WorldWideScience

Sample records for avoided external costs

  1. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A. [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  2. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  3. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  4. USAID IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Office of the Chief Information Officer in the Management Bureau of USAID launched initiatives designed for IT cost savings and avoidance. This dataset includes...

  5. Avoidable costs of comprehensive case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issel, L M; Anderson, R A

    1999-01-01

    Comprehensive case management has become an industry standard and its pervasiveness raises questions about the ubiquitous need for this service. Analyzed from the perspective of transaction cost analysis and access, we argue that in some cases comprehensive case management is an avoidable cost incurred because of system problems that limit access to otherwise eligible clients. Implications are discussed.

  6. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  7. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  8. External cost assessment for nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Nuclear power is currently the second largest power supply method in Korea and the number of nuclear power plants are planned to be increased as well. However, clear management policy for spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants has not yet been established. The back-end fuel cycle, associated with nuclear material flow after nuclear reactors is a collection of technologies designed for the spent fuel management and the spent fuel management policy is closely related with the selection of a nuclear fuel cycle. Cost is an important consideration in selection of a nuclear fuel cycle and should be determined by adding external cost to private cost. Unlike the private cost, which is a direct cost, studies on the external cost are focused on nuclear reactors and not at the nuclear fuel cycle. In this research, external cost indicators applicable to nuclear fuel cycle were derived and quantified. OT (once through), DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR SF in CANDU), PWR-MOX (PWR PUREX reprocessing), and Pyro-SFR (SFR recycling with pyroprocessing) were selected as nuclear fuel cycles which could be considered for estimating external cost in Korea. Energy supply security cost, accident risk cost, and acceptance cost were defined as external cost according to precedent and estimated after analyzing approaches which have been adopted for estimating external costs on nuclear power generation.

  9. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  10. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG) 36 refs.

  11. External costs of electricity; Les couts externes de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabl, A. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 75 (France); Spadaro, J.V. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  12. GSA IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — GSA IT provides data related to Agency IT initiatives that save or avoid expenditures. This data is provided as a requirement of OMB's Integrated Data Collection...

  13. Migration cost externality and interregional equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    1994-01-01

    "This paper will investigate the characteristics of population allocation between two regions in the presence of migration cost. It will also examine both populations and the non-migration range of the initial population in which migration does not occur, in social optimum and market equilibrium with central government intervention, to reveal migration cost externality, and to propose a remedy for it." The author finds that "migration cost gives the social planner an additional burden of population reallocation, and it has an important effect upon an individual's decisions on migration in a decentralized market mechanism."

  14. How to avoid the high costs of physician turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J E; Boyle, R L

    1992-01-01

    Physician recruitment is a complex, time consuming and competitive activity that is costly in terms of incurred expenses, administrative and physician time and lost revenue. Judith Berger and Robert Boyle, FACMGA, describe how to develop a well-designed retention and recruitment plan to avoid such costs.

  15. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  16. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective of...

  17. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  18. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  19. External costs of photovoltaics. What is it based on?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild-Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Alsema, E.A. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of the European ExternE research projects was to develop a methodology to calculate the external costs caused by energy production and consumption. External costs are defined as the monetary quantification of the socio-environmental damage, expressed in eurocents per kWh. As such, it can provide a scientific basis for policy decisions and legislative proposals like subsidizing cleaner technologies and energy taxes to 'internalize' the external costs. The ExternE 2003 brochure gives the impression that electricity production from photovoltaics leads to a greater health damage than the electricity production from gas or nuclear power. However, the external cost figures for electricity production in the EU and in Germany are given without references, so it is not clear on which information it is based. This paper aims to retrieve the input data that was used for the calculation of the external costs of photovoltaic systems. Apparently, the two tables 'External cost figures for electricity production in the EU for existing technologies' and 'Quantified marginal external costs of electricity production in Germany' are based on different calculations. For example the sum of external costs for the different technologies given in the first table are not equal to the values presented in the second.

  20. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, B. E-mail: bengt.hallberg@studsvik.se; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher.

  1. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...

  2. Engineering Strategies and Methods for Avoiding Air-Quality Externalities: Dispersion Modeling, Home Energy Conservation, and Scenario Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Andrew James

    Energy conservation can improve air quality by reducing emissions from fuel combustion. The human health value retained through better air quality can then offset the cost of energy conservation. Through this thesis' innovative yet widely-accessible combination of air pollution dispersion modeling and atmospheric chemistry, it is estimated that the health value retained by avoiding emissions from Ontario's former coal-fired generating stations is 5.74/MWh (using an upper-bound value of 265,000 per year of life lost). This value is combined with energy modeling of homes in the first-ever assessment of the air-quality health benefits of low-energy buildings. It is shown that avoided health damages can equal 7% of additional construction costs of energy efficient buildings in Ontario. At 7%, health savings are a significant item in the cost analysis of efficient buildings. Looking to energy efficiency in the context of likely future low-resource natural gas scenarios, building efficient buildings today is shown to be more economically efficient than any building retrofit option. Considering future natural gas scarcity in the context of Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan reveals that Ontario may be forced to return to coal-fired electricity. Projected coal use would result in externalities greater than $600 million/year; 80% more than air-quality externalities from Ontario's electricity in 1985. Radically aggressive investment in electricity conservation (75% reduction per capita by 2075) is one promising path forward that keeps air-quality externalities below 1985 levels. Non-health externalities are an additional concern, the quantification, and ultimately monetization, of which could be practical using emerging air pollution monitoring technologies. Energy, conservation, energy planning, and energy's externalities form a complex situation in which today's decisions are critical to a successful future. It is clear that reducing the demand for energy is essential and

  3. Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally...... considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension...... of financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions....

  4. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...... how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  5. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution (DK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark); Willumsen, E.; Kristensen, N.B. [COWI (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AiGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Inititally, a brief description of the ExternE Transport methodology is given and it is summarised how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area. (au)

  6. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasko, K. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Beach, R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kindermann, G. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Obersteiner, M. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Rametsteiner, E. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Sathaye, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [TerraCarbon, Graz, (Austria); Sohngen, B. [Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Wunder, S. [Center for International Forestry Research, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of glboal land use and management to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3-0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 x 105 g) CO2{center_dot}yr-1 in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billion{center_dot}yr-1 for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5-2.7 Gt CO2{center_dot}yr-1 in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billion{center_dot}yr-1. Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described.

  7. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  8. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  9. Cost minimization of generation, storage, and new loads, comparing costs with and without externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Lance Douglas; Brodie, Joseph; Kempton, Willett

    2017-01-01

    G) technology, and building heat) are modeled within the PJM Interconnection. The corresponding electric systems are then operated and constrained to meet the load every hour over four years. The total cost of each energy system is calculated, both with and without externalities, to find the least...... cost energy systems. Using today’s costs of conventional and renewable electricity and without adding any externalities, the cost-minimum system includes no renewable generation, but does include EVs. When externalities are included, however, the most cost-effective to system covers 50% of the electric...... load with renewable energy and runs reliably without need for either new conventional generation or purpose-built storage. The three novel energy policy implications of this research are: (1) using today’s cost of renewable electricity and estimates of externalities, it is cost effective to implement...

  10. Transaction costs, externalities and information technology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B; Keen, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the economic issues which underpin the rationale for investment in information and communications technologies (ICTs). Information imperfections lead to significant transaction costs (search, negotiating and monitoring) which in turn confer a negative externality on parties involved in exchange. This divergence in private and social costs leads to a degree of resource misallocation (efficiency loss) which, uncorrected, results in a sub-optimal outcome. Traditional solutions to this problem are to rely upon direct government action to reduce the costs of transacting between market agents, or to employ tax/subsidy measures and other legislative action to achieve the desired market outcome. Three key policy questions are raised in the context of the NHS purchaser/provider relationship. Firstly, what is the optimum level of transaction costs; secondly, can ICTs assist in lowering the level of transaction costs to the optimum level; thirdly, who should bear the investment cost in reducing the level of transaction costs? The issue of property rights in different information systems is discussed and raises interesting policy questions about how much investment should be undertaken centrally rather than devolved to a more local level. In some ways this economic framework offers a post hoc justification of why different ICT systems have been introduced at various levels of the NHS. Essentially this reduces to the problem of externalities: providing good information confers a positive externality: not providing relevant, timely and accurate information confers a negative externality, by increasing further the level of transaction costs. The crucial role which ICT systems can play lies in attempting to reduce the level of transaction costs and driving the market towards what Dahlman has described as the transaction-cost-constrained equilibrium.

  11. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... companies not previously under common ownership or control are combined, whether by merger, acquisition, or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External restructuring costs. 231.205-70 Section 231.205-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...

  12. Public Involvement in Decisions to Avoid Costly Consequences Later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, Judy [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2006-09-15

    There should be an agreement of goals in any project that could produce harm. Why are we developing this technology? Who benefits and who pays? What would a 'cleanup' entail? There must be consideration of alternatives with a focus on reducing harm rather than just meeting allowable limits or promising that they will be met in the future. When alternatives are weighed, the burden should be on the proponent of the activity to provide truthful information to the public and provide access and resources necessary for participation. There must be a formal, legal obligation or duty to consider science as well as non-scientific information. It should not be up to those harmed to prove the damage and force the responsible parties to make retribution. It should be the burden of the proponents to measure potential risks, and prove that the benefits to everyone outweigh the risks to everyone. The role of government in decision making should also be redefined. The considerations now seem to be limited to whether or not an action is 'legal' or if it is 'safe'. There should also be a determination that it is 'necessary'. That may seem to be a very difficult question but put simply, if there are alternatives then a thing is not 'necessary'. Governmental decision makers would say: 'We acknowledge that our world will never be free from risk. However, any risk that is unnecessary or not freely chosen is not acceptable'. There must be a move away from situations where prior, important decisions resulted in winners and losers; wealthy beneficiaries and underprivileged victims. There must be recognition that decision making needs to be inclusive, extensive and democratic and that the end products and final results are necessary and worthwhile before projects begin. They must be visible, accessible, and must reflect the cost of doing business which includes taking the time, finding the information and involving the people who

  13. An inventory of measures for internalising external costs in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.; Van Grinsven, A.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Breemersch, T. [Transport and Mobility Leuven TML, Leuven (Belgium); Martino, A.; Rosa, C.; Parolin, R. [Trasporti e Territorio TRT, Brussels (Belgium); Harmsen, J. [Sustainable Transport and Logistics TNO, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    This study provides an overview of all existing and close to implementation pricing policies in transport. It supported the European Commission with the evaluation of existing pricing policies in the light of Article 11.4 of the revised Eurovignette Directive. The study covers all existing pricing instruments in all transport modes in all EU Member States. In addition it includes data on revenues and administrative costs and some comparisons across Member States and transport modes. The most recent data have been gathered: data for 2010 and where possible 2011. Also the link with external and infrastructure costs is discussed, and where possible, high level comparisons have been made.

  14. 49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and inspection and lubrication Salaries and wages 11-31-62 Train hours, Sec. 1152.33(c)(1)(i... actual costs directly attributable to the administration of the subsidy program or at the option of the... costs of administering the subsidy program. Either method may be used, but not both. (l)...

  15. Using the Army Medical Cost Avoidance Model to prioritize preventive medicine initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; McCoskey, Kelsey; Clasing, Jay; Kluchinsky, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    The MCAM's ICD-9 Analysis Tool provides preventive medicine program developers with a powerful tool to demonstrate ROI. Previously disjointed cost components have been brought together in the MCAM to calculate the total medical cost avoided. Users are required to make 4 data entries. In response, the user receives the highly coveted medical cost avoidance that should be realized. The SPHMP example demonstrates how simple it is to use the MCAM to determine the expected ROI.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of automated external defibrillators on airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, P W; Kwong, J L; Liu, Y; Rodriguez, A J; Jones, M P; Sanders, G D; Garber, A M

    2001-09-26

    Installation of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) on passenger aircraft has been shown to improve survival of cardiac arrest in that setting, but the cost-effectiveness of such measures has not been proven. To examine the costs and effectiveness of several different options for AED deployment in the US commercial air transportation system. Decision and cost-effectiveness analysis of a strategy of full deployment on all aircraft as well as several strategies of partial deployment only on larger aircraft, compared with a baseline strategy of no AEDs on aircraft (but training flight attendants in basic life support) for a hypothetical cohort of persons experiencing cardiac arrest aboard US commercial aircraft. Estimates for costs and outcomes were obtained from the medical literature, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Air Transport Association of America, a population-based cohort of Medicare patients, AED manufacturers, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Quality-adjusted survival after cardiac arrest; costs of AED deployment on aircraft and of medical care for cardiac arrest survivors. Adding AEDs on passenger aircraft with more than 200 passengers would cost $35 300 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Additional AEDs on aircraft with capacities between 100 and 200 persons would cost an additional $40 800 per added QALY compared with deployment on large-capacity aircraft only, and full deployment on all passenger aircraft would cost an additional $94 700 per QALY gained compared with limited deployment on aircraft with capacity greater than 100. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the quality of life, annual mortality rate, and the effectiveness of AEDs in improving survival were the most influential factors in the model. In 85% of Monte Carlo simulations, AED placement on large-capacity aircraft produced cost-effectiveness ratios of less than $50 000 per QALY. The cost-effectiveness of placing AEDs on commercial aircraft compares favorably

  17. The economic costs of avoided deforestation in the developing world: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.T.H. Phan; R. Brouwer; M. Davidson

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis aims to identify the key factors governing the economic costs of avoided deforestation in developing countries. To this end, data were collected from 32 primary studies published between 1995 and 2012, yielding 277 observations. Results show that unit costs depend significantly on

  18. Cost-Effective Abatement of Multiple Production Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.; Adams, Richard M.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the issue of multiple externalities through a case study of irrigated agricultural production in eastern Oregon. A mathematical programming model is used to demonstrate the manner in which a policy directed at one externality (soil erosion) may influence the incidence of another externality (groundwater pollution). A key determinant of multiple externality outcomes is interdependence in the processes producing agricultural commodities and externalities. Potential benefits from coordinating a policy to address multiple environmental objectives are discussed.

  19. On Measurement of Avoidable and Unavoidable Cost of Alcohol: An Application of Method for Estimating Costs Due To Prior Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarl, Johan; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Ludbrook, Anne; Petrie, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the avoidable and unavoidable costs of alcohol-related, liver cirrhosis inpatient care, controlling for the lag structure and period of decline in disease risk. Lag structures with different lengths are applied to the exposure to risk from alcohol consumption, which allows for differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable cases due to prior consumption. A lag length of 20 (men) and 23 (women) years (expected remaining life years) gives a total cost of 592 million SEK. Given alcohol consumption is reduced to zero, 72% of cost could potentially be avoided. It is important to account for the length and structure of the risk decline following a consumption change as this substantially affects the estimates. PMID:20717547

  20. Low-Cost Avoidance Behaviors Are Resistant To Fear Extinction In Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVervliet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of fear and avoidance are core symptoms across the anxiety disorders. It has long been known that fear serves to motivate avoidance. Consequently, fear extinction has been the primary focus in pre-clinical anxiety research for decades, under the implicit assumption that removing the motivator of avoidance (fear would automatically mitigate the avoidance behaviors as well. Although this assumption has intuitive appeal, it has received little scientific scrutiny. The scarce evidence from animal studies is mixed, while the assumption remains untested in humans. The current study applied an avoidance conditioning protocol in humans to investigate the effects of fear extinction on the persistence of low-cost avoidance. Online danger-safety ratings and skin conductance responses documented the dynamics of conditioned fear across avoidance and extinction phases. Anxiety- and avoidance-related questionnaires explored individual differences in rates of avoidance. Participants first learned to click a button during a predictive danger signal, in order to cancel an upcoming aversive electrical shock (avoidance conditioning. Next, fear extinction was induced by presenting the signal in the absence of shocks while button-clicks were prevented (by removing the button in Experiment 1, or by instructing not to click the button in Experiment 2. Most importantly, post-extinction availaibility of the button caused a significant return of avoidant button-clicks. In addition, trait-anxiety levels correlated positively with rates of avoidance during a predictive safety signal, and with the rate of pre- to post-extinction decrease during this signal. Fear measures gradually decreased during avoidance conditioning, as participants learned that button-clicks effectively canceled the shock. Preventing button-clicks elicited a sharp increase in fear, which subsequently extinguished. Fear remained low during avoidance testing, but danger-safety ratings

  1. Low-Cost Avoidance Behaviors are Resistant to Fear Extinction in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervliet, Bram; Indekeu, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of fear and avoidance are core symptoms across the anxiety disorders. It has long been known that fear serves to motivate avoidance. Consequently, fear extinction has been the primary focus in pre-clinical anxiety research for decades, under the implicit assumption that removing the motivator of avoidance (fear) would automatically mitigate the avoidance behaviors as well. Although this assumption has intuitive appeal, it has received little scientific scrutiny. The scarce evidence from animal studies is mixed, while the assumption remains untested in humans. The current study applied an avoidance conditioning protocol in humans to investigate the effects of fear extinction on the persistence of low-cost avoidance. Online danger-safety ratings and skin conductance responses documented the dynamics of conditioned fear across avoidance and extinction phases. Anxiety- and avoidance-related questionnaires explored individual differences in rates of avoidance. Participants first learned to click a button during a predictive danger signal, in order to cancel an upcoming aversive electrical shock (avoidance conditioning). Next, fear extinction was induced by presenting the signal in the absence of shocks while button-clicks were prevented (by removing the button in Experiment 1, or by instructing not to click the button in Experiment 2). Most importantly, post-extinction availability of the button caused a significant return of avoidant button-clicks. In addition, trait-anxiety levels correlated positively with rates of avoidance during a predictive safety signal, and with the rate of pre- to post-extinction decrease during this signal. Fear measures gradually decreased during avoidance conditioning, as participants learned that button-clicks effectively canceled the shock. Preventing button-clicks elicited a sharp increase in fear, which subsequently extinguished. Fear remained low during avoidance testing, but danger-safety ratings increased again when

  2. Comparison of External Cost of Nuclear Power Chain and Coal Power Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The use of energy causes damage to a wide range of receptors, including human health, crops, forests, materials and natural ecosystems. Such damages are referred to as external costs or externalities, which

  3. The costs of avoiding environmental impacts from shale-gas surface infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin W; Gagnolet, Tamara D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Growing energy demand has increased the need to manage conflicts between energy production and the environment. As an example, shale-gas extraction requires substantial surface infrastructure, which fragments habitats, erodes soils, degrades freshwater systems, and displaces rare species. Strategic planning of shale-gas infrastructure can reduce trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives, but the specific nature of these trade-offs is not known. We estimated the cost of avoiding impacts from land-use change on forests, wetlands, rare species, and streams from shale-energy development within leaseholds. We created software for optimally siting shale-gas surface infrastructure to minimize its environmental impacts at reasonable construction cost. We visually assessed sites before infrastructure optimization to test whether such inspection could be used to predict whether impacts could be avoided at the site. On average, up to 38% of aggregate environmental impacts of infrastructure could be avoided for 20% greater development costs by spatially optimizing infrastructure. However, we found trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs among sites. In visual inspections, we often distinguished between sites that could be developed to avoid impacts at relatively low cost (29%) and those that could not (20%). Reductions in a metric of aggregate environmental impact could be largely attributed to potential displacement of rare species, sedimentation, and forest fragmentation. Planners and regulators can estimate and use heterogeneous trade-offs among development sites to create industry-wide improvements in environmental performance and do so at reasonable costs by, for example, leveraging low-cost avoidance of impacts at some sites to offset others. This could require substantial effort, but the results and software we provide can facilitate the process. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Developmental Dynamics between Children's Externalizing Problems, Task-Avoidant Behavior, and Academic Performance in Early School Years: A 4-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the associations among children's externalizing problems, task-avoidant behavior, and academic performance in early school years. The participants were 586 children (43% girls, 57% boys). Data pertaining to externalizing problems (teacher ratings) and task-avoidant behaviors (mother and teacher ratings) were…

  5. Transmission avoided cost: a new parameter to evaluate the economic competitiveness of generations plants projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, D.S. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, J.C.R.; Rosenblat, J. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The paper presents a new formulation that makes feasible a composition of long run production marginal costs with the long run transmission marginal costs, including the costs related to the interconnection EHV networks and that related to the voltage levels below. The goal top be attained is to have available a more adequate parameter in order to compare production cost related to a plant, that will be connected to a certain voltage level network, to the cost related supplying the sam,e amount of energy from the bulk power system which will be represented by the marginal costs up to the voltage level under consideration. This procedure brings to light the Transmission Avoided Costs concepts, that are stressed throughout the text. The proposed methodology is now being used, in the brazilian Power Sector, as a rule of thumb in order to guide planning decisions about the schedule of new plants that have installed capacity below 30 MW. For plants with higher capacity, the transmission avoided costs are evaluated for each specific case, simulating the system behavior without the quoted hydroelectric plant. This paper focuses, an an application example, the case of the Canoas Hydroelectric Project, recently included in the Generation Expansion Reference Plan after a detailed analysis supported by the methodology described here. (author) 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Avoiding adverse employment effects from electricity taxation in Norway: What does it cost?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjertnaes, Geir H., E-mail: ghb@ssb.no [Statistics Norway, Research Department, PO Box 8131 DEP, 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-09-15

    Welfare analyses of energy taxes typically show that systems with uniform rates perform better than differentiated systems. However, most western countries include some exemptions for their energy-intensive export industries and thereby avoid this potential welfare gain. find that uniform taxation of carbon emissions in combination with a wage subsidy preserves jobs in these industries at a lower welfare cost compared with a differentiated system. The wage subsidy scheme generates a substantial welfare gain per job saved. This study, however, finds that welfare costs are substantial when less accurate policy measures, represented by production-dependent subsidies, protect jobs in Norwegian electricity-intensive industries. The welfare cost per job preserved by this subsidy scheme amounts to approximately 60% of the wage cost per job, suggesting that these jobs are expensive to preserve. A uniform electricity tax combined with production-dependent subsidies preserves jobs at a lower welfare cost compared with the current differentiated electricity tax system. - Highlights: > Avoiding adverse employment effects from electricity taxation is costly in Norway. > Uniform Norwegian electricity tax with job-preserving subsidies improves welfare. > The welfare cost of Norwegian job-saving subsidies amounts to 60% of the wage.

  7. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). The results show that external costs are significant...

  8. Externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition: working memory mediates signal discriminability and reinforcement moderates response bias in approach-avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Michael J; Rickert, Martin E; Bogg, Tim; Lucas, Jesolyn; Finn, Peter R

    2011-05-01

    Research has suggested that reduced working memory capacity plays a key role in disinhibited patterns of behavior associated with externalizing psychopathology. In this study, participants (N = 365) completed 2 versions of a go/no-go mixed-incentive learning task that differed in the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments for correct and incorrect active-approach responses, respectively. Using separate structural equation models for conventional (hit and false alarm rates) and signal detection theory (signal discriminability and response bias) performance indices, distinct roles for working memory capacity and changes in payoff structure were found. Specifically, results showed that (a) working memory capacity mediated the effects of externalizing psychopathology on false alarms and discriminability of go versus no-go signals; (b) these effects were not moderated by the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments; (c) the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments moderated the effects of externalizing psychopathology on hits and response bias for go versus no-go responses; and (d) these effects were not mediated by working memory capacity. The findings implicate distinct roles for reduced working memory capacity and poorly modulated active approach and passive avoidance in the link between externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition.

  9. Avoided costs associated with cogeneration: a case study of Con Ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, R.; Davitian, H.; Martorella, J.

    1980-08-01

    The potential impact of cogeneration in office and apartment buildings in New York City on the Consolidated Edison Company (Con Ed) has been investigated using a method of utility cost and fuel use analysis developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This method computes a utility's long run marginal costs and long run marginal fuel consumption associated with load modifications due to the introduction of on-site energy producing technologies. The principal findings of this study show that Con Ed's long run average cost is more likely to go down than up due to cogeneration in office and apartment building; the utility's avoided costs (i.e., its long run marginal savings) associated with the gross power output of the cogeneration systems are 10.5 cents/KWh for the office building and 6.4 cents/KWh for the apartment buildings; the utility's marginal savings include a component for avoided capacity costs; and there are net savings in the use of oil due to cogeneration (assuming the building used oil for its boilers before it switched and diesel fuel in its cogenerators afterwards).

  10. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  11. Socio-Economic research on fusion SERF 3(2001-2003) External Costs of Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y.; Saez, R.; Cabal, H.

    2003-07-01

    Based on SEAFP project (Raeder et al, 1995) findings a preliminary assessment of environmental external costs associated to fusion power was performed under the framework of the first phase of the SERF (Socioeconomic Research on Fusion) project (Saez et al, 1999). This study showed very low external costs of fusion power compared with other traditional and new energy generating technologies. In order to update the assessment of externalities of fusion power, SERF2 project a new plant was included and an analysis of the key variables influencing the external cost was carried out. In the new phase of the SERF project, SERF3, three new additional plant models have been introduced with the aim of assessing the possibilities of silicon carbide to be used as structural material for fusion power plants. Furthermore, comparison of fusion external costs with those of other generation technologies in the state of technology development expected for 2050 has been also performed. (Author)

  12. Incorporating Externalities and Uncertainty into Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    production of too much pollution, a lack of incentive to search for ways to yield less pollution per unit of output, and discouragement of reuse or...that basic water efficiency measures (high-efficiency water fixtures) were cost effective even under subsidized pricing of water, but that greywater ...to say how these results would have changed had the full-cost pricing been used as Rogers et al. (1998) define it. It is possible that greywater

  13. External costs of the urban solid wastes collect; Custos externos da coleta de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Cruz, Luiz Eduardo Reis da

    2002-07-01

    This work performs a comparison of the urban solid wastes collect through the use of two alternatives: traditional and selective collect, by using the social, operational and external costs (environmental and social). The work demonstrates that, nevertheless the initial costs of the selective collects are higher than the traditional collects, the traditional aggregated social costs are inversely proportional to the traditional collect.

  14. Adapting a Low-Cost Selective Compliant Articulated Robotic Arm for Spillage Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Li, Jonathan; Muradoglu, Murat; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-12-01

    Flexible automation systems provide the needed adaptability to serve shorter-term projects and specialty applications in biochemical analysis. A low-cost selective compliant articulated robotic arm designed for liquid spillage avoidance is developed here. In the vertical-plane robotic arm movement test, the signals from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and accelerometer were able to sense collisions. In the horizontal movement test, however, only the signals from the IMU enabled collision to be detected. Using a calculation method developed, it was possible to chart the regions where the obstacle was likely to be located when a collision occurred. The low cost of the IMU and its easy incorporation into the robotic arm offer the potential to meet the pressures of lowering operating costs, apply laboratory automation in resource-limited venues, and obviate human intervention in response to sudden disease outbreaks. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. External Costs as Driving Forces of Land Use Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Loehr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Land conversion is often not carried out in a sustainable way. The loss of arable land and biodiversity, concern about food security and rising costs of infrastructure due to urban sprawl are just some of the problems under discussion. This paper compares Germany, China and Cambodia. The article points out that, despite huge differences in institutions and governance, unsustainable land use changes mostly have some patterns in common: The beneficiaries of land conversion are often well-organized actors, whereas the costs of land conversion are often shifted to poorly organized groups and to society as a whole. A sustainable land use policy has to look for a better coupling of benefits and costs of land use changes. In order to achieve this goal, the article suggests completing the planning law with a suitable economic framework.

  16. Policies to Avoid Cost Overruns in Infrastructure Projects: Critical Evaluation and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many infrastructure projects have cost overruns and there has been a lot of research both on why these cost overruns occur and what can be done to reduce hem. Bent Flyvbjerg is the leading researcher in the area and in this article his proposals are used as the starting point. Besides a literature review, a questionnaire was sent out to experienced Swedish project managers to find out what they thought could reduce cost overruns. The literature review and the questionnaire were the foundation for the proposals formulated in this article. Proposals concerned three areas: (1. Organisational macro-structure, e.g. using more PPP projects but also decentralisation of budgets where cost overruns in one project in a region lead to less alternative projects in the specific region. (2. Organisational quality: It should be easy to see when and where cost overruns occur and who was responsible. There should be a well-developed knowledge management system in the organisation and an organisation culture of openness with a focus on improvements. (3. Organisational processes, e.g. a systematic use of external reviewers in different stages of a project.   Keywords: Cost overruns, Infrastructure projects, Policy measures

  17. Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer Competition, and Costly Change Orders with Fixed-Price Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    cannot be parents nor children of each other. In the case of IDV and linked, this is because the causal link is difficult adjudicate because of...ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer Competition, and Costly Change Orders With...REPORT DATE 30 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer

  18. Urban Gardening: From Cost Avoidance to Profit Making — Example from Ljubljana, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Glavan, Matjaž; Istenič, Majda Černič; Cvejić, Rozalija; Pintar, Marina

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compare two economic models of urban gardening in Ljubljana, Slovenia. First is an avoided costs model (ACM) and the second one is a business model (BM). Comparison is made to exemplify the main economic differences between the two models. The difference is that producers under the BM sell surplus products, which is not the case under the ACM. The main aim of this study is to present an analysis of the phenomenon of urban gardening as a BM for small family home or allotment ...

  19. Urban Gardening: From Cost Avoidance to Profit Making — Example from Ljubljana, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Glavan, Matjaž; Istenič, Majda Černič; Cvejić, Rozalija; Pintar, Marina

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compare two economic models of urban gardening in Ljubljana, Slovenia. First is an avoided costs model (ACM) and the second one is a business model (BM). Comparison is made to exemplify the main economic differences between the two models. The difference is that producers under the BM sell surplus products, which is not the case under the ACM. The main aim of this study is to present an analysis of the phenomenon of urban gardening as a BM for small family home or allotment ...

  20. Manual obstacle avoidance takes into account visual uncertainty, motor noise, and biomechanical costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rajal G; Biddle, Jason C; Rosenbaum, David A

    2010-03-01

    Moving around obstacles requires balancing the need to avoid collisions with the need to minimize biomechanical costs. We investigated this tradeoff by studying the effects of visual uncertainty, motor noise, and practice on clearance over obstacles in a manual positioning task. Participants moved a manipulandum back and forth over a stationary obstacle. We varied visual uncertainty by placing the obstacle at different heights relative to participants' eyes, and we varied motor noise by having participants hold the object to be moved at different positions relative to the range of motion of the arm joints. Clearance was larger in conditions of higher visual uncertainty than in conditions of lower visual uncertainty, larger in the higher motor noise conditions than in the lower motor noise conditions, and larger early in practice than late in practice. The results indicate that spatial accuracy and biomechanical costs are both taken into account during reaching over obstacles, but to differing degrees across practice.

  1. Development of a Low-Cost Electronic Wheelchair with Obstacle Avoidance Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Romeroso Arboleda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  A low-cost electronic wheelchair was designed and developed which can perform the similar functions and features as a commercially available wheelchair. It also provides obstacle avoidance capability as added value. The electronic wheelchair was  realized by modification of a lightweight manual wheelchair. It uses two electric motors each of 320 W 24 V DC, 5-24 VDC 6 A H-bride drivers, and a 12 V 17 Ah rechargeable lead acid battery. It equipped with switches, joystick, infrared sensors and ultrasonic sensors. A GizduinoAtMega 328 microcontroller is used to read and interpret commands. User’s acceptance evaluation results shows that the developed low-cost wheelchair is able to receive and interpret commands provided by the joystick, detect if a person  is seated on it, navigate to avoid obstacles as well as to detect edge and stairs. Technical evaluation result shows that on a flat surface it could move at the speed of around 39.9 m/minute without load and 32 m/minute with 80 kg load. At 10 degrees inclined surface, the maximum weight limit is 30 kg with the speed of 12 m/minute. At 20 degrees inclined surface, the maximum weight limit is 10 kg with the speed of 3 m/minute. Regarding cost, it is just a fraction of a cost compared to the commercially available model. Therefore, the developed wheelchair offers an option for potential users who cannot afford to buy the commercially available one.

  2. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  3. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  4. Default Rate and Price of Capital in a Costly External Finance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Medina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial frictions have been used to enrich mechanisms transmission in macroeconomics. However, the predictions of real business cycle models of costly external finance imply a procyclical default rate, external premium and relative price of capital which seems at odds with the data. In this article, we include technology shocks that affect the average productivity and idiosyncratic risk of capital producers in a standard costly external finance model. These elements enhance the model to deliver a countercyclical default rate, external finance and relative price of capital premium which are more consistent with the data and contrary to the results obtained with a sector-neutral productivity shock. Intuitively, if the entrepreneurs’ investment projects become more productive in average, the relative price of capital and the default rate fall while investment and output increase. Using data on the relative price of capital, we perform a calibration of this type of shocks which highlights its business-cycle relevance.

  5. Energy cost of balance control during walking decreases with external stabilizer stiffness independent of walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijmker, Trienke; Houdijk, Han; Lamoth, Claudine J C; Beek, Peter J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-09-03

    Human walking requires active neuromuscular control to ensure stability in the lateral direction, which inflicts a certain metabolic load. The magnitude of this metabolic load has previously been investigated by means of passive external lateral stabilization via spring-like cords. In the present study, we applied this method to test two hypotheses: (1) the effect of external stabilization on energy cost depends on the stiffness of the stabilizing springs, and (2) the energy cost for balance control, and consequently the effect of external stabilization on energy cost, depends on walking speed. Fourteen healthy young adults walked on a motor driven treadmill without stabilization and with stabilization with four different spring stiffnesses (between 760 and 1820 Nm(-1)) at three walking speeds (70%, 100%, and 130% of preferred speed). Energy cost was calculated from breath-by-breath oxygen consumption. Gait parameters (mean and variability of step width and stride length, and variability of trunk accelerations) were calculated from kinematic data. On average external stabilization led to a decrease in energy cost of 6% (pwalking speed (p=0.111). These results show that active lateral stabilization during walking involves an energetic cost, which is independent of walking speed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. External Costs of Road, Rail and Air Transport - a Bottom-Up Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Weinreich, Sigurd; Rennings, Klaus; Schlomann, Barbara; Geßner, Christian; Engel, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the calculation of environmental and health externalities caused by air pollutants, accidents and noise from different transport modes (road, rail, air) on the route Frankfurt-Milan. The investigation is part of the QUITS project (QUITS = Quality Indicators for Transport Systems), commissioned by the European Commission DG VII. The evaluation of the external costs is based on a bottom-up approach. The calculation involves four stages: emissions, dispersion, impacts...

  7. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion.

  8. External costs of silicon carbide fusion power plants compared to other advanced generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y. E-mail: yolanda.lechon@ciemat.es; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Hallberg, B.; Aquilonius, K.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This study was performed in the framework of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3), which is jointly conducted by Euratom and the fusion associations. Assessments of monetarized external impacts of the fusion fuel-cycle were previously performed (SERF1 and SERF2). Three different power plant designs were studied, with the main difference being the structural materials and cooling system used. In this third phase of the SERF project the external costs of three additional fusion power plant models using silicon carbide as structural material have been analysed. A comparison with other advanced generation technologies expected to be in use around 2050, when the first fusion power plant would be operative, has also been performed. These technologies include advanced fossil technologies, such as Natural Gas Combined Cycle, Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle with carbon sequestration technologies; fuel cells and renewable technologies including geothermal energy, wind energy and photovoltaic systems with energy storage devices. Fusion power plants using silicon carbide as structural material have higher efficiencies than plants using steel and this fact has a very positive effect on the external costs per kW h. These external costs are in the lowest range of the external costs of advanced generation technologies indicating the outstanding environmental performance of fusion power.

  9. Submission of Final Scientific/Technical Report [Solar Avoided Cost Solution: SunShot 6 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, Eric

    2014-01-29

    The core objectives of this project were two separate but integrated products, collectively providing game-changing Avoided Cost capabilities. • The first was a kit of avoided cost tools and data that any solar provider can use a-lacarte or as a whole. It’s open and easily accessible nature allows the rapid and accurate calculation of avoided cost in whatever context and software that make sense (“Typical and Avoided Cost Tools”). This kit includes a dataset of typical energy rates, costs and usage that can be used for solar prospecting, lead generation and any situation where data about an opportunity is missing or imperfect. • The second is a web application and related APIs specifically built for solar providers to radically streamline their lead-to-sale process (“Solar Provider Module”). The typical and Avoided Cost tools are built directly into this, and allow for solar providers to track their opportunities, collaborate with their installers and financiers, and close more sales faster.

  10. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  11. A Non-linear Eulerian Approach for Assessment of Health-cost Externalities of Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Frohn, Lise Marie; Nielsen, Jytte Seested

    Integrated assessment models which are used in Europe to account for the external costs of air pollution as a support for policy-making and cost-benefit analysis have in order to cope with complexity resorted to simplifications of the non-linear dynamics of atmospheric sciences. In this paper we...... explore the possible significance of such simplifications by reviewing the improvements that result from applying a state-of-the-art atmospheric model for regional transport and non-linear chemical transformations of air pollutants to the impact-pathway approach of the ExternE-method. The more rigorous...

  12. Sense and Avoid Airborne Radar Implementations on a Low-Cost Weather Radar Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Nepal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, multi-mission applications in airborne radar are implemented through very expensive phased array architectures. The emerging applications from civilian surveillance, on the other hand, prefer low-cost and low-SWaP (space, weight and power systems. This study introduces asoftware-basedsolutionthatintendstouselow-costhardwareandadvancedalgorithms/processing backend to meet the remote sensing goals for multi-mission applications. The low-cost airborne radar platform from Garmin International is used as a representative example of the system platform. The focus of this study is the optimal operating mode, data quality and algorithm development in cases of all-weather sense and avoid (SAA applications. The main challenges for the solution are the resolution limitation due to the small aperture size, limitations from the field-of-view (FOV and the scan speed from mechanical scanning. We show that the basic operational needs can be satisfied with software processing through various algorithms. The concept and progress of polarimetric airborne radar for dual-function operations at X-band Generation 1 (PARADOX1 based on the platform are also discussed.

  13. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2013-02-15

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). The amended Eurovignette Directive (2011/76/EU) relating to the charging of HGVs for use of major European motorways prescribes that from 2013, Member States may include air pollution costs in any charging structure for roads under the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) and for comparable domestic motorways. The tables published here provide the basis for the inclusion of a vehicle-specific air pollution component in road user charges. Air pollution costs have been calculated on the basis of the formula prescribed in the directive, taking into account the fact that road transport emissions are mixed in a low volume of air. Following Article 9 in the Eurovignette Directive, additional revenues from external-cost charges must be used by Member States to benefit the transport sector and promote sustainable mobility. Making use of scientific developments subsequent to the 2007 Handbook of external costs (Maibach et al., 2008), the EEA is able to provide an updated estimate of the external costs of air pollution from road transport. The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe. (LN)

  14. Evaluation of Externality Costs in Life-Cycle Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    " and "externality costs". Budget costs include market goods and services (economic impact), whereas externality costs include effects outside the economic system (e.g., environmental impact). This study demonstrates the applicability of S-LCC to SWM life-cycle optimization through a case study based on an average...... suburban U.S. county of 500 000 people generating 320 000 Mg of waste annually. Estimated externality costs are based on emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, VOC, CO, NH3, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr (VI), Ni, As, and dioxins. The results indicate that incorporating S-LCC into optimized SWM strategy...... development encourages the use of a mixed waste material recovery facility with residues going to incineration, and separated organics to anaerobic digestion. Results are sensitive to waste composition, energy mix and recycling rates. Most of the externality costs stem from SO2, NOx, PM2.5, CH4, fossil CO2...

  15. External costs of emissions to air from current maritime transport - economic consequences; Miljoekostnader foer sjoefartens avgasutslaepp - ekonomiska konsekvenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Joakim; Farelius, Johanna; Hoeoek, Charlotta (WSP Analys and Strategi, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    An important feature of Swedish national transport policy is to base the usage of fees, charges and subsidies on the principle of economic efficiency. The implication is that marginal cost pricing should be applied, internalizing the external costs of transport. Examples of external costs of transport are the damage costs caused by emissions of pollutants to air. These costs could be internalized by imposing fees that equal the marginal external costs. A polluter-pay principle should be applied, implying that the costs to society should be borne (paid) by the ones causing them. Earlier studies indicate that heavy ships (maritime transport) typically bear the marginal costs to society caused by transports carried out in Swedish territorial water - by paying differentiated fairway dues. However, these ships typically carry out the majority of their transports outside of Swedish territorial water, implying that the ship owners normally do not pay the full marginal external costs if a wider geographic area is considered. The purpose of this study is to show to what extent the costs of transports would be affected if fees and charges were used to internalize the external costs of emissions of pollutants to air in wider geographic contexts. The study has been carried out by calculating/estimating the following: 1. Damage costs caused by emissions of pollutants to air by current maritime transports to/from Swedish ports. 2. Effects on costs of transports by internalizing the external damage costs 3. Effects on costs of transports by undertaking cost efficient emission reducing measures

  16. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutaka, T.; Naito, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  17. Stem transcriptome reveals mechanisms to reduce the energetic cost of shade-avoidance responses in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnola, Juan Ignacio; Ploschuk, Edmundo; Benech-Arnold, Tomás; Finlayson, Scott A; Casal, Jorge José

    2012-10-01

    While the most conspicuous response to low red/far-red ratios (R:FR) of shade light perceived by phytochrome is the promotion of stem growth, additional, less obvious effects may be discovered by studying changes in the stem transcriptome. Here, we report rapid and reversible stem transcriptome responses to R:FR in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). As expected, low R:FR promoted the expression of growth-related genes, including those involved in the metabolism of cell wall carbohydrates and in auxin responses. In addition, genes involved in flavonoid synthesis, isoprenoid metabolism, and photosynthesis (dark reactions) were overrepresented in clusters showing reduced expression in the stem of low R:FR-treated plants. Consistent with these responses, low R:FR decreased the levels of flavonoids (anthocyanin, quercetin, kaempferol) and selected isoprenoid derivatives (chlorophyll, carotenoids) in the stem and severely reduced the photosynthetic capacity of this organ. However, lignin contents were unaffected. Low R:FR reduced the stem levels of jasmonate, which is a known inducer of flavonoid synthesis. The rate of stem respiration was also reduced in low R:FR-treated plants, indicating that by downsizing the stem photosynthetic apparatus and the levels of photoprotective pigments under low R:FR, tomato plants reduce the energetic cost of shade-avoidance responses.

  18. Wintering birds avoid warm sunshine: predation and the costs of foraging in sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jennie M; Lima, Steven L

    2014-03-01

    Wintering birds can gain significant thermal benefits by foraging in direct sunlight. However, exposure to bright sunlight might make birds easier to detect by predators and may also cause visual glare that can reduce a bird's ability to monitor the environment. Thus, birds likely experience a trade-off between the thermal benefits and predation-related costs of foraging in direct sunlight. To examine this possible thermoregulation-predation trade-off, we monitored the behavior of mixed-species flocks of wintering emberizid sparrows foraging in alternating strips of sunlight and shade. On average, these sparrows routinely preferred to forage in the shade, despite midday air temperatures as much as 30 °C below their thermoneutral zone. This preference for shade was strongest at relatively high temperatures when the thermal benefits of foraging in sunlight were reduced, suggesting a thermoregulation-predation trade-off. Glare could be reduced if birds faced away from the sun while feeding in direct sunlight, but we found that foraging birds tended to face southward (the direction of the sun). We speculate that other factors, such as the likely direction of predator approach, may explain this southerly orientation, particularly if predators use solar glare to their advantage during an attack. This interpretation is supported by the fact that birds had the weakest southerly orientation on cloudy days. Wintering birds may generally avoid foraging in direct sunlight to minimize their risk of predation. However, given the thermal benefits of sunshine, such birds may benefit from foraging in habitats that provide a mosaic of sunlit and shaded microhabitats.

  19. External costs of mobility in Italy; I costi esterni della mobilita' in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, P.L.; Molocchi, A. [Amici della Terra (Italy)

    2000-04-01

    Aim of this article is the implementation of a methodology developed for the evaluation of the external costs due to the use of transport vehicles (road, rail, aeroplane) at the national level (Italy) in a certain reference year (1997), coherently with European Commission White Paper (1998). The authors highlight also the possible uses and difficulties of the adoption of external costs evaluations by transport authorities. The proposed methodology consists in a national extrapolation of the case-based community research project results (mainly ExternE), thus taking into account the consensus building process in many way necessary during community research work (community criteria, many institute involved, debate and validation of the results, etc.). The result of this exercise is very high (Italy has the highest per capita vehicle ownership rate in the world): external costs of transport in Italy are estimated more than 10% GDP. The responsibilities of road transport result both in absolute and average terms. Environmental pollution from road transport is particularly damaging: the authors estimate that early deaths from vehicle emissions represent 310000 years of life lost, more than the number of years lost to road accidents. Rail transport offers a better performance for all the externalities considered both for passenger and freight transport. [Italian] Obiettivo di quest'articolo e' di illustrare l'applicazione di una metodologia di valutazione organica e sistematica dei costi esterni della mobilita' (su strada, rotaia e aereo) a livello nazionale in un certo anno di riferimento (1997), anche allo scopo di dimostrare preliminarmente l'utilita' e la fattibilita' istituzionale dello strumento di valutazione dei trasporti basato sui costi esterni. La metodologia di valutazione si basa, ove possibile, sui filoni di studio delle esternalita' sviluppati in ambito comunitario (progetto ExternE), in maniera tale da fare

  20. Changes in Energy Cost and Total External Work of Muscles in Elite Race Walkers Walking at Different Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwała Wiesław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess energy cost and total external work (total energy depending on the speed of race walking. Another objective was to determine the contribution of external work to total energy cost of walking at technical, threshold and racing speed in elite competitive race walkers.

  1. External costs of the nuclear fuel cycle. A scoping study to determine the external costs of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle in accordance with the EC/US methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the results of a scoping study to estimate the external costs of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle. This study was performed within the framework of the Commission of the European Community`s External Costs of Fuel Cycles project. The external costs of a fuel cycle are those costs which are excluded from the standard calculation of the cost of electricity. These costs are borne by society as a whole and include, in particular, the health and environmental costs which result from the operation of the facilities involved in a given fuel cycle. At present the uranium enrichment, electricity generation and interim storage stages of the nuclear fuel cycle take place in the Netherlands. These stages of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle have been studied in detail and the external costs associated with thse stages estimated using up-to-date site specific data. The other stages of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle do not currently take place in the Netherlands. In general the external costs associated with these stages have been estimated using data from the literature. Relatively few transports of radioactive materials associated with the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle take place in the Netherlands and the external costs associated with all transports has been based on values in the literature. (orig.).

  2. External cost of coal based electricity generation:A tale of Ahmedabad city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Diptiranjan; Shukla, Priyadarshi; Dhar, Subash

    2012-01-01

    Electricity production causes unintended impacts.Theire xclusion by the market leads to suboptimal resource allocations.Monetizing and internalizing of external costs, though challenging and debatable, leads to a better allocation of economic resources and welfare. In this paper, a life-cycle ana......Electricity production causes unintended impacts.Theire xclusion by the market leads to suboptimal resource allocations.Monetizing and internalizing of external costs, though challenging and debatable, leads to a better allocation of economic resources and welfare. In this paper, a life......–response functions, we make an attempt to estimate the damages to human health, crops, and building materials resulting from the operation of coal power plants and its associated mines. Further, we use geographic information system to account for spatially dependent data. Finally, monetary values have been assigned...

  3. External costs of atmospheric Pb emissions: valuation of neurotoxic impacts due to inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Frohn, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The Impact Pathway Approach (IPA) is an innovative methodology to establish links between emissions, related impacts and monetary estimates. Only few attempts have so far been presented regarding emissions of metals; in this study the external costs of airborne lead (Pb) emissions are assessed...... using the IPA. Exposure to Pb is known to provoke impacts especially on children's cognition. As cognitive abilities (measured as IQ, intelligence quotient) are known to have implications for lifetime income, a pathway can be established leading from figures for Pb emissions to the implied loss...... in earnings, and on this basis damage costs per unit of Pb emission can be assessed....

  4. Exploring Eco-Costs and Externalities Absorption Policies and Procedures in the Context of Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Raluca Guse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of recent international studies reveal the scarcity of coherent entity-level estimation systems able to lead to an adequate identification and valuation of social and environmental performance, despite the large number of entities claiming their concern for the environmental impact of their business activities.The status quo is mainly caused by the lack of domain-specific accounting regulation, along with a general "information gap" in the field of the potential benefits eco-costs and externalities absorption may generate. Eco-costs and externalities absorption technologies for the costing model are still going through their experimental stages, aiming to reflect both the historicalpolitical context and the philosophical motivations of an organization's management and stakeholders. We held as appropriate (and the paper at hand will speak for the intent to promote this class of technologies for the Romanianbusiness environment, mainly by reviewing the relevant literature in the field and developing an eco-costing model able to provide cost levels consistent with the sustainable development goals.

  5. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project `Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland`. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people`s otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  6. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: External costs and structural change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    In this study we examine the use of wood products as a means to mitigate climate change. We describe the life cycle of wood products including forest growth, wood harvest and processing, and product use and disposal, focusing on the multiple roles of wood as both material and fuel. We present a comparative case study of a building constructed with either a wood or a reinforced concrete frame. We find that the production of wood building material uses less energy and emits less carbon than the production of reinforced concrete material. We compare the relative cost of the two building methods without environmental taxation, under the current Swedish industrial energy taxation regime, and in scenarios that incorporate estimates of the full social cost of carbon emission. We find that the inclusion of climate-related external costs improves the economic standing of wood construction vis-a-vis concrete construction. We conclude that policy instruments that internalise the external costs of carbon emission should encourage a structural change toward the increased use of sustainably produced wood products. (author)

  7. HUBUNGAN STRUKTUR KEPEMILIKAN DAN EXTERNAL MONITORING TERHADAP AGENCY COST DAN ALIRAN KAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustina Ade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Capital credit was credit given by private/government public bank to solve theproblem of liquidation on companies. In a small company, inhibiting liquidation andinformation which was asymmetric influenced manpower recruitment, especially in managerlevel and it could make adverse selction problem. In agency theory, it was mentioned thatagency problem could appear if there was a different self-interest between (1 capital ownerand manager (2 capital owner and bank. This research was aimed to analyze if ownershipstructure and external monitoring had influence to agency cost and whether agency cost hadinfluence to cash flow. The samples of this research were small companies running inmanufatures, corporation, and which got capital credit. Samples taken were 101 companiesand the analyzes method used was SEM. This research concluded that agency cost was in smallcompanies that the manager was not the capital owner, but there was no indication of moralhazard.

  8. Long-dated evaluation of the external costs of the nuclear; L'evaluation des couts externes a long terme de la filiere nucleaire: interets et limites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dars, A.; Schneider, T

    2002-09-01

    Since the middle of the years 1990, the European Commission developed an ''ExternE'' methodology to propose an homogenous evaluation of the sanitary and environmental external costs of the various energy sectors in Europe. This document discusses the taking into account of the long-dated and analyzes the interests and the limits of the monetary evaluation, in terms of external costs, of the nuclear choice. It is organized in three chapters: 1. a presentation and a discussion on the various evaluation of the ''ExternE'' methodology; 2. a description of the available methods for the monetary evaluation of the long-dated impacts and more particularly the analysis of the monetary values actualization principle; 3. highlighted of the impacts for which the monetary evaluations exist. (A.L.B.)

  9. Improved breast cancer biomarker detection through a simple, high frequency, low cost external proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tawny; Wolber, Robert; Garratt, John; Kalloger, Steven; Gilks, C Blake

    2010-12-01

    We describe a simple, low cost, high frequency immunohistochemistry external proficiency testing program, and show how its use can lead to improved breast cancer biomarker detection. Over a 30 month period in British Columbia, Canada, we used tissue microarray slides to follow the performance of twelve clinical laboratories in nine separate external proficiency testing runs. Sensitivity for detection of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 were calculated for each laboratory, biomarker, and run. Mean sensitivities for detection of ER, PR, and HER2 were 97.1%, 84.8%, and 90.7%, respectively. HER2 sensitivity improved over time, from 87.0% to 92.9% (p=0.04), with a trend towards improvement seen for PR (81.9-88.1%, p=0.13). ER sensitivities were high throughout the test period. Improvements occurred without mandating any specific laboratory changes. This simple, low cost, high frequency external proficiency testing program is highly sustainable and can be implemented in any multi-institutional group or region.

  10. External costs of atmospheric Pb emissions: valuation of neurotoxic impacts due to inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frohn Lise

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Impact Pathway Approach (IPA is an innovative methodology to establish links between emissions, related impacts and monetary estimates. Only few attempts have so far been presented regarding emissions of metals; in this study the external costs of airborne lead (Pb emissions are assessed using the IPA. Exposure to Pb is known to provoke impacts especially on children's cognition. As cognitive abilities (measured as IQ, intelligence quotient are known to have implications for lifetime income, a pathway can be established leading from figures for Pb emissions to the implied loss in earnings, and on this basis damage costs per unit of Pb emission can be assessed. Methods Different types of models are here linked. It is relatively straightforward to establish the relationship between Pb emissions and consequent increase in air-Pb concentration, by means of a Gaussian plume dispersion model (OML. The exposed population can then be modelled by linking the OML-output to population data nested in geo-referenced grid cells. Less straightforward is to establish the relationship between exposure to air-Pb concentrations and the resulting blood-Pb concentration. Here an Age-Dependent Biokinetic Model (ADBM for Pb is applied. On basis of previous research which established links between increases in blood-Pb concentrations during childhood and resulting IQ-loss we arrive at our results. Results External costs of Pb airborne emissions, even at low doses, in our site are in the range of 41-83 €/kg emitted Pb, depending on the considered meteorological year. This estimate applies only to the initial effects of air-Pb, as our study does not address the effects due to the Pb environmental-accumulation and to the subsequent Pb re-exposure. These are likely to be between one and two orders of magnitude higher. Conclusions Biokinetic modelling is a novel tool not previously included when applying the IPA to explore impacts of Pb emissions

  11. An Analysis and Comparison of Medication Therapy Management Cost-Avoidance vs. Fee-for-Service Financial Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    To describe, compare, and contrast cost-avoidance and fee-for-service medication therapy management (MTM) financial models of practice to allow clinicians to better choose the type of MTM practice that best fits their particular practice environment. Literature regarding pharmacist practices providing MTM services and capstone projects of proposed and currently operating MTM pharmacist practices presented in the University of Florida Master of Science MTM program. Understanding the two major payment methods of sustaining a financially viable MTM pharmacist practice is critical to practice success. Survey was broad with regard to clinical models to compare differences because funding to support these services can be difficult to obtain. Despite differences in approach, various methods exist to financially sustain a pharmacist with an MTM practice. Each method or model has advantages and disadvantages in differing practice environments. With enough cost avoidance or revenue generation, financially dissimilar MTM financial models can be sustainable.

  12. Damage control orthopaedics: Variability of construct design for external fixation of the lower extremity and implications on cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Catherine; Hess, Arthur; Kwon, John Y

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate relative cost of external fixator constructs applied for damage control purposes in a cohort of advanced orthopaedic trainees and orthopaedic staff traumatologists. We also sought to evaluate physicians' understanding of component cost. Participants were asked to apply an external fixator for three separate fracture patterns in damage control fashion. A total of 19 physicians (nine PGY-4 residents, five PGY-5 residents, two orthopaedic trauma fellows and three orthopaedic staff traumatologists) participated. Total construct cost was calculated. Participants provided an estimate of the cost of each component in a fill-in format survey. Main outcome measures included cost of external fixator construct applied and the estimated cost of external fixator components. Average whole sale cost of an external fixator construct was $5252 (±$1798). Of the three fracture types examined, the tibial plafond fracture external fixator construct on average cost the most, followed by the tibial plateau fracture and the femur fracture construct. The large ex-fix combination clamp was the major contributor to cost for each construct. The combination clamp may be substituted for a multi-pin clamp, resulting in significant cost savings. The self-drilling Schanz pin and the large ex-fix combination clamp were most highly underestimated (25% and 22% of their actual cost, respectively). Innumerous construct designs exist and even small changes can significantly impact cost. Knowledge of component cost is low among staff and trainees. Education of component cost is vital to allow adequate consideration of construct design prior to fixator application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimized electricity expansions with external costs internalized and risk of severe accidents as a new criterion in the decision analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo M, C.; Estrada S, G. J., E-mail: cmcm@fi-b.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The external cost of severe accidents was incorporated as a new element for the assessment of energy technologies in the expansion plans of the Mexican electric generating system. Optimizations of the electric expansions were made by internalizing the external cost into the objective function of the WASP-IV model as a variable cost, and these expansions were compared with the expansion plans that did not internalize them. Average external costs reported by the Extern E Project were used for each type of technology and were added to the variable component of operation and maintenance cost in the study cases in which the externalises were internalized. Special attention was paid to study the convenience of including nuclear energy in the generating mix. The comparative assessment of six expansion plans was made by means of the Position Vector of Minimum Regret Analysis (PVMRA) decision analysis tool. The expansion plans were ranked according to seven decision criteria which consider internal costs, economical impact associated with incremental fuel prices, diversity, external costs, foreign capital fraction, carbon-free fraction, and external costs of severe accidents. A set of data for the calculation of the last criterion was obtained from a Report of the European Commission. We found that with the external costs included in the optimization process of WASP-IV, better electric expansion plans, with lower total (internal + external) generating costs, were found. On the other hand, the plans which included the participation of nuclear power plants were in general relatively more attractive than the plans that did not. (Author)

  14. Estimating the costs of reducing CO2 emission via avoided deforestation with integrated assessment modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, K.P.; Tabeau, A.A.; Stehfest, E.; Meijl, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates for deforestation and forest degradation were shown to account for about 17% of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of REDD is suggested to provide substantial emission reductions at low costs. Proper calculation of such a costs requires integrated modeling approach involving biop

  15. Weighing the costs: Implementing the SLMTA programme in Zimbabwe using internal versus external facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Shumba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (MoHCW adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme as a tool for laboratory quality systems strengthening.Objectives: To evaluate the financial costs of SLMTA implementation using two models (external facilitators; and internal local or MoHCW facilitators from the perspective of the implementing partner and to estimate resources needed to scale up the programme nationally in all 10 provinces.Methods: The average expenditure per laboratory was calculated based on accounting records; calculations included implementing partner expenses but excluded in-kind contributions and salaries of local facilitators and trainees. We also estimated theoretical financial costs, keeping all contextual variables constant across the two models. Resource needs for future national expansion were estimated based on a two-phase implementation plan, in which 12 laboratories in each of five provinces would implement SLMTA per phase; for the internal facilitator model, 20 facilitators would be trained at the beginning of each phase.Results: The average expenditure to implement SLMTA in 11 laboratories using external facilitators was approximately US$5800 per laboratory; expenditure in 19 laboratories using internal facilitators was approximately $6000 per laboratory. The theoretical financial cost of implementing a 12-laboratory SLMTA cohort keeping all contextual variables constant would be approximately $58 000 using external facilitators; or $15 000 using internal facilitators, plus $86 000 to train 20 facilitators. The financial cost for subsequent SLMTA cohorts using the previously-trained internal facilitators would be approximately $15 000, yielding a break-even point of 2 cohorts, at $116 000 for either model. Estimated resources required for national implementation in 120 laboratories would therefore be $580 000 using external facilitators ($58

  16. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

    2011-07-15

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

  17. Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External cephalic version (ECV is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to convert a breech fetus to vertex position and reduce the need for cesarean delivery. The goal of this study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, from society's perspective, of ECV compared to scheduled cesarean for term breech presentation. Methods A computer-based decision model (TreeAge Pro 2008, Tree Age Software, Inc. was developed for a hypothetical base case parturient presenting with a term singleton breech fetus with no contraindications for vaginal delivery. The model incorporated actual hospital costs (e.g., $8,023 for cesarean and $5,581 for vaginal delivery, utilities to quantify health-related quality of life, and probabilities based on analysis of published literature of successful ECV trial, spontaneous reversion, mode of delivery, and need for unanticipated emergency cesarean delivery. The primary endpoint was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. A threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY was used to determine cost-effectiveness. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness of ECV, assuming a baseline 58% success rate, equaled $7,900/QALY. If the estimated probability of successful ECV is less than 32%, then ECV costs more to society and has poorer QALYs for the patient. However, as the probability of successful ECV was between 32% and 63%, ECV cost more than cesarean delivery but with greater associated QALY such that the cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000/QALY. If the probability of successful ECV was greater than 63%, the computer modeling indicated that a trial of ECV is less costly and with better QALYs than a scheduled cesarean. The cost-effectiveness of a trial of ECV is most sensitive to its probability of success, and not to the probabilities of a cesarean after ECV, spontaneous reversion

  18. A Low Cost, Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Technology for Aviation Hazard Detection and Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will investigate the feasibility of utilizing ThinKom's low cost electronically scanned array (ESA) antenna concepts to enable affordable...

  19. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: the case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laes, E.; Meskens, G.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission's ExternE Project has made major advances in the quantification of external costs of electricity. Although some impacts cannot be valued, important conclusions are possible. This paper outlines some provisional implications for energy policy. External costs are technology dep

  20. Avoiding the Tragedy of the Commons in Health Care: Policy Options for Covering High-Cost Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattke, Soeren; Liu, Hangsheng; Hoch, Emily; Mulcahy, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Mattke and his colleagues discuss the risk that strategic behavior by health insurers could unravel the market for curative therapies for chronic diseases. Because the cost of these cures is front-loaded but the benefits accrue over time, insurers might attempt to delay treatment or avoid patients who require it, in the hope that they might change insurers. The authors discuss policy options to remedy this potential free-rider problem through alignment of incentives at the patient level, coordination among payers, and government intervention. They present a framework to analyze policy options and real-world case studies. While implementing those policy options is far from easy, stakeholders need to collaborate in order to establish equitable mechanisms that fairly distribute the cost and benefits of high-cost cures.

  1. External Costs to Parties Involved in Highway Traffic Accidents: The Perspective of Highway Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores highway travellers’ willingness to pay (WTP for external costs caused by traffic accidents. There are a number of further external costs, the paper focuses on two externalities: air pollution and time delays. Data collection was performed using the face-to-face survey method, and the surveys were carried out at highway rest areas. Air pollution and time delays were divided into three levels of severity (light, moderate and severe to obtain the interviewees’ WTP according to each level of severity. The result of this study demonstrates that there are many samples with zero WTP because penalties for pollution caused by traffic accidents are not currently enforced in Taiwan. Thus, the spike model was adopted in this study to overcome any estimation error that might be caused by excessive NT$0 WTP samples. The results show that variables such as age, education, income and willingness to participate in activities of environmental protection have a positive effect on WTP for air pollution, whereas variables such as occupation, travel purpose, traveller identity, travel time and travel distance have a significantly positive effect on WTP for time delays. WTP for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is NT$8862–11,502/metric ton (US$1 = NT$30 and WTP for carbon dioxide (CO2 is NT$1070–2693/metric ton. Moreover, WTP for time delays is NT$960–1320/h. The findings of this study not only demonstrate WTP for air pollution and time delays in the minds of parties to traffic accidents but also help to provide agencies with a basis to formulate applicable penalties in the future.

  2. External loading does not change energy cost and mechanics of rollerski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, G; Perrey, S; Candau, R; Belli, A; Borrani, F; Rouillon, J D

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of external loading on the energy cost and mechanics of roller ski skating. A group of 13 highly skilled male cross-country skiers roller skied at 19.0 ( SD 0.1) km x h(-1) without additional load and with loads of 6% and 12% body mass (mb). Oxygen uptake (VO2), knee and ankle joint kinematics, roller-ski electromyogram (EMG) of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles, and roller ski velocity were recorded during the last 40 s of each 4-min period of roller skiing. One-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the VO2 expressed relative to total mass (mtot), joint kinetics, eccentric-to-concentric ratio of the integrated EMG, velocity changes within a cycle, and cycle rate did not change significantly with load. The subsequent analysis of the effect of load on each resistance opposing motion suggested that the power to sustain changes in translational kinetic energy, potential energy, and overcoming rolling resistance increased proportionately with the load. The lack of a significant change in VO2/mtot with external loading was associated with a lack of marked change in external mechanical power relative to mtot. The existence of an EMG signal during the eccentric phase prior to the thrust (concentric phase), as well as the lack of significant delay between the two phases, showed that a stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) occurs in roller ski skating. Taken together, the present results would suggest that external loading up to 12% mb does not increase storage and release of elastic energy of lower limb muscles during SSC in roller ski skating.

  3. The Hidden Cost of Down-Sizing: A Zero Defects and Risk Avoidance Mentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-03

    main concern writes Viktor Frankl "is not to gain pleasure or to avoid pain but rather to see a meaning in... life.඙ To quote Wheatley again, I...James M. Dubik, Col., "War in the Information Age, Military Review, April 1994, 54 80 Wheatley, 133-134 81 Viktor Frankl , Man’s Search for Meaning...Homepage: www.af.mil/cgi-bin/multigate. 15 April 1999. 1-3. Frankl , Viktor , Man’s Search for Meaning. Boston: Beacon Press, 1959. Fukuyama, Francis and

  4. Adaptation of Dubins Paths for UAV Ground Obstacle Avoidance When Using a Low Cost On-Board GNSS Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current research on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs shows a lot of interest in autonomous UAV navigation. This interest is mainly driven by the necessity to meet the rules and restrictions for small UAV flights that are issued by various international and national legal organizations. In order to lower these restrictions, new levels of automation and flight safety must be reached. In this paper, a new method for ground obstacle avoidance derived by using UAV navigation based on the Dubins paths algorithm is presented. The accuracy of the proposed method has been tested, and research results have been obtained by using Software-in-the-Loop (SITL simulation and real UAV flights, with the measurements done with a low cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS sensor. All tests were carried out in a three-dimensional space, but the height accuracy was not assessed. The GNSS navigation data for the ground obstacle avoidance algorithm is evaluated statistically.

  5. Research Libraries' Costs of Doing Business (and Strategies for Avoiding Them)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    With today's relatively flat budgets, research libraries are finding their buying power further diminished by the hyperinflationary costs of library materials. Yet technology innovation, coupled with organizational restructuring, is enabling libraries not only to provide more high-quality information services but also to achieve unparalleled…

  6. Some Simple Arguments about Cost Externalization and its Relevance to the Price of Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R.; Winfree, R.

    1999-09-27

    The primary goal of fusion energy research is to develop a source of energy that is less harmful to the environment than are the present sources. A concern often expressed by critics of fusion research is that fusion energy will never be economically competitive with fossil fuels, which in 1997 provided 75% of the world's energy. And in fact, studies of projected fusion electricity generation generally project fusion costs to be higher than those of conventional methods. Yet it is widely agreed that the environmental costs of fossil fuel use are high. Because these costs aren't included in the market price, and furthermore because many governments subsidize fossil fuel production, fossil fuels seem less expensive than they really are. Here we review some simple arguments about cost externalization which provide a useful background for discussion of energy prices. The collectively self-destructive behavior that is the root of many environmental problems, including fossil fuel use, was termed ''the tragedy of the commons'' by the biologist G. Hardin. Hardin's metaphor is that of a grazing commons that is open to all. Each herdsman, in deciding whether to add a cow to his herd, compares the benefit of doing so, which accrues to him alone, to the cost, which is shared by all the herdsmen using the commons, and therefore adds his cow. In this way individually rational behavior leads to the collective destruction of the shared resource. As Hardin pointed out, pollution is one kind of tragedy of the commons. CO{sub 2} emissions and global warming are in this sense classic tragedies.

  7. Avoiding risk at what cost? Putting use of medicines for breastfeeding women into perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breastfeeding women often need to take medicines, and therefore health professionals need to consider the effects of medication on lactation and the breastfed infant, and any associated risks. This commentary discusses the tragic case of a young woman with a history of mental illness who committed suicide in the postpartum period. She was determined to be a 'good mother' and breastfeed, and to avoid any potential adverse effects of medication on her breastfed infant. The final outcome was fatal for both mother and child. We argue that if women require medication during lactation, all risks need to be considered – the risk of not treating the maternal medical condition may greatly outweigh the potential risk to the breastfed infant.

  8. Concept of an enhanced V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system with a cost function-based pedestrian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Jens; Schmeichel, Carsten; Zlocki, Adrian; Gathmann, Hauke; Eckstein, Lutz

    2017-04-03

    Objective State-of-the-art collision avoidance and collision mitigation systems predict the behavior of pedestrians based on trivial models that assume a constant acceleration or velocity. New sources of sensor information, for example smart devices (smartphones, tablets, smartwatches, …), can support enhanced pedestrian behavior models. The objective of this paper is the development and implementation of a V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system that uses new information sources. Methods A literature review of existing state-of-the-art pedestrian collision avoidance systems, pedestrian behavior models in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), and traffic simulations is conducted together with an analysis of existing studies on typical pedestrian patterns in traffic. Based on this analysis, possible parameters for predicting pedestrian behavior were investigated. The results led to new requirements from which a concept was developed and implemented. Results The analysis of typical pedestrian behavior patterns in traffic situations showed the complexity of predicting pedestrian behavior. Requirements for an improved behavior prediction were derived. A concept for a V2X collision avoidance system, based on a cost function that predicts pedestrian near future presence, and its implementation, is presented. The concept presented considers several challenges such as information privacy, inaccuracies of the localization, and inaccuracies of the prediction. Conclusion A concept for an enhanced V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system was developed and introduced. The concept uses new information sources such as smart devices to improve the prediction of the pedestrian's presence in the near future and considers challenges that come along with the usage of these information sources.

  9. Can external lateral stabilization reduce the energy cost of walking in persons with a lower limb amputation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, T.; Noten, S.; Lamoth, C. J.; Beek, P. J.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Houdijk, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether impaired balance control is partly responsible for the increased energy cost of walking in persons with a lower limb amputation (LLA). Previous studies used external lateral stabilization to evaluate the energy cost for balance control; this caused a decr

  10. Energy Cost of Avoiding Pressure Oscillations in a Discrete Fluid Power Force System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2015-01-01

    -known. This paper builds upon theoretical findings on how shaping of the valve opening may reduce the cylinder pressure oscillations. The current paper extents the work by implementing the valve opening characteristics reducing the pressure oscillations on a full scale power take-off test-bench for wave energy...... converters. Further the energy losses introduced during the shifting period is investigated and compared for two valve opening algorithms. The investigation of the energy loss is utilised to quantify the importance of a fast valve switching and the energy cost of reducing pressure oscillations. The paper...

  11. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  12. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  13. Estimating External Costs of Transportation in Regional Areas: Using Available Statistical Data the Case of the Region of Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper simplified methods for estimating the external costs due to transportation in regional areas are proposed. The methods are based on data available by national and regional statistical sources and do not need specific surveys; they allow obtaining approximate estimates useful for a preliminary evaluation of transportation plans, policies and projects. In more detail, a negative externality is defined as a cost that is produced by subject A and is borne by subject B; moreover, subject A does not consider the effects of his/her behavior on subject B and does not compensate subject B for the costs that this last one is forced to bear. In this paper after a literature review on methodologies proposed for estimating external costs, in national and international ambits, the main external costs produced by transportation systems in the Region of Campania are estimated. The main external costs considered are: greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise, accidents and congestion. In the paper the secondary external costs are neglected; the main ones are: water and soil pollution; landscape and nature damages; upstream and downstream effects; visual intrusion; separation effects; soil occupancy. In this paper the external costs estimated are the ones produced not only by road traffic, that anyway is the main “culprit”, but also by rail and air transportation systems. The evaluation of external costs has required the collection of several data on the regional mobility and the estimation of veh-kms per year produced in Campania by cars and freight vehicles. The estimation of veh-kms per year is based on circulating vehicles, subdivided by the COPERT classification, and on average yearly distances covered by each vehicle class. Other regional statistical data are collected about regional rail transport and air services at the main airports of the region. Moreover, since the evaluation of some external costs is based on damages on human

  14. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus

  15. Energy Cost of Avoiding Pressure Oscillations in a Discrete Fluid Power Force System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2015-01-01

    In secondary valve controlled discrete fluid power force systems the valve opening trajectory greatly influences the pressure dynamics in the actuator chambers. For discrete fluid power systems featuring hoses of significant length pressure oscillations due to fast valve switching is well...... converters. Further the energy losses introduced during the shifting period is investigated and compared for two valve opening algorithms. The investigation of the energy loss is utilised to quantify the importance of a fast valve switching and the energy cost of reducing pressure oscillations. The paper...... will present measurements comparing pressure dynamics for two valve opening algorithms. In addition the paper will give a theoretical investigation of the energy loss during valve shifting and finally measurements of average power output from the power take-off system in various sea states are compared...

  16. Cost avoidance realized through transportation and disposal of Fernald mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, A.K.; Dilday, D.R. [Fluor Daniel Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Fernald, OH (United States); Rast, D.M. [USDOE Fernald Field Office, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Currently, Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing a transformation from shipping radiologically contaminated waste within the DOE structure for disposal to now include Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) shipments to a permitted commercial disposal facility (PCDF) final disposition. Implementing this change can be confusing and is perceived as being more difficult than it actually is. Lack of experience and disposal capacity, sometimes and/or confusing regulatory guidance, and expense of transportation and disposal of MLLW ar contributing factors to many DOE facilities opting to simply store their MLLW. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company (FERMCO) established itself as a leader i addressing MLLW transportation and disposal by being one of the first DOE facilities to ship mixed waste to a PCDF (Envirocare of Utah) for disposal. FERMCO`s proactive approach in establishing a MLLW Disposal Program produces long-term cost savings while generating interim mixed waste storage space to support FERMCO`s cleanup mission. FERMCO`s goal for all MLLW shipments was to develop a cost efficient system to accurately characterize, sample and analyze the waste, prepare containers and shipping paperwork, and achieve regulatory compliance while satisfying disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This goal required the ability to evolve with the regulations, to address waste streams of varying matrices and contaminants, and to learn from each MLLW shipment campaign. These efforts have produced a successful MLLW Disposal Program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO has a massed lessons learned from development of this fledgling program which may be applied complex-wide to ultimately save facilities time and money traditionally wasted by maintaining the status quo.

  17. The external costs of nuclear power: Ex ante damages and lay risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Markandya, A.; Nickell, E.

    1993-12-01

    Interest has been growing in embedding the external costs of fuel cycles resulting in electricity generation into prices. In any attempt to internalize these costs for the nuclear cycle, the remost but real possibilities of accidents and the wide gap between lay perceptions and expert assessments of such risks must be taken into account. This paper discusses this including the following topics: An expected utility model of power plant operations/accident risks; simulation; comparison of experts versus lay risks; comparison of experts versus lay risk literature; simulation of expert versus lay risks. Current practice in estimating the damages from accidents at nuclear power plants appear to ignore significant features of the problem from the perspective of economic analysis. Individual aversion to risk, the exante perspective in decision making under uncertainty, and lay risk perception are all conceptually important elements of a damage estimate that accords with observation of behavior and the theory that underlies it but that are ignored by common practice. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Into the future; avoiding the cost of folly--introducing a discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jack

    2007-01-01

    386 Billion Euros is Europe's annual cost of brain and mental health disorders. Malnourishment of women is recognised by African politicians as retarding brain development of their offspring to the extent of retarding economic development - an important lesson yet to be learnt by governments of the developed world. To bring this home to Western governments, we have to call in agronomists and economists. We are all robustly challenged with the question: 'What action will each of us be taking to reduce these dire effects on the human race? Contrasting with speakers' brilliance within their own specialty was some naivety speaking outside it: particularly in trivialising some well-established evidence on effects of prenatal and infant nutrition on brain development and particularly of omega-3s. Quoted in response were two powerful studies in 1973 involving animal trials and pathology, then corroborated by human studies, showing powerful effects of prenatal nutrition on brain development. These studies led to combined World Health and Food & Agriculture Organisations' (WHO-FAO) recommendations on reducing the omega6/3 ratio. Being against current industrial policy, however, these recommendations were never acted on. Decades have been wasted and the problem has multiplied. Would this evidence, fortified further by much since, yet bring governments now to act?

  19. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus

  20. EVA – a non-linear Eulerian approach for assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Frohn, Lise Marie; Nielsen, Jytte Seested

    2006-01-01

    atmospheric module for regional transport and chemical transformation of air pollutants, has been developed. The EVA model follows the impact-pathway approach of the ExternE-project, but provides damage estimates which are more consistent with the laws of physics and chemistry. In this paper the significance...... of life-years lost as the basis for the valuation of chronic mortality. The comparison shows that external cost estimates from the approach normally used as a basis for cost-benefit analysis do not provide consistent figures as they fail adequately to capture the non-linear source-receptor relations...

  1. External Costs of Risky Health Behaviors Associated with Leading Actual Causes of Death in the U.S.: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armineh Zohrabian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidence on external costs of risky behaviors in the U.S. and provides a framework for estimating them. External costs arise when a person does not bear all the costs of his or her behavior. They provide one of the strongest rationales for government interventions. Although the earlier estimates of external costs no longer have policy relevance, they demonstrated that the existence of external costs was an empirical question. We recommend that the estimates of external costs be updated as insurance structures, environments, and knowledge about these behaviors change. The general aspects of external costs may apply to countries other than the U.S. after taking into account differences in institutional, policy and epidemiological characteristics.

  2. Internalisation of external cost in the power generation sector: Analysis with Global Multi-regional MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Rafaj; Socrates Kypreos [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland). Energy Economics Modelling Group, General Energy Department

    2007-02-15

    The Global MARKAL-Model (GMM), a multi-regional 'bottom-up' partial equilibrium model of the global energy system with endogenous technological learning, is used to address impacts of internalisation of external costs from power production. This modelling approach imposes additional charges on electricity generation, which reflect the costs of environmental and health damages from local pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NOx) and climate change, wastes, occupational health, risk of accidents, noise and other burdens. Technologies allowing abatement of pollutants emitted from power plants are rapidly introduced into the energy system, for example, desulphurisation, NOx removal, and CO{sub 2} scrubbers. The modelling results indicate substantial changes in the electricity production system in favour of natural gas combined cycle, nuclear power and renewables induced by internalisation of external costs and also efficiency loss due to the use of scrubbers. Structural changes and fuel switching in the electricity sector result in significant reduction of emissions of both local pollution and CO{sub 2} over the modelled time period. Strong decarbonisation impact of internalising local externalities suggests that ancillary benefits can be expected from policies directly addressing other issues then CO{sub 2} mitigation. Finally, the detailed analysis of the total generation cost of different technologies points out that inclusion of external cost in the price of electricity increases competitiveness of non-fossil generation sources and fossil power plants with emission control. 28 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Internalisation of external cost in the power generation sector: Analysis with Global Multi-regional MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafaj, Peter [Energy Economics Modelling Group, General Energy Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232. Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Peter.Rafaj@psi.ch; Kypreos, Socrates [Energy Economics Modelling Group, General Energy Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232. Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Socrates.Kypreos@psi.ch

    2007-02-15

    The Global MARKAL-Model (GMM), a multi-regional 'bottom-up' partial equilibrium model of the global energy system with endogenous technological learning, is used to address impacts of internalisation of external costs from power production. This modelling approach imposes additional charges on electricity generation, which reflect the costs of environmental and health damages from local pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO {sub x} ) and climate change, wastes, occupational health, risk of accidents, noise and other burdens. Technologies allowing abatement of pollutants emitted from power plants are rapidly introduced into the energy system, for example, desulphurisation, NO {sub x} removal, and CO{sub 2} scrubbers. The modelling results indicate substantial changes in the electricity production system in favour of natural gas combined cycle, nuclear power and renewables induced by internalisation of external costs and also efficiency loss due to the use of scrubbers. Structural changes and fuel switching in the electricity sector result in significant reduction of emissions of both local pollution and CO{sub 2} over the modelled time period. Strong decarbonisation impact of internalising local externalities suggests that ancillary benefits can be expected from policies directly addressing other issues then CO{sub 2} mitigation. Finally, the detailed analysis of the total generation cost of different technologies points out that inclusion of external cost in the price of electricity increases competitiveness of non-fossil generation sources and fossil power plants with emission control00.

  4. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  5. Assessment of Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution at the National Level using the EVA Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy David; Heile Christensen, Jesper; Skou Andersen, Mikael; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Buus Hansen, Ayoe; Mantzius Hansen, Kaj; Brandt Hedegaard, Gitte; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten

    2010-05-01

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources/sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level. The EVA system integrates a regional-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model (DEHM), address-level population data, exposure-response functions and monetary values applicable for Danish/European conditions. Traditionally, systems that assess economic costs of health impacts from air pollution assume linear approximations in the source-receptor relationships. However, atmospheric chemistry is non-linear and therefore the uncertainty involved in the linear assumption can be large. The EVA system has been developed to take into account the non-linear processes by using a comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemical transport model when calculating how specific changes to emissions affect air pollution levels and the subsequent impacts on human health and cost. Furthermore, we present a new "tagging" method, developed to examine how specific emission sources influence air pollution levels without assuming linearity of the non-linear behaviour of atmospheric chemistry. This method is more precise than the traditional approach based on taking the difference between two concentration fields. Using the EVA system, we have estimated the total external costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the ten major SNAP codes. Finally, we assess the impacts and external costs of emissions from international ship traffic around Denmark, since there is a high volume of ship traffic in the region.

  6. Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

  7. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed.

  8. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China: Uncertainty analysis of multiple health impacts and costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Yin; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO2 and NOx. Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society...

  9. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The analy

  10. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The

  11. Energy cost of balance control during walking decreases with external stabilizer stiffness independent of walking speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijmker, Trienke; Houdijk, Han; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Beek, Peter J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    Human walking requires active neuromuscular control to ensure stability in the lateral direction, which inflicts a certain metabolic load. The magnitude of this metabolic load has previously been investigated by means of passive external lateral stabilization via spring-like cords. In the present

  12. The assessment of health impacts and external costs of natural gas-fired power plant of Qom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi Fard, Reza; Naddafi, Kazem; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-10-01

    The external health damage costs of the combined cycle natural gas-fired power plant of Qom were investigated via the simplified impact pathway approach. Emitted particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous pollutants (NO x , CO, and SO2) from the power plant stack were measured The health effects and related costs were estimated by QUERI model from AirPacts according to the emissions, source and stack parameters, pollutant depletion velocities, exposure-response functions, local and regional population density, and detailed meteorological data. The results showed that the main health effect was assigned to the nitrate as restricted activity days (RAD) with 25,240 days/year. For all pollutants, the maximum health damage costs were related to the long-term mortality (49 %), restricted activity days (27 %), and chronic bronchitis (21 %). The annual health damage costs were approximately 4.76 million US$, with the cost being 0.096 US per kWh of generating electricity. Although the health damage costs of gas-fired power plant were lower than those of other heavy fuels, it seems essential to consider the health and environmental damages and focus on the emission control strategies, particularly in site selection for the new power plants and expanding the current ones.

  13. 基于可避免购电成本的持续负荷转移成本有效性分析%Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Continuous Load Transfer Based on Avoidable Cost of Electricity Purchase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华; 刘洋; 周飞; 曾鸣

    2012-01-01

    为使实时电价制度下电力供应紧缺时用户可通过可中断负荷合同自觉选择中断用电,避免一定的购电成本,建立了基于可避免成本的总购电成本模型,考虑了可再生能源投资标准约束和输配电容量约束对可避免成本估算的影响,提出逐时可避免成本影响下的持续负荷转移的成本有效性分析模型及年可避免购电成本的计算模型,并分析了持续负荷转移实现的成本效益.%When encountering the shortage of electricity supply,the user can consciously choose to interrupt the elec tricity through an interruptible load contract,which avoids the cost of power purchase in real-time pricing system. Based on the avoidable cost,this paper establishes a model of total cost of power purchase. Consdiering the impact of the standard constraints for renewable energy investment and capacity constraints on transmission and distribution on the estima tion of avoidable cost,it puts forward the cost-effectiveness analysis model for continuous load transfer under the influence of the avoidable cost and the calculation model for annual avoided electricity purchase cost is proposed. Finally,the cost benefit of continuous load transfer is analyzed.

  14. The cost of applying current helicopter external noise reduction methods while maintaining realistic vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed and/or adopted for calculating helicopter component noise, and these methods were incorporated into a unified total vehicle noise calculation model. Analytical methods were also developed for calculating the effects of noise reduction methodology on helicopter design, performance, and cost. These methods were used to calculate changes in noise, design, performance, and cost due to the incorporation of engine and main rotor noise reduction methods. All noise reduction techniques were evaluated in the context of an established mission performance criterion which included consideration of hovering ceiling, forward flight range/speed/payload, and rotor stall margin. The results indicate that small, but meaningful, reductions in helicopter noise can be obtained by treating the turbine engine exhaust duct. Furthermore, these reductions do not result in excessive life cycle cost penalties. Currently available main rotor noise reduction methodology, however, is shown to be inadequate and excessively costly.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of radiotherapy during surgery compared with external radiation therapy in the treatment of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedie Mosalanezhad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intraoperative radiation therapy device (IORT is one of the several options for partial breast irradiation. IORT is sent to the tumor bed during surgery and can be replaced with conventional standard therapy (EBRT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of IORT machine compared with EBRT and to determine the dominant option in terms of the cost-effectiveness. Method: This study was conducted in two phases; the first phase was a comprehensive review of the electronic databases search that was extracted after extraction and selection of the articles used in this article on effectiveness outcomes. Data collection form was completed by professionals and experts to estimate the cost of treatment, intraoperative radiotherapy and radiotherapy cost when using external radiation therapy process; direct costs were considered from the perspective of service provider and they were calculated in the second phase to determine the option of cost-effective ICER. Excel software was used for data analysis and sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the strength of the results of cost-effectiveness. Results:18 studies were selected but only 8 of them were shown to have acceptable quality. The consequences like “rate of cancer recurrence”, “seroma”, “necrosis”, “toxic”, “skin disorders and delayed wound healing” and “spread the pain” were among the consequences used in the selected articles. The total costs for each patient during a course of treatment for EBRT and IORT were estimated 1398 and $5337.5, respectively. During the analysis, cost-effectiveness of the consequences of cancer recurrence, seroma, necrosis and skin disorders and delayed wound healing ICER was calculated. And IORT was found to be the dominant supplier in all cases. Also, in terms of implications of toxicity and prevalence of pain, IORT had a lower cost and better effectiveness and consequently the result was more cost

  16. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J. Merrill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1 the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2 evaluation of various sources of power, (3 estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4 a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M, vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M, reduction of accidents ($544.6 M, and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M. These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  17. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Steve J.; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P.; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  18. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Steve J; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  19. Road pricing, air pollution and external costs; Road pricing, luftforurening og eksternalitetsomkostninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe, Roskilde (Denmark)); Skou Andersen, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this assessment is to improve the foundation for decision-making about introduction of a road pricing system that aims to reduce the health impacts and social costs of traffic-related air pollution. The analysis focuses on how road emissions, air quality, population exposure, and social costs of air pollution depend on geography (different city sizes and rural areas) and time of the day (rush hours versus non-rush hours). A review of Danish studies related to road pricing has also been carried out to assess the expected effect of road pricing on traffic performance (km travelled), vehicle composition and speed that are factors affecting air pollution. (LN)

  20. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Yin; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO2 and NOx. Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society...

  1. External costs of sand mining in rivers: evidence from South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of estuarine goods and services serves to highlight the degree to which estuaries contribute to human well-being and to show that the social cost of activities which contribute to estuary degradation could be greater than the private...

  2. Synthesis of the public opinion on the calculation methods of avoided costs; Synthese de la consultation publique sur les methodes de calcul des couts evites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    The CRE began the 22 october 2001 a public opinion on the avoided costs calculation methods, to determine the charges amount of the electric utilities. The main questions dealt with the general position of the actors towards the two calculation methods proposed by the CRE; the modalities of these methods implementing; the alternative and possible methods; the case of the non national distributors. The answers are detailed and analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  3. Suture Button Fixation Versus Syndesmotic Screws in Supination-External Rotation Type 4 Injuries: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Kaitlin C; Mormino, Matthew A; Wang, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    In stress-positive, unstable supination-external rotation type 4 (SER IV) ankle fractures, implant selection for syndesmotic fixation is a debated topic. Among the available syndesmotic fixation methods, the metallic screw and the suture button have been routinely compared in the literature. In addition to strength of fixation and ability to anatomically restore the syndesmosis, costs associated with implant use have recently been called into question. This study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of the suture button and determine whether suture button fixation is more cost-effective than two 3.5-mm syndesmotic screws not removed on a routine postoperative basis. Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2. Studies with the highest evidence levels in the available literature were used to estimate the hardware removal and failure rates for syndesmotic screws and suture button fixation. Costs were determined by examining the average costs for patients who underwent surgery for unstable SER IV ankle fractures at a single level-1 trauma institution. A decision analysis model that allowed comparison of the 2 fixation methods was developed. Using a 20% screw hardware removal rate and a 4% suture button hardware removal rate, the total cost for 2 syndesmotic screws was US$20,836 and the total effectiveness was 5.846. This yielded a total cost of $3564 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) over an 8-year time period. The total cost for suture button fixation was $19,354 and the total effectiveness was 5.904, resulting in a total cost of $3294 per QALY over the same time period. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to assess suture button fixation costs as well as screw and suture button hardware removal rates. Other possible treatment scenarios were also examined, including 1 screw and 2 suture buttons for operative fixation of the syndesmosis. To become more cost-effective, the screw hardware removal rate would have to be reduced to less than 10

  4. LIFE CYCLE COSTING DAN EKSTERNALITAS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK SAWIT DAN MINYAK ALGA DI INDONESIA (Life Cycle Costing and Externities of Palm and Algal Biodiesel in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Dwi Santoso

    2014-10-01

    perannya dalam mitigasi GRK yang turut memperbesar peluang sebagai bahan utama biodiesel di masa depan.   ABSTRACT The high cost of biodiesel production was to be an obstacle conversion to biodiesel fuel including Indonesia due to anticipate the energy crisis. The high cost of production due to the variable cost of production has not fully comparable reflect the overall potential contained in biodiesel. Potential biodiesel belonging to the commodity nature of the environment such as renewable biomass, low in land use, and environmentally friendly should be included in the calculation in order to obtain an objective comparison of the calculations.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding commodities to the structure of the production cost of biodiesel between palm oil and algal oil. Estimated value of the commodity by the method of benefit transfer method shows the value used is the approach gains willingness to pay (WTP. Environmental commodity values referenced from the calculation software Environmental Priority Strategy (EPS version 2000. For the case of Indonesia, the commodity value of the elasticity was infered EPS basis of comparison of income per capita of Sweden and Indonesia.The results stated that the analysis of life cycle costing (LCC applied by adding variable externalities can provide detailed information about the composition of biodiesel production costs and can be used as a method to get a total picture of the most competitive production costs from several sources. The analysis also concluded that the externality variables also affect the total cost of biodiesel production by up to 14%. Profitability analysis stated that the algal biomass for biodiesel production more secure and sustainable than palm biomass due to technical and non-technical constraints on the production of algal biomass more easier to treat but it also advantages role in GHG mitigation that helped widen the opportunities as the main ingredient of biodiesel in the futur

  5. External costs of atmospheric lead emissions from a waste-to-energy plant: a follow-up assessment of indirect neurotoxic impacts via topsoil ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Møller, Flemming; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The link between anthropogenic emissions and the monetary value of their impacts, so-called external cost, can be determined via the impact pathway approach. This method is used in the present study to calculate the indirect costs, via topsoil ingestion, of lead emitted into atmosphere from a was...

  6. External costs due to congestion, accidents, energy consumption and emissions before and into the economic crisis: Pilot study along selected roadways of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriou Matina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the economic crisis, forecasts indicated a continuous increase of traffic in European cities, highlighting the need of a policy to alleviate the external impacts of transport. The crisis, however, generated pressures on all sectors of activity, with transport being an indicative example. The reduction of income and employment, the increased vehicle maintenance and renewal costs and the transport related taxation seem to affect the transport system and its external impacts. Thus, taking for granted that Europe will eventually achieve “sustainable recovery” from the crisis, the current period presents an opportunity for promoting sustainable mobility policies and interventions in the most affected by the crisis European cities. Towards this goal, it is essential to capitalise on contemporary techniques for the monitoring of changes in transport external costs. The purpose of the paper is the development of a methodology for the estimation of external costs due to congestion, air pollution, climate change and accidents, based on road traffic data. The methodology is applied along road arteries in Thessaloniki for the period “before and after” the emergence of the crisis. As a result, an overall decrease in external costs is observed, creating an unforeseen “surplus” for the society during the crisis.

  7. Avoiding the Enumeration of Infeasible Elementary Flux Modes by Including Transcriptional Regulatory Rules in the Enumeration Process Saves Computational Costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jungreuthmayer

    Full Text Available Despite the significant progress made in recent years, the computation of the complete set of elementary flux modes of large or even genome-scale metabolic networks is still impossible. We introduce a novel approach to speed up the calculation of elementary flux modes by including transcriptional regulatory information into the analysis of metabolic networks. Taking into account gene regulation dramatically reduces the solution space and allows the presented algorithm to constantly eliminate biologically infeasible modes at an early stage of the computation procedure. Thereby, computational costs, such as runtime, memory usage, and disk space, are extremely reduced. Moreover, we show that the application of transcriptional rules identifies non-trivial system-wide effects on metabolism. Using the presented algorithm pushes the size of metabolic networks that can be studied by elementary flux modes to new and much higher limits without the loss of predictive quality. This makes unbiased, system-wide predictions in large scale metabolic networks possible without resorting to any optimization principle.

  8. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: The case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Erik, E-mail: erik.laes@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Meskens, Gaston, E-mail: gaston.meskens@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der, E-mail: j.p.vandersluijs@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute, Department of Science Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 6, 584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The contribution of nuclear power to a sustainable energy future is a contested issue. This paper presents a critical review of an attempt to objectify this debate through the calculation of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident in the ExternE project. A careful dissection of the ExternE approach resulted in a list of 30 calculation steps and assumptions, from which the 6 most contentious ones were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. The policy robustness and relevance of these key assumptions were then assessed in a workshop using the concept of a 'pedigree of knowledge'. Overall, the workshop outcomes revealed the stakeholder and expert panel's scepticism about the assumptions made: generally these were considered not very plausible, subjected to disagreement, and to a large extent inspired by contextual factors. Such criticism indicates a limited validity and useability of the calculated nuclear accident externality as a trustworthy sustainability indicator. Furthermore, it is our contention that the ExternE project could benefit greatly - in terms of gaining public trust - from employing highly visible procedures of extended peer review such as the pedigree assessment applied to our specific case of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident. - Highlights: > Six most contentious assumptions were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. > Policy robustness of these assumptions was assessed in a pedigree assessment workshop. > Assumptions were considered implausible, controversial, and inspired by contextual factors. > This indicates a limited validity and useability as a trustworthy sustainability indicator.

  9. Characterization of a Low-Cost Optical Flow Sensor When Using an External Laser as a Direct Illumination Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low cost optical flow sensor is combined with an external laser device to measure surface displacements and mechanical oscillations. The measurement system is based on applying coherent light to a diffuser surface and using an optical flow sensor to analyze the reflected and transferred light to estimate the displacement of the surface or the laser spot. This work is focused on the characterization of this measurement system, which can have the optical flow sensor placed at different angles and distances from the diffuser surface. The results have shown that the displacement of the diffuser surface is badly estimated when the optical mouse sensor is placed in front of the diffuser surface (angular orientation >150° while the highest sensitivity is obtained when the sensor is located behind the diffuser surface and on the axis of the laser source (angular orientation 0°. In this case, the coefficient of determination of the measured displacement, R2, was very high (>0.99 with a relative error of less than 1.29%. Increasing the distance between the surface and the sensor also increased the sensitivity which increases linearly, R2 = 0.99. Finally, this measurement setup was proposed to measure very low frequency mechanical oscillations applied to the laser device, up to 0.01 Hz in this work. The results have shown that increasing the distance between the surface and the optical flow sensor also increases the sensitivity and the measurement range.

  10. Using Life-Cycle Human Factors Engineering to Avoid $2.4 Million in Costs: Lessons Learned from NASA's Requirements Verification Process for Space Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Daniel; Ellenberger, Rich

    2008-01-01

    The Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) process has been used to verify human factors requirements for NASA International Space Station (ISS) payloads since 2003, resulting in $2.4 million in avoided costs. This cost benefit has been realized by greatly reducing the need to process time-consuming formal waivers (exceptions) for individual requirements violations. The HFIT team, which includes astronauts and their technical staff, acts as the single source for human factors requirements integration of payloads. HFIT has the authority to provide inputs during early design phases, thus eliminating many potential requirements violations in a cost-effective manner. In those instances where it is not economically or technically feasible to meet the precise metric of a given requirement, HFIT can work with the payload engineers to develop common sense solutions and formally document that the resulting payload design does not materially affect the astronaut s ability to operate and interact with the payload. The HFIT process is fully ISO 9000 compliant and works concurrently with NASA s formal systems engineering work flow. Due to its success with payloads, the HFIT process is being adapted and extended to ISS systems hardware. Key aspects of this process are also being considered for NASA's Space Shuttle replacement, the Crew Exploration Vehicle.

  11. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes.

  12. Who Should Bear the Cost of Convenience? A Cost-effectiveness Analysis Comparing External Beam and Brachytherapy Radiotherapy Techniques for Early Stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffin, M; Merino, T; Keller, B; Pignol, J-P

    2017-03-01

    Standard treatment for early breast cancer includes whole breast irradiation (WBI) after breast-conserving surgery. Recently, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been proposed for well-selected patients. A cost and cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out comparing WBI with two APBI techniques. An activity-based costing method was used to determine the treatment cost from a societal perspective of WBI, high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) and permanent breast seed implants (PBSI). A Markov model comparing the three techniques was developed with downstream costs, utilities and probabilities adapted from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were carried out for a wide range of variables, including treatment costs, patient costs, utilities and probability of developing recurrences. Overall, HDR was the most expensive ($14 400), followed by PBSI ($8700), with WBI proving the least expensive ($6200). The least costly method to the health care system was WBI, whereas PBSI and HDR were less costly for the patient. Under cost-effectiveness analyses, downstream costs added about $10 000 to the total societal cost of the treatment. As the outcomes are very similar between techniques, WBI dominated under cost-effectiveness analyses. WBI was found to be the most cost-effective radiotherapy technique for early breast cancer. However, both APBI techniques were less costly to the patient. Although innovation may increase costs for the health care system it can provide cost savings for the patient in addition to convenience. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe to the Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution using the EVA Model System - an integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy D.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Hansen, Ayoe B.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Kaas, Eigil; Frohn, Lise M.

    2013-04-01

    We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution levels, taking into account the non-linear atmospheric chemistry. The main objective of this work is to identify the anthropogenic emission sources in Europe and Denmark that contribute the most to human health impacts. In this study, we applied the EVA system to Europe and Denmark, with a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions. The paper contains a thorough description of the EVA system. The conclusions in the paper are sensitive to the toxicity of the different types of atmospheric particles, and therefore the existing knowledge of health impacts from particles is reviewed. We conclude that with our present knowledge we are not able to distinguish between the impacts from different particle types and therefore the toxicity of the particles is handled equally in the overall results. The main conclusion from the analysis of the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark is that the major contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. The major power plants in Europe contribute with around 25% of the total health related external costs relative to all sources in Europe, while the Danish power plants only contribute with less than 10% relative to all Danish sources. Our results suggest that the agricultural sector contributes with 25% to health impacts and related external costs. We conclude

  14. External costs in the global energy optimization models. A tool in favour of sustain ability; Los costes externos en los modelos energeticos globales de optimizacion. Una herramienta para la sostenibilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabal Cuesta, H.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the effects of the GHG external costs internalization in the energy systems. This may provide a useful tool to support decision makers to help reaching the energy systems sustain ability. External costs internalization has been carried out using two methods. First, CO{sub 2} externalities of different power generation technologies have been internalized to evaluate their effects on the economic competitiveness of these present and future technologies. The other method consisted of analysing and optimizing the global energy system, from an economic and environmental point of view, using the global energy optimization model generator, TIMES, with a time horizon of 50 years. Finally, some scenarios regarding environmental and economic strategic measures have been analysed. (Author)

  15. External Costs and Benefits of Energy. Methodologies, Results and Effects on Renewable Energies Competitivity; Costes y Beneficios Externos de la Energia. Metodologias, Resultados e Influencia sobre la Competitividad de las Energias Renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez, R.; Cabal, H.; Varela, M. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    This study attempts to give a summarised vision of the concept of externally in energy production, the social and economic usefulness of its evaluation and consideration as support to the political decision-marking in environmental regulation matters, technologies selection of new plants, priorities establishment on energy plans, etc. More relevant environmental externalities are described, as are the effects on the health, ecosystems, materials and climate, as well as some of the socioeconomic externalities such as the employment, increase of the GDP and the reduction and depletion of energy resources. Different methodologies used during the last years have been reviewed as well as the principals results obtained in the most relevant studies accomplished internationally on this topic. Special mention has deserved the European study National Implementation of the ExternE Methodology in the EU. Results obtained are represented in Table 2 of this study. Also they are exposed, in a summarised way, the results obtained in the evaluation of environmental externalities of the Spanish electrical system in function of the fuel cycle. In this last case the obtained results are more approximated since have been obtained by extrapolation from the obtained for ten representative plants geographically distributed trough the Peninsula. Finally it has been analysed the influence that the internalization of the external costs of conventional energies can have in the competitiveness and in the market of renewable energy, those which originate less environmental effects and therefore produce much smaller external costs. The mechanisms of internalization and the consideration on the convenience or not of their incorporation in the price of energy have been also discussed. (Author) 30 refs.

  16. 商业战略,声誉风险与企业避税行为%Strategy Choice, Reputation Cost and Tax Avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕伟; 陈丽花; 佘名元

    2011-01-01

    商业战略是指一个公司指导其在自己所在行业如何竞争的战略总和,包括一系列财务政策、组织结构等活动。制定恰当的商业战略是一个公司在自己所处行业中获得可持续竞争优势的最佳方法。商业战略决定了一个公司对风险和不确定性的态度,而风险态度进一步又将影响企业避税行为。从上述理论出发,本文基于中国上市公司数据研究了商业战略和避税行为之间的关系。本文发现,与采用探索者战略的企业相比,采用防御者战略的企业节税水平较小、现金税率更高,表明处于防御者地位的企业避税行为更消极,也意味着防御者认为激进税收筹划带来的成本和不确定性超过了节税的收益。同时,本文发现,不同战略的企业对声誉的依赖不同,从而避税导致的声誉风险存在差异。对于知名度较高的企业,战略选择对避税行为的影响也更显著。本文贡献在于,采用公开数据构造了多维变量来衡量公司战略。同时本文也是首篇研究战略与税务决策关系的文献。%A firm's business-level strategy dictates how the firm competes in its chosen line of business. The best way for a firm to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in its chosen market is to reinforce its businesslevel strategy with a host of activities, including functional policies, organization structure, etc. The choices made by each firm are likely to determine, to some extent, the level of tax avoidance because the firm strategies are, in part, based on firms' willingness to deal with risk and uncertainty. We examine whether a firm's business strategy influences its level of tax avoidance. We find that firm engaging in a strategy that focuses on minimizing and reducing the uncertainty of costs avoid fewer taxes than firms that not only follow a strategy focusing on product differentiation and the aggressive pursuit of

  17. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J. D.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sigsgaard, T.; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North seas, since special regulatory actions on sulfur emissions, called SECA (sulfur emission control area), have been introduced in these areas. We conclude that, despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem for human health. Hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe are estimated at 803 bn euros yr-1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn euros yr-1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr-1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulfur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  18. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North seas, since special regulatory actions on sulfur emissions, called SECA (sulfur emission control area, have been introduced in these areas. We conclude that, despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem for human health. Hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe are estimated at 803 bn euros yr−1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn euros yr−1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr−1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulfur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in

  19. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area, have been introduced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro yr−1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro yr−1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr−1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in

  20. External costs due to congestion, accidents, energy consumption and emissions before and into the economic crisis: Pilot study along selected roadways of Thessaloniki, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiriou Matina; Gavanas Nikolaos; Pitsiava-Latinopoulou Magda

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the economic crisis, forecasts indicated a continuous increase of traffic in European cities, highlighting the need of a policy to alleviate the external impacts of transport. The crisis, however, generated pressures on all sectors of activity, with transport being an indicative example. The reduction of income and employment, the increased vehicle maintenance and renewal costs and the transport related taxation seem to affect the transport system ...

  1. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution over 36 years using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology, where the site-specific emissions will result, via atmospheric transport and chemistry, in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, is used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different domain and scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) to calculate the air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model (UBM) to further calculate the air pollution in Denmark at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as the development of health impacts and related external costs in Europe and Denmark over a period of 36 years (1979-2014). Acknowledgements This work was funded by: DCE - National Centre for Environment and Energy. Project: "Health impacts and external costs from air pollution in Denmark over 25 years" and NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project: "Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health impacts and welfare in the

  2. External costs of atmospheric lead emissions from a waste-to-energy plant: a follow-up assessment of indirect exposure via topsoil ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Møller, Flemming; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-05-30

    In this study the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA) was used to calculate the external costs associated with indirect exposure, via topsoil ingestion, to atmospheric emissions of lead (Pb) from a waste-to-energy plant in Denmark. Three metal-specific models were combined to quantify the atmospheric dispersion of lead, its deposition and accumulation in topsoil, and the increase in blood lead concentration for children resulting from lead intake via topsoil ingestion. The neurotoxic impact of lead on children was estimated using a lead-specific concentration-response function that measures impaired cognitive development in terms of IQ points lost per each incremental μg/dl of lead in blood. Since IQ loss during childhood can be associated with a percent decrease in expected lifetime earnings, the monetary value of such an impact can be quantified and the external costs per kg of lead emitted from the plant were then calculated. The costs of indirect exposure calculated over a time horizon of 100 years, for the sub-population of children of 0-3 years, and discounted at 3%, were in the range of 15-30 €/kg. Despite the continued accumulation of lead in topsoil resulting in increasing future indirect exposure, the results indicate that costs associated with this exposure pathway are of the same order of magnitude as costs associated with direct exposure via inhalation, calculated at 45-91 €/kg. Moreover, when the monetary value of future impacts is discounted to the present, the differences between the two exposure pathways are diminished. Finally, setting a short time horizon reduces the uncertainties but excludes part of the costs of indirect exposure from the assessment.

  3. Factors of the European Economies' Vulnerability to External Shocks - An Empirical Analysis. The Example of 2008-2009 Crisis Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domańska Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the factors determining the vulnerability of the European countries to external shocks taking the example of the global 2008-2009 economic slowdown (also called the subprime crisis2 and its impact on economies in Europe. The particular attention is attached to factors related to the fundamentals of the economy, i.e. the GDP growth, fiscal and monetary stability and external stability. Attempting to level of the gap existing in the Polish literature in the empirical research on that problem, the hereby article also refers to wider problems of the macroeconomic factors enhancing economies' capabilities to meet the challenges of global crises and strengthening their competitiveness afterwards. The special attention in the paper was attached to the role of financial and trade openness.

  4. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  5. The role, costs and value for money of external consultancies in the health sector: A study of New Zealand's District Health Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penno, Erin; Gauld, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Public spending on external consultancies, particularly within the health sector, is highly controversial in many countries. Yet, despite the apparently large sums of money involved, there is little international analysis surrounding the scope of activities of consultants, meaning there is little understanding of how much is spent, for what purpose and with what result. This paper examines spending on external consultancies in each of New Zealand's 20 District Health Boards (DHB). Using evidence obtained from DHBs, it provides an insight into the cost and activities of consultants within the New Zealand health sector, the policies behind their engagement and the processes in place to ensure value for money. It finds that DHB spending on external consultants is substantial, at $NZ10-60 million annually. However, few DHBs had policies governing when consultants should be engaged and many were unable to easily identify the extent or purpose of consultancies within their organisation, making it difficult to derive an accurate picture of consultant activity throughout the DHB sector. Policies surrounding value for money were uncommon and, where present, were rarely applied. Given the large sums being spent by New Zealand's DHBs, and assuming expenditure is similar in other health systems, our findings point to the need for greater accountability for expenditure and better evidence of value for money of consultancies within publicly funded health systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and application of performance and cost models for the externally-fired combined cycle. Task 1, Volume 2. Topical report, June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, P.; Frey, H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Rubin, E.S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Increasing restrictions on emission of pollutants from conventional pulverized coal fired steam (PCFS) plant generating electrical power is raising capital and operating cost of these plants and at the same time lowering plant efficiency. This is creating a need for alternative technologies which result in lower emissions of regulated pollutants and which are thermally more efficient. Natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation systems have lower capital cost and higher efficiencies than conventional coal fired steam plants, and at this time they are the leading contender for new power plant construction in the U.S. But the intermediate and long term cost of these fuels is high and there is uncertainty regarding their long-term price and availability. Coal is a relatively low cost fuel which will be abundantly available in the long term. This has motivated the development of advanced technologies for power production from coal which will have advantages of other fuels. The Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is one such technology. Air pollution control/hot gas cleanup issues associated with this technology are described.

  7. Internalization of externalities in the generation costs of electric power centrals of carbon, combined cycle and nuclear; Internalizacion de externalidades en los costos de generacion de centrales electricas de carbon, ciclo combinado y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, M.C. [Universidad Anahuac del Norte (Mexico); Palacios H, J.; Ramirez S, R.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5 Ocoyoacac 52750 Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: fgrivera@avantel.net

    2007-07-01

    The technologies of electric power generation that use fossil fuels, they incorporate in the Even Total Cost of Generation (CTNG) only the direct costs of generation (investment, fuel costs, operation costs and maintenance). nevertheless, the nuclear energy incorporates besides the direct costs, the externalities that causes to the human health and the environment. In this work the CTNG is calculated that incorporates the externalities, of a thermoelectric power station of coal, a plant of combined cycle and of four reactors of Generation III (ABWR, ACR, AP1000 and EPR). The obtained results show that the nuclear power station has smaller CTNG that the technologies that use fossil fuels. It is important to stand out that they are only considering the externalities of the stage of electricity generation, for what the mining phase and transport of the fuel toward the central are not considered in the present document. (Author)

  8. Banking deregulation and corporate tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill B. Francis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether tax avoidance substitutes for external financing. We exploit interstate banking deregulation as a quasi-external shock to examine whether firms engage in less tax avoidance after banking deregulation, because of cheaper and easier access to credit from banks. We find no empirical evidence to support this substitutive relation, even for firms with higher financial constraints or firms with higher external financing dependence.

  9. An economic assessment of the potential and costs of investments in R&D in agriculture to avoid land use change and food security effects of bioenergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets-Kristkova, Zuzana; Smeets, Edward; Meijl, van Hans

    2016-01-01

    There are major concerns about the impact of the large scale production of woody and grassy crops for energy production on the conversion of natural vegetation and on food security. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibilities and limitations of avoiding these undesirable effects

  10. Benefits of deposition reduction for nature management; a nation-wide assessment of the relation between atmospheric deposition, ecological quality and avoidable management costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.J.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Dobben, van H.F.; Wijk, van M.N.

    2004-01-01

    Alterra was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) to estimate the additional costs made by nature reserve managers to mitigate the effects of atmospheric deposition. The costs of increasing deposition levels - or the benefits of reducing depositio

  11. Generation of dried tube specimen for HIV-1 viral load proficiency test panels: a cost-effective alternative for external quality assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Artur; Nguyen, Shon; Garcia, Albert; Subbarao, Shambavi; Nkengasong, John N; Ellenberger, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Participation in external quality assessment programs is critical to ensure quality clinical laboratory testing. Commercially available proficiency test panels for HIV-1 virus load testing that are used commonly in external quality assessment programs remain a financial obstacle to resource-limited countries. Maintaining cold-chain transportation largely contributes to the cost of traditional liquid proficiency test panels. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a proficiency test panel using dried tube specimens that can be shipped and stored at ambient temperature. This dried tube specimens panel consisted of 20 μl aliquots of a HIV-1 stock that were added to 2 ml tubes and left uncapped for drying, as a preservation method. The stability of dried tube specimens at concentrations ranging from 10² to 10⁶·⁵ RNA copies/ml was tested at different temperatures over time, showing no viral load reduction at 37 °C and a decrease in viral load smaller than 0.5 Log₁₀ at 45 °C for up to eight weeks when compared to initial results. Eight cycles of freezing-thawing had no effect on the stability of the dried tube specimens. Comparable viral load results were observed when dried tube specimen panels were tested on Roche CAPTAQ, Abbott m2000, and Biomerieux easyMAG viral load systems. Preliminary test results of dried proficiency test panels shipped to four African countries at ambient temperature demonstrated a low inter assay variation (SD range: 0.29-0.41 Log₁₀ RNA copies/ml). These results indicated that HIV-1 proficiency test panels generated by this methodology might be an acceptable alternative for laboratories in resource-limited countries to participate in external quality assessment programs.

  12. Prescribing high-dose lipid-lowering therapy early to avoid subsequent cardiovascular events: is this a cost-effective strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, R; Pandor, A; Stevens, J; Rafia, R; Ward, S E; Rees, A; Durrington, P N; Reynolds, T M; Wierzbicki, A S; Stevenson, M

    2012-06-01

    While evidence shows high-dose statins reduce cardiovascular events compared with moderate doses in individuals with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), many primary care trusts (PCT) advocate the use of generic simvastatin 40 mg/day for these patients. Data from 28 RCTs were synthesized using a mixed treatment comparison model. A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatments taking into account adherence and the likely reduction in cost for atorvastatin when the patent expires. There is a clear dose-response: rosuvastatin 40 mg/day produces the greatest reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (56%) followed by atorvastatin 80 mg/day (52%), and simvastatin 40 mg/day (37%). Using a threshold of £20,000 per QALY, if adherence levels in general practice are similar to those observed in RCTs, all three higher dose statins would be considered cost-effective compared to simvastatin 40 mg/day. Using the net benefits of the treatments, rosuvastatin 40 mg/day is estimated to be the most cost-effective alternative. If the cost of atorvastatin reduces in line with that observed for simvastatin, atorvastatin 80 mg/day is estimated to be the most cost-effective alternative. Our analyses show that current PCT policies intended to minimize primary care drug acquisition costs result in suboptimal care.

  13. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Lin, H. T.; Talite, M. J.; Tzeng, T. T.; Hsu, C. L.; Chiu, K. P.; Lin, C. A. J.; Shen, J. L.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting.

  14. The environmental costs of wind energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Llamas, P. [CIEMAT-IEE, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    This article summarizes the assessment of the environmental costs of the wind fuel cycle in Spain. It has been carried out within the ExternE project of the European Commission, and so it has been done following a site-, technology-specific methodology. The main impacts identified have been noise, and the loss of visual amenity. As a result some values for the external costs of wind energy have been obtained, which have shown to be much lower than those of conventional fuel cycles. It is also important to note that careful planning would avoid most of these costs. (author)

  15. Research in external effect cost characters for Chinese manufacturing enterprises' IT outsourcing at system development stage%制造企业系统开发阶段IT外包外部效应成本特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶欣

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on intrinsic cost of enterprises, which is also called external effect cost, based on external effect model in microeconomics and the different stages of developing management operating system. The purpose is to provide reference for IT outsourcing risk management.%以经济学生产外部效应模型为基础,以管理信息系统开发不同阶段为依据,探讨中国制造企业IT外包的隐性成本,即外部效应成本,为IT外包风险管理提供参考.

  16. Avoidable costs of physical treatments for chronic back, neck and shoulder pain within the Spanish National Health Service: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano-Aguilar Pedro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Back, neck and shoulder pain are the most common causes of occupational disability. They reduce health-related quality of life and have a significant economic impact. Many different forms of physical treatment are routinely used. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of physical treatments which, despite the absence of evidence supporting their effectiveness, were used between 2004 and 2007 for chronic and non-specific neck pain (NP, back pain (BP and shoulder pain (SP, within the Spanish National Health Service in the Canary Islands (SNHSCI. Methods Chronic patients referred from the SNHSCI to private physical therapy centres for NP, BP or SP, between 2004 and 2007, were identified. The cost of providing physical therapies to these patients was estimated. Systematic reviews (SRs and clinical practice guidelines (CPGs for NP, BP and SP available in the same period were searched for and rated according to the Oxman and AGREE criteria, respectively. Those rated positively for ≥70% of the criteria, were used to categorise physical therapies as Effective; Ineffective; Inconclusive; and Insufficiently Assessed. The main outcome was the cost of physical therapies included in each of these categories. Results 8,308 chronic cases of NP, 4,693 of BP and 5,035 of SP, were included in this study. Among prescribed treatments, 39.88% were considered Effective (physical exercise and manual therapy with mobilization; 23.06% Ineffective; 13.38% Inconclusive, and 23.66% Insufficiently Assessed. The total cost of treatments was € 5,107,720. Effective therapies accounted for € 2,069,932. Conclusions Sixty percent of the resources allocated by the SNHSCI to fund physical treatment for NP, BP and SP in private practices are spent on forms of treatment proven to be ineffective, or for which there is no evidence of effectiveness.

  17. External Costs and Optimum Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer Based on the Balance of Economic and Ecological Benefits in the Paddy Field System of the Dongting Lake Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ping-an; ZHOU Yan; JIANG Ju-ao; ZHENG Hua; YAN Hui-min; HUANG Huang

    2007-01-01

    The external costs and the optimum use of nitrogen fertilizer based on the balance of economic and ecological benefits was studied with the paddy field system of Dongting Lake area, one of the main food production regions in China. The environmental impact was economically evaluated using methods of the environmental impact economical evaluation.The optimum use of nitrogen fertilizer was calculated based on the exterior diseconomy theory and by using the production function model. Both ecological benefits and farmers' economic benefits were considered. It was calculated on the data from 2002 that the losses caused by inappropriate utilization of nitrogen fertilizer in the process of food production were fishery, 0.1 × 107 RMB yuan; water treatment, 1.02 × 108 RMB yuan; tour business, 0.11 × 108 RMB yuan, and habitation environment, 0.3 × 107 RMB yuan, totally equivalent to 0.41 RMB yuan kg-1 N. The economically satisfactory and the ecological agronomic nitrogen fertilizer dose for current production was 138 and 137 kg ha-1, respectively. The research showed that the actual nitrogen fertilizer application amount in the paddy field system of the Dongting Lake area already reached or exceeded the farmers' economic satisfaction and the ecological agronomic nitrogen fertilizer dose for current production. An environmental tax is suggested to impose on over-use of nitrogen fertilizer.

  18. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  19. High binding affinity of repressor IolR avoids costs of untimely induction of myo-inositol utilization by Salmonella Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinckx, Jessica; Heermann, Ralf; Felsl, Angela; Fuchs, Thilo M.

    2017-01-01

    Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 with myo-inositol (MI) is characterized by a bistable phenotype that manifests with an extraordinarily long (34 h) and variable lag phase. When cells were pre-grown in minimal medium with MI, however, the lag phase shortened drastically to eight hours, and to six hours in the absence of the regulator IolR. To unravel the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon, we investigated this repressor in more detail. Flow cytometry analysis of the iolR promoter at a single cell level demonstrated bistability of its transcriptional activation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to narrow the potential binding region of IolR and identified at least two binding sites in most iol gene promoters. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy quantified IolR binding and indicated its putative oligomerization and high binding affinity towards specific iol gene promoters. In competitive assays, the iolR deletion mutant, in which iol gene repression is abolished, showed a severe growth disadvantage of ~15% relative to the parental strain in rich medium. We hypothesize that the strong repression of iol gene transcription is required to maintain a balance between metabolic flexibility and fitness costs, which follow the inopportune induction of an unusual metabolic pathway. PMID:28290506

  20. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general

  1. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  2. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  3. Assessment of Past, Present and Future Health-Cost Ex-ternalities of Air Pollution in Europe and the contribution from International Ship Traffic using the EVA Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy D.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Hansen, Ayoe B.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Kaas, Eigil; Frohn, Lise M.

    2013-04-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area), have been intro-duced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro/year for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro/year in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680,000/year, decreasing to approximately 450,000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  4. Realized Cost Savings and Avoidance Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMB Office of the Chief Information Officer (OFCIO) has a long-standing practice of making information about Federal IT available to the public through various...

  5. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark to the health-cost externalities of air pollution using the EVA model system – an integrated modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a newly developed tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution levels, taking into account the non-linear atmospheric chemistry. The main objective of this work is to identify the anthropogenic emission sources in Europe and Denmark that contribute the most to human health impacts. In this study, we applied the EVA system to Europe and Denmark, with a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions. The paper contains a thorough description of the EVA system, the main results from the assessment of the main contributors and a discussion of the most important atmospheric chemical reactions relevant for interpreting the results. The main conclusion from the analysis is that the major contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. We conclude that when regulating the emissions of ammonia from the agricultural sector, both the impacts on nature and on human health should be taken into account. This study confirms that air pollution constitutes a serious problem for human health and that the related external costs are considerable. The results in this work emphasize the importance of defining the right questions in the decision-making process. The results from assessing the impacts from each emission sector depend clearly on the assumption that the other emission sectors are not changed, especially emissions changing concentrations of

  6. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark to the health-cost externalities of air pollution using the EVA model system - an integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J. D.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sigsgaard, T.; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a newly developed tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution levels, taking into account the non-linear atmospheric chemistry. The main objective of this work is to identify the anthropogenic emission sources in Europe and Denmark that contribute the most to human health impacts. In this study, we applied the EVA system to Europe and Denmark, with a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions. The paper contains a thorough description of the EVA system, the main results from the assessment of the main contributors and a discussion of the most important atmospheric chemical reactions relevant for interpreting the results. The main conclusion from the analysis is that the major contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. We conclude that when regulating the emissions of ammonia from the agricultural sector, both the impacts on nature and on human health should be taken into account. This study confirms that air pollution constitutes a serious problem for human health and that the related external costs are considerable. The results in this work emphasize the importance of defining the right questions in the decision-making process. The results from assessing the impacts from each emission sector depend clearly on the assumption that the other emission sectors are not changed, especially emissions changing concentrations of atmospheric OH and

  7. Report on Reports: A Study of the Cost of Completing Reports for External Agencies, Fiscal Year 1975-1976. OIRA Report No. 6-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Robert L.; Munson, Ann

    A survey was conducted throughout Montgomery Community College to gather information regarding the time spent by various units on the completion of reports for external agencies. Data were obtained for the actual reports filed between July 1, 1975 and April 1, 1976, and for the last three months of the fiscal year an estimate based on previous…

  8. Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Il-Horn Hann; Kai-Lung Hui; Sang-Yong Tom Lee; Ivan Png

    2005-01-01

    We introduce consumer avoidance into analytical marketing research. We show that consumer efforts to conceal themselves and to deflect marketing have a crucial impact on sellers¡¯ marketing strategy. Under reasonable conditions, seller marketing is a strategic complement with consumer concealment. Hence, consumer measures to conceal themselves from marketing will increase its cost-effectiveness and lead sellers to market more. Policies that encourage consumers to conceal their identities woul...

  9. Use of Six Sigma Worksheets for assessment of internal and external failure costs associated with candidate quality control rules for an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Francesco; Villiers, Elisabeth; Archer, Joy; Pitorri, Francesca; Freeman, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Quality control (QC) validation is an essential tool in total quality management of a veterinary clinical pathology laboratory. Cost-analysis can be a valuable technique to help identify an appropriate QC procedure for the laboratory, although this has never been reported in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of the Six Sigma Quality Cost Worksheets in the evaluation of possible candidate QC rules identified by QC validation. Three months of internal QC records were analyzed. EZ Rules 3 software was used to evaluate candidate QC procedures, and the costs associated with the application of different QC rules were calculated using the Six Sigma Quality Cost Worksheets. The costs associated with the current and the candidate QC rules were compared, and the amount of cost savings was calculated. There was a significant saving when the candidate 1-2.5s, n = 3 rule was applied instead of the currently utilized 1-2s, n = 3 rule. The savings were 75% per year (£ 8232.5) based on re-evaluating all of the patient samples in addition to the controls, and 72% per year (£ 822.4) based on re-analyzing only the control materials. The savings were also shown to change accordingly with the number of samples analyzed and with the number of daily QC procedures performed. These calculations demonstrated the importance of the selection of an appropriate QC procedure, and the usefulness of the Six Sigma Costs Worksheet in determining the most cost-effective rule(s) when several candidate rules are identified by QC validation. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Avoiding health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Joshua B; Rintamaki, Lance S; Ramsey, Jason A; Brashers, Dale E

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated why and how individuals avoid health information to support the development of models of uncertainty and information management and offer insights for those dealing with the information and uncertainty inherent to health and illness. Participants from student (n = 507) and community (n = 418) samples reported that they avoided health information to (a) maintain hope or deniability, (b) resist overexposure, (c) accept limits of action, (d) manage flawed information, (e) maintain boundaries, and (f) continue with life/activities. They also reported strategies for avoiding information, including removing or ignoring stimuli (e.g., avoiding people who might provide health advice) and controlling conversations (e.g., withholding information, changing the subject). Results suggest a link between previous experience with serious illness and health information avoidance. Building on uncertainty management theory, this study demonstrated that health information avoidance is situational, relatively common, not necessarily unhealthy, and may be used to accomplish multiple communication goals.

  11. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. External environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    Air pollutants arising from traffic clustering and industrial production include a number of chemical compounds that at high doses are carcinogenic in animal models and in some instances also in humans. Direct epidemiological evidence for a carcinogenic effect of air pollution in humans is, however......, weak, and most of the available studies are limited by lack of adequate control of confounding factors and other methodological drawbacks. Limited evidence exists for a link between urban air pollution and lung cancer, with reported relative risks of 1.0-1.5. About one-third of the population...... of the Nordic countries, corresponding to 7.3 million people, lives in urban areas. If there is an excess risk associated with air pollution, the annual number of lung cancer cases around the year 2000 in the Nordic countries would range from 0 (no excess risk) to 1,800 (relative risk, 1.5). As the existence...

  12. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. External environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    , weak, and most of the available studies are limited by lack of adequate control of confounding factors and other methodological drawbacks. Limited evidence exists for a link between urban air pollution and lung cancer, with reported relative risks of 1.0-1.5. About one-third of the population...... of the Nordic countries, corresponding to 7.3 million people, lives in urban areas. If there is an excess risk associated with air pollution, the annual number of lung cancer cases around the year 2000 in the Nordic countries would range from 0 (no excess risk) to 1,800 (relative risk, 1.5). As the existence...

  13. Cognitive avoidance in phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosschot, J.F.; Kindt, M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the stage in which the bias changed into avoidance and whether cognitive avoidance of threat is restricted to information that refers to the anxiety response as opposed to the threatening stimulus. Therefore, 37 spider phobics (mean age 31 yrs) and 34 controls (mean age 38 yrs) were

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Single Fraction of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Compared With Single Fraction of External Beam Radiation Therapy for Palliation of Vertebral Bone Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hayeon, E-mail: kimh2@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Beriwal, Sushil; Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Smith, Kenneth J. [Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been proposed for the palliation of painful vertebral bone metastases because higher radiation doses may result in superior and more durable pain control. A phase III clinical trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0631) comparing single fraction SBRT with single fraction external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in palliative treatment of painful vertebral bone metastases is now ongoing. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare these strategies. Methods and Materials: A Markov model, using a 1-month cycle over a lifetime horizon, was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of SBRT (16 or 18 Gy in 1 fraction) with that of 8 Gy in 1 fraction of EBRT. Transition probabilities, quality of life utilities, and costs associated with SBRT and EBRT were captured in the model. Costs were based on Medicare reimbursement in 2014. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), and effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To account for uncertainty, 1-way, 2-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Strategies were evaluated with a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results: Base case pain relief after the treatment was assumed as 20% higher in SBRT. Base case treatment costs for SBRT and EBRT were $9000 and $1087, respectively. In the base case analysis, SBRT resulted in an ICER of $124,552 per QALY gained. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation of the utility of unrelieved pain; the utility of relieved pain after initial treatment and median survival were also sensitive to variation. If median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT cost <$100,000 per QALY gained. Conclusion: SBRT for palliation of vertebral bone metastases is not cost-effective compared with EBRT at a $100,000 per QALY gained WTP threshold. However, if median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT costs ≤$100

  15. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark to the health-cost externalities of air pollution using the EVA model system – an integrated modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a newly developed tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution levels, taking into account the non-linear atmospheric chemistry. The main objective of this work is to identify the anthropogenic emission sources in Europe and Denmark that contribute the most to human health impacts using this tagging method. In this study, we applied the EVA system to Europe and Denmark, with a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions. The paper contains a thorough description of the EVA system, the main results from the assessment of the main contributors and a discussion of the most important atmospheric chemical reactions relevant for interpreting the results. The main conclusion from the analysis of the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark is that the major contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. We conclude that when regulating the emissions of ammonia from the agricultural sector, both the impacts on nature and on human health should be taken into account. This study confirms that air pollution constitutes a serious problem to human health and that the related external costs are considerable. The results in this work emphasize the importance of defining the right questions in the decision making process, since most of the atmospheric chemical compounds are linked via non-linear chemical reactions, which are important to

  16. Iceland’s External Affairs from 1550-1815: Danish societal and political cover concurrent with a highly costly economic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldur Þórhallsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that there is not necessarily a correlation between political, economic and societal shelter. Iceland received considerable societal and political shelter from Denmark in the period under study, but Denmark failed to provide its remote island with economic cover. Firstly, and most importantly, it provided substantial and highly valuable societal shelter. Copenhagen was the main channel by which new knowledge and technology could enter Iceland. The islanders benefited from educational, health-care and social policies of the crown and it played an invaluable role in preserving Iceland’s cultural heritage. Secondly, Denmark provided partial protection of Icelandic waters and land though Iceland’s peripheral position continued to be its main protection from outside attacks. However, at the end of our period, the Danish kingdom was in decline and unable to provide political cover. Nevertheless, increased centralization, initiated from Denmark, provided internal order and political stability and citizens became more equal before the law. Thirdly, Icelanders paid a heavy price for the Danish trade monopoly though Icelanders continued to receive partial economic and societal shelter from foreign merchants and fishermen. The crown’s policies towards Iceland can largely be explained by current ideological trends at any given time. By being in constant contact with the European continent through Denmark, Icelandic society was part of the societal, political and economic evolution in Europe and managed to avoid isolation despite its geographical remoteness.

  17. Bird Avoidance Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report on the bird avoidance model to predict bird strike hazards with low flying aircraft. Included is peak periods for different species of...

  18. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  19. Avoid Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Avoid Mosquito Bites Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... finding a travel medicine clinic near you. Prevent Mosquito Bites While Traveling Mosquito bites are bothersome enough, ...

  20. The external costs of electricity generation. A comparison of environmental damage of silicon photovoltaic electricity, produced with different electricity mixes, vs natural gas and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Veltkamp, A.C.; Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper the environmental damages of crystalline silicon photovoltaics are calculated, using the most recent photovoltaics data, and compared with those of the prevalent conventional energy technologies. A life cycle assessment of selected environmental impacts of 1kWh of electricity generated by various technologies was performed using Simapro software (version 7.2.4) in conjunction with the Ecoinvent database (version 2.2). The environmental impacts were assessed using the ReCiPe methodology. Because of the important role of coal and natural gas in the global electricity generation portfolio, special attention is given to the comparison of PV with those technologies. The environmental consequences of manufacturing PV modules with renewable, UCTE or 100% coal electricity mixes are explored. A brief update of the estimated monetarization of damages due to coal and climate change is included. A rough estimate of the true cost of coal and PV electricity is made in 2011.

  1. Color-avoiding percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2016-01-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in [Krause et. al., Phys. Rev. X 6 (2016) 041022]. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. We compare this approximation with a new, more exact theory and show that the new theory is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our new theory with differentiated node functions, as s...

  2. Identifying cost management strategies in dialysis clinics: sustainable savings with positive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Timothy D; Gupta, Mahendra; Balas, E Andrew; West, David A

    2002-05-01

    To examine whether cost management strategies are used in a revenue-constrained environment without compromising clinical effectiveness. Cross-sectional analysis of monthly cost and acuity-adjusted hospitalization data. This research included longitudinal regression analyses involving 10 years of data, 1990 through 1999, from each of 6 dialysis centers. Two sets of regression models were used: one set examined cost interactions and cost trends (P management strategies were examined: (1) selective reductions in targeted cost categories, (2) cost reductions through improved efficiencies, (3) cost avoidance by shifting responsibilities to external parties, and (4) uniform reductions across all cost categories. Managers appeared to have limited opportunity to selectively or uniformly reduce costs because of cost "stickiness" and minimal resource substitutability. Improvements in operational efficiencies and cost shifting to external parties occurred. Over time, however, realized efficiencies increased at a decreasing rate, whereas cost shifting actually declined. Contrary to prior hospital studies, these results indicate significant economies of scale. No statistical correlation was found to indicate that the physician/clinic management teams' use of cost reduction strategies affected acuity-adjusted hospitalizations of dialysis patients. Strategic models that include both financial and outcomes data can enable healthcare managers to predict both positive and negative results of cost management proposals. These models can help identify aspects of an organization's cost structure that affect sustainable cost savings: cost stickiness, cost substitutability, institutional experience, realized operational improvements, and economies of scale.

  3. Externalities and the Coase Theorem: A Diagrammatic Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halteman, James

    2005-01-01

    In intermediate microeconomic textbooks the reciprocal nature of externalities is presented using numerical examples of costs and benefits. This treatment of the Coase theorem obscures the fact that externality costs and benefits are best understood as being on a continuum where costs vary with the degree of intensity of the externality. When…

  4. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  5. Comparación de costes de tres tratamientos del cáncer de próstata localizado en España: prostatectomía radical, braquiterapia prostática y radioterapia conformacional externa 3D Cost comparison of three treatments for localized prostate cancer in Spain: radical prostatectomy, prostate brachytherapy and external 3D conformal radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Becerra Bachino

    2011-02-01

    statistically significant: medians were €3,229.10, €5,369.00 and €6,265.60, respectively, for the groups of patients treated with external 3D conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy and radical retropublic prostatectomy, (p<0.001. In the multivariate analysis (adjusted R²=0.8, the average costs of brachytherapy and external radiotherapy were significantly lower than that of prostatectomy (coefficient -0.212 and -0.729, respectively. Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy proved to be the most expensive treatment option. Overall, the estimated costs in our study were lower than those published elsewhere. Most of the costs were explained by the therapeutic option and neither comorbidity nor risk groups showed an effect on total costs independent of treatment.

  6. Asset liquidity, corporate investment, and endogenous financing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Hirth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We analyze how the liquidity of real and financial assets affects corporate investment. The trade-off between liquidation costs and underinvestment costs implies that low-liquidity firms exhibit negative investment sensitivities to liquid funds, whereas high-liquidity firms have positive sensitiv......We analyze how the liquidity of real and financial assets affects corporate investment. The trade-off between liquidation costs and underinvestment costs implies that low-liquidity firms exhibit negative investment sensitivities to liquid funds, whereas high-liquidity firms have positive...... sensitivities. If real assets are not divisible in liquidation, firms with high financial liquidity optimally avoid external financing and instead cut new investment. If real assets are divisible, firms use external financing, which implies a lower sensitivity. In addition, asset redeployability decreases...... the investment sensitivity. Our findings demonstrate that asset liquidity is an important determinant of corporate investment....

  7. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  8. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  9. Legionnaire's disease avoidance planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Clive

    2007-09-01

    Hospital-acquired infection is the cause of about 5,000 deaths a year in the UK. In New Zealand, there are more than three times as many such deaths as from the annual road toll. The costs in loss of income, in pain and suffering and in direct costs to hospitals are staggering.

  10. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication.

  11. On partitions avoiding right crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Sherry H F

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Chen et al. derived the generating function for partitions avoiding right nestings and posed the problem of finding the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings. In this paper, we derive the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings via an intermediate structure of partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossings and right nestings. We show that there is a bijection between partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossing and right nestings and partitions avoiding right crossings.

  12. Controlling Shareholder and Tax Avoidance: Family Ownership and Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masripah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the entrenchment effect of controlling shareholder on tax avoidance, as well as looking at the role of family ownership, commissioner effectiveness, audit committee effectiveness and external audit quality. This research is a quantitative research using fixed effects model. Sample of this research is 70 firms with an observation period of 2010 until 2013. This study finds that the entrenchment effect of controlling shareholder has negative effect on tax avoidance. Other test results show that when a family is the controlling shareholder, entrenchment effect of controlling shareholder do not affect on tax avoidance. Board of commissioner and committee effectiveness proved to weaken the relationship between entrenchment effect of controlling shareholder and tax avoidance. However, the role of external quality audit does not prove to weaken the relationship between the entrenchment effect of controlling shareholder and tax avoidance.

  13. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  14. 基于不安全性、健康影响和机动化交通外部成本的步行和自行车道网络的成本效益分析%Cost-benefit Analyses of Walking and Cycling Track Networks Taking into Account Insecurity,Health Effects and External Costs of Motorized Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卡加汤·赛伦斯敏德; 邹晖

    2012-01-01

    The study presents cost-benefit analyses of walking and cycling track networks in three Norwegian cities. The cost-benefit analyses take into account the benefit of reduced insecurity and the health benefits of the improved fitness the use of non-motorized transport provides. In addition to reductions in health costs, the analyses also take into account that a change from travel by car to cycling or walking means reduced external costs (e.g. air pollution and noise) from motorized traffic and reduced parking costs. The benefits of investments in cycle networks are estimated to be at least 4~5 times the costs. Such investments are thus more beneficial to society than other transport investments. The results of such complete cost-benefit analyses make it possible to calculate the benefits to society that are not realized because motorized traffic prevents people from bicycling or walking as much as they otherwise would prefer. These ' barrier costs' attributable to motorized traffic are estimated to be of at least the same magnitude as air pollution costs and more than double the noise costs. Barrier costs should therefore be taken into account in the same way as other external costs, when the issue is to determine the proper level of car taxes or to evaluate different kinds of restrictions on car use.%本文介绍了对三个挪威城市中步行和自行车道网络进行的成本效益分析.这项成本效益分析考虑了由采用非机动化交通方式带来的不安全性的减少和健康收益.除了健康成本的降低之外,分析还考虑了从开车出行转变为骑自行车出行或步行带来的机动化交通外部成本的减少(如空气污染和噪音)以及停车成本的降低.投资自行车道网络带来的收益估计至少是其成本的4~5倍.因此这种投资比其他交通投资对社会更有益.此项完整的成本效益分析的结果使人们有可能计算原来没有被意识到的社会效益——因为机动化交通阻

  15. Predicting attention and avoidance: when do avoiders attend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rupert; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2009-09-01

    Three avoidance measures, the Miller Behavioural Style Scale (MBSS), Index of Self-Regulation of Emotion (ISE) and Mainz Coping Inventory (MCI), were compared in their ability to predict attention and avoidance of threats in the emotional Stroop task. It was also examined if the avoidance mechanism of individuals who would normally avoid threat-indicating words becomes disrupted under conditions of dopamine reduction. Results show that only the ISE predicted attention/avoidance of threat-indicating words. In addition, the avoidance mechanism, as measured by the ISE and MCI, was not activated when regular smokers abstained from smoking.

  16. Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Case, Trevor I; Oaten, Megan J

    2011-12-12

    Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another--the focus of this theme issue--has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick--stigmatization--and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process--moralization--can be co-opted to promote human health.

  17. Avoidance Strategies in Intimate Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belk, Sharyn S.; And Others

    Avoidance strategies involve the tactics and techniques people use when they don't wish to be influenced by others. To investigate the types of avoidance strategies men and women use to deal with an unwelcome persuasion attempt from an intimate partner, undergraduates wrote essays describing how they avoided such attempts. A 24-strategy coding…

  18. A psychological perspective on tax avoidance: Deferential avoidance vs. defiant avoidance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minjo Kang

    2016-01-01

      Is a taxpayer's act of tax avoidance deemed compliant or non-compliant? Academic researchers, investigating tax compliance behaviour, address the term tax avoidance differently for a variety of purposes...

  19. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    Energy produced by wind power and biogas is today more expensive than energy produced by fossil fuels. However, by including external costs related to the technologies, the renewable technologies are expected to result in social benefits compared to the conventional power technologies. The paper...... will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health...

  20. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  1. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  2. Implications Of Using External Consultants In Diagnosing And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of diagnosing need for the change, the problems/issues to be ... Some practical examples of the diagnosis by external consultants are also presented. ... Gaining co-operation from the client organization and the avoidance of ...

  3. Controlling Shareholder and Tax Avoidance: Family Ownership and Corporate Governance (P. 167-180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masripah Masripah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the entrenchment effect of controlling shareholder on tax avoidance, as well as looking at the role of family ownership, commissioner effectiveness, audit committee effectiveness and external audit quality. This research is a quantitative research using fixed effects model. Sample of this research is 70 firms with an observation period of 2010 until 2013. This study finds that the entrenchment effect of controlling shareholder has negative effect on tax avoidance. Other test results show that when a family is the controlling shareholder, entrenchment effect of controlling shareholder do not affect on tax avoidance. Board of commissioner and committee effectiveness proved to weaken the relationship between entrenchment effect of controlling shareholder and tax avoidance. However, the role of external quality audit does not prove to weaken the relationship between the entrenchment effect of controlling shareholder and tax avoidance. Keywords: controlling shareholder;commissioner; audit committee; external audit; tax avoidance

  4. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results; Externaliteter - en analys utifraan EU:s ExternE-resultat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case.

  5. Airborne Collision Avoidance System X

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    avoidance system on behalf of the Federal Aviation Adminis- tration (FAA). The current Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II...transformations to the National Airspace System are being imple- mented through the FAA’s Next-Genera- tion Air Transportation System (NextGen). With the goal...weighted states to provide a single, optimal action. If a collision avoidance This work is sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration under Air

  6. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  7. 社会成本及外部性问题的“前提”反省%The Premise Reflection of Social Cost Theory and Internalization of Externalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学荣

    2014-01-01

    科斯在《社会成本问题》中谈到“糖果制造商的机器引起的噪声和震动干扰了某医生的工作的事例”以及“河流污染问题”,徳姆塞茨在《关于产权的理论》中谈到随便排烟造成的环境污染,其实这些都不是简单的经济问题,因此不能够简单地用经济学的办法来解决,更不能简单地以“费用高低”的标准来加以衡量。倘若某厂商的生产活动对人的健康造成了损害,抑或对环境造成了污染(而这种污染又在环境的自我净化、自我修复范围之外),那么此时无论该厂商是否获利或者获利多少,都应该通过改进技术将这种负面影响内部化,否则,将与“以人为本”、“可持续发展”等理念背道而驰。基于人权与环境的优先性,我们有必要对科斯社会成本问题及徳姆塞茨外部性内部化问题进行重新思考。%Kos talks about"the noise and vibration of candy maker's machine disturb a doctor working"and"river pollution"in The Problem of Social Cost,and Demsetz talks about the environ-mental pollution caused by casually discharging smoke in A Theory of the Property Rights.Actually, these are not simple economic issues,therefore they cannot be simply solved by economic measures, also they cannot be simply measured by the"expense standard".If a firm's productive activity causes damage on the health of human,or is harmful to the environment (and this kind of pollution is beyond the range of environmental self-purification and self-repair),it should be internalized through im-proved technology no matter whether the manufacturers profit or how much they profit.Otherwise,it will draw further apart with the concept of"people-oriented"and"sustainable development".Based on the priority of human rights and the environment,it is necessary for us to rethink Kos'Social Cost Theory and Demsetz'Internalization of Externalities.

  8. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  9. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  10. An Inferential Study of Environmental Costs and of Water Treatment Stations in Laundry of Polo Clothes of Agreste Pernambucano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavoisiene Rodrigues de Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article checks for impact on operating costs by implementing sustainable measures such as installing a water treatment plant in the textile laundries Polo Clothes do Agreste Pernambucano. Sample consisted of 45 (forty five textile laundries jeans. The hypotheses are to assess no influence of internal or external environmental costs on the operational management of the company; and the second premise was to determine whether the water treatment plant influence on the investigated laundries costs. So after using SPSS software version 20 , can be seen through the Fischer method which is accepted in part both assumptions for the variables of internal and external environmental costs demonstrated significance with the independent variables , so it can be concluded that sustainability can I came to cut costs and avoid penalties in addition to benefit the whole society.

  11. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  12. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  13. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    collision risk using the uncorrelated encounter model (UEM) developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory. We evaluate the proposed approach using Monte Carlo simulations and compare the performance with linearly extrapolated collision detection logic. For the path planning and collision avoidance part, we present multiple reactive path planning algorithms. We first propose a collision avoidance algorithm based on a simulated chain that responds to a virtual force field produced by encountering intruders. The key feature of the proposed approach is to model the future motion of both the intruder and the ownship using a chain of waypoints that are equally spaced in time. This timing information is used to continuously re-plan paths that minimize the probability of collision. Second, we present an innovative collision avoidance logic using an ownship centered coordinate system. The technique builds a graph in the local-level frame and uses the Dijkstra's algorithm to find the least cost path. An advantage of this approach is that collision avoidance is inherently a local phenomenon and can be more naturally represented in the local coordinates than the global coordinates. Finally, we propose a two step path planner for ground-based SAA systems. In the first step, an initial suboptimal path is generated using A* search. In the second step, using the A* solution as an initial condition, a chain of unit masses connected by springs and dampers evolves in a simulated force field. The chain is described by a set of ordinary differential equations that is driven by virtual forces to find the steady-state equilibrium. The simulation results show that the proposed approach produces collision-free plans while minimizing the path length. To move towards a deployable system, we apply collision detection and avoidance techniques to a variety of simulation and sensor modalities including camera, radar and ADS-B along with suitable tracking schemes. Keywords: unmanned aircraft system, small UAS

  14. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  15. Ground Collision Avoidance System (Igcas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A (Inventor); Prosser, Kevin (Inventor); Hook, Loyd (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for aircraft ground collision avoidance (iGCAS) comprising a modular array of software, including a sense own state module configured to gather data to compute trajectory, a sense terrain module including a digital terrain map (DTM) and map manger routine to store and retrieve terrain elevations, a predict collision threat module configured to generate an elevation profile corresponding to the terrain under the trajectory computed by said sense own state module, a predict avoidance trajectory module configured to simulate avoidance maneuvers ahead of the aircraft, a determine need to avoid module configured to determine which avoidance maneuver should be used, when it should be initiated, and when it should be terminated, a notify Module configured to display each maneuver's viability to the pilot by a colored GUI, a pilot controls module configured to turn the system on and off, and an avoid module configured to define how an aircraft will perform avoidance maneuvers through 3-dimensional space.

  16. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  17. Equilibrium research of Chengdu-Yangshan port area container collection and distribution system under external cost%外部成本下成都—洋山港区集装箱集疏运体系的均衡研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董岗

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize optimization of collection and distribution system based on the existing infrastructure reserve of railway, highway, the Yangtze River waterway and inland waterway, etc, a Logit game model is constructed between sea-railway multimodal transport, road transport and water-water transfer combining with the container transport situation of Chengdu-Yangshan port area collection and distribution system. Nash equilibrium results are obtained through the analysis of parameter values. When external costs are not considered, the equilibrium transport charges, container amounts and proportions are close to the actual operational data of collection and distribution mode. When the external costs of traffic accident, noise and harmful gas emission are considered, the equilibrium transport charges all in-creas with the increase of the external costs, and the container amounts and proportions all change with the increase of the external costs, especially the container amounts and proportions of sea-railway multi-modal transport increase rapidly. Therefore, the external costs should be reasonablely internalized to ad-just the mode and optimize the system through market mechanism.%为在现有铁路、高速公路、长江水道及内河航道等基础设施存量的基础上实现集疏运体系的优化,针对成都—洋山港区的集装箱运输现状,构建集疏运体系内铁海联运、公路运输和水水中转的Logit博弈模型,通过对相应参数值进行纳什均衡分析后得出:不考虑外部成本时,各种集疏运方式的均衡运输费用、集装箱箱量及所占比率与实际运营数据基本吻合;而在依次考虑交通事故、噪声污染、有害气体排放等外部成本时,均衡运输费用皆随之增加,而集装箱箱量和比率则随之变化,其中铁海联运的箱量和比率迅速增加.因此,外部成本应合理内部化,以通过市场机制实现集疏运的方式调整和体系优化.

  18. Pattern Avoidance in Ternary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Gabriel, Nathan; Pudwell, Lara; Tay, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the enumeration of ternary trees (i.e. rooted ordered trees in which each vertex has 0 or 3 children) avoiding a contiguous ternary tree pattern. We begin by finding recurrence relations for several simple tree patterns; then, for more complex trees, we compute generating functions by extending a known algorithm for pattern-avoiding binary trees. Next, we present an alternate one-dimensional notation for trees which we use to find bijections that explain why certain pairs of tree patterns yield the same avoidance generating function. Finally, we compare our bijections to known "replacement rules" for binary trees and generalize these bijections to a larger class of trees.

  19. Avoiding Quantum Chaos in Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, G P; Izrailev, F M; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2001-01-01

    We study a one-dimensional chain of nuclear $1/2-$spins in an external time-dependent magnetic field. This model is considered as a possible candidate for experimental realization of quantum computation. According to the general theory of interacting particles, one of the most dangerous effects is quantum chaos which can destroy the stability of quantum operations. According to the standard viewpoint, the threshold for the onset of quantum chaos due to an interaction between spins (qubits) strongly decreases with an increase of the number of qubits. Contrary to this opinion, we show that the presence of a magnetic field gradient helps to avoid quantum chaos which turns out to disappear with an increase of the number of qubits. We give analytical estimates which explain this effect, together with numerical data supporting

  20. Things to Avoid When Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to avoid fish that are high in mercury, namely, shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish. When you do eat fish, it’s important to eat varieties that contain less mercury, such as canned light tuna, shrimp, salmon, pollock, ...

  1. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using biologically-inspired neuromorphic optic flow algorithms is a novel approach in collision avoidance for UAS. Traditional computer vision algorithms rely on...

  2. Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toddler For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination Reviewed by Sharon Denny, MS, RDN ... can be a virtual mine field. That's because gluten (a protein in grains such as wheat, rye ...

  3. Robot Avoids Collisions With Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edward; Rosinski, Doug; Wegerif, Dan

    1993-01-01

    Developmental robot equipped with infrared sensors and control system acting in concert to enable manipulator arm to move around obstacles. Robot avoids collisions with other objects, even when moving in unpredictable ways. Control system requires no prior knowledge of environment.

  4. How to avoid exercise injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000859.htm How to avoid exercise injuries To use the sharing features on this ... injury and stay safe during exercise. What Causes Exercise Injuries? Some of the most common causes of ...

  5. Postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in guppies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzpatrick, J. L; Evans, J. P

    2014-01-01

    .... Here, we examine the potential for paternity biases to favour unrelated males when their sperm compete for fertilizations though postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the guppy, P oecilia reticulata...

  6. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western Europ...... show that estimated damages due to the greenhouse effect are predominant, however, the uncertainty is high. The predominant damage at the local and regional level is related to emission of NOx, which results in effects on public health....... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...... the use of a software package, EcoSence, having an environmental database at both a local and regional level including population, crops, building materials and forest. The system also incorporates two air transport models, allowing local and regional scale modelling. The results of the Danish case study...

  7. The impact of external donor support through the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief on the cost of red cell concentrate in Namibia, 2004-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, John P.; Bocking, Adele; Wilkinson, Robert; Postma, Maarten J.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Mataranyika, Mary; Marfin, Anthony A.; Lowrance, David W.; Smit Sibinga, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: External assistance can rapidly strengthen health programmes in developing countries, but such funding can also create sustainability challenges. From 2004-2011, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) provided more than $8 million to the Blood Transfusion Service of

  8. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  9. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  10. EXTERNAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY VERSUS ENDOSCOPIC ENDONASAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Chronic dacryocystitis is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue & always dictates surgery for correction of symptomatology. The gold standard procedure of choice for the treatment of epiphora is Dacryocystorhinostomy. This study proposes to evaluate and compare the surgical outcome of external DCR and endoscopic endonasal DCR. METHODS: A Retrospective, comparative, randomized interventional study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2013. 40 diagnosed cases of chronic dacryocystitis were randomized into two groups. Group A included 20 patients who underwent external Dacryocystorhinostomy and group B included the rest of the 20 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy. RESULTS: In group A patients, 9 cases had bleeding during surgery, tearing of the anterior nasal flap was seen in 5 cases and punctal laceration in 4 cases. In group B patients 3 cases had bleeding, 5 cases had Trauma to the middle turbinate while accidental entry into anterior ethmoidal cells was in 4 cases. In 8 cases there was difficulty in making a bone window. In group A patients, duration of surgery is comparatively more than in group B. In post-operative period group A patients, had epistaxis, rhinostomy site closure, hypertrophied external scar and medial canthi damage as its complication while group B epistaxis, nasal Synechea, intra nasal granulation at the ostium are major complication. After a period of 3months by syringing the lacrimal sac of the patients in group A patients, 18 patients had a patent sac (success rate is 90%. In group B patients, 16 patients had a patent sac (success rate being 80%. CONCLUSION: DCR either by external or endonasal route can be considered for treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The external route has an easy and short learning curve with reduced cost of equipment. Whereas

  11. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each...

  12. PC/GIS-based tools for corrosion cost, state analysis and maintenance plan for external buildings; PC/GIS-basert verktoey for korrosjonskostnader, tilstandsanalyse og vedlikeholdsplan for utvendige bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, Vidar; Elvedal, Unni; Henriksen, Jan F.; Haagenrud, Svein E.; Jenssen, Kolbjoern Mohn; Krigsvoll, Guri; Nilsen, Geir Bakke

    1998-03-01

    Deterioration of buildings due to environmental conditions is a major economic and environmental problem in all industrialized countries. Environmental authorities, public and private owners of buildings need to know the extent and costs of the damage as well as possible measures and maintenance costs. The project described in this report continues previous projects to include the Norwegian municipalities of Oslo, Lillehammer and Voss. Internationally, many analyses have been carried out to investigate the impact of the environment on the useful life of materials and the corresponding costs. The AirQUIS CorrCost model was the first model to integrate all the necessary parameters into a modeling tool. By distributing buildings, material quantities and pollutions in a GIS (Geographical Information system)-based grid one may use AirQUIS CorrCost to calculate the average maintenance cost for the buildings in various parts of a city. This gives the environment authorities a tool for calculating the effect of new environmental measures on materials. AirQUIS CorrCost was used in the present investigation.

  13. A Hands-Free Obstacle Detection and Avoidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul-Niby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a low cost hands-free detection and avoidance system designed to provide mobility assistance for visually impaired people. An ultrasonic sensor is attached to the jacket of the user and detects the obstacles in front. The information obtained is transferred to the user through audio messages and also by a vibration. The range of the detection is user-defined. A text-to-speech module is employed for the voice signal. The proposed obstacle avoidance device is cost effective, easy to use and easily upgraded.

  14. Research on Relationship of Corporate External Governance and Technical Innovation Based on Transaction Cost Economics%基于交易成本经济学的外部治理与企业技术创新关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史耀波; 邓朝晖; 杨水利

    2012-01-01

    外部治理机制缺失已成为我国公司治理机制构建中的瓶颈.以交易成本经济学为视角,从技术创新的资产专用性出发,探讨技术创新与公司外部治理的匹配问题,研究外部治理与企业技术创新的关系,对如何使技术创新与公司外部治理机制更好地匹配提出一些政策和建议,具有一定的借鉴意义.%The lack of external governance has become the bottleneck in the building of corporate governance mechanisms in domestic enterprise. The paper analysis the matching of technological innovation and external corporate governance from perspective of asset specificity based on transaction cost economics , thus investigate the relationship between external governance and technological innovation. Finally, some policy recommendations are put forward on how to make technological innovation and external governance mechanisms match better.

  15. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  16. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams.

  17. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  18. An intelligent guidance and control system for ship obstacle avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, C J; Hong, X.; Wilson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    An intelligent guidance and control system using a neurofuzzy network multistep ahead predictor model is introduced and applied to ship obstacle avoidance, which uses only observed input/output data generated by on board and external sensors, and a data fusion algorithm to generate the desired waypoints. A simple and effective waypoint guidance scheme based on line-of-sight is derived for a data based ship model. A neurofuzzy network predictor, based on using rudder deflection angle for the c...

  19. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev......We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii......) The relevance and efficiency of different instruments for internalisation and compensation; and iii) Implementing internalisation over large geographical and temporal distances. We find taxation to be a more relevant and efficient tool for internalisation than insurance and litigation. With increasing...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  20. ITI-signals and prelimbic cortex facilitate avoidance acquisition and reduce avoidance latencies, respectively, in male WKY rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Beck

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a model of anxiety disorder vulnerability, male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats acquire lever-press avoidance behavior more readily than outbred Sprague Dawley rats, and their acquisition is enhanced by the presence of a discrete signal presented during the inter-trial intervals (ITIs, suggesting it is perceived as a safety signal. A series of experiments were conducted to determine if this is the case. Additional experiments investigated if the avoidance facilitation relies upon processing through medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. The results suggest that the ITI-signal facilitates acquisition during the early stages of the avoidance acquisition process, when the rats are initially acquiring escape behavior and then transitioning to avoidance behavior. Post-avoidance introduction of the visual ITI-signal into other associative learning tasks failed to confirm that the visual stimulus had acquired the properties of a conditioned inhibitor. Shortening the signal from the entirety of the 3 min ITI to only the first 5 s of the 3 min ITI slowed acquisition during the first 4 sessions, suggesting the flashing light is not functioning as a feedback signal. The prelimbic (PL cortex showed greater activation during the period of training when the transition from escape responding to avoidance responding occurs. Only combined PL+infralimbic cortex lesions modestly slowed avoidance acquisition, but PL cortex lesions slowed avoidance response latencies. Thus, the flashing light ITI-signal is not likely perceived as a safety signal nor is it serving as a feedback signal. The functional role of the PL cortex appears to be to increase the drive towards responding to the threat of the warning signal. Hence, avoidance susceptibility displayed by male WKY rats may be driven, in part, both by external stimuli (ITI signal as well as by enhanced threat recognition to the warning signal via the PL cortex.

  1. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Atul; Filobbos, George

    2013-05-01

    The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960's when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL) is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL) and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author's experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.

  2. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author′s experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.

  3. Avoidance: grammatical or semantic causes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Marchena, E.

    1989-01-01

    This article follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs, such as ‘let down’, while preferring one-word verbs, such as ‘;disappoint’, since phrasal verbs do not exist in Hebrew. A corollary derived from Dagut and Laufer's study is t

  4. Avoidance: grammatical or semantic causes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Marchena, E.

    1989-01-01

    This article follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs, such as ‘let down’, while preferring one-word verbs, such as ‘;disappoint’, since phrasal verbs do not exist in Hebrew. A corollary derived from Dagut and Laufer's study is t

  5. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  6. An Insight Into the Two Costing Technique: Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper will investigate the controversy that is innate between the two costing techniques; Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing and would throw light on which costing technique better serves its purpose in helping management for decision making process and if Marginal Costing technique is concluded as better technique then why it should not be used for external reporting purpose. This paper will only crystallize and highlight the issues descriptively and will not resolve the issues tha...

  7. Wind power costs in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleiro, C. [Univ. of Minho, Dept. of Biological Engineering (Portugal); Araujo, M.; Ferreira, P. [Univ. of Minho, Dept. of Production and Systems (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    In a way to reduce the external energy dependence, increasing also the investments in renewable energy sources and aiming for the concretization of the European renewable objectives, the Portuguese government defined a goal of 5100 MW of installed wind power, up to 2012. If the drawn objectives are accomplished, by 2010 the wind power share may reach values comparable to leading countries like Denmark, Germany or Spain. The Portuguese forecasts also indicate a reinforcement of the natural gas fired generation in particular through the use of the combined cycle technology, following the European tendency. This analysis sets out to evaluate the total generating cost of wind power and CCGT in Portugal. A life cycle cost analysis was conducted, including investment costs, O and M costs, fuel costs and external costs of emissions, for each type of technology. For the evaluation of the externalities ExternE values were used. The results show that presently the wind power production cost is higher than the CCGT one, at least from the strictly financial point of view. CCGT costs increase significantly when charges for externalities are included. However, they only reach levels higher than the equivalents for wind power for high externality costs estimations. This partially results from the low load factor of the wind farms in Portugal and also from the low emission levels of the gas fired technology used in the comparison. A sensitive analysis of the technical and economical parameters was also conducted. Particular attention was given to the natural gas prices due to the possible increase over time. The fuel escalation rate is the parameter that has larger effects on the final costs. It was verified that the total cost of wind plant is more influenced by the load factor than the total cost of CCGT. (au)

  8. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-02-06

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation.

  9. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...... the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those...... problems, in particular those related to accounting for the internal performance (that are going to be compared with the external target), calculating the ‘inside’ costs and defining controllability, contributes to the management accounting as well as the piece-rate literature....

  10. Obstacle Avoidance Based-Visual Navigation for Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbert G. Aguilar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an obstacle avoidance system for low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs using vision as the principal source of information through the monocular onboard camera. For detecting obstacles, the proposed system compares the image obtained in real time from the UAV with a database of obstacles that must be avoided. In our proposal, we include the feature point detector Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF for fast obstacle detection and a control law to avoid them. Furthermore, our research includes a path recovery algorithm. Our method is attractive for compact MAVs in which other sensors will not be implemented. The system was tested in real time on a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV, to detect and avoid obstacles in an unknown controlled environment; we compared our approach with related works.

  11. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  12. The environmental sustainability. The physical cost of replacement of mineral reserves; La sostenibilidad ambiental a escala planetaria. El coste fisico de reposicion del Capital Mineral de la Tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, A.; Martinez, A.; Botero, E.

    2003-07-01

    In order to evaluate the physical value of mineral and water reserves, the concept of Exergy Replacement Cost has been defined as the energy required by the best available technologies to return a resource to the same conditions as it was delivered by the ecosystem. In the case of fossil fuel reserves, a new concept called exergy abatement cost has been proposed as a physical way of measuring the exergy cost of the best available technology for avoiding the environmental externalities associated with the use of fossil fuels. According to the results obtained, the physical value of mineral reserves is 15.4% of oil reserves. In the case of water reserves, 0,4 to 6,4 times the fossil energy consumed would be needed each year to supply only a part of the functions of the hydrological cycle. The global exegetic abatement costs would be 11,3% of the proven world exegetic reserves in fossil fuels. (Author)

  13. Air pollution, avoidance behaviour and children's respiratory health: evidence from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Despite progress in air pollution control, concerns remain over the health impact of poor air quality. Governments increasingly issue air quality information to enable vulnerable groups to avoid exposure. Avoidance behaviour potentially biases estimates of the health effects of air pollutants. But avoidance behaviour imposes a cost on individuals and therefore may not be taken in all circumstances. This paper exploits panel data at the English local authority level to estimate the relationship between children's daily hospital emergency admissions for respiratory diseases and common air pollutants, while allowing for avoidance behaviour in response to air pollution warnings. A 1% increase in nitrogen dioxide or ozone concentrations increases hospital admissions by 0.1%. For the subset of asthma admissions - where avoidance is less costly - there is evidence of avoidance behaviour. Ignoring avoidance behaviour, however, does not result in statistically significant underestimation of the health effect of air pollution.

  14. Obstacle Avoidance Through Visual Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Keerio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel controlling approach forHumanoid Robot to work safely in critical situations like badlight environment using Visual Teleoperation. In this regardmodeling environments for Humanoid Teleoperation Systemis developed. Here virtual reality modeling environmentincludes development of virtual Humanoid BHR-2, andvirtual objects like table etc. The main goal of this work is toenhance our visual teleoperation system for BHR-2 in orderto avoid any collision during real time operation. SoftwareMaya is used for modeling and simulations. Maya plug-insin VC++ provides efficient modeling rule, real timeinteraction, and time saving rendering approach in a virtualenvironment. In this paper the validity of proposed scheme isshown by conducting experiments using offline step overtrajectory to avoid obstacle in bad light environment.

  15. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  16. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  17. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  18. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  19. 农民工职业健康困境的经济学分析:外部成本、信息不对称和供求关系%Economic Analysis of the Plight of Migrant Workers' Occupational Health:External Cost.Information Asymmetry and Supply-demand Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢鸣鸾; 周旭东

    2011-01-01

    Migrant workers in China had contributed greatly to the urban and rural economic boom, while their occupational health had been seriously undermined.We analyzed the plight of migrant workers' poor occupational health from external cost, information asymmetry and supply-demand relationship.We also pro posed to improve migrant workers' occupational health by internalizing external cost and removing information asymmetry between migrant workers and their employers.%农民工已成为我国城市和农村经济发展的主要力量,但他们的职业健康却面临着严重的威胁.文章从外部成本、信息不对称和供求关系分析农民工职业健康困境的原因,通过外部成本内部化,消除农民工和企业之间的职业危害信息不对称,改善农民工的职业健康.

  20. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  1. Implications of environmental externalities assessments for solar thermal powerplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, M. C.

    1991-03-01

    Externalities are those impacts of one activity on other activities that are not priced in the marketplace. An externality is said to exist when two conditions hold: (1) the utility or operations of one economic agent, A, include nonmonetary variables whose values are chosen by another economic agent, B, without regard to the effects on A, and (2) B does not pay A compensation equal to the incremental costs inflicted on A. Electricity generation involves a wide range of potential and actual environmental impacts. Legislative, permitting, and regulatory requirements directly or indirectly control certain environmental impacts, implicitly causing them to become internalized in the cost of electricity generation. Electricity generation, however, often produces residual environmental impacts that meet the definition of an externality. Mechanisms have been developed by several states to include the costs associated with externalities in the cost-effectiveness analyses of new powerplants. This paper examines these costs for solar thermal plants and applies two states' scoring methodologies to estimate how including externalities would affect the levelized costs of power from a solar plant in the Pacific Northwest. It concludes that including externalities in the economics can reduce the difference between the levelized cost of a coal and solar plant by between 0.74 and 2.42 cents/kWh.

  2. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  3. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  4. Social Cost of Biomass Energy from Switchgrass in Western Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Timmons, David

    2013-01-01

    Producing biomass energy requires much land, and effects of biomass production on ecosystem services could greatly affect total biomass energy cost. This study estimates switchgrass production cost in western Massachusetts at three levels: private production cost, private cost plus social cost of nitrogen fertilizer externalities, and those costs plus the social opportunity cost of foregone forest ecosystem services. Values for nitrogen externalities and forest ecosystem services estimated wi...

  5. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  6. Learning to Avoid Risky Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Malfaz, María; Miguel A. Salichs

    2011-01-01

    When a reinforcement learning agent executes actions that can cause frequent damage to itself, it can learn, by using Q-learning, that these actions must not be executed again. However, there are other actions that do not cause damage frequently but only once in a while, for example, risky actions such as parachuting. These actions may imply punishment to the agent and, depending on its personality, it would be better to avoid them. Nevertheless, using the standard Q-learning algorithm, the a...

  7. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  8. Health insurance and the obesity externality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    If rational individuals pay the full costs of their decisions about food intake and exercise, economists, policy makers, and public health officials should treat the obesity epidemic as a matter of indifference. In this paper, we show that, as long as insurance premiums are not risk rated for obesity, health insurance coverage systematically shields those covered from the full costs of physical inactivity and overeating. Since the obese consume significantly more medical resources than the non-obese, but pay the same health insurance premiums, they impose a negative externality on normal weight individuals in their insurance pool. To estimate the size of this externality, we develop a model of weight loss and health insurance under two regimes--(1) underwriting on weight is allowed and (2) underwriting on weight is not allowed. We show that under regime (1), there is no obesity externality. Under regime (2), where there is an obesity externality, all plan participants face inefficient incentives to undertake unpleasant dieting and exercise. These reduced incentives lead to inefficient increases in bodyweight, and reduced social welfare. Using data on medical expenditures and bodyweight from the National Health and Interview Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimate that, in a health plan with a coinsurance rate of 17.5%, the obesity externality imposes a welfare cost of about $150 per capita. Our results also indicate that the welfare loss can be reduced by technological change that lowers the pecuniary and non-pecuniary costs of losing weight, and also by increasing the coinsurance rate.

  9. Formation and obstacle avoidance control for multiagent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problems of formation and obstacle avoidance for multiagent systems.The objective is to design a term of agents that can reach a desired formation while avoiding collision with obstacles.To reduce the amount of information interaction between agents and target,we adopt the leader-follower formation strategy.By using the receding horizon control (RHC),an optimal problem is formulated in terms of cost minimization under constraints.Information on obstacles is incorporated online as se...

  10. OBSTACLE-AVOIDANCE NAVIGATION OF MULTIPLE MOBILE ROBOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗青; 李智军; 吕恬生

    2002-01-01

    In the context of robot soccer, the robots have to select actions to achieve individual and team goals in the dynamic environment. It is important for a robot to acquire navigation behaviors for avoiding other robots and obstacles in the real-time environment. This paper suggested an efficient approach to collision-avoidance in multirobot system. This approach is based on velocity information of moving objects and the distance between robot and obstacle in three specified directions. The main contribution of this paper is that it provides a method for robots with decreased-computational cost and makes the robot navigate without collision with each other in a complicated environment.

  11. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  12. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  13. Determinants and Effects of Logistics Costs in Container Ports: The Transaction Cost Economics Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyuk-soo Cho

    2014-01-01

    .... Based on country-level analysis, this study is designed to investigate empirically internal capabilities and external environments of logistics costs and traffic volumes in individual container ports...

  14. Using Reframing in the External Communication Process of the Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Marian Iosif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Any organization, in order to avoid an information attack from the external environment, creates connections with key persons: leaders of opinion, administrators of rival companies, local officials. There are three types of external communication: operational, strategic and promotional. In the communication process there are at least three categories of barriers: language barriers, perception and environment barriers. Using reframing in the external communication allows its adjustment and optimization in order to send a certain message as correctly as possible. Using reframing allows for a certain situation to be approaches from different angles, it allows a better adaptation of the employees‘ behaviours to the environment, of the organization or customers‘ needs.

  15. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  16. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  17. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  18. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  19. Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C System for Smart Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop and demonstrate a low cost, lightweight, miniaturized Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C...

  20. Learning from external environments using Soar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Soar, like the previous PRODIGY and Theo, is a problem-solving architecture that attempts to learn from experience; unlike them, it takes a more uniform approach, using a single forward-chaining architecture for planning and execution. Its single learning mechanism, designated 'chunking', is domain-independent. Two developmental approaches have been employed with Soar: the first of these allows the architecture to attempt a problem on its own, while the second involves a degree of external guidance. This learning through guidance is integrated with general problem-solving and autonomous learning, leading to an avoidance of human interaction for simple problems that Soar can solve on its own.

  1. Externalizing behaviors of Ukrainian children: The role of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of positive and negative parenting with child externalizing problems. Quantitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with 320 parents of children 9-16 years of age (50% males) in 11 communities in Eastern, Southern, and Central Ukraine. The study estimated the relationship between parenting practices and child externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency, and attention problems. Results revealed that positive parenting, child monitoring, and avoidance of corporal punishment were associated with fewer child externalizing symptoms. Results also indicated that child male gender and single parenting had significant and positive association with child externalizing behaviors. This study extends international psychosocial knowledge on children and families. These findings can be used to design programs and foster dialogs about the role of family and social environments in the development of externalizing disorder among researchers, representatives of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and mass media that work with child abuse prevention in Ukraine.

  2. Expert opinion: Comparative analysis of the social costs of electricity generation in the context of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG); Gutachten: Vergleich externer Kosten der Stromerzeugung in Bezug auf das Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmeyer, O.

    2002-03-01

    The expert opinion for the German Federal Environmental Agency explains and discusses the results of six scenarios describing the outcome of substitution of conventional electricity generation technologies relying exclusively on fossil fuels, using as a reference case the generation of middle load power in Germany in 1998 with the then operating German power plants, as well as projections for the year 2001. One major objective of the expert opinion is to evaluate results in terms of social and other relevant costs, achieved through the use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation since effectiveness of the German EEG, (act promoting power generation from renewable energy sources). The comparative evaluation distinctly refers to conventional and renewable generation technologies in assessing their economic and environmental impacts. The second aspect analysed is the support (and its efficiency) offered so far by the existing national policies and laws, as well as the European Directives and guidelines on promotion of renewable energy technologies. Proposals for improvement are presented. (orig./CB) [German] Im Gutachten werden sechs Szenarien fuer die substituierte konventionelle Stromerzeugung entwickelt, die als Basis sowohl die durchschnittliche Stromerzeugung unter Verwendung fossiler Brennstoffe als auch die Erzeugung von Mittellaststrom fuer die Jahre 1998 und 2010 betrachten und anhand entsprechender Referenzsysteme und Berechnungen die Ergebnisse liefern, die die Frage nach allen relevanten, seit Einfuehrung des EEG bis heute, durch den Einsatz erneuerbarer Energietraeger substituierten Kosten und umweltrelevanten Verbesserungen beantworten und detailliert schildern. In der Zusammenfassung werden vor allem die Ergebnisse von Vergleichen bezogen auf verschiedene erneuerbare und konventioneller Energietraeger fuer das Mittellastszenario auf der Basis des fuer 1998 dokumentierten deutschen Kraftwerksparks vorgestellt. Ferner werden die

  3. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  4. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  5. Dynamic External Hashing: The Limit of Buffering

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zhewei; Zhang, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Hash tables are one of the most fundamental data structures in computer science, in both theory and practice. They are especially useful in external memory, where their query performance approaches the ideal cost of just one disk access. Knuth gave an elegant analysis showing that with some simple collision resolution strategies such as linear probing or chaining, the expected average number of disk I/Os of a lookup is merely $1+1/2^{\\Omega(b)}$, where each I/O can read a disk block containing $b$ items. Inserting a new item into the hash table also costs $1+1/2^{\\Omega(b)}$ I/Os, which is again almost the best one can do if the hash table is entirely stored on disk. However, this assumption is unrealistic since any algorithm operating on an external hash table must have some internal memory (at least $\\Omega(1)$ blocks) to work with. The availability of a small internal memory buffer can dramatically reduce the amortized insertion cost to $o(1)$ I/Os for many external memory data structures. In this paper we...

  6. The Role of Advocacy Organizations in Reducing Negative Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An externality is a cost that a corporation's actions impose on society. For example, a power plant may emit mercury but might not pay for the cost of that pollution to the people living near the plant. It is possible to analyze a diverse range of problems of society in these terms, including the health effects of corporate practices, the…

  7. Potential Cost Savings and Cost Avoidances Associated With Security Cooperation Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Joint Combined Exchange Trainings MBA Masters of Business Administration MERHC Medicare-eligible retiree health care MODA Ministry of Defense...Related Construction (ERC) Title 10 Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MODA ) Program Title 10 Coalition Support Funds (CSF), including Coalition Readiness

  8. Allergen avoidance: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, A; Custovic, A

    2000-01-01

    The first recorded example of allergen avoidance in the treatment of allergic disorders dates from the 16th century. The Italian physician Gerolamo Cardano (1501-1576) was invited to Scotland by John Hamilton, Archbishop of St Andrews (and brother of the Regent), to give advice on the treatment of his asthma. Cardano recommended that the Archbishop should get rid of his feather bedding, which was followed by a 'miraculous' remission of otherwise troublesome symptoms. The first controlled attempts to treat asthma by environmental manipulation date to the beginning of 20th century. In 1925, the Leopold brothers treated patients with asthma and other allergic disorders by moving them into a dust free room. Storm van Leeuwen created a 'climate' chamber in The Netherlands in 1927 and demonstrated that asthmatic patients improved when moved from their homes into the chamber. One year later, Dekker observed that measures aimed at reducing the amount of dust in bedrooms had a beneficial effect on asthma symptoms in patients allergic to house dust. Van Leeuwen wrote: 'In our endeavours to find the cause of the attack ... we utilised the known fact that the environment of the asthmatic patient is, as a rule, of primary importance in determining the intensity and frequency of his attacks'. Nowadays, more than ever, it is essential to address the environmental influences on the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders.

  9. Obstacle avoidance sonar for submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Albert C.; Webman, Kenneth M.

    2002-05-01

    The Advanced Mine Detection Sonar (AMDS) system was designed to operate in poor environments with high biological and/or shallow-water boundary conditions. It provides increased capability for active detection of volume, close-tethered, and bottom mines, as well as submarine and surface target active/passive detection for ASW and collision avoidance. It also provides bottom topography mapping capability for precise submarine navigation in uncharted littoral waters. It accomplishes this by using advanced processing techniques with extremely narrow beamwidths. The receive array consists of 36 modules arranged in a 15-ft-diameter semicircle at the bottom of the submarine sonar dome to form a chin-mounted array. Each module consists of 40 piezoelectric rubber elements. The modules provide the necessary signal conditioning to the element data prior to signal transmission (uplink) through the hull. The elements are amplified, filtered, converted to digital signals by an A/D converter, and multiplexed prior to uplink to the inboard receiver. Each module also has a downlink over which it receives synchronization and mode/gain control. Uplink and downlink transmission is done using fiberoptic telemetry. AMDS was installed on the USS Asheville. The high-frequency chin array for Virginia class submarines is based on the Asheville design.

  10. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology thathas been used to assess the externalities....... The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologiesfor assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report...... on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs.Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated...

  11. Aesthetic rhinoplasty: Avoiding unfavourable results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulwant S Bhangoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in plastic surgery. It is not surprising that a significant number of patients end up with unfavourable outcomes. Many of these unfavourable outcomes could be the result of poor judgment and wrong decision making. Most frequently, the unfavourable outcome is the result of errors in surgical technique. In this paper, unfavourable outcomes resulting from errors in surgical technique are discussed under the heading of each operative step. Poor placement of intra-nasal incision can result in internal valve obstruction. Bad columellar scars can result from errors during open rhinoplasty. Unfavourable results associated with skeletonisation are mentioned. Tip plasty, being the most difficult part of rhinoplasty, can result in lack of tip projection, asymmetry and deformities associated with placement of tip grafts. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilages during tip plasty can also result in pinched nose, alar collapse causing external valve obstruction and other alar rim deformities. Humpectomy can result in open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and over-resection resulting in saddle nose. The so-called poly beak deformity is also a preventable unfavourable outcome when dealing with a large dorsal hump. Complications resulting from osteotomies include narrowing of nasal airway, open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and asymmetry of the bony wall resulting from incomplete or green stick fractures. Judicious use of grafts can be very rewarding. By the same token, grafts also carry with them the risk of complications. Allografts can result in recurrent infection, atrophy of the overlying skin and extrusion resulting in crippling deformities. Autografts are recommended by the author. Unfavourable results from autografts include displacement of graft, visibility of the graft edges, asymmetry, warping, and resorption.

  12. 77 FR 69422 - Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... contract based on catalog pricing) to read `` ontracts or subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial... based on actual incurred costs for labor and materials. As explained in the preamble to the 1997 final... will avoid the allocation of costs to cost objectives based on actual contractor incurred costs.'' The...

  13. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....

  14. Temporal dynamics of relief in avoidance conditioning and fear extinction: Experimental validation and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervliet, Bram; Lange, Iris; Milad, Mohammed R

    2017-09-01

    The learning principles that guide the acquisition and extinction of avoidance are not fully understood. We developed a novel paradigm to study the temporal dynamics of relief, a putative reinforcer of avoidance, and the recovery of fear and avoidance following extinction. During conditioning, the avoidance action canceled the aversive unconditional stimulus (US), without terminating the predictive conditional stimulus (CS). Relief pleasantness was rated after fixed CS offsets, when US omission occured. Avoidance was effective to one CS, but not to another, to track stimulus-specific avoidance learning. Fear was extinguished under response prevention in a separate context. Recovery tests took place 24 h later, in both contexts and with a monetary cost added to the avoidance action. We found that avoidance gradually became stimulus-specific during conditioning, but hardly recovered during delayed testing. Across all phases, initial omissions of the aversive US triggered relief that gradually declined over consecutive omissions, in line with a theoretical prediction error signal. Participants that scored low on distress tolerance, however, displayed sustained levels of relief over continuous omissions. We propose that such forms of sustained relief may produce over-reinforcement of foregoing avoidance actions and promote the development of pathological avoidance. The current paradigm represents an efficacious tool to study the temporal dynamics of relief across avoidance learning and fear extinction and to characterize relief dysregulations in relation to psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Corporate Imaging: Teaching Communication Strategies for Reaching Internal and External Publics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulard, Joan Marie

    A corporation's image is a powerful persuasive tool for reaching external publics such as competitors, regulators, and prospective employees. Corporations should avoid disparities between the actual and the desired image, as well as disparities between the external perception and the internal perception of employees. A course was developed at…

  16. Improving new technology venture performance under direct and indirect network externality conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podoynitsyna, Ksenia; Song, Michael; van der Bij, Hans; Weggeman, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of five responses to external uncertainty in markets with network externalities: avoidance, imitation, control, cooperation, and real options reasoning as a form of strategic flexibility. Our analysis of 385 new technology ventures shows that direct and indirect

  17. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  18. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  19. Vehicle routing under time-dependant travel times: The impact of congestion avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, E.W.; Schutten, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Daily traffic congestion forms a major problem for businesses such as logistic service providers and distribution firms. It causes late arrivals at customers and additional costs for hiring the truck drivers. Such costs caused by traffic congestion can be reduced by taking into account and avoiding

  20. Vehicle routing under time-dependant travel times: The impact of congestion avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Daily traffic congestion forms a major problem for businesses such as logistic service providers and distribution firms. It causes late arrivals at customers and additional costs for hiring the truck drivers. Such costs caused by traffic congestion can be reduced by taking into account and avoiding

  1. The Yale Cost Model and cost centres: servant or master?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, E

    1993-01-01

    Cost accounting describes that aspect of accounting which collects, allocates and controls the cost of producing a service. Costing information is primarily reported to management to enable control of costs and to ensure the financial viability of units, departments and divisions. As costing studies continue to produce estimates of Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) costs in New South Wales hospitals, as well as in other states, costs for different hospitals are being externally compared, using a tool which is usually related to internal management and reporting. Comparability of costs is assumed even though accounting systems differ. This paper examines the cost centre structures at five major teaching hospitals in Sydney. It describes the similarities and differences in how the cost centres were constituted, and then details the line items of expenditure that are charged to each cost centre. The results of a comparative study of a medical specialty are included as evidence of different costing methodologies in the hospitals. The picture that emerged from the study is that the hospitals are constituting their cost centres to meet their internal management needs, that is, to know the cost of running a ward or nursing unit, a medical specialty, department and so on. The rationale for the particular cost centre construction was that cost centre managers could manage and control costs and assign responsibility. There are variations in procedures for assigning costs to cost centres, and the question is asked 'Do these variations in procedures make a material difference to our ability to compare costs per Diagnosis Related Group at the various hospitals?' It is contended that the accounting information, which is produced as a result of different practices, is primarily for internal management, not external comparison. It would be better for hospitals to compare their estimated costs per Diagnosis Related Group to an internal standard cost rather than the costs from other

  2. Detection And Avoidance Of Obstacles By Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.; Sridhar, Banavar

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses problems relevant to control subsystems enabling helicopters on nap-of-the-Earth flight paths to detect and avoid obstacles automatically. Indicates similarities between this and obstacle-avoidance problem of industrial mobile robots. Two approaches extend two-dimensional obstacle-avoidance concept to three dimensions. First involves direct search of three-dimensional range-map data for indications of openings between obstacles. Second involves compression of data into two-dimensional map for path search.

  3. Mobile Robot Collision Avoidance in Human Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lingqi Zeng; Gary M. Bone

    2013-01-01

    Collision avoidance is a fundamental requirement for mobile robots. Avoiding moving obstacles (also termed dynamic obstacles) with unpredictable direction changes, such as humans, is more challenging than avoiding moving obstacles whose motion can be predicted. Precise information on the future moving directions of humans is unobtainable for use in navigation algorithms. Furthermore, humans should be able to pursue their activities unhindered and without worrying about the robots around them....

  4. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  5. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project...... the environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized....

  6. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    The concept of avoidable deaths suggests that certain deaths ought not occur in a given society because it is possible to prevent or treat the disease or condition. A list of avoidable deaths is time and community specific as it reflects the socioeconomic conditions, professional medical capacity...

  7. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) (b) Where two or more licensees are assigned a common...

  8. Human Hippocampus Arbitrates Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R.; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Packard, Pau A.; Miró, Júlia; Falip, Mercè; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Animal models of human anxiety often invoke a conflict between approach and avoidance [1, 2]. In these, a key behavioral assay comprises passive avoidance of potential threat and inhibition, both thought to be controlled by ventral hippocampus [2–6]. Efforts to translate these approaches to clinical contexts [7, 8] are hampered by the fact that it is not known whether humans manifest analogous approach-avoidance dispositions and, if so, whether they share a homologous neurobiological substrate [9]. Here, we developed a paradigm to investigate the role of human hippocampus in arbitrating an approach-avoidance conflict under varying levels of potential threat. Across four experiments, subjects showed analogous behavior by adapting both passive avoidance behavior and behavioral inhibition to threat level. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observe that threat level engages the anterior hippocampus, the human homolog of rodent ventral hippocampus [10]. Testing patients with selective hippocampal lesions, we demonstrate a causal role for the hippocampus with patients showing reduced passive avoidance behavior and inhibition across all threat levels. Our data provide the first human assay for approach-avoidance conflict akin to that of animal anxiety models. The findings bridge rodent and human research on passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition and furnish a framework for addressing the neuronal underpinnings of human anxiety disorders, where our data indicate a major role for the hippocampus. PMID:24560572

  9. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  10. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  11. CHALLENGES OF EXTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDIT AGAINST THE MANAGERIAL FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA UNGUREANU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is no longer a new topic, but is in a constant controversy. This paper aims to establish the importance of external financial audit in improving corporate governance, a premise for survival, continuation and development of entities in the current economic climate. The core element of the study concerns theactive participation that external financial audit must manifest in a governance system to avoid mismanagement and its consequences, especially fraud. For this purpose is performed a synthesis of the current state of knowledge through theoretical and conceptual approach in terms of motivational, of the agency and stakeholders theories, based on specialized literature.

  12. Racing to define pharmaceutical R&D external innovation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangsu; Plump, Andrew; Ringel, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The pharmaceutical industry continues to face fundamental challenges because of issues with research and development (R&D) productivity and rising customer expectations. To lower R&D costs, move beyond me-too therapies, and create more transformative portfolios, pharmaceutical companies are actively capitalizing on external innovation through precompetitive collaboration with academia, cultivation of biotech start-ups, and proactive licensing and acquisitions. Here, we review the varying innovation strategies used by pharmaceutical companies, compare and contrast these models, and identify the trends in external innovation. We also discuss factors that influence these external innovation models and propose a preliminary set of metrics that could be used as leading indicators of success.

  13. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  14. Profits and Costs of the Development of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the economic profits of rural cooperative economic organizations,the following conclusions are obtained.The rural cooperative economic organizations can get the economic profits which are in accordance with the demands of market-oriented economy.The rural cooperative economic organizations can benefit from sharing the knight service provided by the government;from reducing and avoiding various kinds of risks in operation and from applying the agricultural technology and standardization production.Besides,the organizations can share the profits bought along by the standardized production of agricultural production and their members can enjoy the profits bought by socialized service system.In addition,the rural cooperative economic organizations can enjoy the profits produced by the agricultural management integration strategy.What’ more,they can increase profits by reducing the transaction costs;enlarging scale and enjoying the brand advantages.The analyses of the costs of the development of rural cooperative economic organizations mainly include the organizing costs,operation costs,restriction costs and cooperation costs.We think that the slow development of rural cooperative economic organizations is caused by their high operation cost and the impediment of external environment.In the end,the countermeasures on strengthening the research on the theory,promotion,education and training of rural economic cooperative organizations and intensifying the supports on the policies of rural economic cooperative organizations are put forward.

  15. The Minimal Cost of Life in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, A.; Rutkze, C.; Albright, L.; Ladue, R.

    Life in space requires protection from the external environment, provision of a suitable internal environment, provision of consumables to maintain life, and removal of wastes. Protection from the external environment will mainly require shielding from radiation and meteoroids. Provision of a suitable environment inside the spacecraft will require provision of suitable air pressure and composition, temperature, and protection from environmental toxins (trace contaminants) and pathogenic micro-organisms. Gravity may be needed for longer missions to avoid excessive changes such as decalcification and muscle degeneration. Similarly, the volume required per crewmember will increase as the mission duration increases. Consumables required include oxygen, food, and water. Nitrogen might be required, depending on the total pressure and non-metabolic losses. We normally provide these consumables from the Earth, with a greater or lesser degree of regeneration. In principle, all consumables can be regenerated. Water and air are easiest to regenerate. At the present time, food can only be regenerated by using plants, and higher plants at that. Waste must be removed, including carbon dioxide and other metabolic waste as well as trash such as food packaging, filters, and expended spare parts. This can be done by dumping or regeneration. The minimal cost of life in space would be to use a synthesis process or system to regenerate all consumables from wastes. As the efficiency of the various processes rises, the minimal cost of life support will fall. However, real world regeneration requires significant equipment, power, and crew time. Make-up will be required for those items that cannot be economically regenerated. For very inefficient processes, it might be cheaper to ship all or part of the consumables. We are currently far down the development curve, and for short missions it is cheaper to ship consumables. For longer duration missions, greater closure is cost effective

  16. External fixators in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V; Srivastava, A; PalaniKumar, C; Daniel, A J; Mathews, V; Babu, N; Chandy, M; Sundararaj, G D

    2004-01-01

    External fixators (EF) are not commonly used for patients with haemophilia. We describe the use of EF (Ilizarov, AO- uni- and bi-planar fixators and Charnley clamp) in nine patients (mean age: 19.2 years; range: 9-37) with haemophilia for the following indications - arthrodesis of infected joints, treatment of open fractures and osteoclasis. EF required an average of nine skin punctures [range: 4-17 were maintained for a period of 15 weeks (range: 8-29.5), without regular factor replacement, till bone healing was adequate and were removed with a single dose of factor infusion]. The mean preoperative factor level achieved was 85% (range: 64-102%). Much lower levels were subsequently maintained till wound healing. The average total factor consumption was 430 IU kg(-1) (range: 240-870), administered over a period of 17 days (range: 9-44). There were no major complications related to EF except in a patient who developed inhibitors. In conclusion, EF can be used safely in haemophilic patients who do not have inhibitors and does not require prolonged factor replacement.

  17. Lower Costs, Better Care- Reforming Our Health Care Delivery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act includes tools to improve the quality of health care that can also lower costs for taxpayers and patients. This means avoiding costly...

  18. Weld pool visual sensing without external illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Soren Ingvor

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensing in arc welding has become more and more important, but still remains challenging because of the harsh environment with extremely strong illumination from the arc. This paper presents a low-cost camera-based sensor system, without using external Illumination, but nevertheless able...... to sense and model the weld pool. Central is a carefully selected optical filtering as well as an active contour-based tracking of the weld pool boundary. The system is able to extract the 2D shape of the weld pool in real time. The reported experiments show the feasibility of this approach....

  19. Optimal External-Memory Planar Point Enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Samoladas, Vasilis; Yi, Ke

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the external memory planar point enclosure problem: Given N axis-parallel rectangles in the plane, construct a data structure on disk (an index) such that all K rectangles containing a query point can be reported I/O-efficiently. This problem has important applications in e...... term O(K/B) is desired. To show this we prove a general lower bound on the tradeoff between the size of the data structure and its query cost. We also develop a family of structures with matching space and query bounds....

  20. Birds flush early and avoid the rush: an interspecific study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo S M Samia

    Full Text Available Since 1986, studies about the escape decisions made by prey are grounded in optimal escape theory (OET which states that prey will initiate escape when the risk of remaining and the costs of leaving are equal. However, a recent hypothesis, Flush Early and Avoid the Rush (FEAR, acknowledged that the cost of monitoring approaching predators might be a ubiquitous cost. The FEAR hypothesis predicts that prey will generally flee soon after they detect a predator so as to minimize the costs incurred by monitoring the predator. Knowing whether animals flee to reduce monitoring costs is of applied interest because wildlife managers use escape behavior to create set-back zones to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Here we provide the most comprehensive assessment of the FEAR hypothesis using data collected from 178 bird species representing 67 families from two continents. The FEAR hypothesis explains escape behavior in 79% of studied species. Because the FEAR hypothesis is a widespread phenomenon that drives escape behavior in birds, alert distance must be systematically incorporated into the design of set-back zones to protect vulnerable species.

  1. Skepticism, contextualism, externalism and modality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-01-01

    .... However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated...

  2. Accounting for Health and Safety costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.

    A part of the emerging sustainability management accounting is corporate health and safety performance. One performance dimension is the costs of occupational accidents in companies. The underlying logic for calculating these costs is that if occupational accidents are prevented then these costs...... could be avoided. This chapter presents and discusses selected methods for calculating the costs of occupational accidents. The focus is on presenting the characteristics of each method and disclosing the benefits and drawbacks of each method...

  3. Where and how can policy encourage afforestation to avoid soil erosion?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the economic value of avoided soil erosion in New Zealand is an important factor in policy decision making enabling the acknowledgement of the costs of erosion to the economy. This paper focuses on potential for afforestation to mitigate erosion risks on marginal agricultural hill country lands. Spatial economic modelling is undertaken to determine the net private and public benefit due to the avoided soil erosion from afforesting these areas. The study indicates that in some ca...

  4. Distance Determination Method for Normally Distributed Obstacle Avoidance of Mobile Robots in Stochastic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhong Noh; Ukyoul Huh

    2016-01-01

    Obstacle avoidance methods require knowledge of the distance between a mobile robot and obstacles in the environment. However, in stochastic environments, distance determination is difficult because objects have position uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distance between a robot and obstacles represented by probability distributions. Distance determination for obstacle avoidance should consider position uncertainty, computational cost and collision probability. The pr...

  5. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  6. Long-term results of external auditory canal closure and mastoid obliteration in cochlear implantation after radical mastoidectomy: a clinical and radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, Vincenzo; Pasanisi, Enrico; Bacciu, Andrea; Bacciu, Salvatore

    2014-08-01

    Cochlear implant candidates with mastoid cavity present a significant challenge to safe cochlear implantation because of possible spread of infection to the inner ear as well as an increased risk of electrode array extrusion. Closure of the external auditory canal is one of the several surgical techniques utilized to block the potential entry routes for infection and to protect the implanted device. The main concern after external auditory canal closure is the risk of developing a cholesteatoma, which can lead to an asymptomatic erosion of the temporal bone and/or cochlear implant failure. In this study we present the results of very long-term (mean 12 years) clinical and radiological follow-up in 12 patients who underwent external auditory canal closure associated with mastoid and Eustachian tube obliteration to facilitate cochlear implantation. To date, with a mean ± SD follow-up of 12 ± 4.7 years (range 5-21 years), the only complication experienced was the breakdown of the EAC closure in one patient, successfully treated by performing a rotation skin flap. The results of this study confirmed that external auditory canal closure is a reliable technique in cochlear implantation after radical mastoidectomy provided that a rigorous surgical technique is performed. A right balance between the need to reduce costs and to avoid unnecessary doses of radiation to patients and the task of a radiological surveillance may be represented by performing computed tomography 12-18 months postoperatively and then, only if clinically warranted.

  7. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  8. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  9. Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... new food being offered. Avoid the Junk Food Trap Toddlers need to eat healthy to get the ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  10. Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other times, it develops into panic attacks and phobias. Identifying the Signs Anxiety disorders vary from teenager ... may begin to avoid normal activities and routines. Phobias Many fears of younger children are mild, passing, ...

  11. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  12. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in radar technology have resulted in commercial, automotive collision avoidance radars. These radar systems typically use 37GHz or 77GHz interferometry...

  13. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  14. 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... dietary supplements you use. back to top Computerized Medication Box FDA has cleared for marketing the Electronic ...

  15. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  16. The vigilance-avoidance model of avoidant recognition: An ERP study under threat priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jing; Chen, Xu; Ma, Jianling; Yang, Qingqing; Liu, Ying

    2016-12-30

    Our study examined attachment-related electrophysiological differences in recognition using event-related potentials (ERPs) measured during a study-test paradigm after threat priming. We identified ERP correlates of recognition by comparing the ERPs of attachment-related positive and negative images between avoidant and secure attachment orientations. Our results revealed that the distribution of early old/new effects was broader in avoidant individuals than in secure individuals, and an early parietal old/new effect was observed in avoidant individuals, which reflected their implicit memory. The late old/new effect was found only in secure individuals when evoked by negative pictures, and was not observed in avoidant individuals. The results suggest that avoidant individuals adopt the "vigilance-avoidance" dual-process model to recognize both positive and negative attachment-related stimuli and carry out preferential familiarity matching at the automatic level and avoidant retrieval at the controlled-processing level.

  17. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....

  18. Tracking Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  19. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  20. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  1. Mobile Robot Collision Avoidance in Human Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingqi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance is a fundamental requirement for mobile robots. Avoiding moving obstacles (also termed dynamic obstacles with unpredictable direction changes, such as humans, is more challenging than avoiding moving obstacles whose motion can be predicted. Precise information on the future moving directions of humans is unobtainable for use in navigation algorithms. Furthermore, humans should be able to pursue their activities unhindered and without worrying about the robots around them. In this paper, both active and critical regions are used to deal with the uncertainty of human motion. A procedure is introduced to calculate the region sizes based on worst‐case avoidance conditions. Next, a novel virtual force field‐based mobile robot navigation algorithm (termed QVFF is presented. This algorithm may be used with both holonomic and nonholonomic robots. It incorporates improved virtual force functions for avoiding moving obstacles and its stability is proven using a piecewise continuous Lyapunov function. Simulation and experimental results are provided for a human walking towards the robot and blocking the path to a goal location. Next, the proposed algorithm is compared with five state‐of‐the‐art navigation algorithms for an environment with one human walking with an unpredictable change in direction. Finally, avoidance results are presented for an environment containing three walking humans. The QVFF algorithm consistently generated collision‐free paths to the goal.

  2. International labor migration and external debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevailing Mexican and US definitions of undocumented migration are poles apart. The US views it as a criminal problem. Mexicans view the undocumented migrants as actors in an economic game in which the rules are extremely disadvantageous to these migrants. Migrants themselves and their communities view the undocumented as a positive element. It is necessary to move toward a bilateral focus and bilateral negotiation on the issue of migratory workers. This proposal derives from several assumptions: 1) the external debt is a bilateral or multilateral issue, 2) it is important to avoid forcing debtor countries to choose between stimulating economic growth or making payment on their foreign debt, 3) prevailing public opinion in the US favors halting undocumented migration, 4) the US views the migration of undocumented Mexicans as the result of forces endogenous to Mexico and exogenous to the US, 5) the US views both Mexico's ability to make payment on its external debt and to halt emigration as tied to the Mexican government's ability or inability to reconcile political stability with scarce monetary resources, and 6) political instability in Mexico could augment emigration to the US and undermine Mexico's ability to address its foreign debt. The following proposal suggests means to link negotiation on the external debt to that of undocumented migration: 1) The Mexican government could reach an accord with the US to channel a portion of the actual interest on the external debt as a fund to be invested in Mexico to construct a system of labor intensive agroindustrial productive units designed to attract former or potential migratory workers; 2) the total amount of these funds would be deducted from interest payments on the principal of the actual external debt and redefined as an ad hoc loan to Mexico to finance these production units; 3) part of the production from these units would be incorporated into ongoing US food relief and food assistance programs; 4) the

  3. Magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2017-07-01

    We obtain a family of exact solutions describing magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field. Locally the solutions can be interpreted as representing the near-horizon region of a black hole, which interacts with a surrounding matter distribution producing a strong magnetic field. Thus, the solutions reflect the influence of both a gravitational and an electromagnetic external potential in the strong field regime. The static members in the family are generalizations of the Schwarzschild solution in the described environment, while the rotating ones generalize the magnetized Reissner-Nordström solution when the influence of an external gravitational source is also taken into account. Technically, the solutions are obtained by means of a Harrison transformation, applied on the (electro-)vacuum distorted black holes constructed by Bretón et al. We examine the thermodynamical properties of the solutions, and compare them with the corresponding isolated black holes, and with the particular cases when the interaction with only one of the external potentials is taken into account. For the static black holes the influence of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is factorized in a sense, both affecting different properties, and leaving the rest intact. For the rotating solutions the external gravitational and magnetic fields are coupled through the conditions for avoiding conical singularities. The Meissner effect is observed for extremal rotating solutions only in the zero-charge limit, similar to the magnetized Reissner-Nordström black hole.

  4. Polyandry facilitates postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C; Simmons, Leigh W

    2008-03-01

    The avoidance of genetic incompatibilities between parental genotypes has been proposed to account for the evolution of polyandry. An extension of this hypothesis suggests polyandry may provide an opportunity for females to avoid the cost of inbreeding by exploiting postcopulatory mechanisms that bias paternity toward unrelated male genotypes. Here we test the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis in house mice by experimentally manipulating genetic compatibility via matings between siblings and nonsiblings. We observed little difference in reproductive success between females mated to two siblings or females mated to two nonsiblings. Females mated to both a sibling and a nonsibling tended to have a lower litter survival, but only when the first male to mate was a sibling. Microsatellite data revealed that paternity was biased toward nonsiblings when a female mated with both a sibling and a nonsibling. Unlike previous studies of invertebrates, paternity bias toward the sibling male was independent of mating sequence. We provide one of the first empirical demonstrations that polyandry facilitates postcopulatory sexual selection in a vertebrate. We discuss this result in relation to the possibility of selective fertilization of ova based on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haploid expression of sperm.

  5. Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions from Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle BROSE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainabledevelopment, integrating its key components: environment and climate change,energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development.Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed inorder to compare one bioenergy route to another (bioenergy route. The lack ofprimary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnologicalbarrier to the implementation of the best (bioenergy routes. In thisarticle, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy:emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM. We have tomonetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soiland water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCAand ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis ofmortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year(VOLY and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness(COI. Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers fromthe Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will bemonetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetizationresults will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmakingtools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers tochose the best (bioenergy routes.

  6. External meeting: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Université de Genève Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél : +41 22 379 6383 (secrétariat) Tél : +41 22 379 6256 (réception) Fax: +41 22 379 6922 Wednesday 15th November 2006 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs - Stückelberg Auditorium ITER and the way toward a fusion reactor Prof. Minh Quang TRAN / Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne Fusion is a possible source of electricity for base load, which is compatible with a sustainable development. The talk will first present the physics basis for the realisation of fusion and discuss the main aspects with respect to 'fuel' resources, environment impact, safety and cost of electricity. The next generation of fusion devices ITER will produce 500 MW of (thermal) fusion power. The challenges of and R&D towards ITER will be outlined. The steps following ITER along the roadmap towards the first reactor producing electricity will be discussed, highlighting the major necessary ...

  7. External conference: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 13 December 2006 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs - Stückelberg Auditorium Radiation Tolerant Sensors for Solid State Tracking Detectors by Dr Michael MOLL / CERN The envisaged upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN towards the Super-LHC (SLHC) with a 10 times increased luminosity of 1035 cm2 s-1 will present severe challenges for the tracking detectors of the SLHC experiments. Unprecedented high radiation levels and track densities and a reduced bunch crossing time in the order of 10 ns as well as the need for cost effective detectors have called for an intensive R&D program. The CERN RD50 collaboration 'Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders' is working on the development of semiconductor sensors matching the requirements of the SLHC. Sensors based on defect engineered silic...

  8. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  9. Estimation of the impact of warfarin's time-in-therapeutic range on stroke and major bleeding rates and its influence on the medical cost avoidance associated with novel oral anticoagulant use-learnings from ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, and RE-LY trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alpesh; Deitelzweig, Steve; Jing, Yonghua; Makenbaeva, Dinara; Wiederkehr, Daniel; Lin, Jay; Graham, John

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin's time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) is highly variable among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of variations in wafarin's TTR on rates of stroke/systemic embolism (SSE) and major bleedings among NVAF patients in the ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, and RE-LY trials. Additionally, differences in medical costs for clinical endpoints when novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were used instead of warfarin at different TTR values were estimated. Quartile ranges of TTR values and corresponding event rates (%/patient - year = %/py) of SSE and major bleedings among NVAF patients treated with warfarin were estimated from published literature and FDA documents. The associations of SSE and major bleeding rates with TTR values were evaluated by regression analysis and then the calculated regression coefficients were used in analysis of medical cost differences associated with use of each NOAC versus warfarin (2010 costs; US payer perspective) at different TTRs. Each 10 % increase in warfarin's TTR correlated with a -0.32%/py decrease in SSE rate (R(2) = 0.61; p estimated medical cost decreased from -$902 to -$83 for apixaban, from -$506 to +$314 for rivaroxaban, and from -$596 to +$223 for dabigatran. Among NVAF patients there is a significant negative correlation between warfarin's TTR and SSE rate, but not major bleedings. The variations in warfarin's TTR impacted the economic comparison of use of individual NOACs versus warfarin.

  10. Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdtham Ulf-G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP, to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on the major electronic databases and the websites of a number of major international organizations. Studies are categorized by origin – OECD countries or non-OECD countries – and by publication status. Seventeen studies are included, eight from OECD countries and nine from non-OECD countries. A number of studies based on the ExternE methodology and the USA studies conducted by the Institute of Transportation are also summarized and discussed separately. The present review shows that considerable societal costs are attributable to air pollution-related health hazards. Nevertheless, given the variations in the methodologies used to calculate the estimated costs (e.g. cost estimation methods and cost components included, and inter-country differences in demographic composition and health care systems, it is difficult to compare CAP estimates across studies and countries. To increase awareness concerning the air pollution-related burden of disease, and to build links to health policy analyses, future research efforts should be directed towards theoretically sound and comprehensive CAP estimates with use of rich data. In particular, a more explicit approach should be followed to deal with uncertainties in the estimations. Along with monetary estimates, future research should also report all physical impacts and source-specific cost estimates, and should attempt to estimate 'avoidable cost' using alternative counterfactual scenarios.

  11. Avoided deforestation as a greenhouse gas mitigation tool: economic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohngen, Brent; Beach, Robert H; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Tropical deforestation is a significant contributor to accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. GHG emissions from deforestation in the tropics were in the range of 1 to 2 Pg C yr(-1) for the 1990s, which is equivalent to as much as 25% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. While there is growing interest in providing incentives to avoid deforestation and consequently reduce net carbon emissions, there is limited information available on the potential costs of these activities. This paper uses a global forestry and land use model to analyze the potential marginal costs of reducing net carbon emissions by avoiding deforestation in tropical countries. Our estimates suggest that about 0.1 Pg C yr(-1) of emissions reductions could be obtained over the next 30 to 50 yr for $5 per Mg C, and about 1.6 Pg C yr(-1) could be obtained over the same time frame for $100 per Mg C. In addition, the effects of carbon incentives on land use could be substantial. Relative to projected baseline conditions, we find that there would be around 3 million additional hectares (ha) of forestland in 2055 at $5 per Mg C and 422 million ha at $100 per Mg C. Estimates of reductions in area deforested, GHG mitigation potential, and annual land rental payments required are presented, all of which vary by region, carbon price paid, and time frame of mitigation.

  12. ADVERTISING AVOIDANCE PADA IKLAN DI MEDIA TELEVISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Dwi Pratama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES, advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the program, and advertising sector, and competition (DayPart. The study attempted to measure the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia and its relation to various factors that influence it by using the secondary data generated by Nielsen Audience Measurement Indonesia through Television Audience Measurement (TAM. The methods utilized consisted of the t-test independent sample, one way ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn Bonferoni. The result showed that the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia reached by 23%, with relatively similar results to the other studies in various countries. The hypothesis test results also showed a significant relationship between the advertising avoidance and demographic variables, advertising attributes, and competitions affecting this avoidance. On one hand, the findings of the study are expected to be useful for the advertisers to plan their advertisements on television so that they become more effective and efficient. On the other hand, television stations can utilize these findings as a development strategy to expand their audience segmentation and to accommodate the needs of the advertisers more optimally.Keywords: advertising avoidance, television advertisement, TAM, ANOVA, Tukey

  13. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  14. Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

  15. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  16. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin McCreless

    Full Text Available The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  17. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  18. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte

    1999-06-01

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology that has been used to assess the externalities. The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologies for assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs. Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated for the same fuel cycle in different studies are compared. 8 studies have been chosen for further analysis and comparison in order to show the variation in external costs. The comparison shows the importance of possessing knowledge of which kind of methodologies have been used, which impacts are included etc. to explain why the numbers vary so much in different studies for the same fuel cycle. As an example a comparison of the impacts and damage costs related to air emissions has been made for three studies using different methodologies. The external costs are estimated for the same reference plant using the dispersion models, dose-response functions, impacts and monetary values from the three studies. The estimates from the three studies are compared two and two, and a more detailed analysis is performed in relation to human health, which is the dominating impact in all externality studies. (au) EFP-97. 29 tabs., 12 ills., 34 refs.

  19. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  20. Is avoiding an aversive outcome rewarding? Neural substrates of avoidance learning in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hackjin; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O'Doherty, John P

    2006-07-01

    Avoidance learning poses a challenge for reinforcement-based theories of instrumental conditioning, because once an aversive outcome is successfully avoided an individual may no longer experience extrinsic reinforcement for their behavior. One possible account for this is to propose that avoiding an aversive outcome is in itself a reward, and thus avoidance behavior is positively reinforced on each trial when the aversive outcome is successfully avoided. In the present study we aimed to test this possibility by determining whether avoidance of an aversive outcome recruits the same neural circuitry as that elicited by a reward itself. We scanned 16 human participants with functional MRI while they performed an instrumental choice task, in which on each trial they chose from one of two actions in order to either win money or else avoid losing money. Neural activity in a region previously implicated in encoding stimulus reward value, the medial orbitofrontal cortex, was found to increase, not only following receipt of reward, but also following successful avoidance of an aversive outcome. This neural signal may itself act as an intrinsic reward, thereby serving to reinforce actions during instrumental avoidance.

  1. Trade-offs between predator avoidance and electric shock avoidance in hermit crabs demonstrate a non-reflexive response to noxious stimuli consistent with prediction of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Barry; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-09-01

    Arthropods have long been thought to respond to noxious stimuli by reflex reaction. One way of testing if this is true is to provide the animal with a way to avoid the stimulus but to vary the potential cost of avoidance. If avoidance varies with potential cost then a decision making process is evident and the behaviour is not a mere reflex. Here we examine the responses of hermit crabs to electric shock within their shell when also exposed to predator or non-predator odours or to no odour. The electric shocks start with low voltage but increase in voltage with each repetition to determine how odour affects the voltage at which the shell is abandoned. There was no treatment effect on the voltage at which hermit crabs left their shells, however, those exposed to predator odours were less likely to evacuate their shells compared with no odour or low concentrations of non-predator odour. However, highly concentrated non-predator also inhibited evacuation. The data show that these crabs trade-off avoidance of electric shock with predator avoidance. They are thus not responding purely by reflex and the data are thus consistent with predictions of pain but do not prove pain.

  2. Avoiding barriers in control of mowing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Bai-jing; QIAN Guo-hong; XIANG Zhong-ping; LI Zuo-peng

    2006-01-01

    Due to complicated barriers,it is difficult to track the path of the mowing robot and to avoid barriers.In order to solve the problem,a method based on distance-measuring sensors and fuzzy control inputs was proposed.Its track was composed of beelines and was easy to tail.The fuzzy control inputs were based on the front barrier distance and the difference between the left and right barrier distance measured by ultrasonic sensors;the output was the direction angle.The infrared sensors around the robot improved its safety in avoiding barriers.The result of the method was feasible,agile,and stable.The distance between the robot and the barriers could be changed by altering the inputs and outputs of fuzzy control and the length of the beelines.The disposed sensors can fulfill the need of the robot in avoiding barriers.

  3. Cod avoidance by area regulations in Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2014-01-01

    presents two initiatives for cod avoidance in Kattegat; a fisher initiative sharing information about cod bycatch which could lead to real time closures in areas with high bycatch of juveniles, for vessels with low cod quota to avoid catch of all cod, and a Danish Swedish Government initiative of permanent......The article examines the experiences of two initiatives of cod avoidance by area regulations in the Kattegat in the light of the upcoming discard ban in EU fisheries. The first section highlights elements of the discard ban in the reformed EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The second section...... and temporary area closures in Kattegat. The third section discusses the lessons learned in the light of implementation of the discard ban. The fourth section sums up the lessons learned; Regional measures of implementation of the discard ban should include all vessels with quota in the region to be regarded...

  4. Chloroplast avoidance movement reduces photodamage in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Masahiro; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Oikawa, Kazusato; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Miyao, Mitsue; Wada, Masamitsu

    When plants are exposed to light levels higher than those required for photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species are generated in the chloroplasts and cause photodamage. This can occur even under natural growth conditions. To mitigate photodamage, plants have developed several protective mechanisms. One is chloroplast avoidance movement, in which chloroplasts move from the cell surface to the side walls of cells under high light conditions, although experimental support is still awaited. Here, using different classes of mutant defective in chloroplast avoidance movement, we show that these mutants are more susceptible to damage in high light than wild-type plants. Damage of the photosynthetic apparatus and subsequent bleaching of leaf colour and necrosis occur faster under high light conditions in the mutants than in wild-type plants. We conclude that chloroplast avoidance movement actually decreases the amount of light absorption by chloroplasts, and might therefore be important to the survival of plants under natural growth conditions.

  5. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Latiolais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.

  6. Operation and maintenance cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingshead, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Timothy W. Hollingshead, Technical Services Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric, is about cutting costs in the Operation and Maintenance phase of geothermal energy production. The necessity of cost control, keeping workers well-trained and avoiding OSHA fines, taking advantages of new technologies, and establishing predictive maintenance programs are some of the issues discussed in this article.

  7. Learning processes underlying avoidance of negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Marta; Michelmann, Sebastian; Pauli, Paul; Hewig, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Successful avoidance of a threatening event may negatively reinforce the behavior due to activation of brain structures involved in reward processing. Here, we further investigated the learning-related properties of avoidance using feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN is modulated by violations of an intended outcome (prediction error, PE), that is, the bigger the difference between intended and actual outcome, the larger the FRN amplitude is. Twenty-eight participants underwent an operant conditioning paradigm, in which a behavior (button press) allowed them to avoid a painful electric shock. During two learning blocks, participants could avoid an electric shock in 80% of the trials by pressing one button (avoidance button), or by not pressing another button (punishment button). After learning, participants underwent two test blocks, which were identical to the learning ones except that no shocks were delivered. Participants pressed the avoidance button more often than the punishment button. Importantly, response frequency increased throughout the learning blocks but it did not decrease during the test blocks, indicating impaired extinction and/or habit formation. In line with a PE account, FRN amplitude to negative feedback after correct responses (i.e., unexpected punishment) was significantly larger than to positive feedback (i.e., expected omission of punishment), and it increased throughout the blocks. Highly anxious individuals showed equal FRN amplitudes to negative and positive feedback, suggesting impaired discrimination. These results confirm the role of negative reinforcement in motivating behavior and learning, and reveal important differences between high and low anxious individuals in the processing of prediction errors.

  8. Telerobotics with whole arm collision avoidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Strenn, S.

    1993-09-01

    The complexity of teleorbotic operations in a cluttered environment is exacerbated by the need to present collision information to the operator in an understandable fashion. In addition to preventing movements which will cause collisions, a system providing some form of virtual force reflection (VFR) is desirable. With this goal in mind, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a kinematically master/slave system and developed a whole arm collision avoidance system which interacts directly with the telerobotic controller. LLNL has also provided a structure to allow for automated upgrades of workcell models and provide collision avoidance even in a dynamically changing workcell.

  9. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  10. Relatie interne en externe audit

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Emelie

    2011-01-01

    In het eerste hoofdstuk wordt de probleemstelling van deze eindverhandeling besproken. Interne en externe audit worden de laatste jaren internationaal en nationaal meer en meer erkend in het bedrijfsleven. Aanleiding voor de toenemende belangstelling van de interne en externe auditfunctie zijn de verschillende boekhoudschandalen rond corporate governance of deugdelijk bestuur. Deze financiële mislukkingen leidden wereldwijd tot diverse wetten, nieuwe regels en verbeterde standaarden om zo een...

  11. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  12. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  13. Electronic health records lifecycle cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    We have overestimated the ability of electronic health records (EHR) systems to enhance efficiency by eliminating transcription and the need to physically pull charts. Hospital managers typically underestimate the costs of upgrade fees and support. To avoid this problem, hospitals must develop a full total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis to independently forecast total lifecycle costs for EHR information technology. Vendor information must be checked for validity and a milestone payment schedule must be devised to pay for results (outcomes) not promises. Vendors vary widely in their capacity to set up a fully functional inpatient-outpatient EHR system. Documentation programming will help to control hospital costs while enhancing service quality and staff morale. This study presents cost analysis from 62 hospitals in 16 cities during the period 2012-2013.

  14. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  15. Development of a Measure of Experiential Avoidance: The Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Wakiza; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman; Ruggero, Camilo; Watson, David

    2011-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) has been conceptualized as the tendency to avoid negative internal experiences and is an important concept in numerous conceptualizations of psychopathology as well as theories of psychotherapy. Existing measures of EA have either been narrowly defined or demonstrated unsatisfactory internal consistency and/or evidence…

  16. Myopic Regret Avoidance: Feedback Avoidance and Learning in Repeated Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Jochen; Connolly, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Decision makers can become trapped by "myopic regret avoidance" in which rejecting feedback to avoid short-term "outcome regret" (regret associated with counterfactual outcome comparisons) leads to reduced learning and greater long-term regret over continuing poor decisions. In a series of laboratory experiments involving repeated choices among…

  17. Avoided by association: acquisition, extinction, and renewal of avoidance tendencies toward conditioned fear stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Krypotos; M. Effting; I. Arnaudova; M. Kindt; T. Beckers

    2013-01-01

    Traditional theoretical models hold that avoidance reflects the interplay of Pavlovian and instrumental learning. Here we suggest that avoidance tendencies to intrinsically neutral cues may be established by mere Pavlovian association. Following fear conditioning, in which pictures of one object wer

  18. Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2012-01-01

    In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about ...

  19. Oscillations in two-person avoidance control

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Social interaction dynamics are a special type of group interactions that play a large part in our everyday lives. They dictate how and with whom a certain individual will interact. One of such interactions can be termed "avoidance control". This everyday situation occurs when two fast-walking persons suddenly realize that they are on a frontal collision course and begin maneuvering to avoid collision. If the two walkers' initial maneuverings are in the same direction that can lead to oscillations that lengthen time required to reach a stable avoidance trajectory. We introduce a dynamical model with a feedback loop to understand the origin and properties of this oscillation. For the emergence of the oscillatory behavior, two conditions must be satisfied: i) the persons must initiate the avoidance maneuver in the same direction; ii) the time delays in the feedback loop must reverse the phase of the players' positions at the oscillation frequency. The oscillation can be terminated at any time if one of the walk...

  20. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  1. Reducing avoidable pressure ulcers in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Alison; Pankhurst, Sarah; Dabell, Wendy

    2015-02-27

    The elimination of avoidable pressure ulcers remains a challenge in healthcare provision, represents an increasing financial burden on resources and continues to affect patients' quality of life. Many pressure ulcers are deemed to be avoidable and there are several factors that can influence this, including the development of a care delivery system and a service delivery strategy that incorporate a comprehensive structure, a meticulous process and measurable outcomes. Nottingham CityCare developed a strategy to reduce avoidable pressure ulcers. The implementation of the strategy in an inner city community setting is discussed. The importance of eliminating pressure ulcers is explored, and the barriers to care delivery are reviewed, demonstrating how a new culture in clinical practice can ensure the elimination of avoidable pressure ulcers. The challenges within the implementation process are reflected on and the implementation of the SSKIN (Surface, Skin inspection, Keep your patient moving, Incontinence and moisture, Nutrition and hydration) phenomenon is reviewed in relation to care delivery, record-keeping and evaluation.

  2. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  3. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  4. Simple Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Rehabilitation Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, F.H.A.; Römer, G.R.B.; Stuyt, H.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm fo

  5. Rewarding peak avoidance: the Dutch 'Spitsmijden' projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knockaert, J.; Bakens, J.; Ettema, D.F.; Verhoef, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch road network is becoming increasingly congested. In late 2006, a group of companies, universities and government institutions established the Spitsmijden project. ‘Spitsmijden’ is the Dutch term for ‘avoiding the peak’. This joint initiative aimed to identify and assess a short-term

  6. Obesity and Healthcare Avoidance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D McGuigan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the issue of health care avoidance and obesity. English language journal articles published between 1990 and 2012 that addressed the review question|“is being overweight or obese an unrecognized factor in healthcare avoidance?” were located using major databases. A modified JADAD scoring system was then used to assess papers. Ten papers were identified which directly addressed the review question. A positive relationship exists between obesity and healthcare avoidance. The major contributory factors were being female, have a diagnosed mental health problem and perceived or actual bias and discrimination by health professionals. The review also highlights the importance of the relationship between healthcare professionals and their patients, and the physical environment in which interactions occur as these may contribute to avoidance behaviors. Concern about obesity is rising and while there has been much discussion about strategies to reduce obesity this review highlights the need for thinking more broadly about the way in which overweight and obese individuals interact with preventative health strategies.

  7. Detect and Avoid (DAA) Automation Maneuver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Participation was limited to military rated pilots and civilian pilots with full Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ) ratings. Recent experience (within the last two...Avoidance IFR = Instrument Flight Rules IRB = Institutional Review Board VSCS = Vigilant Spirit Control Station TSD = Tactical Situation Display

  8. HOW TO AVOID SEXIST LANGUAGE IN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuZhiqing

    2004-01-01

    Use of Sexist language is one of the serious yet often-neglected mistakes in the English writing and speaking of Chineselearners of English. Sexist language in English can be classifiedinto two categories : ambiguity of referent and stereotyping. Thispaper focuses on some common sexist language in the Englishwriting and speaking of Chinese learners of English and givessome suggestions about how to avoid them.

  9. The Netherlands Bird Avoidance Model, Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to

  10. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  11. [Avoidance of patient-prosthesis mismatch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Y; Hashimoto, K

    2006-04-01

    To minimize the incidence of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM), we have routinely adopted aortic root enlargement to avoid PPM for patients with small aortic annulus. The aim of this study was to review our strategy of avoiding PPM. The Carpentier-Edwards Perimount (CEP) valves were implanted in 53 patients who were mostly aged over 65 and the St. Jude Medical (SJM) mechanical valves were used in 128 patients aged under 65. A standard 21-mm SJM valve was used in only 3 patients and no 19-mm valves were employed. However, 19-mm CEP valves were used in 12 patients with a small body surface area (1.43 +/- 0.14 m2). Of these, 26 patients (14.4%) who had a small aortic annulus and 24 patients aged under 65 underwent aortic root enlargement. No patient receiving an SJM valve had an projected indexed effective orifice area (EOAI) small annulus, the first choice for avoiding PPM is aortic annular enlargement, which may be avoided by high performance mechanical valves with larger EOA.

  12. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  13. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2010-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM. M

  14. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  15. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes - bursts - that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing - the auditory receptor - already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2's sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  16. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  17. An Insight Into the Two Costing Technique: Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Nawaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will investigate the controversy that is innate between the two costing techniques; Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing and would throw light on which costing technique better serves its purpose in helping management for decision making process and if Marginal Costing technique is concluded as better technique then why it should not be used for external reporting purpose. This paper will only crystallize and highlight the issues descriptively and will not resolve the issues that are inherent between the two costing techniques. The unique thing about this paper is that it is in favor of treating fixed cost as product cost that is it is supporting the advocates of Absorption Costing Technique but it is against to consider profit as a function of production rather it believes that profit should only be considered as function of sales for stock valuation and to help management in decision making process that is, regarding this point it is supporting advocates of Marginal Costing.

  18. An Insight Into the Two Costing Technique: Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Nawaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will investigate the controversy that is innate between the two costing techniques; Absorption Costing and Marginal Costing and would throw light on which costing technique better serves its purpose in helping management for decision making process and if Marginal Costing technique is concluded as better technique then why it should not be used for external reporting purpose. This paper will only crystallize and highlight the issues descriptively and will not resolve the issues that are inherent between the two costing techniques. The unique thing about this paper is that it is in favor of treating fixed cost as product cost that is it is supporting the advocates of Absorption Costing Technique but it is against to consider profit as a function of production rather it believes that profit should only be considered as function of sales for stock valuation and to help management in decision making process that is, regarding this point it is supporting advocates of Marginal Costing.

  19. Underestimation of Project Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  20. Tomographic patient registration and conformal avoidance tomotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Jennifer Stacy

    Development of tomotherapy has led to the emergence of several processes, providing the basis for many unique investigative opportunities. These processes include setup verification, tomographic verification, megavoltage dose reconstruction, and conformal avoidance tomotherapy. Setup verification and conformal avoidance tomotherapy, in particular, are two closely intertwined matters. In order to avoid critical structures located within or adjacent to indistinct tumor regions, accurate patient positioning from fraction to fraction must be ensured. With tomographic patient registration, a higher level of assurance is offered than with traditional positioning methods. Translational and rotational offsets are calculated directly from projection data using cross- correlation or fast Fourier transforms. Experiments assessing the algorithm's ability to calculate individual offsets were conducted using the University of Wisconsin's Tomotherapy Benchtop. These experiments indicate statistical errors within +/-1 mm for offsets up to approximately 20 mm, with maximum offset errors of about +/-2 mm for displacements up to 35 mm. The angular offset component is within +/-2°. To evaluate the registration process as a whole, experimental results from a few multi-parameter examples are also analyzed. With the development of tomographic patient registration in projection space, efforts to promote further sparing of critical structures are justified. Conformal avoidance tomotherapy has as its objective to treat an indistinct tumor region while conformally avoiding any normal critical structures in that region. To demonstrate the advantages of conformal avoidance tomotherapy, conventional and tomotherapy treatments are contrasted for both nasopharyngeal and breast carcinoma cases. For initial research efforts, computed tomography data sets of a human male and female were obtained via the ``Visible Human Project''. Since these data sets are on the order of hundreds of megabytes, both

  1. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research on open innovation that considers how and why firms commercialize external sources of innovations. It examines both the “outside-in” and “coupled” modes of open innovation. From an analysis of prior research on how firms leverage external sources of innovation...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  2. How to Avoid Severe Incidents at Pumped Storage Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masashi; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Pumped storage is now increasing its importance as the most powerful and reliable tool for stabilizing the electrical network, especially under the increase of intermittent power sources like wind-power and solar-power. However, pumped storage power plants have generally more machinery troubles than the conventional hydropower plants and sometimes they encountered unexpected severe incidents having long-term outage and a considerable restoration cost. The present paper provides some study results about general tendencies of machinery troubles in pumped storage, some examples of severe incidents mainly about the electro-mechanical troubles but also about the flood and fire, and possible scenarios which may lead into a severe result. Finally, it provides lessons learned and some recommendations to avoid severe incidents based on experiences.

  3. Reproducibility Issues: Avoiding Pitfalls in Animal Inflammation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laman, Jon D; Kooistra, Susanne M; Clausen, Björn E

    2017-01-01

    In light of an enhanced awareness of ethical questions and ever increasing costs when working with animals in biomedical research, there is a dedicated and sometimes fierce debate concerning the (lack of) reproducibility of animal models and their relevance for human inflammatory diseases. Despite evident advancements in searching for alternatives, that is, replacing, reducing, and refining animal experiments-the three R's of Russel and Burch (1959)-understanding the complex interactions of the cells of the immune system, the nervous system and the affected tissue/organ during inflammation critically relies on in vivo models. Consequently, scientific advancement and ultimately novel therapeutic interventions depend on improving the reproducibility of animal inflammation models. As a prelude to the remaining hands-on protocols described in this volume, here, we summarize potential pitfalls of preclinical animal research and provide resources and background reading on how to avoid them.

  4. Avoiding Loops and Packet Losses in Internet Service Protocol Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Priyanka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Even in well managed Large ISP networks, failures of links and routers are common. Due to these failures the routers update their routing tables. Transient loops can occur in the networks when the routers adapt their forwarding tables. In this paper, a new approach is proposed that lets the network converge to its optimal state without loops and the related packet lossless. The mechanism (OUTFC-Ordered Updating Technique with Fast Convergence is based on an ordering of the updates of the forwarding tables of the routers and fast convergence. Typically we have chosen a Network consisting of routers and Link costs for simulation. Link failures are simulated. Avoiding transient loops in each case is demonstrated, by constructing a Reverse Shortest Path Tree (RSPT.

  5. Pitfalls to avoid when using phage display for snake toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Lauridsen, Line Præst; Lomonte, Bruno; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Lohse, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies are thus warranted, and phage display technology may be a promising avenue for bringing antivenoms into the modern era of biologics. Although phage display technology represents a robust and high-throughput approach for the discovery of antibody-based antitoxins, several pitfalls may present themselves when animal toxins are used as targets for phage display selection. Here, we report selected critical challenges from our own phage display experiments associated with biotinylation of antigens, clone picking, and the presence of amber codons within antibody fragment structures in some phage display libraries. These challenges may be detrimental to the outcome of phage display experiments, and we aim to help other researchers avoiding these pitfalls by presenting their solutions.

  6. Converging evidence of social avoidant behavior in schizophrenia from two approach-avoidance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-10-01

    Many people with schizophrenia suffer from social impairments characterized by active social avoidance, which is related to social phobia common in schizophrenia, while motivational impairments can also result in passive social withdrawal. Although social avoidance is frequently reported in this population, this is the first study to directly compare approach-avoidance tendencies in schizophrenia patients (N = 37) and healthy controls (N = 29). Participants performed two tasks: a computerized approach-avoidance task (AAT) to assess response tendencies toward images of happy and angry faces with direct or averted gaze and a one-to-one personal space test (PST) to gauge more naturalistic approach-avoidance behaviors toward a real person bearing a neutral expression. The AAT results showed that both groups showed faster avoidance responses to angry faces and faster approach responses to happy faces with a direct gaze. Happy faces with averted gaze, however, resulted in faster avoidance responses in the patient group only. On the PST, the patients approached the experimenter less than healthy controls did. This measure of interpersonal distance was positively related to positive symptom severity. Delusions of reference and increased sensitivity to social rejection may explain the patients' avoidance tendencies in response to pictures of happy faces with averted gaze and in the presence of an actual person. The current findings demonstrate the importance of others adopting positive and unambiguous attitudes when interacting with schizophrenia patients to minimize behavioral avoidance patterns, which is particularly relevant for relatives and clinicians whose interactions with the patients are crucial to facilitating treatment and promoting healthy social relationships.

  7. Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-12-01

    There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

  8. Utility Tax Avoidance Program in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    Statistical Projections - Utility Costs And Taxes (Values Presented in Euros and Dollars) Electric Point Estimate Lower Bound U pper Bound Euros...Estimate Lower Bound U pper Bound Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Iolal Utility Cost E1,464,848 $2, 101,526 E1,094,587 $1,570,335 E1,835,109...298,367 348,671 500,216 Water Point Estimate Lower Bound U pper Bound Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Iolal Utility Cost E166,296 $238,574

  9. Construction dispute research conceptualisation, avoidance and resolution

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    There are three specific purposes of Construction Dispute Research. First, this volume aims to summarise studies on construction dispute. Second, apart from the theoretical constructs, where appropriate empirical tests are also included. This approach serves to go beyond the commonly used anecdotal approach for the subject matters. Third, it is the sincere hope of the authors that this book will help shaping research agenda of construction dispute.  The studies are mostly framed from a management perspective drawing on methods and concepts in contract law, economics, psychology and management science.   The book has twenty chapters that are arranged in four parts covering conceptualisation, avoidance, negotiation and mediation. Part 1 is devoted for dispute conceptualisation. A building is only as strong as its foundation. Thus it is no better start to study construction dispute by conceptualisation. The theme of Part 2 is dispute avoidance. The conventional wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ se...

  10. Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  11. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    China and other authoritarian states notoriously keep mum about disasters. Yet two recent but dissimilar Chinese responses to infectious disease epidemics show that authoritarian crisis management can shift from secrecy to openness. China maintained prolonged secrecy during 2003 SARS, yet was ope...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership.......China and other authoritarian states notoriously keep mum about disasters. Yet two recent but dissimilar Chinese responses to infectious disease epidemics show that authoritarian crisis management can shift from secrecy to openness. China maintained prolonged secrecy during 2003 SARS, yet was open...... from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...

  12. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Hallem, Elissa A.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement....

  13. Potentially Avoidable Peripartum Hysterectomies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin; Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2016-01-01

    to minimize the number of unnecessary peripartum hysterectomies, obstetricians and anesthesiologists should investigate individual cases by structured clinical audit, and disseminate and discuss the results for educational purposes. An international collaboration is warranted to strengthen our recommendations......OBJECTIVE: To audit the clinical management preceding peripartum hysterectomy and evaluate if peripartum hysterectomies are potentially avoidable and by which means. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed a structured audit form based on explicit criteria for the minimal mandatory management...

  14. Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/

  15. Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claire; Duca, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/

  16. [Mortality by avoidable causes in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurán, Albenia; López, Elizabeth; Pinilla, Consuelo; Sierra, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    The infant-mortality rate in children aged less than five is an indicator of the general state of health of a population and directly reflects the quality of life and the level of socio-economic development of a country. Avoidable mortality was assessed in preschool children as a reflection of Colombia quality of life and socio-economic development. Mortality trends were analyzed in preschool children aged less than five throughout Colombia during a 20-year period from 1985-2004, and focused on mortality causes that were considered avoidable. This was a descriptive, retrospective study; the sources of information were Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística records of deaths and population projections 1985-2004. Mortality rate due to avoidable causes was the statistical indicator. In children aged less than one, the reducible mortality due to "early diagnosis and medical treatment" occupied the first place amongst causes for every year of the study period and accounted for more than 50% of recorded deaths. In children aged 1 to 4, the category "other important reducible causes" was associated with 40% of recorded deaths-deaths due mainly to respiratory diseases. Over the 20-year period, the avoidable mortality rate decreased by 34% in children aged less than one, in children 1-4, it decreased by 23%. Although the infant-mortality rate in preschool children was reduced, the decrease was small, from 80% to 77%. The situation requires more analysis with respect to strategies in public health, particularly concerning preventable diseases of the infancy.

  17. Potentially avoidable peripartum hysterectomies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin; Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2016-01-01

    to minimize the number of unnecessary peripartum hysterectomies, obstetricians and anesthesiologists should investigate individual cases by structured clinical audit, and disseminate and discuss the results for educational purposes. An international collaboration is warranted to strengthen our recommendations......Objective: To audit the clinical management preceding peripartum hysterectomy and evaluate if peripartum hysterectomies are potentially avoidable and by which means. Material and Methods: We developed a structured audit form based on explicit criteria for the minimal mandatory management...

  18. Tax avoidance: Definition and prevention issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of resolving issues pertaining to tax avoidance, and particularly its aggressive forms, has been the focal point of discussion among tax scholars which is increasingly gaining attention of politicians alike. As opposed to tax evasion (which is illegal, the phenomenon of tax avoidance calls for careful consideration of state fiscal interests and a highly precise demarcation of the thin line between the acceptable and unacceptable conduct. In many contemporary states, tax avoidance (which implies a formal behaviour of tax payers within the limits of tax legislation but contrary to the tax regulation objectives is declared to be illegitimate. State authorities do not want to tolerate such activity, which results in tax payers' reduction or avoidance of tax liabilities. We should also bear in mind that all tax payers have the tax planning option at their disposal, by means of which they make sure that they do not pay more tax than they are legally obliged to. However, in case they skilfully use the tax regulation flaws and loopholes for the sole purpose of tax evasion, and/or resort to misrepresentation and deceptive constructs, they are considered to be exceeding the limits of acceptable tax behaviour. In comparison to the specific anti-abuse measures which have been built into some national tax legislations, there is a growing number of states that introduce the general anti-abuse legislations, which is based on judicial doctrines or statutory legislation. Yet, there is a notable difference among the envisaged anti-abuse measures depending on whether the national legislation is based on the Anglo-American or European-Continental legal system. The efficiency of applying these general anti-abuse rules in taxation largely rests on their interpretation as well as on their relationship with the principle of legality.

  19. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  20. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallem, Elissa A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-06-10

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFbeta signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm.

  1. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M

    2014-09-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.

  2. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  3. How does a cyclist avoid obstacles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadait, Masayuki; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the ways bicycles swerve off sidewalks onto roads under various conditions. Seven students, five males and two females participated in an experiment on a road with a 100-cm wide sidewalk. Footage of each participant on a bicycle evading obstacles such as a utility pole and pedestrian were taken with a video camera, while a front-wheel view of the path taken by the bicycle was recorded simultaneously with a digital camera. Twelve experimental conditions were used for each participant, consisting of all the combinations of (1) three obstacle types, (2) the side (left or right) to which the bicycle went to avoid the obstacle, and (3) two weather conditions. Based on the two recorded scenes, the path was then analyzed from the viewpoint of how the bicycle swerved to avoid hitting the obstacle. We found that the conditions of riding a bicycle with an umbrella caused a larger swerve to avoid the obstacle than those conditions when the rider did not have an umbrella. In particular, the condition in which the obstacle was a pedestrian who also had an umbrella caused the largest swerve. Furthermore, the distance required to become aligned with the sidewalk when the obstacle was a pedestrian walking toward the cyclist was longer than that for other obstacles. The swerve width data showed interesting results, including a tendency for swerve width to be wider when the obstacle was a utility pole compared with other obstacles.

  4. Granting silence to avoid wireless collisions

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il

    2010-10-01

    We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.

  5. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  6. See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative collision avoidance radar and communication technology to detect and track both cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The system...

  7. A Real Options Approach to Quantity and Cost Optimization for Lifetime and Bridge Buys of Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    greater than zero penalty cost avoided , but LTB costs will have to be paid. The cost avoidances in Equation 1 are uncertain due to uncertainties in...buys and to determine the optimum part quantity for a lifetime or bridge buy. The approach accommodates uncertainties in demand, holding costs, and end... uncertainties in demand, holding costs, and end of support dates. Introduction Background A significant problem facing many complex systems is

  8. Minimizing Costs Can Be Costly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A quite common practice, even in academic literature, is to simplify a decision problem and model it as a cost-minimizing problem. In fact, some type of models has been standardized to minimization problems, like Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAPs, where a maximization formulation would be treated as a “generalized” QAP and not solvable by many of the specially designed softwares for QAP. Ignoring revenues when modeling a decision problem works only if costs can be separated from the decisions influencing revenues. More often than we think this is not the case, and minimizing costs will not lead to maximized profit. This will be demonstrated using spreadsheets to solve a small example. The example is also used to demonstrate other pitfalls in network models: the inability to generally balance the problem or allocate costs in advance, and the tendency to anticipate a specific type of solution and thereby make constraints too limiting when formulating the problem.

  9. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil; Calculo de viabilidade economica de fontes alternativas de energia considerando seus custos ambientais para pequenas comuidades da regiao nordeste brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  10. Lean Cost Management Analysis on Food Processing Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce Lean Cost Management (LCM that tries to create creating value for customers and performs whole cost management in enterprise’s entire life cycle under structure of target cost, cost sustaining and cost improvement guided by reverse thinking into food processing enterprise to construct LCM system from aspects of external value chain analysis as well as internal cost management. Dynamic pricing game model was used to provide cost improvement on food enterprise value chain so as to minimize whole cost. The target cost was divided into each part in design phase supported by cost programming, cost reduction and cost improving. Case study shows that such cost suppressing method can reduce cost of food processing enterprises and improve long-term competitiveness.

  11. Optimal Auctions with Financial Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.; Onderstal, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We construct optimal auctions when bidders face financial externalities.In a Coasean World, in which the seller cannot prevent a perfect resale market, nor withhold the object, the lowest-price all-pay auction is optimal.In a Myersonean World, in which the seller can both prevent resale after the au

  12. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  13. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  14. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  15. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  16. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal;

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  17. Post-external dacryocystorhinostomy lagophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odat, Thabit A; Odat, Haitham A; Khraisat, Heba; Odat, Mohannad A; Alzoubi, Firas Q

    2015-06-01

    To describe lagophthalmos and eyelid closure abnormality after external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). A retrospective review of medical records and postoperative photographs of 79 patients who underwent external DCR for nasolacrimal duct obstruction and developed eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos with or without exposure keratopathy was conducted. Collected data included age, sex, indication for surgery, laterality, length and type of incision, length of follow-up duration, presence of punctate epithelial keratopathy, and time for resolution of eyelid closure abnormalities. Twenty-seven patients with 28 external dacryocystorhinostomy had postoperative eyelid closure abnormalities. Male to female ratio was 1:6. The mean age was 40.1 years (range 9-80 years). All surgeries were performed through diagonal skin incision. Lagophthalmos involving the medial third of the palpebral fissure was noticed in 28.6 % of cases. All patients had hypometric blink mainly of the upper eyelid. One patient had punctate epithelial keratopathy. Resolution of lagophthalmos was noticed over a period of 1-5 weeks with an average of 3 weeks. None of the patients continued to have residual hypometric blink or punctate keratopathy at the last follow-up time. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 months (range 3-6 months). Eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos after external DCR are underestimated problems. Spontaneous resolution is seen in all cases weeks to months after surgery.

  18. Enhancing Cost Realism through Risk-Driven Contracting: Designing Incentive Fees Based on Probabilistic Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    it would award a CPFF contract to what it knew to be the lowest cost contractor to avoid the risk premium of incentive contracts ( Samuelson , 1986... Samuelson , W. (1986). Bidding for contracts. Management Science, 32(12), 1533–1550. Scherer, F. M. (1964). The theory of contractual incentives for cost

  19. How cost effective is CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, D.; Huizinga, J.

    1989-04-01

    A critical review of the calculations and conclusions of the CHP (combined heat and power generation) Preconditions Working Group, on which an article was published in the November 1988 issue of this magazine. According to the review a correct assignment of costs avoided in the power generating area is more important than gas price reduction. In a postscript to the review the authors of the November article oppose this view. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A cost-efficiency and health benefit approach to improve urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A I; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Relvas, H; Duque, L; Roebeling, P; Lopes, M; Costa, S; Monteiro, A; Gama, C; Sá, E; Borrego, C; Teixeira, J P

    2016-11-01

    When ambient air quality standards established in the EU Directive 2008/50/EC are exceeded, Member States are obliged to develop and implement Air Quality Plans (AQP) to improve air quality and health. Notwithstanding the achievements in emission reductions and air quality improvement, additional efforts need to be undertaken to improve air quality in a sustainable way - i.e. through a cost-efficiency approach. This work was developed in the scope of the recently concluded MAPLIA project "Moving from Air Pollution to Local Integrated Assessment", and focuses on the definition and assessment of emission abatement measures and their associated costs, air quality and health impacts and benefits by means of air quality modelling tools, health impact functions and cost-efficiency analysis. The MAPLIA system was applied to the Grande Porto urban area (Portugal), addressing PM10 and NOx as the most important pollutants in the region. Four different measures to reduce PM10 and NOx emissions were defined and characterized in terms of emissions and implementation costs, and combined into 15 emission scenarios, simulated by the TAPM air quality modelling tool. Air pollutant concentration fields were then used to estimate health benefits in terms of avoided costs (external costs), using dose-response health impact functions. Results revealed that, among the 15 scenarios analysed, the scenario including all 4 measures lead to a total net benefit of 0.3M€·y(-1). The largest net benefit is obtained for the scenario considering the conversion of 50% of open fire places into heat recovery wood stoves. Although the implementation costs of this measure are high, the benefits outweigh the costs. Research outcomes confirm that the MAPLIA system is useful for policy decision support on air quality improvement strategies, and could be applied to other urban areas where AQP need to be implemented and monitored. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Avoiding unseen obstacles: Subcortical vision is not sufficient to maintain normal obstacle avoidance behaviour during reaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alasdair I; Schenk, Thomas; Billino, Jutta; Macleod, Mary J; Hesse, Constanze

    2016-10-03

    Previous research found that a patient with cortical blindness (homonymous hemianopia) was able to successfully avoid an obstacle placed in his blind field, despite reporting no conscious awareness of it [Striemer, C. L., Chapman, C. S., & Goodale, M. A., 2009, PNAS, 106(37), 15996-16001]. This finding led to the suggestion that dorsal stream areas, that are assumed to mediate obstacle avoidance behaviour, may obtain their visual input primarily from subcortical pathways. Hence, it was suggested that normal obstacle avoidance behaviour can proceed without input from the primary visual cortex. Here we tried to replicate this finding in a group of patients (N = 6) that suffered from highly circumscribed lesions in the occipital lobe (including V1) that spared the subcortical structures that have been associated with action-blindsight. We also tested if obstacle avoidance behaviour differs depending on whether obstacles are placed only in the blind field or in both the blind and intact visual field of the patients simultaneously. As expected, all patients successfully avoided obstacles placed in their intact visual field. However, none of them showed reliable avoidance behaviour - as indicated by adjustments in the hand trajectory in response to obstacle position - for obstacles placed in their blind visual field. The effects were not dependent on whether one or two obstacles were present. These findings suggest that behaviour in complex visuomotor tasks relies on visual input from occipital areas.

  2. Why revisit your cost-accounting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Ricky

    2014-07-01

    Healthcare entities seeking to develop effective cost-accounting systems should take six steps to avoid potential pitfalls: Secure broad executive-level support for the effort. Ensure systems are in place to analyze the disparate data. Define measurable objectives to ensure that implementation achieves desired results. Give due consideration to implementation planning. Train support staff sufficiently to avoid underutilization. Develop a sufficiently broad base of staff support for the system.

  3. Optimal investment with fixed refinancing costs

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Jason G; Ingmar Nyman

    2001-01-01

    Case studies show that corporate managers seek financial independence to avoid interference by outside financiers. We incorporate this financial xenophobia as a fixed cost in a simple dynamic model of financing and investment. To avoid refinancing in the future, the firm alters its behavior depending on the extent of its financial xenophobia and the realization of a revenue shock. With a sufficiently adverse shock, the firm holds no liquidity. Otherwise, the firm precautionarily saves and hol...

  4. A power-efficient communication system between brain-implantable devices and external computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ning; Lee, Heung-No; Chang, Cheng-Chun; Sclabassi, Robert J; Sun, Mingui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a power efficient communication system for linking a brain-implantable device to an external system. For battery powered implantable devices, the processor and the transmitter power should be reduced in order to both conserve battery power and reduce the health risks associated with transmission. To accomplish this, a joint source-channel coding/decoding system is devised. Low-density generator matrix (LDGM) codes are used in our system due to their low encoding complexity. The power cost for signal processing within the implantable device is greatly reduced by avoiding explicit source encoding. Raw data which is highly correlated is transmitted. At the receiver, a Markov chain source correlation model is utilized to approximate and capture the correlation of raw data. A turbo iterative receiver algorithm is designed which connects the Markov chain source model to the LDGM decoder in a turbo-iterative way. Simulation results show that the proposed system can save up to 1 to 2.5 dB on transmission power.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Point to Candidate Genes for Electric Shock Avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Appel

    Full Text Available Electric shock is a common stimulus for nociception-research and the most widely used reinforcement in aversive associative learning experiments. Yet, nothing is known about the mechanisms it recruits at the periphery. To help fill this gap, we undertook a genome-wide association analysis using 38 inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains, which avoided shock to varying extents. We identified 514 genes whose expression levels and/ or sequences co-varied with shock avoidance scores. We independently scrutinized 14 of these genes using mutants, validating the effect of 7 of them on shock avoidance. This emphasizes the value of our candidate gene list as a guide for follow-up research. In addition, by integrating our association results with external protein-protein interaction data we obtained a shock avoidance-associated network of 38 genes. Both this network and the original candidate list contained a substantial number of genes that affect mechanosensory bristles, which are hair-like organs distributed across the fly's body. These results may point to a potential role for mechanosensory bristles in shock sensation. Thus, we not only provide a first list of candidate genes for shock avoidance, but also point to an interesting new hypothesis on nociceptive mechanisms.

  6. A model linking sources of stress to approach and avoidance coping styles of Turkish basketball referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark Howard; Sutarso, Toto; Ekmekci, Ridvan; Saraswati, Intan W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to externally validate and test a conceptual transient model involving six paths that linked sources of acute stress to avoidance and approach coping styles among Turkish basketball referees. The sample consisted of 125 Turkish basketball referees ranging in age from 18 to 36 years (mean = 25.58. σ = 3.69). The path analysis tested the relationships simultaneously from stressors, in consecutive order, distractions, subpar performance and verbal abuse, to coping styles, first both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive, and then approach-behaviour. Results indicated that the model achieved a good fit and that all paths tested simultaneously were significant. The distractions stressor was positively related to subpar performance, which, in turn, was positively related to verbal abuse. Verbal abuse was negatively associated with an avoidance-cognitive coping style and positively related to the approach-cognitive coping style. The results also supported a crossover effect of both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive on approach-behaviour. One implication of this study is that coping should be studied in naturally occurring stages, a process-oriented approach. Another implication is that approach and avoidance coping styles, each sub-divided into cognitive and behavioural categories, provide a meaningful framework which provides sports officials a coherent structure for learning and improving ways to cope with acute stress experienced during the contest.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Point to Candidate Genes for Electric Shock Avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Mirjam; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; König, Christian; Bockstaller, Marie; Oguz, Tuba; Khalili, Afshin; Antwi-Adjei, Emmanuel; Schauer, Tamas; Margulies, Carla; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Yarali, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Electric shock is a common stimulus for nociception-research and the most widely used reinforcement in aversive associative learning experiments. Yet, nothing is known about the mechanisms it recruits at the periphery. To help fill this gap, we undertook a genome-wide association analysis using 38 inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains, which avoided shock to varying extents. We identified 514 genes whose expression levels and/ or sequences co-varied with shock avoidance scores. We independently scrutinized 14 of these genes using mutants, validating the effect of 7 of them on shock avoidance. This emphasizes the value of our candidate gene list as a guide for follow-up research. In addition, by integrating our association results with external protein-protein interaction data we obtained a shock avoidance-associated network of 38 genes. Both this network and the original candidate list contained a substantial number of genes that affect mechanosensory bristles, which are hair-like organs distributed across the fly's body. These results may point to a potential role for mechanosensory bristles in shock sensation. Thus, we not only provide a first list of candidate genes for shock avoidance, but also point to an interesting new hypothesis on nociceptive mechanisms.

  8. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  9. The influence of mastery-avoidance goals on performance improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Anseel, Frederik

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments focused on examining the influence of mastery-avoidance goals on performance improvement, and more specifically, on mastery-avoidance goals grounded in an intrapersonal standard. That is, herein, mastery-avoidance goals entail striving to avoid doing worse than one has done before. B

  10. EDOVE: Energy and Depth Variance-Based Opportunistic Void Avoidance Scheme for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouk, Safdar Hussain; Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Park, Kyung-Joon; Eun, Yongsoon

    2017-09-26

    Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UASN) comes with intrinsic constraints because it is deployed in the aquatic environment and uses the acoustic signals to communicate. The examples of those constraints are long propagation delay, very limited bandwidth, high energy cost for transmission, very high signal attenuation, costly deployment and battery replacement, and so forth. Therefore, the routing schemes for UASN must take into account those characteristics to achieve energy fairness, avoid energy holes, and improve the network lifetime. The depth based forwarding schemes in literature use node's depth information to forward data towards the sink. They minimize the data packet duplication by employing the holding time strategy. However, to avoid void holes in the network, they use two hop node proximity information. In this paper, we propose the Energy and Depth variance-based Opportunistic Void avoidance (EDOVE) scheme to gain energy balancing and void avoidance in the network. EDOVE considers not only the depth parameter, but also the normalized residual energy of the one-hop nodes and the normalized depth variance of the second hop neighbors. Hence, it avoids the void regions as well as balances the network energy and increases the network lifetime. The simulation results show that the EDOVE gains more than 15 % packet delivery ratio, propagates 50 % less copies of data packet, consumes less energy, and has more lifetime than the state of the art forwarding schemes.

  11. Panic disorder: the psychobiology of external treat and introceptive distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2008-01-01

    Panic disorder seems to be mediated by the neuronal circuitry and neurochemical systems that have evolved to respond to external threatening stimuli. Distant threats activate prefrontal cortex (involved in complex planning of avoidance strategies), while immediate threats activate midbrain structures (involved in fast reflexive behaviors). Panic disorder may, however, also involve more specific interoceptive mechanisms. For example, the association between respiratory dysfunction and panic disorder has bolstered a false suffocation alarm hypothesis. Genetic and environmental contributors to panic disorder are beginning to be delineated. Effective pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are able to normalize the relevant psychobiology.

  12. External Cooling Coupled to Reduced Extremity Pressure Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence H.

    2011-01-01

    Although suited astronauts are currently cooled with a Liquid Cooled Ventilation Garment (LCVG), which can remove up to 85 percent of body heat, their effectiveness is limited because cooling must penetrate layers of skin, muscle, fat, bone, and tissue to reach the bloodstream, where its effect is prominent. Vasoconstriction further reduces the effectiveness by limiting arterial flow when exposed to cold (the frostbite response), resulting in a time constant on the order of 20 minutes from application to maximum effect. This delay can be crucial in severe exposure to hypo- or hyper-thermic conditions, compromising homeostasis. The purpose of this innovation is to provide a lightweight, effective means of delivering heat or cold from an external source directly to the bloodstream. The effectiveness of this ECCREP (External Cooling Coupled to Reduced Extremity Pressure) device is based on not having to penetrate layers of skin, muscle, fat, and tissue, thereby avoiding the thermal lag associated with their mass and heat capacity. This is accomplished by means of an outer boot operating at a slightly reduced pressure than the rest of the body, combined with an inner boot cooled or heated by an external source via water or chemicals. Heat transfer from the external source to the foot takes place by means of circulating water or flexible heat pipes.

  13. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  14. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  15. Recycling Perovskite Solar Cells To Avoid Lead Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Andreas; Petrus, Michiel L; Huber, Niklas; Bristow, Helen; Hu, Yinghong; Bein, Thomas; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-05-25

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite based solar cells have recently emerged as a serious competitor for large scale and low-cost photovoltaic technologies. However, since these solar cells contain toxic lead, a sustainable procedure for handling the cells after their operational lifetime is required to prevent exposure of the environment to lead and to comply with international electronic waste disposal regulations. Herein, we report a procedure to remove every layer of the solar cells separately, which gives the possibility to selectively isolate the different materials. Besides isolating the toxic lead iodide in high yield, we show that the PbI2 can be reused for the preparation of new solar cells with comparable performance and in this way avoid lead waste. Furthermore, we show that the most expensive part of the solar cell, the conductive glass (FTO), can be reused several times without any reduction in the performance of the devices. With our simple recycling procedure, we address both the risk of contamination and the waste disposal of perovskite based solar cells while further reducing the cost of the system. This brings perovskite solar cells one step closer to their introduction into commercial systems.

  16. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the ...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases.......This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...

  17. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  18. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education.

  19. Conflict Avoidance by Descent Behind the Intruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Magister

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The paramount priorities for safe implementation of a singlepilot manned cockpit concept and the futuristic concept of asingle pilot acting as a supervisor for a fully automated aircraftflying on incessantly self-optimised trajectories are eliminationsof the risk of mid-air collisions and of conflicts resulting fromthe lack of safe airborne separations. Avoidance procedureswith initiation of descent behind the intruder for conflict resolutionbetween a pair of aircraft where one of them is in the vicinityof the top of its descent represents merely one little piece ofthis giant puzzle.

  20. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting method,on the other hand, but the comparing of tax reduction between methods of exemption and crediting.

  1. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY VERSUS TAX AVOIDANCE PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Ciprian-Dumitru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide crisis has made multinational companies that are engaged in corporate social responsibility actions to manage their businesses through the lens of various tax avoidance practices. The content of this paper is important due to the fact that tries to identify the impact in case of companies active in corporate social responsibility actions versus their tax structures orientation. Corporate social responsibility literature did not paid enough attention on the impact of the tax avoidance practices of companies. Tax, as a concept, brings in itself an important corporate financial impact with subsequent effects for the life of multiple citizens in countries where private entities are operating. Even though companies are usually expressing their ethical and responsible conduct in respect of the social environment, there are many cases when the business practices were not aligned with the declared corporate behavior. This paper seeks firstly to examine whether companies engaged in tax avoidance practices (ex. offshore tax havens consider that continue to act socially responsible. Secondly, the paper examines the influence on attending the stakeholders’ goals for those companies practicing tax avoidance and its implications on corporate social responsibility actions. Moreover, the paper focuses also on the aspects described before from the perspective of the corporate entities operating in Romania. This paper’s intention is to use and to develop the results of previous research carried out by Lutz Preus (University of London and, subsequently, by Senators Levin, Coleman and Obama in their “Stop Tax Haven Abuse Bill”. The implications and the objectives of this material are to highlight, to identify and to spot clearly the relations and the influences of the tax haven practices of corporations versus their undertaken social responsibility actions. Moreover, this paper brings a fresh perspective of this topic from the

  2. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    to be identified. The tissues affected are mainly the epithelial lining of the respiratory organs (nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx and lung), and urinary tract (renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and urinary bladder), the mesothelial linings, the bone marrow and the liver. During the period 1970-84, almost 4...... around the year 2000, with 1,890 among men and fewer than 25 among women. The proportions that could be avoided if industrial carcinogens were eliminated would be 70% of mesotheliomas, 20% of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses, 12% of lung cancers, 5% of laryngeal cancers, 2% of urinary bladder...

  3. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  4. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  5. Inbreeding avoidance in spiders: evidence for rescue effect in fecundity of female spiders with outbreeding opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Maklakov, A.A.; Schilling, Nadia

    2007-01-01

    avoidance can be because of low risk of inbreeding, variation in tolerance to inbreeding or high costs of outbreeding. We examined the relationship between inbreeding depression and inbreeding avoidance adaptations under two levels of inbreeding in the spider Oedothorax apicatus, asking whether preference...... for unrelated sperm via pre- and/or post-copulatory mechanisms could restore female fitness when inbreeding depression increases. Using inbred isofemale lines we provided female spiders with one or two male spiders of different relatedness in five combinations: one male sib; one male nonsib; two male sibs; two...

  6. Dipolar fluids under external perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-20

    We discuss recent developments and present new findings on the structural and phase properties of dipolar model fluids influenced by various external perturbations. We concentrate on systems of spherical particles with permanent (point) dipole moments. Starting from what is known about the three-dimensional systems, particular emphasis is given to dipolar fluids in different confining situations involving both simple and complex (disordered) pore geometries. Further topics concern the effect of quenched positional disorder, the influence of external (electric or magnetic) fields, and the fluid-fluid phase behaviour of various dipolar mixtures. It is demonstrated that due to the translational-orientational coupling and due to the long range of dipolar interactions even simple perturbations such as hard walls can have a profound impact on the systems. (topical review)

  7. External observer reflections on QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on QBism. I have no intrinsic sympathy neither to QBism nor to subjective interpretation of probability in general. However, I have been following development of QBism from its very beginning, observing its evolution and success, sometimes with big surprise. Therefore my reflections on QBism can be treated as "external observer" reflections. I hope that my representation of this interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) has some degree of objectivity. It may be useful for researchers who are interested in quantum foundations, but do not belong to the QBism-community, because I tried to analyze essentials of QBism critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages, as in a typical publication of QBists). QBists may be interested as well - in comments of an external observer who monitored development of this approach to QM during last 16 years. The second part of the paper is devoted to interpretations of probability, objective versus subjective, and view...

  8. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  9. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  10. Underactuated spacecraft formation reconfiguration with collision avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang

    2017-02-01

    Underactuated collision-free controllers are proposed in this paper for multiple spacecraft formation reconfiguration in circular orbits with the loss of either the radial or in-track thrust. A nonlinear dynamical model of underactuated formation flying is introduced, which is then linearized about circular orbits for controllability and feasibility analyses on underactuated formation reconfiguration. By using the inherent dynamics coupling of system states, reduced-order sliding mode controllers are then designed for either case to indirectly stabilize the system trajectories to the desired formations. In consideration of the collision-avoidance requirement, the artificial potential function method is then employed to design novel underactuated collision-avoidance maneuvers. Rigorous proof substantiates the capabilities of such maneuvers in preventing collisions even in the absence of radial or in-track thrust. Furthermore, a Lyapunov-based analysis ensures the asymptotic stability of the overall closed-loop system. Numerical simulations are performed in a J2-perturbed environment to verify the validity of the proposed underactuated control schemes for collision-free reconfiguration.

  11. Honey bees selectively avoid difficult choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clint J; Barron, Andrew B

    2013-11-19

    Human decision-making strategies are strongly influenced by an awareness of certainty or uncertainty (a form of metacognition) to increase the chances of making a right choice. Humans seek more information and defer choosing when they realize they have insufficient information to make an accurate decision, but whether animals are aware of uncertainty is currently highly contentious. To explore this issue, we examined how honey bees (Apis mellifera) responded to a visual discrimination task that varied in difficulty between trials. Free-flying bees were rewarded for a correct choice, punished for an incorrect choice, or could avoid choosing by exiting the trial (opting out). Bees opted out more often on difficult trials, and opting out improved their proportion of successful trials. Bees could also transfer the concept of opting out to a novel task. Our data show that bees selectively avoid difficult tasks they lack the information to solve. This finding has been considered as evidence that nonhuman animals can assess the certainty of a predicted outcome, and bees' performance was comparable to that of primates in a similar paradigm. We discuss whether these behavioral results prove bees react to uncertainty or whether associative mechanisms can explain such findings. To better frame metacognition as an issue for neurobiological investigation, we propose a neurobiological hypothesis of uncertainty monitoring based on the known circuitry of the honey bee brain.

  12. Shape optimization of self-avoiding curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shawn W.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a softened notion of proximity (or self-avoidance) for curves. We then derive a sensitivity result, based on shape differential calculus, for the proximity. This is combined with a gradient-based optimization approach to compute three-dimensional, parameterized curves that minimize the sum of an elastic (bending) energy and a proximity energy that maintains self-avoidance by a penalization technique. Minimizers are computed by a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) method where the bending energy and proximity energy are approximated by a finite element method. We then apply this method to two problems. First, we simulate adsorbed polymer strands that are constrained to be bound to a surface and be (locally) inextensible. This is a basic model of semi-flexible polymers adsorbed onto a surface (a current topic in material science). Several examples of minimizing curve shapes on a variety of surfaces are shown. An advantage of the method is that it can be much faster than using molecular dynamics for simulating polymer strands on surfaces. Second, we apply our proximity penalization to the computation of ideal knots. We present a heuristic scheme, utilizing the SQP method above, for minimizing rope-length and apply it in the case of the trefoil knot. Applications of this method could be for generating good initial guesses to a more accurate (but expensive) knot-tightening algorithm.

  13. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    Cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) operations near Space Station Freedom will require positive collision avoidance maneuver (CAM) capability to preclude any change of collision, even in the event of CTV failures. The requirements for CAM are discussed, and the CAM design approach and design of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed; this design met requirements for OMV operation near the Space Station, provided a redundant collision avoidance maneuver capability. Significant portions of the OMV CAM design should be applicable to CTV. The key features of the OMV design are summarized and related to the CTV mission design to that of OMV's. CAM is a defined sequence of events executed by the CTV to place the vehicle in a safe position relative to a target such as the Space Station. CAM can be performed through software commands to the propulsion system, or through commands pre-stored in hardware. Various techniques for triggering CAM are considered, and the risks associated with CAM enable and execution in phases are considered. OMV CAM design features both hardware and software CAM capability, with analyses conducted to assess the ability to meet the collision-free requirement during all phases of the mission.

  14. Avoiding versus seeking: the relationship of information seeking to avoidance, blunting, coping, dissonance, and related concepts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Donald O.; Andrews, James E.; Johnson, J. David; Allard, Suzanne L.

    2005-01-01

    Question: How have theorists and empirical researchers treated the human tendency to avoid discomforting information? Data Sources: A historical review (1890–2004) of theory literature in communication and information studies, coupled with searches of recent studies on uptake of genetic testing and on coping strategies of cancer patients, was performed. Study Selection: The authors' review of the recent literature included searches of the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL databases between 1992 and summer of 2004 and selective, manual searches of earlier literature. Search strategies included the following subject headings and key words: MeSH headings: Genetic Screening/psychology, Decision Making, Neoplasms/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; CINAHL headings: Genetic Screening, Genetic Counseling, Anxiety, Decision Making, Decision Making/Patient; additional key words: avoidance, worry, monitoring, blunting, cancer. The “Related Articles” function in MEDLINE was used to perform additional “citation pearl” searching. Main Results: The assumption that individuals actively seek information underlies much of psychological theory and communication practice, as well as most models of the information-seeking process. However, much research has also noted that sometimes people avoid information, if paying attention to it will cause mental discomfort or dissonance. Cancer information in general and genetic screening for cancer in particular are discussed as examples to illustrate this pattern. Conclusion: That some patients avoid knowledge of imminent disease makes avoidance behavior an important area for social and psychological research, particularly with regard to genetic testing. PMID:16059425

  15. Avoiding versus seeking: the relationship of information seeking to avoidance, blunting, coping, dissonance, and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Donald O; Andrews, James E; Johnson, J David; Allard, Suzanne L

    2005-07-01

    How have theorists and empirical researchers treated the human tendency to avoid discomforting information? A historical review (1890-2004) of theory literature in communication and information studies, coupled with searches of recent studies on uptake of genetic testing and on coping strategies of cancer patients, was performed. The authors' review of the recent literature included searches of the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL databases between 1992 and summer of 2004 and selective, manual searches of earlier literature. Search strategies included the following subject headings and key words: MeSH headings: Genetic Screening/psychology, Decision Making, Neoplasms/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; CINAHL headings: Genetic Screening, Genetic Counseling, Anxiety, Decision Making, Decision Making/Patient; additional key words: avoidance, worry, monitoring, blunting, cancer. The "Related Articles" function in MEDLINE was used to perform additional "citation pearl" searching. The assumption that individuals actively seek information underlies much of psychological theory and communication practice, as well as most models of the information-seeking process. However, much research has also noted that sometimes people avoid information, if paying attention to it will cause mental discomfort or dissonance. Cancer information in general and genetic screening for cancer in particular are discussed as examples to illustrate this pattern. That some patients avoid knowledge of imminent disease makes avoidance behavior an important area for social and psychological research, particularly with regard to genetic testing.

  16. Network externalities across financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Iragorri, Carlos Alberto; Preciado Pua, Sergio Andrés; Ordóñez Herrera, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    We propose and estimate a financial distress model that explicitly accounts for the interactions or spill-over effects between financial institutions, through the use of a spatial continuity matrix that is build from financial network data of inter bank transactions. Such setup of the financial distress model allows for the empirical validation of the importance of network externalities in determining financial distress, in addition to institution specific and macroeconomic covariates. The re...

  17. Externe Kosten in der Energiewirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Alfred; Friedrich, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    Als externe Effekte werden unbeteiligte Dritte betreffende Zusatzkosten oder Zusatznutzen verstanden, die sich in den jeweiligen Güterpreisen nicht wiederfinden und denen die Betroffenen nicht indifferent gegenüberstehen. Die gegenwärtige Energiebereitstellung und -nutzung ist in vielen Bereichen eine wesentliche Quelle der Belastung von Umwelt und Natur. Begriffe und Schlagworte wie Waldsterben, Tankerunglücke, Tschernobyl und Treibhauseffekt seien in diesem Zusammenhang erwähnt.

  18. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas......, optimistic, and pessimistic behaviour, and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  19. INFANT AVOIDANCE DURING A TACTILE TASK PREDICTS AUTISM SPECTRUM BEHAVIORS IN TODDLERHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Micah A; Moore, Ginger A; Scaramella, Laura V; Reiss, David; Ganiban, Jody M; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-01-01

    The experience of touch is critical for early communication and social interaction; infants who show aversion to touch may be at risk for atypical development and behavior problems. The current study aimed to clarify predictive associations between infant responses to tactile stimuli and toddler autism spectrum, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors. This study measured 9-month-old infants' (N = 561; 58% male) avoidance and negative affect during a novel tactile task in which parents painted infants' hands and feet and pressed them to paper to make a picture. Parent reports on the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP), Internalizing, and Externalizing scales of the Child Behavior Checklist were used to measure toddler behaviors at 18 months. Infant observed avoidance and negative affect were significantly correlated; however, avoidance predicted subsequent PDP scores only, independent of negative affect, which did not predict any toddler behaviors. Findings suggest that incorporating measures of responses to touch in the study of early social interaction may provide an important and discriminating construct for identifying children at greater risk for social impairments related to autism spectrum behaviors. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. ENDOSCOPIC DCR VERSUS EXTERNAL DCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare success rates of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR and external DCR for acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective comparative non randomized study of 64 patients who presented with acquired NLD obstruction to a tertiary hospital. They were fully evaluated to ascertain the site of obstruction and patients with distal obstruction were included in the study. 34 patients underwent endoscopic DCR and 30 patients underwent external DCR RESULTS: 64 patients were included in the study and 72 procedures carried out. Success was achieved in 65 cases and failure in 7. Of the 7 failed cases, anatomical obstruction at the fistula site was found in 3, whereas functional failure was found in 4. In our patients, endoscopic DCR had a significantly higher success rate than external DCR, 95.23% versus 83.33% (P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of Endoscopic DCR for acquired NLDO in our group of patients was 95.23%, with endoscopic surgery showing better results.