °C responded to increasing CO2 by elevating SMR, in contrast to specimens at 10 °C. Isolated gills at 10 °C and elevated PCO2 (≥1200 µatm) displayed increased soft tissue mass, in parallel to increased gill oxygen demand, indicating an increased fraction of gill in whole animal energy budget. Altered gill size was not found at 18 °C, where a shift in the use of ion regulation mechanisms occurred towards enhanced Na(+)/H(+)-exchange and HCO3 (-) transport at high PCO2 (2200 µatm), paralleled by higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. This shift did not affect total gill energy consumption leaving whole animal energy budget unaffected. Higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in the warmth might have compensated for enhanced branchial permeability and led to reduced plasma Na(+) and/or Cl(-) concentrations and slightly lowered osmolalities seen at 18 °C and 550 or 2200 µatm PCO2 in vivo. Overall, the gill as a key ion regulation organ seems to be highly effective in supporting the resilience of cod to effects of ocean warming and acidification.

  4. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian;

    2000-01-01

    egg development ('reproductive volume'); (ii) the age-structure of the spawning stock; (iii) the timing of spawning; and (iv) predation mortality on eggs due to sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), as well as cod cannibalism. We relate recruitment at age 2 to parent stock size...... using updated time series of these variables, comprising the period 1966 to 1994. Spawning stock biomass and egg production are compared as measures of parent stock size. The influence of wind energy and zooplankton abundance on cod recruitment are discussed. A modified Ricker model is outlined......Recruitment of central/eastern Baltic cod critically depends on favourable oceanographic conditions in the deeper basins of the Baltic Sea creating a suitable habitat for the development of early life stages. The decline in the size of the spawning stock since the mid-1980s initiated a series...

  5. Lipid and fatty acid compositions of cod ( Gadus morhua), haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Duan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Milley, Joyce E.; Lall, Santosh P.

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod, haddock and halibut. Three groups of cod (276 g ± 61 g), haddock (538 g ± 83 g) and halibut (3704 g ± 221 g) were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling. The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak?. The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and the FAME profile was obtained. Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively, with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid, respectively. Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%, with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid. Total liver lipid contents of cod, haddock and halibut were 36.9%, 67.2% and 30.7%, respectively, of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction (88.1%-97.1%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid. Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid. Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant. In summary, the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ, and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh. However, as a medium-fat fish, halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  6. Degradation of ATP and glycogen in cod ( Gadus morhua ) muscle during freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Changes in ATP, IMP, lactate and glycogen contents in the muscle of cod were followed during freezing at temperatures of -20C and -45C. ATP degradation was accompanied by a corresponding increase in IMP content. Simultaneous measurement of temperature showed that at both freezing rates......, the greatest decrease in ATP content was observed when the temperature reached -0.8C. Glycolysis occurred during freezing of cod as indicated by an increase in lactate content. The changes found in all measured metabolites were more pronounced when freezing was performed at a slow rate compared to a fast rate...

  7. Temperature, paternity and asynchronous hatching influence early developmental characteristics of larval Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Dahlke, Flemming T.; Butts, Ian A.E.;

    2014-01-01

    or if they hatched at the end of the hatching period at a specific temperature. Differences in larval morphometrics among temperatures for early hatching larvae decreased or even reversed for later hatching larvae. In light of anticipated global climate change, the present study on cod provides further insight...

  8. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, C.J.; Taylor, M.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Fossum, P.; Kraus, G.; Rohlf, N.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Bolle, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey t

  9. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to predict the vertical distribution of Baltic cod eggs. Data from vertical distribution sampling in the Bornholm Basin over the period 1986-1995 were used to train and test the network, while data sets from sampling in 1996 were used for v...

  10. Infection of North Sea cod, Gadus morhua L., larvae with the parasitic nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum Rudolphi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Munk, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of 2197 cod larvae and post-larvae collected in the North Sea revealed high prevalence of infection with a parasitic anisakid nematode identified morphologically and genetically as Hysterothylacium aduncum. Nematodes were third stage larvae and were almost exclusively found...

  11. Amino acid sequence of the cold-active alkaline phosphatase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Nielsen, Berit Noesgaard; Højrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    -linked glycosylation sites were found. The glycan structure was determined as complex biantennary in type with fucose and sialic acid attached, although a trace of complex tri-antennary structure was also observed. A three-dimensional model was obtained by homology modelling using the human placental AP scaffold. Cod...

  12. Simulations on the prediction of cod (Gadus morhua) freshness from an intelligent packaging sensor concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive method that monitors changes in the freshness status of packed cod fillets has potential for the development of an intelligent packaging concept. The method is based on monitoring volatile compounds that dissolve and dissociate in the sensing aqueous phase. A mathematical model was

  13. Transferrin gene polymorphisms and population genetic studies of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berhan Asmamaw

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cod transferrin gene by comparing the sequences from Norwegian (North East Atlantic Ocean) and Canadian (North West Atlantic Ocean) specimen, and to quantify the genetic variation and differentiation in East and West Atlantic cod populations. Methods:cDNA sequences between individuals of Canadian (North West Atlantic Ocean) and Norwegian (North East Atlantic Ocean) origin were aligned. Allele frequencies of theSNPs were used to discriminate the different Atlantic cod populations in West/East Atlantic Ocean, and the Baltic Sea. Results: The sequence alignment detected19SNPs, of which 18 of them resulted in amino acid changes in the transferrin protein. Nonsynonymous to synonymous site substitution ratio (dn/ds) was by far greater than 1 providing an evidence for the existence of positive selection. The West Atlantic cod populations showed high values of heterozygosity and the Baltic populations were found to be inbred. Conclusions: This study identified and indicated transferrin gene polymorphisms that can be used for population differentiations.

  14. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori Tiago S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC. Results The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI, respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%, including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. Conclusions The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen’s transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with

  15. An Integrated Approach to Gene Discovery and Marker Development in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Sharen; Hubert, Sophie; Higgins, Brent; Stone, Cynthia; Kimball, Jennifer; Borza, Tudor; Bussey, Jillian Tarrant; Simpson, Gary; Kozera, Catherine; Curtis, Bruce A.; Hall, Jennifer R.; Hori, Tiago S.; Feng, Charles Y.; Rise, Marlies; Booman, Marije

    2010-01-01

    Atlantic cod is a species that has been overexploited by the capture fishery. Programs to domesticate this species are underway in several countries, including Canada, to provide an alternative route for production. Selective breeding programs have been successfully applied in the domestication of other species, with genomics-based approaches used to augment conventional methods of animal production in recent years. Genomics tools, such as gene sequences and sets of variable markers, also hav...

  16. Synthesis and degradation of adenosine triphosphate in cod ( Gadus morhua ) at subzero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Nielsen, Jette; Jessen, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    This study has demonstrated that the extraction step is very important when analysing ATP and its degradation products. An important factor is whether the sample is fresh, frozen or thawed when homogenised since thawing of the sample will lead to rapid loss of ATP. During frozen storage it was...... degrees C. Furthermore, it was found that in whole cod ATP could be synthesised at a significant rate at -7 degrees C. (C) 1999 Society of Chemical Industry....

  17. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelholzer Christian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. across the species distribution. Results Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread and complex, i.e. outlier loci were generally not only associated with one of a few divergent local populations. Even on a limited geographical scale between the proximate North Sea and Baltic Sea populations four loci displayed evidence of adaptive evolution. Temporal genome scan analysis applied to DNA from archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found that genetic variation at several of the outlier loci was better correlated with temperature and/or salinity conditions at spawning grounds at spawning time than with geographic distance per se. Conclusion These findings illustrate that adaptive population divergence may indeed be prevalent despite seemingly high levels of gene flow, as found in most marine fishes. Thus, results have important implications for our understanding of the interplay of

  18. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudoterranova azarasi LARVAE IN COD (Gadus sp.) SOLD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Juliana; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-12-01

    Anisakiasis and Pseudoterranovosis are human diseases caused by the ingestion of live Anisakidae larvae in raw, undercooked or lightly marinated fish. Larvae were collected from one salted cod sold for human consumption in a Sao Paulo market in 2013. One section of one brownish larva was used for molecular analyses. The partial COX2 gene sequence from the larva had a nucleotide identity of 99.8 % with Pseudoterranova azarasi, which belongs to the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex. The risk of allergy when consuming dead larvae in salted fish is not well known and should be considered.

  19. The effect of carbon dioxide on growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    substantially reduced with increasing CO2 dosage. The size-specific growth trajectories of fish reared under the medium and high CO2 treatments were approximately 2.5 and 7.5 times lower (respectively) than that of fish in the low treatment. Size variance and mortality rate was not significantly different...... experiments using marine fish species. The test concentrations were recalculated from the reported carbonate chemistry conditions, and indicated that the CO2 concentration effect threshold may have been overestimated in two of these studies. Our study suggests that juvenile Atlantic cod are more susceptible...

  20. Effect of produced water on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    This paper addressed concerns regarding potentially detrimental cumulative effects of waste products from oil industry activities on marine organisms around production sites. The metabolic capacities, feeding and digestive physiology of fish have been shown to change with environmental parameters, which could impact the growth and health status of fish populations. In this study, the effects of produced water (PW) on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod was investigated by exposing fish to 0.100 ppm (x 10,000 PW dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500 dilution) of PW for 76 days. Throughout the experiment, food intake and mean weight were monitored. In addition, serum lipids, metabolites and gene expression of a brain appetite regulating factor were measured at the end of the experiment. No significant differences were observed in weight gain or food intake between the 3 groups of fish. Serum metabolites and neuropeptide Y expression remained unchanged between groups. The study is ongoing to complete comparative measurements of whole blood fatty acid profiles in plasma. The preliminary results indicate that feeding and metabolism in cod is not affected by produced water.

  1. Correlations between hemoglobin type and temperature preference of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W.; Gräns, Albin; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard;

    2012-01-01

    regimes. Despite this only one study has directly examined the temperature preference of the two homozygous types, HbI-1/1 and HbI-2/2, whereas the preference of the heterozygote (HbI-1/2) has never previously been addressed. By exposing fish to a 4–19 °C temperature gradient in an annular preference...... temperature (temperature span between 1st and 3rd quartile) was very similar between all 3 Hbl types with 3.2–3.5 °C. Considering the complexity of a trait like temperature preference, there are clearly many other factors besides HbI type that influence the thermal biology of cod, and therefore we also...... investigated possible associations between genotype and temperature preference for 12 variable candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) a priori expected to be related to growth and reproduction. There were, however, no significant correlations between temperature preference and any...

  2. Parasites of wild cod postlarvae (Gadus morhua L.) in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Jesper; Kania, Per W.; Skovgaard, Alf;

    of Denmark. Skin, fins, body cavity, gut and intestinal tract were checked and parasites were identified either through morphology or with the use of PCR. A total of 58 parasites were found counting 38 individuals of the ectoparasitic copepod Caligus elongatus, 7 individuals of the endoparasitic nematode...... gadoid species in the North Atlantic and has been the subject of several parasitological studies. Past research is however primarily concentrated around adult or juvenile fish and our knowledge concerning the larval stage is very sparse. This is in spite of the general belief that at this stage, fish...... larvae encounter highest levels of mortally and predation. In this sense effects of parasitization could be speculated to have a higher impact. In this study we investigated the occurrence of metazoan ecto- and endoparasites in a school of 209 cod post larvae (9mm – 39mm) caught in the North Sea...

  3. Antioxidant activity of cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysates: Fractionation and characterisation of peptide fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Otte, Jeanette;

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise peptide fractions (>5 kDa, 3–5 kDa and antioxidative activity obtained from a cod protein hydrolysate. The free amino acids in all fractions were dominated by Ala, Gly, Glu and Ser. The total amino acid composition had high proportions of Lys, Ala...... to the antioxidative activity of the peptide fractions, and Tyr seemed to play a major role in the antioxidant activity....... and Glu. The 3–5 kDa and activity. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the 3–5 kDa fraction was exerted mainly by one sub-fraction dominated by peptides with masses below 600 Da...

  4. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study on cod egg mortality was carried out in the Bornholm Basin (southern central Baltic Sea) toward the end of July 1996. An initial egg aggregation marked by a satellite-tracked drifter buoy was sampled repeatedly over an Ii-day period; profiles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen...... were concurrently recorded. Three replicate estimates of mortality were obtained for each pair of subsequent developmental stages from newly spawned eggs to early larvae. A consistent pattern of stage-specific mortality coincided well with previous experimental observations. Average daily mortality...... rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress...

  5. Photoperiod-modulated testis maturation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fernanda F L; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Norberg, Birgitta; Karlsen, Orjan; Bogerd, Jan; Schulz, Rüdiger W

    2009-04-01

    Precocious male puberty is a significant problem in Atlantic cod aquaculture. While photoperiod manipulation can inhibit testis growth, a detailed analysis of effects on spermatogenesis is missing. Starting July 1, 2004, prepubertal fish were exposed to different photoperiod regimens in indoor tanks for 17 mo. Testis histology, germ cell dynamics (proliferation and apoptosis), and plasma androgen levels were analyzed. In the natural light (NL) group, testis growth started in September 2004 and was completed in February 2005, when a 2-mo spawning period started. In the constant light (LL) group, none or very few spermatogenic cysts were recruited into spermatogenesis, and apoptotic germ cell loss was high. A change of photoperiod from NL to LL at winter solstice (December 21, 2004) resulted in premature (2 mo) completion of the reproductive cycle, while changing from LL to NL at winter solstice triggered faster than normal testis development. Plasma testosterone levels increased in the NL group from spermatogonial proliferation toward meiosis, while those of 11-ketotestosterone increased toward spermiogenesis and spermiation. Plasma androgen levels did not rise under LL conditions. Comparing fish with developing testes from all groups indicated that low androgen levels were associated with a high incidence of spermatogonial apoptosis; we also found that androgen receptor mRNA expression was most prominent in Sertoli cells in contact with growing spermatogonial clones. Our data show that an inhibitory photoperiod (LL) reduced or blocked differentiation of spermatogonia, increased apoptosis (particularly among proliferating spermatogonia), and was associated with reduced androgen levels, a situation possibly reflecting insufficient gonadotropic stimulation. PMID:19038862

  6. Sex differentiation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.: morphological and gene expression studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugen Trine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In differentiated gonochoristic species, a bipotential gonad develops into an ovary or testis during sex differentiation. Knowledge about this process is necessary to improve methods for masculinizing genetically female Atlantic cod for the subsequent purpose of producing all-female populations. Methods Gonads were examined histologically in juveniles from 14 to 39 mm total body length (TL. Number and size of germ cells were determined in a subset of the samples. Relevant genes were cloned, and mRNA levels determined by qPCR of amh, cyp19a1a; dax1 (nr0b2; shp (nr0b2a and sox9b in a mixed-sex and an all-female population ranging from 12–49 mm TL. Results Individuals between 14–20 mm TL could be separated in two subgroups based on gonad size and germ cell number. Ovarian cavity formation was observed in some individuals from 18–20 mm TL. The mixed sex population displayed bimodal expression patterns as regards cyp19a1a (starting at 12 mm TL and amh (starting at 20 mm TL mRNA levels. After approximately 30 mm TL, cyp19a1a and amh displayed a gradual increase in both sexes. No apparent, sex-dependent expression patterns were found for dax1, shp or sox9b transcripts. However, shp levels were high until the larvae reached around 35 mm TL and then dropped to low levels, while dax1 remained low until 35 mm TL, and then increased sharply. Conclusions The morphological sex differentiation in females commenced between 14–20 mm TL, and ovarian cavities were evident by 18–20 mm TL. Testis development occurred later, and was morphologically evident after 30 mm TL. This pattern was corroborated with sexually dimorphic expression patterns of cyp19a1a from 12–13 mm TL, and a male-specific increase in amh from 20 mm TL.

  7. Fathers modify thermal reaction norms for hatching success in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlke, Flemming T.; Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Butts, Ian;

    2016-01-01

    Climate-driven warming is altering marine ecosystems at an unprecedented rate and evolutionary adaptation may represent the last resort for many ectothermic organisms to avoid local extinction. The first step to elucidate the potential for adaptation to unfavorable thermal conditions is to assess...... the degree of genotype-based variation in thermal reaction norms of vital fitness traits. Marine broadcast spawning fishes experience extremely high rates ofmortality during early life stages. Paternally derived (genetic) variation underlying offspring fitness in adverse environmental conditions may...

  8. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod. PMID:25151310

  9. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod.

  10. Micro geographical population structure of cod Gadus morhua in the North Sea and west of Scotland: the role of sampling loci and individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Wright, Peter John; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated potential microgeographical population structure among spatial and temporal samples of cod Gadus morhua L., collected in the northern North Sea and around Scotland, using microsatellite genetic markers. Results were highly dependent on the samples and microsatellite loci included...... clear isolation of 2 samples collected at Viking and pairwise grouping of temporal adult samples from the same location. On a northeast Atlantic regional scale, inferences on local populations and patterns of population structuring were more robust to the inclusion of the microsatellite under selection....... However, while loci subject to selection may provide biased results in relation to identifying populations based on an evolutionary paradigm, they may prove valuable for separating populations on ecological time scales...

  11. Cortisol levels and expression of stress- and apoptotic-related genes in the embryos of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua following exposure to air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlowe, Christopher; Caipang, A.; Fagutao, Ferdinand F.;

    2015-01-01

    determined before the application of the stressor and at 0.5, 1 and 24 h post-exposure. There was no significant difference in the total cortisol levels of the fertilized eggs before and after handling stress. There was high expression level of hsp70 and sod before application of the stressor and......Embryos (morula stage) of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., were collected and subjected to air exposure for 2 min. followed by recovery at ambient conditions in the rearing container. Total immunoreactive cortisol and transcription of selected stress- and apoptosis-related genes of the embryos were...... significantly increased at 0.5 h postexposure. The expression levels of cat and gpx were weak to moderate and were not affected by the stressor. The apoptotic genes, mcl1 and NR-13 were highly expressed and significantly increased after exposure to air. Bcl-X1 and Bcl-X2 were moderately expressed in the control...

  12. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua: tissue distributions, early ontogeny and effects of fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Volkoff, Hélène

    2013-12-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is classically known for its role in regulating teleost fish skin color change for environmental adaptation. Recent evidence suggests that MCH also has appetite-stimulating properties. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptide family has dual roles in endocrine control of reproduction and energy status in fish. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are a commercially important aquaculture species inhabiting the shores of Atlantic Canada. In this study, we examine MCH and GnRH transcript expression profiles during early development as well as in central and peripheral tissues and quantify juvenile Atlantic cod MCH and GnRH hypothalamic mRNA expressions following food deprivation. MCH and GnRH3 cDNAs are maternally deposited into cod eggs, while MCH has variable expression throughout early development. GnRH2 and GnRH3 mRNAs "turn-on" during mid-segmentation once the brain is fully developed. For both MCH and GnRH, highest expression appears during the exogenous feeding stages, perhaps supporting their functions as appetite regulators during early development. MCH and GnRH transcripts are found in brain regions related to appetite regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus, hypothalamus), as well as the pituitary gland and the stomach, suggesting a peripheral function in food intake regulation. Atlantic cod MCH mRNA is upregulated during fasting, while GnRH2 and GnRH3 transcripts do not appear to be influenced by food deprivation. In conclusion, MCH might be involved in stimulating food intake in juvenile Atlantic cod, while GnRHs may play a more significant role in appetite regulation during early development.

  13. Harvest Pressure on Coastal Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Recreational Fishing Relative to Commercial Fishing Assessed from Tag-Recovery Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Fernandez-Chacon, Albert; Nordahl, Jan-Harald; Moland, Even; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland

    2016-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity. However, knowledge about the magnitude of recreational catches relative to commercial catches in coastal fisheries is generally sparse. Coastal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a target species for recreational fishers in the North Atlantic. In Norway, recreational fishers are allowed to use a variety of traps and nets as well as long-line and rod and line when fishing for cod. From 2005 to 2013, 9729 cod (mean size: 40 cm, range: 15-93 cm) were tagged and released in coastal Skagerrak, southeast Norway. Both high-reward (NOK 500) and low-reward tags (NOK 50) were used in this study. Because some harvested fish (even those posting high-reward tags) may go unreported by fishers, reporting rates were estimated from mark-recovery models that incorporate detection parameters in their structure, in addition to survival and mortality estimates. During 2005 to 2013, a total of 1707 tagged cod were recovered and reported by fishers. We estimate the overall annual survival to be 33% (SE 1.5). Recreational rod and line fishing were responsible for 33.7% (SE 2.4) of total mortality, followed by commercial fisheries (15.1% SE 0.8) and recreational fixed gear (6.8% SE 0.4). Natural mortality was 44.4% (SE 2.5) of total mortality. Our findings suggest that recreational fishing-rod and line fishing in particular-is responsible for a substantial part of fishing mortality exerted on coastal cod in southern Norway.

  14. Harvest Pressure on Coastal Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua from Recreational Fishing Relative to Commercial Fishing Assessed from Tag-Recovery Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Ring Kleiven

    Full Text Available Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity. However, knowledge about the magnitude of recreational catches relative to commercial catches in coastal fisheries is generally sparse. Coastal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a target species for recreational fishers in the North Atlantic. In Norway, recreational fishers are allowed to use a variety of traps and nets as well as long-line and rod and line when fishing for cod. From 2005 to 2013, 9729 cod (mean size: 40 cm, range: 15-93 cm were tagged and released in coastal Skagerrak, southeast Norway. Both high-reward (NOK 500 and low-reward tags (NOK 50 were used in this study. Because some harvested fish (even those posting high-reward tags may go unreported by fishers, reporting rates were estimated from mark-recovery models that incorporate detection parameters in their structure, in addition to survival and mortality estimates. During 2005 to 2013, a total of 1707 tagged cod were recovered and reported by fishers. We estimate the overall annual survival to be 33% (SE 1.5. Recreational rod and line fishing were responsible for 33.7% (SE 2.4 of total mortality, followed by commercial fisheries (15.1% SE 0.8 and recreational fixed gear (6.8% SE 0.4. Natural mortality was 44.4% (SE 2.5 of total mortality. Our findings suggest that recreational fishing-rod and line fishing in particular-is responsible for a substantial part of fishing mortality exerted on coastal cod in southern Norway.

  15. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Faldborg; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2003-01-01

    was the case for HbI-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an...... advantage for HbI-1 cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....... in northern regions, and the HbI(1) allele dominant in warmer areas. To determine if temperature is a selective parameter in the distribution of the haemoglobin types, the preferred temperature of the homozygous genotypes HbI-1 and HbI-2 was measured. We found that HbI-2 cod preferred a temperature...

  16. Slave to the rhythm: seasonal signals in otolith microchemistry reveal age of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Gröger, J.; Heidemann, F.;

    2016-01-01

    Annual growth zones in cod otoliths from the eastern Baltic stock are less discrete than in other cod stocks leading to biased age reading, which recently led to a failure of age-based assessment in the eastern Baltic cod stock. In this study, we explored the applicability of minor and trace...... element patterns in cod otoliths for age determination. By first identifying elements of interest in a stock without ageing problems, western Baltic cod, we then tested their applicability on another stock without ageing problems, North Sea cod, and finally applied this knowledge to estimate age of......, the same patterns in Cu, Zn, Rb, Mg, and Mn signals occurred. All eastern Baltic cod with low visual contrast between growth zones exhibited clearly defined synchronous cycles in Cu, Zn, Rb and Pb. Using a combined finite differencing method and structural break models approach, the statistical...

  17. The responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) to ultrasound-emitting predators: stress, behavioural changes or debilitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, H.B.; Malte, H.; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2008-01-01

    A previous study has reported that Atlantic cod can be conditioned to detect ultrasonic sound pulses of high intensity. This capability has been proposed as a mean for detection and avoidance of echolocating toothed whales that emit intense ultrasonic clicks. In this study, we use acoustic...... playbacks to test the hypotheses that unconditioned cod can detect and respond to intense ultrasound from toothed whales and from echosounders. Intense ultrasound exposure of 210 dB re. 1µPa (pp) did not cause a short-term stress response in the form of bradycardia in unconditioned cod. Free-swimming cod...... exposed to ultrasonic clicks and echosounder pulses with received levels of more than 204 dB re. 1 µPa (pp) did not elicit flight responses as seen in ultrasound detecting Alosinae. Furthermore, we tested the debilitating effects of high intensity ultrasound on swimming cod with no detected changes in...

  18. Multi-decadal responses of a cod (Gadus morhua) population to human-induced trophic changes, fishing, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    significant climate-driven variations in cod recruitment production at multi-annual timescales, which had major impacts on population dynamics and the yields to commercial fisheries. We also quantify the roles of marine mammal predation, eutrophication, and exploitation on the development of the cod......-average cod productivity coupled to a temporary reduction in fishing pressure. The Baltic cod example demonstrates how combinations of different forcings can have synergistic effects and consequently dramatic impacts on population dynamics. Our results highlight the potential and limitations of human...

  19. An abundance estimate of ling ( Molva molva ) and cod ( Gadus morhua ) in the Skagerrak and the northeastern North Sea, 1872

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, R.T.; Cooper, A.B.; Holm, P.;

    2007-01-01

    during the late 1990s-early 2000s. Dominating ling size has also declined since the late 19th century. The estimated historic abundance of cod in the Skagerrak and northeastern North Sea is similar to present abundance of cod in these areas but its spatial distribution has contracted. These changes...

  20. Larval and small juvenile cod Gadus morhua concentrated in the highly productive areas of a shelf break front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Larsson, P.O.; Danielsen, D.;

    1995-01-01

    and the aggregations extended as a continuous band along the front. We suggest that the observed concurrence between a hydrographic front and cod larvae/juveniles is a general and recurrent phenomenon based on the spawning habits of cod and aggregation due to flow convergence at the front....

  1. Effects of oil pollution and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on glycerophospholipids in liver and brain of male Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratberg, Mari; Olsvik, Pål A; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Brekken, Hans Kristian; Vadla, Reidun; Meier, Sonnich

    2013-02-01

    Fish in the North Sea are exposed to relatively high levels of halogenated compounds in addition to the pollutants released by oil production activities. In this study male Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were orally exposed to environmental realistic levels (low and high) of weathered crude oil and/or a mixture of POPs for 4weeks. Lipid composition in brain and in liver extracts were analysed in order to assess the effects of the various pollutants on membrane lipid composition and fatty acid profiles. Transcriptional effects in the liver were studied by microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Chemical analyses confirmed uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in the liver and excretion of metabolites of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the bile. Treatment with POPs and/or crude oil did not induce significant changes in lipid composition in cod liver. Only a few minor changes were observed in the fatty acid profile of the brain and the lipid classes in the liver. The hypothesis that pollution from oil or POPs at environmental realistic levels alters the lipid composition in marine fish was therefore not confirmed in this study. However, the transcriptional data suggest that the fish were affected by the treatment at the mRNA level. This study suggests that a combination of oil and POPs induce the CYP1a detoxification system and gives an increase in the metabolism and clearing rate of PAHs and POPs, but with no effects on membrane lipids in male Atlantic cod.

  2. Hydrolysis of Marine Cod (Gadus Morhua) Head - Utilization of rest raw material from cod for production of ingredients for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Meldstad, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possibility of utilizing frozen marine cod head for further processing into high-quality and high-yield fish protein hydrolysates. The project included determination of the effect of mincing versus whole head, frozen storage and thawing methods on the composition and yield of FPH. The results show that freezing and thawing of cod head lead to small changes in the composition of raw material and consequently the resulting ...

  3. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-qPCR studies of gene expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua l. during temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsen Hans E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One important physiological response to environmental stress in animals is change in gene expression. To obtain reliable data from gene expression studies using RT-qPCR it is important to evaluate a set of possible reference genes as normalizers for expression. The expression of these candidate genes should be analyzed in the relevant tissues during normal and stressed situations. To find suitable reference genes it was crucial that the genes were stably expressed also during a situation of physiological stress. For poikilotermic animals like cod, changes in temperature are normal, but if the changes are faster than physiological compensation, the animals respond with typical stress responses. It has previously been shown that Atlantic cod show stress responses when elevation of water temperature is faster than 1 degree/day, for this reason we chose hyperthermia as stress agent for this experiment. Findings We here describe the expression of eight candidate reference genes from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua l. and their stability during thermal stress (temperature elevation of one degree C/day for 5 days. The genes investigated were: Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha, ef1a; 18s ribosomal RNA; 18s, Ubiquitin conjugate protein; ubiq, cytoskeletal beta-actin; actb, major histcompatibility complex I; MHC-I light chain, beta-2 -microglobulin; b2m, cytoskeletal alpha-tubulin; tba1c, acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein; rplp1, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; g6pd. Their expression were analyzed in 6 tissues (liver, head kidney, intestine, spleen, heart and gills from cods exposed to elevated temperature and compared to a control group. Although there were variations between tissues with respect to reference gene stability, four transcripts were more consistent than the others: ubiq, ef1a, 18s and rplp1. We therefore used these to analyze the expression of stress related genes (heat shock proteins induced during hyperthermia. We found

  4. Effect of netting direction and number of meshes around on size selection in the codend for Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Moderhak, Waldemar;

    2011-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect that turning the netting direction 90° (T90) and halving the number of meshes around in the circumference in a diamond mesh codend had on size selection of Baltic cod. The results generally agreed with predictions of a previous simulation-based study. Both...... modifications had a significant positive effect on the size selection of cod. The best selection results were obtained for a codend in which both factors were applied together. For that codend, very little between-haul variation in cod size selection was detected, especially compared to the reference codend in...

  5. Rested and stressed farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) chilled in ice or slurry and effects on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digre, Hanne; Erikson, Ulf; Aursand, Ida G; Gallart-Jornet, Lorena; Misimi, Ekrem; Rustad, Turid

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) whether rested harvest of farmed cod was better maintained by chilling with slurry rather than by traditional ice storage, (2) whether chilling with slurry would be a feasible chilling method to assure low core temperatures (≤0 °C) at packing of gutted fish, and (3) the effects of superchilling compared with traditional ice on selected quality parameters of cod during storage. In the experiment, seawater slurry at -2.0 ± 0.3 °C was used. Anesthetized (AQUI-S™), percussion stunned, and stressed cod chilled in slurry were compared. Cod stored on ice were used as reference group. The fish were evaluated at the day of slaughter, and after 7 and 14 d of storage according to handling stress (initial muscle pH, muscle twitches, rigor mortis), core temperatures, quality index method, microbial counts, weight changes, salt and water content, water distribution, pH, adenosine triphosphate-degradation products, K-value, water-holding capacity, fillet color, and texture. Chilling cod in slurry was more rapid than chilling in ice. Prechilling (1 d) of cod in slurry before subsequent ice storage resulted in lower quality 7 d postmortem compared with both ice and continuous slurry storage. The potential advantages of superchilling became more prominent after 14 d with lower microbiological activity, better maintenance of freshness (lower total quality index scores and lower K-values) compared with fish stored on ice. A drawback with slurry-stored fish was that cloudy eyes developed earlier, in addition to weight gain and salt uptake compared to ice-stored fish. Practical Application: Chilling is an essential operation in any fish-processing plant. This manuscript addresses different applications of slurry ice in the processing and storage of Atlantic cod. Cod quality was assessed after 7 and 14 d of iced and superchilled storage. PMID:21535722

  6. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)-Implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahrgang, J., E-mail: jasmine.m.nahrgang@uit.no [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Brooks, S.J. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, L. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway); Jonsson, M.; Smith, T.J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Lukina, J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University of Tromso, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, Department of Arctic and Marine Biosciences, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Giarratano, E. [Centro Nacional Patagonico (CENPAT-CONICET), AR-9120 Puerto Madryn (Argentina); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2013-02-15

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  7. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrgang, J; Brooks, S J; Evenset, A; Camus, L; Jonsson, M; Smith, T J; Lukina, J; Frantzen, M; Giarratano, E; Renaud, P E

    2013-02-01

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  8. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kale;

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsenic...... (C17H39AsO, C19H41AsO and C23H37AsO) and five arsenic-containing fatty acids (C17H35AsO3, C(19)H(39)AO(3), C19H37AsO3, C23H37AsO3 and C24H37AsO3) were identified using HPLC coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Arsenobetaine was the major arsenic species in the water......-soluble fraction of the livers, while dimethylarsinate, arsenocholine and inorganic arsenic were minor constituents. Inorganic arsenic accounted for less than 0.1% of the total arsenic in the liver samples. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved....

  9. Adjustments of molecular key components of branchial ion and pH regulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to ocean acidification and warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M; Hu, Marian Y; Koschnick, Nils; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Dupont, Sam; Pörtner, Hans-O; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Marine teleost fish sustain compensation of extracellular pH after exposure to hypercapnia by means of efficient ion and acid-base regulation. Elevated rates of ion and acid-base regulation under hypercapnia may be stimulated further by elevated temperature. Here, we characterized the regulation of transepithelial ion transporters (NKCC1, NBC1, SLC26A6, NHE1 and 2) and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and V-type H(+) ATPase) in gills of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550 μatm, 1200 μatm, 2200 μatm) at optimum (10 °C) and summer maximum temperature (18 °C), respectively. Gene expression of most branchial ion transporters revealed temperature- and dose-dependent responses to elevated PCO2. Transcriptional regulation resulted in stable protein expression at 10 °C, whereas expression of most transport proteins increased at medium PCO2 and 18 °C. mRNA and protein expression of distinct ion transport proteins were closely co-regulated, substantiating cellular functional relationships. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities were PCO2 independent, but increased with acclimation temperature, whereas H(+) ATPase capacities were thermally compensated but decreased at medium PCO2 and 10 °C. When functional capacities of branchial ATPases were compared with mitochondrial F1Fo ATP-synthase strong correlations of F1Fo ATP-synthase and ATPase capacities generally indicate close coordination of branchial aerobic ATP demand and supply. Our data indicate physiological plasticity in the gills of cod to adjust to a warming, acidifying ocean within limits. In light of the interacting and non-linear, dose-dependent effects of both climate factors the role of these mechanisms in shaping resilience under climate change remains to be explored.

  10. Lipid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Cod(Gadus morhua),Haddock(Melanogrammus aeglefinus)and Halibut(Hippogiossus hippoglossus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Duan; MAI Kangsen; AI Qinghui; Joyce E.Milley; Santosh P.Lall

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod,haddock and halibut.Three groups of cod(276 g±61 g),haddock(538 g±83 g)and halibut(3704 g±221 g)were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling.The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters(FAME).Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak(R).The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography(HPTLC)and the FAME profile was obtained.Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%,respectively,with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid,respectively.Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%,with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid.Total liver lipid contents of cod,haddock and halibut were 36.9%,67.2% and 30.7%,respectively,of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction(88.1%-97.1%).Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid.Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid.Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant.In summary,the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ,and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh.However,as a medium-fat fish,halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  11. Where does the cod come from? Panels of gene‐associated markers provide vastly improved origin assignment in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Taylor, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Methods for determining the geographical origin of individual fish are in high demand for fighting illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing and for independent control of catch certificates and “eco‐labels”. Hitherto, genetic origin assignment of marine fish has been hampered...... by the general low levels of genetic differentiation among populations. By using a new concept of studying gene‐associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we show that individual cod can be assigned back to population of origin with unprecedented high levels of precision. We assessed pan...... relevant for controlling illegal fishing, ecolabels, and fisheries management. Our results demonstrate how application of gene‐associated markers will probably revolutionize origin assignment in cod by providing faster, cheaper, and more reliable tools for origin assignment...

  12. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing r...

  13. Effect of bottom type on catch rates of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) in surveys with commercial fishing vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Pedersen, Eva Maria; Olesen, Hans Jakob;

    2009-01-01

    Seven surveys with commercial fishing vessels were conducted during a collaborative fishermen-scientist project on the distribution of cod in the north-eastern North Sea between June 2006 and June 2008. A flyshooter, a trawler and a gillnetter participated in this study. In general, catch rates...

  14. The third serine proteinase with chymotrypsin specificity isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a type-II elastase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, B; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Thórólfsson, M;

    1998-01-01

    efficiency of elastase C. The effects of several inhibitors on cod elastase C were identical to effects on chymotrypsins variants A and B, but dissimilar when compared with porcine pancreatic elastase. On the basis of the specificity and amino acid sequence, we conclude that the enzyme under study is most...

  15. Improving the size- and species selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) in demersal mixed-species trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    reduce the catch of cod without simultaneously reduce the catch of the target species. To optimise the trade-off between discard and loss of marketable catch, solutions have to be specific to particular fisheries or populations of fish. Papers 1 and 3 provide specific examples of how size- and species...

  16. The effects of presalting methods from injection to pickling, on the yields of heavily salted cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorarinsdottir, Kristin Anna; Arason, Sigurjon; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sigurgisladottir, Sjofn; Tornberg, Eva

    2010-10-01

    The production of heavy-salted cod (Bacalao) has changed from being a single-step process (kench) salting to a multistep procedure varying between producers and countries. Presalting by injection, brining, or pickling is increasingly applied prior to pile (dry) salting. This article describes the effects of different presalting methods (injection and brining, brining only, and pickling) on yield and chemical composition of salted cod fillets, in comparison to a single-kench salting step. The procedures used influenced the weight yields and chemical composition of the products. Injection was significantly different from other methods in increasing weight yields throughout brining, dry salting, and rehydration. The yield of nitrogenous compounds tended to be lower for injected and brine-salted fillets, mainly due to higher losses of nonprotein nitrogen. Practical Application: Salting procedures for cod have changed rapidly in recent years. Injection is increasingly used as a presalting method. It has been suggested to have strong effects on weight yields of salted cod products. This article describes the effects of injection on weight yields on products in salted, rehydrated, and cooked stage. PMID:21535494

  17. Electrical stunning of farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.: a comparison of an industrial and experimental method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Digre, H.; Erikson, U.; Misimi, E.; Lambooij, E.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An industrial and experimental electrical method for stunning farmed Atlantic cod in air and seawater (SW), respectively, were compared. The impacts of sedation with AQUI-S™ and exercise to exhaustion before electrical stunning were also assessed to monitor the possible depletion of rested muscle en

  18. A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Pelletier, Dominique; Dubreuil, Julien;

    2009-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod stock collapsed as a consequence of climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and over fishing and has remained at historically low levels. Spatio-temporal fishing closures [Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)] have been implemented since 1995, to protect and restore...... the spawning stock. However, no signs of recovery have been observed yet, either suggesting that MPAs are an inappropriate management measure or pointing towards suboptimal closure design. We used the spatially explicit fishery simulation model ISIS-Fish to evaluate proposed and implemented fishery closures......, combining an age-structured population module with a multifleet exploitation module and a management module in a single model environment. The model is parameterized based on (i) the large amount of biological knowledge available for cod and (ii) an analysis of existing spatially disaggregated fishery data...

  19. Chronic CO2 exposure markedly increases the incidence of cataracts in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian; Tubbs, Lincoln; Støttrup, Josianne G.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test the affect of chronic exposure to elevated dissolved carbon dioxide on juvenile Atlantic cod. The CO2 treatment concentrations were designated as low (1–2mgL−1, 1000μatm), medium (8mgL−1, 3500μatm) and high (18mgL−1, 8500μatm), and the fish were reared at 10°C and 2...

  20. The effect of temperature and body size on metabolic scope of activity in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Behrens, Jane; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2015-01-01

    ), maximum metabolic rate (MMR, mg O2 h−1) and metabolic scope (MS, mg O2 h−1) of juvenile Atlantic cod. SMR increased with BM irrespectively of temperature, resulting in an average scaling exponent of 0.87 (0.82–0.92). Q10 values were 1.8–2.1 at temperatures between 5 and 15 °C but higher (2.6–4.3) between...

  1. Vitamin A and arachidonic acid altered the skeletal mineralization in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae without any interactions on the transcriptional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Kai Kristoffer; Kvalheim, Karen; Rasinger, Josef Daniel; Harboe, Torstein; Nordgreen, Andreas; Moren, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The main object of this study was to evaluate the impact of different levels of vitamin A (VA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in relation to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on mineralization and gene expression in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua). First-feeding larvae were fed enriched rotifers from start-feeding until 29 days post hatch (dph). Larvae in four tanks were fed one of the following diets: control (EPA/ARA ratio: 15.8, 0.9μg VA g(-1)), control+VA (EPA/ARA ratio: 15.8, 7.8μg VA g(-1)), High ARA (EPA/ARA ratio: 0.9, 1.5μg VA g(-1)) or High ARA+VA (EPA/ARA ratio: 0.9, 12.0μg VA g(-1)). Larvae fed High ARA+VA were shorter at 29dph compared to the other groups and had significantly less mineralized bones when comparing larvae of similar size, showing interaction effects between VA and ARA. Although transcriptomic analysis did not reveal any interaction effects, a higher number of genes were differentially expressed in the high ARA fed larvae compared to control+VA fed larvae. Furthermore, bglap1, bglap2 and col10a1 were all down-regulated in larvae fed High ARA-diets and to a greater extent than larvae fed VA supplemented diet, indicating an additive effect on mineralization. In conclusion, this study showed that the dietary increase in ARA and VA altered the skeletal metabolism during larval development, most likely through signaling pathways specific for each nutrient rather than an interaction. The present study also demonstrates that VA could affect the larval response to ARA, even within the accepted non-toxic/non-deficient range.

  2. Effects of hypoxic exposure during feeding on SDA and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Jane W; Axelsson, Michael; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Seth, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Some Atlantic cod in the Bornholm Basin undertake vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic bottom water. Hypoxic conditions can reduce the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF). This could subsequently postpone or reduce the postprandial increase in oxygen consumption (MO(2)), i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching for food in the Bornholm Basin. We found that i) gastric and intestinal blood flows, cardiac output and MO(2) increased after feeding, ii) gastric and intestinal blood flows were spared in hypoxia, and iii) there were no indications of an oxygen debt at the end of the hypoxic period. The magnitude and time course of the measured variables are similar to values obtained from fish not exposed to the hypoxic period. In conclusion, when cod in the field search for and ingest prey under moderate hypoxic conditions they appear to stay within safe limits of oxygen availability as we saw no indications of an oxygen debt, or negative influence on digestive capacity, when simulating field observations.

  3. Effects of hypoxic exposure during feeding on SDA and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane W Behrens

    Full Text Available Some Atlantic cod in the Bornholm Basin undertake vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic bottom water. Hypoxic conditions can reduce the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF. This could subsequently postpone or reduce the postprandial increase in oxygen consumption (MO(2, i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching for food in the Bornholm Basin. We found that i gastric and intestinal blood flows, cardiac output and MO(2 increased after feeding, ii gastric and intestinal blood flows were spared in hypoxia, and iii there were no indications of an oxygen debt at the end of the hypoxic period. The magnitude and time course of the measured variables are similar to values obtained from fish not exposed to the hypoxic period. In conclusion, when cod in the field search for and ingest prey under moderate hypoxic conditions they appear to stay within safe limits of oxygen availability as we saw no indications of an oxygen debt, or negative influence on digestive capacity, when simulating field observations.

  4. Effect of sub-lethal exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the escape performance of Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Fukunishi

    Full Text Available The amount of ultraviolet (UV radiation reaching the earth's surface has increased due to depletion of the ozone layer. Several studies have reported that UV radiation reduces survival of fish larvae. However, indirect and sub-lethal impacts of UV radiation on fish behavior have been given little consideration. We observed the escape performance of larval cod (24 dph, SL: 7.6±0.2 mm; 29 dph, SL: 8.2±0.3 mm that had been exposed to sub-lethal levels of UV radiation vs. unexposed controls. Two predators were used (in separate experiments: two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens; a suction predator and lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata; a "passive" ambush predator. Ten cod larvae were observed in the presence of a predator for 20 minutes using a digital video camera. Trials were replicated 4 times for goby and 5 times for jellyfish. Escape rate (total number of escapes/total number of attacks ×100, escape distance and the number of larvae remaining at the end of the experiment were measured. In the experiment with gobies, in the UV-treated larvae, both escape rate and escape distance (36%, 38±7.5 mm respectively were significantly lower than those of control larvae (75%, 69±4.7 mm respectively. There was a significant difference in survival as well (UV: 35%,63%. No apparent escape response was observed, and survival rate was not significantly different, between treatments (UV: 66%,74% in the experiment with jellyfish. We conclude that the effect and impact of exposure to sub-lethal levels of UV radiation on the escape performance of cod larvae depends on the type of predator. Our results also suggest that prediction of UV impacts on fish larvae based only on direct effects are underestimations.

  5. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae - can we identify the underlying factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Rønnestad, Ivar; Mangor-Jensen, Anders; Galloway, Trina F; Kjørsvik, Elin; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group). In the second experiment (Exp-2), two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers) throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5) after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks. PMID:26038712

  6. Long-term stability and effective population size in North Sea and Baltic Sea cod ( Gadus morhua )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Schierup, M.H.;

    2006-01-01

    DNA from archived otoliths was used to explore the temporal stability of the genetic composition of two cod populations, the Moray Firth (North Sea) sampled in 1965 and 2002, and the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea) sampled in 1928 and 1997. We found no significant changes in the allele frequencies...... for the Moray Firth population, while subtle but significant genetic changes over time were detected for the Bornholm Basin population. Estimates of the effective population size (N-e) generally exceeded 500 for both populations when employing a number of varieties of the temporal genetic method. However...

  7. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the production and quality of eggs and larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2014-01-01

    and end of spawning. Lipid composition and egg and larval quality of 34 family crosses were investigated. Results indicated that ARA uptake into eggs from broodstock diet was highly efficient achieving proportions of ARA up to 84% higher in eggs than in the diet. EPA was 42–76% higher, and DHA was 155......–173% higher in eggs than in diets. Cod fed the diet with the lowest EPA/ARA ratio had the greatest egg production. Eggs from fish on a diet with high ARA level had significantly higher fertilization and hatching success than those fed low levels of ARA. This diet produced on average 71 viable eggs g 1 female...

  8. Estimation of the relationship between growth, consumption, and energy allocation in juvenile pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) as a function of temperature and ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Ashwin; Heintz, Ron

    2016-10-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are generalist predators in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), and are an important predator on other commercially important species. Efficient management of this species can benefit by knowing how these fish adapt to changing environmental conditions, with a focus on how growth and condition are affected by changes in temperature and diet. We conducted a feeding study to understand the relationship between growth, ration, and temperature, and how these factors interact to affect energy allocation strategies. Since growth and condition of juveniles can determine recruitment into the population, this study focused on growth and consumption of age 1+Pacific cod held over 4 temperature treatments (4 °C, 8 °C, 12 °C, and 16 °C) and 3 ration levels (unlimited ration, medium ration, and low ration). We also compared cellular nucleic acid (RNA/DNA) ratios, an instantaneous growth index, total-body lipid, and proximate composition between fish. At 4 °C, 8 °C, and 12 °C, fish at medium and low rations had higher growth rates relative to fish at high rations. Higher food consumption appears to negatively affect digestive ability, assimilation efficiency, and nutrient utilization. RNA/DNA was clearly correlated with growth rates at 4 °C and 8 °C, but this relationship did not hold at higher temperatures. A secondary growth study was conducted to test the reliability of the growth/consumption models derived from the main growth study. Temperature influenced energy reserves (lipid) while tissue growth (protein) was influenced by ration level. Average lipid values were higher at 4 °C than at 8 °C or 12 °C, suggesting a predisposition to heightened lipid synthesis at colder temperatures. Longer durations of warmer water temperature in the GOA could consequently affect energy allocation strategies, with dietary changes in the field potentially amplifying this effect in cold and warm years. This energy allocation strategy could be detrimental

  9. Early life of key fish species, capelin Mallotus villosus and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malanski, Evandro

    Research involving the processes governing early life of fishes is important for understanding recruitment to the adult population. The forcing factors, like oceanographic processes and the associated plankton communities, impact the distribution and transport of fish larvae and determine...... their growth conditions, survival and recruitment to the adult stock. The temporal and spatial overlap of fish larvae and their prey is essential for their feeding, growth and survival. Investigations of the prey size spectra in fish larvae made possible to observe inter-specific prey competition and gain...... for the fish larvae during the summer. The duration of the productive season is of great importance for the early life of fish. The present thesis investigates the diets of capelin and cod in the subarctic Kapisigdlit, as well as the feeding of non-commercial larval fish in the entire Godthåbsfjord system...

  10. THE EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON THE MAXIMUM MATABOLIC RATE AND SPECIFIC DYNAMIC ACTION IN ATLANTIC COD Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    the fi sh. The fish were fed single rations of fillets of herring, equivalent to 5 % wet body mass. Hypoxia was controlled by an oxygen regulator injecting compressed nitrogen in the water via a solenoid valve. In addition the maximum metabolic rate of starved fish was measured in normoxia and 4 levels...... and fish kept at high densities. Feeding is followed by an increase in the metabolic rate. termed the specific dynamic action (SDA). SDA integrates all the energetic expenditures involved in feeding. It is generally agreed that the increased metabolic rate is caused by biochemical transformation of food...... of hypoxia compared. Maximum metabolic rate compared to standard metabolic rate is termed the Scope for Activity. The results showed that hypoxia at 6.3 kPa does influence the SDA. The effect on the SDA curve on cod fed 5 % of the wet body mass was that the peak metabolic rate was significantly depressed (44...

  11. Effects of hypoxic exposure during feeding on SDA and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Axelsson, Michael; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching...... for food in the Bornholm Basin. We found that i) gastric and intestinal blood flows, cardiac output and MO2 increased after feeding, ii) gastric and intestinal blood flows were spared in hypoxia, and iii) there were no indications of an oxygen debt at the end of the hypoxic period. The magnitude and time...... (MO2), i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made...

  12. Early life of an inshore population of West Greenlandic cod Gadus morhua: spatial and temporal aspects of growth and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Thompson, A. R.;

    2016-01-01

    between spawning and freshwater input may be essential for survival and recruitment, this ensuring low dispersal of eggs and younger stages and high dispersal of older, actively feeding stages. Therefore, cod in this area could be vulnerable to future climate change affecting the timing and magnitude...... survival may have been driven by relatively high temperature and/or low predation in the inner region. Early in the season, the distribution of eggs and young larvae was mostly restricted to the spawning area. Later in the season, larger larvae had become more evenly distributed in the fjord. This shift...... in distribution was observed after the seasonal pulse in freshwater outflow following the ice break-up in Kapisigdlit River. There was a positive correlation between the amount of food in a larval stomach and growth, and larval growth was greater in the outer fjord where prey availability was higher. The timing...

  13. Protective Effect of Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) Skin Collagen Peptides on Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Huina; Wang, Zhicong; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Bafang

    2016-07-01

    This research was performed to explore the protective effect of cod skin collagen peptides (CCP) on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid. The CCP were fractionated into low molecular CCP (LMCCP, Mw 3 kDa). In HMCCP and LMCCP, glycine of accounted for about one-third of the total amino acids without cysteine and tryptophan, and hydrophobic amino acids accounted for about 50%. After 21 d CCP treatment (60 or 300 mg/kg, p.o./daily), the healing effects on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers were evaluated by macroscopic measure, microscopic measure, and immune histochemistry. Moreover, the expression levels of the growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was detected. The results showed that both LMCCP and HMCCP could significantly decrease the ulcer areas and promote the healing of the lesions. They also could improve the levels of hexosamine, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, and reduce the content of malondialdehyde and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, the expression level of TGFβ1 gene and HSP70 mRNA was significantly improved by the treatment. It suggested that CCP could be able to improve symptoms of gastric ulcer and probably be used in the treatment of gastric ulcer. PMID:27219644

  14. Rapid, economical single-nucleotide polymorphism and microsatellite discovery based on de novo assembly of a reduced representation genome in a non-model organism: a case study of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, J; Gauthier, D T; Carlsson, J E L; Coughlan, J P; Dillane, E; Fitzgerald, R D; Keating, U; McGinnity, P; Mirimin, L; Cross, T F

    2013-03-01

    By combining next-generation sequencing technology (454) and reduced representation library (RRL) construction, the rapid and economical isolation of over 25 000 potential single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and >6000 putative microsatellite loci from c. 2% of the genome of the non-model teleost, Atlantic cod Gadus morhua from the Celtic Sea, south of Ireland, was demonstrated. A small-scale validation of markers indicated that 80% (11 of 14) of SNP loci and 40% (6 of 15) of the microsatellite loci could be amplified and showed variability. The results clearly show that small-scale next-generation sequencing of RRL genomes is an economical and rapid approach for simultaneous SNP and microsatellite discovery that is applicable to any species. The low cost and relatively small investment in time allows for positive exploitation of ascertainment bias to design markers applicable to specific populations and study questions.

  15. 太平洋鳕仔鱼消化系统发育形态学和组织学观察%Ontogenetic morphological and histological development of digestive system in larval Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡盼; 宫雪; 韩雨哲; 姜志强; 潘金露

    2015-01-01

    The morphological and histological development of digestive system was observed in larval Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus from 1 to 50 days post hatching ( DPH) under a light microscope. No differentiation in the di-gestive system was found at hatching, the mouth and anus were not opened, and liver and pancreas were appeared. The mouth gape was formed at 3 DPH and the intestine began to be differentiated. At 6 DPH, the digestive tract was consisted of buccopharynx, oesophagus, stomach anlage, intestine and rectum, with movable premaxilla and maxilla, with initial feeding capacity. The yolk sac was depleted completely at 12 DPH, and the intestine folds and mucus cells increased progressively in number, with almost complete digestive system and onset of exogenous nutri-tion. The intestine was spiral in shape, and the digestive organs and associated glands became further development steadily, similar to that in adult Pacific cod at 47 DPH. The findings provide a theoretical basis for the scientific management and nutrition for Pacific cod larva rearing.%采用切片技术和光学显微镜对1~50日龄太平洋鳕Gadus macrocephalus仔鱼的消化系统进行组织学和形态学观察。结果表明:初孵仔鱼消化系统基本没有分化,口和肛门尚未与外界相通,可见肝脏和胰脏;3日龄时,口裂形成,肠道开始分化;6日龄时,消化道已经分化出口咽腔、食道、胃前体、肠和直肠,上下颌可张合,初步具备摄食能力;12日龄时,卵黄囊完全消失,肠道皱褶和黏液细胞数量逐渐增多,消化系统逐渐发育完成,营外源性营养;仔鱼发育至47日龄时,肠道呈螺旋状,消化器官和消化腺趋于完善,接近成鱼。本研究可为太平洋鳕苗种的科学管理和营养饲料学方面的深入研究提供理论依据。

  16. Localisation of nursery areas based on comparative analyses of the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of juvenile Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo; Kristensen, Kasper;

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of juvenile cod is essential for obtaining precise recruitment data to conduct sustainable management of the eastern and western Baltic cod stocks. In this study, the horizontal and vertical distribution and density patterns of settled juvenile 0- and 1-group...... and acoustic research surveys. Horizontal distribution maps for the 2001–2010 cohorts of juvenile cod are further generated by applying a statistical log-Gaussian Cox process model to the standard trawl survey data. The analyses indicate size-dependent horizontal and distinct vertical and diurnal distribution...... patterns related to the seabed topography, water layer depth, and the presence of hydrographic frontal zones (pycnoclines) as well as intraspecific patterns in relation to the presence of adult cod. The extent of the nursery areas also depends on the cod year class strength. Juvenile cod (≥3 cm...

  17. Variation in abundance, diet, otolith zone patterns and black spot disease (Cryptocotyle lingua) of 0-group coastal cod (Gadus morhua L.) in northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sandneseng, Elida

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the early life-history and habitat requirements of coastal cod is very sparse. Young of the year cod juveniles from three different locations in northern Norway were collected monthly from August to November 2005 using beach seine. Diet analyses based on stomach contents showed that 0-group cod mainly ate copepods, gammarids, polychaetes, mysids, shrimps and isopods. The three locations differed with regard to prey composition, and copepods were generally most abun...

  18. Antioxidant activity of Cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysates: In vitro assays and evaluation in 5% fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch;

    2014-01-01

    Cod protein hydrolysates were fractionated according to the molecular mass into three fractions of >5kDa, 3–5kDa and......Cod protein hydrolysates were fractionated according to the molecular mass into three fractions of >5kDa, 3–5kDa and...

  19. A baseline study of metals in cod (Gadus morhua) from the North Sea and coastal Norwegian waters, with focus on mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Highest concentration of Hg was not found in the central part but in the northern part of the North Sea. • The Hg concentrations in coastal and fjord cod increased southward along the coast. • Only three samples out of some 1200 cod muscle showed Hg concentration higher than 0.5 mg kg−1, the EU limit for foodstuffs. • Cd concentrations in liver of coastal and fjord cod increased northward along the coast. -- Abstract: This study is one of several baseline studies that will provide basic and reliable information about the content of undesirable substances in important species of fish caught in Norwegian waters. Concentrations of metals in the muscle and livers of 516 cod caught at 22 positions in the North Sea were analysed. An additional 687 cod were caught from 13 fjords and coastal areas along the coast of Norway. Three out of 1203 samples of muscle exceeded the maximum limit of 0.5 mg Hg kg−1 wet weight set by the EU for foodstuffs. The mercury concentration in cod muscle was higher and the cadmium concentration in the liver was lower in the North Sea and coastal areas in the southern part of Norway than in the Barents Sea and coastal areas in the northern part of Norway. These differences are perhaps caused by differences in the cod diet

  20. Discovery of miRNAs and Their Corresponding miRNA Genes in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua): Use of Stable miRNAs as Reference Genes Reveals Subgroups of miRNAs That Are Highly Expressed in Particular Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Rune; Rangnes, Fredrik; Sivertsen, Maria; Chiang, Michelle; Tran, Michelle; Worren, Merete Molton

    2016-01-01

    Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is among the economically most important species in the northern Atlantic Ocean and a model species for studying development of the immune system in vertebrates. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small RNA molecules that regulate fundamental biological processes at the post-transcriptional level. Detailed knowledge about a species miRNA repertoire is necessary to study how the miRNA transcriptome modulate gene expression. We have therefore discovered and characterized mature miRNAs and their corresponding miRNA genes in Atlantic cod. We have also performed a validation study to identify suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of miRNA expression in Atlantic cod. Finally, we utilized the newly characterized miRNA repertoire and the dedicated RT-qPCR method to reveal miRNAs that are highly expressed in certain organs. Results The discovery analysis revealed 490 mature miRNAs (401 unique sequences) along with precursor sequences and genomic location of the miRNA genes. Twenty six of these were novel miRNA genes. Validation studies ranked gmo-miR-17-1—5p or the two-gene combination gmo-miR25-3p and gmo-miR210-5p as most suitable qPCR reference genes. Analysis by RT-qPCR revealed 45 miRNAs with significantly higher expression in tissues from one or a few organs. Comparisons to other vertebrates indicate that some of these miRNAs may regulate processes like growth, lipid metabolism, immune response to microbial infections and scar damage repair. Three teleost-specific and three novel Atlantic cod miRNAs were among the differentially expressed miRNAs. Conclusions The number of known mature miRNAs was considerably increased by our identification of miRNAs and miRNA genes in Atlantic cod. This will benefit further functional studies of miRNA expression using deep sequencing methods. The validation study showed that stable miRNAs are suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of miRNA expression. Applying RT-qPCR we

  1. Discovery of miRNAs and Their Corresponding miRNA Genes in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua: Use of Stable miRNAs as Reference Genes Reveals Subgroups of miRNAs That Are Highly Expressed in Particular Organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Andreassen

    Full Text Available Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is among the economically most important species in the northern Atlantic Ocean and a model species for studying development of the immune system in vertebrates. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are an abundant class of small RNA molecules that regulate fundamental biological processes at the post-transcriptional level. Detailed knowledge about a species miRNA repertoire is necessary to study how the miRNA transcriptome modulate gene expression. We have therefore discovered and characterized mature miRNAs and their corresponding miRNA genes in Atlantic cod. We have also performed a validation study to identify suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of miRNA expression in Atlantic cod. Finally, we utilized the newly characterized miRNA repertoire and the dedicated RT-qPCR method to reveal miRNAs that are highly expressed in certain organs.The discovery analysis revealed 490 mature miRNAs (401 unique sequences along with precursor sequences and genomic location of the miRNA genes. Twenty six of these were novel miRNA genes. Validation studies ranked gmo-miR-17-1-5p or the two-gene combination gmo-miR25-3p and gmo-miR210-5p as most suitable qPCR reference genes. Analysis by RT-qPCR revealed 45 miRNAs with significantly higher expression in tissues from one or a few organs. Comparisons to other vertebrates indicate that some of these miRNAs may regulate processes like growth, lipid metabolism, immune response to microbial infections and scar damage repair. Three teleost-specific and three novel Atlantic cod miRNAs were among the differentially expressed miRNAs.The number of known mature miRNAs was considerably increased by our identification of miRNAs and miRNA genes in Atlantic cod. This will benefit further functional studies of miRNA expression using deep sequencing methods. The validation study showed that stable miRNAs are suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of miRNA expression. Applying RT-qPCR we have identified

  2. 太平洋鳕性腺发育及营养来源的初步研究%The gonad development and nutrition source of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志强; 张志明; 赵翀; 李丞; 姜柏桥; 孙阳

    2012-01-01

    通过对大连海域太平洋鳕Gadus macrocephalus的繁殖力、卵径分布、性腺指数(GSI)和肝指数(HSI)进行周年调查,确定出太平洋鳕的繁殖期,分别测定了不同发育期太平洋鳕性腺、肝脏和肌肉的生化组成、能量密度变化,并观察了不同发育期太平洋鳕性腺和肝脏的组织学变化.结果表明:大连海域太平洋鳕的卵巢从12月开始进入第Ⅳ期,至翌年2月份排放;精巢处于Ⅳ、Ⅴ期的时间较长,11月份就有达到成熟的个体;从太平洋鳕肝脏组织学的变化来看,脂滴的体积变化很大,说明在繁殖过程中,肝脏经历了一个脂肪先积累又被大量消耗的过程;太平洋鳕在繁殖过程中,各个组织的能量密度变化较小,但粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗灰分等成分变化较大.研究表明,太平洋鳕性腺发育的脂肪主要可能来源于肝脏,而肌肉蛋白的下降可能充当了性腺发育中蛋白质的主要来源.%Fecundity, egg diameter frequency distribution, gonosomatic index ( GSI) and hepatosomatic index (HIS) of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in Dalian sea area were investigated yearly in this study. Changes in chemical compositions, energy density and histology of gonad, liver and muscle of Pacific cod were observed and measured in different stages. The ovary of Pacific cod was in Ⅳ stage from December and ovulated in February in the next year. The spermary lasted a long time in Ⅳ and V stages, and with sperm present from November. According to the histological changes in the liver, oil drops were found to be changed a lot, indicating that liver underwent a process of lipid accumulated and consumed in breeding process. The energy in each tissue was less influenced in the breeding process, which were the conditions of basic living need. However, protein, fat and ash were changed a lot, which associated with breeding. The results showed that the main lipid source for the gonad development of Pacific cod might

  3. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Distributional patterns of 0-group Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the eastern Bering Sea under variable recruitment and thermal conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that analyzed the late summer distribution of juvenile Pacific cod in the eastern Bering Sea for 6 cohorts (2004-2009), based on...

  4. Slaughter Methods and Processing of Farmed Atlantic Cod ( Gadus morhua ): welfare aspects and flesh quality

    OpenAIRE

    Digre, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Atlantic cod is an important species for food production in Norway, and over the last couples of decades; Atlantic cod farming has gradually evolved as an industry in Norway. The harvesting procedures of farmed fish have gained major attention both in the aquaculture industry, research institutions and various organizations dealing with animal welfare issues. According to the legislations, the fish must be stunned before or at the same time as they are killed and remain unconscious until deat...

  5. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae – can we identify the underlying factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Ørjan Karlsen; Terje van der Meeren; Ivar Rønnestad; Anders Mangor-Jensen; Galloway, Trina F.; Elin Kjørsvik; Kristin Hamre

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemi...

  6. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Berdal, B.; Blust, R.; Brix, O.; Colosimo, A.; De Wachter, B.; Giuliani, A.; Johansen, T.; Fischer, T.; Knust, R.; Lannig, G.; Naevdal, G.; Nedenes, A.; Nyhammer, G.; Sartoris, F. J.; Serendero, I.; Sirabella, P.; Thorkildsen, S.; Zakhartsev, M.

    2001-12-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special focus on recent data obtained in two model species of fish. These fish species are both characterized by northern and southern distribution limits in the North Atlantic: eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus), as a typical non-migrating inhabitant of the coastal zone and the cod ( Gadus morhua), as a typical inhabitant of the continental shelf with a high importance for fisheries. Mathematical modelling demonstrates a clear significant correlation between climate induced temperature fluctuations and the recruitment of cod stocks. Growth performance in cod is optimal at temperatures close to 10°C, regardless of the population investigated in a latitudinal cline. However, temperature specific growth rates decrease at higher latitudes. Also, fecundity is less in White Sea than in North and Baltic Sea cod or eelpout populations. These findings suggest that a cold-induced shift in energy budget occurs which is unfavorable for growth performance and fecundity. Thermal tolerance limits shift depending on latitude and are characterized by oxygen limitation at both low or high temperatures. Oxygen supply to tissues is optimized at low temperature by a shift in hemoglobin isoforms and oxygen binding properties to lower affinities and higher unloading potential. Protective stimulation of heat shock protein synthesis was not observed. According to a recent model of thermal tolerance the downward shift of tolerance limits during cold adaptation is associated with rising mitochondrial densities and, thus, aerobic capacity and performance in the cold, especially in eurythermal species. At the same time

  7. Protective effect of gelatin polypeptides from Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) against UV irradiation-induced damages by inhibiting inflammation and improving transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Hou, Hu

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in skin damage, collagen reduction in the dermis, and consequently, premature skin aging (photoaging). The goal of this study was to examine the effect of gelatin hydrolysate (CH) from pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) skin on UV irradiation-induced inflammation and collagen reduction of photoaging mouse skin. The effect of CH on the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes was investigated. The expressions of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), proinflammatory cytokines, type I and type III procollagen, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), type II receptor of TGF-β1 (TGF-βRII), and Smad7 were determined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA. The results showed that oral administration of CH suppressed UV irradiation-induced damages to skin by inhibiting the depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity, and by suppressing the expression of NF-κB as well as NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory cytokines expression. Furthermore, CH inhibited type I procollagen synthesis reduction by up-regulating TβRII level and down-regulating Smad7 level, which demonstrates that CH is involved in matrix collagen synthesis by activating the TGF-β/Smad pathway in the photoaging skin. Based on these results, we conclude that CH protected skin from UV irradiation-induced photodamages, and CH may be a potentially effective agent for the prevention of photoaging. PMID:27491029

  8. A baseline study of levels of mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Highest concentration of Hg was found in the western part of the Barents Sea. ► The Hg concentrations were well below the maximum level of 0.5 mg kg−1 ► Arsenic concentrations varied greatly ranging from 0.3 to 170 mg kg−1 ww. ► Shrimp seems to be the most important prey for cod with high concentration of As. - Abstract: This study is one of several baseline studies that will provide basic and reliable information about the content of undesirable substances in important species of fish caught in Norwegian waters. Concentrations of metals in the muscle and liver of more than 800 Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 sites in the Barents Sea are reported. The highest concentration of both mercury in the muscle and cadmium in the liver was found in cod caught in the western part of the Barents Sea, while the highest concentration of total arsenic was found in cod from the eastern part. The arsenic concentrations varied greatly among individual fish, ranging from 0.3 to 170 mg kg−1 wet weight in the muscle. Such high levels of total arsenic have never previously been reported in any fish, and the primary factor for these high concentrations is likely to be the shrimp in the cod diet

  9. Comparison of protein expression in plasma from nonylphenol and bisphenol A-exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by use of SELDI-TOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Bodil K. [International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS) AS, Mekjarvik 12, N-4070 Randaberg (Norway)]. E-mail: Bodil.larsen@irisresearch.no; Bjornstad, Anne [International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS) AS, Mekjarvik 12, N-4070 Randaberg (Norway); Sundt, Rolf C. [International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS) AS, Mekjarvik 12, N-4070 Randaberg (Norway); Taban, Ingrid C. [International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS) AS, Mekjarvik 12, N-4070 Randaberg (Norway); Pampanin, Daniela M. [International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS) AS, Mekjarvik 12, N-4070 Randaberg (Norway); Andersen, Odd Ketil [International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS) AS, Mekjarvik 12, N-4070 Randaberg (Norway)

    2006-06-01

    The overall objective of this study was to compare the expression of plasma proteins in juvenile cod and turbot after a 3 week exposure to two different chemicals known to be estrogenic: 4-nonylphenol (NP, 29 {mu}g/L) and bisphenol A (BPA, 59 {mu}g/L). ProteinChip[reg] array technology in combination with surfaced enhanced laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) was used to investigate general responses in plasma proteins. In addition, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyse two specific biomarkers of estrogenic exposure, vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zrp) in plasma. Both methods revealed clear species specific responses. In cod, 67% of significantly altered proteins showed the same response (up or down regulated) in NP and BPA exposed animals (males and females combined). The rest were either specific to NP (10%), BPA (19%) or they showed opposite responses to the two chemicals (4%). In contrast, only 20% of significantly altered proteins were common for NP and BPA exposed turbot: 60% were altered only in NP and 17% only in BPA. Furthermore, in BPA exposed cod, 77% of the responses were common for male and females, whereas turbot showed only 21% similarity for the two genders. However, NP exposed male and female turbot showed 88% similarity in responses. As gender was not determined in NP exposed cod, gender specific responses could not be determined. ELISA results supported that cod responded clearly to both chemicals as a large increase was observed in Vtg and Zrp levels. Turbot responded strongly to NP, but seemed only slightly affected by BPA. Overall, the results indicated that cod are more sensitive or respond with less specificity to estrogenic chemicals than turbot. The relatively large degree of common responses in NP and BPA exposed cod may indicate that in cod BPA have similar mode of action as NP. Generally, the results show the potential of SELDI-TOF as a tool for comparing multiple

  10. Effects of on-board storage and electrical stunning of wild cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on brain and heart activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Digre, H.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Aursand, I.G.; Grimso, L.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Cod and haddock captured with commercial trawling gear were taken immediately after landing on deck to on-board storage in dry bins for measuring brain and heart activity, and behaviour. Other groups were first stored in holding tanks and then electrically stunned with a prototype "dry stunner". For

  11. Modelling gastric evacuation without meal size as a variable. A model applicable for the estimation of daily ration of cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temming, Axel; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1994-01-01

    Data on gastric evacuation of cod from the International Data Base on Gastric Evacuation Experiments have been reanalysed. A general evacuation models was fitted to the data by means of non-linear regression techniques: dS/dt= - R × SB or integrated:| S(1 - B) t=S1)(1 - B) - R × (1 - B) × 1, where...

  12. 1H NMR metabolic profiling of cod (Gadus morhua larvae: potential effects of temperature and diet composition during early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Skogen Chauton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine aquaculture offers a great source of protein for the increasing human population, and farming of, for example, Atlantic salmon is a global industry. Atlantic cod farming however, is an example of a promising industry where the potential is not yet realized. Research has revealed that a major bottleneck to successful farming of cod is poor quality of the larvae and juveniles. A large research program was designed to increase our understanding of how environmental factors such as temperature and nutrition affects cod larvae development. Data on larvae growth and development were used together with nuclear magnetic resonance. The NMR data indicated that the temperature influenced the metabolome of the larvae; differences were related to osmolytes such as betaine/TMAO, the amino acid taurine, and creatine and lactate which reflect muscle activity. The larvae were fed Artemia from stage 2, and this was probably reflected in a high taurine content of older larvae. Larvae fed with copepods in the nutrition experiment also displayed a high taurine content, together with higher creatine and betaine/TMAO content. Data on the cod larvae metabolome should be coupled to data on gene expression, in order to identify events which are regulated on the genetic level versus regulation resulting from temperature or nutrition during development, to fully understand how the environment affects larval development.

  13. A comparative analysis of legislated and modified Baltic Sea trawlcodends for simultaneously improving the size selection of cod (Gadus morhua) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Feekings, Jordan P.;

    2014-01-01

    in conjunc-tion with the currently legislated codends; Bacoma and T90. The most favourable selective propertieswith regard to simultaneously improving the selectivity for round and flatfish, considering the currentminimum landing sizes (MLS) for cod (38 cm) and plaice (25 cm) in the Baltic Sea and the fish...

  14. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf;

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found...

  15. Response of branchial Na(+)/K(+) ATPase to changes in ambient temperature in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Katharina; Koschnick, Nils; Pörtner, Hans-O; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-05-01

    The maintenance of ion and pH homeostasis despite changes in ambient temperature is crucial for ectothermic organisms. Thermal sensitivity of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase mRNA expression, protein expression and activity was determined in gills of North Sea cod (NC) and Northeastern Arctic cod (NEAC), acclimated for 6 weeks at 4 and 10 °C and compared to field samples of North Sea cod (sNC), acclimatized to early spring (4 °C) and summer (18 °C) conditions. The same analyses were conducted in gills of the confamiliar whiting, acclimated at 4 and 10 °C. Branchial Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities remained uncompensated at functional and protein levels in NC and NEAC at both acclimation temperatures. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase mRNA expression in NEAC acclimated at 10 °C was about twofold higher compared to NC, indicating some population-specific differentiation at this level. Lower Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities in gills of warm-acclimatized sNC at common assay temperatures indicate thermal compensation between seasonal extremes, and post-translational modifications contributed to this mitigation at high assay temperature. Together, cod compensates Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities on the warm edge of the thermal window and below 4 °C, respectively. In contrast, whiting Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities were cold compensated at 4 °C, supported by 1.5-fold higher mRNA and protein expression. Besides, capacities were lower in whiting compared to NC and NEAC at optimum temperature, which may be advantageous in terms of reduced maintenance cost, but at temperatures ≤4 °C, compensation may represent an energy trade-off to maintain homeostasis. The species-specific response of gadid Na(+)/K(+) ATPase indicates certain threshold temperatures beyond which compensation of the pump is elicited, possibly related to the different biogeography of these species.

  16. Model-supported estimation of mortality rates in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L. larvae: the varying impact of 'critical periods'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichsen Hans-Harald

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the survival-rate during the larval phase may strongly influence the recruitment level in marine fish species. During the larval phase different 'critical periods' are discussed, e.g. the hatching period and the first-feeding period. No such information was available for the Baltic cod stock, a commercially important stock showing reproduction failure during the last years. We calculated field-based mortality rates for larval Baltic cod during these phases using basin-wide abundance estimates from two consecutive surveys. Survey information was corrected by three dimensional hydrodynamic model runs. Results The corrections applied for transport were of variable impact, depending on the prevailing circulation patterns. Especially at high wind forcing scenarios, abundance estimates have the potential to be biased without accounting for transport processes. In May 1988 mortality between hatch and first feeding amounted to approximately 20% per day. Mortality rates during the onset of feeding were considerably lower with only 7% per day. In August 1991 the situation was vice versa: Extremely low mortality rates of 0.08% per day were calculated between hatch and first feeding, while the period between the onset of feeding to the state of an established feeder was more critical with mortality rates of 22% per day. Conclusions Mortality rates during the different proposed 'critical periods' were found to be highly variable. Survival rates of Baltic cod are not only influenced by a single 'critical period', but can be limited at different points during the larval phase, depending on several biotic and abiotic factors.

  17. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. larvae — can we identify the underlying factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ørjan Karlsen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1, groups of cod larvae were fed either (a natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group. In the second experiment (Exp-2, two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5 after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks.

  18. Combination of genetics and spatial modelling highlights the sensitivity of cod (Gadus morhua) population diversity in the North Sea to distributions of fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Michael R.; Culling, Mark A.; Crozier, Walter W.;

    2014-01-01

    Conserving genetic diversity in animal populations is important for sustaining their ability to respond to environmental change. However, the “between-population” component of genetic diversity (biocomplexity) is threatened in many exploited populations, particularly marine fish, where harvest...... North Sea (Viking) unit by the more widespread (Dogger) unit, and its premature extinction under some spatial patterns of fishing. Fishery catch limits for cod are set at the scale of the whole North Sea without regard to such subpopulation dynamics. Our model offers a method to quantify adjustments...

  19. Antioxidant activity of Cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysates: in vitro assays and evaluation in 5% fish oil-in-water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvin, K H Sabeena; Lystbæk Andersen, Lisa; Hauch Nielsen, Henrik; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jakobsen, Greta; Johansson, Inez; Jessen, Flemming

    2014-04-15

    Cod protein hydrolysates were fractionated according to the molecular mass into three fractions of >5 kDa, 3-5 kDa and hydrolysates and the fractions were investigated, both in in vitro assays (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, Fe²⁺ chelating activity and inhibition of lipid oxidation in liposome model system), and in 5% fish oil-in-water emulsions. The hydrolysate, were able to protect fish oil against oxidation in an iron induced oxidation system. However, none of the peptide fractions were effective in preventing tocopherol loss and showed no tocopherol sparing property. Volatile oxidation products showed an interaction between the aldehydes and the protein/peptides added in the emulsions, and this needs further investigation. PMID:24295714

  20. A nuclear DNA basis for shelf- and bank scale population structure in northwest Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) : Labrador to Georges Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Taggart, C.T.; Cook, D.

    1998-01-01

    -ST measures of population structure, differences are revealed among populations at continental shelf scales (NE Newfoundland Shelf, Grand Banks, Flemish Cap, Scotian Shelf, Georges Bank) where regions are separated by submarine saddles, channels and trenches. However, we also provide evidence of genetic...... structure at spawning-bank scales consistent with variation in oceanographic features and in the spatiotemporal distribution of spawning, each of which may represent barriers to gene flow among geographically contiguous populations inhabiting a highly advective environment. The differences described...... are consistent with postdispersal spawning fidelity to natal areas,a behaviour that may be facilitated by topographically induced gyre-like circulations that can act as retention mechanisms. Significant degrees of substructure among neighbouring and contiguous cod populations may be most easily explained...

  1. Differential impacts of elevated CO2 and acidosis on the energy budget of gill and liver cells from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, L S; Kreiss, C M; Pörtner, H O; Lannig, G

    2015-09-01

    Ocean acidification impacts fish and other marine species through increased seawater PCO2 levels (hypercapnia). Knowledge of the physiological mechanisms mediating effects in various tissues of fish is incomplete. Here we tested the effects of extracellular hypercapnia and acidosis on energy metabolism of gill and liver cells of Atlantic cod. Exposure media mimicked blood conditions in vivo, either during normo- or hypercapnia and at control or acidic extracellular pH (pHe). We determined metabolic rate and energy expenditure for protein biosynthesis, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-ATPase and considered nutrition status by measurements of metabolic rate and protein biosynthesis in media with and without free amino acids (FAA). Addition of FAA stimulated hepatic but not branchial oxygen consumption. Normo- and hypercapnic acidosis as well as hypercapnia at control pHe depressed metabolic stimulation of hepatocytes. In gill cells, acidosis depressed respiration independent of PCO2 and FAA levels. For both cell types, depressed respiration was not correlated with the same reduction in energy allocated to protein biosynthesis or Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Hepatic energy expenditure for protein synthesis and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was even elevated at acidic compared to control pHe suggesting increased costs for ion regulation and cellular reorganization. Hypercapnia at control pHe strongly reduced oxygen demand of branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with a similar trend for H(+)-ATPase. We conclude that extracellular acidosis triggers metabolic depression in gill and metabolically stimulated liver cells. Additionally, hypercapnia itself seems to limit capacities for metabolic usage of amino acids in liver cells while it decreases the use and costs of ion regulatory ATPases in gill cells.

  2. Heat-shock responsive genes identified and validated in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) liver, head kidney and skeletal muscle using genomic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball Jennifer; Hubert Sophie; Johnson Stewart C; Afonso Luis OB; Gamperl A Kurt; Hori Tiago S; Bowman Sharen; Rise Matthew L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Daily and seasonal changes in temperature are challenges that fish within aquaculture settings cannot completely avoid, and are known to elicit complex organismal and cellular stress responses. We conducted a large-scale gene discovery and transcript expression study in order to better understand the genes that are potentially involved in the physiological and cellular aspects of stress caused by heat-shock. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library ...

  3. The influence of the ratio of protein energy to total energy in the feed on the activity of protein synthesis in vitro, the level of ribosomal RNA and the RNA-DNA ratio in white trunk muscle of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, E; Rosenlund, G

    1984-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) were fed diets containing protein energy to total energy levels (PE/TE) of 10.0, 20.6, 29.6, 38.4, 56.2 and 74.1% for 21 days. Ribosomes were isolated from the white trunk muscle tissue, the capacity for protein synthesis in vitro determined and related to muscle tissue wet weight rRNA and DNA. Protein concentrations of less than 47.4% PE/TE in the diets reduce the ribosomal capacity for protein synthesis per g wet weight and per mg DNA, and the tissue contents of rRNA and ratio of rRNA/DNA. The capacity for muscle protein synthesis in vitro is a significant and sensitive parameter of protein inadequacy in fish diets.

  4. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the s......Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...

  5. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René;

    2010-01-01

    particularly on moving the window further back, gaining more stability in the codend to avoid loss of Norway lobster through the window, making a relatively narrow section where the window is located, and testing larger mesh sizes in the window. We designed a four panel sorting section—the sorting box......—where a 300 mm window is placed at the top section at about 3–6 m from the codline. Acoustic release technology was used to avoid catch loss during gear retrieval. Sea trials were conducted in the Skagerrak and Kattegat from a commercial trawler. The sorting box yielded a high reduction of the cod catch......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...

  6. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge;

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  7. Fisheries. Population of origin of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, E E; Hansen, M M; Schmidt, C; Meldrup, D; Grønkjaer, P

    2001-09-20

    Most of the world's cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries are now tightly regulated or closed altogether. Being able to link individual fish to their population of origin would assist enormously in policing regulations and in identifying poachers. Here we show that microsatellite genetic markers can be used to assign individual cod from three different populations in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean to their population of origin. PMID:11565021

  8. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  9. Impact of hypoxia on consumption of Baltic cod in a multispecies stock assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teschner, E.C.; Kraus, G.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress for organi......The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress...

  10. The extracellular matrix of Gadus morhua muscle contains types III, V, VI and IV collagens in addition to type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Lawson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Confocal microscopy and immuno‐histochemistry were used to examine collagens in the extracellular matrix of cod Gadus morhua swimming muscle. In addition to the well known presence of type I fibrous collagen, types III and VI were also found in the myocommata and the endomysium. The beaded collagen...

  11. The effect of regulation changes and influential factors on Atlantic cod discards in the Baltic Sea demersal trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan; Lewy, Peter; Madsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) discarded in the Danish Baltic Sea cod trawl fishery has been as high as 40%. This, combined with a stock that has declined dramatically over the past 30 years, has led to numerous technical regulations being introduced to reduce the capture of juveni...

  12. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.;

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... of population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  13. More rapid shift to a benthic niche in larger Gadus morhua juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Gunnarsson, G S; Karlsson, H

    2015-08-01

    Trophic use by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua juveniles was examined early and late in the shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. Changes in the proportion of pelagic copepods, estimates of benthic prey indicated by isotope mixing models and stable-isotope values between sample periods suggested a gradual shift towards a benthic niche. Values of the trophic proxies, however, changed most markedly in the largest juvenile group, suggesting a more rapid trophic niche shift, and in turn competitive advantage, of larger juveniles.

  14. Retention of Coastal Cod Eggs in a Fjord Caused by Interactions between Egg Buoyancy and Circulation Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Myksvoll, Mari Skuggedal; Sundby, Svein; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Frode B Vikebø

    2011-01-01

    Norwegian coastal cod form a stationary population of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua consisting of several genetically separated subpopulations. A small-scale differentiation in marine populations with pelagic eggs and larvae is made possible by local retention of early life stages in coastal environments. A numerical model was used to simulate the circulation in a fjord system in northern Norway over 2 years with different river runoff patterns. The dispersal of cod eggs was calculated with a par...

  15. Characteristics of juvenile survivors reveal spatio-temporal differences in early life stage survival of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.;

    2014-01-01

    The spatio-temporal origin of surviving juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua was investigated by coupling age information from otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modeling, which allowed backtracking of drift routes in time and space. The suitability of hydrodynamic modeling for drift si...... of Baltic cod, in particular with respect to the critical period and match-mismatch hypotheses, and to possible implications for the placement of a Marine Protected Area which was established to ensure undisturbed spawning of Baltic cod....

  16. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua) population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century...... in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows...... knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving...

  17. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias;

    Cod (Gadus morhua L.) recruitment success in the central Baltic Sea is influenced by various abiotic and biotic factors, which include ambient salinity and oxygen conditions as well as predation pressure on early life stages by planktivore clupeids, such as sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring...... pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  18. The effect of external dummy transmitters on oxygen consumption and performance of swimming Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, M.F.; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Steffensen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased critical swimming speed and increased oxygen consumption (Mo-2) was found for externally tagged Atlantic cod Gadus morhua swimming at a high speed of 0 center dot 9 body length (total length, L-Gamma) s(-1). No difference was found in the standard metabolic rate, indicating...

  19. Atlantic Cod Show a Highly Variable Sensitivity to Electric-Induced Spinal Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, M.; Haan, de D.; Verschueren, B.; Decostere, A.; Puvanendran, V.; Saunders, J.; Polet, H.; Chiers, K.

    2016-01-01

    Pulse trawling is the most promising alternative to conventional beam trawls targeting Sole Solea solea (also known as Solea vulgaris), but due to the electric fields created by electrotrawls spinal injuries are reported in gadoid round fishes such as Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua. This study aimed t

  20. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane;

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measure...

  1. Transport of North Sea cod larvae into the Skagerrak coastal populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Halvor; André, Carl; Jorde, Per Erik; Skogen, Morten D.; Thuróczy, Emma; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2004-01-01

    The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is economically one of the world's most important marine species--a species presently suffering from heavy overexploitation throughout its range of distribution. Although not fully understood, the Atlantic cod is believed to be structured into populations in a rather complex manner, whereby both highly migratory and more confined ocean-spawning stocks coexist with stationary coastal populations. Owing to the complex population structure, little is presently kno...

  2. The genome sequence of Atlantic cod reveals a unique immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Star, Bastiaan; Nederbragt, Alexander Johan; Jentoft, Sissel; Grimholt, Unni; Malmstrøm, Martin; Gregers, Tone Fredsvik; Rounge, Trine Ballestad; Paulsen, Jonas; Solbakken, Monica Hongrø; Sharma, Animesh; Wetten, Ola Frang; Lanzén, Anders; Winer, Roger; Knight, James; Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk

    2011-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a large, cold-adapted teleost that sustains long-standing commercial fisheries and incipient aquaculture1, 2. Here we present the genome sequence of Atlantic cod, showing evidence for complex thermal adaptations in its haemoglobin gene cluster and an unusual immune architecture compared to other sequenced vertebrates. The genome assembly was obtained exclusively by 454 sequencing of shotgun and paired-end libraries, and automated annotation identified 22,154 gen...

  3. The genome sequence of Atlantic cod reveals a unique immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Star, Bastiaan; Nederbragt, Alexander Johan; Jentoft, Sissel; Grimholt, Unni; Malmstrøm, Martin; Gregers, Tone Fredsvik; Rounge, Trine Ballestad; Paulsen, Jonas; Solbakken, Monica Hongrø; Sharma, Animesh; Wetten, Ola Frang; Lanzén, Anders; Winer, Roger; Knight, James; Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk

    2011-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a large, cold-adapted teleost that sustains long-standing commercial fisheries and incipient aquaculture. Here we present the genome sequence of Atlantic cod, showing evidence for complex thermal adaptations in its haemoglobin gene cluster and an unusual immune architecture compared to other sequenced vertebrates. The genome assembly was obtained exclusively by 454 sequencing of shotgun and paired-end libraries, and automated annotation identified 22,154 genes. ...

  4. Long Distance Linkage Disequilibrium and Limited Hybridization Suggest Cryptic Speciation in Atlantic Cod

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Ian R.; Sharen Bowman; Tudor Borza; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Berg, Paul R.; Naiara Rodríguez-Ezpeleta; Jackie Lighten; Ruzzante, Daniel E.; Christopher Taggart; Paul Bentzen

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid zones provide unprecedented opportunity for the study of the evolution of reproductive isolation, and the extent of hybridization across individuals and genomes can illuminate the degree of isolation. We examine patterns of interchromosomal linkage disequilibrium (ILD) and the presence of hybridization in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, in previously identified hybrid zones in the North Atlantic. Here, previously identified clinal loci were mapped to the cod genome with most (∼70%) occurri...

  5. A wasted resource: cod discards in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Aarts, Geert;

    2012-01-01

    The public, political, and stakeholder perception of fisheries discards is that they are a waste of a valuable resource. In the North Sea, fisheries discards are some of the highest in the world. Cod (Gadus morhua) has contributed considerably to the amount discarded. The declining cod stock within......, spatially and temporally, in discarding over the past decade while pinpointing the major reasons to why it occurs. We discuss how such information can be used to improve future fishing activities and their subsequent catch compositions under a discard...

  6. Regime shifts, resilience and recovery of a cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Diekmann, Rabea; Möllmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...... of the local cod stock to environmental change. The recovery and healthy condition of the Sound cod stock illustrate the need for adaptive marine management strategies that maximize ecosystem resilience....... and development of the Sound ecosystem, specifically testing for the occurrence of regime shifts and their potential drivers. By comparing the ecosystem development of the Sound with the neighbouring North and Baltic seas, we were able to demonstrate the positive effect of the trawl fishing ban on the resilience......In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...

  7. Implications of mechanical deformation and formaldehyde preservation for the identification of stage-specific characteristics of Baltic cod eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmacher, A.; Wieland, Kai

    1999-01-01

    on Baltic cod eggs (Gadus morhua callarias L.) were examined separately by visually comparing the morphological features of treated vs. live eggs of identical ontogenetic age. Microphotographs were made concurrently for documentation. In stage IA eggs, mechanical treatment resulted in scattered blastodiscs...

  8. Farmed cod escapees and net-pen spawning left no clear genetic footprint in the local wild cod population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Varne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated a potential genetic introgression from farmed to wild cod Gadus morhua L. in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway. During the first 2 yr of operation of a cod farm in the inner part of the fjord, 2 large escape events and extensive pen spawning were reported. Analyses of 4 allozyme markers revealed no significant changes in allele frequencies between samples of wild cod before and after cod farming, although prominent allele frequency differences were demonstrated between wild and farmed samples. Analyses of 10 DNA markers showed a significant change between pre- and post-farming samples, due to contradictory allele frequency differences at Tch11, Pan I and Gmo132. Excluding those 3 markers due to null alleles (Tch11 and selection (Gmo132 and Pan I, the DNA markers paralleled the non-changed allele frequency signal from the allozymes. The topographies of the allozyme- and DNA-based dendrogram of the samples were congruent. Recaptures of tagged and released farmed cod indicated a seemingly random diffusion throughout the fjord and ended after approx. 6 mo. During an ongoing pen spawning, plankton net surveys sampling for cod eggs in the surroundings of the cod farm suggested the eggs originated from the farm. No larvae were present in the plankton samples. The apparent absence of introgression is explained relative to fitness and survival of pen-spawned larvae and adult escapees, and to a purging effect of the estuarine circulation of the Trondheimsfjord.

  9. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, ... ear infections (otitis media). Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. ...

  10. Cod avoidance by area regulations in Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2014-01-01

    and temporary area closures in Kattegat. The third section discusses the lessons learned in the light of implementation of the discard ban. The fourth section sums up the lessons learned; Regional measures of implementation of the discard ban should include all vessels with quota in the region to be regarded...... fair and the goals should be clear, not least when the descriptors of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which might be more intangible for the fishers, are part of the goal of the measures. If incentives created by the regulation are stable over at least a few years the fishers and fishers......’ organisations are more capable at being active partners in developing the systems that support the discard ban. An example from the examined initiatives are the outline of a fleet information system, providing the skipper with information about hotspots of unwanted species allowing him to make a better plan...

  11. Demography of coastal Atlantic cod in relation to the establishment of a marine protected area

    OpenAIRE

    Nordahl, Jan-Harald

    2012-01-01

    Use a mark-recapture approach to study the demography of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in a small (1 km2) marine protected area (MPA) on the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. A total of 9713 Atlantic cod where tagged during 2005-2010. Inside the MPA, only hook and line fishing is allowed. Data are partly live capture-recaptures from the research fishing activity, and partly dead recoveries from commercial and recreational fishers. A high-reward system was applied to quantify the tag reporting rate fro...

  12. Temporal trends in age and size at maturation of four North Sea gadid populations: cod, haddock, whiting, and Norway pout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marty, Lise; Rochet, Marie-Joëlle; Ernande, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We establish that age and length at 50% proportion mature decreased from the 70’s to the 2000’s in North Sea cod (Gadus morhua), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), and whiting (Merlangius merlangus), but not in Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarkii). The potential contributions of demography......, phenotypic plasticity, and evolution to these trends were assessed. First, maturation trends were extricated from demographic effects and growth-dependent plasticity by estimating probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). PMRN midpoints have significantly shifted downwards at most ages for cod...... in response to fishing, is plausible in haddock, whiting, and male cod, unlikely for Norway pout, but not needed to explain trends in female cod maturation. In agreement with life-history theory, the maturation response was larger in fast-growing, late- and large-maturing species exhibiting moderate...

  13. Genomic characterization of the Atlantic cod sex-locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Bastiaan; Tørresen, Ole K; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Pampoulie, Christophe; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    A variety of sex determination mechanisms can be observed in evolutionary divergent teleosts. Sex determination is genetic in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), however the genomic location or size of its sex-locus is unknown. Here, we characterize the sex-locus of Atlantic cod using whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 227 wild-caught specimens. Analyzing more than 55 million polymorphic loci, we identify 166 loci that are associated with sex. These loci are located in six distinct regions on five different linkage groups (LG) in the genome. The largest of these regions, an approximately 55 Kb region on LG11, contains the majority of genotypes that segregate closely according to a XX-XY system. Genotypes in this region can be used genetically determine sex, whereas those in the other regions are inconsistently sex-linked. The identified region on LG11 and its surrounding genes have no clear sequence homology with genes or regulatory elements associated with sex-determination or differentiation in other species. The functionality of this sex-locus therefore remains unknown. The WGS strategy used here proved adequate for detecting the small regions associated with sex in this species. Our results highlight the evolutionary flexibility in genomic architecture underlying teleost sex-determination and allow practical applications to genetically sex Atlantic cod. PMID:27499266

  14. Feeding habits of Pacific cod larvae and juveniles in Mutsu Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takatsu, Tetsuya; NAKATANI, Toshikuni; MUTOH, Takashi; Takahashi, Toyomi

    1995-01-01

    The diets and prey widths of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) larvae and juveniles were examined in Mutsu Bay. In early March, 11 yolk-sac larvae were caught in midwater of the bay mouth. Five of 11 larvae captured had not opened their mouths, and the remaining six had not fed. Post-larvae ≤ 7mm in total length (TL) fed on copepod nauplii, particularly Pseudocalanus nauplii. Prey items of post-larvae >7mm TL were chiefly crustacean eggs, and Pseudocalanus spp. copepodites and adults. From Ap...

  15. Changes in the timing of spawning of Baltic cod : possible causes and implications for recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid; Horbowa, K.

    2000-01-01

    Interannual variations in spawning time, defined as the peak in egg abundance, of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea, were analysed. Effects of water temperature, size and age structure of the spawning stock, abundance of food, and timing of spawning in preceding years were...... temperature during the period of gonadal maturation, density-dependent processes related to the size of the spawning stock, and food availability. The age structure of the spawning stock is suggested to have an additional effect. A high proportion of first-time spawners and decreasing water temperature have...

  16. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analy...

  17. Thawed chilled Barents Sea cod fillets in modified atmosphere packaging-application of multivariate data analysis to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Guldager, H.S.;

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice for production of thawed chilled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod (Gadus morhua) fillets. The effect of frozen storage temperature (-20 and -30 C), frozen storage period (3, 6, 9 and 12 mo) and chill...... parameters in good manufacturing practice for this product. Frozen storage of up to 12 mo had no significant effect on quality attributes and shelf-life at 2degreesC was above 14 d irrespective of the time of frozen storage. As compared to a previous study with Baltic Sea, cod drip losses during chill...

  18. Food safety of salt-cured cod products : effects of salt-curing, rehydration and thermal treatmenton survival, growth and invasiveness of Listeria spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorentzen, Grete

    2010-01-01

    Salt-cured and dried salt-cured (klipfish) cod (Gadus morhua L.) are highly appreciated. Salt fish and klipfish are mainly prepared by rehydration to lower the level of salt. The rehydrated cod can be used in several dishes and consumption of these products has been considered safe due to the high level of salt. The overall aim of the thesis was to study the food safety of salt-cured fish products using Listeria spp. as an indicator. Initially, we studied the survival of Listeria spp. in m...

  19. Use of selective devices in trawls to support recovery of the Kattegat cod stock: a review of experiments and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Valentinsson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    this provides a valuable management tool for reducing the bycatch of cod and reducing mortality, and thus helping to rebuild the depleted stock. Gear research in the area has been focused on devices that allow for continued exploitation of the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and flatfish, but minimizing......The spawning-stock biomass of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Kattegat area is at a historically low level. Throughout the past decade considerable efforts have been devoted to research on improving both species and size selectivity of the trawls used in the mixed demersal fishery in the area, because...... measures and their effectiveness in maintaining a commercial fishery on viable stocks, yet protecting cod. We discuss the results in relation to changes in legislation and experience with implementation of new selective devices in recent years. We also discuss ways to create stronger incentives for fishers...

  20. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael;

    2001-01-01

    , predation) were also significant and when incorporated explained 69% of the variation in 0-group recruitment. In other spawning areas, variable hydrographic conditions did not allow for regular successful egg development. Hence, relatively simple models proved sufficient to predict recruitment of 0-group......We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... survival of early life stages and varying systematically among spawning sites were incorporated into stock-recruitment models, first for major cod spawning sites and then combined for the entire Central Baltic. Variables identified included potential egg production by the spawning stock, abiotic conditions...

  1. Location of and post-mortem changes in some cytoskeletal proteins in pork and cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, E.H.; Bremner, Allan; Purslow, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The cytoskeletal proteins actin, nebulin, spectrin, desmin, vinculin and talin were labelled immunohistochemically in sections of muscle from commercially available pigs and cod (Gadus morhua) taken pre-rigor and from samples stored for several days. Actin, nebulin and spectrin gave similar...... labelling in fish. Labelling for talin in pork muscle was intense at the sarcolemma but was not present in samples stored for 4 days. In contrast, the label for talin was concentrated at the myotendinous junction of the cod muscle throughout the storage period. These are the first reports of the detection...... and location of spectrin and vinculin in fish muscle and of the location of talin. The results are discussed in terms of muscle structure, function and post-mortem tenderisation. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry....

  2. Improving selectivity of the Baltic cod pelagic trawl fishery: Experiments to assess the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Tschernij, Vesa; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    Due to declining cod (Gadus morhua) stocks, the Baltic Sea was one of the first areas regulated by the European Communities where selective escape windows were implemented to improve the exploitation pattern. Increasing discard rates and the potential for a significant increase of the spawning...... stock and the yield of the fishery are important reasons to further improve the selectivity of the fishery and to asses the potential next step in this process. In this study, we tested three relatively different design concepts, in the Baltic cod pelagic trawl fishery, that are relevant to past or...... present legislation and that were developed to meet requirements of increased selectivity performance. A standard nominal 135 mm diamond mesh codend, a codend with two nominal 125 mm bottom windows, and a codend with a nominal 125 mm nominal top window were tested using the covered codend method. A Danish...

  3. Larval trophodynamics, turbulence, and drift on Georges Bank : A sensitivity analysis of cod and haddock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, F.E.; MacKenzie, Brian; Perry, R.I.;

    2001-01-01

    Using an individual-based model approach we consider trophodynamic effects on the growth and survival of larval cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on Georges Bank during late winter/early spring. These studies represent an extension of results described in Werner et al. (1996......; Deep-Sea Res. lf), wherein the effect of turbulence- enhanced larval-prey contact rates increased the effective prey concentration resulting in growth of cod larvae consistent with observed rates in the field. We reformulated the feeding of the larvae to include existing relationships between maximum...... behaviour, the effect of turbulence on pursuit and capture, and vertical dispersion decrease the predicted larval growth rates compared to those observed in the earlier study. These results suggest that larval feeding behaviour, and especially the ability of larvae to pursue encountered prey, could...

  4. Diel variation in feeding and movement patterns of juvenile Atlantic cod at offshore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubens, Jan T.; De Rijcke, Maarten; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a commercially important fish species suffering from overexploitation in the North-East Atlantic. In recent years, their natural environment is being intensively altered by the construction of offshore wind farms in many coastal areas. These constructions form artificial reefs influencing local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. It has been demonstrated that Atlantic cod is present in the vicinity of these constructions. However, empirical data concerning the diel activity and feeding behaviour of Atlantic cod in the vicinity of these artificial reefs is lacking. Atlantic cod has a flexible diel activity cycle linked to spatio-temporal variations in food availability and predation risk. In this study we integrated acoustic telemetry with stomach content analysis to quantify diel activity and evaluate diel feeding patterns at a windmill artificial reef (WAR) in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Atlantic cod exhibited crepuscular movements related to feeding activity; a 12 h cycle was found and the highest catch rates and stomach fullness were recorded close to sunset and sunrise. It is suggested that the observed diel movement pattern is related to the prey species community and to predation pressure. Foraging at low ambient light levels (i.e. at dusk and dawn) probably causes a trade-off between foraging success and reducing predation pressure. Fish did not leave the area in-between feeding periods. Hence other benefits (i.e. shelter against currents and predators) besides food availability stimulate the aggregation behaviour at the WARs.

  5. Using data storage tags to link otolith macrostructure in Baltic cod Gadus morhua with environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Nielsen, Birgitte; Mosegaard, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    in relation to these environmental drivers. Temperature was the only environmental variable with a significant effect, overlaying a strong size-related effect. The temperature effect was not uniform across behavioural types and spawning periods. Opacity showed a negative correlation with temperature...

  6. Effect of catch location, season and quality on value of Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua) products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margeirsson, Sveinn; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Jonsson, Gudmundur R.;

    2006-01-01

    In this book, scientists from various disciplines address the advances in seafood research with respect to quality, safety, consumer's demands and processing of wild and farmed fish. The nutritional properties of marine lipids and lipid oxidation from model systems to seafood are presented. Sever...

  7. Paternal effects on early life history traits in Northwest Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroll, M.-M.; Peck, M.A.; Butts, Ian A.E.;

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand parental effects on early life history of fish as manifested, for example, in individual fitness of offspring. Immediately after fertilization, parental contributions (both genetic and non-genetic) to embryos will affect larval ontogeny, physiology, morphology and su...... that the choice of mate during spawning can play a large role in offspring fitness...

  8. Individual behaviour of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) in relation to sex and reproductive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hüssy, Karin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    between sexes in the timing of the onset of migration and the duration of migration from feeding grounds to the spawning area. While there was no significant difference in duration of the spawning period between females and males, the histological indices suggest that females finish spawning before males...... of the spawning period differs between sexes, as does the level of activity during spawning events. Not all individuals followed the general pattern; a considerable number of individuals were found to spawn in shallow water in the Arkona Basin, and juvenile fish undertook the migration without spawning...

  9. The use of otolith microstructure to estimate age in adult Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Fey, D.P.;

    2010-01-01

    be tightly coupled to the annual cycle in environmental temperature at a depth of 30–60 m, where G. morhua predominantly reside. Between 135 and 200 increments occurred within the different zones, with a non-significant trend towards lower increment numbers and widths with distance from the primary...... primordium of the otolith. Increment formation apparently ceased at temperatures <5–6° C, but growth during the cold months corresponded closely with estimated growth rates. The increment patterns seemed to reflect annual cycles in environmental temperature, and the count of the increment cycles may thus be...... a promising tool for the determination of the true age of Baltic G. morhua....

  10. Diseases and parasites of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the Mecklenburg Bight to the Estonian coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Lang, T.

    1999-01-01

    the Mecklenburg Bight in the southwest to the Estonian coast in the northeast of the Baltic Sea. Prevalences were highest in the western part, except for skeletal deformities, which were highest in the central part. The spatial distribution of pseudobranchial swellings, C. lingua and L. branchialis appeared...

  11. Fishing gear-induced skin ulcerations in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Bagge, O.

    1998-01-01

    as severe skin abrasions in the area from the pectoral fin posterior to the level of the anus. The skin abrasions developed into large spots of necrotic dermal tissue with a diameter of 2-5 cm. The central part of the necrotic area sloughed off exposing a large haemorrhagic ulcer. Characteristically most...

  12. Geolocation of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) using Hidden Markov Models and behavioural switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Righton, David; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro;

    2008-01-01

    . In addition to the tidal component of the geolocation, the model incoporates two behavioural states, either high or low activity, estimated directly from the depth data, that affect the diffusivity parameter of the model and improves the precision and realism of the geolocation significantly. The new method...

  13. Conserving marine biodiversity: insights from life-history trait candidate genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Meldrup, Dorte;

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological developments have facilitated an increased focus on identifying genomic regions underlying adaptive trait variation in natural populations, and it has been advocated that this information should be important for designating population units for conservation. In marine fishes,...... only neutral markers. Accordingly, results also suggest that information about adaptive genetic variation will be useful for targeted conservation and management in this and other marine species......Recent technological developments have facilitated an increased focus on identifying genomic regions underlying adaptive trait variation in natural populations, and it has been advocated that this information should be important for designating population units for conservation. In marine fishes......, phenotypic studies have suggested adaptation through divergence of life-history traits among natural populations, but the distribution of adaptive genetic variation in these species is still relatively poorly known. In this study, we extract information about the geographical distribution of genetic...

  14. Growth pattern and growth dependent mortality of larval and pelagic juvenile North Sea cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune; Munk, Peter

    2004-01-01

    and May 2001), and larval/juvenile growth history from each of the sampling sequences was outlined. Growth rate was estimated by fitting a Laird-Gompertz equation to lengths-at-age, and we found the mean specific growth rate in length at age 20 d was 3.2% d(-1), declining to 1.9% d(-1) at an age of 90 d...

  15. Seasonal prevalence and intensity of follicular atresia in Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Diekmann, R.;

    2008-01-01

    of atresia, i.e. number of atretic oocytes in relation to normally developed vitellogenic oocytes, was low amounting to 1.4% on average. Similar to prevalence, relative intensity of atresia differed significantly between maturity stages and increased with decreasing female condition. The population egg loss...

  16. Glycolysis and ATP degradation in cod ( Gadus morhua ) at subzero temperatures in relation to thaw rigor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    synthesis at 0 degreesC during thawing was obtained in samples as well as in whole fish. Reduction or elimination of thaw rigor effects (shrinkage and drip loss) during a period of frozen storage were examined. When thawing at 5 degreesC, fillets stored at -9 degreesC showed significantly less shrinkage...

  17. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Frommel, A. Y.; V Stiebens; Clemmesen, C.; J. Havenhand

    2010-01-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive – particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (d...

  18. Male reproductive competition in spawning aggregations of cod ( Gadus morhua , L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive competition may lead to a large skew in reproductive success among individuals. Very few studies have analysed the paternity contribution of individual males in spawning aggregations of fish species with huge census population sizes. We quantified the variance in male reproductive su...

  19. Cod reproductive ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria

    In recent decades, Baltic cod has experienced a period of low recruitment. In the same period the pelagic Baltic Sea ecosystem experienced a regime shift, due to hydrographic changes, affecting all trophic levels. The rationale for the thesis is built on the hypothesis that the regime shift has r...

  20. Microevolution in time and space: SNP analysis of historical DNA reveals dynamic signatures of selection in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Als, Thomas Damm;

    2013-01-01

    of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) studied over an 80-year period. Screening of >1000 gene-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified 77 loci that showed highly elevated levels of differentiation, likely as an effect of directional selection, in either time, space or both. Exploratory analysis...... the 1928 to 1960 period showed almost complete stability during later decades. The contrasting microevolutionary trajectories among populations resulted in sequential shifts in spatial outliers, with no locus maintaining elevated spatial differentiation throughout the study period. Simulations of migration...

  1. The effects of WAF and CEWAF on EROD activity in juvenile Atlantic cod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The affects of dispersed oil and hydrocarbons on Atlantic cod were examined in this study in which water accommodated fractions (WAF) of two types of oil were generated in a wave tank or in a baffled flask. Oil droplet sizes of the two systems were comparable. Chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAF) of combinations of two oils and two dispersants were prepared in a similar manner. Juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exposed to a broad range of concentrations of either WAF or CEWAF before being transferred to clean seawater. Periodic sampling of 5 fish confirmed the liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylas (EROD) activity. At the end of a 4 hour exposure, EROD activity was no different from the controls, but it was much higher after 20 hours at CEWAF concentrations above 2 percent v/v regardless of oil or dispersant type. Over the next 48 hours, EROD activity declined and did not return to control or pre-treatment levels even after 72 hours. EROD in livers from cod exposed to WAF was much higher after 24 hours at concentrations of 12 percent v/v or higher, reaching a maximum of 8 picomoles/mg protein/min. After 72 hours, EROD activity in WAF-exposed livers decreased to pre-treatment levels. The study showed that a brief 4 hour exposure to WAF and CEWAF can induce EROD activity in livers of juvenile cod and that the surge in enzyme activity can continue for 24-48 hours.

  2. Cheating about the cod

    OpenAIRE

    Hannesson, Rögnvaldur

    2006-01-01

    The Northeast Arctic cod is managed by a total quota shared evenly between Norway and Russia. It appears that Russia has been overfishing its quota by substantial amounts for a number of years, due to insufficient monitoring of fishing vessels. This paper considers what would be the best reply by Norway to given levels of Russian overfishing. It is found that in most cases the best Norwegian reply would be also to overfish its quota. An aggregate biomass model with stochastic growth and recru...

  3. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  4. Slow adaptation in the face of rapid warming leads to collapse of the Gulf of Maine cod fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Andrew J; Alexander, Michael A; Hernandez, Christina M; Kerr, Lisa A; Le Bris, Arnault; Mills, Katherine E; Nye, Janet A; Record, Nicholas R; Scannell, Hillary A; Scott, James D; Sherwood, Graham D; Thomas, Andrew C

    2015-11-13

    Several studies have documented fish populations changing in response to long-term warming. Over the past decade, sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Maine increased faster than 99% of the global ocean. The warming, which was related to a northward shift in the Gulf Stream and to changes in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation, led to reduced recruitment and increased mortality in the region's Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stock. Failure to recognize the impact of warming on cod contributed to overfishing. Recovery of this fishery depends on sound management, but the size of the stock depends on future temperature conditions. The experience in the Gulf of Maine highlights the need to incorporate environmental factors into resource management.

  5. Slow adaptation in the face of rapid warming leads to collapse of the Gulf of Maine cod fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Andrew J; Alexander, Michael A; Hernandez, Christina M; Kerr, Lisa A; Le Bris, Arnault; Mills, Katherine E; Nye, Janet A; Record, Nicholas R; Scannell, Hillary A; Scott, James D; Sherwood, Graham D; Thomas, Andrew C

    2015-11-13

    Several studies have documented fish populations changing in response to long-term warming. Over the past decade, sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Maine increased faster than 99% of the global ocean. The warming, which was related to a northward shift in the Gulf Stream and to changes in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation, led to reduced recruitment and increased mortality in the region's Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stock. Failure to recognize the impact of warming on cod contributed to overfishing. Recovery of this fishery depends on sound management, but the size of the stock depends on future temperature conditions. The experience in the Gulf of Maine highlights the need to incorporate environmental factors into resource management. PMID:26516197

  6. Chitosan as an edible invisible film for quality preservation of herring and atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, You-Jin; Kamil, Janak Y V A; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2002-08-28

    The effect of chitosan with different molecular weights as coatings for shelf-life extension of fresh fillets of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and herring (Clupea harengus) was evaluated over a 12-day storage at refrigerated temperature (4 +/- 1 degrees C). Three chitosan preparations from snow crab (Chinoecetes opilio) processing wastes, differing in viscosities and molecular weights, were prepared; their apparent viscosities (360, 57, and 14 cP) depended on the deacetylation time (4, 10, and 20 h, respectively) of the chitin precursor. Upon coating with chitosans, a significant (p chitosan after 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 days of storage, respectively. Chitosan coating significantly (p chitosan were inter-related; the efficacy of chitosans with viscosities of 57 and 360 cP was superior to that of chitosan with a 14 cP viscosity. Thus, chitosan as edible coating would enhance the quality of seafoods during storage.

  7. Prediction of chemical, physical and sensory data from process parameters for frozen cod using multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Iben Ellegaard; Jensen, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels;

    1998-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters were determined for 115 cod (Gadus morhua) samples stored under varying frozen storage conditions. Five different process parameters (period of frozen storage, frozen storage. temperature, place of catch, season for catching and state of rigor) were....... PLS models that were able to predict the physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters from the process parameters of the frozen raw material were generated. The prediction abilities of the PLS models were good enough to give reasonable results even when the process parameters were characterised...... by ones and zeroes only. These results illustrate the application of multivariate analysis as an effective strategy for improving the quality of frozen fish products. (C) 1998 Society of Chemical Industry...

  8. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009. We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON, as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV. A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1-5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20-0.25 m s(-1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0-1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  9. Daily rhythmicity of clock gene transcripts in atlantic cod fast skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo C Lazado

    Full Text Available The classical notion of a centralized clock that governs circadian rhythmicity has been challenged with the discovery of peripheral oscillators that enable organisms to cope with daily changes in their environment. The present study aimed to identify the molecular clock components in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and to investigate their daily gene expression in fast skeletal muscle. Atlantic cod clock genes were closely related to their orthologs in teleosts and tetrapods. Synteny was conserved to varying degrees in the majority of the 18 clock genes examined. In particular, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2 (arntl2, RAR-related orphan receptor A (rora and timeless (tim displayed high degrees of conservation. Expression profiling during the early ontogenesis revealed that some transcripts were maternally transferred, namely arntl2, cryptochrome 1b and 2 (cry1b and cry2, and period 2a and 2b (per2a and per2b. Most clock genes were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, suggesting the possible existence of multiple peripheral clock systems in Atlantic cod. In particular, they were all detected in fast skeletal muscle, with the exception of neuronal PAS (Per-Arnt-Single-minded domain-containing protein (npas1 and rora. Rhythmicity analysis revealed 8 clock genes with daily rhythmic expression, namely arntl2, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (clock, npas2, cry2, cry3 per2a, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (nr1d1, and nr1d2a. Transcript levels of the myogenic genes myogenic factor 5 (myf5 and muscleblind-like 1 (mbnl1 strongly correlated with clock gene expression. This is the first study to unravel the molecular components of peripheral clocks in Atlantic cod. Taken together, our data suggest that the putative clock system in fast skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod has regulatory implications on muscle physiology, particularly in the expression of genes related to myogenesis.

  10. Standardization of BOD₅/COD ratio as a biological stability index for MSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana; Sandon, Annalisa

    2012-08-01

    The control of biodegradable substances is the key issue in evaluating the short and long-term emission potential and environmental impact of a landfill. Aerobic and anaerobic indices, such as respirometric index (RI) and biomethane potential production (GB21), can be used in the estimation of the stability of solid waste samples. Previous studies showed different degrees of relationship between BOD₅/COD ratio compared with RI4. Aim of this study is to standardize the parameter BOD₅/COD ratio and to test the methodology under different operating conditions (dynamic or static leaching and leaching duration, 6 and 24-h) keeping constant temperature and liquid/solid ratio (L/S=10 l/kg(TS)), with the introduction of a COD fractioning method. The COD fractioning is based on the differentiation between the soluble fraction (COD(sol)) and the colloidal fraction (COD(coll)) using a flocculation method. The BOD₅/COD and the BOD₅/COD(sol) indices are both consistent and significant and can be used as stability indices. The BOD₅/COD ratio does not seem to be influenced, for the same test duration, by the type of test, static or dynamic. In the same way the longer test duration (24-h) does not influence significantly the values of BOD₅/COD ratio. As a consequence a leaching test duration of 6-h is preferable to avoid the beginning of the hydrolysis and oxidation processes.

  11. Northeast Regional Cod Tagging Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientific justification: Canadian and US stock assessments for Atlantic cod indicate considerable fluctuation in stock abundance and recruitment over the last 20...

  12. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  13. Long distance linkage disequilibrium and limited hybridization suggest cryptic speciation in atlantic cod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Bradbury

    Full Text Available Hybrid zones provide unprecedented opportunity for the study of the evolution of reproductive isolation, and the extent of hybridization across individuals and genomes can illuminate the degree of isolation. We examine patterns of interchromosomal linkage disequilibrium (ILD and the presence of hybridization in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, in previously identified hybrid zones in the North Atlantic. Here, previously identified clinal loci were mapped to the cod genome with most (∼70% occurring in or associated with (<5 kb coding regions representing a diverse array of possible functions and pathways. Despite the observation that clinal loci were distributed across three linkage groups, elevated ILD was observed among all groups of clinal loci and strongest in comparisons involving a region of low recombination along linkage group 7. Evidence of ILD supports a hypothesis of divergence hitchhiking transitioning to genome hitchhiking consistent with reproductive isolation. This hypothesis is supported by Bayesian characterization of hybrid classes present and we find evidence of common F1 hybrids in several regions consistent with frequent interbreeding, yet little evidence of F2 or backcrossed individuals. This work suggests that significant barriers to hybridization and introgression exist among these co-occurring groups of cod either through strong selection against hybrid individuals, or genetic incompatibility and intrinsic barriers to hybridization. In either case, the presence of strong clinal trends, and little gene flow despite extensive hybridization supports a hypothesis of reproductive isolation and cryptic speciation in Atlantic cod. Further work is required to test the degree and nature of reproductive isolation in this species.

  14. Evidence of uptake, biotransformation and DNA binding of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in Atlantic cod and corkwing wrasse caught in the vicinity of an aluminium works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, E; Beyer, J; Jonsson, G; Reichert, W L; Andersen, O K

    2001-09-01

    Feral Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) were investigated for polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the Karmsund strait, western Norway. This strait is highly contaminated with PAHs, and a main source is the chronic release of gas-scrubbing effluents from a local aluminium works. In both species, the level of biliary PAH metabolites and hepatic DNA adducts were higher in fish collected near the aluminium works. Interestingly, a significantly higher level of both biliary PAH metabolites and hepatic DNA adducts was found in corkwing wrasse as compared to cod, indicating a higher potential for genotoxic effects in this species. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in cod estimated by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and an immunoassay technique (ELISA), seemed to be weakly induced at the contaminated sites. At the most contaminated site, skin ulcers and fin erosion were detected in about 70 and 45% of the cods, respectively. The data demonstrated that both cod and corkwing wrasse may be suitable target species for PAH pollution monitoring.

  15. Harvest selection on Atlantic cod behavioral traits: implications for spatial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Esben Moland; Heupel, Michelle R; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Moland, Even

    2012-07-01

    Harvesting wild populations may contrast or reinforce natural agents of selection and potentially cause evolutionary changes in life-history traits such as growth and maturation. Harvest selection may also act on behavioral traits, although this field of research has so far received less attention. We used acoustic tags and a network of receivers to monitor the behavior and fate of individual Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, N = 60) in their natural habitat on the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. Fish with a strong diel vertical migration, alternating between shallow- and deep-water habitats, had a higher risk of being captured in the fishery (traps, gillnet, hand line) as compared to fish that stayed in deeper water. There was also a significant negative correlation between fish size (30-66 cm) and the magnitude of diel vertical migration. Natural selection on behavior was less clear, but tended to favor fish with a large activity space. On a monthly time scale we found significant repeatabilities for cod behavior, meaning that individual characteristics tended to persist and therefore may be termed personality traits. We argue that an evolutionary approach to fisheries management should consider fish behavior. This would be of particular relevance for spatial management actions such as marine reserve design.

  16. How cod shapes its world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Leeuwen; A.M. de Roos; L. Persson

    2008-01-01

    Cod stocks in the North West Atlantic and the Baltic Sea have shown similar dynamics in recent decades with a rapid decline in abundance and a lack of stock recovery following a period of large biomass. We explore whether the lack of recovery can be ascribed to an emergent Allee effect, which is a m

  17. Transcriptome profiling of the antiviral immune response in Atlantic cod macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamloo, Khalil; Xue, Xi; Booman, Marije; Smith, Nicole C; Rise, Matthew L

    2016-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the transcriptome response of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) macrophages to the viral mimic, polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC), using a 20K Atlantic cod microarray platform and qPCR. We identified 285 significantly up-regulated and 161 significantly down-regulated probes in cod macrophages 24 h after pIC stimulation. A subset of 26 microarray-identified transcripts was subjected to qPCR validation using samples treated with pIC or phosphate-buffered saline (control) over time (3, 6, 12, 24, 48 h), and 77% of them showed a significant response to pIC. The microarray and qPCR analyses in this study showed that pIC induced the expression of cod macrophage transcripts involved in RLR- and TLR-dependent pathogen recognition (e.g. tlr3, tlr7, mda5 and lgp2), as well as signal transducers (e.g. stat1 and nfkbia) and transcription activators (e.g. irf7 and irf10) in the MyD88-independent and dependent signalling pathways. Several immune effectors (e.g. isg15s, viperin, herc4, mip2 and ccl13) were significantly up-regulated in pIC-stimulated cod macrophages. The expression of some transcripts (e.g. irf7, irf10, viperin) was significantly up-regulated by pIC as early as 12 h. All pIC-induced transcripts had peak expression at either 24 h (e.g. tlr7, irf7, mip2) or 48 h (e.g. tlr3, lgp2, stat1). This study suggests possible roles of both vertebrate-conserved (e.g. tlr3 as an up-regulated gene) and fish-specific (tlr22g as a down-regulated gene) receptors in dsRNA recognition, and the importance of conserved and potentially fish-specific interferon stimulated genes in cod macrophages. PMID:27255218

  18. Groundfish overfishing, diatom decline, and the marine silica cycle: Lessons from Saanich Inlet, Canada, and the Baltic Sea cod crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Timor; Yahel, Gitai; Yahel, Ruthy; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Herut, Barak; Snelgrove, Paul; Crusius, John; Lazar, Boaz

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we link groundfish activity to the marine silica cycle and suggest that the drastic mid-1980s crash of the Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua) population triggered a cascade of events leading to decrease in dissolved silica (DSi) and diatom abundance in the water. We suggest that this seemingly unrelated sequence of events was caused by a marked decline in sediment resuspension associated with reduced groundfish activity resulting from the cod crash. In a study in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada, we discovered that, by resuspending bottom sediments, groundfish triple DSi fluxes from the sediments and reduce silica accumulation therein. Using these findings and the available oceanographic and environmental data from the Baltic Sea, we estimate that overfishing and recruitment failure of Baltic cod reduced by 20% the DSi supply from bottom sediments to the surface water leading to a decline in the diatom population in the Baltic Sea. The major importance of the marginal ocean in the marine silica cycle and the associated high population density of groundfish suggest that groundfish play a major role in the silica cycle. We postulate that dwindling groundfish populations caused by anthropogenic perturbations, e.g., overfishing and bottom water anoxia, may cause shifts in marine phytoplankton communities.

  19. Microgeographical population structure and adaptation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua: spatio-temporal insights from gene-associated DNA markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Loeschcke, V.;

    2011-01-01

    Recent technical advances have stimulated studies on spatial scales of adaptive genetic variation in marine fishes. However, very few studies have combined spatial and temporal sampling to investigate adaptive genetic structuring at local and microgeographical scales, i.e. scales at which neutral...

  20. New species in the genus Francisella (Gammaproteobacteria; Francisellaceae); Francisella piscicida sp. nov. isolated from cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil;

    2007-01-01

    showed only minor differences between the Francisella isolates. Due to the inconclusive result from the DNA-DNA hybridisation, major emphasis concerning the status of this isolate is made on previously published molecular, phenotypic and biochemical characters. All characteristics taken together support...

  1. The Effects of Temperature, Hypoxia and Hypercapnia on the Metabolism of Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgård, Bjørn

    species can survive in relatively high dissolved CO2 concentrations (hypercapnia) (Crocker and Cech, 1996; McKenzie et al., 2003), long-term exposure to sub-lethal environmental hypercapnia is known to affect growth, feed conversion efficiency and body condition index (Smart, 1981; Fivelstad et al., 1998...

  2. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil;

    2007-01-01

    from F. tularensis and F. philomiragia. GM2212(T) is catalase-positive, indole positive, oxidase-negative, do not produce H(2)S in Triple Sugar Iron agar, and does not hydrolyze gelatin, is resistant to erythromycin and susceptible to ceftazidime, the latter five characteristics separating it from F...

  3. Large effective population size and temporal genetic stability in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Swain, Douglas P.;

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many commercial fish stocks have experienced dramatic declines due to overfishing. Such fisheries-induced population reductions could potentially erode the genetic diversity of marine fish populations. Based on analyses of DNA extracted from archived and contemporary samples, this paper...

  4. POP induced oxidative stress and its effect on fatty acid composition in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Tveit, Anne Mari

    2010-01-01

    The North Sea is becoming heavily contaminated by organic pollutants. The dominating sources of contamination are land-based releases, transport and offshore oil and gas industry. This creates a complex spectrum of different persistent contaminants accumulating in the fish in the North Sea. The dominating pollutants are Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) such as organic chlorinated (PCB, DDT), brominated (PBDE) and fluorinated (PFOS) compounds from industrial waste products. There are also ...

  5. Growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in land-based recirculation systems: Effects of feeding regime, photoperiod and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülberth, Michael; Moran, Damian; Jarlbæk, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    . Three RAS units were used to simultaneously test three feed/photoperiod regimes that might be encountered in the wild or aquaculture; LightDark (LD) 24:0, LD12:11 (+ 1 h crepuscular periods) and LD6:6 (+ 12 h crepuscular periods). Feed was administered during the light period every 30 min for a 3 min...... feeding duration. In each RAS unit three diets (A, B and C) were tested, which were broadly similar in composition but from different manufacturers. Water exchange rate averaged 10–19% in the three recirculation systems, and key water quality parameters such as NH4+ and CO2 remained at low effect...

  6. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene...... selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread...... archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found...

  7. Reconstructing historical stock development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the eastern Baltic Sea before the beginning of intensive exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Köster, Fritz; MacKenzie, Brian

    2008-01-01

    mortality before the 1940s was below 0.2, but reached moderate levels during the Second World War. The stock size before the war may be considered as a reference level of biomass at low fishing impact, providing important information for the management of fisheries and the Baltic ecosystem....

  8. Pulse trawl fishing: characteristics of the electrical stimulation and the effect on behaviour and injuries of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de D.; Fosseidengen, J.E.; Fjelldal, P.G.; Burggraaf, D.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    In the North Sea flatfish fishery, electric pulse trawls have been introduced to replace the conventional mechanical method. Pulse trawls reduce the fuel consumption, reduce adverse impact on the ecosystem but cause injuries in gadoids. We describe the design and electrical properties of pulse trawl

  9. Identifying potential for fisheries-induced evolution on behavioral traits of a Skagerrak cod (Gadus morhua) population.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Sanchez, David Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries activities and the development of more efficient fishing gear, have had detrimental effects in commercial stocks. This occurs largely as a result of negative selection acting on certain individuals during the harvesting process. Empirical observations show that fishing mortality and/or selective fishing pressure, leads to reductions in age and size at maturity of fish. Research shows that this is not only driven by phenotypic plasticity, but also by an evolutionary mechanism. Simila...

  10. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2009-01-01

    Highly stratified marine ecosystems with dynamic features such as fronts or clines in salinity, temperature, or oxygen concentration challenge an individual's ability to select suitable living conditions. Ultimately,, environmental heterogeneity organizes the spatial distributions of populations...

  11. Quantifying environmental heterogeneity : habitat size necessary for successful development of cod Gadus morhua eggs in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Plikshs, M.;

    2000-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variability in environmental factors can exert major influences on survival and growth of living organisms. However, in many key areas of fisheries science (e.g. growth, survival and recruitment determination), environmental heterogeneity is usually ignored because of insuffi......Spatial and temporal variability in environmental factors can exert major influences on survival and growth of living organisms. However, in many key areas of fisheries science (e.g. growth, survival and recruitment determination), environmental heterogeneity is usually ignored because...

  12. A novel and quick method to avoid H2O2 interference on COD measurement in Fenton system by Na2SO3 reduction and O2 oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Weiguang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement has been a big problem in the application of the Fenton process. However, there is no simple and effective method available to address this problem, although several methods have been reported in the literature. In this st......Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement has been a big problem in the application of the Fenton process. However, there is no simple and effective method available to address this problem, although several methods have been reported in the literature....... In this study, a new method has been developed based on Na2SO3 reduction and O2 oxidation, which has easy operation and short time requirement. Na2SO3 reduction was used to remove H2O2 in water samples, which was independent of pH in the investigated range of 2.50-11.95. Residual Na2SO3 was removed...

  13. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  14. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2010-01-01

    Sensory characteristics of cod products available to consumers were analyzed, and different ways to analyze sensory results were viewed. Ten cod samples of different origin (wild and farmed cod), storage time (short and extended) and storage method (stored fresh, frozen or packed in modified...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...... to be more applicable for studying results of extensive data sets by handling missing values and estimating the significance of sensory attributes. The practical use of the paper is also a quantitative descriptive analysis vocabulary, which may be used as a basis for other studies with cod. It may also...

  15. Parasites as biological tags to track an ontogenetic shift in the feeding behaviour of Gadus morhua off West and East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Julian; Klimpel, Sven; Fock, Heino O; MacKenzie, Ken; Kuhn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Parasites, being an integral part of every ecosystem and trophically transmitted along the food webs, can provide detailed insights into the structure of food webs and can close the information gap between short-term stomach content analyses and long-term fish otolith analyses. They are useful for tracking ontogenetic shifts in the host's diet, the occurrence of specific organisms or migratory behaviour of their hosts, even in inaccessible environments. In the present study, stomach content analyses and parasitological examinations were performed on 70 Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, one of the most important high-level predators of small fish in the North Atlantic, caught during one research vessel cruise from West and East Greenlandic waters. Analyses revealed significant differences in fish size with higher values for East Greenland (average total length (TL) of 50.5 cm) compared to West Greenland (average TL of 33.3 cm). Clear differences were also present in prey and parasite composition. Crustacea was the main food source for all fish (IRI = 10082.70), while the importance of teleosts increased with fish size. With a prevalence of 85 % in West Greenland and 100 % in East Greenland, Nematoda were the most abundant parasite group. The results indicate an ontogenetic shift in the diet, which are discussed in the context of the common distribution theory, stock dynamics and migratory behaviour.

  16. Zschokkella hildae Auerbach, 1910: phylogenetic position, morphology, and location in cultured Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Astrid Sibylle; Wootten, Rod; Sommerville, Christina

    2010-06-01

    The myxozoan Zschokkella hildae Auerbach, 1910, was detected with a prevalence of 100% in cultured Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. aged 1+ from a culture facility on the west coast of Scotland. Sporogonic stages of Z. hildae, plasmodia producing 2-5 mature spores, were located predominantly in the collecting ducts and ureters of the kidney, and spores were present in the urine collected from the bladder. Less frequently, plasmodia were detected in the interstitial tissue of the kidney. The parasite prevalence in cultured fish was considerably higher than reported in wild fish but no obvious signs of pathology were detected. SSU rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that Z. hildae is closely related to a Sinuolinea sp. from the urinary system of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.), and that these two species, together with other myxozoans from the urinary system of marine fish cluster together in a sub-clade of the recognised marine clade of myxozoans. This sub-clade is characterised by a specific linear expansion segment, helix E23_15 in the secondary structure of variable region V4 of the SSU rDNA. Z. hildae and Sinuolinea sp. show extraordinary large linear expansion segment in both V4 and V7 and an important number of complementary base changes in the conservative regions of the SSU rDNA, indicating considerable evolutionary changes in the SSU rDNA of these species when compared with other myxozoans from the marine environment.

  17. First feed affects the expressions of microRNA and their targets in Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizuayehu, Teshome Tilahun; Furmanek, Tomasz; Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Rønnestad, Ivar; Hamre, Kristin; Johansen, Steinar D; Babiak, Igor

    2016-04-14

    To our knowledge, there is no report on microRNA (miRNA) expression and their target analysis in relation to the type of the first feed and its effect on the further growth of fish. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae have better growth and development performance when fed natural zooplankton as a start-feed, as compared with those fed typical aquaculture start-feeds. In our experiment, two groups of Atlantic cod larvae were fed reference feed (zooplankton, mostly copepods, filtered from a seawater pond) v. aquaculture feeds: enriched rotifers (Brachionus sp.) and later brine shrimp (Artemia salina). We examined the miRNA expressions of six defined developmental stages as determined and standardised by body length from first feeding for both diet groups. We found eight miRNA (miR-9, miR-19a, miR-130b, miR-146, miR-181a, miR-192, miR-206 and miR-11240) differentially expressed between the two feeding groups in at least one developmental stage. We verified the next-generation sequencing data using real-time RT-PCR. We found 397 putative targets (mRNA) to the differentially expressed miRNA; eighteen of these mRNA showed differential expression in at least one stage. The patterns of differentially expressed miRNA and their putative target mRNA were mostly inverse, but sometimes also concurrent. The predicted miRNA targets were involved in different pathways, including metabolic, phototransduction and signalling pathways. The results of this study provide new nutrigenomic information on the potential role of miRNA in mediating nutritional effects on growth during the start-feeding period in fish larvae. PMID:26857476

  18. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  19. Linking size and age at sexual maturation to body growth, productivity and recruitment of Atlantic cod stocks spanning the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Trippel, E.A.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2013-01-01

    Sexual maturation patterns of 22 North Atlantic stocks of cod (Gadus morhua) were examined and related to geographical distribution area, ambient water temperature, growth and surplus production. Four patterns were identified, i.e. sexual maturation early in life at small size, early in life...... at large size, late in life at small size and lastly, late in life at large size. These maturation patterns were geographically clustered and associated with differences in growth and surplus production. Stocks maturing late in life at small size were characterised by slow growth and low surplus production...... (e.g. stocks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Labrador/Newfoundland). Stocks maturing early in life at large size exhibited high to intermediate growth and surplus production (e.g. Celtic Sea, North Sea). Stocks maturing late in life at large size had low to intermediate growth rates and surplus...

  20. Lobster and cod benefit from small-scale northern marine protected areas: inference from an empirical before–after control-impact study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben Moland; Knutsen, Halvor; Garrigou, Pauline; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Kleiven, Alf Ring; André, Carl; Knutsen, Jan Atle

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented as tools to conserve and manage fisheries and target species. Because there are opportunity costs to conservation, there is a need for science-based assessment of MPAs. Here, we present one of the northernmost documentations of MPA effects to date, demonstrated by a replicated before–after control-impact (BACI) approach. In 2006, MPAs were implemented along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast offering complete protection to shellfish and partial protection to fish. By 2010, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) had increased by 245 per cent in MPAs, whereas CPUE in control areas had increased by 87 per cent. Mean size of lobsters increased by 13 per cent in MPAs, whereas increase in control areas was negligible. Furthermore, MPA-responses and population development in control areas varied significantly among regions. This illustrates the importance of a replicated BACI design for reaching robust conclusions and management decisions. Partial protection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was followed by an increase in population density and body size compared with control areas. By 2010, MPA cod were on average 5 cm longer than in any of the control areas. MPAs can be useful management tools in rebuilding and conserving portions of depleted lobster populations in northern temperate waters, and even for a mobile temperate fish species such as the Atlantic cod. PMID:23303544

  1. Lobster and cod benefit from small-scale northern marine protected areas: inference from an empirical before-after control-impact study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben Moland; Knutsen, Halvor; Garrigou, Pauline; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Kleiven, Alf Ring; André, Carl; Knutsen, Jan Atle

    2013-03-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented as tools to conserve and manage fisheries and target species. Because there are opportunity costs to conservation, there is a need for science-based assessment of MPAs. Here, we present one of the northernmost documentations of MPA effects to date, demonstrated by a replicated before-after control-impact (BACI) approach. In 2006, MPAs were implemented along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast offering complete protection to shellfish and partial protection to fish. By 2010, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) had increased by 245 per cent in MPAs, whereas CPUE in control areas had increased by 87 per cent. Mean size of lobsters increased by 13 per cent in MPAs, whereas increase in control areas was negligible. Furthermore, MPA-responses and population development in control areas varied significantly among regions. This illustrates the importance of a replicated BACI design for reaching robust conclusions and management decisions. Partial protection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was followed by an increase in population density and body size compared with control areas. By 2010, MPA cod were on average 5 cm longer than in any of the control areas. MPAs can be useful management tools in rebuilding and conserving portions of depleted lobster populations in northern temperate waters, and even for a mobile temperate fish species such as the Atlantic cod. PMID:23303544

  2. EAARL Topography-Cape Cod National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Cape Cod National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  3. Who’s your mama? Riverine hybridisation of threatened freshwater Trout Cod and Murray Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmack, Peter J.; Dyer, Fiona J.; Lintermans, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Rates of hybridization and introgression are increasing dramatically worldwide because of translocations, restocking of organisms and habitat modifications; thus, determining whether hybridization is occuring after reintroducing extirpated congeneric species is commensurately important for conservation. Restocking programs are sometimes criticized because of the genetic consequences of hatchery-bred fish breeding with wild populations. These concerns are important to conservation restocking programs, including those from the Australian freshwater fish family, Percichthyidae. Two of the better known Australian Percichthyidae are the Murray Cod, Maccullochella peelii and Trout Cod, Maccullochella macquariensis which were formerly widespread over the Murray Darling Basin. In much of the Murrumbidgee River, Trout Cod and Murray Cod were sympatric until the late 1970s when Trout Cod were extirpated. Here we use genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data together with mitochondrial sequences to examine hybridization and introgression between Murray Cod and Trout Cod in the upper Murrumbidgee River and consider implications for restocking programs. We have confirmed restocked riverine Trout Cod reproducing, but only as inter-specific matings, in the wild. We detected hybrid Trout Cod–Murray Cod in the Upper Murrumbidgee, recording the first hybrid larvae in the wild. Although hybrid larvae, juveniles and adults have been recorded in hatcheries and impoundments, and hybrid adults have been recorded in rivers previously, this is the first time fertile F1 have been recorded in a wild riverine population. The F1 backcrosses with Murray cod have also been found to be fertile. All backcrosses noted were with pure Murray Cod. Such introgression has not been recorded previously in these two species, and the imbalance in hybridization direction may have important implications for restocking programs.

  4. New England Cod Collapse and the Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kyle C.; Oremus, Kimberly L.; Gaines, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    To improve fishery management, there is an increasing need to understand the long-term consequences of natural and anthropogenic climate variability for ecological systems. New England’s iconic cod populations have been in decline for several decades and have recently reached unprecedented lows. We find that 17% of the overall decline in Gulf of Maine cod biomass since 1980 can be attributed to positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This is a consequence of three results: i) a 1-unit increase in the NAO winter index is associated with a 17% decrease in the spring biomass of age-1 cod the following year; ii) this NAO-driven decrease persists as the affected cohort matures; iii) fishing practices appear to exacerbate NAO’s direct biological effect such that, since 1913, a 1-unit increase in the NAO index lowers subsequent cod catch for up to 19 years. The Georges Bank cod stock displays similar patterns. Because we statistically detect a delay between the NAO and subsequent declines in adult biomass, our findings imply that observed current NAO conditions can be used in stock forecasts, providing lead time for adaptive policy. More broadly, our approach can inform forecasting efforts for other fish populations strongly affected by natural and anthropogenic climatic variation. PMID:27463967

  5. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  6. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...

  7. H2O2_COD_EPA; MEC_acclimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — H2O2_COD_EPA: Measurements of hydrogen peroxide and COD concentrations for water samples from the MEC reactors. MEC_acclimation: raw data for current and voltage of...

  8. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by (1)H and (23)Na MRI, (23)Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Karlsdóttir, Magnea Gudrún; Arason, Sigurjón

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future. PMID:26041245

  9. The use of multibeam and split-beam echo sounders for assessing biomass and distribution of spring-spawning Atlantic cod in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshin, Christopher William Damon

    This research focused on advancing the application of split-beam and multibeam echo sounding to remotely locate and describe spatial distribution, and to provide a relative measure of abundance of the spring-spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the western Gulf of Maine. Specifically, the main objectives of this research were 1) to test the feasibility of a multibeam echo sounder to detect changes in volume backscatter proportional to incrementally decreasing quantities of cod held in a submerged cage, and to compare results to a split-beam echo sounder; 2) to describe the spatio-temporal distribution and estimate biomass of spring-spawning cod in the Gulf of Maine cod spawning protection area (GOMCSPA) by repeated acoustic and trawl surveys; and 3) to determine a predictive relation between target strength and length for 38-kHz and 120-kHz split-beam echo sounders and a 300-kHz multibeam echo sounder, and characterize other factors affecting backscattering of sound. The multibeam echo sounder detected a small and large reduction in volume backscatter proportional to reductions in stocking density of caged cod, while the split-beam echo sounder only detected a large reduction in stocking density. The spatial information from the multibeam echo sounder helped interpret and explain results from the split-beam echo sounder. Repeated acoustic and trawl surveys showed cod were relatively widespread in the survey area in May, but congregated at higher densities in areas adjacent to two elevated bathymetric features. Most cod converged to a single location in June, and were at a higher concentration than observations in May. This congregation decreased in size and density in July. Survey estimates of cod biomass ranged 184-494 mt in May, 138-617 mt in June, and 39-135 mt in July, depending on the estimation method. Based on echo classification and extrapolation, cod biomass to the GOMCSPA ranged 260-466 mt in May, 196-513 mt in June, and 91-198 mt in July. The biomass

  10. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Babora Borri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%, fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s influent. This was assigned to NaCl added in order to enhance conductivity in wastewater.

  11. The influence of oxygen saturation on the distributional overlap of predator (cod, Gadus morhua ) and prey (herring, Clupea harengus ) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity, can create boundary conditions for the co-occurrence of marine predators and their prey. If one or both are spatially constrained by their tolerance to environmental variables, then spatial differences in the availability of possible habitats define the volume of dist...

  12. Changes in regional brain monoaminergic activity and temporary down-regulation in stress response from dietary supplementation with l-tryptophan in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Schjolden, J.; Krogdahl, A.;

    2013-01-01

    The brain monoamines serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) both play an integrative role in behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to challenges, and comparative models suggest common mechanisms for dietary modulation of transmission by these signal substances in vertebrates...

  13. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Role of temperature on lipid/fatty acid composition in Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) eggs and unfed larvae

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a laboratory experiment examining whether marine fish embryos physiologically adapt to changing temperature environments.

  14. Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Gadus morrhua Skin Collagen and Molecular Weight Distribution of Hydrolysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Jian-xin; ZHAO Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Process parameters on enzymatic hydrolysis and molecular weight (MW) distribution of collagen hydrolysates from Gadus morrhua skin were investigated.The optimal process parameters were obtained by the single-factor and orthogonal experiments.The molecular weight distribution of hydrolysates was determined using both Sephadex G25 partition and high speed liquid chromatography electricity spray mass spectrum (HPLC-ESI-MS).Collagen hydrolysates were first gained by an alkaline protease "alcalase" for 3 h at temperature (50℃),pH (10.0),substrate concentration (75 g L-1),and E/S (3%).The molecular weight distribution of collagen hydrolysates ranged from 300 to 1 500 Da,and most of peptides were under 1 200 Da.Sephadex G25 partition and HPLC-ESI-MS should be successfully employed to determine the molecular weight distribution of collagen hydrolysates.

  15. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaizauskiene, A.; Gurevicius, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death ...

  16. Avoidant personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  17. Biogeochemical analysis of ancient Pacific Cod bone suggests Hg bioaccumulation was linked to paleo sea level rise and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribeth S. Murray

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Deglaciation at the end of the Pleistocene initiated major changes in ocean circulation and distribution. Within a brief geological time, large areas of land were inundated by sea-level rise and today global sea level is 120 m above its minimum stand during the last glacial maximum. This was the era of modern sea shelf formation; climate change caused coastal plain flooding and created broad continental shelves with innumerable consequences to marine and terrestrial ecosystems and human populations. In Alaska, the Bering Sea nearly doubled in size and stretches of coastline to the south were flooded, with regional variability in the timing and extent of submergence. Here we suggest how past climate change and coastal flooding are linked to mercury bioaccumulation that could have had profound impacts on past human populations and that, under conditions of continued climate warming, may have future impacts. Biogeochemical analysis of total mercury (tHg and 13C/15N ratios in the bone collagen of archaeologically recovered Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus bone shows high levels of tHg during early/mid-Holocene. This pattern cannot be linked to anthropogenic activity or to food web trophic changes, but may result from natural phenomena such as increases in productivity, carbon supply and coastal flooding driven by glacial melting and sea-level rise. The coastal flooding could have led to increased methylation of Hg in newly submerged terrestrial land and vegetation. Methylmercury is bioaccumulated through aquatic food webs with attendant consequences for the health of fish and their consumers, including people. This is the first study of tHg levels in a marine species from the Gulf of Alaska to provide a time series spanning nearly the entire Holocene and we propose that past coastal flooding resulting from climate change had the potential to input significant quantities of Hg into marine food webs and subsequently to human consumers.

  18. A sensometric approach to cod-quality measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.S.; Jørgensen, Bo

    1997-01-01

    The quality index method was used for describing the sensory quality of thawed whole cod and raw fillet and the quality of boiled fillet was assessed by profiling analysis. These data were compared to the water holding capacity of the minced cod by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial...

  19. 78 FR 32612 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Collect on Delivery (COD)--Service Features AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Proposed rule... collect on delivery (COD) service to mail an article for which the mailer has not been paid and have...

  20. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  1. Intense habitat-specific fisheries-induced selection at the molecular Pan I locus predicts imminent collapse of a major cod fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Arnason

    Full Text Available Predation is a powerful agent in the ecology and evolution of predator and prey. Prey may select multiple habitats whereby different genotypes prefer different habitats. If the predator is also habitat-specific the prey may evolve different habitat occupancy. Drastic changes can occur in the relation of the predator to the evolved prey. Fisheries exert powerful predation and can be a potent evolutionary force. Fisheries-induced selection can lead to phenotypic changes that influence the collapse and recovery of the fishery. However, heritability of the phenotypic traits involved and selection intensities are low suggesting that fisheries-induced evolution occurs at moderate rates at decadal time scales. The Pantophysin I (Pan I locus in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, representing an ancient balanced polymorphism predating the split of cod and its sister species, is under an unusual mix of balancing and directional selection including current selective sweeps. Here we show that Pan I alleles are highly correlated with depth with a gradient of 0.44% allele frequency change per meter. AA fish are shallow-water and BB deep-water adapted in accordance with behavioral studies using data storage tags showing habitat selection by Pan I genotype. AB fish are somewhat intermediate although closer to AA. Furthermore, using a sampling design covering space and time we detect intense habitat-specific fisheries-induced selection against the shallow-water adapted fish with an average 8% allele frequency change per year within year class. Genotypic fitness estimates (0.08, 0.27, 1.00 of AA, AB, and BB respectively predict rapid disappearance of shallow-water adapted fish. Ecological and evolutionary time scales, therefore, are congruent. We hypothesize a potential collapse of the fishery. We find that probabilistic maturation reaction norms for Atlantic cod at Iceland show declining length and age at maturing comparable to changes that preceded the collapse of

  2. The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kraus, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86.......The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86....

  3. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN J-INTEGRAL AND COD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. G. Cao; X. Y. Sun; K. Tanaka

    2007-01-01

    J-integral and crack opening displacement δ (COD) were important parameters for characterizationof fractures in engineering materials. The relationship between J-integral and COD has beeninvestigated for a long time and was generally represented as J = mσyδ, where σy is the yield strengthand m is a function of specimen geometry and material properties. To determine the value of m,extensive studies and experiments have been performed. The method that used the fracture-surfacetopography analysis (FRASTA) for determining J-integral from fracture surfaces of materials wasintroduced. On the basis of the relationship between COD and fracture surface average profile,the relationship between J-integral and COD was deduced and compared with the generally usedequation. The method was experimentally confirmed to be able to provide a new way to determinethe relationship between J-integral and COD.

  4. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  5. Productivity responses of a widespread marine piscivore, Gadus morhua, to oceanic thermal extremes and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene; MacKenzie, Brian

    2010-01-01

    in latitude and temperature. Here we use meta-analytical methods to investigate how recruitment (i.e. the number of new fish produced by spawners in a given year which subsequently grow and survive to become vulnerable to fishing gear) has reacted to temperature fluctuations, and in particular to extremes...... of temperature, in cod populations throughout the north Atlantic. Temperature has geographically explicit effects on cod recruitment. Impacts differ depending on whether populations are located in the upper (negative effects) or in the lower (positive effects) thermal range. The probabilities of successful year...

  6. Myelin Avoids the JAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follis, Rose M; Carter, Bruce D

    2016-08-17

    In this issue of Neuron, Redmond et al. (2016) identify junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitor of somatodendritic myelination in spinal cord neurons, thereby elucidating how myelin forms on axons but avoids dendrites and cell bodies. PMID:27537479

  7. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  8. Modelling the distribution of fish accounting for spatial correlation and overdispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewy, Peter; Kristensen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of cod (Gadus morhua) in the North Sea and the Skagerrak was analysed over a 24-year period using the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP). In contrast to other spatial models of the distribution of fish, LGCP avoids problems with zero observations and includes the spatial cor...

  9. Semiautomated Determination of COD in Environmental Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Korenaga, Takashi; Ikatsu, Hisayoshi; Moriwake, Toshio; Takahashi, Teruo

    1980-01-01

    A new method based on the principle of flow injection analysis is presented for the semiautomated determinationof chemical oxygen demand (COD) in environmental watersamples. The method is rapid and continuous, and suitablefor the monitoring of COD in wastewaters. The apparatusused was simply constructed by parts commercially availablefor high performance liquid chromatography. Teflon tubing heated with a boiling water was used as a reactor and simultaneously used for mixing coils and transmis...

  10. Salted and dried Cod preserved by vacuum and modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures higher than 20ºC can boost the growth, on the salted and dried cod surface, of bacteria that present a red pigment (Rodrigues et al., 2003; Rodrigues et al., 2005. These organisms, besides the change of the food product appearance, also cause an unpleasant flavor and the product is rejected by the consumers, although does not cause any health concern. Currently, the export of salted and dried cod, to Africa, has increased and a great amount of product is rejected due to the high environmental temperature and the lack of a proper cold chain storage infrastructure. Vacuum packaging, and modified atmosphere packaging have been used for fresh and cooked seafood preservation, but, as far as the authors know, were never used to preserve salted and dried fish. In the present study it was observed the effect of vacuum packaging, packaging with 80%N2:20%CO2 and finally the addition of sodium metabisulfite on the salted and dried cod stored under temperature abuse (15ºC, 25ºC and 35ºC. Accordingly, packaging under vacum and, specially, packaging with 80%N2:20%CO2 successfuly increased the shellife of salted and dried cod . The addition of sodium metabisulfite has increased the shelflife of salted and dried cod preserved at 15ºC, but not of salted and dried cod preserved at 25ºC and 35ºC.

  11. Valorisation of codfish (Gadus morhua L.) salting processing wastewater through the extraction of high added value compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Vincenza

    2011-01-01

    Apesar do desenvolvimento de outros métodos de preservação, a salga do bacalhau (Gadus morhua L.) continua a ser uma realidade devido a um conjunto de factores, entre os quais a simplicidade e o baixo custo do processo bem como as características sensoriais do produto final, muito apreciadas pelos consumidores. Ao longo do processo de salga o bacalhau incorpora sal até 20% do seu peso e liberta concomitantemente cerca de 22% da sua água fisiológica; assim, aproximadamente 200 litros de águ...

  12. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has ...

  13. In vitro and ex vivo models indicate that the molecular clock in fast skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod is not autonomous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazado, Carlo C; Kumaratunga, Hiruni P S; Nagasawa, Kazue; Babiak, Igor; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Fernandes, Jorge M O

    2014-10-01

    The notion that the circadian rhythm is exclusively regulated by a central clock has been challenged by the discovery of peripheral oscillators. These peripheral clocks are known to have a direct influence on the biological processes in a tissue or cell. In fish, several peripheral clocks respond directly to light, thus raising the hypothesis of autonomous regulation. Several clock genes are expressed with daily rhythmicity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fast skeletal muscle. In the present study, myosatellite cell culture and short-term cultured fast skeletal muscle explant models were developed and characterized, in order to investigate the autonomy of the clock system in skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod. Myosatellite cells proliferated and differentiated in vitro, as shown by the changes in cellular and myogenic gene markers. The high expression of myogenic differentiation 1 during the early days post-isolation implied the commitment to myogenic lineage and the increasing mRNA levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) indicated the proliferation of the cells in vitro. Transcript levels of myogenic marker genes such as pcna and myogenin increased during 5 days in culture of skeletal muscle explants, indicating that the muscle cells were proliferating and differentiating under ex vivo conditions. Transcript levels of the clock gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2 (arntl2) in myosatellite cells showed no daily oscillation regardless of photoperiod manipulation. On the other hand, mRNA levels of the clock gene circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (clock) showed circadian rhythmicity in 5-day-old skeletal muscle explant under different photoperiod regimes. The expression of arntl2, cryptochrome2 (cry2), period 2a (per2a) and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 was not rhythmic in muscle explants but photoperiod manipulation had a significant effect on mRNA levels of cry2 and per2a. Taken together, the lack of rhythmicity

  14. AVOIDING MANUSCRIPT MISTAKES

    OpenAIRE

    Grindstaff, Terry L.; Saliba, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Writing a scientific manuscript can be a consuming, but rewarding task with a number of intrinsic and extrinsic benefits. The ability to write a scientific manuscript is typically not an emphasized component of most entry‐level professional programs. The purpose of this overview is to provide authors with suggestions to improve manuscript quality and to provide mechanisms to avoid common manuscript mistakes that are often identified by journal reviewers and editors.

  15. Indonesia : Avoiding the Trap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Within the next two decades Indonesia aspires to generate prosperity, avoid a middle-income trap and leave no one behind as it tries to catch up with high-income economies. These are ambitious goals. Realizing them requires sustained high growth and job creation, as well as reduced inequality. Can Indonesia achieve them? This report argues that the country has the potential to rise and bec...

  16. Assessment of Allergy to Milk, Egg, Cod, and Wheat in Swedish Schoolchildren: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Winberg

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the prevalence of allergies to foods in childhood and adolescence is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of allergies to milk, egg, cod, and wheat using reported data, clinical examinations, and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges, and to describe the phenotypes of reported food hypersensitivity in a cohort of Swedish schoolchildren.In a population-based cohort of 12-year-old children, the parents of 2612 (96% of invited completed a questionnaire. Specific IgE antibodies to foods were analyzed in a random sample (n=695. Children reporting complete avoidance of milk, egg, cod, or wheat due to perceived hypersensitivity and without physician-diagnosed celiac disease were invited to undergo clinical examination that included specific IgE testing, a celiac screening test, and categorization into phenotypes of food hypersensitivity according to preset criteria. Children with possible food allergy were further evaluated with double-blind challenges.In this cohort, the prevalence of reported food allergy to milk, egg, cod, or wheat was 4.8%. Food allergy was diagnosed in 1.4% of the children after clinical evaluation and in 0.6% following double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. After clinical examination, children who completely avoided one or more essential foods due to perceived food hypersensitivity were categorized with the following phenotypes: allergy (29%, outgrown allergy (19%, lactose intolerance (40%, and unclear (12%.There was a high discrepancy in the prevalence of allergy to milk, egg, cod and wheat as assessed by reported data, clinical evaluation, and double-blind food challenges. Food hypersensitivity phenotyping according to preset criteria was helpful for identifying children with food allergy.

  17. On partitions avoiding right crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Sherry H. F.; Xu, Yuexiao

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Chen et al. derived the generating function for partitions avoiding right nestings and posed the problem of finding the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings. In this paper, we derive the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings via an intermediate structure of partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossings and right nestings. We show that there is a bijection between partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossing and right nestings and partitions...

  18. A New Spectrophotometric Method for Measuring COD of Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; JI Hongwei; XIN Huizhen; LIU Li

    2006-01-01

    This research studied a new spectrophotometric method for measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of seawater. In this method, the COD was measured using a spectrophotometer instead of titrating with sodium thiosulphate.The measuring wavelength was selected to be 470 nm, and the COD of three standard glucose solutions (COD = 0.5, 1.5 and2.5 mgL-1, respectively) and two seawater samples (from the South Yellow Sea and Jiaozhou Bay) were measured using the spectrophotometric method and titrimetric method respectively. The results showed that the spectrophotometric method was somewhat better than the titrimetric method. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the spectrophotometric method was less than 2.7%, and the recovery of seawater samples ranged from 96.3% to 103.8%. In addition, the spectrophotometric method has other advantages such as expeditiousness, operation simplicity, analysis automatization, etc. Therefore the spectrophotometric method can be used to measure the COD of seawater with satisfactory results.

  19. Analysis of the origin of soluble COD in Lake Sanaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to investigate the origin of Sol-COD by analyzing the water quality data and the amount of detergent consumption in the Lake Sanaru region,located at Hamamatsu City in Japan. It was found that there is a correlation between the total COD in the lake and the sewer coverage in the upstream region of Lake Sanaru. This fact implies that the water quality of upstream rivers receiving untreated wastewater from homes would greatly affect the water quality of the lake. Since the value of Sol-COD in the rivers is close to that of Lake Sanaru, the main origin of the Sol-COD was supposed to be the organic components in the river water especially those of detergents, because the Sol-CODof detergent didn’t decompose completely.Thus, the amount of detergent emitted in the upstreamlakeregion was determined using the public data of the pollution from the sewer system and the national average of detergent consumption. The calculated value of the detergent concentration agreed very well with the one measured in the upstream rivers, meaning that detergents strongly affected water quality in upstream rivers and also the majority of Sol-COD in Lake Sanaru.

  20. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  1. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  2. COD removal characteristics in air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Exoelectrogenic microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) compete with other microorganisms for substrate. In order to understand how this affects removal rates, current generation, and coulombic efficiencies (CEs), substrate removal rates were compared in MFCs fed a single, readily biodegradable compound (acetate) or domestic wastewater (WW). Removal rates based on initial test conditions fit first-order kinetics, but rate constants varied with circuit resistance. With filtered WW (100Ω), the rate constant was 0.18h- 1, which was higher than acetate or filtered WW with an open circuit (0.10h- 1), but CEs were much lower (15-24%) than acetate. With raw WW (100Ω), COD removal proceeded in two stages: a fast removal stage with high current production, followed by a slower removal with little current. While using MFCs increased COD removal rate due to current generation, secondary processes will be needed to reduce COD to levels suitable for discharge.

  3. CodY-mediated regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDowell Emily J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins, many of which contribute to virulence, is regulated in response to nutrient availability. CodY is a transcriptional regulator that controls gene expression in response to amino acid availability. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the expression of streptococcal exoproteins associated with deletion of the codY gene. Results We compared the secreted proteins produced by wild-type S. pyogenes to a codY mutant in the post-exponential phase of growth. We used both one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to separate exoproteins. Proteins that were significantly different in abundance upon repeated analysis were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. The production of the secreted cysteine protease SpeB, a secreted chromosomally encoded nuclease (SdaB, and a putative adhesion factor (Spy49_0549 were more abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant. In addition, hyaluronidase (HylA, CAMP factor (Cfa, a prophage encoded nuclease (Spd-3, and an uncharacterized extracellular protein (Spy49_0015 were less abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant strain. Enzymatic assays showed greater DNase activity in culture supernatants isolated in the post-exponential phase of growth from the codY mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. Because extracellular nucleases and proteases can influence biofilm formation, we also measured the ability of the strains to form biofilms during growth with both rich medium (Todd Hewitt yeast extract; THY and chemically defined media (CDM. No difference was observed with rich media but with CDM the biofilms formed by the codY mutant strain had less biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Conclusions Overall, the results indicate that CodY alters the abundance of a select group of S. pyogenes exoproteins, including DNases, a protease, and hylauronidase, which together may alleviate

  4. A sensometric approach to cod-quality measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.S.; Jørgensen, Bo

    1997-01-01

    The quality index method was used for describing the sensory quality of thawed whole cod and raw fillet and the quality of boiled fillet was assessed by profiling analysis. These data were compared to the water holding capacity of the minced cod by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial l...... by determining the ability of the assessors to predict the water holding capacity through partial least squares regression and by examining the distances between PCA-models of profiling data from the single assessors. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Analysis of the origin of soluble COD in Lake Sanaru

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Qian; Oomae Ayaka; Futamata Hiroyuki; Matsuda Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the origin of Sol-COD by analyzing the water quality data and the amount of detergent consumption in the Lake Sanaru region,located at Hamamatsu City in Japan. It was found that there is a correlation between the total COD in the lake and the sewer coverage in the upstream region of Lake Sanaru. This fact implies that the water quality of upstream rivers receiving untreated wastewater from homes would greatly affect the water quality of the lake. Since the va...

  6. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Campos-Rodríguez, A; González-Álvarez, V; García-Sandoval, J P; Snell-Castro, R; Latrille, E

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes. The outer loop is a discrete controller that regulates the COD concentration of the methanogenic bioreactor by using a daily off-line measurement and that modifies the set-point tracked by inner loop, which manipulates the dilution rate to regulate the VFA concentration of the acidogenic bioreactor, estimated by continuous on-line conductivity measurements, avoiding acidification. The experimental validation was conducted in a TSAD process for the treatment of tequila vinasses during 110days. Results showed that the proposed cascade control scheme was able to achieve the VFA and COD regulation by using conventional measurements under different set-point values in spite of adverse common scenarios in full-scale anaerobic digestion processes. Microbial composition analysis showed that the controller also favors the abundance and diversity toward methane production.

  7. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Campos-Rodríguez, A; González-Álvarez, V; García-Sandoval, J P; Snell-Castro, R; Latrille, E

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes. The outer loop is a discrete controller that regulates the COD concentration of the methanogenic bioreactor by using a daily off-line measurement and that modifies the set-point tracked by inner loop, which manipulates the dilution rate to regulate the VFA concentration of the acidogenic bioreactor, estimated by continuous on-line conductivity measurements, avoiding acidification. The experimental validation was conducted in a TSAD process for the treatment of tequila vinasses during 110days. Results showed that the proposed cascade control scheme was able to achieve the VFA and COD regulation by using conventional measurements under different set-point values in spite of adverse common scenarios in full-scale anaerobic digestion processes. Microbial composition analysis showed that the controller also favors the abundance and diversity toward methane production. PMID:27474953

  8. Improvement of COD control system of NewSUBARU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the NewSUBARU, the response matrix calculated from an optics model had been used for a closed orbit correction (COD) program. We measured the response matrix of NewSUBARU and used it in the new program. We compared performance of the new one with that of the old one. (author)

  9. 78 FR 41305 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... INFORMATION: The Postal Service published a notice of proposed rulemaking on May 31, 2013 (78 FR 32612-32613... 111 Collect on Delivery (COD)--Service Features AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule... proposed rule were received, the Postal Service will adopt the proposed changes to Collect on Delivery...

  10. Modelling axisymmetric cod-ends made of different mesh types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priour, D.; Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cod-ends are the rearmost part of trawl fishing gears. They collect the catch, and for many important species it is where fish selection takes place. Generally speaking they are axisymmetric, and their shape is influenced by the catch volume, the mesh shape, and the material characteristics...

  11. Quality of Cuban shark liver oil. Comparison with Icelandic cod liver oil (Calidad del aceite de hígado de tiburón cubano. Comparación con el aceite de hígado de bacalao Islandés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Nuñez, Giselle

    2009-02-01

    measuring some chemical characteristics: content of vitamins A, D and E, dioxins, heavy metals and squalene. The content of copper and iron was used as indicators of the possible oil oxidation. The rancidity level of the oil was evaluated by sensory analysis. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs are very persistent chemicals responsible for the contamination in fish oils. Its content was also evaluated. Cod liver oil from Gadus morhua and other species of Gadus from South-West Iceland was also evaluated in order toestablish comparison between both oils in terms of its quality. A lowcontent of squalene was detected in Cuban shark liver oil. Its amount of vitamin E and A indicate that it can be potentially used as a nutritional supplement, contributing to a complete use of the Cuban shark’s livers. Vitamin D was not detected. Iron and copper content indicate that the oil is a good source of these minerals. Sensory analysis showed a little higher rancidity level in cod liver oil than in Cuban shark liver oil. A not high content of dioxins (3.69 ngkg-1 was detected in Cuban shark liver oil, lower that the limit permissible for crude oils, (Food Standard Agency, 2002. Dioxins like PCBs (14.3 ngkg-1 found in the oil, can be removedduring the production by purification process.

  12. Estimation of bacterial quality of cod fillets with the disc flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoilage bacteria of cod fillets were desorbed off the fillet surface by ultrasonication. Catalase activity of these bacteria was determined using the disc flotation method after selective heat inactivation of the endogenous cod catalase and then correlated with the colony forming units. The method was applied to cod fillets from ten retail sources with satisfactory results

  13. CodY of Streptococcus pneumoniae : Link between nutritional gene regulation and colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Wouter T.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Estevao, Silvia; Hoogenboezem, Theo; de Jong, Anne; de Groot, Ronald; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2008-01-01

    CodY is a nutritional regulator mainly involved in amino acid metabolism. It has been extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis. We investigated the role of CodY in gene regulation and virulence of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We constructed a codY mutant and ex

  14. Communication Avoiding ILU0 Preconditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Grigori, Laura; Moufawad, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a communication avoiding ILU0 preconditioner for solving large linear systems of equations by using iterative Krylov subspace methods. Recent research has focused on communication avoiding Krylov subspace methods based on so called s-step methods. However there is no communication avoiding preconditioner yet, and this represents a serious limitation of these methods. Our preconditioner allows to perform s iterations of the iterative method with no communication, throu...

  15. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  16. COD and Color Removal from Real Dyeing Wastewater by Ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-min; Yuan, Jian-mei

    2016-05-01

    Ozonation of real dye wastewater for removal of color and COD reduction covering a wide range in operating parameters forms the scope of the present work. The influence of parameters such as influent pH, ozone flow rate and initial effluent concentration on ozonation efficiency has been critically examined. It has been observed from the present investigation that a maximum of COD removal efficiency of 92.5% has been achieved under optimum operating conditions (pH=11; ozone flow rate: 6×10(-3) m(3)/minute). Further the biodegradability index of the dye effluent has increased from an initial value of 0.18 to 0.49 during ozonation indicating favorable adaptation of ozonation as a primer to the biochemical technique to enhance the efficiency of biochemical treatment. PMID:27131304

  17. Ozonation of tannery effluent for removal of cod and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, V; Kalyani, K S Parama; Iyappan, K; Srinivasakannan, C; Balasubramaniam, N; Vedaraman, N

    2009-07-15

    Ozonation of leather dye effluent for removal of color and COD reduction covering wide range in operating parameters forms the scope of the present work. The influence of parameters such as influent pH, ozone flow rate and initial effluent concentration on ozonation efficiency has been critically examined. It has been observed from the present investigation that a maximum of COD removal efficiency of 92% has been achieved under optimum operating conditions. Further the biodegradability index of the tannery effluent has increased from an initial value of 0.18 to 0.49 during ozonation indicating favorable adaptation of ozonation as a primer to the biochemical technique to enhance the efficiency of biochemical treatment. PMID:19118944

  18. Isolation of putative probionts from cod rearing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzon, H.L.; Gudmundsdottir, S.; Pedersen, M.H.;

    2008-01-01

    Survival problems are encountered at early stages of intensive fish rearing and antibiotics are widely used to remedy the situation. Probiotics may provide a potential alternative method to protect larvae from opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and promote a balanced environment. This study...... was designed to search for new probiotics to target this critical period in cod rearing. Potential probionts were selected from the naturalmicrobiota of cod aquacultural environment. The selection was based on several criteria: pathogen inhibition potential, growth characteristics, strain identification......RNA gene sequencing. Only 6 (3.2%) of 188 isolates could inhibit all three pathogens tested: Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and Vibrio salmonicida. Differences observed in activity intensity and spectrum among inhibitory isolates emphasise the need to develop probiotic...

  19. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. PMID:26970365

  20. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  1. COD Removal of Different Industrial Wastewater by Fenton Oxidation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yogita Sindhi*1

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes are possibly one of the most effective methods for the treatment of wastewater containing organic products (effluents from chemical and agrochemical industries, the textile industry, paints, dyes, etc.).Fenton process is a one of advanced oxidation process. Fenton’s process have been extensively used for the removal of COD, TOC, dyes, phenolic compounds other organic chemicals from industrial and municipal wastewater. In this study, the laboratory s...

  2. Process and Mechanism of Water-swollen Gadus Skin%鳕鱼鱼皮水发工艺及机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵硕; 李俊毅; 齐祥明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To optimize Gadus skin water-swollen process, and interpret its mechanism therein. [Method] With Gadus skin as test materials, the influences of soaking time, sodium hydroxide concentration and soaking temperature on water-swollen rate and protein loss rate were investigated, the soaking process was optimized by orthogonal experiment to study the influence' of blanching and cold shock on the crisp degree of products. [Result] Single-factor experimental results showed that the Gadus skin water-swollen rate firstly increased and then reduced with the increase of sodium hydroxide concentration, the extension of soaking time and the rising of soaking temperature. Orthogonal experimental results showed that the water-swollen rate was the highest by soaking the Gadus skin in 0.75 g/L sodium hydroxide concentration at 25 ℃ for 2. 5 hours. And the best jsrispness was obtained after 80 ℃ water bath and 3 min soaking in cold water. [ Conclusion] The study provided references for the comprehensive utilization of Gadus skin.%[目的]为优化鳕鱼皮水发生产工艺,并尝试对水发机理进行一些理论解释.[方法]以鳕鱼皮为试验原料,以水发率和蛋白损失率为指标,考察浸泡时间、NaOH溶液浓度、浸泡温度对鱼皮水发率的影响,通过正交试验对浸泡工艺进行优化,并考察了漂烫和冷激因素对产品爽脆度的影响.[结果]单因素试验结果显示,试验研究范围内,鳕鱼皮的水发率随NaOH溶液浓度的增大、浸泡时间的延长和浸泡温度的升高而先升高后下降.正交试验结果表明,鳕鱼皮在浓度为0.75 g/L的NaOH溶液中,在25℃条件下浸泡2.5h时,鱼皮的水发率最好.并且通过80℃水浴,然后冰水浸泡3 min后得到的鱼皮具有较好的爽脆度.[结论]该研究为鳕鱼皮的综合利用提供了参考依据.

  3. Removal of ecotoxicity and COD from tank truck cleaning wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, Jan; De Schepper, Wim; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Tank truck cleaning (TTC) activities generate highly complex wastewater. In a previous study, we found that a significant ecotoxic effect was still present in biologically treated TTC wastewater. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the removal of acute toxicity from TTC wastewater by a sequence of technologies routinely applied for industrial wastewater. Acute toxicity was assayed with the widely applied and standardized Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test. During a 5-month period, raw wastewater was grab-sampled from a full-scale TTC company and treated by the different unit operations on a laboratory scale. Chemical pretreatment of the wastewater by coagulation with FeCl3 removed approx. 38% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reduced the bioluminescence inhibition by 8%. Biological treatment with activated sludge subsequently removed another 77% of the remaining COD. This treatment step also reduced the bioluminescence inhibition but the removal efficiency varied strongly from 5 to 92% for the different samples. Powdered activated carbon almost completely removed the remaining COD and inhibition in all samples. The results suggest that conventional technologies did not suffice for complete removal of toxicity from TTC wastewater, and that advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as activated carbon are required for a satisfactory detoxification. PMID:24292468

  4. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-T. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctwwang@mail.hwai.edu.tw; Chou, W.-L. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Occupational Safety and Hazard Prevention, HungKuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.-M. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)

    2009-05-15

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl{sup -} concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm{sup -3} kW h{sup -1} while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates.

  5. Acquaintance Rape: Effective Avoidance Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-MacCombie, Joyce; Koss, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Determined that acknowledged and unacknowledged acquaintance rape victims and rape avoiders could be discriminated by situational variables and response strategies. Avoiders were less likely to have experienced passive or internalizing emotions at the time of the assault, perceived the assault as less violent, and were more likely to have utilized…

  6. Panic disorder and exercise avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo W. Muotri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To identify whether patients with panic disorder in general and those with the respiratory subtype in particular actively avoid exercise; 2 to investigate physiological differences in cardiopulmonary function parameters in patients with panic disorder in general, patients with the respiratory subtype of panic disorder, and healthy controls upon exercise challenge. Methods: Patients with panic disorder were classified as having either the respiratory or the non-respiratory subtype. Both groups were compared to controls in terms of exercise avoidance patterns and performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: Patients with panic disorder exhibited higher exercise avoidance scores and worse performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing as compared with controls. No differences were found between patients with the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes. Conclusions: Exercise avoidance is present in panic disorder and is associated with poorer performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. These findings are not limited to patients with the respiratory subtype of the disorder.

  7. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using biologically-inspired neuromorphic optic flow algorithms is a novel approach in collision avoidance for UAS. Traditional computer vision algorithms rely on...

  8. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  9. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Plath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre, we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1 that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2 that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  10. AMMONIA AND COD REMOVAL FROM SYNTHETIC LEACHATE USING RICE HUSK COMPOSITE ADSORBENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Abdul Halim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD were the most two problematic parameters in the landfill leachate. In this study, a new composite adsorbent derived from rice husk ash waste is evaluated with respect to its ability to remove these contaminants from synthetic leachate. Results indicate that the new composite adsorbent is able to adsorb both ammonia and COD. It has a higher adsorption capacity for ammonia (Q = 2.2578 mg/g and an almost equal adsorption capacity for COD (Q = 2.8893 when compared with commercially activated carbon. The adsorption kinetics of this new product for ammonia and COD were primarily represented by the pseudo second-order mechanism. The overall adsorption rate of the ammonia and COD adsorption processes appears to be determined by chemisorption process. The regenerated composite adsorbent indicated higher adsorption capacities of ammonia and COD, i.e. 12.9366 mg/g and 3.1162 mg/g, respectively.

  11. Purification of Alaskan Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus and New Zealand Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Liver Oil Using Short Path Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. M. Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial health effects of a diet rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA have been extensively researched in recent years. Marine oils are an important dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, being especially rich in two of the most important fatty acids of this class, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3 and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3. Oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA are prone to oxidation that leads to loss of product quality. Alaskan pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814 and New Zealand’s hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector, 1871 are the highest volume fisheries of their respective countries. Both produce large quantities of fishery byproducts, in particular crude or unrefined n-3 LC-PUFA containing oils. Presently these oils are used as ingredients for animal feed, and only limited quantities are used as human nutritional products. The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of short path distillation for the purification of pollock and hoki oil to produce purified human-grade fish oil to meet quality specifications. Pollock and hoki oils were subjected to short path distillation and a significant decrease in free fatty acids and lipid oxidation (peroxide and para-anisidine values products was observed. Purified oils met the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED standard for edible fish oils.

  12. Reproduction and winter biology of polar cod Boreogadus saida from Svalbard waters

    OpenAIRE

    Korshunova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is considered to be a key species in the Arctic marine ecosystems. Yet detailed or even basic knowledge regarding its biology and adaptations, especially during the polar night, are in many cases poor. No field data is presently available on the gonad development of polar cod, its reproductive biology and associated bioenergetics. Accordingly, polar cod was sampled at different locations in Svalbard waters in August, September, November and January. Gonadosomatic ...

  13. THE IMPACT OF FOOD WASTE DISCHARGE INTO THE MUNICIPAL SEWERAGE ON COD CONCENTRATION IN URBAN WASTEWATER IN OLSZTYN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Janczukowicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The operators of wastewater treatment plants in Poland have been observing an increase in the concentration of raw sewage for several years. In particular for organic substances. This is the effect of water consumption reduction, restoration of the sewerage networks, growing wealth, widespread waste of food. The most serious adverse, influencing on the municipal wastewater composition is colloid mills application in gastronomical objects and the discharge of shredded food waste to sewer. That widespread behavior has been noticed and negated, in 2010 year, by the common position of GIS and the ME. Far too late, which confirms the situation observed at the Olsztyn wastewater treatment plant, where the biggest increase of COD values ​​was observed in 2008–2010. The average concentration of COD of sewage in the period 2011–2014 was almost twice higher than in 1996, real PE is close to the design value, despite the fact that the hydraulic load of the object slightly exceeded 50% of design value. Removing such large organic pollutant loads generates high costs, that could be avoided by reasonable food waste management.

  14. Treatment of COD analysis liquid wastes generated in environmental laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mañunga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available COD analysis is often carried out in environmental labs. Its wastes are considered hazardous due to the content of metals such as Cr, Ag and Hg; treating these wastes is considered complex and expensive. The experimental results of metal ion precipitation in COD wastes with affordable chemical products are reported in this work. Cr (VI was chemically reduced by adding 200 mg.L-1 of glucose to Cr (III. Final Cr (VI concentration was less than 0.5 mg.L-1. Cr (III was precipitated as a metallic hydroxide by adding NaOH and Ag was reduced to less than 0.2 mg.L-1 by adding 2 g.L-1 of NaCl. Hg was reduced to less than 0.005 mg.L-1 with 10 g.L-1 of FeS. The proposed reduction-precipitation methodology allowed minimising the liquid residue’s hazardous characteristics so that it complied with the maximum allowable values established in Chapter 6, Article 74 of Decree 1594/1984 that regulates the use of water and liquid residues.

  15. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  16. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  17. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author′s experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.

  18. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance. PMID:19186631

  19. Plagiarism Avoidance in Academic Submissions

    OpenAIRE

    Cully, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide undergraduate students with an introductory resource focusing on plagiarism avoidance. It sets out to identify often confusing associated nuances. From the perspective of paraphrasing, the requirements attaching to the necessary provision of proper citations are explored. The paper concludes by pondering the topic of reliability of sources.

  20. Avoidance: grammatical or semantic causes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Hulstijn; E. Marchena

    1989-01-01

    This article follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs, such as ‘let down’, while preferring one-word verbs, such as ‘;disappoint’, since phrasal verbs do not exist in Hebrew. A corollary derived from Dagut and Laufer's study is t

  1. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus)

    OpenAIRE

    Portner, H.O.; Berdal, B.; Blust, R.; Brix, O.; Colosimo, A.; Wachter, B; A. Giuliani; Johansen, T.; Fischer, T.; Knust, R.; Lannig, G.; Naevdal, G.; Nedenes, A.; Nyhammer, G.; Sartoris, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special focus on recent data obtained in two model species of fish. These fish species are both characterized by n...

  2. L’écodéveloppement participatif en question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Dejouhanet

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Si les politiques forestières indiennes ont évolué d’un paradigme directif à un paradigme participatif, les aires protégées sont encore gérées par des textes de loi qui privilégient la séparation entre activités humaines et espaces à protéger. L’écodéveloppement, soutenu par la Banque Mondiale, se voulait un moyen de favoriser des activités alternatives à l’exploitation des ressources et de faire participer les populations à la protection de leur environnement. Lancé en 2001 dans la réserve naturelle de Parambikulam au Kérala, ses résultats quelques années après sont peu concluants. Alors qu’un rapport de 2003 accuse le délitement social des populations concernées, cet article insiste davantage sur l’inadaptation des projets des comités d’écodéveloppement au contexte des villages ; le cliché essentialiste attaché aux populations adivasi constitue une vision a-historique qui ne permet pas de penser le développement aujourd’hui. L’écodéveloppement, s’il veut atteindre ses objectifs, doit permettre une réelle négociation entre acteurs des aires protégées et proposer des compromis réalistes entre limitation des activités et survie des populations.While Indian forest policies have evolved from a directive paradigm to a participative one, protected areas are still managed by legislative acts, which advocate a clear separation between human activities and areas to be protected. Eco-development financed by the World Bank was planned as a tool for developing alternative activities to resource exploitation and for involving local populations in environment protection through participation. Started in 2001 in the Wildlife Sanctuary of Parambikulam in Kerala, its results few years after are rather inconclusive. While a report in 2003 was accusing the social disintegration of concerned people, I am more stressing on the inappropriateness of EDC to villages’ context. The essentialist clich

  3. Characterization of the Escherichia coli codBA operon encoding cytosine permease and cytosine deaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, S; Kilstrup, M; Barilla, K;

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 3.1 kb segment carrying the cytosine deaminase gene (codA) from Escherichia coli was determined. The sequence revealed the presence of two open reading frames, the first (codB) specifying a highly hydrophobic polypeptide and the second specifying cytosine deaminase. A...

  4. Lessons for fisheries management from the EU cod recovery plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraak, S.B.M.; Bailey, N.; Cardinale, M.;

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the EU long-term management plan for cod stocks, in force since 2009, is analysed focusing on the human and institutional factors. The plan operates through landings quotas (TACs) and effort restrictions following a Harvest Control Rule, and deploys a novel instrument allowing...... and real-time temporary closures. On the negative side, ignoring the dimension of fishers as reactive agents in the design, the impact assessment, and the annual implementation of the measures has contributed to the failure to adequately implement the plan and achieve its objectives. The main problem...... in targeted fisheries, although fishers experienced them as prohibiting the full uptake of other quotas. Recommendations for future plans include (i) management through catch rather than landings quotas, (ii) the internalisation of the costs of exceeding quotas, (iii) use of more selective gear types, (iv...

  5. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    . To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  6. A genomic island linked to ecotype divergence in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Therkildsen, Nina O.;

    2013-01-01

    gene flow and large effective population sizes, properties which theoretically could restrict divergence in local genomic regions. We identify a genomic region of strong population differentiation, extending over approximately 20 cM, between pairs of migratory and stationary ecotypes examined at two......The genomic architecture underlying ecological divergence and ecological speciation with gene flow is still largely unknown for most organisms. One central question is whether divergence is genome‐wide or localized in ‘genomic mosaics’ during early stages when gene flow is still pronounced....... Empirical work has so far been limited, and the relative impacts of gene flow and natural selection on genomic patterns have not been fully explored. Here, we use ecotypes of Atlantic cod to investigate genomic patterns of diversity and population differentiation in a natural system characterized by high...

  7. Alternative adaptive immunity strategies: coelacanth, cod and shark immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Francesco; Gerdol, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The advent of high throughput sequencing has permitted to investigate the genome and the transcriptome of novel non-model species with unprecedented depth. This technological advance provided a better understanding of the evolution of adaptive immune genes in gnathostomes, revealing several unexpected features in different fish species which are of particular interest. In the present paper, we review the current understanding of the adaptive immune system of the coelacanth, the elephant shark and the Atlantic cod. The study of coelacanth, the only living extant of the long thought to be extinct Sarcopterygian lineage, is fundamental to bring new insights on the evolution of the immune system in higher vertebrates. Surprisingly, coelacanths are the only known jawed vertebrates to lack IgM, whereas two IgD/W loci are present. Cartilaginous fish are of great interest due to their basal position in the vertebrate tree of life; the genome of the elephant shark revealed the lack of several important immune genes related to T cell functions, which suggest the existence of a primordial set of TH1-like cells. Finally, the Atlantic cod lacks a functional major histocompatibility II complex, but balances this evolutionary loss with the expansion of specific gene families, including MHC I, Toll-like receptors and antimicrobial peptides. Overall, these data point out that several fish species present an unconventional adaptive immune system, but the loss of important immune genes is balanced by adaptive evolutionary strategies which still guarantee the establishment of an efficient immune response against the pathogens they have to fight during their life.

  8. An Oscillating Jet in the Cape Cod Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, F. J.; Flierl, G. R.

    2004-05-01

    During the spring months, the Cape Cod Bay is a roaming ground for the North Atlantic right whale, perhaps the most endangered whale species in the world. The whales are observed to travel along the topographic steps that run parallel to the shore, eating plankton patches that form in the coastal water. In this region, off the coast of Provincetown, there is an oscillatory current with the same period as that of the ambient tides. The location of the current and its periodicity suggest that the topography and tides play fundamental roles in generating the jet. This current, depending on its velocity profile, may become unstable and generate vortices. It is likely that the local surface convergences and divergences in the tidal flows and vortices are related to the aggregation of the copepods (Calanus Finmarchicus), which are the right whale's primary food source. Understanding the dynamics of this jet is essential to predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of the codepods, which will in turn help us understand the likely locations and feeding history of the whales. In this talk we discuss results of the first phase of this study, that of the oscillatory jet in the Cape Cod Bay. This jet is rather complicated since it involves complex topography and coastlines, bottom and lateral friction, stratification and numerous other effects. Rather than study this system in fine detail, we investigate an idealized model that captures the essential features. In the context of this model, we first compute possible profiles for the oscillating jet. We then solve the linear stability problem to determine how the growth rates depend on the various parameters. Finally, and most importantly, we study the nonlinear problem to observe the time evolution of the instability process along with its equilibration. This provides some insight into how the instabilities are related to fluid transport across the shelf.

  9. Long-term effects of the transient COD concentration on the performance of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, S; Gonzalez Del Campo, A; Lobato, J; Rodrigo, M; Cañizares, P; Fernandez-Morales, F J

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the long-term effects of transient chemical oxygen demands (COD) concentrations over the performance of a microbial fuel cell were studied. From the obtained results, it was observed that the repetitive change in the COD loading rate during 12 h conditioned the behavior of the system during periods of up to 7 days. The main modifications were the enhancement of the COD consumption rate and the exerted current. These enhancements yielded increasing Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) when working with COD concentrations of 300 mg/L, but constant CEs when working with COD concentrations from 900 to 1800 mg/L. This effect could be explained by the higher affinity for the substrate of Geobacter than that of the nonelectrogenic organisms such as Clostridia. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:883-890, 2016. PMID:27072066

  10. Obstacle Avoidance Through Visual Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Keerio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel controlling approach forHumanoid Robot to work safely in critical situations like badlight environment using Visual Teleoperation. In this regardmodeling environments for Humanoid Teleoperation Systemis developed. Here virtual reality modeling environmentincludes development of virtual Humanoid BHR-2, andvirtual objects like table etc. The main goal of this work is toenhance our visual teleoperation system for BHR-2 in orderto avoid any collision during real time operation. SoftwareMaya is used for modeling and simulations. Maya plug-insin VC++ provides efficient modeling rule, real timeinteraction, and time saving rendering approach in a virtualenvironment. In this paper the validity of proposed scheme isshown by conducting experiments using offline step overtrajectory to avoid obstacle in bad light environment.

  11. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tordeux, Antoine; Lassarre, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed...

  12. Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Il-Horn Hann; Kai-Lung Hui; Sang-Yong Tom Lee; Ivan Png

    2005-01-01

    We introduce consumer avoidance into analytical marketing research. We show that consumer efforts to conceal themselves and to deflect marketing have a crucial impact on sellers¡¯ marketing strategy. Under reasonable conditions, seller marketing is a strategic complement with consumer concealment. Hence, consumer measures to conceal themselves from marketing will increase its cost-effectiveness and lead sellers to market more. Policies that encourage consumers to conceal their identities woul...

  13. [Influence of substrate COD on methane production in single-chambered microbial electrolysis cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Wen-Kai; Liu, Guang-Li; Luo, Hai-Ping; Zhang, Ren-Duo; Fu, Shi-Yu

    2015-03-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of substrate can affect the microbial activity of both anode and cathode biofilm in the single-chamber methanogenic microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). In order to investigate the effect of COD on the performance of MEC, a single chamber MEC was constructed with biocathode. With the change of initial concentration of COD (700, 1 000 and 1 350 mg x L(-1)), the methane production rate, COD removal and energy efficiency in the MEC were examined under different applied voltages. The results showed that the methane production rate and COD removal increased with the increasing COD. With the applied voltage changing from 0.3 to 0.7 V, the methane production rate increased at the COD of 700 mg x L(-1), while it increased at first and then decreased at the COD of 1000 mg x L(-1) and 1350 mg x L(-1). A similar trend was observed for the COD removal. The cathode potential reached the minimum (- 0.694 ± 0.001) V as the applied voltage was 0.5 V, which therefore facilitated the growth of methanogenic bacteria and improved the methane production rate and energy efficiency of the MEC. The maximum energy income was 0.44 kJ ± 0.09 kJ (1450 kJ x m(-3)) in the MEC, which was obtained at the initial COD of 1000 mg x L(-1) and the applied voltage of 0.5 V. Methanogenic MECs could be used for the treatment of wastewaters containing low organic concentrations to achieve positive energy production, which might provide a new method to recover energy from low-strength domestic wastewater.

  14. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  15. Investigation of the Effects of COD/TP Ratio on the Performance of a Biological Nutrient Removal System

    OpenAIRE

    Punrattanasin, Warangkana

    1997-01-01

    The laboratory-scale University of Cape Town (UCT) process was designed to investigate the effects of changing COD/TP ratios on the performance of biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes. Specific objectives of the research were to investigate the effects of COD/TP ratio on the rates of phosphorus removal, COD removal, nitrogen removal, PHB utilization and oxygen uptake. The system was fed with municipal wastewater and operated at 20° C. The influent COD concentration was held approximat...

  16. Thawed cod fillets spoil less rapidly than unfrozen fillets when stored under modified atmosphere at 2 C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten;

    1998-01-01

    The effect of two months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of thawed and modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod fillets stored at 2 degrees C was studied. Thawed MAP cod fillets were compared with fresh cod fillets stored in CO2-containing modified at...

  17. 78 FR 18896 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 feet (18.3 meters) Length Overall... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA... cod for catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) LOA using jig or hook-and-line gear in the...

  18. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  19. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Khanna; George Filobbos

    2013-01-01

    The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suc...

  20. Effect of reflux ratio on COD and nitrogen removals from coke plant wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X L; Hu, X B; Wang, Z; Ding, L L; Ren, H Q

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic-moving bed biofilm reactor (A1-A2-O-MBBR) system was undertaken to treat coke plant wastewaters from two different factories (wastewater A and B). Wastewater B had higher BOD5/COD ratio and COD/TN ratio than wastewater A. The effects of reflux ratios on COD, TN and NH3-N removals were studied. Results indicated that, with the reflux ratio increased from 2 to 5, COD removals of wastewater A and wastewater B increased from 57.4% to 72.6% and 78.2% to 88.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, TN removals were also increased accompanying reflux ratio rise, from 53.1% to 74.4% for wastewater A and 64.2% to 83.5% for wastewater B. At the same reflux ratio, compared with wastewater A, higher COD and TN removal efficiencies were observed in wastewater B, which had higher BOD5/COD and COD/TN ratio. Reflux ratio had no significant influence on NH3-N removal; 99.0% of the overall NH3-N removal efficiency was achieved by the system for both coke plant wastewaters at any tested reflux ratio. MBBR was effective in NH3-N removal, and about 95% of the NH3-N was removed in the MBBR. PMID:20555197

  1. A review of the battle for food in the Barents Sea: Cod vs. marine mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarte eBogstad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cod, harp seal and minke whale are the main top predators in the Barents Sea ecosystem. In the last decade, the abundance of cod has increased considerably, and is at a record high level. In spite of this, the growth and condition of cod has remained rather stable, although some decrease is seen in size at age of large, mature cod. During the same period, the abundance of harp seals has declined whereas the minke whale stock has been at a stable level. The body condition (blubber thickness of these two mammal stocks has, however, decreased, with the strongest decrease observed for harp seals. A possible hypothesis for explaining this is that cod outperform the marine mammal stocks in the competition for food. The main advantages for cod are most likely larger availability of food (mainly capelin during winter-spring than for marine mammals, as well as a wider range of prey species being available to cod than to marine mammals. Harp seals are more dependent on prey items found close to the ice edge than the other two predator stocks are, which could partly explain why the performance of harp seals is worse than that of the two other main top predators in the area.

  2. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram; Levine, Simon P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  3. Adaptive avoidance of reef noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Simpson

    Full Text Available Auditory information is widely used throughout the animal kingdom in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some marine species are dependent on reefs for adult survival and reproduction, and are known to use reef noise to guide orientation towards suitable habitat. Many others that forage in food-rich inshore waters would, however, benefit from avoiding the high density of predators resident on reefs, but nothing is known about whether acoustic cues are used in this context. By analysing a sample of nearly 700,000 crustaceans, caught during experimental playbacks in light traps in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, we demonstrate an auditory capability in a broad suite of previously neglected taxa, and provide the first evidence in any marine organisms that reef noise can act as a deterrent. In contrast to the larvae of species that require reef habitat for future success, which showed an attraction to broadcasted reef noise, taxa with a pelagic or nocturnally emergent lifestyle actively avoided it. Our results suggest that a far greater range of invertebrate taxa than previously thought can respond to acoustic cues, emphasising yet further the potential negative impact of globally increasing levels of underwater anthropogenic noise.

  4. Penentuan Kadar COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) Pada Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit, Pabrik Karet Dan Domestik

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhasanah

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penentuan kadar COD pada limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit, industri karet, dan domestik dengan metode titrimetri. Dari hasil analisa COD diperoleh kadar limbah kelapa sawit sebesar 206,33mg/l, limbah industri karet sebesar 31,74 mg/l, dan limbah domestik sebesar 162,68 mg/l. dimana menurut Standart baku mutu yang telah ditetapkan oleh Menteri Lingkungan Hidup Nomor: Kep-51/MENLH/10/1995, kadar maksimum COD dalam air limbah industri kelapa sawit sebesar 350 mg/l, dalam indust...

  5. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, Ditte;

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to analyse the sensory quality of eight cod products, different with regard to origin (wild/farmed), Storage time (short/extended) and Storage method (fresh/frozen/packed in modified atmosphere). At the same time, 378 consumers in four European...... the liking in terms of different consumer attitudes and demographics. The QDA discriminated well between the products. The farmed cod products Were considerably different from wild cod, with More light and even colour, meaty texture, odour and flavour. Country differences were considerable with regard...

  6. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a......Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... and cod and rainbow trout seem potential candidates for freeze-chilled meal elements. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry...

  7. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2001-01-01

    to resolve species-specific regional reproductive success in relation to size, structure, and distribution of the spawning stock. Furthermore, as species and fisheries interactions vary between areas, it is necessary to include these interactions on an area-specific basis. Therefore, area......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation......-induced mortality. Results, when evaluated with respect to trends in population sizes from research surveys, were similar for the cod and sprat stocks but different for herring. Horizontal distributions from MSVPA runs and research surveys indicate that cod and sprat undergo migrations between basins during...

  8. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. PMID:27295254

  9. 77 FR 9852 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    .... DATES: This rule is effective March 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Craig Thatcher, Acting... primary authors of this regulation were Craig Thatcher, Acting Chief Ranger, Cape Cod National...

  10. Groundwater contributing areas for Cape Cod and the Plymouth-Carver Regions of Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data layer contains groundwater contributing areas for streams, ponds and estuaries in the Cape Cod and the Plymouth-Carver region. Contributing areas were...

  11. Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  12. Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  13. Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  14. Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  15. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  16. Bedrock Data from Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts (WELLSITE shapefile, Geographic, NAD27)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cores collected from recent drilling in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts provide insight into the topography and petrology of the underlying bedrock. Cores from 64...

  17. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Cape Cod National Seashore (caco_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cape Cod National Seashore in...

  18. Time for Fishing: Bargaining Power in the Baltic Swedish Cod Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist , Johan; Hammarlund, Cecilia; Waldo, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    How are market conditions affected by a change in fishery regulations? Who benefits and who loses? The paper discusses the price effects of a reform in the Swedish Baltic cod fishery where vessels using active gear were given annual quotas rather than the previously applied quarterly quotas. We investigate whether the bargaining power of fishers using trawlers have improved after the reform using a difference-in-difference approach. Since fishers have more freedom to fish for cod over the yea...

  19. Three chromosomal rearrangements promote genomic divergence between migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Paul R; Bastiaan Star; Christophe Pampoulie; Marte Sodeland; Julia M I Barth; Halvor Knutsen; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Sissel Jentoft

    2016-01-01

    Identification of genome-wide patterns of divergence provides insight on how genomes are influenced by selection and can reveal the potential for local adaptation in spatially structured populations. In Atlantic cod – historically a major marine resource – Northeast-Arctic- and Norwegian coastal cod are recognized by fundamental differences in migratory and non-migratory behavior, respectively. However, the genomic architecture underlying such behavioral ecotypes is unclear. Here, we have ana...

  20. Removal of Sulfide and COD from a Crude Oil Wastewater Model by Aluminum and Iron Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Dermentzis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of petroleum wastewater was studied using the electrocoagulation process with aluminum and iron electrodes aiming to simultaneous removal of sulfide and COD. All affecting parameters, such as solution pH, applied current density, time of electroprocessing, electrode material and addition of surfactant, were investigated. Sulfide was rapidly and effectively removed using iron electrodes. The removal of COD was effectively effectively enhanced by performing the electrocoagulation process after addition of the surfactant polyethylene glycol oleate.

  1. Photocatalysis applied in the studies of decolorization and COD removal of landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisselma Batista

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper photocatalysis processes on titanium dioxide suspension in aqueous solution illuminated with UV light are described for decolorization and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal of landfill leachate. Several operational parameters to achieve optimum efficiency are presented. The properties of the decolorization and COD removal were enhanced and studied by spectrophotometer methods. The results indicate that the process can be used as a pretreatment to the conventional processes.

  2. COD and Color Removal from Textile Wastewater Using Rosa damascena Watering Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani D.1 PhD,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims Several methods have been used for textile wastewater treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Rosa damascena watering waste ash for COD and color removal from textile wastewater. Materials & Methods Rose watering waste was gathered from one of the Kashan processing plants. The raw wastewater sample was taken from one of the textile industries in Kashan countryside. All experiments were run in the fixed volume (1L of textile wastewater, contact times (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90min, pHs (3, 5, 7, and 9 and different doses of rose watering waste (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000mg at the room temperature (25°C. Moreover, biosorption kinetic studies for COD were done using the pseudo first and pseudo second order models. Findings The amount of COD and color removal were increased by contact time increasing from 15 to 60min and the maximum removal of COD (50.3% and color (31.4% were seen at minute 60. Therefore, the contact time of 60min was chosen as the optimum contact time for the first step. The maximum amount of COD (51.9% and color (32.9% removal were seen at pH=5 and biosorbent dose of 2000mg. Changes at pH and biosorbent dose had significant effects (p<0.05 on amount of COD and color removal. Conclusion The optimum condition for removing COD and color from textile wastewater is at contact time 60min, pH=5 and biosorbent dose of 2000mg. Rosa damascena watering waste ash was more effective on the COD removal than the color.

  3. Evaluation of COD effect on anammox process and microbial communities in the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongjun; Sun, Faqian; Zhang, Haiqing; Wang, Jianfang; Shen, Yaoliang; Liang, Xinqiang

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen removal with different organic carbon effect was investigated using anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) anammox reactor. Results indicated that organic carbon exert an important effect on nitrogen removal through anammox process. When the feeding COD concentration was lower than 99.7mgL(-1), nitrogen removal could be enhanced via the coexistence of denitrification and anammox. Elevated COD could further deteriorate the anammox activity with almost complete inhibition at the COD concentration of 284.1mgL(-1). The nitrogen removal contribution rate of anammox was varied from 92.7% to 6.9%. However, the anammox activity was recovered when the COD/TN was decreased from 2.33 to 1.25 with influent nitrite addition. And, the anammox process was again intensified from 27.0 to 51.2%. High-throughput Miseq sequencing analyses revealed that the predominant phylum changed from Chloroflexi to Proteobacteria with the elevated COD addition, which indicated COD concentration was the most important factor regulating the bacterial community structure. PMID:27285572

  4. Effect of wastewater COD/N ratio on aerobic nitrifying sludge granulation and microbial population shift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Wu; Chengyao Peng; Yongzhen Peng; Lingyun Li; Shuying Wang; Yong Ma

    2012-01-01

    The effect of COD/N ratio on the granulation process and microbial population succession was investigated.Four identical sequencing batch reactors,R1,R2,R3 and R4,were operated with various initial COD/N ratios ranging from 0/200 to 800/200 (m/n).Ethanol was fed as the source of COD.Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in R2 and R3,operating with the COD/N ratio of 200/200 and 400/200,respectively.Scanning electron microscope observations indicated that short rod-shaped and spherical bacteria were dominant in R2,while granules produced in R3 were surrounded with a large amount of filamentous bacteria.The average specific nitritation rate in R2 and R3 were 0.019 and 0.008 mg N/(mg MLVSS.hr),respectively.Fluorescence in situ hybridization results demonstrated that nitrifying bacteria population was enriched remarkably in R2.It indicated that nitrification ability and nitrifying bacteria population were enriched remarkably at low COD/N ratio.However,no granules were formed in R1and R4 which might attribute to either limited or excessive extracellular polymeric substances production.This study contributed to a better understanding of the role of COD/N ratio in nitrifying sludge granulation.

  5. Estimation of the maximum allowable loading amount of COD in Luoyuan Bay by a 3-D COD transport and transformation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jialin; Li, Keqiang; Shi, Xiaoyong; Liang, Shengkang; Han, Xiurong; Ma, Qimin; Wang, Xiulin

    2014-08-01

    The rapid economic and social developments in the Luoyuan and Lianjiang counties of Fujian Province, China, raise certain environment and ecosystem issues. The unusual phytoplankton bloom and eutrophication, for example, have increased in severity in Luoyuan Bay (LB). The constant increase of nutrient loads has largely caused the environmental degradation in LB. Several countermeasures have been implemented to solve these environmental problems. The most effective of these strategies is the reduction of pollutant loadings into the sea in accordance with total pollutant load control (TPLC) plans. A combined three-dimensional hydrodynamic transport-transformation model was constructed to estimate the marine environmental capacity of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The allowed maximum loadings for each discharge unit in LB were calculated with applicable simulation results. The simulation results indicated that the environmental capacity of COD is approximately 11×104 t year-1 when the water quality complies with the marine functional zoning standards for LB. A pollutant reduction scheme to diminish the present levels of mariculture- and domestic-based COD loadings is based on the estimated marine COD environmental capacity. The obtained values imply that the LB waters could comply with the targeted water quality criteria. To meet the revised marine functional zoning standards, discharge loadings from discharge units 1 and 11 should be reduced to 996 and 3236 t year-1, respectively.

  6. Effects of COD to Phosphorus Ratios on the Metabolism of PAOs in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal with Different Carbon Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jiang; Junguo He; Xiaonan Yang; Jianzheng Li

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the phosphorus removal and metabolism under various COD/P ratio, a sludge highly enriched in PAOs was used to investigate the impacts of COD/P in batch tests under different carbon supply conditions. Acetate, propionate and a mixture of acetate and propionate at a ratio of 3 ∶ 1 ( COD basis) was used as carbon sources with the COD/P of 20, 15,10 and 5�0 gCOD/gP, respectively. The minimum COD/P ratios for complete P removal were found to be 8�24 gCOD/gP for acetate, 11�40 gCOD/gP for propionate and 9�10 gCOD/gP for the 3 ∶ 1 mixture of acetate and propionate. Converted to a mass basis, all three cases had a very similar ratio of 7�7 gVFA/gP, which represented a useful guide for operation of EBPR plants to identify possible shortages inVFAs. The trend in PHV accumulation during the anaerobic period along with the decrease of COD/P ratios suggested that, PAOs may use the TCA pathway for anaerobic VFA uptake to maintain the required NADH production with reduced glycogen degradation. During the aerobic phase, the glycogen pool was reduced but remained enough compared to the requirement for anaerobic VFA uptake, and the synthesis and degradation of glycogen was not the inhibition factor of PAOs.

  7. Performance of a haloalkaliphilic bioreactor and bacterial community shifts under different COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratios and hydraulic retention times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jie-Min [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Song, Zi-Yu [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); Yan, Dao-Jiang; Liu, Yi-Lan [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Mao-Hua [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Hong-Bin [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); Xing, Jian-Min, E-mail: jmxing@home.ipe.ac.cn [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Haloalkaliphilic microorganisms were used to reduce sulfate. • Sulfide concentration reached up to 1603 mg/L. • There was no sulfide inhibition to haloalkaliphilic microorganisms. • Bacterial community of haloalkaliphilic bioreactor was studied. - Abstract: Sulfur dioxide from flue gas was converted into sulfate after the absorption of alkaline solutions. Haloalkaliphilic microorganisms have been used in reducing sulfate to decrease expenses and avoid sulfide inhibition. The effects of different COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratios and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) on the sulfate removal efficiency and bacterial community were investigated in model experiments. Ethanol showed better performance as an electron donor than lactate. The optimum COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratio and HRT were 4.0 and 18 h, respectively, with respective sulfate removal efficiency and rate of 97.8 ± 1.11% and 6.26 ± 0.0710 g/L d. Sulfide concentrations reached 1603 ± 3.38 mg/L. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rDNA, the major sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) was Desulfonatronovibrio sp., which was only detected at a COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratio of 4.0 using ethanol as an electron donor. Different HRTs had no significant effect on the band corresponding to this species. PCR results show that methane-producing archaea (MPA) were from the acetoclastic methanogenic family Methanosarcinaceae. Quantitative real-time PCR did not demonstrate any significant competition between SRB and MPA. The findings of this study indicate that sulfate reduction, nitrate reduction, and sulfide oxidization may occur in the same bioreactor.

  8. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  9. EFFEKTIFITAS SARINGAN BIOFILTER ANAEROB DAN AEROB DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR BOD5, COD DAN NITROGEN TOTAL LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI KARET

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanuddin, ishak; Hatijah; Seweng, Arifin

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to 1) compare effectiveness of aerobic and anaerob biofilters in reducing BOD5, COD, and Total Nitrogen levels, 2) examine the interaction between immersion times and biofilter medium in reducing BOD5, COD and Total Nitrogen levels. This study was an experimental study using biofilters of brick fraction and data analysis was permormed using ANOVE tes. Study result indicated that anaerobic and aerobic biofilters medium were effective in reducing BOD5, COD and Totall Nitrog...

  10. Relation between habitat characteristics and abundance, diet and condition of 0-group cod in two northern Norwegian fjords

    OpenAIRE

    Heggland, Kristin Nymark

    2013-01-01

    There is a correlation between the vegetation coverage and the abundance of 0-group cod. The highest abundance was found between 50 – 70 %, which is consistent with previous studied and imply that there is a nonlinear relationship between vegetation coverage and abundance of 0-group cod. There was found a difference in diet between the three habitats, with the intertidal zones of Balsfjord and Porsangerfjord having a diet significantly higher diversity than the 0-group cod in the pelagic zone...

  11. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Lior Lobel; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs) serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was c...

  12. The effect of pH and operation mode for COD removal of slaughterhouse wastewater with Anaerobic Batch Reactor (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Octoviane Dyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of industrial wastes in large quantities was not in accordance with today's standards of waste into environmental issues that must be overcome with proper treatment. Similarly, the abattoir wastewater that contains too high organic compounds and suspended solids. The amount of liquid waste disposal Slaughterhouse (SW with high volume also causes pollution. The research aim to resolve this problem by lowering the levels of BOD-COD to comply with effluent quality standard. Anaerobic process is the right process for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment because of high content of organic compounds that can be utilized by anaerobic bacteria as a growth medium. Some research has been conducted among abattoir wastewater treatment using anaerobic reactors such as ABR, UASB and ASBR. Our research focuses on the search for the optimum results decline effluent COD levels to match the quality standards limbah and cow rumen fluid with biodigester ABR (Anaerobic Batch Reactor. The variables used were PH of 6, 7, and 8, as well as the concentration ratio of COD: N is 400:7; 450:7, and 500:7. COD value is set by the addition of N derived from urea [CO(NH2 2]. COD levels will be measured daily by water displacement technique. The research’s result for 20 days seen that optimum PH for biogas production was PH 7,719 ml. The optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6, 72.39 %. The operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal is 500:7, with the production value is 601 ml and COD removal value is 63.85 %. The research’s conclusion, the PH optimum for biogas production was PH 7, then the optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6. The optimum operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal was 500:7

  13. COD and BOD reduction from coffee processing wastewater using Avacado peel carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Rani; Singh, Vijender; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater from coffee processing plant using activated carbon made up of Avacado Peels. The complete study was done in batch mode to investigate the effect of operating parameters. The results of the COD and BOD concentration reduction with avocado peel carbon (APC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC) were compared and optimum operating conditions were determined for maximum reduction. Adsorption isotherm was also studied besides the calculation of optimum treatment parameters for maximum reduction of COD and BOD concentration from effluent of the coffee processing plant. The maximum percentage reduction of COD and BOD concentration under optimum operating conditions using APC was 98.20% and 99.18% respectively and with CAC this reduction was 99.02% and 99.35% respectively. As the adsorption capacity of APC is comparable with that of CAC for reduction of COD and BOD concentration, it could be a lucrative technique for treatment of domestic wastewater generated in decentralized sectors. PMID:17493806

  14. PENURUNAN BOD DAN COD LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TEKSTIL DI KABUPATEN PEKALONGAN DENGAN METODE MULTI SOIL LAYERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi Soil Layering (MSL system is a method of wastewater treatment that increase the soils function to purify wastewater. In the construction of MSL, soils mixed with the charcoal and then filled into the box of size 50x14x50 cm in layers structured like brick pattern. The aims of this research are to determine the concentration of BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater before and after the process by MSL method. It also determines the optimal loading rate of wastewater on the MSL system, and then it can determine the efficiency of MSL system on reducing the concentration of BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater. The method which used in this research is an experimental method. The wastewater on the MSL system is loaded on the loading rate variety: 160, 320, 480, 640, and 800 L m-2 day-1. The efficiency of MSL system to removing BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater are determined on optimal loading rate. The research gave result that MSL method could remove BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater on the optimal loading rate 320 L m-2 day-1. The efficiency of MSL system in removing BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater are 96.52 and 80.87% respectively. This indicated that the method MSL serve the purpose of effective alternative method in processing of liquid waste textile industry.

  15. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie;

    2001-01-01

    Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material...... of Baltic Sea cod. Therefore, addition of trimethylamine oxide and NaCl to Baltic Sea cod fillets was evaluated and shown to protect P, phosphoreum against fro::en storage inactivation and this explained the observed differences in growth of the spoilage bacteria and trimethylamine production between thawed...

  16. APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS FOR DECREASING OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) AND TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS) OF TOFU INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Suyata; Irmanto; Undri Rastuti

    2015-01-01

    Tofu industrial wastewater has high COD and TSS level, which it cause an environmental pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the value of COD and TSS of tofu industrial wastewater before discharge into the water body. Decreasing of COD and TSS values can be carried out using an electrochemical method. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of potential, electrode distance, pH, and time to decrease of COD and TSS value of the tofu industrial wastewater. The experi...

  17. Impact of dispersed fuel oil on cardiac mitochondrial function in polar cod Boreogadus saida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussauze, Matthieu; Camus, Lionel; Le Floch, Stéphane; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine; Geraudie, Perrine; Coquillé, Nathalie; Amérand, Aline; Lemaire, Philippe; Theron, Michael

    2014-12-01

    In this study, impact of dispersed oil on cardiac mitochondrial function was assessed in a key species of Arctic marine ecosystem, the polar cod Boreogadus saida. Mature polar cod were exposed during 48 h to dispersed oil (mechanically and chemically) and dispersants alone. The increase observed in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile indicated no difference in contamination level between fish exposed to chemical or mechanical dispersion of oil. Oil induced alterations of O2 consumption of permeabilised cardiac fibres showing inhibitions of complexes I and IV of the respiratory chain. Oil did not induce any modification of mitochondrial proton leak. Dispersants did not induce alteration of mitochondrial activity and did not increase oil toxicity. These data suggest that oil exposure may limit the fitness of polar cod and consequently could lead to major disruption in the energy flow of polar ecosystem.

  18. Time matters: post-surgical recovery of gastric evacuation rate in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Gräns, Albin; Andersen, Niels Gerner;

    GER was affected after surgically introducing dummies of a blood-flow biotelemetry system into the abdominal cavity of Atlantic cod. Two days post surgery the cod with implants were, together with a control group, force-fed a standardized meal and the stomach contents recovered 24h later....... This procedure was repeated for both groups of fish after one additional week of recovery. After two days GER was significantly lower in the group of fish with surgical implants compared to the control group, but the difference was not maintained after one additional week of recovery. We conclude that 10 days...... of postsurgical recovery will stabilize GER in cod. The results indicate that the presence of the implant per se did not affect GER but that the effects observed came from surgery and/or postsurgical stress. 10 days should consequently be a starting point for future studies even if longer recovery periods...

  19. Trophodynamic control on recruitment success in Baltic cod : the influence of cannibalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    Cod is the top piscivore predator in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Based on stomach content data from 62427 cod collected during 1977-1994 and food consumption rates, cannibalism in the Eastern and Western Baltic cod stocks has been quantified using multispecies virtual population analysis. In the...... Eastern Baltic stock, depending on model assumptions, an average of 25-38% of the 0-group and 11-17% of the 1-group were removed by predation by adults. Thus, between age 0 and age 2 a year class may lose on average about 31% and 44% of the initial number as a result of cannibalism. Cannibalism is lower......, stock, recruitment, and cannibalism declined steadily until the early 1990s and then increased again. Problems identified in relation to data compilation and estimation procedure are discussed with respect to their impact on estimates of cannibalism and stock- recruitment relationships. (C) 2000...

  20. Study on Migration and Transformation Rule of Organic Pollutants (COD) in Aerated Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Collecting waste water with a certain concentration of organic pollutants COD (chemical oxygen demand), static adsorption, static biodegradation and dynamic soil column experiments were made in laboratory, we researched migration and transformation of COD in aerated zone, and put forward a mathematical model showing the process. The results show that adsorption of organism in aerated zone is linear, which is represented by Henry's law s=Kdc+sd, adsorption coefficient Kd =0. 069 3;biodegradation diagram accord basically with first-order kinetics equation c=c0e-K1t , biodegradation coefficient K1 = 0. 049 9 d-1; dispersion coefficient D= 0. 002 42 m2/d in experiments. The migration and transformation of organic pollutants (COD) in aerated zone jointly result from many factors such as dispersion, adsorption and biodegradation etc..

  1. Cape Cod Aquifer Management Project (CCAMP): demonstration of a geographic information system for ground water protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steppacher, L.

    1988-09-01

    This publication summarizes the application of GIS Technology to the project. Geographic Information systems (GIS) technology has the capability of overlaying various mapped data layers, determining distances from fixed points, automatic changing of map scales, and preparing maps from tabular point data to better understand the complex issues involved in decision making. GIS was used for a series of pilot analyses for Cape Cod. The work concentrated on the development of a digital data base and assessment at three different geographic levels of analysis: (1) the zone of contribution to nine public water-supply wells in a highly urbanized area; (2) a rural, seasonally populated, summer tourist town; and (3) the Cape Cod peninsula. The project was designed to raise issues and answer the types of ground water management questions being asked on Cape Cod, but also those faced by ground water managers in other areas of the country as well.

  2. COD Removal Efficiencies of Some Aromatic Compounds in Supercritical Water Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Some aromatic compounds, phenol, aniline and nitrobenzene, were oxidized in supercritical water. It was experimentally found that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of these organic compounds can achieve a high level more than 90% in a short residence time at temperatures high enough. As temperature, pressure and residence time increase, the COD removal efficiencies of the organic compounds would all increase. It is also found that temperature and residence time offer greater influences on the oxidation process than pressure. The difficulty in oxidizing these three compounds is in the order of nitrobenzene > aniline > Phenol. In addition, it is extremely difficult to oxidize aniline and nitrobenzene to CO2 and H2O at the temperature lower than 873.15 K and 923.15 K, respectively. Only at the temperature higher than 873.15 K and 923.15 K, respectively, the COD removal efficiencies of 90% of aniline and nitrobenzene can be achieved.

  3. Inhibition of haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle and cod protein isolates by Fucus vesiculosus extract and fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tao; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur;

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Fucus vesiculosus extract and fractions towards haemoglobin- (Hb-) catalysed lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle system and cod protein isolates during ice storage were examined. The extract and fractions were characterised in terms of total phlorotannin content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl......-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion-chelating ability and reducing power. Progression of oxidation was followed by determining rancid odour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), redness and volatile oxidation compounds by gas chromatography (GC). In both...... the initiation of lipid peroxidation in both systems throughout the entire study period (8 days). Its effectiveness at 300 mg/kg level was comparable to that of 100 mg/kg propyl gallate (PG), a highly effective synthetic antioxidant in muscle foods. Although polymeric phlorotannin-rich subfraction (LH-5) had...

  4. Cod liver oil consumption at different periods of life and bone mineral density in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysteinsdottir, Tinna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Thorsdottir, Inga; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2015-07-01

    Cod liver oil is a traditional source of vitamin D in Iceland, and regular intake is recommended partly for the sake of bone health. However, the association between lifelong consumption of cod liver oil and bone mineral density (BMD) in old age is unclear. The present study attempted to assess the associations between intake of cod liver oil in adolescence, midlife, and old age, and hip BMD in old age, as well as associations between cod liver oil intake in old age and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Participants of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (age 66-96 years; n 4798), reported retrospectively cod liver oil intake during adolescence and midlife, as well as the one now in old age, using a validated FFQ. BMD of femoral neck and trochanteric region was measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography, and serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by means of a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. Associations were assessed using linear regression models. No significant association was seen between retrospective cod liver oil intake and hip BMD in old age. Current intake of aged men was also not associated with hip BMD, while aged women with daily intakes had z-scores on average 0.1 higher, compared with those with an intake of aged participants was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D: individuals with intakes of < once/week, one to six time(s)/week and daily intake had concentrations of approximately 40, 50 and 60 nmol/l respectively (P for trend < 0.001).

  5. Stock-based vs. fleet-based evaluation of the multi-annual management plan for the cod stocks in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Vinther, Morten; Nielsen, J. Rasmus;

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the EU 2008 multi-annual plan for Baltic cod stock recovery. The plan combines harvest control rules that set TACs with reductions in direct effort (E) and fishing mortality (F). Performance and robustness of the plan are tested with a management strategy evaluation model (MSE......, however, more sensitive to implementation errors (e.g. catch misreporting) than to observation errors (e.g. data collection) when the (i) current settings of the ICES single-stock assessment model are maintained. (ii) intended fishing effort reduction is fully complied with, and (iii) biological....... The relative difference between both approaches is mainly due to differences in exploitation patterns in catching the same amount of fish. The effort control is demonstrated to be more efficient when supplemented with a TAC and avoids un-intended effects from fishery responses, e.g. spatial effort reallocation...

  6. Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport in Bacillus subtilis CodY Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Belitsky, Boris R.

    2015-01-01

    CodY is a branched-chain amino acid-responsive transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of several dozen transcription units in Bacillus subtilis. The presence of isoleucine, valine, and leucine in the growth medium is essential for achieving high activity of CodY and for efficient regulation of the target genes. We identified three permeases—BcaP, BraB, and BrnQ—that are responsible for the bulk of isoleucine and valine uptake and are also involved in leucine uptake. At least o...

  7. Modeling the cod larvae drift in the Bornholm Basin in summer 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Lehmann, A.; St. John, Michael;

    1997-01-01

    A combined 3-D physical oceanographic model and a field sampling program was performed in July and August 1994 to investigate the potential drift of larval Baltic cod from the center of spawning effort in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea. The goal of this exercise was to predict the drift......-dimensional eddy-resolving baroclinic model of the Baltic Sea based on the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code. Larval drift was simulated by the incorporation of a passive tracer into the model utilized to represent individual cod larvae. Additionally, simulated Lagrangian drift trajectories are presented. For model purposes...

  8. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) (b) Where two or more licensees are assigned a common...

  9. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Lior; Herskovits, Anat A

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs) serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was considered to function primarily as a repressor under rich growth conditions. However, our previous studies of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes revealed that CodY is active also when the bacteria are starved for BCAAs. Under these conditions, CodY loses the ability to repress genes (e.g., metabolic genes) and functions as a direct activator of the master virulence regulator gene, prfA. This observation raised the possibility that CodY possesses multiple functions that allow it to coordinate gene expression across a wide spectrum of metabolic growth conditions, and thus better adapt bacteria to the mammalian niche. To gain a deeper understanding of CodY's regulatory repertoire and identify direct target genes, we performed a genome wide analysis of the CodY regulon and DNA binding under both rich and minimal growth conditions, using RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq techniques. We demonstrate here that CodY is indeed active (i.e., binds DNA) under both conditions, serving as a repressor and activator of different genes. Further, we identified new genes and pathways that are directly regulated by CodY (e.g., sigB, arg, his, actA, glpF, gadG, gdhA, poxB, glnR and fla genes), integrating metabolism, stress responses, motility and virulence in L. monocytogenes. This study establishes CodY as a multifaceted factor regulating L. monocytogenes physiology in a highly versatile manner. PMID:26895237

  10. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Lobel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was considered to function primarily as a repressor under rich growth conditions. However, our previous studies of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes revealed that CodY is active also when the bacteria are starved for BCAAs. Under these conditions, CodY loses the ability to repress genes (e.g., metabolic genes and functions as a direct activator of the master virulence regulator gene, prfA. This observation raised the possibility that CodY possesses multiple functions that allow it to coordinate gene expression across a wide spectrum of metabolic growth conditions, and thus better adapt bacteria to the mammalian niche. To gain a deeper understanding of CodY's regulatory repertoire and identify direct target genes, we performed a genome wide analysis of the CodY regulon and DNA binding under both rich and minimal growth conditions, using RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq techniques. We demonstrate here that CodY is indeed active (i.e., binds DNA under both conditions, serving as a repressor and activator of different genes. Further, we identified new genes and pathways that are directly regulated by CodY (e.g., sigB, arg, his, actA, glpF, gadG, gdhA, poxB, glnR and fla genes, integrating metabolism, stress responses, motility and virulence in L. monocytogenes. This study establishes CodY as a multifaceted factor regulating L. monocytogenes physiology in a highly versatile manner.

  11. A spectrum of CodY activities drives metabolic reorganization and virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Nicholas R; Samuels, David J; Behera, Ranjan K; Livny, Jonathan; Rhee, Kyu Y; Sadykov, Marat R; Brinsmade, Shaun R

    2016-08-01

    The global regulator CodY controls the expression of dozens of metabolism and virulence genes in the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in response to the availability of isoleucine, leucine and valine (ILV), and GTP. Using RNA-Seq transcriptional profiling and partial activity variants, we reveal that S. aureus CodY activity grades metabolic and virulence gene expression as a function of ILV availability, mediating metabolic reorganization and controlling virulence factor production in vitro. Strains lacking CodY regulatory activity produce a PIA-dependent biofilm, but development is restricted under conditions that confer partial CodY activity. CodY regulates the expression of thermonuclease (nuc) via the Sae two-component system, revealing cascading virulence regulation and factor production as CodY activity is reduced. Proteins that mediate the host-pathogen interaction and subvert the immune response are shut off at intermediate levels of CodY activity, while genes coding for enzymes and proteins that extract nutrients from tissue, that kill host cells, and that synthesize amino acids are among the last genes to be derepressed. We conclude that S. aureus uses CodY to limit host damage to only the most severe starvation conditions, providing insight into one potential mechanism by which S. aureus transitions from a commensal bacterium to an invasive pathogen. PMID:27116338

  12. Impact of the herbicide (RS)-MCPP on an anaerobic membrane bioreactor performance under different COD/nitrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzir, Ali; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Sallis, Paul J

    2012-04-01

    The degradation of (RS)-MCPP was investigated in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) using nitrate as an available electron acceptor under different COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratios. Results showed high soluble COD removal efficiency (80-93%) when the reactor was operated at high COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratios. However, the COD removal started to decline (average 15%) at high nitrate concentrations coinciding with a drop in nitrate removal efficiency to 37%, suggesting that the denitrification activity dropped and affected the AnMBR performance when nitrate was the predominant electron acceptor. Additionally, the removal efficiency of (RS)-MCPP increased from 2% to 47% with reducing COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratios, whilst the (RS)-MCPP specific utilisation rate (SUR) was inversely proportional to the COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratio, suggesting that a lower COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratios had a positive influence on the (RS)-MCPP SUR. Although nitrate had a major impact on methane production rates, the methane composition was stable (approximately 80%) for COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratios of 23 or more. PMID:22318083

  13. CodY, a pleiotropic regulator, influences multicellular behaviour and efficient production of virulence factors in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindback, Toril; Mols, Maarten; Basset, Coraline; Granum, Per Einar; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovacs, Akos T.; Lindbäck, Toril

    2012-01-01

    In response to nutrient limitation in the environment, the global transcriptional regulator CodY modulates various pathways in low G+C Gram-positive bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis CodY triggers adaptation to starvation by secretion of proteases coupled to the expression of amino acid transporters. F

  14. Membrane bioreactors fed with different COD/N ratio wastewater: impacts on microbial community, microbial products, and membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Ma, Jinxing; Zhu, Chaowei; Li, Yaxin; Wu, Zhichao

    2015-08-01

    It is known that an increase of COD/N ratio can result in an enhanced removal of nutrients in membrane bioreactors (MBRs); however, impacts of doing so on membrane filtration performance remain unclear. In this work, comparison of membrane filtration performance, microbial community, and microbial products under low temperature was carried out in anoxic/oxic (A/O) MBRs with COD/N ratios of 9.9 and 5.5 g COD/g N in influent. There was no doubt that an improvement of nitrogen removal under high COD/N ratio was observed; however, severer membrane fouling was found compared to the MBR fed with low COD/N ratio wastewater. The increase of COD/N ratio resulted in an elevated production of humic acids in soluble microbial product (SMP) and carbohydrates, proteins, and humic acids in loosely bound extracellular polymeric substance (LB-EPS). Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) analysis showed that the adsorption capability of SMP and LB-EPS was higher in the MBR with higher COD/N ratio. Four hundred fifty four high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that the higher COD/N ratio led to the enrichment of Bacteroidetes at phylum level and Azospira, Thauera, Zoogloea, etc. at genus level. Bacteroidetes are considered to potentially release EPS, and Azospira, Thauera, and Zoogloea, etc. have denitrification activity. The change in microbial communities is consistent with MBR performance.

  15. The effect of COD loading on the granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system and the recoverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shenjing; Sun, Peide; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Lujun; Zheng, Xiongliu; Han, Jingyi; Yan, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the effect of varied COD loading (200, 400, 500, 600 and 800 mg L(-1)) on stability and recoverability of granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was investigated during continuously 53-d operation. Results showed that COD loading higher than 500 mg L(-1) could obviously deteriorate the granular EBPR system and result in sludge bulking with filamentous bacteria. High COD loading also changed the transformation patterns of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and inhibited the EPS secretion, which completely destroyed the stability and integrality of granules. Results of FISH indicated that glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other microorganisms had a competitive advantage over PAOs with higher COD loading. The community composition and EBPR performance were recovered irreversibly in long time operation when COD loading was higher than 500 mg L(-1). PMID:25189512

  16. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading. PMID:27472749

  17. Change of Ecological Characteristics Due to Decrease of COD/SO42- Ratio During Sulfate-reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱杰; 任南琪; 刘广民; 杜大仲

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the change of ecological characteristics due to the decrease of COD/SO42- ratio during sulfate reduction, continuous-flew tests were conducted in an acidogenic sulfate-reducing reactor with molasses wastewater as sole organic carbon source and sodium sulfate as electron acceptor, and the change of pH value, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), volatile fat acids (VFAs), alkalinity (ALK) and the predominant populations with COD/SO42- ratio decreasing from 4. 2 to 2. 0 were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that, with decreasing COD/SO42- ratio, ORP and ALK increased, pH value decreased, and the proportion of acetic acid in terminal products decreased significantly, and a stable - type microbial community with high COD/SO42- ratio was converted into a sub -stable -type one with low COD/SO42- ratio.

  18. 77 FR 62257 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Herring River Restoration Project, Cape Cod National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...The National Park Service (NPS) announces the availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Herring River Restoration Project in Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. The DEIS provides a systematic analysis of alternative approaches to restore the Herring River estuary to a more productive and natural condition after a century of diking and...

  19. Hierarchical modelling of temperature and habitat size effects on population dynamics of North Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene; Sorensen, H.; O'Hara, R.B.;

    2010-01-01

    and Beverton and Holt stock - recruitment (SR) models were extended by applying hierarchical methods, mixed-effects models, and Bayesian inference to incorporate the influence of these ecosystem factors on model parameters representing cod maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity. We identified...

  20. Three chromosomal rearrangements promote genomic divergence between migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Paul R; Star, Bastiaan; Pampoulie, Christophe; Sodeland, Marte; Barth, Julia M I; Knutsen, Halvor; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    Identification of genome-wide patterns of divergence provides insight on how genomes are influenced by selection and can reveal the potential for local adaptation in spatially structured populations. In Atlantic cod - historically a major marine resource - Northeast-Arctic- and Norwegian coastal cod are recognized by fundamental differences in migratory and non-migratory behavior, respectively. However, the genomic architecture underlying such behavioral ecotypes is unclear. Here, we have analyzed more than 8.000 polymorphic SNPs distributed throughout all 23 linkage groups and show that loci putatively under selection are localized within three distinct genomic regions, each of several megabases long, covering approximately 4% of the Atlantic cod genome. These regions likely represent genomic inversions. The frequency of these distinct regions differ markedly between the ecotypes, spawning in the vicinity of each other, which contrasts with the low level of divergence in the rest of the genome. The observed patterns strongly suggest that these chromosomal rearrangements are instrumental in local adaptation and separation of Atlantic cod populations, leaving footprints of large genomic regions under selection. Our findings demonstrate the power of using genomic information in further understanding the population dynamics and defining management units in one of the world's most economically important marine resources. PMID:26983361

  1. Consumer perception of wild and farmed cod and the effect of different information conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, A.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Veldman, M.; Luten, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of product information on the consumer perception of fillets of wild and farmed cod was examined in a real in-home environment, in order to establish the external validity of these influences. Main effects in this study were observed for information about product type and for price. In

  2. Improved management based on stock identification of eastern and western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Bastardie, Francois; Eero, Margit;

    ) within the “Western” cod’s management unit was documented using high-powered genetic tools. The majority (91%) of all spawning fish caught in SD 24 in 2011 were “Eastern” cod and only 9% were from the “Western” stock. The results suggest that the stock structure in the Arkona Basin is highly influenced...... by mixing of genetically separate stocks. Trends in mixing: Since the 1980’s where cod in SD 24 consisted primarily of “Western” type, the proportion of “Eastern” cod has increased, particularly since 2005. Throughout that period, the immigration of “Eastern” cod into SD 24 consisted primarily of adult...... with a change in “Eastern” cod’s spawning behaviour. Management: The stock mixing proportions were successfully implemented in DTU Aqua’s modeling framework for management scenarios. “Eastern” immigrants into SD 24 lead the management procedure to advice for higher TACs that enhance the pressure on the fishing...

  3. Optimization of removal of COD and color from baker’s yeast wastewater by Fenton oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arbabi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that Fenton’s oxidation method can be used successfully, as an alternative option to the design and choice of color and COD removal from strength industrial wastewaters e.g., bakery’s yeast industry.

  4. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi poses no direct threat to Baltic cod eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Titelman, Josefin; Hansson, Lars Johan;

    2011-01-01

    conducted laboratory incubation experimentsand video observations to quantify feeding rates on Baltic cod eggs and larvae. Ingestion rates increased with codlarvae concentrations up to 8 prey L21, beyond which ingestion remained constant. Neither Mnemiopsis size noregg concentration (1–16 prey L21) affected...... feeding rates on cod eggs. Observed feeding rates pooled from allexperiments conducted at nonsaturating prey concentrations were low, with the highest volume-specific clearanceon , 4.5-d-old yolk-sac larvae (0.05 6 0.02 L (mL Mnemiopsis)21 h21), and lower rates on 4.5–8-d-old larvae(0.02 6 0.02 L (m......L Mnemiopsis)21 h21) and eggs (0.02 6 0.03 L (mL Mnemiopsis)21 h21). When offered Artemiasalina and cod eggs simultaneously, Mnemiopsis passively selected against cod eggs. Video recordings showed thateggs did not trigger the capture response that Mnemiopsis shows toward motile prey, and ingested eggs were...

  5. Evaluation of farmed cod products by a trained sensory panel and consumers in different test settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Thorsdottir, F.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Kole, A.; Thorsdottir, I.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory characteristics of farmed cod exposed to low or conventional stress levels prior to slaughter were evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Consumers in two different settings, central location test (CLT) and home-use test (HUT), also tasted the products and rated them according to overall liki

  6. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  7. WO3/W Nanopores Sensor for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD Determination under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejin Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A sensor of a WO3 nanopores electrode combined with a thin layer reactor was proposed to develop a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD determination method and solve the problem that the COD values are inaccurately determined by the standard method. The visible spectrum, e.g., 420 nm, could be used as light source in the sensor we developed, which represents a breakthrough by limiting of UV light source in the photoelectrocatalysis process. The operation conditions were optimized in this work, and the results showed that taking NaNO3 solution at the concentration of 2.5 mol·L−1 as electrolyte under the light intensity of 214 μW·cm−2 and applied bias of 2.5 V, the proposed method is accurate and well reproducible, even in a wide range of pH values. Furthermore, the COD values obtained by the WO3 sensor were fitted well with the theoretical COD value in the range of 3–60 mg·L−1 with a limit value of 1 mg·L−1, which reveals that the proposed sensor may be a practical device for monitoring and controlling surface water quality as well as slightly polluted water.

  8. Low-temperature transitions in cod and tuna determined by differential scanning calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristina Nedenskov; Jørgensen, Bo; Nielsen, Jette

    2003-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry measurements have revealed different thermal transitions in cod and tuna samples. Transition temperatures detected Lit -11degreesC, -15degreesC and -21degreesC were highly dependent on the annealing temperature. In tuna muscle an additional transition was observed...

  9. An obstacle to China's WWTPs: the COD and BOD standards for discharge into municipal sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hu, Tiantian; Roker, Scott Albert C

    2015-11-01

    In 2001, a construction campaign regarding wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) occurred in China. Unfortunately, the treatment has not yet achieved anticipated effectiveness. A critical reason for this is that the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations in WWTPs are unacceptably low. This paper indicates that a fundamental, but commonly overlooked contributing factor to this problem is that a large portion of easily degradable COD and BOD is degraded prematurely before entering municipal sewers, and this is directly correlated to China's standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers. This perspective is further unfolded through retrospection of the history of Chinese wastewater treatment and the investigation of standards among developed zones and districts. This paper suggests that in China, the standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers should be relaxed. Meanwhile, unnecessary pretreatment of COD and BOD should cease for the purpose of ensuring that easily degradable COD and BOD can be transferred to WWTPs to improve treatment efficiency. Moreover, additional alternatives are presented to resolve this problem.

  10. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Munoz, L.G.; Mejlholm, Ole

    1998-01-01

    Inhibition of the specific spoilage organism, Photobacterium phosphoreum, was studied in model substrates and in modified- atmosphere-packed cod fillets. The objective was to determine how inhibition of this organism influenced spoilage. The spoilage reactions limiting shelf life were studied rat...

  11. COD FRACTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF MECHANICAL-BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT SEWAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the COD fraction thereof in sewage and their changes in the effluent after further treatment processes. The study was conducted in a sewage treatment plant in Bialystok (RLM> 100000. In sewage the highest concentrations occurred in the suspension of the organic fractions slowly biodegradable XS (303.7 mg O2/l and dissolved organic compounds readily biodegradable SS (263 mg O2/l. The lower amounts were irreducible fractions dissolved in sewage and suspended SI (56 mg O2/l and XI (101.2 mg O2/l. Almost 80% of the total COD fractions were biodegradable (SS + XS. In the treated wastewater soluble fraction SI-biodegradable (56 mg O2/l occurred in the highest concentration. The flow of wastewater by components of sewage treatment plant resulted the complete removal of biologically degradable fraction of dissolved SS. More than 94.5% of the total COD in waste water purified fractions were biologically decomposable (SI + XI. Moreover, based on the analysis of studies the following soil removal was found: BOD5 – 99.4%, COD – 92.9%, total nitrogen – 93.4%, total phosphorus – 92%. After waste water treatment, ammonia nitrogen was completely removed while the nitrate concentration increased to 4.6 mg N/dm3.

  12. COD and color removal of reactive orange 16 dye solution by electrochemical oxidation and adsorption method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zuhailie; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye was investigated using electrochemical oxidation and adsorption (batch method) using mixture of coconut trunk charcoal-graphite-tin-polyvinyl chloride(PVC). In batch studies for adsorbents pellet and powder form of the charcoal mixture were used. RO16 was chosen as the model dye because of its high resistance towards conventional treatment methods. NaCl and RO16 concentration, treatment duration, weight of electrode and adsorbent and volume of solution were kept constant for both methods. The effectiveness of the treatments were compared and evaluated by percentage of RO16 decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and results indicated that electrochemical oxidation method ables to decolorized RO16 dye up to 98.5% after 20 minutes electrolysis time while pellet and powder in batch method only removed 17.1 and 33.6% of RO16 color respectively. However, only 45.6% of COD can be removed using electrochemical oxidation method while pellet and powder in batch method removed 47.8 and 49.6% of COD respectively. The decolorization and COD removal of RO16 was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (by the changes of absorption spectrum intensity of azo chromophore (-N=N-) at λ=388 and 492.50 nm and Hach spectrophotometer respectively. FTIR was used to determine functional groups present in the coconut trunk charcoal.

  13. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, D.; Hyldig, G.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to analyse the sensory quality of eight cod products, different with regard to origin (wild/farmed), storage time (short/extended) and storage method (fresh/frozen/packed in modified atmosphere). At the same time, 378 consumers in four European countr

  14. Conjecture on Avoidance of Big Crunch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Yi; ZHANG De-Hai

    2006-01-01

    By conjecturing the physics at the Planck scale, we modify the definition of the Hawking temperature and modify the Friedmann equation. It is found that we can avoid the singularity of the big crunch and obtain a bouncing cosmological model.

  15. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: ...

  16. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  17. Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159681.html Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity Good relationship with parents, especially between fathers and ... develop healthy habits that may protect them against obesity, a new study suggests. The researchers also found ...

  18. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  19. GSA IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — GSA IT provides data related to Agency IT initiatives that save or avoid expenditures. This data is provided as a requirement of OMB's Integrated Data Collection...

  20. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  1. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  2. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required. PMID:24785995

  3. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in radar technology have resulted in commercial, automotive collision avoidance radars. These radar systems typically use 37GHz or 77GHz interferometry...

  4. How to avoid overheating during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000865.htm How to avoid overheating during exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... condition can get heat illness. Stay Cool During Exercise Try these tips to help prevent heat-related ...

  5. Penyisihan COD dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Minyak Kelapa Sawit menggunakan Nano Karbon Aktif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Munandar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah cair pabrik minyak kelapa sawit (PMKS merupakan sumber pencemar potensial yang dapat memberikan dampak serius terhadap lingkungan, sehingga diperlukan penanganan terhadap limbah cair tersebut melalui peningkatan teknologi pengolahan. Salah satu metode yang dapat digunakan untuk menghilangkan zat pencemar tersebut adalah dengan proses adsorpsi. Dalam penelitian ini, adsorben yang digunakan adalah karbon aktif dalam skala nanometer. Nano karbon diaktivasi secara fisika (kalsinasi pada suhu 700OC untuk mendapatkan volume pori yang lebih besar. Kristalinitas nano karbon aktif dianalisis menggunakan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, sedangkan morfologi dari nano karbon aktif dianalisis dengan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Konsentrasi COD sebelum dan setelah proses adsorbsi dilakukan dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan variasi waktu kontak (0,5; 1; 2; 3; 4; dan 8 jam, massa adsorben (0,25; 0,5; 1; dan 2 gr, konsentrasi awal (47,60; 97,04; 193,84; dan 482,82 mg/l, ukuran adsorben (nano size dan mikron size, dan jenis adsorben (nano karbon aktif dan nano zeolit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa waktu kontak, massa adsorben, jenis adsorben, dan konsentrasi awal sampel limbah mempengaruhi penyisihan COD. Waktu kontak yang optimal antara nano karbon aktif dengan COD adalah 4 jam dengan massa adsorben 2 gr. Pada jumlah atau massa adsorben yang tetap (2 gram semakin tinggi konsentrasi awal COD di dalam sampel limbah maka persen penyisihan semakin kecil. Ukuran sampel pada skala nano memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan ukuran sampel pada skala mikron. Hasil penyisihan COD di dalam sample PMKS untuk nano karbon aktif lebih baik dibandingkan nano zeolit. Hasil Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM terlihat bahwa nano karbon aktif memiliki ukuran nanometer (10-9.

  6. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....

  7. Mobile Robot Collision Avoidance in Human Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingqi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance is a fundamental requirement for mobile robots. Avoiding moving obstacles (also termed dynamic obstacles with unpredictable direction changes, such as humans, is more challenging than avoiding moving obstacles whose motion can be predicted. Precise information on the future moving directions of humans is unobtainable for use in navigation algorithms. Furthermore, humans should be able to pursue their activities unhindered and without worrying about the robots around them. In this paper, both active and critical regions are used to deal with the uncertainty of human motion. A procedure is introduced to calculate the region sizes based on worst‐case avoidance conditions. Next, a novel virtual force field‐based mobile robot navigation algorithm (termed QVFF is presented. This algorithm may be used with both holonomic and nonholonomic robots. It incorporates improved virtual force functions for avoiding moving obstacles and its stability is proven using a piecewise continuous Lyapunov function. Simulation and experimental results are provided for a human walking towards the robot and blocking the path to a goal location. Next, the proposed algorithm is compared with five state‐of‐the‐art navigation algorithms for an environment with one human walking with an unpredictable change in direction. Finally, avoidance results are presented for an environment containing three walking humans. The QVFF algorithm consistently generated collision‐free paths to the goal.

  8. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K.; Wikberg, H. [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  9. Abolition of reflex bradycardia by cardiac vagotomy has no effect on the regulation of oxygen uptake by Atlantic cod in progressive hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Taylor, E.W.T.;

    2009-01-01

    -operated cod (mean +/- s.e.m., n=9). Sham-operated cod exhibited transient profound bradycardia following oxygen chemoreceptor stimulation by bolus injection of sodium cyanide into the buccal cavity (2 mg in 2 ml seawater), but this cardiac chemoreflex was abolished in denervated cod. Both groups, however...

  10. Effect of COD/N ratio on nitrogen removal and microbial communities of CANON process in membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Hongzhong; Ye, Changming; Wei, Mingbao; Du, Jingjing

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of COD/N ratio on completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was investigated in five identical membrane bioreactors. The five reactors were simultaneously seeded for 1L CANON sludge and be operated for more than two months under same conditions, with influent COD/N ratio of 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4, respectively. DGGE was used to analyze the microbial communities of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) in five reactors. Results revealed the harmonious work of CANON and denitrification with low COD concentration, whereas too high COD concentration suppressed both AOB and AAOB. AOB and AAOB biodiversity both decreased with COD increasing, which then led to worse nitrogen removal. The suppressing threshold of COD/N ratio for CANON was 1.7. CANON was feasible for treating low COD/N sewage, while the high sewage should be converted by anaerobic biogas producing process in advance.

  11. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model...... evidence that the final destinations of juvenile cod drift routes are affected by decadal climate variability. Application of the methodology to MPA design is discussed, e.g. identifying the overlap of areas with a high probability of successful juvenile cod settlement and regions of high fishing effort...

  12. Avoiding barriers in control of mowing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Bai-jing; QIAN Guo-hong; XIANG Zhong-ping; LI Zuo-peng

    2006-01-01

    Due to complicated barriers,it is difficult to track the path of the mowing robot and to avoid barriers.In order to solve the problem,a method based on distance-measuring sensors and fuzzy control inputs was proposed.Its track was composed of beelines and was easy to tail.The fuzzy control inputs were based on the front barrier distance and the difference between the left and right barrier distance measured by ultrasonic sensors;the output was the direction angle.The infrared sensors around the robot improved its safety in avoiding barriers.The result of the method was feasible,agile,and stable.The distance between the robot and the barriers could be changed by altering the inputs and outputs of fuzzy control and the length of the beelines.The disposed sensors can fulfill the need of the robot in avoiding barriers.

  13. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L;

    1997-01-01

    cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly......Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all...

  14. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Latiolais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.

  15. Is avoiding an aversive outcome rewarding? Neural substrates of avoidance learning in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackjin Kim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance learning poses a challenge for reinforcement-based theories of instrumental conditioning, because once an aversive outcome is successfully avoided an individual may no longer experience extrinsic reinforcement for their behavior. One possible account for this is to propose that avoiding an aversive outcome is in itself a reward, and thus avoidance behavior is positively reinforced on each trial when the aversive outcome is successfully avoided. In the present study we aimed to test this possibility by determining whether avoidance of an aversive outcome recruits the same neural circuitry as that elicited by a reward itself. We scanned 16 human participants with functional MRI while they performed an instrumental choice task, in which on each trial they chose from one of two actions in order to either win money or else avoid losing money. Neural activity in a region previously implicated in encoding stimulus reward value, the medial orbitofrontal cortex, was found to increase, not only following receipt of reward, but also following successful avoidance of an aversive outcome. This neural signal may itself act as an intrinsic reward, thereby serving to reinforce actions during instrumental avoidance.

  16. A collision avoidance system for workpiece protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Novak, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maslakowski, J.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes an application of Sandia`s non-contact capacitive sensing technology for collision avoidance during the manufacturing of rocket engine thrust chambers. The collision avoidance system consists of an octagon shaped collar with a capacitive proximity sensor mounted on each face. The sensors produced electric fields which extend several inches from the face of the collar and detect potential collisions between the robot and the workpiece. A signal conditioning system processes the sensor output and provides varying voltage signals to the robot controller for stopping the robot.

  17. Eel, cod and seatrout harvest in Danish recreational fishing during 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor leisure activity, yet the impact on the targeted stocks is often unidentified. In order to estimate 2011 cod, eel and seatrout harvest (fish caught and kept) in the Danish angling and passive gear fishing, two interview surveys were conducted in July...... 2011 and January 2012. Recreational fishing was separated into anglers (with rod and reel) and passive gear fishing (fyke and gillnets). In 2011 a total of 157,762 anglers and 33,911 passive gear fishers had issued the annual license, which is compulsory if saltwater fishing is practiced. In total, it...... was estimated that 80 t [Relative standard error (RSE)=6%] eel, close to 1,300 t (RSE=5 %) cod and 400 t (RSE=5 %) seatrout (including freshwater catches) was harvested in the recreational fishery. Eel is almost exclusively taken in the passive gear fykenet fishery and seatrout was mainly caught by...

  18. Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn; Eero, Margit

    2011-01-01

    A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recru......A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass...... and recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrographic conditions, marine mammal predation and eutrophication. Recovery of spatially resolved historical...

  19. Time changes in fishing power in the Danish cod fisheries of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Hovgård, Holger;

    2001-01-01

    Using nominal fishing effort to control fishing mortality and using cpue data from commercial fisheries as abundance indices require ability to correct fishing power for temporal development. It is often assumed in ICES stock assessments that fishing power Is constant over time. However, experience...... is that their fishing power has not varied much over time. IFP is calculated for some of the Danish cod fisheries in the Baltic Sea. IFP appeared to be independent of the vessel composition of the reference sub- fleet and for the fleets fishing in the Eastern Baltic Sea. but less so for the Western Baltic Sea fleets....... Variations in IFP are analysed by a GLM (General Linear Model). Results suggest that fishing power has developed in the Eastern Baltic Sea cod fishery at an annual rate of 2% and 6% for trawlers and gillnetters respectively. Mechanisms of fishing power creeping may include increased technical efficiency...

  20. Effect of Algal Inoculation on COD and Nitrogen Removal, and Indigenous Bacterial Dynamics in Municipal Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangho; Lee, Jaejin; Shukla, Sudheer Kumar; Park, Joonhong; Lee, Tae Kwon

    2016-05-28

    The effects of algal inoculation on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) removal, and indigenous bacterial dynamics were investigated in municipal wastewater. Experiments were conducted with municipal wastewater inoculated with either Chlorella vulgaris AG10032, Selenastrum gracile UTEX 325, or Scenedesmus quadricauda AG 10308. C. vulgaris and S. gracile as fast growing algae in municipal wastewater, performed high COD and TN removal in contrast to Sc. quadricauda. The indigenous bacterial dynamics revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplification showed different bacterial shifts in response to different algal inoculations. The dominant bacterial genera of either algal case were characterized as heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria. Our results suggest that selection of indigenous bacteria that symbiotically interact with algal species is important for better performance of wastewater treatment. PMID:26930350

  1. Coastal landforms and processes at the Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts—A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Graham S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Adams, Mark

    2015-12-17

    Anyone who spends more than a few days on Cape Cod (the Cape) quickly becomes a coastal geologist, quickly learning the rhythms of daily tides and the seasonal cycles of beaches growing and being swept away by storms; swimmers and surfers track how the breakers appear, and dog-walkers notice the hard-packed sand blanketed overnight by an airy layer that leaves deep labored tracks.

  2. Reducing COD level on oily effluent by utilizing biosurfactant-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Franco Carvalho Jacobucci

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two bacteria isolated from crude oil contaminated soil, Pantoea agglomerans and Planococcus citreus, produced biosurfactants utilizing 1.5% of kerosene and olive oil as the sole carbon sources, respectively. The bacteria and the biosurfactants produced were introduced to oily effluent, arising from margarine and soap industry. Emulsification activities were determined by increases in the absorbance of the oil-in-water emulsions at 610 nm, whereas the water-in-oil emulsions were expressed as the height (cm of the emulsion layers formed. The 72 h incubation experiment resulted in a COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand reduction of 76% with Planococcus citreus strain and 70% with Pantoea agglomerans.The COD reduction with bacterial biosurfactants was over 50% in 24 h of incubation. The COD reduction showed that these strains and the surfactants produced could be used in bioremediation processes.Duas bactérias isoladas de solo contaminado com derivados de petróleo, Pantoea agglomerans e Planococcus citreus, produzem biosurfactantes utilizando respectivamente 1.5% de querosene e óleo de oliva como únicas fontes de carbono. As bactérias e os biosurfactantes produzidos foram adicionados a um efluente oleoso obtido de uma indústria nacional de sabão e margarina. As atividades de emulsificação foram determinadas pelo aumento da absorbância das emulsões óleo em água a 610 nm, enquanto que as emulsões do tipo água em óleo foram expressas em centímetros, pela altura do halo de espumas formado. A redução da demanda química de oxigênio (COD mostra que as linhagens e os biosurfactantes produzidos podem ser utilizados em processos de biorremediação.

  3. Fish stories: cod, oil and gas turn about to be hard to mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992 the Government of Canada gave the green light for the start of construction of the Hibernia oil platform; in the same year moratorium on cod fishing was declared. Hibernia ushered in a new era of growth in Atlantic Canada, the moratorium put an end to cod exports for a period of seven years. Environmental activist believe that the two events are not unrelated; after-effects of the Hibernia development played a role in reducing fish stocks and likely to inhibit their recovery. The environmental group 'Save our Seas and Shores' (SOSS) claims that seismic work and drilling are likely to interfere with the migration patterns of young cod, forcing them to spawn in areas that are not safe for egg maturity. According to SOSS, the future of cod fishing is in danger of destruction by further exploration and development in spawning nursery and migratory areas. The group is claiming support from a Nova Scotia government review of two marine ecosystems both of which were declared too delicate to withstand the effects of oil and gas activity. SOSS, supported by a coalition of fishery, native, environmental and tourism groups is determined to halt petroleum exploration along the western coast of Cape Breton Island. In the meantime, the Atlantic Petroleum Institute, first opened in Nova Scotia, and now in the process of expanding into Newfoundland, supported by industry and the Canada Atlantic Opportunities Council, has been assured of funding for a period of five years to develop education and training programs, organize forums for discussion, debate and problem solving, and coordinate research and development. The Institute hopes that SOSS will want to participate in finding solutions to the problems of fisheries that are acceptable to both petroleum and fishing industry interests

  4. Selection of Optimum Features using PSOSPG2 for Predicting COD Effluent Level in Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayabhanu Rajagopal; V. Radha

    2013-01-01

    Wastewaters are waterborne solids and liquids which get discharged into sewers representing the wastes of public life. Wastewater Treatment is the process of removing contaminants from both runoffand domestic wastewater. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is used to measure the degradable organic matter confined in wastewater effluents. An anaerobic process becomes popular method for the treatment of a number of waste streams. Up-flow Anaerobic Filter (UAF) is an anaerobic reactor which is used for...

  5. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extrac...

  6. Reduction Of Cod And Bod By Oxidation: A Cetp Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant K. Lalwani, Malu D. Devadasan

    2013-01-01

    The present study is focused on a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) located at Umaraya, District Baroda. Waste water from about thirty five small and medium scale industries majorly comprising of chemical manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries are treated in this CETP. The incoming wastewater was collected and segregated into three groups as per their BOD/COD ratio. They were then oxidized independently by two oxidants Fenton’s reagent (Fe2+/H2O2) and Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) and...

  7. COD FRACTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF MECHANICAL-BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT SEWAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Smyk; Katarzyna Ignatowicz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the COD fraction thereof in sewage and their changes in the effluent after further treatment processes. The study was conducted in a sewage treatment plant in Bialystok (RLM> 100000). In sewage the highest concentrations occurred in the suspension of the organic fractions slowly biodegradable XS (303.7 mg O2/l) and dissolved organic compounds readily biodegradable SS (263 mg O2/l). The lower amounts were irreducible fractions dissolved in sewage and su...

  8. Three-way modelling of NMR relaxation profiles from thawed cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristina Nedenskov; Guldager, Helle Skov; Jørgensen, Bo Munk

    2002-01-01

    Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution in cod stored at -20°C or -30°C for up to 12 months and subsequently from 0 to 21 days in modified atmosphere at +2°C. The relaxation profiles were decomposed by parallel factor analy......, but not the relaxation times, depended on the frozen storage temperature and on the chilled storage period....

  9. Simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen using a novel carbon-membrane aerated biofilm reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A membrane aerated biofilm reactor is a promising technology for wastewater treatment. In this study, a carbon-membrane aerated biofilm reactor (CMABR) has been developed, to remove carbon organics and nitrogen simultaneously from one reactor. The results showed that CMABR has a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency, as it is operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h, and it also showed a perfect performance, even if the HRT was shortened to 12 h. In this period, the removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), and total nitrogen (TN) reached 86%, 94%, and 84%, respectively. However,the removal efficiencies of NH4+-N and TN declined rapidly as the HRT was shortened to 8 h. This is because of the excessive growth of biomass on the nonwoven fiber and very high organic loading rate. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were mainly distributed in the inner layer of the biofilm. The coexistence of AOB and eubacteria in one biofilm can enhance the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen.

  10. Reduction Of Cod And Bod By Oxidation: A Cetp Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K. Lalwani, Malu D. Devadasan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP located at Umaraya, District Baroda. Waste water from about thirty five small and medium scale industries majorly comprising of chemical manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries are treated in this CETP. The incoming wastewater was collected and segregated into three groups as per their BOD/COD ratio. They were then oxidized independently by two oxidants Fenton’s reagent (Fe2+/H2O2 and Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl and reduction in COD and BOD were observed at different chlorine, H2O2, FeSO4 doses, different pH values and contact time for determining the optimum values. COD and BOD values at optimized conditions for the two oxidants were compared and observed that maximum reduction of 64.35% and 68.57% respectively was achieved by Fenton’s reagent. The results clearly indicate that conventional system should be replaced by advanced oxidation process and Fenton’s reagent is a suitable choice.

  11. Removal of colour and COD from wastewater containing acid blue 22 by electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical oxidation of synthetic wastewater containing acid blue 22 on a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was studied, using cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The influence of current density, dye concentration, flow rate, and temperature was investigated, in order to find the best conditions for COD and colour removal. It was found that, during oxidation, a polymeric film, causing BDD deactivation, was formed in the potential region of water stability, and that it was removed by anodic polarisation at high potentials in the region of O2 evolution. Bulk electrolysis results showed that the electrochemical process was suitable for completely removing COD and effectively decolourising wastewaters, due to the production of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface. In particular, under optimal experimental conditions of flow rates (i.e. 300 dm3 h-1) and current density (i.e. 20 mA cm-2), 97% of COD was removed in 12 h electrolysis, with 70 kWh m-3energy consumption

  12. Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Ugur [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ukurt@yildiz.edu.tr; Apaydin, Omer [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: apaydin@yildiz.edu.tr; Gonullu, M. Talha [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: gonul@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-05-08

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Policy Changes in the Icelandic Cod Fishery Using a Hybrid Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigríður Sigurðardóttir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Icelandic cod is caught in bottom trawlers or longliners. These two fishing methods are fundamentally different and have different economic, environmental, and even social effects. In this paper we present a hybrid-simulation framework to assess the impact of changing the ratio between cod quota allocated to vessels with longlines and vessels with bottom trawls. It makes use of conventional bioeconomic models and discrete event modelling and provides a framework for simulating life cycle assessment (LCA for a cod fishery. The model consists of two submodels, a system dynamics model describing the biological aspect of the fishery and a discrete event model for fishing activities. The model was run multiple times for different quota allocation scenarios and results are presented where different scenarios are presented in the three dimensions of sustainability: environmental, social, and economic. The optimal allocation strategy depends on weighing the three different factors. The results were encouraging first-steps towards a useful modelling method but the study would benefit greatly from better data on fishing activities.

  14. Removal of colour and COD from wastewater containing acid blue 22 by electrochemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizza, Marco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, p.le J.F. Kennedy 1, 16129 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: marco.panizza@unige.it; Cerisola, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, p.le J.F. Kennedy 1, 16129 Genova (Italy)

    2008-05-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of synthetic wastewater containing acid blue 22 on a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was studied, using cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The influence of current density, dye concentration, flow rate, and temperature was investigated, in order to find the best conditions for COD and colour removal. It was found that, during oxidation, a polymeric film, causing BDD deactivation, was formed in the potential region of water stability, and that it was removed by anodic polarisation at high potentials in the region of O{sub 2} evolution. Bulk electrolysis results showed that the electrochemical process was suitable for completely removing COD and effectively decolourising wastewaters, due to the production of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface. In particular, under optimal experimental conditions of flow rates (i.e. 300 dm{sup 3} h{sup -1}) and current density (i.e. 20 mA cm{sup -2}), 97% of COD was removed in 12 h electrolysis, with 70 kWh m{sup -3}energy consumption.

  15. Understanding Global Supply Chains and Seafood Markets for the Rebuilding Prospects of Northern Gulf Cod Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Khan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although fisheries production and seafood trade are global in scope, with billions of dollars in exports, the rebuilding of collapsed fisheries often focus on national fisheries policy and management measures, with little attention to global supply chains and international consumer markets. Even with two moratoria and two decades of policy changes since the Northern Gulf cod fisheries collapsed in eastern Canada, rebuilding has stalled and the fishing industry and coastal communities continue to undergo challenges with economic viability and resource sustainability. This paper examines and analyzes the global supply chain and marketing dimension of Northern Gulf cod fisheries. Drawing upon fisheries bioeconomics and governance theory, a pre- and post-collapse analysis is undertaken to understand key drivers and institutional mechanisms along global fish supply chains for an effective and successful rebuilding. Findings indicate that the collapse of the cod fishery has cascading effects that go beyond ecosystem changes to new harvesting activities, industry restructuring, supply chain reorganization, new global markets and consumer preference for certified seafood. This suggests that a holistic rebuilding approach is necessary, one that integrates institutional and behavioral changes for both producers and consumers at various scales of fisheries production, political economy issues, as well as cross-scale policies on marine conservation and regional economic development.

  16. Performance evaluation of low cost adsorbents in reduction of COD in sugar industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parande, Anand K; Sivashanmugam, A; Beulah, H; Palaniswamy, N

    2009-09-15

    Studies on reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in effluent from sugar industry have been carried out by employing different absorbents optimizing various parameters, such as initial concentration of adsorbate, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental studies were carried out in batches using metakaolin, tamarind nut carbon and dates nut carbon as adsorbents by keeping initial adsorbent dosage at 1 g l(-1), agitation time over a range of 30-240 min, adsorbent dosage at 100-800 mg l(-1) by varying the pH range from 4 to 10. Characterization of there adsorbents were done using techniques such as Fourier transforms infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental adsorption data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherms of the adsorbents indicate appreciable adsorption capacity. Higher COD removal was observed at neutral pH conditions. Studies reveal that maximum reduction efficiency of COD takes place using metakaolin as an absorbent at a dosage of 500 mg l(-1) in a contact time of 180 min at pH 7 and it could be used as an efficient absorbent for treating sugar industrial effluent.

  17. Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H2O2 and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated

  18. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  19. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2010-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM. M

  20. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…