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Sample records for avoid treating irritable

  1. Food avoidance in irritable bowel syndrome leads to a nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... that outline a constructive approach for the dietitian are needed to treat patients with IBS. ... skills of dietitians with regard to habitual eating and therapeutic ..... groups. A potential relationship exists between overweight/obesity.

  2. Carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations avoid professional exposure to irritants in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandier, Josefine; Ross-Hansen, Katrine; Carlsen, Berit C

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are associated with xerosis, atopic dermatitis, and early onset of hand eczema. Irritant exposure is a risk factor for occupational hand eczema, and FLG mutations increase the risk of occupational irritant contact dermatitis on the hands...... in hospital cohorts. It is unknown whether FLG mutations affect the level of irritant exposure....

  3. Aripiprazole for treating irritability in children & adolescents with autism: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh; Sylvie Tordjman; Nematollah Jaafari

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: No clear therapeutic benefits of antipsychotics have been reported for the treatment of behavioural symptoms in autism. This systematic review provides an assessment of evidence for treating irritability in autism by aripiprazole. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles about the effect of aripiprazole in children with autism. The articles were searched according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria speci...

  4. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara M. de Andréa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

  5. Aripiprazole for treating irritability in children & adolescents with autism: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: No clear therapeutic benefits of antipsychotics have been reported for the treatment of behavioural symptoms in autism. This systematic review provides an assessment of evidence for treating irritability in autism by aripiprazole. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles about the effect of aripiprazole in children with autism. The articles were searched according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria specifed for this review. All the double-blind, controlled, randomized, clinical trials examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for treating children and adolescents with autism were included. Results: From the 93 titles identified, 26 were irrelevant and 58 were evaluated for more details. Only five articles met the inclusive criteria. The evidence from precise randomized double blind clinical trials of aripiprazole for the treatment of autism in children and adolescents was convincing enough to recommend aripiprazole. Adverse effects were not very common and were usually mild. Interpretation & conclusions: Current evidence suggests that aripiprazole is as effective and safe as risperidone for treating irritability in autism. However, further studies with larger sample size and longer duration are required.

  6. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON ACUPOINT DIGITAL PRESSING FOR TREATING IRRITABLE SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POSTOPERATION OF MYOPORTHOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓阳

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To explore a new effective approach for treatment of the local irritable symptoms and signs resulted from myoporthosis operation.Methods:263 cases of radial keratotomy outpatients were divided into control group (n=49,90 eyes) and treatment group (n=214,412 eyes).Patients of control group were treated with 0.5% Chloramphenicol eye drops,3 times daily,1-2 drops/time,and with 0.5% Erythromycine eye ointment every night.In treatment group,patients were treated with acupoint and hand reflection area digital pressing method except with the same eye drops and eye ointment.Body acupoints used were Cuanzhu (BL 2),Yuyao (EX-HN 4),Sizhukong (TE 23),Sibai (ST 2) and Taiyang (EX-HN 5).The hand reflex areas used were Eye Area,Liver Area,Kidney Area,Spleen Area,Heart Area and Lung Area.Five days constituted a therapeutic course.Results:Following 3 courses (15 days) of treatment,the markedly effective rate and total effective rate of treatment group and control group were 74.51% and 38.89%,94.17% and 66.67% respectively.There was a significant difference between two groups in the total effective rate (P<0.05),showing the therapeutic effect of treatment group being better than that of control group.Conclusion:Acupoint digital pressing is rather effective in treatment of myoporthosis post-operation irritable symptoms and signs.

  7. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON ACUPOINT DIGITAL PRESSING FOR TREATING IRRITABLE SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POSTOPERATION OF MYOPORTHOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoyang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new effective approach for treatment of the local irritable symptoms and signs resulted from myoporthosis operation. Methods: 263 cases of radial keratotomy outpatients were divided into control group (n=49, 90 eyes) and treatment group (n=214, 412 eyes). Patients of control group were treated with 0.5%Chloramphenicol eye drops, 3 times daily, 1 -2 drops/time, and with 0.5% Erythromycine eye ointment every night.In treatment group, patients were treated with aoupoint and hand reflection area digital pressing method except with the same eye drops and eye ointment. Body acupoints used were Cuanzhu (BL 2), Yuyao (EX-HN 4), Sizhukong (TE 23), Sibai (ST 2) and Taiyang (EX-HN 5). The hand reflex areas used were Eye Area, Liver Area, Kidney Area,Spleen Area, Heart Area and Lung Area. Five days constituted a therapeutic course. Results: Following 3 courses ( 15days) of treatment, the markedly effective rate and total effective rate of treatment group and control group were 74.51% and 38.89%, 94.17% and 66.67% respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in the total effective rate ( P < 0.05), showing the therapeutic effect of treatment group being better than that of control group. Conclusion: Acupoint digital pressing is rather effective in treatment of myoporthosis post-operation irritable symptoms and signs.

  8. The Downside of Fat: Avoiding and Treating Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Irene A; Keller, Gregory; Groth, Michael J; Nabili, Vishad

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional facial volume restoration using fat has become widely accepted as an essential component of facial rejuvenation. Transplanted fat has benefits due to its inherently nonallergenic nature. The versatility of fat grafts allows for their use in all types of facial enhancement-improving the appearance of nasolabial folds, mesolabial grooves, flattened cheeks and upper lips, glabellar furrows, lipoatrophy, acne scars, and temporal hollowing. Yet despite its virtues as the ideal filler, autologous fat has its shortcomings with risks of complications. Our objective in this article is to present a systematic approach demonstrating the complications that can occur with each step of autologous fat grafting in facial rejuvenation and offering pearls to avoid and treat these complications.

  9. Food intolerance and skin prick test in treated and untreated irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dae-Won Jun; Sang-Hoen Cho; Oh-Young Lee; Ho-Joo Yoon; Seok-Hwa Lee; Hang-Lak Lee; Ho-Soon Choi; Byung-Chul Yoon; Min-Ho Lee; Dong-Hoo Lee

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To correlate the clinical features of treated and untreated patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to the results of skin prick test (SPT) for food and inhalant allergens.METHODS: We recruited 105 subjects to form three different target groups: treated group (n =44) undergoing treatment for IBS, untreated group (n =31) meeting the Rome Ⅱ criteria without treatment for IBS, control group (n = 30) with no IBS symptoms.RESULTS: SPT results were different among the three groups in which SPT was positive in 17 (38.6%) treated patients, in 5 (16.1%) untreated patients and in 1 (3.3%) control (P<0.01). The number of positive SPTs was greater in the IBS group than in the control group (P<0.001). The number of positive food SPTs was higher in the treated IBS group than in the untreated IBS group (P=0.03).CONCLUSION: Positive food SPT is higher in IBS patients than in controls.

  10. Clinical Study on Acupuncture in Treating Diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧荣; 杨允; 吴焕淦; 肖元春

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in colonic membrane of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and the clinical efficacy of herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion in treating it, and to explore the action mechanisms. Methods: Seventy-three subjects were randomized into two groups: moxibustion group in which 37 cases were treated by herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion and needling group in which 36 cases were treated by needling. The clinical efficacy and 5-HT expression in colonic membrane were observed. Results: The cure rate was 43.2% in the moxibustion group and 36.1% in the needling group, with no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion could reduce 5-HT expression in colonic membrane. Conclusion: Herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion might improve the clinical symptoms of IBS-D by reducing 5-HT expression.%目的:观察腹泻型肠易激综合征(irritable bowel syndrome,IBS)患者结肠粘膜5-HT趸化及隔药灸治疗的临床疗效,初步探讨其作用机理.方法:临床收集腹泻型IBS患者73例,随机分为隔药灸组(37例)和针刺组(36例)进行治疗,观察临床疗效,并观察隔药灸治疗对典型患者结肠粘膜5一HT表达的影响.结果:隔药灸组痊愈率为43.2%,针刺组痊愈率为36.1%,两组间无统计学差异(P>O.05);隔药灸治疗能够改善患者结肠粘膜5-HT异常增高的表达.结论:隔药灸能够改善腹泻型IBs临床症状,可能是通过调节5-HT表达发挥治疗作用.

  11. Acupuncture-moxibustion in treating irritable bowel syndrome: how does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Peng; Hong, Jue; An, Cai-Ping; Zhang, Dan; Huang, Yan; Wu, Huan-Gan; Zhang, Cui-Hong; Meeuwsen, Sian

    2014-05-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional intestinal disease characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. It has drawn great attention because of its high prevalence, reoccurring symptoms, and severe influence on patients' lives. Many clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of acupuncture-moxibustion in treating IBS. Increasing attention has been paid to research regarding the action mechanisms of acupuncture-moxibustion for IBS, and the adoption of modern techniques has achieved some progress. This article reviews the latest advances among action mechanism studies from the perspectives of gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, the brain-gut axis, the neuroendocrine system, and the immune system. It is shown that acupuncture-moxibustion can effectively regulate the above items, and thus, this treatment should have a high efficacy in the treatment of IBS. This article also identifies existing problems in current mechanism research and raises several ideas for future studies. Further revelations regarding these action mechanisms will promote the application of acupuncture-moxibustion in treating IBS.

  12. Physician Variability in Treating Pain and Irritability of Unknown Origin in Children with Severe Neurological Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold B Siden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain and irritability of unknown origin (PIUO is a challenging problem for nonverbal children with severe neurological impairments. PIUO is not associated with an identifiable source of nociceptive-inflammatory or neuropathic pain.

  13. Efficacy and safety of enteric coated capsules of anise oil to treat irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaffa-Jahromi, Maryam; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Pasalar, Mehdi; Afsharypuor, Suleiman; Tamaddon, Ali-Mohammad

    2016-12-24

    Anise is a well-recognized plant in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) sources. Anise oil has been suggested for the treatment of bowel disorders in Persian medical textbooks. Based on TPM scholars, this ingredient has a favorable effect on gastrointestinal diseases. We did this trial to determine the efficacy and safety of enteric coated capsules of anise oil for clinical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This three-armed double-blind clinical trial was carried out from August 2014 to February 2015. 120 patients were divided into three groups by block randomization: AnisEncap, placebo and Colpermin(®). Patients in each group received 3 similar capsules per day for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was measured as a visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and the secondary outcome was assessed with an IBS-quality of life questionnaire. Chi-squared tests were used for categorical variables and t-tests to compare continuous variables. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics among the three groups. According to intention-to-treat sample analysis, 75% of patients in the treatment group, 35% in the placebo group and 52.5% in active control group were free from IBS symptoms (Pcapsules of anise oil was 4, which indicated significantly superior efficacy compared to the other two groups (P<0.001). The effectiveness of AnisEncap was superior to that of placebo or Colpermin(®) in patients with IBS. Further studies are suggested to find the main mechanism of action of anise oil in this regard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of acupuncture to treat irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Guan-Qun; Zhang, Shuo

    2014-02-21

    To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) through meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. We searched MEDLIINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1966 to February 2013 for double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating the efficacy of acupuncture in the management of IBS. Studies were screened for inclusion based on randomization, controls, and measurable outcomes reported. We used the modified Jadad score for assessing the quality of the articles. STATA 11.0 and Revman 5.0 were used for meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed by Begg's and Egger's tests. Six randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The modified Jadad score of the articles was > 3, and five articles were of high quality. We analyzed the heterogeneity and found that these studies did not cause heterogeneity in our meta-analysis. Begg's test showed P = 0.707 and Egger's test showed P = 0.334. There was no publication bias in our meta-analysis (Begg's test, P = 0.707; Egger's test, P = 0.334). From the forest plot, the diamond was on the right side of the vertical line and did not intersect with the line. The pooled relative risk for clinical improvement with acupuncture was 1.75 (95%CI: 1.24-2.46, P = 0.001). Using the two different systems of STATA 11.0 and Revman 5.0, we confirmed the significant efficacy of acupuncture for treating IBS. Acupuncture exhibits clinically and statistically significant control of IBS symptoms.

  15. How to Different and Treat Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Chinese Drugs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶春祥

    2003-01-01

    @@ Irritable bowel syndrome is a syndrome of thedigestive tract due to interaction of neural andpsychic factors. In clinic, it often manifests itself asrepeated attacks of abdominal pain, diarrhea, oralternation of diarrhea and constipation, usuallyinduced by emotional changes. It is a functionalpathologic change commonly seen in the digestivesystem, constituting about 1/3 of the outpatients inthe digestive disease department, more in males thanin females (3:2), and mostly in adults.

  16. Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date

    OpenAIRE

    Nanayakkara WS; Skidmore PML; O’Brien L; Wilkinson TJ; Gearry RB

    2016-01-01

    Wathsala S Nanayakkara,1 Paula ML Skidmore,1 Leigh O'Brien,2 Tim J Wilkinson,3 Richard B Gearry,31Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Dietary Specialists, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Abstract: This review summarizes the published clinical studies concerning the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using restriction of Fermentable Oligosaccharide, Disaccharide, Monosac...

  17. Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanayakkara WS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wathsala S Nanayakkara,1 Paula ML Skidmore,1 Leigh O'Brien,2 Tim J Wilkinson,3 Richard B Gearry,31Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Dietary Specialists, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Abstract: This review summarizes the published clinical studies concerning the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS using restriction of Fermentable Oligosaccharide, Disaccharide, Monosaccharide, and Polyols in the diet (low FODMAP diet. In recent years, the data supporting low FODMAP diet for the management of IBS symptoms have emerged, including several randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and other observational studies. Unlike most dietary manipulations tried in the past to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS, all studies on low FODMAP diet have consistently shown symptomatic benefits in the majority of patients with IBS. However, dietary adherence by the patients and clear dietary intervention led by specialized dietitians appear to be vital for the success of the diet. Up to 86% of patients with IBS find improvement in overall gastrointestinal symptoms as well as individual symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, and flatulence following the diet. FODMAP restriction reduces the osmotic load and gas production in the distal small bowel and the proximal colon, providing symptomatic relief in patients with IBS. Long-term health effects of a low FODMAP diet are not known; however, stringent FODMAP restriction is not recommended owing to risks of inadequate nutrient intake and potential adverse effects from altered gut microbiota. In conclusion, the evidence to date strongly supports the efficacy of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of IBS. Further studies are required to understand any potential adverse effects of long-term restriction of FODMAPs. Keywords: irritable bowel

  18. Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Wathsala S; Skidmore, Paula Ml; O'Brien, Leigh; Wilkinson, Tim J; Gearry, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the published clinical studies concerning the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using restriction of Fermentable Oligosaccharide, Disaccharide, Monosaccharide, and Polyols in the diet (low FODMAP diet). In recent years, the data supporting low FODMAP diet for the management of IBS symptoms have emerged, including several randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and other observational studies. Unlike most dietary manipulations tried in the past to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS, all studies on low FODMAP diet have consistently shown symptomatic benefits in the majority of patients with IBS. However, dietary adherence by the patients and clear dietary intervention led by specialized dietitians appear to be vital for the success of the diet. Up to 86% of patients with IBS find improvement in overall gastrointestinal symptoms as well as individual symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, and flatulence following the diet. FODMAP restriction reduces the osmotic load and gas production in the distal small bowel and the proximal colon, providing symptomatic relief in patients with IBS. Long-term health effects of a low FODMAP diet are not known; however, stringent FODMAP restriction is not recommended owing to risks of inadequate nutrient intake and potential adverse effects from altered gut microbiota. In conclusion, the evidence to date strongly supports the efficacy of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of IBS. Further studies are required to understand any potential adverse effects of long-term restriction of FODMAPs.

  19. Bran: may irritate irritable bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M J; Whorwell, P J

    1998-05-01

    The irritable gut is known to be hypersensitive, and it is reasonable to suspect that patients with the disorder might be hyperreactive to agents that stimulate or irritate it. This appears to be a possible explanation for the adverse effects of bran on hospital patients with this disorder, but we do not yet know how this product affects community IBS sufferers. We cannot ignore the fact that fiber and bran have major beneficial effects in other areas, not least in the reduction of colonic carcinoma. In conclusion, it is probably best to recommend that patients with IBS be left to judge for themselves whether bran helps or exacerbates their symptoms, but there is enough evidence to suggest that the current dogma of routinely treating all IBS sufferers with bran should be challenged. Proprietary sources of fiber, such as ispaghula, may be more appropriate for those IBS subjects (for example, constipated) for whom fiber supplementation is believed justified.

  20. Exaggerated acquisition and resistance to extinction of avoidance behavior in treated heroin-dependent males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheynin, Jony; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Beck, Kevin D.; Servatius, Richard J.; Casbolt, Peter A.; Haber, Paul; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Hogarth, Lee; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Addiction is often conceptualized as a behavioral strategy for avoiding negative experiences. In rodents, opioid intake has been associated with abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these findings would generalize to human opioid-dependent subjects. Method Adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for heroin-dependence and treated with opioid medication (n=27), and healthy controls (n=26), were recruited between March–October 2013 and given a computer-based task to assess avoidance behavior. On this task, subjects controlled a spaceship and could either gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship, or hide in safe areas to avoid on-screen aversive events. Results While groups did not differ on escape responding (hiding) during the aversive event, heroin-dependent males (but not females) made more avoidance responses during a warning signal that predicted the aversive event (ANOVA, sex × group interaction, p=0.007). This group was also slower to extinguish the avoidance response when the aversive event no longer followed the warning signal (p=0.011). This behavioral pattern resulted in reduced opportunity to obtain reward without reducing risk of punishment. Results suggest that differences in avoidance behavior cannot be easily explained by impaired task performance or by exaggerated motor activity in male patients. Conclusion This study provides evidence for abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in opioid-dependent patients. Interestingly, data suggest abnormal avoidance is demonstrated only by male patients. Findings shed light on cognitive and behavioral manifestations of opioid addiction, and may facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to help affected individuals. PMID:27046310

  1. Anti-irritants I: Dose-response in acute irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    acute irritation in healthy volunteers. Each AI was used in 3 concentrations. Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate and 20% nonanoic acid in N-propanol. The irritant reactions were treated twice daily with AI-containing formulations from the time of removal...

  2. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natalia; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Burisch, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.ibs.constant-care......In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.......ibs.constant-care.dk). During a control period of the first 6-wk patients were asked to register their IBS-SSS and IBS-QoL on the web-application weekly without receiving any intervention. Thereafter, low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet (LFD) was introduced for the next 6 wk while continuing...... the registration. Though a small sample size a significant improvement in disease activity (IBS-SSS) was observed during both the control period, median: 278 (range: 122-377), P = 0.02, and subsequently during the LFD period, median: 151 (range: 29-334), P

  3. Experimental approaches to test pesticide-treated seed avoidance by birds under a simulated diversification of food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Antia, Ana; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-10-15

    Pesticide coated seeds are known to be potentially toxic for birds, but the risk of poisoning will depend on how likely the individuals are to consume them. To refine the risk assessment of coated seed consumption by birds we studied the consumption and avoidance of seeds treated with imidacloprid, thiram, maneb or rhodamine B under different scenarios of food unpredictability (diversity or changes in food sources). In a first set of experiments, we examined during four days the amount of ingested food by red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) when offered untreated seeds, treated seeds or both. In the latter case, we also assessed the effect of a daily interchange in the position of feeders containing treated and untreated food. A second experiment, conducted with imidacloprid only, consisted of offering, during 27 h, fixed overall amounts of treated and untreated food, equally distributed in a different number of feeders per pen (1, 2, 4 or 8 feeders of each type of food) in order to diversify food sources. All the tested pesticide-treated seeds were avoided in two-choice experiments, and imidacloprid and thiram were also avoided in one-choice experiments. We found that imidacloprid treated seeds were avoided, probably as a consequence of a conditioned aversion effect due to the post-ingestion distress. However, under a diversification of two-choice food sources with multiple feeders, imidacloprid-treated seeds were ingested by partridges at increasing amounts that can produce sublethal effects or even death. Thiram treated seeds were also initially avoided in one-choice experiment, but probably mediated by a sensory repellence that progressively decreased with time. Our results reveal that the risk of pesticide exposure in birds may increase by unpredictability of food resources or prolonged availability of coated seeds, so pesticide registration for seed coating should consider worst-case scenarios to avoid negative impacts on farmland birds. Copyright © 2014

  4. 李颖教授治疗胎漏、胎动不安经验%Experience of treating Tailou, Fetal irritability from professor LI Ying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娟娟; 殷聪然

    2012-01-01

      胎漏、胎动不安是妊娠期间常见的出血性疾病,是流产的早期阶段,若在此时给予及时有效的治疗,可使孕妇继续妊娠,避免给其身心健康造成损害。导师本着补肾健脾、益气养血的原则,自拟经验方治疗,疗效显著。%  Tailou, fetal irritability are common during pregnancy bleed disorders, abortion in the early stages at this time to give timely and effective treatment, pregnant women can continue to pregnancy, and avoid causing harm to their physical and mental health. Mentor principle to the Bushen Jianpi, Yiqi Yangxue, the intended experience recipe for treatment, has a significant effect.

  5. PVCM, PVCD, EPL, and irritable larynx syndrome: what are we talking about and how do we treat it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianopoulos, M V; Gallivan, G J; Gallivan, K H

    2000-12-01

    Paroxysmal vocal cord movement/motion (PVCM), paroxysmal vocal cord dysfunction (PVCD), episodic paroxysmal laryngospasm (EPL), and irritable larynx syndrome (ILS) are terms used to describe laryngeal dysfunction masquerading as asthma, upper airway obstruction, or functional and organic voice disorders. The differential diagnosis of PVCM, PVCD, EPL, and ILS is critical to successful medical and behavioral management of the patient. During the past 10 years, 27 subjects, ages 15-79 years, were identified to have paroxysms of inspiratory stridor, acute respiratory distress, associated aphonia and dysphonia, resulting in misdiagnosis and unnecessary emergency treatments, including endotracheal intubation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, massive pharmacotherapy, or tracheostomy. A multifactorial management program is proposed utilizing principles of motor learning, neurolinguistic programming model, respiratory and phonatory synchronization, relaxation techniques, concurrent monitoring of behavioral adjustments, and formal psychological counseling.

  6. A modified HET-CAM assay approach to the assessment of anti-irritant properties of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T D; Steck, W F

    2000-10-01

    Hen's egg--chorioallantoic membranes were used to screen for and assess anti-irritant properties among aqueous extracts of plants (HET-CAM tests), in connection with searches for plant-derived substances with topical anti-irritant action. The main question to be answered was whether CAM-assay screening of plant extracts could provide a useful route to identifying promising anti-irritant extracts for follow-up clinical testing. To be useful, the method would have to flag materials with strong anti-irritant properties, and would have to avoid registering false negatives. The tests conducted provided positive indications. We measured the delays in onset of three manifestations of membrane irritation-vascular hemorrhaging, membrane lysis and membrane coagulation-observed with test substances relative to positive controls. Aqueous 15% lactic acid, a commonly used irritant in direct tests on human skin, was employed as the test irritant in this study. The ratio [irritation onset times after test substance pre-treatment]:[onset times without test substance pretreatment] was used to measure the anti-irritant power of test substances. A scoring notation was devised for this which treats the delay parameters as independent effects. Most tested plant extracts showed no significant irritant or anti-irritant effects. Among the apparently anti-irritant plant extracts (approx. 10% of all those tested), most showed their greatest effect against hemorrhaging. Lesser but still readily measurable effects against membrane lysis and coagulation were also observed in nearly all the apparently anti-irritant extracts. Two of the tested extracts proved to be membrane irritants. Some key CAM assay results were compared with results obtained in direct tests on human skin using the same test irritant (15% lactic acid). In these comparative tests on skin, an essentially similar pattern of efficacy was obtained, with the plant extract deemed best in the CAM screenings, outperforming the

  7. Chemical profiles and pharmacological activities of Chang-Kang-Fang, a multi-herb Chinese medicinal formula, for treating irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qian; Shi, Lei; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Luo, Yu-Hui; Wang, Yin-Yu; Li, Xue; Lu, Min; Ju, Jian-Min; Xu, Jin-Di; Kong, Ming; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Min-Qin; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-04-06

    Chang-Kang-Fang formula (CKF), a multi-herb traditional Chinese medicinal formula, has been clinically used for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The mechanisms of CKF for treating IBS and the components that are responsible for the activities were still unknown. To investigate the chemical profiles and effects of CKF on IBS model. The chemical profiles of CKF were investigated by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS). On colon irritation induced rat neonates IBS model, the influence of CKF on neuropeptides, including substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), were measured by ELISA, and the effect on intestinal sensitivity was assessed based on the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores. In addition, the activities of CKF against acetic acid-induced nociceptive responses and prostigmin methylsulfate triggered intestinal propulsion in mice were also evaluated. 80 components were identified or tentatively assigned from CKF, including 11 alkaloids, 20 flavanoids, 4 monoterpenoids, 9 iridoid glycoside, 9 phenylethanoid glycosides, 10 chromones, 7 organic acid, 3 coumarins, 2 triterpene and 5 other compounds. On IBS rat model, CKF was observed to reduce AWR scores and levels of SP, CGRP, VIP and 5-HT. Moreover, CKF reduced the acetic acid-induced writhing scores at all dosages and reduced the intestinal propulsion ration at dosage of 7.5 and 15.0g/kg/d. CKF could alleviate the symptoms of IBS by modulating the brain-gut axis through increasing the production of neuropeptides such as CGRP, VIP, 5-HT and SP, releasing pain and reversing disorders of intestinal propulsion. Berberine, paeoniflorin, acteoside, flavonoids and chromones may be responsible for the multi-bioactivities of CKF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical response in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome treated with a low diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez y López, N; Torres-López, E; Zamarripa-Dorsey, F

    2015-01-01

    The low FODMAP diet eliminates carbohydrates and fermentable alcohols because they are not absorbed by the intestine, but are fermented by the microbiota, causing bloating and flatulence. To evaluate the clinical response to the low FODMAP diet in patients with the different clinical subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients attended to at the Gastroenterology Department in 2014 that were diagnosed with IBS based on the Rome III criteria were included in the study. They were managed with a low FODMAP diet for 21 days and their response to the symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and stool form pre and post-diet were evaluated through the visual analogue scale, Bristol scale, and patient overall satisfaction. The results were analyzed by means, 95% CI, and the Student's t test. Of the 31 patients included in the study, 87% were women and the mean age was 46.48 years. Distribution was: IBS-C 64.5%, IBS-D 22.6%, and IBS-M 12.9%. The score for pain was 6.0 (95% CI 5.04-6.96) and the post-diet score was 2.77 (95% CI 1.60-3.95) (P<.001). The score for bloating was 7.10 (95% CI 6.13-8.06) and the post-diet score was 4.19 (95% CI 2.95-5.44) (P<.001). The score for flatulence was 5.94 (95% CI 4.79-7.08) and the post-diet score was 3.06 (IC95% 1.99-4.14) (P<.001). The pre-diet Bristol Scale result was 3.68 (95% CI 3.14-4.22) and the post-diet result was 4.10 (95% CI 3.66-4.54) (P=.1). The satisfaction percentage was 70.9%. In this first study on a Mexican population with IBS, there was significant improvement of the main symptoms, including pain, bloating, and flatulence after treatment with a low FODMAP diet. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Two nursing mothers treated with zonisamide: Should breast-feeding be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Shigeki; Oi, Asako; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Fujimura, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug, is excreted into breast milk, but information regarding the safety of breast-feeding while using this drug is limited. We present the cases of two nursing mothers, taking 300 and 100 mg/day zonisamide. At 5 days after delivery, the milk concentrations and relative infant doses of the drug were 18.0 and 5.1 μg/mL, and 44 and 36%, respectively. In the first case, the mother fed colostrum and continued partial breast-feeding thus reducing the relative infant dose to 8%. The neonatal serum concentration of zonisamide declined to below the limit of detection at day 34 after birth. In the second case, the mother breast-fed partially until 2 weeks postpartum. No adverse effect was observed in the infants. These findings suggest that mothers taking zonisamide should not breast-feed exclusively, but may not have to avoid partial breast-feeding, with significant caution regarding adverse effects in infants.

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it "irritable brain" or "irritable bowel"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed.

  11. Irritancies of shampoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Six commonly used shampoos were tested for their relative irritancies using Kligman and Wooding′s technique. Shampoos in increasing order of irritancies were Halo egg, Aqua dermis, Clinic plus, Sunsilk, Velvette black and Mediker.

  12. [Irritation of the iliopsoas tendon after total hip arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessmann, M H; Hübschle, L; Tannast, M; Siebenrock, K A; Ganz, R

    2007-08-01

    Chronic irritation of the iliopsoas tendon is a rare cause of persistent pain after total joint replacement of the hip. In the majority of cases, pain results from a mechanical conflict between the iliopsoas tendon and the anterior edge of the acetabular cup after total hip arthroplasty. Pain can be reproduced by active flexion of the hip and by active raising of the straightened leg. In addition, painful leg raising against resistance and passive hyperextension are suggestive of an irritation of the iliopsoas tendon. Symptoms evolve from a mechanical irritation of the iliopsoas tendon and an oversized or retroverted acetabular cup, screws penetrating into the inner aspect of the ilium, or from bone cement protruding beyond the anterior acetabular rim. The diagnosis may be assumed on conventional radiographs and confirmed by CT scans. Fifteen patients with psoas irritation after total hip replacement are reported on. Eleven patients were treated surgically. The acetabular cup was revised and reoriented with more anteversion in six patients, isolated screws penetrating into the tendon were cut and leveled in three patients, and prominent bone cement in conflict with the tendon was resected once. A partial release of the iliopsoas tendon only was performed in another patient. Follow-up examination (range: 11-89 months) revealed that nine patients were free of pain and two patient had mild residual complaints. Psoas irritation in combination with total hip replacement can be prevented by a correct surgical technique, especially with proper selection of the cup size and insertion of the acetabular cup avoiding a rim position exceeding the level of the anterior acetabular rim.

  13. Irritants and allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Irritants – in this article to be understood as being chemical irritants – are substances that may cause injuries to the skin, the eyes or the airways after a single exposure. These injuries may range from small, initially invisible injuries after exposure to weak irritants up to chemical burns afte

  14. Finding the optimal dose of vitamin K1 to treat vitamin K deficiency and to avoid anaphylactoid reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yan-Ni; Ping, Na-Na; Li, Bo; Xiao, Xue; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Cao, Lei; Ren, Jian-Kang; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin K1 injection induces severe dose-related anaphylactoid reactions and overdose for the treatment of vitamin K deficiency. We aimed to find an optimal and small dose of vitamin K1 injection to treat vitamin K deficiency and avoid anaphylactoid reactions in animal. Rats were administered a vitamin K-deficient diet and gentamicin to establish vitamin K deficiency model. Behaviour tests were performed in beagle dogs to observe anaphylactoid reactions. The results showed an increased protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) levels, a prolonging of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and a decrease in vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor (F) II, VII, IX and X activities in the model group. In vitamin K1 0.01 mg/kg group, the liver vitamin K1 levels increased fivefold and the liver vitamin K2 levels increased to the normal amount. Coagulation markers PT, APTT, FVII and FIX activities returned to normal. Both in the 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg vitamin K1 groups, coagulation functions completely returned to normal. Moreover, the amount of liver vitamin K1 was 40 (0.1 mg/kg) or 100 (1.0 mg/kg) times as in normal. Vitamin K2 was about 4 (0.1 mg/kg) or 5 (1.0 mg/kg) times as the normal amount. There was no obvious anaphylactoid symptom in dogs with the dose of 0.03 mg/kg, which is equivalent to the dose of 0.01 mg/kg in rats. These results demonstrated that a small dose of vitamin K1 is effective to improve vitamin K deficiency and to prevent anaphylactoid reactions, simultaneously. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Severe multiorganic flare of systemic lupus erythematosus successfully treated with rituximab and cyclophosphamide avoiding high doses of prednisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Echavarri, C; Pernas, B; Ugarte, A; Ruiz-Irastorza, G

    2014-03-01

    Both acute pancreatitis and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage are rare conditions associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this case report, a 23-year-old female with SLE was diagnosed with lupus-associated pancreatitis and, within a few days and despite initial therapy with pulse methyl-prednisolone, subsequently suffered an acute respiratory failure due to a diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and treatment was intensified with cyclophosphamide and rituximab, which shortly induced the complete remission of SLE with resolution of both clinical conditions. She completed treatment with six pulses of cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine and prednisone at initial doses of 20 mg/d with rapid tapering to 5 mg/d, without relapse of the disease during the following year. This case can illustrate that, even in severe, life-threatening SLE flares, it is possible to avoid high-dose prednisone, which has been associated with severe side effects, including infections. Acute pancreatitis and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage are rare conditions caused by SLE. DAH can be a life-threatening complication, with an early mortality of at least 50%. When facing such severe SLE activity, there is a general tendency to use high doses of prednisone as the initial therapy, maintaining such high doses for long periods of time, even after the clinical situation has subsided. We report a case of a young woman with SLE, suffering from acute pancreatitis and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, who was successfully treated with pulse methyl-prednisolone, hydroxychloroquine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab, combined with medium doses of prednisone.

  16. Empathy and avoidance in treating patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among service providers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chunqing; Li, Li; WAN, Dai; Wu, Zunyou; Yan, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate health care providers’ empathy levels and its association with avoidance in providing service to patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China. A total of 1760 health service providers were randomly sampled from 40 county hospitals in two provinces of China. Using a self-administered questionnaire, participants’ demographic characteristics, work history, empathy level, and avoidance attitudes toward PLWHA were collected in a cross-sectional survey. Empathy was ...

  17. Empathy and avoidance in treating patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among service providers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunqing; Li, Li; Wan, Dai; Wu, Zunyou; Yan, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate health care providers' empathy levels and its association with avoidance in providing service to patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China. A total of 1760 health service providers were randomly sampled from 40 county hospitals in two provinces of China. Using a self-administered questionnaire, participants' demographic characteristics, work history, empathy level, and avoidance attitudes toward PLWHA were collected in a cross-sectional survey. Empathy was higher among participants aged 31-40 years, those who had an associated medical degree, and those who had served in the medical profession for less than 20 years. Nurses, younger providers, and providers with lower education tended to avoid contact with PLWHA. Multiple linear regression model showed that a higher level of empathic attitude toward patients was significantly negatively associated with avoidance attitude toward PLWHA. Service providers' empathy level plays an important role in providing quality care to HIV-infected patients. Future stigma reduction interventions should cultivate empathy as a platform for understanding, effective communication, and trusting provider-patient relationships. PLWHA could potentially benefit from attitudinal change in medical settings.

  18. 导入透明质酸猪脱细胞真皮基质的刺激性及致敏性研究%Skin irritation and sensitization of swine acellular dermal matrix treated with hyaluronic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁少南; 赵筱卓; 王慧英; 张国安

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the skin irritation and sensitization potential of the swine acellular dermal matrix treated with hyaluronic acid (SADM-HA).Methods (1) Skin irritation test.Twelve New Zealand rabbits were divided into SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and (human) xeno-skin group according to the random number table,with 4 rabbits in each group.Four test sites were designed on the back of each rabbit.Two test sites of each rabbit in the three groups were covered with SADM-HA,allogeneic skin,and xeno-skin,respectively.Another test site was covered with gauze containing 200 g/L sodium dodecyl sulfate solution as positive control.The last test site was covered with gauze containing normal saline as negative control.The primary irritation index and cumulative irritation index of each material were calculated.(2) Skin closed-patch test.Sixty guinea pigs were used.Fifty-four guinea pigs were divided into SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and (human) xeno-skin group according to the random number table,with 18 guinea pigs in each group.Twelve guinea pigs in each of the three groups were correspondingly induced and stimulated by SADM-HA,allogeneic skin,and xeno-skin,with 6 guinea pigs in each group treated with ethanol-soaked gauze to serve as negative control.The remaining 6 guinea pigs were treated with gauze containing 25% α-hexylcinnamaldehyde ethanol solution as positive control.The rating scales of Magnusson and Kligman were used to grade the condition of skin after being treated with above-mentioned materials to evaluate skin sensitivity to them at post stimulation hour 24 and 48.Data were processed with the nonparametric test of independent samples.Results (1) In the skin irritation test,the primary irritation indexes of the three dressings in SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and xeno-skin group were respectively-0.04,0.13,and 0.08.The cumulative irritation indexes of the three dressings in SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and xeno-skin group were

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonella

    2007-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disease of unclear, complex pathophysiology characterised by abdominal pain and discomfort and altered bowel activity. It affects an estimated 10-15% of individuals worldwide and has a large impact on quality of life (QOL) and both direct and indirect healthcare costs. Symptoms of IBS are usually triggered by disruption of gastrointestinal (GI) function secondary to infection, dietary factors, lifestyle changes or psychological stress. While most currently available pharmacological treatments of IBS focus on symptomatic treatment of the syndrome, agents that attempt to address the pathophysiology of the disease, in particular the role of serotonin, have received much attention in recent years. However, there is growing concern that serotonergic agents as a class may be associated with rare, but serious, episodes of ischaemic colitis, with several cases of this complication having been reported in association with use of serotonergic agents that have reached the market. Thus, there remains an important need for safe and effective agents that treat the symptoms of IBS. Otilonium bromide, a spasmolytic agent, has been widely used worldwide and has been found to be effective and safe for managing abdominal pain. Clinical trials indicate that it improves baseline abdominal pain and distension, and is particularly effective in reducing diarrhoea. Combining otilonium bromide with benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, may improve the efficacy of the agent with respect to GI symptoms, while also treating underlying anxiety disorders. More research is required to confirm the efficacy and mechanisms of action associated with this combination therapy in IBS. Safety data from clinical trials and postmarketing sources indicate that otilonium bromide is well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable to placebo in clinical trials and only two reported cases of adverse reactions (urticaria) among 10-year postmarketing data. This article reviews

  20. 中西医结合治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征临床疗效观察%Effective observation on treating diarrhoea predominant of irritable bowel syndrome in the integrative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张方; 李文杰

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察逍遥散加味联合马来酸曲美布汀胶囊治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征的临床疗效。方法:将110例腹泻型肠易激综合征患者分为两组。治疗组55例,口服逍遥散加味联合马来酸曲美布汀胶囊治疗;对照组口服马来酸曲美布汀胶囊治疗。两组均以4周为1个疗程,连用2个疗程。结果:治疗组总有效率为90.9%,对照组为78.2%,两组疗效比较具有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论:逍遥散加味联合马来酸曲美布汀胶囊治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征临床疗效较好。%Objective: To observe clinical efficacy of Jiawei Xiaoyao San plus Trimebutine maleate capsules on diarrhoea predominant of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods: 110 patients were divided into two groups. 55 cases in the treatment group were given Jiawei Xiaoyao San plus Trimebutine maleate capsules; the control group was treated with Trimebutine maleate capsules, 4 weeks as a course, for 2 courses. Results: The total efifciency was 90.9% in the treatment group, and 78.2% in the control group. The difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Jiawei Xiaoyao San plus Trimebutine maleate capsules on diarrhoea predominant of irritable bowel syndrome shows a good effect.

  1. Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosbaum, Audrey; Vocanson, Marc; Rozieres, Aurore; Hennino, Anca; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis are common inflammatory skin diseases induced by repeated skin contact with low molecular weight chemicals, called xenobiotics or haptens. Although both diseases may have similar clinical presentations, they can be differentiated on pathophysiological grounds. Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a non-specific inflammatory dermatitis brought about by activation of the innate immune system by the pro-inflammatory properties of chemicals. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) corresponds to a delayed-type hypersensitivity response with a skin inflammation mediated by hapten-specific T cells. Recent progress in the pathophysiology of chemical-induced skin inflammation has shown that ICD and ACD are closely associated and that the best way to prevent ACD is to develop strategies to avoid ICD. The immunological diagnosis of ICD or ACD requires investigation of the presence (ACD) or absence (ICD) of antigen-specific T cells. The detection of T cells can be performed in the skin (collected from ACD lesions or positive patch tests) and/or in the blood, particularly by using the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). This method, recently developed in ACD to metals, offers a new biological tool enabling the immunobiological diagnosis of ACD.

  2. Irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Iris S; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is the most common form of contact dermatitis. It represents the cutaneous response to the toxic/physical effects of a wide variety of environmental agents. Nowadays, it is recognized that irritancy does not represent a single monomorphous entity but rather a complex biologic syndrome with diverse pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. The clinical presentation is highly variable depending on several factors, including properties and strength of the irritant, dose, duration and frequency of exposure, environmental factors, and skin susceptibility. The pathophysiological mechanism depends on activation of the innate immune system and involves skin barrier disruption, cellular changes, and release of proinflammatory mediators that directly recruit and activate T lymphocytes. The diagnosis of irritant contact dermatitis is often clinical, and involves a comprehensive history and examination, as well as the exclusion of allergic contact dermatitis with patch testing. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis as well as better awareness of the clinical significance of ICD will lead to a improved care for our patients.

  3. Bioavailability and influence of ¹⁴C-carbofuran on Eisenia andrei avoidance, growth and reproduction in treated natural tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regina C B; Papini, Solange; de Andréa, Mara M

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of carbofuran to the compost worms Eisenia andrei and the influence of its residual amounts on the avoidance, reproduction and growth of this species were studied in two natural tropical soils: a Typic Humaquept (GM) and a Typic Hapludox (LVD), as indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. The worms avoided the soil LVD treated with different doses of carbofuran. The pesticide also affected the production of juvenile specimens in both soils, but cocoon production was reduced only in the GM soil. The earthworms' growth and weight loss were affected by carbofuran (2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate. CAS number 1563-66-2) only in the LVD and the mortality detected at 56 days of contact with the treated soils was not statistically significant in both of them. Fourteen days after the soil treatment with(14) c-carbofuran, most residues detected in the soils were bound residues (approximately 36% and 30% in the GM and LVD, respectively) and neither mortality nor bioaccumulation was detected in the earthworms, even with absorptions of 13% and 43%, respectively. The LVD soil has lower organic matter content, and the effects of carbofuran on different aspects of the earthworms' life were more pronounced in this soil, most likely due to the higher bioavailability of the pesticide in the soil solution. The results for carbofuran clearly demonstrate that even small quantities of residues do not assure lack of toxicity. They also make evident the necessity of studying the effects of pesticides in natural agricultural soils. Furthermore, as the bound residues and the earthworm contamination are not detected by conventional techniques, they are not taken into account and may be underestimated on environmental risk assessments.

  4. [Irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocián, J

    1994-04-01

    Irritable bowel is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic or relapsing symptoms of abdominal pain and impaired frequency and consistency of the faeces caused by obscure structural or biochemical deviations. The frequency of the condition in civilized countries is estimated to amount to 15-20% of the population and it accounts for 25-50% of all patients in gastroenterological ambulatory departments. From the clinical aspect the type with dominant diarrhoea, typically in the morning and very compelling, and the type with pain and constipation are known but even combinations of the two types are encountered. A psychosomatic disorder of the motility of the large bowel and its tonus is involved associated with enhanced pain perception. Despite great efforts to find aetiopathogenetic factors, knowledge still is at the level of obscure theories. The diagnosis is still established per exclusion after all organic causes are ruled out, i.e. we always have to differentiate between an irritable bowel from an irritated one. In therapy the patient's confidence in his doctor is most important and it is essential to gain the patient's active cooperation. In case of diarrhoea a low-residue diet is used, calcium carbonate, codeine, loperamide, conversely in constipation adequate dietary fibre, intake metoclopramide or cisapride. Pain is relieved by spasmolytics or Ca channel blockers in the smooth musculature of the large bowel. The associated dysbiosis is transformed into eubiosis by Lactobacillus or other bacterial products.

  5. The Exploration of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treated with TCM from the Viewpoint of Brain-Gut Axis%从脑-肠轴角度探讨肠易激综合征的中医治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆夏敏; 陆敏

    2016-01-01

    According to brain-gut axis theory,irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not only an intestinal disease,but also associated with the central nervous system,and is caused bv the imbalance of neuro-immuno-endocrine network.Multi-target effect of TCM treatment has close relationships with brain-gut axis and brain-gut peptides.There are such following TCM treatments based on brain-gut axis theory:classic prescriptions of Chinese medicinal herbs,experimental prescriptions of Chinese medicinal herbs,enema of Chinese medicinal herbs,massage,acupuncture,etc.The combination of brain-gut axis theory and TCM can specify the research into TCM curative effect on IBS,deeply explore TCM working mechanism of treating IBS,fully exert features and advantages of traditional Chinese medicine.%脑-肠轴学说认为肠易激综合征不仅仅是肠道疾病,还与中枢神经系统相关,是神经免疫内分泌网络调控失衡所致.中医治疗的多靶点效应与脑-肠轴、脑肠肽的关联.基于脑-肠轴理论的中医治疗方法有:中药经方、中药验方、中药灌肠、及推拿、针灸等.脑-肠轴理论与中医药相结合,规范研究中医药治疗肠易激综合征的疗效,深入探索中医药治疗肠易激综合征的机理,能充分发挥中医药特色与优势.

  6. Methylglyoxal Induces Systemic Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Zhang; Taiwei Jiao; Yushuai Chen; Nan Gao; Lili Zhang; Min Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water conte...

  7. Innovative approaches to avoid electric shaving-induced skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietzler, M; Maurer, M; Siebenhaar, F; Angelino, S; Handt, J; Burghardt, R; Smetana, H

    2016-06-01

    Globally, millions of men regularly remove their facial hair using an electric shaver. Over the course of several decades, the concept of an electric shaver has evolved from a relatively simple hand-powered apparatus to a technologically advanced device designed to provide the user with an optimum shaving experience. This requires a careful balance between robust removal of hair and skin comfort. By incorporating advanced scientific measurement and imaging technology into clinical testing, insights are being gained into skin comfort issues associated with hair removal practices. This study describes new research insights that have guided the development of electric shaving technology. These innovative features are designed to maximize hair removal and minimize the impact on skin health, thus enabling new levels of shaving efficacy and comfort to be attained.

  8. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    of 4 alleged AI (nifedipine, (-)-alpha-bisabolol, canola oil and glycerol) was studied on experimentally induced acute irritation in healthy volunteers, and only glycerol showed dose-related response and effects potentially better than no treatment. The acute irritation model only allowed a small...

  9. Accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity and conditioned place preference in alcohol-preferring AA rats and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats treated repeatedly with cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Kristiina; Petteri Piepponen, T; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2007-07-30

    Transcription factor DeltaFosB has been implicated in the psychomotor responses and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we compared the effects of cocaine on the expression of DeltaFosB-like proteins by immunohistochemistry in striatal brain areas of alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) rats. Cocaine was administered using a previously verified treatment paradigm that sensitized the locomotor response to cocaine in AA but not in ANA rats. We also studied the rewarding effects of cocaine with a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in both lines of rats. Cocaine treatment increased the FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats but not in ANA rats. In addition, after repeated saline injections the accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB IR was significantly greater in saline-injected AA rats than in ANA rats. In the caudate-putamen cocaine significantly increased FosB/DeltaFosB IR, but no differences were found between the rats of two lines. In the CPP experiment, AA rats treated with cocaine 2.5 mg/kg preferred the cocaine-associated compartment, in contrast to ANA rats, which did not show such a preference. In conclusion, our findings show that AA rats are more sensitive to cocaine than ANA rats, and suggest that one possible mediator for this increased sensitivity could be the increased expression of fosB-derived proteins in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats.

  10. 心理治疗提高肠易激综合征治疗效应的探讨%A study on the improvement of treatment effect to treat irritable bowel syndrome with psychological therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫彦英; 温艳惠; 曲韬

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background:Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) is one of the most common diseases of the digestic tract, from which the patients suffer greater pains and psychoburden. It affects life quality,studying and working of the patients badly. So it is an important factor affecting the patients' rehabilitation now to improve the therapeutic effect of these patients. Conventional therapy plus psychotherapy is effective in management of IBS patients recruital from Oct.1999 to Oct. 2001.

  11. Irritated Method for Flat warts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiBingxu

    2004-01-01

    Summary Background The relation between spontaneous regression of Flat warts and T cells depended immunity was confirmed. Cells immunity against HPV was induced by presenting of HPV related antigens, and thrived by cytokine and some chemistry agent. So how to make HPV which incubated in keratinocyte to present PHV antigens and keratinocyte to secret cytokine or chemistry agents should be a pursuance for dermatologist who are looking for a efficient method to deal with flat warts. Present research had exhibited inflammable agents can induce dermatitis when apply to the skin surface, so it might bring flat warts to spontaneous regression. Objective To observe the effectiveness of irritant drugs on flat warts, and at same time to understand more on the mechanism of the regression. Methods Compared with Control we treat 88 case of flat warts with retinoid gel or 3% hydrogen peroxide solution plus 5 % salicylic acid cream (HPSC). Results Both retinoid gel and HPSC reveal significant effect on flat warts. Conclusion Retinoid gel or SPHC was effective on the treatment of flat warts. The possible explanation for this is the drugs when put on the skin will induce dermatitis and dissolve or denude keratin.

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome: the burden and unmet needs in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome affects approximately 10-15% of the European population, although prevalence rates vary depending on the classification used and the country surveyed. This may be due to differences in patterns of medical care and diagnosis of the condition. Up to 70% of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome may not have been formally diagnosed. The disorder affects 1.5-3 times as many women as men and poses a significant economic burden in Europe, estimated at euro 700-euro 1600 per person per year. It also reduces quality of life and is associated with psychological distress, disturbed work and sleep, and sexual dysfunction. It is a chronic disorder, which affects many individuals for more than 10 years. Most patients are managed in primary care, although some are referred to gastroenterologists and other specialists. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome undergo more abdomino-pelvic surgery than the general population. We propose that a positive diagnosis of the condition may avoid the delay in diagnosis many patients experience. We conclude that, in Europe, there are significant unmet needs including lack of familiarity with irritable bowel syndrome, difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments for the multiple symptoms of the disorder. The development of pan-European guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome will benefit patients with this condition in Europe.

  13. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention.

  14. IRRITABILITY IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT ANXIETY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Stoddard, Joel; Stringaris, Argyris; Brotman, Melissa A.; Montville, Daniel; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to compare self- and parent-reported irritability in youths with anxiety disorders, healthy youths, and those with mood disorders characterized by irritability. Irritability is a common but relatively understudied psychiatric symptom in child and adolescent anxiety disorders. In anxious youths, little is known about the severity of irritability, its impact on functioning, or the effect of informant source on reports of irritability. Method: We compared parent- an...

  15. Neurobiology of Depression and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Donat Eker

    2009-08-01

    casuses of excessive feeling of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms leading to the dysfunction in the cortical representation of bodily states and negative emotional experiences. Individual variations in the interaction of cytokines, corticotrophin releasing factor, neurokinins (substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B and monoamines (serotonin and norepinephrine, and neuroanatomic functions may answer the question of “why do some irritable bowel syndrome patients experience depression and some do not?”. Moreover, irritable bowel syndrome patients with comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are reported to be complaining more about their irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Although several treatment strategies are considered by clinicians in the management of irritable bowel syndrome, it is suggested that antidepressant medications to have the priority in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with the comorbidity of depression. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are the drug of choice regarding their safety and side effects profile. Nevertheless, tricyclic antidepressants may also have beneficial effects in lower doses than needed to treat clinical depression. Hypnosis, supportive or cognitive behavioral therapies, dietary and defecation habits management are also suggested as beneficial. The recognition of irritable bowel syndrome by psychiatrists may enhance the success of treatment of depression with the comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome, which disables the patient and frequently accompanies to major depression. In this review, evidence for depression and irritable bowel syndrome comorbidity, the possible underlying mechanisms of this comorbidity and current treatment approaches regarding proposed mechanisms will be discussed.

  16. Efficacy and clinical observation of Shenling Baizhu Pill in treating irritable bowel syndrome%参苓白术丸治疗肠易激综合征疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任哲; 任江南; 伍玉甜

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察参苓白术丸治疗肠易激综合征(IBS)的临床效果。方法90例 IBS 患者采用随机数字法分为中成药组和西药组,每组45例。中成药组给予参苓白术丸治疗,西药组给予蒙脱石散治疗。比较两组患者治疗前后的临床症状评分、肠道微生物和血清炎性因子变化,采用问卷调查评价临床症状,用培养法测定粪便中乳酸杆菌、双歧杆菌、肠杆菌和酵母菌,血酶标免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)检测血清 IL-10、IL-18和TNF-α水平。结果两组患者治疗前粪便中厌氧菌减少、需氧菌增多,患者血清 IL-18和 TNF-α含量升高, IL-10含量降低。中成药组干预8周后患者肠道厌氧菌[(B/E 值1.07±0.49)]和血清 IL-10[(43.65±9.52)mg/L]含量上升,需氧菌[(B/E 值1.07±0.49)]、IL-18[(82.06±21.07)mg/L]和 TNF-α[(28.44±10.20)mg/L]含量下降,其中 IL-18下降最明显,与西药组比较差异有统计学意义(t =9.926,P <0.01)。两组均无不良反应发生。结论参苓白术丸能改善肠道微环境,促进益生菌生长和重塑肠道生物屏障功能,降低促炎性因子水平和提升抑炎因子水平,具有较好的临床效果。%Objective To observe the clinic efficacy of Shenling Baizhu Pill on patients with irritable bowel syndrome(IBS).Methods Ninety patients with IBS were collected and divided into Chinese patent medicine group and western medicine group by random number method,45 patients in each group,the Chinese patent medicine group received Shenling Baizhu pill group treatment,the western medicine group was gave Smectite Powder treatment.The changes of clinical symptoms,intestinal tract microorganism and serum inflammatory factor of patients were observed and compared between two groups before and after treatment.The clinical symptoms was evaluated by questionnaire, the Lactobacillus

  17. Treatment of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, C Rune; Nielsen, Henrik V

    2012-01-01

    The role of Dientamoeba fragilis in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incompletely known. We aimed to investigate whether eradication of D. fragilis alleviates symptoms in IBS. Twenty-five D. fragilis-positive IBS patients were treated with Metronidazole (MZ) or Tetracycline. The patients were...

  18. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  19. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. [Treatment for irritable bowel syndrome--psychotropic drugs, antidepressants and so on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mitsuko; Murakami, Masato

    2006-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disease with good prognosis, which is diagnosed by exclusion of possible causative organic diseases. However, since the patients tend to have strong psychotic symptoms including anxiety, tension, depression, irritation and insomnia, this syndrome has to be elucidated as a psychosomatic disease. Although the symptoms are usually limited to gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements, many patients also manifest some kinds of psychiatric abnormalities such as hypochondria, depression, hysteria, panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Especially, the prevalence of depression is high. Therefore, use of psychotropic drugs is efficient in treating IBS. Antidepressant agents including tricyclic agents such as amitriptyline, trimipramine, imipramine, clomipramine, amoxapine and nortriptyline; tetracyclic antidepressant; antidepressants such as SSRI and SNRI; sulpiride; benzodiazepine class anxiolytic agents; tandospirone; and Chinese herbal medicine are being used. IBS is a stress-related disease. Therefore, in spite of the importance of pharmacotherapy, patients should also be instructed to avoid the stress that aggravates the symptoms in all aspects of daily life.

  1. Effects of SCH-23390 and sulpiride on active avoidance in ovariectomized rats treated with a low dose of 17β-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, Yu O; Sapronov, N S

    2014-03-01

    We studied the effects of dopamine D1/D2 receptor antagonists on the dynamics of acquisition and extinction of active avoidance responses and open field behavior in ovariectomized female rats. Dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (0.1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride (10.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered chronically (14 days) either alone or in combination with a low dose of 17β-estradiol (0.5 μg per rat subcutaneously) to females after ovariectomy. It was found that SCH-23390 in combination with a low dose of 17β-estradiol completely restored impaired conditioning and retention of a conditioned avoidance response in ovariectomized animals. Simultaneous correction of behavioral patterns in the open field test was also observed in ovariectomized females receiving SCH-23390. Sulpiride injected alone or in combination with low dose of 17β-estradiol did not correct conditioning and reproduction of active avoidance response in females with estrogen deficiency and did not significantly affect animal behavior. The results indicate positive effect of dopamine D1 receptor blockade on active learning under conditions of estrogen deficiency.

  2. Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda oral e irritación sobre mucosa bucal de la solución CM-95 tratada magnéticamente Oral acute toxicity and irritation on buccal mucosa evaluation of the CM-95 solution magnetically treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Díaz Bestard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Solución CM-95 tratada magnéticamente es un producto en desarrollo que mostró propiedades inmunoestimulantes en ensayos preclínicos, característica que la hacen adecuada como candidata a inmunopotenciador. En este trabajo se evaluaron los posibles efectos tóxicos preclínicos de la Solución CM-95 tratada magnéticamente, por el método de las Clases de Toxicidad Aguda y el de irritación de la mucosa oral, adaptando las normas OECD 423 y la ISO 10993-10, respectivamente. En el método de las Clases de Toxicidad Aguda se utilizó el ensayo límite, en ratas Sprague Dawley hembras, en el cual la dosis estuvo relacionada con el nivel de inducción magnética, en este caso 0,16 T, aplicado a la Solución CM-95; y el volumen a administrar de la misma, calculado sobre la base de 2 ml de la solución por 100 g de peso corporal. La determinación de la irritación de la mucosa oral se llevó a cabo en hámster Sirios Dorados hembras mediante un ensayo a dosis repetidas durante 7 días de tratamiento en la bolsa gular derecha, con pellet de algodón impregnado con 0,5 ml de la solución tratada magnéticamente con la misma inducción. No se encontró mortalidad ni evidencias de signos tóxicos para el ensayo de toxicidad aguda, y se obtuvo un índice de irritación sobre mucosa oral de 0, por lo que la sustancia estudiada se enmarcó como "No clasificada" y "No irritante" según la metodología empleada. Estos resultados complementarán otros estudios toxicológicos para avalar la seguridad de esta Solución para su uso futuro como fármaco por vía oral.CM-95 solution magnetically treated is a product which showed immunologic properties in preliminary tests, characteristic that makes it adequate as inmunopotentiator candidate. In this study the possible preclinical toxic effects of CM-95 Solution magnetically treated were evaluated, by the Acute Toxicity Class method and oral mucosa irritation test, adapting guideline OECD 423 and ISO 10993

  3. Respon Konsumen pada Mobile Advergames: Intrusiveness dan Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Kusumasondjaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Increasing adoption of mobile advergames to deliver marketing messages has not been followed by empirical findings to support its effectiveness. This research attempts to examine the effect of mobile advergames intrusiveness on consumer irritation, attitudes, and purchase intention. This investigation on mobile advergame effectiveness was based on the increasing use of mobile media to deliver marketing messages to consumers from different demographic background. Conceptual framework was developed based on Advertising Avoidance Theory. For data collection, self-administered survey was conducted by adopting purposive sampling involving 213 respondents residing in Surabaya who have had experience in playing mobile game as respondents. Results indicate that intrusiveness positively affects consumer irritation. Consumer irritation negatively affects attitude towards the mobile advergames and attitude towards the advertised product. The better the consumer attitude towards the mobile advergames, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product. Moreover, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product, the greater the consumer intention to purchase. Interestingly, consumer attitude toward the mobile advergames has insignificant influence on purchase intention. Findings of the study offer significant contribution to marketing practices using mobile advergames as media placement in their advertising strategy. Keywords: intrusiveness, irritation, mobile advergames, attitude, advertising

  4. Managing irritable bowel syndrome in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, Maura; Whorwell, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    The classic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are abdominal pain, bloating and some form of bowel dysfunction. The pain is typically colicky in nature and can occur at any site although most commonly it is on the left side. The abdomen feels flat in the morning and then gradually becomes more bloated as the day progresses reaching a peak by late afternoon or evening. It then subsides again over night. Traditionally IBS is divided into diarrhoea, constipation or alternating subtypes. IBS patients frequently complain of one or more non-colonic symptoms, these include constant lethargy, low backache, nausea, bladder symptoms suggestive of an irritable bladder, chest pain and dyspareunia in women. The traditional view that IBS is a largely psychological condition is no longer tenable. Rectal bleeding, a family history of malignancy and a short history in IBS should always be treated with suspicion. Both pain and bowel dysfunction are often made worse by eating. It is recommended that a coeliac screening test is undertaken to rule out this condition. Other routine tests should include inflammatory markers such as CRP or ESR. Calprotectin is a marker for leukocytes in the stools and detects gastrointestinal inflammation. A negative test almost certainly rules out inflammatory bowel disease, especially in conjunction with a normal CRP. Fermentable carbohydrates can have a detrimental effect on IBS and this has led to the introduction of the low FODMAP diet.

  5. Newborn predictors of infant irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, M R; Froese-Fretz, A; Kotzer, A M

    1998-01-01

    To identify newborn infant behaviors that may predict infant irritability, commonly referred to as colic. A prospective, correlational design, with data collection occurring the first 4 days of life and again at 1 month of age. This study was conducted in a private hospital in a large metropolitan city in the Midwest. Sixty infants who were at low risk and full term and whose weight was appropriate for gestational age were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay. Infants with congenital anomalies, signs of illness, or high-risk factors were excluded from the study. During infants' 1-4-day hospital stays, their crying was assessed and reported by the nurses, and a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was completed on each infant. At 1 month of age, irritability was measured using the Fussiness Rating Scale. Only two components of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were related to development of colic or infant irritability at 1 month of age. These were the cluster of variables representing motor activity and the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale supplemental item measuring the persistence necessary on the part of the examiner to get the infant to attend to stimuli presented. The infants who were classified by parents as irritable at 1 month of age were more active and more attentive to stimuli in the first few days of life. Of interest was that the newborn nursery nurses cry ratings were not related to the later development of colic in these infants. Active infants who are sensitive to stimuli may be predisposed to infant irritability; however, further work is needed to understand the relationships of these infant characteristics to the human interactions and physical environments they encounter

  6. A combination therapy to treat second-degree anti-Ro/La-related congenital heart block: a strategy to avoid stable third-degree heart block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffatti, A; Milanesi, O; Chiandetti, L; Cerutti, A; Gervasi, M T; De Silvestro, G; Pengo, V; Punzi, L

    2012-05-01

    While mainly based on the use of fluorinated steroids, there is no standard management of anti-Ro/La-related congenital heart block (CHB). This is a report concerning two consecutive cases of anti-Ro/La-related second-degree block treated with betamethasone (4 mg/day), weekly plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs; 1 g/kg) administered every 15 days, a therapy that was begun shortly after CHB was detected and continued until delivery. The newborns were also treated with IVIG (1 g/kg) soon after birth and continued fortnightly until the anti-Ro/La antibody levels became undetectable. In both cases second-degree AV block reverted to a stable sinus rhythm with a first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. Moreover, there was no recurrence of CHB when therapy was suspended, as confirmed by a 29 month and an eight month follow-up, respectively.

  7. 行气润肠汤治疗便秘型肠易激综合征的实验研究%Experimental Study on Irritable Bowel Syndrome of Constipation Type Treated with Xingqi Runchang Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆迅; 叶柏

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨行气润肠汤对便秘型肠易激综合征大鼠5-羟色胺(5-HT)、P物质(SP)、血管活性肽(VIP)的影响.方法:采用结直肠球囊扩张刺激及限水法建立便秘型IBS大鼠模型,实验设正常组、模型组、行气润肠汤组、福松组,造模成功后第2天起,行气润肠汤组、福松组分别给予中药溶液、福松溶液2 mL灌胃,正常组、模型组以生理盐水等容量灌胃.每组均连续灌胃14 d.灌胃期间各组大鼠总饮水量均控制在200 mL·d-.实验结束后测结肠组织5-HT、SP、VIP的含量,并比较各组差异.结果:模型组大鼠结肠5-HT、SP、VIP含量呈上升趋势,与正常组比较,有显著差异(P<0.01) 与模型组比较,行气润肠汤组5-HT、SP、VIP含量明显降低(P<0.01).结论:行气润肠汤能降低便秘型肠易激综合征大鼠肠道5-HT、VIP、SP的分泌,从而改善便秘症状%Objective; To investigate the effect of Xingqi Runchang Decoction on 5 - serotonin (5 - HT), substance P ( SP ) , vasoactive intestinal peptide ( VIP ) of rats with irritable bowel syndrome of constipation type. Methods; IBS model rats of constipation type were established with the method of colorectal balloon dilatation stimulation and limit, the experimental rats were divided into normal control group, model group, Xingqi Runchang Decoction, Fukumatsu group. The second day after the modeling , Xingqi Runchang Decoction and Fukumatsu group were respectively given gastric perfusion of 2 mL Chinese medicinal solution and Fukumatsu solution, while the normal group and model group were respectively given gastric perfusion of 2 mL saline. Each group was given gastric perfusion for 14 D. During the gastric perfusion, the total amount of drinking water in each group was controlled at 200 mL·d-1. The content of colon tissue 5 - HT, SP, VIP was measured after the experiment, and their difference was compared. Results; Colon 5 - HT, SP, VIP content increased in the model group, there

  8. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris Irene

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coel...

  9. Irritation durch Waschen und Desinfizieren

    OpenAIRE

    Weimer, Caroline Maria

    2006-01-01

    Ziel dieser Studie war die Irritation der Haut, hervorgerufen durch alkoholische Desinfektionsmittel und das Detergens Natriumlaurylsulfat (0,5% NLS) in einem repetitiven Testdesign zu untersuchen. Mittels nicht invasiver Untersuchungsmethoden quantifizierten wir die irritativen Effekte von Sterillium®, 2-Propanol 45% v/v, 1-Propanol 30% v/v, welches die alkoholische Grundlage von Sterillium® darstellt sowie von Wasser und NLS 0,5...

  10. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of acute irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Fullerton, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of six skin care formulations on experimentally induced acute irritation was studied in hairless guinea-pigs (HLGP) and in human volunteers (HV). The formulations were a basic cream, a carbomer cream and four modifications of the carbomer cream, containing either 10......-propanol (NON) 20%. The irritant reactions were treated twice daily with the formulations from the time of removal of the patches. Evaluation of skin irritation and efficacy of treatments was performed daily for 4 days using clinical scoring, evaporimetry (transepidermal water loss), hydration measurement...

  11. Why do we treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? What we want to obtain and to avoid for our patients. SOSORT 2005 Consensus paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrini Stefano

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicine is a scientific art: once science is not clear, choices are made according to individual and collective beliefs that should be better understood. This is particularly true in a field like adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, where currently does not exist definitive scientific evidence on the efficacy either of conservative or of surgical treatments. Aim of the study To verify the philosophical choices on the final outcome of a group of people believing and engaged in a conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Methods We performed a multifaceted study that included a bibliometric analysis, a questionnaire, and a careful Consensus reaching procedure between experts in the conservative treatment of scoliosis (SOSORT members. Results The Consensus reaching procedure has shown to be useful: answers changed in a statistically significant way, and 9 new outcome criteria were included. The most important final outcomes were considered Aesthetics (100%, Quality of life and Disability (more than 90%, while more than 80% of preferences went to Back Pain, Psychological well-being, Progression in adulthood, Breathing function, Scoliosis Cobb degrees (radiographic lateral flexion, Needs of further treatments in adulthood. Discussion In the literature prevail outcome criteria driven by the contingent treatment needs or the possibility to have measurement systems (even if it seems that usual clinical and radiographic methods are given much more importance than more complex Disability or Quality of Life instruments. SOSORT members give importance to a wide range of outcome criteria, in which clinical and radiographic issues have the lowest importance. Conclusion We treat our patients for what they need for their future (Breathing function, Needs of further treatments in adulthood, Progression in adulthood, and their present too (Aesthetics, Disability, Quality of life. Technical matters, such as rib hump or radiographic lateral

  12. [Non-irritating skin protector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago Fornells, Manuel; García González, R Fernando; Gaztelu Valdés, Victoriana

    2002-05-01

    In this article, the authors describe the multiple uses a non irritating cutaneous protector has as an effective tool against the aggressions which peri-lesion skin and other at risk skins suffer when they are subject to constant and direct contact with secretions and liquids resulting from the use of dressings based on wet cures, or systems of continence related to ostomias, or in those patients who suffer mixed incontinence where diaper rash makes it difficult to maintain and care for the skin.

  13. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...

  14. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  15. Rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as a model for chemically induced skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappinen, Sari; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Suhonen, Marjukka; Tammi, Raija; Urtti, Arto

    2005-11-01

    The potential of rat epidermal keratinocyte (REK) organotypic culture (ROC) with proper stratum corneum barrier as a model for screening skin irritants was evaluated. The test chemicals were selected from ECETOC database (1995) and the observed in vitro irritation potential was compared to ECETOC in vivo primary irritation index (PII), to EU risk phrases, and to the harmonized OECD criteria. Chemicals were applied onto the stratum corneum surface of ROC for 30 min and samples were taken from the underlying medium at 4 and 8 h after exposure. Cell membrane integrity (determined by LDH assay) and pro-inflammatory effect (determined by IL-1alpha release) were verified at both time points and correlated to PII values. The best correlation (R(2) = 0.831) was seen with LDH leakage test. Based on obtained data, chemicals were classified according to criteria defined by EU and OECD. From 12 chemicals, only two were incorrectly classified according to OECD criteria when using LDH leakage and IL-1alpha release as irritation markers. At the end of experiment, chemical-treated ROC cultures were fixed and histological changes were assessed. Typical signs for irritation were lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed nuclei, cellular vacuolization, eosinophilic cytoplasms, and blebbing. These irritation effects of chemicals were graded visually into four classes (A-D). The extent of morphological perturbations of the cultures mostly correlated with PII. The present results indicate the validity of the ROC model in predicting skin irritation potential of chemicals and show that the use of set of irritation markers with different mechanistic responses gives more information on irritation than if only one marker was used.

  16. [Complications of DMEKeratoplasty: Avoid, Recognize and Treat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Björn O; Schrittenlocher, Silvia A; Schaub, Friederike; Siebelmann, Sebastian; Matthaei, Mario; Cursiefen, Claus

    2017-07-31

    Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) has evolved into a routine surgical procedure for posterior lamellar keratoplasty. After its introduction more than 10 years ago, several modifications in grafting technique and postoperative treatment regimen helped to improve its safety and reproducibility. Although DMEK offers faster and better improvements in visual acuity, as well as less graft rejections when compared to Descemet's stripping (automated) endothelial keratoplasty (DS[A]EK), difficulties when implementing this technique hamper the widespread use in many areas. However, different strategies help to reduce the rate of intra- and postoperative complications, making DMEK the method of choice for most patients with corneal endothelial diseases. Certain techniques help to reduce the endothelial damage during graft preparation; correct matching of donor age and recipient's anterior chamber depth eases intracameral unfolding of the DMEK graft, the use of SF6 gas for anterior chamber tamponade reduces the need for additional rebubblings, and the correct frequency and duration of postoperative topical steroid treatment helps to reduce the development of cystoid macular edema and graft rejections. Further standardization, but also individualization, of DMEK helps to offer this treatment option to patients with more complex anterior segment situations like anterior synechia, larger iris defects and glaucoma drainage devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome: contemporary nutrition management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E; Shepherd, Sue J; Chander Roland, Bani; Ireton-Jones, Carol; Matarese, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a complex disorder whose pathophysiology involves alterations in the enteric microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, gut immune/barrier function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, neurotransmitters, stress response, psychological factors, and more. The importance of diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome has taken center stage in recent times as the literature validates the relationship of certain foods with the provocation of symptoms. Likewise, a number of elimination dietary programs have been successful in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Knowledge of the dietary management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome will help guide nutritionists and healthcare practitioners to deliver optimal outcomes. This tutorial reviews the nutrition management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome.

  19. A strategy for skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael K; Perkins, Mary A

    2002-03-01

    Skin irritation safety testing and risk assessment for new products, and the ingredients they contain, is a critical requirement before market introduction. In the past, much of this skin testing required the use of experimental animals. However, new current best approaches for skin corrosion and skin irritation testing and risk assessment are being defined, obviating the need for animal test methods. Several in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been endorsed after successful validation and are gaining acceptance by regulatory authorities. In vitro test methods for acute, cumulative (repeat exposure), and chronic (prolonged exposure) skin irritation are under development. Though not yet validated, many are being used successfully for testing and risk assessment purposes as documented through an expanding literature. Likewise, a novel acute irritation patch test in human subjects is providing a valid and ethical alternative to animal testing for prediction of chemical skin irritation potential. An array of other human test methods also have been developed and used for the prediction of cumulative/chronic skin irritation and the general skin compatibility of finished products. The development of instrumental methods (e.g., transepidermal water loss, capacitance, and so on) has provided the means for analyzing various biophysical properties of human skin and changes in these properties caused by exposure to irritants. However, these methods do not directly measure skin inflammation. A recently introduced skin surface tape sampling procedure has been shown to detect changes in skin surface cytokine recovery that correlate with inflammatory skin changes associated with chemical irritant exposures or existing dermatitis. It holds promise for more objective quantification of skin irritation events, including subclinical (sensory) irritation, in the future.

  20. Lurasidone for major depressive disorder with mixed features and irritability: a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C; Fava, Maurizio; Tsai, Joyce; Mao, Yongcai; Pikalov, Andrei; Loebel, Antony

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this post-hoc analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of lurasidone in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) with mixed features including irritability. The data in this analysis were derived from a study of patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for unipolar MDD, with a Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score ≥26, presenting with two or three protocol-defined manic symptoms, and who were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with either lurasidone 20-60 mg/d (n=109) or placebo (n=100). We defined "irritability" as a score ≥2 on both the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) irritability item (#5) and the disruptive-aggressive item (#9). Endpoint change in the MADRS and YMRS items 5 and 9 were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measures for patients with and without irritability. Some 20.7% of patients met the criteria for irritability. Treatment with lurasidone was associated with a significant week 6 change vs. placebo in MADRS score in both patients with (-22.6 vs. -9.5, ptreatment with lurasidone was associated with significant week 6 changes vs. placebo in both the YMRS irritability item (-1.4 vs. -0.3, p=0.0012, ES=1.0) and the YMRS disruptive-aggressive item (-1.0 vs. -0.3, p=0.0002, ES=1.2). In our post-hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, 6-week trial, treatment with lurasidone significantly improved depressive symptoms in MDD patients with mixed features including irritability. In addition, irritability symptoms significantly improved in patients treated with lurasidone.

  1. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  2. Pregnancy and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... never been tested in pregnant women. Concerns for fetal development and adverse maternal effects may limit use of drugs for pain, diarrhea, and constipation management. Similarly, women should avoid ...

  3. Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities also affect sleep, so regular exercise and avoidance of napping can greatly improve nighttime sleep. Unfortunately, ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax- deductible donation. Make Donation Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  4. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education.

  5. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2...... and positive patch test reactions to other fragrances compared with IR reactions (n = 82) was established. The difference regarding fragrance history found between those with IR and positive reactions to citral was not significant. Citral could be an allergen and/or irritant, worthy of further more extensive...

  6. Biomimetic proopiomelanocortin suppresses capsaicin-induced sensory irritation in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Fatemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive skin is a frequently mentioned cosmetic complaint. Addition of a biomimetic of neuromediator has recently appeared as a promising new way to cure skin care product problems. This study was aimed to assess the inhibitory effect of a biomimetic lipopeptide derived from proopiomelanocortin (bPOMC on capsaicin-induced sensory irritation in human volunteers and also to compare its protective effect with that of the well-known anti irritant strontium chloride. The effect of each test compound was studied on 28 selected healthy volunteers with sensitive skin in accordance with a double-blind vehicle-controlled protocol. From day 1 to day 13 each group was applied the test compound (bPOMC or strontium chloride to one wing of the nose and the corresponding placebo (vehicle to the other side twice daily. On days 0 and 14, acute skin irritation was induced by capsaicin solution and quantified using clinical stinging test assessments. Following the application of capsaicin solution, sensory irritation was evaluated using a 4-point numeric scale. The sensations perceived before and after treatment (on days 0 and 14 was calculated for the two zones (test materials and vehicle. Ultimately the percentage of variation between each sample and the placebo and also the inhibitory effect of bPOMC compared to that of strontium chloride were reported. Clinical results showed that after two weeks treatment, the levels of skin comfort reported in the group treated with bPOMC were significantly higher than those obtained in the placebo group and the inhibitory effect of bPOMC was about 47% higher than that of strontium chloride. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that biomimetic peptides may be effective on sensitive skin.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion...

  8. Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Definition & Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome What is IBS? ... physical and mental causes and isn’t a product of a person’s imagination. What are the four ...

  9. Serotonin, visceral sensation in irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jia-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) is highly prevalent and can affect up to 20% of the population.1 It is a common gastrointestinal(GI) disorder associated with alterations in motility,secretion and visceral sensation.

  10. Focus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, A; Loguercio, C

    2012-09-01

    The Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic abdominal dis-comfort associated with changes in bowel habits and these symptoms can't be explained by any biochemical or organic abnormalities. The review summarizes the relevant findings that have emerged in recent years on the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The most important mechanisms recently implicated in the genesis of IBS symptoms are the abnormal intestinal motility, the incongruous intestinal gas production and the enhanced intestinal nociception. A lot evidence confirms the presence of dysfunction of the intrinsic enteric nervous system (ENS) as demonstrated by the presence of altered expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3), putinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel 3 (P2X3r), tetrodoxin-sensitive receptor 2 (TTRX2), protease activated receptors (PPARs) and others. There are different assumption that explain these phenomena, and the impairment of the immune system is one of the most reliable. In IBS subjects it was found that the immune system is altered in both the cellular composition and its activation. Many studies have shown that inflammation and immune dysregulation affect the sensitivity of nerve fibers so it is vital to build on this argument for the development of effective therapies to control the symptoms of this syndrome.

  11. [Parasitosis and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Catalina; Herrera, Valentina; Pérez de Arce, Edith; Gil, Luis Carlos; Madrid, Ana María; Valenzuela, Lucía; Beltrán, Caroll J

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by multi-factorial aetiology. In IBS physiopathology are involved diverse factors between them biological, psychosocial, and environmental components which affect the immune activation status of gut mucosa. Among these factors is recognized the intestinal parasitosis. Post-infection IBS (PI-IBS) is recognised as a subgroup of functional disorders whose symptoms onset appear after a symptomatic intestinal infection caused by microbial agents. There are few studies regarding of relationship between IBS and intestinal parasitosis in Chile. However, is has been well described a positive association between IBS and Blastocystis hominis infections, one of prevalent parasites in Chile. In other countries, is also described a relationship between IBS and amebiasis and giardiasis. Both, characterized by a common mode of transmission through water as well as contaminated food. Because the high prevalence of parasitosis in our country it is necessary to expand the association studies to clarify the strength of the parasites ethiology in IBS.

  12. Hand disinfection: how irritant are alcohols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Harald; Kampf, Günter

    2008-10-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is commonly found on hands of healthcare employees and is often explained by contact to water and detergents. Studies on the dermal tolerance clearly show that the degree of skin irritation is significantly lower after application of alcohol in comparison to detergents. It has also been shown in standardised wash tests using a foam roller that the application of alcohol or water immediately after a detergent-based wash can significantly decrease the degree of skin irritation, probably due to a wash-off of residual detergent. If evidence-based hand hygiene is taught early during nurses training it can substantially reduce irritant contact dermatitis supporting initiatives of primary prevention among healthcare employees. The irritant potential of commonly used alcohols in hand antiseptics is very low. If the skin is pre-irritated, e.g. by detergents or water, alcohols can cause a burning sensation which is, however, not an allergic reaction and does not further harm the skin. True allergic reactions to alcohols have so far not been confirmed. From the dermatological point of view the use of alcohols for hand hygiene has clear advantages over washing with water and detergents.

  13. Treatment of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and noninfective irritable bowel syndrome with mesalazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bafutto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Recent studies support the hypothesis that postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and some irritable bowel syndrome patients display persistent signs of minor mucosal inflammation. Mesalazine has intestinal anti-inflammatory properties including cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin inhibition. The effects of mesalazine on postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and noninfective irritable bowel syndrome patients are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of mesalazine on postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and noninfective irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea patients. METHODS: Based on Rome III criteria, 61 irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea patients (18 years old or more were included in the evaluation. Patients were divided into two groups: postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome group, with 18 patients medicated with mesalazine 800 mg 3 times a day for 30 days; noninfective irritable bowel syndrome group, with 43 patients medicated with mesalazine 800 mg 3 times a day for 30 days. Symptom evaluations at baseline and after treatment were performed by means of a four-point Likert scale including stool frequency, stool form and consistency (Bristol Stool Scale, abdominal pain and distension (maximum score: 16; minimum score: 4. RESULTS: Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome group presented a statistically significant reduction of the total symptom score (P<0.0001. The stool frequency was significantly reduced (P<0.0001, and stool consistency, improved (P<0.0001. Abdominal pain (P<0.0001 and abdominal distension were significantly reduced (P<0.0001. Noninfective irritable bowel syndrome group presented a statistically significant reduction of total symptom score (P<0.0001. Also, the stool frequency was significantly reduced (P<0.0001 and stool consistency, improved (P<0.0001. Abdominal pain (P<0.0001 and abdominal distention were significantly reduced (P<0.0001. There was no statistical difference between

  14. [Migraine and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Paradowski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    The association between migraine and functional gastrointestinal disorders has been confirmed by many clinical observations and epidemiological studies. In most patients during the attacks of migraine, apart from various neurological and vascular symptoms, gastrointestinal disturbances occur including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are reported in migraine patients in periods between the attacks as well. On the other hand 23-53% of IBS patients have frequent headaches. Migraine and IBS often coexist with fibromyalgia and other chronic pain syndromes and functional disorders. Migraine and IBS affect approximately 10-20% of the general population, usually young adults. Both diseases are more prevalent in women, perhaps due to the role of estrogen in their pathogenesis. Looking for the common pathogenetic mechanisms of IBS and migraine the role of the brain-gut axis, neuroimmune and neuroendocrine interactions are being considered. The influence of stress on symptom occurrence and severity seems to be associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The enteric nervous system as a source of numerous neurotransmitters and visceral reflexes is a plausible common pathogenic link between IBS and migraine. In particular serotonin being the main neurotransmitter of the gastrointestinal tract plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of IBS as well as migraine. Nowadays, agonists and antagonists of serotoninergic receptors are the most efficacious drugs for IBS and migraine therapy. Some side effects of triptans, 5-HT(1B/D) agonists, used in migraine treatment may be connected with the influence of triptans on the gastrointestinal functions. A better understanding of the relationship between migraine and IBS may result in more effective treatment of both diseases.

  15. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  16. Skin irritants and contact sensitizers induce Langerhans cell migration and maturation at irritant concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.J.L.; Lehé, C.L.; Hasegawa, H.; Elliott, G.R.; Das, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Skin irritants and contact allergens reduce the number of Langerhans cells (LCs). It has been assumed that this reduction is due their migration to the draining lymph node (LN) for initiating immune sensitization in a host. Skin irritation, however, as opposed to contact allergy is not considered to

  17. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human sk

  18. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  19. Updates on treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher W Hammerle; Christina M Surawicz

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and discomfort in association with altered bowel habits.It is estimated to affect 10%-15% of the Western population,and has a large impact on quality of life and (in)direct healthcare costs.IBS is a multifactorial disorder involving dysregulation within the brain-gut axis,and it is frequently associated with gastrointestinal motor and sensory dysfunction,enteric and central nervous system irregularities,neuroimmune dysregulation,and postinfectious inflammation.As with other functional medical disorders,the treatment for IBS can be challenging.Conventional therapy for those with moderate to severe symptoms is largely unsatisfactory,and the development of new and effective drugs is made difficult by the complex pathogenesis,variety of symptoms,and lack of objective clinical findings that are the hallmark of this disorder.Fortunately,research advances over the past several decades have provided insight into potential mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of IBS,and have led to the development of several promising pharmaceutical agents.In recent years there has been much publicity over several of these new IBS medications (alosetron and tegaserod) because of their reported association with ischemic colitis and cardiovascular disease.While these agents remain available for use under restricted prescribing programs,this highlights the need for continued development of safe and effective medication for IBS.This article provides a physiologicallybased overview of recently developed and frequently employed pharmaceutical agents used to treat IBS,and discusses some non-pharmaceutical options that may be beneficial in this disorder.

  20. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome treatment: a multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani-Zur, Dana; Wolkomir, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome affects 9-23% of the general population. This diagnosis contributes to more frequent doctor visits and multiple consultations by patients. The current approach to treating IBS is symptomatic and consists of a regimen of first line pharmacological treatment options; the use of anti-depressant drugs is also common. The efficiency of complementary medicine in the treatment of IBS has been studied in the last few years. Qualitative multidisciplinary approach studies, using personalized medicines with complementary therapies are needed. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with a diagnosis of IBS since 2009, who complained about gastrointestinal symptoms since the age of 13 and severe episodes of spasmodic stomach aches in the last year self-ranked as 10, on a 0-10 scale; 3-4 episodes a month, which last for 5 days, accompanied by severe flatulence and bloating. In addition, she has constipation (one bowel movement every 10 days), alternating with multiple diarrheic bowel movements (6 times a day). Using a multidisciplinary approach, including medicinal care, Chinese medicine, reflexology and naturopathy resulted in significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life, as well as gradual reduction of drugs, approved by her physician. Stomach ache self-ranked now as 1, on a 0-10 scale; and flatulence and bloating self-ranked as mild. Bowel movement frequency increased and is now every other day. She no longer has diarrheic and/or multiple bowel movements. This case report emphasizes the importance of integrative treatment in IBS and its benefit in improving patients' quality of life.

  1. [Irritant contact dermatitis. Part II. Evaluation evaluation of skin irritation potential of chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of skin irritation potential of chemicals is essential to secure the safety of individuals exposed to several substances designed for industrial, pharmaceutical or cosmetic use. Until recently, preclinical safety assessment of chemicals was largely based on animal experiments. Ethical concerns and the limited value of animal models in evaluating human skin irritation potential resulted in the development of alternative in vitro methods, such as EpiDerm, EPISKIN or SkinEthic, to assess irritation, i.e. cell cultures and human epidermis models. International organizations like the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) promotes and monitors the development of nonanimal tests. Human patch tests and use tests also provide an opportunity to identify substances with significant skin irritation potential without recourse to the use of animals. These tests are useful to assess skin irritation potential of cosmetics and detergents.

  2. 匹维溴胺联合黛力新治疗肠易激综合征30例临床疗效观察%Efficacy observation on 30 cases of irritable bowel syndrome treated with the combination of pinaverium bromide and deanxit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平华

    2014-01-01

    目的:对比分析肠易激综合征患者匹维溴胺联合黛力新治疗临床疗效观察。方法以2010年1月-2013年1月住院治疗30例患者为分析对象,随机分为2组,各15例,其中男性12例,女性18例,年龄22-61岁,平均44.2岁,治疗组使用匹维溴胺和黛力新,对照组使用谷维素和硝苯砒啶片。结果进行两组腹痛、腹胀、便秘、排便>3次/d或稀便、排便不尽、排便费力等统计比较,治疗组总有效率优于对照组。差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论匹维溴胺联合黛力新治疗肠易激综合征临床疗效确切,应用方便,安全可靠,可达到控制肠道症状,减轻患者不适,控制精神症状,达到综合治疗的目的,改善患者的生活质量。%Objective Comparing the curative effect of combination of pinaverium bromide and deanxit with for the treating of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods 30 cases of IBS were randomly divided into treated group (15 cases) and control group (15 cases), al of them were hospitalized from March, 2009 to March, 2012. There were 12 males and 18 females in the subjects, aging from 22 to 61 and 44.2 in average. The treated group was administered with the combination of pinaverium bromide and deanxit, while the control group was given oryzanol and nifidipine. Results Comparing the symptoms of abdominal pain, ventosity, constipation, defecation >3 times per day or loose stool, non-smooth diarrhea and strenuous defecation between two groups, and total effective rate of the treated group was higher than that of the control group, with significant differences (p<0.05). Conclusion The combined use of pinaverium bromide and deanxit has definitive clinical therapeutic effects on treating IBS, and it is convenient and safe, and able to control intestinal symptoms, al eviate discomfort and relieve mental symptoms, so that the aim of comprehensive treatment of disease and improvement of the quality of

  3. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    The concept of avoidable deaths suggests that certain deaths ought not occur in a given society because it is possible to prevent or treat the disease or condition. A list of avoidable deaths is time and community specific as it reflects the socioeconomic conditions, professional medical capacity...

  4. Encapsulation of Mentha Oil in Chitosan Polymer Matrix Alleviates Skin Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nidhi; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Sinha, Priyam; Kanaujia, Archana; Chanda, Debabrata; Jakhmola, Apurva; Saikia, Dharmendra; Yadav, Narayan Prasad

    2016-04-01

    Mentha spicata L. var. viridis oil (MVO) is a potent antifungal agent, but its application in the topical treatment is limited due to its irritancy and volatility. It was aimed to develop more efficient, chitosan-incrusted MVO microspheres with reduced volatility and lesser irritancy and to dispense it in the form of ointment. Simple coacervation technique was employed to microencapsulate MVO in chitosan matrix. Morphological properties and polymer cross-linking were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Optimization was carried out on the basis of entrapment efficiency (EE) using response surface methodology. Well-designed microspheres having smooth surface and spherical shape were observed. EE (81.20%) of optimum batch (R21) was found at 1.62% w/v of cross-linker, 5.4:5 of MVO to chitosan ratio and at 1000 rpm. R21 showed 69.38 ± 1.29% in vitro MVO release in 12 h and 96.92% retention of MVO in microspheres even after 8 week. Ointments of PEG 4000 and PEG 400 comprising MVO (F1) and R21 (F2) were developed separately. F2 showed comparatively broader zone of growth inhibition (13.33 ± 1.76-18.67 ± 0.88 mm) and less irritancy (PII 0.5833, irritation barely perceptible) than that of F1. F2 was able to avoid the direct contact of mild irritant MVO with the skin and to reduce its rapid volatility. Controlled release of MVO helped in lengthening the duration of availability of MVO in agar media and hence improved its therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, a stable and non-irritant formulation with improved therapeutic potential was developed.

  5. "LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ON THE IRRITABILITY OF ANOPHELES ATROPARVUS AND ANOPHELES STEPHENSI TO DDT "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eshghy

    1977-07-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of Anopheles atroparvus, one resistant and another sceptible to DDT and two of Anopheles stephensi, one resistant and one susceptible to DDT were tested for their irritability to DDT. Various laboratory investigations of the effects of insecticides on mosquito behavior and their irritability were carried out. In these series of experiments a comparison was made between the results obtained by a tentative method proposed in 1960 by the WHO, Expert Committee on Insecticides in which the mosquitoes are confined over the treated surface in a small plastic chamber and in a large cage. Under the large cage conditions DDT-resistant A. stephensi were more readily irritated by the insecticide than a susceptible strain of the same species

  6. Defining and measuring irritability: Construct clarification and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Michael J; DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Irritability is a symptom of 15 disorders in the DSM-5 and is included in Mood Disorders, Addictive Disorders, Personality Disorders, and more (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, the term irritability is defined and measured inconsistently in the scholarly literature. In this article, we reviewed the scholarly definitions of irritability and the item content of irritability measures. Components of definitions and items measuring irritability were divided into three categories: a) causes, b) experience, and c) consequences. We also reviewed potential causes and biomarkers of irritability. We found much overlap between definitions and measures of irritability and related constructs such as anger and aggression. Consequently, the validity of research on irritability needs to be questioned including the role of irritability in psychopathology and the presence of irritability as a symptom in any disorder. Research on irritability's role in behavioral disorders needs to be repeated after more well defined measures are developed. We proposed a more precise definition of irritability that clearly differentiates it from related constructs. Suggested items for measuring irritability are also provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Current issues on irritable bowel syndrome: diet and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung

    2014-09-25

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a multifactorial disorder with its pathogenesis attributed to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Traditionally, IBS has been treated with diet and lifestyle modification, fiber supplementation, psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment. Carbohydrates are intermingled with a wide range of regularly consumed food including grains such as rye and wheat, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These effects may be the basis for the induction of most of the gastrointestinal symptoms. This has led to the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose intolerance and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. As all poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. Based on the observational and comparative studies, and randomized-controlled trials, FODMAPs have been shown to trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Food choice via the low FODMAPs and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for managing symptoms of IBS.

  8. Treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part in regular exercise such as walking or yoga reducing stressful life situations as much as possible getting enough sleep Talk Therapy Talk therapy may reduce stress and improve your IBS symptoms. Two types of talk therapy that health care professionals use to treat IBS are cognitive ...

  9. Avoiding health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Joshua B; Rintamaki, Lance S; Ramsey, Jason A; Brashers, Dale E

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated why and how individuals avoid health information to support the development of models of uncertainty and information management and offer insights for those dealing with the information and uncertainty inherent to health and illness. Participants from student (n = 507) and community (n = 418) samples reported that they avoided health information to (a) maintain hope or deniability, (b) resist overexposure, (c) accept limits of action, (d) manage flawed information, (e) maintain boundaries, and (f) continue with life/activities. They also reported strategies for avoiding information, including removing or ignoring stimuli (e.g., avoiding people who might provide health advice) and controlling conversations (e.g., withholding information, changing the subject). Results suggest a link between previous experience with serious illness and health information avoidance. Building on uncertainty management theory, this study demonstrated that health information avoidance is situational, relatively common, not necessarily unhealthy, and may be used to accomplish multiple communication goals.

  10. Acupuncture treatment in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, A; Enck, P; Streitberger, K; Weiland, C; Bagheri, S; Witte, S; Friederich, HC; Zipfel, S; Herzog, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: Despite occasional positive reports on the efficacy of acupuncture (AC) on functions of the gastrointestinal tract, there is no conclusive evidence that AC is effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients and methods: Forty three patients with IBS accord

  11. Post-myelographic meningeal irritation with iohexol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexiou, J.; Deloffre, D.; Vandresse, J.H.; Sintzoff, S. (Clinique du Parc Leopold, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. de Radiologie); Boucquey, J.P. (Clinique du Parc Leopold, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. de Neurologie)

    1991-02-01

    A 45-year-old woman developed signs of meningeal irritation after myelography with iohexol. Her condition improved very quickly (after antibiotic treatment). Rapid improvement, absence of pathogenic organisms in the pre-treatment CSF culture, the level of CSF pleocytosis and protein were in favor of chemical meningitis. (orig.).

  12. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who wo

  13. Minimizing driver's irritation at a roadblock

    CERN Document Server

    Vleugels, C J J; Anthonissen, M J H; Seidman, T I

    2013-01-01

    Urban traffic is a logistic issue which can have many societal implications, especially when, due to a too high density of cars, the network of streets of a city becomes blocked, and consequently, pedestrians, bicycles, and cars start sharing the same traffic conditions potentially leading to high irritations (of people) and therefore to chaos. In this paper we focus our attention on a simple scenario: We model the driver's irritation induced by the presence of a roadblock. As a natural generalization, we extend the model for the two one-way crossroads traffic presented by M.E. Fouladvand and M. Nematollahi to that of a roadblock. Our discrete model defines and minimizes the total waiting time. The novelty lies in introducing the (total) driver's irritation and its minimization. Finally, we apply our model to a real-world situation: rush hour traffic in Hillegom, The Netherlands. We observe that minimizing the total waiting time and minimizing the total driver's irritation lead to different traffic light stra...

  14. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who

  15. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  16. Tissue Friendly Pendulum: Soft Liner to prevent Tissue Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal mucosal irritation is commonly encountered with the Pendulum appliance. The efficiency of soft liners in reducing tissue irritation has been well documented in the field of prosthodontics. The following article describes an innovative technique where soft liner can be used to reduce palatal mucosal irritation caused by pendulum appliance.

  17. Methylglyoxal induces systemic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Jiao, Taiwei; Chen, Yushuai; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS.

  18. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Atul; Filobbos, George

    2013-05-01

    The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960's when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL) is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL) and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author's experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.

  19. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author′s experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.

  20. Cognitive avoidance in phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosschot, J.F.; Kindt, M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the stage in which the bias changed into avoidance and whether cognitive avoidance of threat is restricted to information that refers to the anxiety response as opposed to the threatening stimulus. Therefore, 37 spider phobics (mean age 31 yrs) and 34 controls (mean age 38 yrs) were

  1. Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

  2. The assessment of irritation using clinical methods and questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hogdson, M.

    2001-01-01

    and nasal mucosal irritation. Although methods to evaluate mouth, throat mucosal, and dermal irritation are also relevant, they are seldom used in actual practice. Measurements for eye irritation include tear film stability, epithelial damage, foam formation, blinking frequency, tear flow, inflammation......Sensory irritant responses to chemical exposures are measured by a variety of methods; however, studies can be influenced from biases associated with study design and subject responses. This article reviews the different methods used to quantitate irritation. These methods primarily focus on eye...... method is used in medical surveillance or to evaluate effectiveness of industrial hygiene or engineering controls in preventing irritation effects from chemical exposure, the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the irritation measurements are important factors in interpreting the results...

  3. Effectiveness of trimebutine maleate on modulating intestinal hypercontractility in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yanqin; Liu, Ying; Tong, Jingjing; Qian, Wei; Hou, Xiaohua

    2010-06-25

    Trimebutine maleate, which modulates the calcium and potassium channels, relieves abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, its effect on postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome is not clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of trimebutine maleate on modulating colonic hypercontractility in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Mice infected up to 8 weeks with T. spiralis underwent abdominal withdrawal reflex to colorectal distention to evaluate the visceral sensitivity at different time points. Tissues were examined for histopathology scores. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared in the organ bath under basal condition or to be stimulated by acetylcholine and potassium chloride, and consecutive concentrations of trimebutine maleate were added to the bath to record the strip responses. Significant inflammation was observed in the intestines of the mice infected 2 weeks, and it resolved in 8 weeks after infection. Visceral hyperalgesia and colonic muscle hypercontractility emerged after infection, and trimebutine maleate could effectively reduce the colonic hyperreactivity. Hypercontractility of the colonic muscle stimulated by acetylcholine and high K(+) could be inhibited by trimebutine maleate in solution with Ca(2+), but not in Ca(2+) free solution. Compared with 8-week postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome group, 2-week acute infected strips were much more sensitive to the stimulators and the drug trimebutine maleate. Trimebutine maleate was effective in reducing the colonic muscle hypercontractility of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome mice. The findings may provide evidence for trimebutine maleate to treat postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome patients effectively.

  4. Genetic polymorphism in pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cynthia K Y; Wu, Justin C Y

    2014-12-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex symptom-based disorder without established biomarkers or putative pathophysiology. IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is defined as recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort that has at least two of the following symptoms for 3 d per month in the past 3 mo according to ROME III: relief by defecation, onset associated with a change in stool frequency or onset with change in appearance or form of stool. Recent discoveries revealed genetic polymorphisms in specific cytokines and neuropeptides may possibly influence the frequencies and severity of symptoms, as well as the therapeutic responses in treating IBS patients. This review gives new insights on how genetic determinations influence in clinical manifestations, treatment responses and potential biomarkers of IBS.

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome: focus on otilonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy; Clavé, Pere; Corazziari, Enrico S; Tack, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a prevalent and chronic disorder, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating and altered bowel habits. This condition affects an estimated 10-15% of the population worldwide and impacts heavily on a patient's daily life and ability to work, as well as healthcare resource utilization. Drug therapy aimed at correcting the primary symptoms of diarrhea/constipation/bloating may have little effect on abdominal pain, which results from visceral hypersensitivity. Smooth muscle relaxants or antispasmodics decrease the tone and contractility of intestinal smooth muscle, effectively managing abdominal pain. Otilonium bromide has been widely used worldwide and has been found to be safe and well tolerated, and superior to placebo for the reduction of symptoms and the prevention of symptom relapse in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  6. Bird Avoidance Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report on the bird avoidance model to predict bird strike hazards with low flying aircraft. Included is peak periods for different species of...

  7. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  8. Avoid Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Avoid Mosquito Bites Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... finding a travel medicine clinic near you. Prevent Mosquito Bites While Traveling Mosquito bites are bothersome enough, ...

  9. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Adolescents With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnert, Marianne; Olén, Ola; Lalouni, Maria; Benninga, Marc A; Bottai, Matteo; Engelbrektsson, Johanna; Hedman, Erik; Lenhard, Fabian; Melin, Bo; Simrén, Magnus; Vigerland, Sarah; Serlachius, Eva; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2017-01-01

    Few treatments have been able to effectively manage pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (Internet-CBT) based on exposure for abdominal symptoms is effective for adult IBS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Internet-CBT based on behavioral exposure for adolescents with IBS. Adolescents with IBS fulfilling the Rome III criteria were randomized to either Internet-CBT or a wait-list control. The Internet-CBT was a 10-week intervention where the main component was exposure to IBS symptoms by reduction of avoidance of abdominal symptoms and instead stepwise provocation of symptoms. The primary outcome was total score on Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale for IBS (GSRS-IBS). Secondary outcomes included adolescent- and parent-rated quality of life and parent-rated gastrointestinal symptoms. Difference between groups was assessed from pretreatment to posttreatment and the Internet-CBT group was also evaluated at 6 months after treatment completion. A total of 101 adolescents with IBS (13-17 years of age) were included in this study. Dropout rates were low (6%) and all randomized patients were included in intent-to-treat analyses based on mixed effects models. Analyses showed a significant larger pretreatment to posttreatment change on the primary outcome GSRS-IBS (B=-6.42, P=0.006, effect size Cohen's d=0.45, 95% confidence interval (0.12, 0.77)) and on almost all secondary outcomes for the Internet-CBT group compared with the control group. After 6 months, the results were stable or significantly improved. Internet-CBT based on exposure exercises for adolescents with IBS can effectively improve gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life.

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome and its psychological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikesh Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal problem that affects psychosocial functioning as well as the quality of life. This case study reports the utility of cognitive behavior therapy as a psychological intervention procedure in a chronic case of IBS. The use of psychological intervention was found to result in a reduction of anxiety; amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBS and improved functioning.

  11. Do chronic workplace irritant exposures cause asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Orianne; Le Moual, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relation between chronic workplace irritant exposures and asthma, focusing on exposures of low to moderate levels. We discuss results from epidemiological surveys, potential biological mechanisms, and needs for further research. These aspects are largely illustrated by studies on exposure to cleaning products. Recent results from nine population-based and workplace-based epidemiological studies, mostly cross-se...

  12. Lactose Intolerance and the Irritable Colon

    OpenAIRE

    McSherry, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Symptoms of lactase deficiency include nausea, abdominal pain, distension, bloating and diarrhea after ingesting foods which contain lactose. Lactose intolerance and bowel motility disorders have similar symptoms, and people with irritable bowel syndrome and unexplained abdominal pain may have lactose intolerance. A definite diagnosis can be made by detecting hydrogen in the breath after a lactose load, by lactase assay from a small bowel biopsy specimen or by lactose intolerance testing. Lac...

  13. Color-avoiding percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2016-01-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in [Krause et. al., Phys. Rev. X 6 (2016) 041022]. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. We compare this approximation with a new, more exact theory and show that the new theory is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our new theory with differentiated node functions, as s...

  14. Eye irritation: updated reference chemicals data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, D M; Gardner, J R; Holland, G; Lewis, R W; Vrijhof, H; Walker, A P

    1999-06-01

    A list of 55 chemicals for which comprehensive rabbit eye irritation data were available was published by ECETOC in 1992. Similar data for a further 77 chemicals are now available. The total of chemicals included in the enlarged data bank is 132, assessed in 149 in vivo studies in rabbits. 28 of the chemicals were tested as solids, 24 as aqueous solutions. No new in vivo testing was carried out in order to qualify a chemical for inclusion in the data bank. The chemicals are available at known, high, consistent purity and are expected to be stable in storage. The in vivo data have been generated since 1981 in studies carried out according to OECD Test Guideline 405 and following the principles of Good Laboratory Practice. The data were obtained from tests normally using at least three animals evaluated at the same time, involving instillation of 0.1ml (or equivalent weight) into the conjunctival sac, and in which observations were made at least 1, 2 and 3 days after instillation. The chemicals are ranked for eye irritation potential on the basis of a 'modified maximum average score'. The reference chemicals data bank should be of use in validation tests of promising alternatives to the in vivo rabbit eye irritation test.

  15. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Sang-Han

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye.

  16. New psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: mindfulness, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián Sánchez, Beatriz; Gil Roales-Nieto, Jesús; Ferreira, Nuno Bravo; Gil Luciano, Bárbara; Sebastián Domingo, Juan José

    2017-09-01

    The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life. Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life. According to current NICE/NHS guidelines, physicians should consider referral for psychological treatment in patients who do not respond to pharmacotherapy for a period of 12 months and develop a continuing symptom profile (described as refractory irritable bowel syndrome). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best studied treatment and seems to be the most promising therapeutic approach. However, some studies have challenged the effectiveness of this therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. One study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy is no more effective than placebo attention control condition and another study showed that the beneficial effects wane after six months of follow-up. A review of mind/body approaches to irritable bowel syndrome has therefore suggested that alternate strategies targeting mechanisms other than thought content change might be helpful, specifically mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches. In this article we review these new psychological treatment approaches in an attempt to raise awareness of alternative treatments to gastroenterologists that treat this clinical syndrome.

  17. Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Sebastian Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.

  18. Role of Anxiety in the Pathophysiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Importance of the Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Brent Myers; Beverley Greenwood-VanMeerveld

    2009-01-01

    A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala...

  19. Jian Shu Wen Qing Tang Used in the Treatment for 60 Cases of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家瑜; 罗世忠

    2004-01-01

    @@ Based on the TCM theory of strengthening the spleen, soothing the liver, warming the middle-jiao, and purging the bowels, the author of this article has treated 60 cases of irritable bowel syndrome with the self-made prescription of Jian Shu Wen Qing Tang (健疏温清汤 Decoction for Strengthening the Spleen, Soothing the Liver, Warming the Middle-jiao, and Purging the Bowels), and has obtained good therapeutic results. The following is a report of it.

  20. Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome by Oral Administration of Chinese Medicines and Retention-Enema—— A Report of 50 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段国玉

    2002-01-01

    @@ Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common disease of intestinal dysfunction, is also called emotional enteritis, mucous enteritis, irritable colon and so on1. It is often lingering with a long disease course and is easy to recur. The author has in recent years treated 50 cases of the disease by oral administration of Chinese medicines and retention-enema, with satisfactory results reported as follows.

  1. Quaternary ammonium derivatives as spasmolytics for irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, S

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium derivatives such as cimetropium, n-butyl scopolammonium, otilonium and pinaverium bromide have been discovered and developed as potent spasmolytics of the gastrointestinal tract. Their pharmacological activity has been proven in both "in vivo" and "in vitro" studies of hypermotility. "In vitro" experiments showed that they possess antimuscarinic activity at nM level but only pinaverium and otilonium are endowed with calcium channel blocker properties. These latter compounds relaxed the gastrointestinal smooth muscle mainly through a specific inhibition of calcium ion influx through L-type voltage operated calcium channels. Molecular pharmacology trials have indicated that pinaverium and otilonium can bind specific subunits of the calcium channel in the external surface of the plasma membrane and in this way they block the machinery of the contraction. Recent evidence showed that otilonium is able to bind tachykinin NK(2) receptors and not only inhibits one of the major contractile agents but can reduce the activation of afferent nerves devoted to the passage of sensory signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Thanks to their typical physico-chemical characteristics, they are poorly absorbed by the systemic circulation and generally remain in the gastrointestinal tract where they exert the muscle relaxant activity by a local activity. Some differences exists in the absorption among these compounds: both n-butyl scopolammonium and cimetropium are partially taken up in the bloodstream, pinaverium has a low absorption (8-10 %) but is endowed with an excellent hepato-biliary excretion and otilonium, which has the lowest absorption (3 %), is almost totally excreted by faeces. Quaternary ammonium derivatives are widely used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and recent meta-analyses have supported their efficacy in this disease. Due to its therapeutic index, the use of n-butyl scopolammonium is more indicated to treat acute

  2. Pulmonary alterations associated with inhalation of occupational and environmental irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castranova, V; Frazer, D G; Manley, L K; Dey, R D

    2002-02-01

    Many gases, vapors, or particles found in occupational and/or environmental settings can act as irritants. In the present study, sensory irritants are characterized by the stimulation of neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the nasal mucosa, while pulmonary irritants are characterized by recruitment of PMN into bronchoalveolar airspaces, elevation of breathing frequency, and neuropeptide release from sensory fibers innervating the epithelium of the conducting airways. A review of data from our laboratory as well as results from others indicate that asphalt fume is a sensory irritant; toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methyl isocyanate, and machining fluid act as both sensory and pulmonary irritants; while cotton dust, agricultural dusts, microbial products, leather conditioner, and ozone exhibit responses characteristic of pulmonary irritants.

  3. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  4. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...... the diagnostic significance of the histological classification of allergic and irritant cutaneous reactions in punch biopsies....

  5. What environmental factors irritate people with acquired brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Julie

    2004-08-19

    This study aims to determine the environmental factors nurses identify as being irritating to people with acquired brain injury. This was a qualitative study. An experienced interviewer used the Critical Decision Method to interview 28 nurses working in 10 inpatient brain injury rehabilitation units in Australia on a one to one basis for 1-1.5 h on two consecutive days. Transcripts of interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Nurses identified five groups of irritants that acted as triggers for aggression: The nurses in this study identified many environmental factors that irritate people with acquired brain injury. Some irritants appeared unavoidable but others could be addressed by staff expertise.

  6. [Irritable bowel syndrome: New pathophysiological hypotheses and practical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboc, H; Dior, M; Coffin, B

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, besides the fact that it still fills the gastroenterologists' offices and impairs patient's quality of life, the irritable bowel syndrome has considerably evolved on several points. The pathophysiology is now organized around a consensual hypothesis called the "brain-gut axis", which gather all the influences of peripheral factors as gut microbiota or local serotonin secretion, on the central pain perception, contributing to visceral hypersensitivity and transit modifications. About the diagnosis, the key message is "avoid over-prescription" of additional tests, and reminds that a positive clinical diagnosis based on Rome III criteria is possible after the elimination of simple clinical warning signs. Finally, the food component, a neglected and historical claim of patients, finally finds a strong scientific rational, with a diet low in fermentable sugar and polyols, that gives positive and reproducible results. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The irritant potential of n-propanol (nonanoic acid vehicle) in cumulative skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted;

    2008-01-01

    . Wash test: induction of irritation by three daily washings for 6 days and maintenance of the dermatitis by two daily washings for 12 days with SLS 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% or NON 0%, 30%, 40% and 50%. Reactions were evaluated clinically and instrumentally (transepidermal water loss, colorimetry...

  8. Evaluation of the ophthalmic and dermal irritability of the OLEOMASAJE formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza F. Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ozonized vegetable oils present germicidal effects which can be used as active principle in different cosmetological compositions. The thematic about of the corporal massage advantage have been very treatment by aesthetics, dermatologic and consumers. OLEOMASAJE formulation content ozonized sunflower oil OLEOZON as active principle active which present moisturizer and conditioner effects. Aims: To determine the possible dermal and ophthalmic irritability effects of the OLEOMASAJE. Methods: The trial was conducted in rabbits and the techniques described in the standardized procedures of the work established by the Center of Biological Research and Evaluations from Pharmacy and Food Institute of Havana University were used according to Norma ISO 10993-10. The ethical principles of the Good Practices of Laboratory were fulfilled to avoid suffering to the animals during the experimentation. Male rabbits with body weight between 2.05 and 2.48 kg were used. In the skin and the ocular structures the effects were observed immediately after of the application at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Draize´s scale was applied to evaluate skin and ocular structures lesions. Results: The OLEOMASAJE formulation does not irritate de skin of the assayed rabbits. However, the ocular structures irritability index was of 4.5 after of first hour to apply of product. These wounds were missing before of 24 hours to apply of product. Conclusions: The OLEOMASAJE formulation obeys the indispensable requirements for the acceptance as cosmetic product and for it is used in corporal massage.

  9. On partitions avoiding right crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Sherry H F

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Chen et al. derived the generating function for partitions avoiding right nestings and posed the problem of finding the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings. In this paper, we derive the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings via an intermediate structure of partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossings and right nestings. We show that there is a bijection between partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossing and right nestings and partitions avoiding right crossings.

  10. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Wieland, L. Susan; Min, Li Shih; Shen, Xueyong; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, costly, and difficult to treat disorder that impairs health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide guidance on the effects of acupuncture for IBS because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous and methodologically unsound trials. Objectives The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IBS. Search methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, and VIP were searched through November 2011. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, other active treatments, or no (specific) treatment, and RCTs that evaluated acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment, in adults with IBS were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We extracted data for the outcomes overall IBS symptom severity and health-related quality of life. For dichotomous data (e.g. the IBS Adequate Relief Question), we calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for substantial improvement in symptom severity after treatment. For continuous data (e.g. the IBS Severity Scoring System), we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI in post-treatment scores between groups. Main results Seventeen RCTs (1806 participants) were included. Five RCTs compared acupuncture versus sham acupuncture. The risk of bias in these studies was low.We found no evidence of an improvement with acupuncture relative to sham (placebo) acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD-0.11, 95%CI −0.35 to 0.13; 4 RCTs; 281 patients) or quality of life (SMD = −0.03, 95%CI −0.27 to 0.22; 3 RCTs; 253 patients). Sensitivity analyses based on study

  11. Bacteria, genetics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla F

    2010-06-01

    EVALUATION OF: Villani AC, Lemire M, Thabane M et al. Genetic risk factors for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 138, 1502-1513 (2010). While the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains to be fully defined, two clinical observations - the occurrence, de novo, of IBS following bacterial gastroenteritis and the history, commonly obtained from IBS patients, of other instances of the syndrome within their families - have instigated investigations, in IBS, of the potential roles, on the one hand, of the gut microbiota and the host response and, on the other hand, of genetic factors. The study reviewed here relates to both of these factors by studying genetic predisposition to postinfective IBS in a large population of individuals who were exposed to a multimicrobial enteric infection, which resulted in a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis and was followed by the development of IBS in over a third. In this detailed study, the investigators identified a number of genes that were linked significantly to the development of postinfectious-IBS in the Toll-like receptor 9, IL-6 and cadherin 1 regions. These genes play important roles in bacterial recognition, the inflammatory response and epithelial integrity, respectively, and provide considerable support for the hypothesis that links IBS onset to disturbances in the microbiota and the host response.

  12. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management.

  13. Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2012-01-01

    In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about ...

  14. Use of honey associated with Ananas comosus (Bromelin) in the treatment of acute irritative cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Décio Medeiros; Rizzo, José Angelo; Schor, Deborah; Silva, Almerinda Rêgo; de Oliveira, Dinaldo Cavalcanti; Solé, Dirceu; Sarinho, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the immediate improvement rate of irritative cough in patients treated with the combination of Ananas comosus extract and honey (Bromelin®) compared with the use of honey alone (placebo group). Methods: Pragmatic, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study with children aged between 2 and 15 years, with irritative cough for at least 24hours. The double-blind assessment of cough was through the number of observed coughing episodes and intensity score for a period of 10minutes of observation. The decrease of one point in the mean total score was considered as a therapeutic effect. Results: There was a reduction in coughing episodes in both groups, as well as in the cough score after 30minutes of drug or honey administration. The change in clinical score above two points, which could indicate marked improvement, occurred in five patients in the bromelin group and only in one in the placebo group, but without significant difference. There were no adverse events. Conclusions: The immediate improvement rate of irritative cough was similar in patients treated with combination of Ananas comosus extract and honey (Bromelin®) compared with the use of honey alone (placebo group). It is possible that honey has a therapeutic effect on mucus and cough characteristics (Clinical Trials: NCT01356693). PMID:27181342

  15. An approach for the delineation of a generic cut-off value for local respiratory tract irritation by irritating or corrosive substances as a pragmatic tool to fulfill REACH requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, H

    2014-04-01

    Under the current European legislation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals (REACHs) a Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) has to be delineated for acute and chronic inhalation effects. The majority of available experimental studies are performed by the oral route of exposure. Route to route extrapolation poses particular problems for irritating or corrosive substances but the necessity for additional animal studies with inhalation exposure needs to be balanced with the regulatory information requirements. Existing occupational exposure limits (OEL) as surrogate for cut-off limits representing safe exposure under working conditions were grouped under certain criteria for substances that are legally classified in Europe as irritating or corrosive. As a result, it was shown that the OEL for irritating substances in this dataset is not lower than 10mg/m(3) and for corrosives not lower than 1mg/m(3). Under certain conditions these generic limits could be applied as a pragmatic, but still sufficiently reliable and protective upper cut-off limit approach to avoid additional animal tests with irritating or corrosive chemicals. The respective systemic toxicity profiles and physical-chemical properties need to be considered. Specific exclusion criteria for the discussed concept apply.

  16. Contact irritant responses of Aedes aegypti Using sublethal concentration and focal application of pyrethroid chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortance Manda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. METHODS: Contact irritancy (escape behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. RESULTS: Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human-vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is

  17. Correlates of irritability in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment.

  18. Changing face of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eamonn MM Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is evident that this is a truly global disease associated with significant symptoms and impairments in personal and social functioning for afflicted individuals. Advances in our understanding of gut flora-mucosal interactions, the enteric nervous system and the brain-gut axis have led to substantial progress in the pathogenesis of symptoms in IBS and have provided some hints towards the basic etiology of this disorder, in some subpopulations, at the very least. We look forward to a time when therapy will be addressed to pathophysiology and perhaps, even to primary etiology. In the meantime, a model based on a primary role for intestinal inflammation serves to integrate the various strands, which contribute to the presentation of IBS

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome: a management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W G

    1999-10-01

    In the development of a management strategy for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients we must consider the great number of people with the condition, most of whom do not consult doctors for it. Furthermore, we must be aware of the hidden agenda of those that do. The cause of IBS is unknown, and consequently cure of this chronic recurrent condition is not likely. Moreover, the disorder is very costly, drawing precious resources from the care of more serious diseases. In this chapter I propose a management strategy based on a firm diagnosis of IBS using a minimum of tests, consideration of the patient's agenda, the use of dietary advice, the strategic use of drugs only in resistant cases, a graded therapeutic response and continuing care. There is no specific treatment. The doctor-patient interaction is most important to allay patients' fears and concerns, assist them with psychosocial difficulties, and provide the caring support known to maximize the 'placebo' effect of any treatment.

  20. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marroon Thabane; John K Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a common disorder wherein symptoms of IBS begin after an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Published studies have reported incidence of PI-IBS to range between 5% and 32%. The mechanisms underlying the development of PI-IBS are not fully understood, but are believed to include persistent sub-clinical inflammation, changes in intestinal permeability and alteration of gut flora. Individual studies have suggested that risk factors for PI-IBS include patients' demographics, psychological disorders and the severity of enteric illness. However, PI-IBS remains a diagnosis of exclusion with no specific disease markers and, to date, no definitive therapy exists. The prognosis of PIIBS appears favorable with spontaneous and gradual resolution of symptoms in most patients.

  1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  2. [The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouiten, Mekki Lilia; Karoui, Sami; Boubaker, Jalel; Fekih, Monia; Mechmeche, Rachid; Filali, Azza

    2006-05-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder (10 -15% of the population). It is characterized by chronic abdominal pain with modification in the bowel habits. The diagnosis is based of ROME II criteria. The pathophysiology of the SII remains unknown . It result from visceral hypersensitivity with anomalies of the digestive motility. These anomalies are secondary of dysfunction of the brain - gut axis modulated by environmental and the psychosocial factors. The understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the SII and in particular the function of the brain-gut axis will permit a better handling of the patients. Indeed, the present knowledge of the neurotransmitter implied in the communication between the central nervous system and the digestive tract are currently the basis of the new therapies aimed to modulate the mechanisms implicated in the causation of the several symptoms of IBS. These novel pharmacotherapy should reduce the indirect societal and costs of IBS.

  3. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F;

    2014-01-01

    to the diagnosis of occupational ICD (OICD), and to evaluate the occurrence of concomitant exposures to contact allergens. METHODS: We included 316 patients with suspected occupational hand dermatitis, referred to the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark during...... allergens, and 18 patients were exposed to 25 weak workplace contact allergens. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the systematic exposure assessment did not reveal any new irritants. MSDSs have a limited role in the investigation of ICD....

  4. Predicting attention and avoidance: when do avoiders attend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rupert; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2009-09-01

    Three avoidance measures, the Miller Behavioural Style Scale (MBSS), Index of Self-Regulation of Emotion (ISE) and Mainz Coping Inventory (MCI), were compared in their ability to predict attention and avoidance of threats in the emotional Stroop task. It was also examined if the avoidance mechanism of individuals who would normally avoid threat-indicating words becomes disrupted under conditions of dopamine reduction. Results show that only the ISE predicted attention/avoidance of threat-indicating words. In addition, the avoidance mechanism, as measured by the ISE and MCI, was not activated when regular smokers abstained from smoking.

  5. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  6. Allergen avoidance: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, A; Custovic, A

    2000-01-01

    The first recorded example of allergen avoidance in the treatment of allergic disorders dates from the 16th century. The Italian physician Gerolamo Cardano (1501-1576) was invited to Scotland by John Hamilton, Archbishop of St Andrews (and brother of the Regent), to give advice on the treatment of his asthma. Cardano recommended that the Archbishop should get rid of his feather bedding, which was followed by a 'miraculous' remission of otherwise troublesome symptoms. The first controlled attempts to treat asthma by environmental manipulation date to the beginning of 20th century. In 1925, the Leopold brothers treated patients with asthma and other allergic disorders by moving them into a dust free room. Storm van Leeuwen created a 'climate' chamber in The Netherlands in 1927 and demonstrated that asthmatic patients improved when moved from their homes into the chamber. One year later, Dekker observed that measures aimed at reducing the amount of dust in bedrooms had a beneficial effect on asthma symptoms in patients allergic to house dust. Van Leeuwen wrote: 'In our endeavours to find the cause of the attack ... we utilised the known fact that the environment of the asthmatic patient is, as a rule, of primary importance in determining the intensity and frequency of his attacks'. Nowadays, more than ever, it is essential to address the environmental influences on the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders.

  7. Irritant nail dermatitis of chemical depilatory product presenting with koilonychia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancar, Gunseli Sefika; Kalkan, Goknur

    2014-03-01

    Chemical hair removal products are available as creams, gels, powders, aerosols and roll-ons and all of these forms work in the same way by breaking chemical bonds between sulfur atoms in the protein. Currently, the common active ingredients of these products are calcium thioglycolate, potassium thioglycolate, arsenic and sulfur minerals. Sulfur and arsenic containing products are important toxic chemicals which are mainly used for removing hair in developing countries. Irritant contact dermatitis accounts for 80% of all contact dermatitis reactions which are often occupation-related. Toluene sulfonamide, formaldehyde resin, acrylates and ethylcyanoacrylate are the most common irritants. Irritant nail dermatitis with plants has been well defined with Lobelia richardii flower, Compositae family and garlic. Although allergic dermatitis, irritant dermatitis and irritant nail dermatitis have been well demonstrated with chemicals, koilonychia is unusual presentation of irritant dermatitis. Here we describe a case of nail irritant dermatitis due to application of chemical depilatory product for hair removal presented with koilonychias. To our knowledge this is the first case of such presentation with koilonychia in the English literature.

  8. Cross-cultural and Psychological issues in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Padhy, Susanta Kumar

    2017-02-27

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders encountered by gastroenterologists worldwide. Of all the etiological factors which had been postulated to explain the pathophysiology of IBS, cultural and psychological factors are unique and difficult to understand. Culture plays an important role in coloring the presentation of IBS and many a times, it has a significant role in several treatment aspects too. Psychological aspects like personality profiles, family relationships, societal myths, abuse in any form etc. are equally important in the management perspectives of IBS. In this brief review, we had tried to specifically focus on these aspects in IBS and have explained the evidences in favour of these factors. Knowledge about various cross-cultural aspects and psychological factors in patients with IBS is essential for taking an appropriate history as well as for undertaking a holistic approach for the management of the same. A collaborative team effort by Psychiatrists and Gastroenterologists could help in reducing the burden of this difficult to treat functional bowel disorder.

  9. Role of gut pathogens in development of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most commonly identifiable risk factors for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. A number of bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens have been found to be associated with the development of IBS and other functional gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Epidemiological studies have identified demographic and acute enteritis-related risk factors for the development of post-infectious-IBS (PI-IBS. Immune dysregulation, alterations in barrier function, serotonergic and mast cell activation have been identified as potential pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, variations in host genes involved in barrier function, antigen presentation and cytokine response have been associated with PI-IBS development. However, it is unknown whether specific pathogens have unique effects on long-term alterations in gut physiology or different pathogens converge to cause common alterations resulting in similar phenotype. The role of microbial virulence and pathogenicity factors in development of PI-IBS is also largely unknown. Additionally, alterations in host gut sensation, motility, secretion, and barrier function in PI-IBS need to be elucidated. Finally, both GI infections and antibiotics used to treat these infections can cause long-term alterations in host commensal microbiota. It is plausible that alteration in the commensal microbiome persists in a subset of patients predisposing them to develop PI-IBS.

  10. End cap versus no end cap in intramedullary nailing for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures: influence on implant-related irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frima, H; Hulsmans, M H J; Houwert, R M; Ahmed Ali, U; Verleisdonk, E J M M; Sommer, C; van Heijl, M

    2017-03-17

    Implant-related irritation at the entry site is a known disadvantage of intramedullary nailing for clavicle fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare implant-related irritation rates of intramedullary nailing with or without an end cap for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. Two cohorts of patients treated with intramedullary nailing with or without an end cap were matched and compared. Primary outcome was patient-reported implant-related irritation. Secondary outcome parameters were complications. A total of 34 patients with an end cap were matched with 68 patients without an end cap. There was no difference in implant-related irritation (41 versus 53%, P = 0.26). Significantly more minor revisions were observed in the group without an end cap (15 versus 0%, P = 0.03). For complications requiring major revision surgery, significantly more implant failures were observed in the end cap group (12 versus 2%, P = 0.04). Regardless of their treatment, patients with complex fractures (AO/OTA B2-B3) reported significantly more medial irritation compared to patients with simple fractures (AO/OTA B1)(P = 0.02). The use of an end cap after intramedullary nailing for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures did not result in lower patient-reported irritation rates. Although less minor revisions were observed, more major revisions were reported in the end cap group. Based on the results of this study, no end caps should be used after intramedullary nailing for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. However, careful selection of simple fractures might be effective in reducing implant-related problems after intramedullary nailing.

  11. Assessment of Irritation and Sensitization Potential of Eight Baby Skin Care Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galzote, Carlos; Thomas, Mini; Sachdev, Mukta

    2016-10-01

    Ethnic differences in skin sensitivity suggest that greater emphasis be focused on understanding a product's effect in diverse populations. The irritation and/or sensitization potential of 8 baby skin care products in Indian adults were evaluated using cumulative irritation tests (CIT) and human repeat insult patch testing (HRIPT) protocols. Healthy males or females aged 18 to 65 years of Indian ethnicity were treated with each of 6 products (cream, hair oil, lotion, body wash, shampoo, and baby soap) using CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 200). Baby powder and baby oil were evaluated by CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 107) in separate studies. CITs were conducted over 14 days; HRIPTs were conducted over 10 weeks. In both CIT and HRIPT, most products were considered mild, with no irritation. Baby soap and powder elicited reactions in the HRIPT induction phase, with positive challenge phase reactions (3 subjects), but were affirmed to be nonallergenic in the rechallenge phase. In these studies, 8 baby skin care products were evaluated by both CIT and HRIPT in Indian adults. The results of the studies indicated that all of the tested products were nonallergenic and nonirritating. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1244-1248.

  12. Investigation of the Dermal Absorption and Irritation Potential of Sertaconazole Nitrate Anhydrous Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Manian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective topical therapy of cutaneous fungal diseases requires the delivery of the active agent to the target site in adequate concentrations to produce a pharmacological effect and inhibit the growth of the pathogen. In addition, it is important to determine the concentration of the drug in the skin in order to evaluate the subsequent efficacy and potential toxicity for topical formulations. For this purpose, an anhydrous gel containing sertaconazole nitrate as a model drug was formulated and the amount of the drug in the skin was determined by in vitro tape stripping. The apparent diffusivity and partition coefficients were then calculated by a mathematical model describing the dermal absorption as passive diffusion through a pseudo-homogenous membrane. The skin irritation potential of the formulation was also assessed by using the in vitro Epiderm™ model. An estimation of the dermal absorption parameters allowed us to evaluate drug transport across the stratum corneum following topical application. The estimated concentration for the formulation was found to be higher than the MIC100 at the target site which suggested its potential efficacy for treating fungal infections. The skin irritation test showed the formulation to be non-irritating in nature. Thus, in vitro techniques can be used for laying the groundwork in developing efficient and non-toxic topical products.

  13. Effective sunscreen ingredients and cutaneous irritation in patients with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K; Desai, N; Lebwohl, M G

    1998-06-01

    Patients with rosacea are particularly susceptible to the irritation caused by sunscreen ingredients. The purpose of this bilateral comparison study was to examine the effects of different ingredients found in sunscreen on facial cutaneous irritancy in patients with rosacea. patients clinically diagnosed with rosacea were asked to test different preparations of common sunscreens on their faces. The results show that the presence or absence of appropriate protective ingredients, such as dimethicone and cyclomethicone in the vehicle, may prevent irritation from other sunscreen ingredients in patients with inflammatory conditions such as rosacea.

  14. A protocol for a trial of homeopathic treatment for irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peckham Emily J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic condition with no known cure. Many sufferers seek complementary and alternative medicine including homeopathic treatment. However there is much controversy as to the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment. This three-armed study seeks to explore the effectiveness of individualised homeopathic treatment plus usual care compared to both an attention control plus usual care and usual care alone, for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Methods/design This is a three-armed pragmatic randomised controlled trial using the cohort multiple randomised trial methodology. Patients are recruited to an irritable bowel syndrome cohort from primary and secondary care using GP databases and consultants lists respectively. From this cohort patients are randomly selected to be offered, 5 sessions of homeopathic treatment plus usual care, 5 sessions of supportive listening plus usual care or usual care alone. The primary clinical outcome is the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptom Severity at 26 weeks. From a power calculation, it is estimated that 33 people will be needed for the homeopathic treatment arm and 132 for the usual care arm, to detect a minimal clinical difference at 80 percent power and 5 percent significance allowing for loss to follow up. An unequal group size has been used for reasons of cost. Analysis will be by intention to treat and will compare homeopathic treatment with usual care at 26 weeks as the primary analysis, and homeopathic treatment with supportive listening as an additional analysis. Discussion This trial has received NHS approval and results are expected in 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN90651143

  15. Avoidance Strategies in Intimate Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belk, Sharyn S.; And Others

    Avoidance strategies involve the tactics and techniques people use when they don't wish to be influenced by others. To investigate the types of avoidance strategies men and women use to deal with an unwelcome persuasion attempt from an intimate partner, undergraduates wrote essays describing how they avoided such attempts. A 24-strategy coding…

  16. Climate Change May Up Asthma Irritant, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166391.html Climate Change May Up Asthma Irritant, Study Says Researchers warn ... 8, 2017 THURSDAY, June 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change may increase people's exposure to an outdoor fungus ...

  17. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  18. Visceral hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome:pathophysiological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a disordered defecation. No unique pathophysiological mechanism has been identified. It is most likely a multifactorial disease involving alterations in intestinal microbiota

  19. A psychological perspective on tax avoidance: Deferential avoidance vs. defiant avoidance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minjo Kang

    2016-01-01

      Is a taxpayer's act of tax avoidance deemed compliant or non-compliant? Academic researchers, investigating tax compliance behaviour, address the term tax avoidance differently for a variety of purposes...

  20. Genetic epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Jasbir; Chilimuri, Sridhar; Bella, Jonathan N

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by presence of abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits. It has three main subtypes - constipation predominant IBS (C-IBS), diarrhea predominant IBS (D-IBS) and IBS with mixed features of both diarrhea as well as constipation (M-IBS). Its pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. It is traditionally believed that IBS is a result of multiple factors including hypersensitivity of the bowel, altered bowel motility, inflammation and stress. Initial studies have shown familial aggregation of IBS suggesting shared genetic or environmental factors. Twin studies of IBS from different parts of world have shown higher concordance rates among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, and thus suggesting a genetic component to this disorder. Multiple studies have tried to link single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to IBS but there is little evidence that these SNPs are functional. Various molecules have been studied and investigated by the researchers. Serotonin, a known neurotransmitter and a local hormone in the enteric nervous system, has been most extensively explored. At this time, the underlying gene pathways, genes and functional variants linked with IBS remain unknown and the promise of genetically-determined risk prediction and personalize medicine remain unfulfilled. However, molecular biological technologies continue to evolve rapidly and genetic investigations offer much promise in the intervention, treatment and prevention of IBS.

  1. Psychosocial determinants of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teodora Surdea-Blaga; Adriana Bǎban; Dan L Dumitrascu

    2012-01-01

    From a pure motor disorder of the bowel,in the past few years,irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has become a multifactorial disease that implies visceral hypersensitivity,alterations at the level of nervous and humoral communications between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system,alteration of the gut microflora,an increased intestinal permeability and minimum intestinal inflammation.Psychological and social factors can interfere with the communication between the central and enteric nervous systems,and there is proof that they are involved in the onset of IBS and influence the response to treatment and outcome.There is evidence that abuse history and stressful life events are involved in the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders.In order to explain clustering of IBS in families,genetic factors and social learning mechanisms have been proposed.The psychological features,such as anxiety,depression as well as the comorbid psychiatric disorders,health beliefs and coping of patients with IBS are discussed in relation to the symptoms and outcome.

  2. Irritable bowel syndrome, gut microbiota and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom Jae; Bak, Young-Tae

    2011-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized.

  3. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. The Intestinal Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Yehuda; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent and the best studied functional gastrointestinal disorder. The etiology and the pathogenesis of IBS are still not clear; however, recent studies have implicated a role for alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Epidemiological observations have demonstrated that the development of IBS symptoms is often preceded by a disruption of the individual's normal intestinal microbiota, and microbiological studies have demonstrated compositional differences in the intestinal microbiota between patients with IBS patients and healthy controls. In addition, animal studies and a few recent human clinical studies have demonstrated that compositional changes in the intestinal microbiota in IBS are associated with relevant abnormal gastrointestinal and brain-gut axis functions that are often observed in patients with IBS. This article discusses points of interest from the current research on the microbiota-gut-brain interactions in IBS and highlights the relevance of the emerging data to our understanding of the disorder and the clinical implications for patients' care.

  5. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suares, Nicole C; Ford, Alexander C

    2011-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The exact cause is unknown. The diagnosis should be made on clinical grounds, using symptom-based criteria such as the Manning or Rome criteria, unless symptoms are thought to be atypical. Excluding celiac disease in all patients consulting with symptoms suggestive of IBS is worthwhile, but evidence for performing other investigations to exclude organic disease is not convincing. No medical therapy for IBS has been shown to alter the disease course, and treatment has traditionally been directed towards symptom relief. The aim should be to improve the predominant symptom reported by the patient. Fiber, peppermint oil, or antispasmodic agents are beneficial as first-line therapies in some patients. Where these fail, emerging data have confirmed the efficacy of antidepressants, drugs acting on the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor, and probiotics in the short-term treatment of IBS. There are a number of novel therapies under development that show promise, including non-absorbable antibiotics, lubiprostone, and linaclotide. This article will provide a summary of diagnostic criteria for IBS, evidence to support investigations to exclude organic disease, and current and emerging therapies in this field.

  7. Genetic determination of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristina Hotoleanu; Radu Popp; Adrian Pavel Trifa; Laurentiu Nedelcu; Dan L Dumitrascu

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder.According to the Rome Ⅲ criteria,IBS is defined as recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 3 d per month during the previous 3 mo associated with two or more of the following symptoms:improvement with defecation,onset associated with a change in the frequency of stool and/or onset associated with a change in form or appearance of stool.There is growing evidence regarding the genetic contribution in IBS,however the precise etiology of IBS is still unknown.The evaluation of the genetic influence is based on twin studies,familial aggregation and genetic epidemiological investigations.Most studies showed a concordance for IBS significantly greater in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins.The majority of the studies have shown that familial aggregation may represent exposures to a similar environment,as well as the influence of genetic factors.Whereas no specific gene has been identified in association with IBS,recent studies have noticed the importance of polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin reuptake transporter gene,G-protein beta 3 subunit gene (C825T),cholecystokinin receptor (CCKAR gene 779T>C),and high-producer tumornecrosis factor genotype.Further studies are necessary to determine how genetic factors influence the clinical manifestations and therapeutical response in IBS patients.

  8. Relationships between irritable bowel syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, and worry-related constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Drews

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This ex post facto study aimed to replicate previous research demonstrating an association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and to extend this work by examining possible relationships between IBS and psychological constructs associated with the development of GAD. A total of 391 undergraduate psychology students completed self-report diagnostic measures of IBS and GAD as well as questionnaire measures of trait anxiety, worry, experiential avoidance, intolerance of uncertainty, and problem-solving confidence. Consistent with previous research, an association between IBS and GAD was found. Compared to participants without IBS, participants endorsing Rome II diagnostic criteria for IBS reported greater trait anxiety, worry, and experiential avoidance. No group differences on measures of intolerance of uncertainty and problem-solving confidence were found. Etiological factors considered specific to the development of GAD (i.e., increased intolerance of uncertainty and deficits in problem-solving confidence do not account for the observed relationships between IBS and general anxiety variables. However, experiential avoidance, or attempts to avoid unwanted bodily sensations, emotions, or other internal events, does appear elevated among IBS individuals. Implications of these findings are discussed within the context of a biopsychosocial model of IBS.

  9. Irritant bullous contact dermatitis caused by a rove beetle: an illustrated clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lindsay; Piliouras, Peter; Robertson, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    A 26-year-old Australian female traveller in Sierra Leone presented with an irritant bullous contact dermatitis consistent with paederus dermatitis. The lesions were treated with a potent topical corticosteroid with good effect. The affected area resolved in 6 weeks and hyperpigmention persisted for months until complete resolution. This dermatitis occurs when beetles of the genus Paederus (rove beetles) are crushed on the skin, releasing pederin. The same dermatitis ensues with Australian Paederus species. Serial clinical photographs are presented which will aid Australian dermatologists in the diagnosis of this dermatitis, which presents in regional Australian patients and returned overseas travellers.

  10. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  11. A comparison of the irritant and allergenic properties of antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, interest in the use of antiseptics has been reinforced as these molecules are not concerned by the problem of bacterial resistance. Whereas the in vitro efficacy of antiseptics has been well-studied, much less is known regarding their irritant and allergenic properties. This review provides an update on the comparative irritant and allergenic properties of commonly-used antiseptics in medicine nowadays. All antiseptics have irritant properties, especially when they are misused. Povidone-iodine has an excellent profile in terms of allergenicity. Allergic contact dermatitis is uncommon but is often misdiagnosed by practitioners, who confuse allergy and irritation. Chlorhexidine has been incriminated in some cases of allergic contact dermatitis; it is considered a relatively weak allergen, although it may rarely cause immunological contact urticaria and even life-threatening anaphylaxis. Octenidine is considered a safe and efficient antiseptic when used for superficial skin infections, however, aseptic tissue necrosis and chronic inflammation have been reported following irrigation of penetrating hand wounds. Polihexanide is an uncommon contact allergen as regards irritant and/or allergic contact dermatitis but cases of anaphylaxis have been reported. Considering the data available comparing the irritant and allergenic properties of major antiseptics currently in use, it should be acknowledged that all antiseptics may induce cutaneous side-effects. The present article reviews the most recent safety data that can guide consumers' choice.

  12. Comparative measurement of irritant properties of toilet bar soaps on human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten commonly used toilet bar soaps were tested for their respective irritancies usin Kligman.and Wooding′s technique of . 9 evaluation of mild irritants of human skin. Five per cent soap soulations were prepared and their pH measured, IT 50 and irritancy scores were calculated. There was to correlation between pH and IT 50 or irritancy scores and lux pink was least irritant followed by New Cinthol, Pears and lifebuoy.

  13. Repellent, irritant and toxic effects of 20 plant extracts on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged.

  14. The Immune System in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Cesare; Carini, Giovanni; Bellacosa, Lara; Zecchi, Lisa; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The potential relevance of systemic and gastrointestinal immune activation in the pathophysiology and symptom generation in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by a number of observations. Infectious gastroenteritis is the strongest risk factor for the development of IBS and increased rates of IBS-like symptoms have been detected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission or in celiac disease patients on a gluten free diet. The number of T cells and mast cells in the small and large intestine of patients with IBS is increased in a large proportion of patients with IBS over healthy controls. Mediators released by immune cells and likely from other non-immune competent cells impact on the function of enteric and sensory afferent nerves as well as on epithelial tight junctions controlling mucosal barrier of recipient animals, isolated human gut tissues or cell culture systems. Antibodies against microbiota antigens (bacterial flagellin), and increased levels of cytokines have been detected systemically in the peripheral blood advocating the existence of abnormal host-microbial interactions and systemic immune responses. Nonetheless, there is wide overlap of data obtained in healthy controls; in addition, the subsets of patients showing immune activation have yet to be clearly identified. Gender, age, geographic differences, genetic predisposition, diet and differences in the intestinal microbiota likely play a role and further research has to be done to clarify their relevance as potential mechanisms in the described immune system dysregulation. Immune activation has stimulated interest for the potential identification of biomarkers useful for clinical and research purposes and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22148103

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome: Diagnosis and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy El-Salhy

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder that considerably reduces the quality of life.It further represents an economic burden on society due to the high consumption of healthcare resources and the non-productivity of IBS patients.The diagnosis of IBS is based on symptom assessment and the Rome Ⅲ criteria.A combination of the Rome Ⅲ criteria,a physical examination,blood tests,gastroscopy and colonoscopy with biopsies is believed to be necessary for diagnosis.Duodenal chromogranin A cell density is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of IBS.The pathogenesis of IBS seems to be multifactorial,with the following factors playing a central role in the pathogenesis of IBS:heritability and genetics,dietary/intestinal microbiota,low-grade inflammation,and disturbances in the neuroendocrine system (NES) of the gut.One hypothesis proposes that the cause of IBS is an altered NES,which would cause abnormal GI motility,secretions and sensation.All of these abnormalities are characteristic of IBS.Alterations in the NES could be the result of one or more of the following:genetic factors,dietary intake,intestinal flora,or low-grade inflammation.Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease-associated IBS (IBD-IBS) represent a considerable subset of IBS cases.Patients with PI-and IBD-IBS exhibit low-grade mucosal inflammation,as well as abnormalities in the NES of the gut.

  16. Visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Motoyori; Hongo, Michio; Fukudo, Shin

    2011-04-01

    Altered central processing, abnormal gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity may be possible major pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These factors affect each other and are probably associated with development of IBS symptoms. It has been confirmed that lower pain threshold to colonic distention was observed in most of patients with IBS than healthy subjects. We have investigated pain perception of the descending colon among different subtypes of IBS. There was no difference in pain threshold to colonic distention between IBS with diarrhea and constipation. Some brain regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may play a major role for generating pain and/or pain-related emotion in humans. IBS patients showed greater activation in the perigenual ACC during painful rectal distention compared with healthy subjects. Inflammation, stress and the combination of both stimuli can induce significant increase in visceral sensitivity in animal models. Serotonin (5-HT) can modulate visceral perception. It has been thought that 5-HT(3) receptors may play an important role for conveying visceral sensation from the gut. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) may also modulate visceral pain hypersensitivity in IBS. CRH receptor-1 antagonist significantly prevented an increase in gut sensitivity in rats. It has been demonstrated that non-specific CRH receptor antagonist α-helical CRH significantly reduced abdominal pain score during gut stimulus in patients with IBS. In conclusion, visceral hypersensitivity is common in IBS patients and probably plays a major role in development of the symptoms and both central and peripheral factors may enhance the pain sensitivity.

  17. Airborne Collision Avoidance System X

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    avoidance system on behalf of the Federal Aviation Adminis- tration (FAA). The current Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II...transformations to the National Airspace System are being imple- mented through the FAA’s Next-Genera- tion Air Transportation System (NextGen). With the goal...weighted states to provide a single, optimal action. If a collision avoidance This work is sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration under Air

  18. Evaluation of Relevances on Treating Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea Patients by Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation Adopting Traditional Chinese Medicine Pattern Effect Scale%中医证候量表评价TEAS治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明显; 叶开升; 金曼

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relevances in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea ( IBS - D) patients by transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) adopting Traditional Chinese Medicine pattern effect scale (TCM - PES). Methods; 110 IBS - D patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The treatment group was stimulated 3 acupoints(Taichong,Yinlingquan and Tianshu)by TEAS twice a day. The control group was simulated for TEAS by stimulating the same acupoints. The treatment lasted for 4 weeks for each group. IBS bowel symptom severity scale (IBS - BSS) ,IBS defecation state questionnaire( IBS - DSQ) ,IBS quality of life questionnaire(IBS - QOL) were measured to evaluate the relevances with TCM - PES. The TCM pattern effect was evaluated by TCM - PES before and 4 weeks after the treatment respectively. Results ;The result showed IBS - BSS, abdominal pain severity, abdominal pain days, abdominal distensions, bowel habit satisficing and life interference had the positive correlation with TCM - PES(P < 0.05,P<0.01). And IBS-QOL, sleep .energy and social role had the negative correlation with TCM - PES(P <0. 05, P<0.01). The TCM -PES result showed TEAS group had more effective than control group in the aspects of primary symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, sternocostal flatulence) and secondary symptoms ( abdominal fullness and distention, depression and irritability, borborygmus and fart gas, belching, sighs ) ( P < 0.05, P < 0. 01). Conclusion; For IBS - D patients, bowel symptom severity and quality of life had the correlations with TCM pattern. TCM - PES could evaluate the pattern effect of IBS - D patients with pattern of the liver - qi invading the spleen. TEAS could improve the pattern effect of IBS - D patients.%目的:应用中医证候量表评价经皮穴位电刺激法(TEAS)治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征(IBS-D)的相关性.方法:110例IBS-D患者随机分为两组,治疗组予TEAS刺激太冲、阴陵泉和天枢三穴,每天2

  19. Trajectories of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Irritability Symptoms in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Trepat, Esther; Domènech, Josep M

    2016-01-01

    This study traces the developmental course of irritability symptoms in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) from ages 3-5 and examines the psychopathological outcomes of the different trajectories at age 6. A sample of 622 3-year-old preschoolers (311 were boys), followed up until age 6, was assessed yearly with a semi-structured diagnostic interview with parents and at age 6 with questionnaires answered by parents, teachers and children. Growth-Mixture-Modeling yielded five trajectories of irritability levels for the whole sample (high-persistent 3.5%, decreasing 3.8%, increasing 2.6%, low-persistent 44.1% and null 46.0%). Among the children who presented with ODD during preschool age, three trajectories of irritability symptoms resulted (high-persistent 31.9%, decreasing 34.9% and increasing 33.2%). Null, low-persistent and decreasing irritability courses in the sample as a whole gave very similar discriminative capacity for children's psychopathological state at age 6, while the increasing and high-persistent categories involved poorer clinical outcomes than the null course. For ODD children, the high-persistent and increasing trajectories of irritability predicted disruptive behavior disorders, comorbidity, high level of functional impairment, internalizing and externalizing problems and low anger control at age 6. Irritability identifies a subset of ODD children at high risk of poorer longitudinal psychopathological and functional outcomes. It might be clinically relevant to identify this subset of ODD children with a high number of irritability symptoms throughout development with a view to preventing comorbid and future adverse longitudinal outcomes.

  20. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  1. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on rat irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Esmaily, Hadi; Rahimi, Roja; Baeeri, Maryam; Sanei, Yara; Asadi-Shahmirzadi, Azar; Salehi-Surmaghi, Mohammad-Hossein; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Context: In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), disturbance of bowel motility is associated with infiltration of inflammatory mediators and cytokines into the intestine, such as neutrophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-α), and lipid peroxide. Aims: Regarding promising anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Hypericum perforatum (HP) extract, besides its anti-depressant effect, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of HP in an experimental model of IBS. Settings and Design: IBS was induced by a 5-day restraint stress in rats. The HP extract was administered by gavage in doses of 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg for 26 days. Fluoxetine and loperamide were used as positive controls. Gastric emptying and small bowel and colon transit, besides the levels of TNF-α, MPO, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant power, were determined in colon homogenates. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons. Results: A significant reduction in small bowel and colonic transit (450 mg/kg), TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and an increase in antioxidant power in all HP-treated groups (150, 300, and 450 mg/kg) were seen as compared with the control group. Gastric emptying did not alter significantly when compared with the control group. Treatment with loperamide (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited gastric emptying and small bowel and colonic transit, while flouxetine (10 mg/kg) decreased gastric emptying, TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant power of the samples in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: HP diminished the recruitment of inflammatory cells and TNF-α following restraint stress not in a dose-dependent manner, possibly via inhibition of MPO activity and increasing colon antioxidant power, without any difference with fluoxetine. The HP extract inhibits small bowel and colonic transit acceleration like loperamide but has minimal

  2. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on rat irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilan Mozaffari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, disturbance of bowel motility is associated with infiltration of inflammatory mediators and cytokines into the intestine, such as neutrophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO, tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-α, and lipid peroxide. Aims: Regarding promising anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Hypericum perforatum (HP extract, besides its anti-depressant effect, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of HP in an experimental model of IBS. Settings and Design: IBS was induced by a 5-day restraint stress in rats. The HP extract was administered by gavage in doses of 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg for 26 days. Fluoxetine and loperamide were used as positive controls. Gastric emptying and small bowel and colon transit, besides the levels of TNF-α, MPO, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant power, were determined in colon homogenates. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey′s post hoc test for multiple comparisons. Results: A significant reduction in small bowel and colonic transit (450 mg/kg, TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and an increase in antioxidant power in all HP-treated groups (150, 300, and 450 mg/kg were seen as compared with the control group. Gastric emptying did not alter significantly when compared with the control group. Treatment with loperamide (10 mg/kg significantly inhibited gastric emptying and small bowel and colonic transit, while flouxetine (10 mg/kg decreased gastric emptying, TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant power of the samples in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: HP diminished the recruitment of inflammatory cells and TNF-α following restraint stress not in a dose-dependent manner, possibly via inhibition of MPO activity and increasing colon antioxidant power, without any difference with fluoxetine. The HP extract inhibits small bowel and colonic transit acceleration like loperamide

  3. Dissecting the role of TRPV1 in detecting multiple trigeminal irritants in three behavioral assays for sensory irritation [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/p8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Saunders

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymodal neurons of the trigeminal nerve innervate the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral cavity and cornea. Trigeminal nociceptive fibers express a diverse collection of receptors and are stimulated by a wide variety of chemicals. However, the mechanism of stimulation is known only for relatively few of these compounds. Capsaicin, for example, activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 channels. In the present study, wildtype (C57Bl/6J and TRPV1 knockout mice were tested in three behavioral assays for irritation to determine if TRPV1 is necessary to detect trigeminal irritants in addition to capsaicin. In one assay mice were presented with a chemical via a cotton swab and their response scored on a 5 level scale. In another assay, a modified two bottle preference test, which avoids the confound of mixing irritants with the animal’s drinking water, was used to assess aversion. In the final assay, an air dilution olfactometer was used to administer volatile compounds to mice restrained in a double-chambered plethysmograph where respiratory reflexes were monitored. TRPV1 knockouts showed deficiencies in the detection of benzaldehyde, cyclohexanone and eugenol in at least one assay. However, cyclohexanone was the only substance tested that appears to act solely through TRPV1.

  4. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  5. Eye irritation of low-irritant cosmetic formulations: correlation of in vitro results with clinical data and product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbasch, Caroline; Ebenhahn, Catherine; Dami, Nadia; Pericoi, Marc; Van den Berghe, Christine; Cottin, Martine; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2005-01-01

    Alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test, such as the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) or the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) tests, are currently used to evaluate the irritant potential of cosmetic or consumer products. Although, for strong irritants, the results of these tests correlate well with those of the Draize test, they appear to be less suited to identify mild irritants. In order to improve the sensitivity of alternative eye irritation tests, we developed a novel method that uses a human corneal epithelial cell line (CEPI), and the endpoints of cytotoxicity and IL-8 release. Twelve make-up removers were assessed by the HET-CAM, BCOP and CEPI tests, as well as in a clinical in-use test under ophthalmological control after their application to the external eye lid. In addition, we investigated the impact of osmolality and raw material composition on in vitro and clinical results and compared the in vitro results with those of clinical studies. Overall, although HET-CAM results were unrelated to eye discomfort and adverse clinical signs, they correlated mainly with the presence and concentration of surfactants in the test articles. BCOP scores were unrelated to clinical signs, but related mainly to glycol and sodium lactate content and concentration in the test articles. Cytotoxicity in CEPI mainly correlated with presence and concentrations of surfactants, and IL-8 release to clinical signs and/or glycol and sodium lactate concentrations. Overall, IL-8 release appeared to be the most sensitive and reliable endpoint to predict human eye tolerance to mildly irritant products. Although our results suggest that the IL-8 assay appears to be a promising screen for borderline-irritant formulations, further experiments are required to confirm and validate these preliminary results.

  6. The impact of intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability on quality of life in persons with epilepsy: irritability as mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmand, Usha; Haji, Afsar

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder afflicting many people in the world. The impact of epilepsy on the quality of life of those afflicted with epilepsy is greater than the limitations imposed by the seizures alone. Among the several psychological disorders found to be comorbid with epilepsy are anxiety and depression, both of which impair quality of life in epilepsy. Some studies have reported that the anxiety seen in epilepsy is characterized by worry while the depression seen is characterized by irritability. A concept common to both anxiety and depression is intolerance of uncertainty. Therefore, the study explores the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability and their association to quality of life in epilepsy. A descriptive-correlational research method was used and the research sample comprised 60 consecutive referrals seeking outpatient neurological services for epilepsy at Alavi Hospital in Ardebil. Data were collected by administering the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, Irritability Questionnaire and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. Findings indicated that intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability have unique significant effects on quality of life. The implications are that interventions aimed at improving the quality of life of patients with epilepsy should address their feelings of uncertainty, worry and irritability. Furthermore, irritability seems to mediate the impact of both intolerance of uncertainty and worry on quality of life of individuals with epilepsy. No significant moderation effects were noted. Results underscore the important role of irritability in the quality of life of persons with epilepsy. The findings are discussed with reference to the possibility of particular predisposing temperaments and add credence to

  7. Editorial: new thoughts on the association between diverticulosis and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Robin

    2014-12-01

    As our population ages it is increasingly common to encounter patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms and diverticulosis, but the nature of the association is obscure. This Editorial discusses the paper from Japan showing an association between IBS-like symptoms and left-sided but not right-sided diverticulosis. The left colon with its higher motor activity is more likely to be associated with complications of diverticulosis, including perforation and abscess formation. The underlying pathophysiology of the syndrome of post-diverticulitis IBS is discussed and clinical markers of centrally driven symptoms suggested as a means to avoid ineffective colonic resections in those with IBS-like diverticular disease.

  8. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem. The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis should not be limited only with tests for allergens, detailed history of exposure to workplace substances and careful examination of product safety forms are necessary. In addition, by establishing close relationship between occupational physicians and employers, preventive measures should be taken before similar diseases occur in other workers in the same work place. In order to highlight this issue, a 32-year-old male patient working in an invitation card fabric is presented in this case report. Irritant contact dermatitis secondary to “petroleum naphta” was present in the patient’s arms. Another important feature of this case, as far as we know, this is the first case of irritant contact dermatitis due to naphtha in the literature.

  9. 中药复方改善腹泻型肠易激综合征内脏高敏感作用机制探讨%Investigation of Improving Visceral Hypersensitivity of Diarrhea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-D)Treated by Chinese Herbal Compound and Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛红; 张北华; 王凤云; 唐旭东

    2015-01-01

    Objective:In recent years,traditional Chinese medicine has made great progress in the treatment of diarrhea predomi-nant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D)in clinical and experimental research.In this paper,the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of this disease was summarized.Methods:The impact of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)on the brain gut amine (peptide)and neurotransmitter expression,the content and related inflammatory factor change were our major interests when conducting literature review on published literature home and abroad in recent five years.Results:The main mechanism of TCM is:lowering the content of 5-HT in colonic mucosa and blood,reducing the expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)and secretion,increasing the NO level in the intestinal tissue,reducing gastric dynamic element (MOT)in plasma,glucagon like pep-tide 1 (glp-1 )and somatostatin (SS),the content of substance P (SP),reducing the number of mast cells and nerve immunity mechanism activation,regulation of pro-inflammatory factor and anti-inflammatory factor levels.Conclusion:The mechanism re-search should be further enhanced to reveal the physiological and pathological mechanism of TCMtreatment.%目的:近年来中药在治疗(IBS-D)的临床和实验研究中取得了较大进展,作者对中药治疗本病的机理进行综述。方法:查阅近5年的国内外文献,从中药调节腹泻型肠易激综合征的脑肠胺(肽)及神经递质表达,含量及相关炎性因子改变等进行归纳、分析、总结。结果:中药治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征的主要途径包括降低血中和结肠黏膜中5-HT 浓度和含量,减少血管活性肠肽(VIP)表达及分泌,升高肠组织中 NO 水平,降低血浆中胃动素(MOT),胰高血糖素样肽-1(GLP-1),生长抑素(SS),P 物质(SP)的含量。神经免疫机制包括减少肥大细胞数目及活化,调节促炎因子\抗炎因子水平。结

  10. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  11. Irritability in children and adolescents: past concepts, current debates, and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Valle Krieger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritability is defined as a low threshold to experience anger in response to frustration. It is one of the most common symptoms in youth and is part of the clinical presentation of several disorders. Irritability can present early in life and is a predictor of long-term psychopathology; yet, the diagnostic status of irritability is a matter of intense debate. In the present article, we address two main components of the debate regarding irritability in youth: the misdiagnosis of chronic irritability as pediatric bipolar disorder, and the proposal of a new diagnosis in the DSM-5, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, whose defining symptoms are chronic irritability and temper outbursts.

  12. Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plavšić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder diagnosed on symptom-based criteria without inclusion of any objective parameter measurable by known diagnostic methods. Heterogeneity of the disorder and overlapping with more serious organic diseases increase uncertainty for the physician’s work and increase the cost of confirming the diagnosis. This paper is an attempt to summarize the efforts to find adequate biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome, which should shorten the time to diagnosis and reduce the cost. Most of the reviewed papers were observational studies from secondary care institutions. Since publication of the Rome III criteria in 2006, most recent studies use these for the recruitment of IBS patients. This is a positive step forward as future studies should use the same criteria, facilitating comparison of their results. Among the studied biomarkers, most evidence is provided for fecal calprotectin. Cutoff values for fecal calprotectin have still to be investigated prior to inclusion in the irritable bowel syndrome diagnostic algorithm.

  13. Eye and respiratory irritants in jet engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y

    1986-11-01

    It has been noted that eye and respiratory irritation frequently occurred in the ground crews and pilots working on the field behind an aircraft with a low smoke combustor (LSC) engine. This study was attempted to analyze the exhaust sampled at about 50 m behind the LSC J79 engines at idle power setting by means of a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Nine kinds of lower aliphatic carbonyl compound (seven aldehydes and two ketones) were identified. The concentration of formaldehyde was the highest among them, showing the value above the threshold reported by previous investigators. Concentration of NOx was simultaneously measured by a gas detector tube in the same sample. The exhaust of a conventional J79 engine, which has rarely caused irritation, was also analyzed by the same technique and the results were compared. It was concluded that formaldehyde plays a major role in causing irritation.

  14. Sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation of cumene and n-propanol: mechanisms of receptor activation and desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, U; Hansen, L; Nielsen, G D; Holst, E

    1986-07-01

    Cumene and n-propanol, model substances for alcohols and alkylbenzenes, were investigated for sensory irritation in mice. The concentrations within the first 2 min. depressing the respiratory rate by 50% due to the effect in the upper respiratory tract were 2,058 p.p.m. and 22,080 p.p.m., respectively. Activation of the sensory irritant receptor followed the dynamics of reversible bimolecular reactions. The extrapolated maximum response and the apparent dissociation constant were 114.3% and 2,723 p.p.m. for cumene and 68.4% and 8,178 p.p.m. for propanol, respectively. Later on desensitization was observed. The effect was weak for cumene but conspicuous for propanol. For cumene desensitization had the origin in the rise of a threshold. No change in the dissociation constant or the maximum response was found. For propanol a decrease in the maximum response, which may be explained by an allosteric effect, was observed. The pulmonary irritation response was weak for cumene but was for propanol more important than sensory irritation at high concentrations. The following hypotheses are put forward: the effect of pulmonary irritation on the tidal volume is mediated via the stretch receptors while the effect on the respiratory frequency is mediated via the J-receptors.

  15. Effects of irritant chemicals on Aedes aegypti resting behavior: is there a simple shift to untreated "safe sites"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortance Manda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to irritant and repellent chemicals that can be exploited to reduce man-vector contact. Maximum efficacy of interventions based on irritant chemical actions will, however, require full knowledge of variables that influence vector resting behavior and how untreated "safe sites" contribute to overall impact. METHODS: Using a laboratory box assay, resting patterns of two population strains of female Ae. aegypti (THAI and PERU were evaluated against two material types (cotton and polyester at various dark:light surface area coverage (SAC ratio and contrast configuration (horizontal and vertical under chemical-free and treated conditions. Chemicals evaluated were alphacypermethrin and DDT at varying concentrations. RESULTS: Under chemical-free conditions, dark material had significantly higher resting counts compared to light material at all SAC, and significantly increased when material was in horizontal configuration. Cotton elicited stronger response than polyester. Within the treatment assays, significantly higher resting counts were observed on chemical-treated dark material compared to untreated light fabric. However, compared to matched controls, significantly less resting observations were made on chemical-treated dark material overall. Most importantly, resting observations on untreated light material (or "safe sites" in the treatment assay did not significantly increase for many of the tests, even at 25% SAC. Knockdown rates were ≤5% for all assays. Significantly more observations of flying mosquitoes were made in test assays under chemical-treatment conditions as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When preferred Ae. aegypti resting sites are treated with chemicals, even at reduced treatment coverage area, mosquitoes do not simply move to safe sites (untreated areas following contact with the treated material. Instead, they become agitated

  16. Ground Collision Avoidance System (Igcas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A (Inventor); Prosser, Kevin (Inventor); Hook, Loyd (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for aircraft ground collision avoidance (iGCAS) comprising a modular array of software, including a sense own state module configured to gather data to compute trajectory, a sense terrain module including a digital terrain map (DTM) and map manger routine to store and retrieve terrain elevations, a predict collision threat module configured to generate an elevation profile corresponding to the terrain under the trajectory computed by said sense own state module, a predict avoidance trajectory module configured to simulate avoidance maneuvers ahead of the aircraft, a determine need to avoid module configured to determine which avoidance maneuver should be used, when it should be initiated, and when it should be terminated, a notify Module configured to display each maneuver's viability to the pilot by a colored GUI, a pilot controls module configured to turn the system on and off, and an avoid module configured to define how an aircraft will perform avoidance maneuvers through 3-dimensional space.

  17. [Psoas haematoma due to irritation of the psoas tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausmann, C; Mathonia, P; Plötz, W

    2013-10-01

    Irritation of the tendon of the musculus iliopsoas after total hip replacement is a rare complication. In connection with the irritation of the iliopsoas tendon only one case report of a psoas haematoma due to anticoagulation has been published. We assume that these kinds of haematomas are more frequent than described. We report on 2 cases of haematoma caused by an iliopsoas impingement after total hip replacement. In one case a lesion of the femoral nerve was observed. Surgical treatment was composed of the revision of the acetabular component. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Pattern Avoidance in Ternary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Gabriel, Nathan; Pudwell, Lara; Tay, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the enumeration of ternary trees (i.e. rooted ordered trees in which each vertex has 0 or 3 children) avoiding a contiguous ternary tree pattern. We begin by finding recurrence relations for several simple tree patterns; then, for more complex trees, we compute generating functions by extending a known algorithm for pattern-avoiding binary trees. Next, we present an alternate one-dimensional notation for trees which we use to find bijections that explain why certain pairs of tree patterns yield the same avoidance generating function. Finally, we compare our bijections to known "replacement rules" for binary trees and generalize these bijections to a larger class of trees.

  19. Improved irritative voiding symptoms three years after stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakie eRana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritative voiding symptoms are common in elderly men and following prostate radiotherapy. The impact of hypofractionated treatment on irritative voiding symptoms has not been determined. This study sought to evaluate urgency, frequency and nocturia following SBRT for prostate cancer. Methods: Patients treated with SBRT monotherapy for localized prostate cancer from August 2007 to July 2011 at Georgetown University Hospital were included in this study. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife® with doses of 35 Gy-36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. Patient-reported urinary symptoms were assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months post-treatment and every 6 months thereafter.Results: 204 patients at a median age of 69 years received SBRT with a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Prior to treatment, 50.0% of patients reported moderate to severe lower urinary track symptoms and 17.7% felt that urinary frequency was a moderate to big problem. The mean prostate volume was 39 cc and 8% had prior procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. A mean baseline IPSS-irritative score of 4.8 significantly increased to 6.5 at 1 month (p 8 at baseline, the mean IPSS-I decreased from a baseline score of 6.8 to 4.9 at three years post-SBRT. This decrease was both statistically (p < 0.0001 and clinically significant (MID = 1.45. Only 14.6% of patients felt that urinary frequency was a moderate to big problem at three years post-SBRT (p = 0.23.Conclusions: Treatment of prostate cancer

  20. Occupational irritants and asthma: an Estonian cross-sectional study of 34,000 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Laurent, Emeline; Bousquet, Jean; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili; Kauffmann, Francine; Le Moual, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Occupational exposures make important contributions to asthma morbidity. The role of low/moderate level irritant exposures remains unclear. We aimed to determine which occupational exposures are associated with asthma in an eastern European country with low asthma prevalence. The Estonian Genome Center of University of Tartu collected data from 50 077 adults in 2002-2011. Asthma was assessed through a questionnaire regarding diagnosed diseases, current health status and medication. Exposures to 22 agents during the current and longest held jobs were estimated using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix. Analyses included 34 015 subjects (aged 18-65 years, 67.0% females), of which 1209 (3.6%) reported asthma (608 with physician-confirmed diagnosis). After adjusting for age, sex and smoking habits, lifetime occupational exposure to known asthmagens (20.4%) was significantly associated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03-1.59), especially high molecular weight agents (flour: OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.31-4.27; animals: OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00-2.60). Exposure to low/moderate levels of irritants (17.4%) was associated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.48-2.37). More pronounced associations were observed in subjects reporting current treated asthma. Beyond confirming the effect of known asthmagens (which are well-known, mostly from observations in western countries), the results provide evidence for a role of low/moderate exposure to irritants. This finding, observed in a country with a low prevalence of asthma and atopy, provides new insight into the understanding of asthma heterogeneity.

  1. Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Marc E

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods for assessing exposures of residential communities to contaminants from processed sewage sludges need to be developed. Methods To describe and document adverse effects reported by residents, 48 individuals at ten sites in the US and Canada were questioned about their environmental exposures and symptoms. Information was obtained on five additional cases where an outbreak of staphylococcal infections occurred near a land application site in Robesonia, PA. Medical records were reviewed in cases involving hospitalisation or other medical treatment. Since most complaints were associated with airborne contaminants, an air dispersion model was used as a means for potentially ruling out exposure to sludge as the cause of adverse effects. Results Affected residents lived within approximately 1 km of land application sites and generally complained of irritation (e.g., skin rashes and burning of the eyes, throat, and lungs after exposure to winds blowing from treated fields. A prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and respiratory tract was found. Approximately 1 in 4 of 54 individuals were infected, including 2 mortalities (septicaemia, pneumonia. This result was consistent with the prevalence of S. aureus infections accompanying diaper rashes in which the organism, which is commonly found in the lower human colon, tends to invade irritated or inflamed tissue. Conclusions When assessing public health risks from applying sewage sludges in residential areas, potential interactions of

  2. VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF THE MUCOSA OF THE COLON IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN THE DYNAMICS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Shklyaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The difficulty of its diagnosis related to the lack of specific markers of the disease. This article describes the visual changes of the mucosa of the colon in irritable bowel syndrome in the dynamics of medical and physiotherapy treatment. Materials and methods. Examined and treated 100 patients with endoscopically confirmed diagnosis of IBS. Of which 50 people were receiving pharmacotherapy and 50 –sinusoidal modulated currents — phoresis natural brine. Given the morphological evaluation of the mucosa of the intestine in the dynamics of treatment. Results. In IBS morpho-endoscopically detected dyskinetic disorders, minimal signs of nonspecific inflammation of the mucosa of the colon and primary degenerative manifestations. These changes are reversible and can be used to assess the quality of treatment. The high efficiency of SMC-phoresis natural brine in IBS.

  3. Avoiding versus seeking: the relationship of information seeking to avoidance, blunting, coping, dissonance, and related concepts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Donald O.; Andrews, James E.; Johnson, J. David; Allard, Suzanne L.

    2005-01-01

    Question: How have theorists and empirical researchers treated the human tendency to avoid discomforting information? Data Sources: A historical review (1890–2004) of theory literature in communication and information studies, coupled with searches of recent studies on uptake of genetic testing and on coping strategies of cancer patients, was performed. Study Selection: The authors' review of the recent literature included searches of the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL databases between 1992 and summer of 2004 and selective, manual searches of earlier literature. Search strategies included the following subject headings and key words: MeSH headings: Genetic Screening/psychology, Decision Making, Neoplasms/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; CINAHL headings: Genetic Screening, Genetic Counseling, Anxiety, Decision Making, Decision Making/Patient; additional key words: avoidance, worry, monitoring, blunting, cancer. The “Related Articles” function in MEDLINE was used to perform additional “citation pearl” searching. Main Results: The assumption that individuals actively seek information underlies much of psychological theory and communication practice, as well as most models of the information-seeking process. However, much research has also noted that sometimes people avoid information, if paying attention to it will cause mental discomfort or dissonance. Cancer information in general and genetic screening for cancer in particular are discussed as examples to illustrate this pattern. Conclusion: That some patients avoid knowledge of imminent disease makes avoidance behavior an important area for social and psychological research, particularly with regard to genetic testing. PMID:16059425

  4. Avoiding versus seeking: the relationship of information seeking to avoidance, blunting, coping, dissonance, and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Donald O; Andrews, James E; Johnson, J David; Allard, Suzanne L

    2005-07-01

    How have theorists and empirical researchers treated the human tendency to avoid discomforting information? A historical review (1890-2004) of theory literature in communication and information studies, coupled with searches of recent studies on uptake of genetic testing and on coping strategies of cancer patients, was performed. The authors' review of the recent literature included searches of the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL databases between 1992 and summer of 2004 and selective, manual searches of earlier literature. Search strategies included the following subject headings and key words: MeSH headings: Genetic Screening/psychology, Decision Making, Neoplasms/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; CINAHL headings: Genetic Screening, Genetic Counseling, Anxiety, Decision Making, Decision Making/Patient; additional key words: avoidance, worry, monitoring, blunting, cancer. The "Related Articles" function in MEDLINE was used to perform additional "citation pearl" searching. The assumption that individuals actively seek information underlies much of psychological theory and communication practice, as well as most models of the information-seeking process. However, much research has also noted that sometimes people avoid information, if paying attention to it will cause mental discomfort or dissonance. Cancer information in general and genetic screening for cancer in particular are discussed as examples to illustrate this pattern. That some patients avoid knowledge of imminent disease makes avoidance behavior an important area for social and psychological research, particularly with regard to genetic testing.

  5. Things to Avoid When Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to avoid fish that are high in mercury, namely, shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish. When you do eat fish, it’s important to eat varieties that contain less mercury, such as canned light tuna, shrimp, salmon, pollock, ...

  6. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using biologically-inspired neuromorphic optic flow algorithms is a novel approach in collision avoidance for UAS. Traditional computer vision algorithms rely on...

  7. Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toddler For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination Reviewed by Sharon Denny, MS, RDN ... can be a virtual mine field. That's because gluten (a protein in grains such as wheat, rye ...

  8. Robot Avoids Collisions With Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edward; Rosinski, Doug; Wegerif, Dan

    1993-01-01

    Developmental robot equipped with infrared sensors and control system acting in concert to enable manipulator arm to move around obstacles. Robot avoids collisions with other objects, even when moving in unpredictable ways. Control system requires no prior knowledge of environment.

  9. How to avoid exercise injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000859.htm How to avoid exercise injuries To use the sharing features on this ... injury and stay safe during exercise. What Causes Exercise Injuries? Some of the most common causes of ...

  10. Postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in guppies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzpatrick, J. L; Evans, J. P

    2014-01-01

    .... Here, we examine the potential for paternity biases to favour unrelated males when their sperm compete for fertilizations though postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the guppy, P oecilia reticulata...

  11. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  12. Pyrethroid susceptibility and behavioral avoidance in Anopheles epiroticus, a malaria vector in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritthison, Wanapa; Titgratog, Rungarun; Tainchum, Krajana; Bangs, Michael J; Manguin, Sylvie; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    The physiological susceptibility to insecticides and the behavioral responses of four wild-caught populations of female Anopheles epiroticus to synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin, and alpha-cypermethrin) were assessed. Test populations were collected from different localities along the eastern coast, Trat (TR), Songkhla (SK), and Surat Thani (ST) and one population from the western coast, Phang Nga (PN). Results showed that all four populations of An. epiroticus were susceptible to all three synthetic pyrethroids tested. Behavioral responses to test compounds were characterized for all four populations using an excito-repellency test system. TR displayed the strongest contact excitation ('irritancy') escape response (76.8% exposed to deltamethrin, 74.1% permethrin, and 78.4% alpha-cypermethrin), followed by the PN population (24.4% deltamethrin, 35% permethrin, and 34.4% for alpha-cypermethrin) by rapidly escaping test chambers after direct contact with surfaces treated with each active ingredient compared with match-paired untreated controls. Moderate non-contact repellency responses to all three compounds were observed in the TR population but were comparatively weaker than paired contact tests. Few mosquitoes from the SK and ST populations escaped from test chambers, regardless of insecticide tested or type of trial. We conclude that contact excitation was a major behavioral response in two populations of An. epiroticus, whereas two other populations showed virtually no escape response following exposure to the three pyrethroids. The explanation for these large unexpected differences in avoidance responses between pyrethroid-susceptible populations of the same species is unclear and warrants further investigation.

  13. 回肠造口术后发生刺激性皮炎的护理%Nursing care of irritant dermatitis after ileostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚翠; 王丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study nursing measures for irritant dermatitis after ileostomy in order to improve patients′living quality after enterostomy. Methods Cinical data of 28 patients who developed dermatitis after ileostomy between January 2014 to December 2014 were collected and analysed. A variety of nursing measures were used to solve these complications. Results 7 cases of hospitalized patients were treated and assessed daily by corresponding nurse until the dermatitis was healing. The other 21 cases were tracked and assessed via follow up visit. All cases with irritant dermatitis healed within 2 to 8 days without recurrence in one month follow up period. Conclusions Possible reasons of the dermatitis should be carefully analyzed according to the skin status around the stoma. Detailed instructions of ostomy care knowledge and skills should be interpreted prudentially. And different treatment approaches should be used according to the degree of dermatitis to avoid the stimulation of feces on the skin and facilitate the healing of dermatitis.%目的:探讨回肠造口术后发生刺激性皮炎的护理措施,提高肠造口患者术后生活质量。方法回顾性分析2014年1月~2014年12月在我院行回肠造口术后发生肠造口周围皮炎患者28例临床资料,并针对并发症情况采取相应的护理措施。结果7例住院患者由责任护士每天跟踪处理,直至皮炎愈合,另21例通过随访进行追踪评估,全组患者皮炎均在2~8 d内愈合,电话随访1个月均未再发生刺激性皮炎。结论根据造口周围皮肤发生的状况分析原因,实施必要的健康教育指导,并根据皮炎的程度采取不同的处理方法,避免粪水对皮肤的刺激,促进皮炎尽快愈合。

  14. Technologies in the evaluation of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, AJPM; Azpiroz, F; Brummer, RJ; Coremans, G; Dapoigny, M; Muller-Lissner, SA; Pace, F; Stockbrugger, RM; Vatn, M; Whorwell, PJ

    2004-01-01

    During a meeting in The Hague, The Netherlands, the IBiS Club evaluated the most important techniques that can be used in the investigation of irritable bowel syndrome, either in the context of scientific research or as a clinical diagnostic tool. In each of these, the relevance of findings made in

  15. Non-pharmacological treatments in the irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Leahy; O Epstein

    2001-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characteried by chronic lower abdominal pain and disordered defaecation associated with bloating ,tenesmus and extra-intestinal symptoms including and functional upper gastrointestinal symptoms .Currently there is nounifying hypothesis which adepuately explains the pathogenesis of the disorder although a number of physiological and psychological abmormalites have been described.

  16. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Nyeong Lee; Oh Young Lee

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received mu...

  17. Identification of subjects at risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Described is the use of enterotyping of the gut microbiota for identifying a subject at risk of developing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from IBS, as well as method for identifying a subject at risk of developing IBS and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from IBS by enterotypes a test sample derived from a subject

  18. Identificationof subjects at risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Described is the use of enterotyping of the gut microbiota for identifying a subject at risk of developing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from IBS, as well as method for identifying a subject at risk of developing IBS and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from IBS by enterotypes a test sample derived from a subject

  19. Irritant contact facial dermatitis due to nebulizer therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Eedy, D. J.; Barton, K; Stanford, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with long-standing, severe airflow obstruction requiring long-term nebulizer therapy developing a facial dermatitis in the area bounded by the nebulizer mask. The facial dermatitis seems to be the result of the combined irritancy of the nebulizer solutions and moisture, and prophylactic measures are suggested for patients requiring long-term nebulizer therapy.

  20. Towards an integrated psychoneurophysiological approach of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veek, Patrick Petrus Johannes van der

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort accompanied by disturbed bowel habits. It is among the most frequently occurring functional bowel syndromes, but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. A variety of mechanisms hav

  1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Population of African Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional dyspepsia is the prototype functional gastrointestinal disorder. This study was designed to determine its prevalence, subtypes, and risk factors associated with the subtypes. Method. Patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms who presented for endoscopy were administered a questionnaire containing the functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome modules of the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Results. Of 192 patients who had functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes accounted for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the risk factors showed that independent predictors of postprandial distress syndrome were alcohol and irritable bowel syndrome while irritable bowel syndrome was independent predictor of epigastric pain syndrome. Alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independent predictors of cooccurrence of postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. Conclusion. Functional dyspepsia accounts for 62.5% of dyspepsia in a population of black African patients. Regarding symptomatology, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes account for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Risk factors for functional dyspepsia are irritable bowel syndrome, alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  2. PAINFUL IRRITABLE-BOWEL-SYNDROME AND SIGMOID CONTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RITSEMA, GH; THIJN, CJP

    Fifteen patients with abdominal pain compatible with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined by barium enema and pressure recording. Strong circular contractions of the sigmoid colon and pressure recordings correlated with the characteristic pain in 13 of the 15 patients. In 15 control

  3. Identification of subjects at risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, L.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Described is the use of enterotyping of the gut microbiota for identifying a subject at risk of developing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from IBS, as well as method for identifying a subject at risk of developing IBS and/or diagnosing a subject suffering from I

  4. PAINFUL IRRITABLE-BOWEL-SYNDROME AND SIGMOID CONTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RITSEMA, GH; THIJN, CJP

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen patients with abdominal pain compatible with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined by barium enema and pressure recording. Strong circular contractions of the sigmoid colon and pressure recordings correlated with the characteristic pain in 13 of the 15 patients. In 15 control pati

  5. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  6. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The ...

  7. Ectopic decidual reaction mimicking irritable bowel syndrome: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Salehgargari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidualization with gross involvement of the peritoneum is one of the rare findings in pregnant women particularly when ectopic decidualization disseminated as an asymptomatic intra-abdominal nodule. We present here a case of an ectopic decidualization in a 33-year-old pregnant woman with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome during pregnancy.

  8. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test for eye irritants. 1500.42 Section 1500.42 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 1 The guide will contain color...

  9. An Automatic Identification System of Human Skin Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fadlil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative characterization of human skin irritation is an important but difficult task. Recently, identification of human skin is still doing manually. Furthermore, manual identification of the human skin irritation sample can be very subjective. The skin irritation analysis could conducted using biochemical test, but not simple. In this research, a new approach an automatic human skin identification system base on image recognition have been developed. Skin image processed using pattern recognition methods to obtain decision of skin sample test is skin irritation or not. System design is implementation of Gray Level Histogram (GLH feature or texture Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM features using classifier distance metric: Manhattan distance and Euclidean distance, or Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ neural network. Combination between feature extrator and classifier methods proposed to evaluate of performance system. The experimental results show that the best accuracy namely 83.33% obtained when design system is implementation of GLH or GLCM features using LVQ neural network classifier.

  10. Managing irritable bowel syndrome: The low-FODMAP diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugum, Mohannad; Barco, Kathy; Garg, Samita

    2016-09-01

    A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) has been found to significantly reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The diet is best implemented in two phases: initial strict elimination of foods high in FODMAPs, then gradual reintroduction based on symptoms. Further study of this diet's effect on intestinal microbiota is needed.

  11. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  12. Perceived Informativeness of and Irritation with Local Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasadeos, Yorgo

    1990-01-01

    Surveys mall shoppers to determine the relative informativeness of retail advertising. Finds that newspaper advertisements are considered the most informative with radio commercials next and television commercials least. Finds that newspaper ads are more irritating than radio or television advertising. Finds older and wealthier shoppers more…

  13. Subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and medical management of symptoms are increasingly based on IBS subtype, so it is important to accurately differentiate patients. Few studies have classified subtypes of pediatric IBS, and conclusions have been challenged by methodologic l...

  14. Conditioned pain modulation in women with irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary corti...

  15. Local effects in the respiratory tract: Relevance of subjectively measured irritation for setting occupational exposure limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Heer, C.de; Woutersen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Chemosensory effects of stimulation by a chemical can either be irritating (trigeminal stimulation) or odorous (olfactory stimulation) or both. For odorous irritants, a clear-cut distinction between odour and irritation is difficult to make. The differences in the lowest concentration

  16. Local effects in the respiratory tract: Relevance of subjectively measured irritation for setting occupational exposure limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Heer, C.de; Woutersen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Chemosensory effects of stimulation by a chemical can either be irritating (trigeminal stimulation) or odorous (olfactory stimulation) or both. For odorous irritants, a clear-cut distinction between odour and irritation is difficult to make. The differences in the lowest concentration fo

  17. Comparison of objective and sensory skin irritations of several cosmetic preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunyoung; An, Susun; Choi, Dongwon; Moon, Seongjoon; Chang, Ihseop

    2007-03-01

    There are many cosmetic ingredients, such as preservatives and fragrances, known to elicit adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the side-effects of cosmetic preservatives, by evaluating objective and subjective skin irritation. The method comprised of 2 parts. In part 1, we tried to compare 24-hr patch test results with the sensory irritation potential of several preservatives. In part 2, skin cumulative irritation test for 21 days and sensory irritation test were performed to compare various combinations of preservatives in 4 types of formulations. Our data showed that methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, phenoxyethanol (PE) and chlorphenesin (CPN) have similar objective skin irritation potential at the minimal inhibitory concentration of each preservative, but CPN has higher potential than other preservatives in subjective irritation. Sensory irritation of preservatives changed according to formulation type, and PE combined with CPN highly increased irritation. There was correlation between antimicrobial activity and skin objective irritation but not sensory irritation. Influence on skin sensory irritation varies with the combination of preservatives. Therefore, for the development of new preservatives and cosmetics, it is important to evaluate skin sensory irritation of preservatives used in cosmetic products according to the type of formulations.

  18. Profile of rifaximin and its potential in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorio N

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natalya Iorio, Zubair Malik, Ron Schey Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and abnormal bowel patterns. Alteration in gut flora, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal bowel motility are among numerous factors in the complex pathophysiology of IBS. Antibiotics have been used adjunctively to treat IBS for many years but are associated with various systemic side effects. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable, broad-spectrum antimicrobial that inhibits bacterial RNA synthesis by binding the β-subunit of microbial RNA polymerase. It targets the gastrointestinal tract and works by reducing the quantity of gas-producing bacteria and altering the predominant species of bacteria present. In vivo animal studies suggest additional beneficial mechanisms of rifaximin, including reducing mucosal inflammation and visceral hypersensitivity. Clinical studies have demonstrated that rifaximin improves symptoms associated with IBS, such as bloating, flatulence, stool consistency, and abdominal pain, and has a side-effect profile similar to placebo. Although additional investigation into optimal dosing, treatment duration, and potential resistance is required, rifaximin presents as a safe and beneficial addition to the current management options for IBS. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, rifaximin, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, mucosal inflammation

  19. Effects of disinfectants and detergents on skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotosch, Caroline M; Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the biological response of regular human skin to alcohol-based disinfectants and detergents in a repetitive test design. Using non-invasive diagnostic tools such as transepidermal water loss, laser-Doppler flowmetry and corneometry, we quantified the irritative effects of a propanol-based hand disinfectant (Sterillium), its propanol mixture (2-propanol 45% w/w and 1-propanol 30% w/w), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 0.5% and distilled water. The substances were applied in a 2-D patch test in a repetitive occlusive test design to the back. Additionally, we performed a wash test on the forearms that was supposed to mimic the skin affection in the normal daily routine of health care workers. In this controlled half-side test design, we included the single application of the hand rub, SLS 0.5% and water as well as a tandem application of the same substances. Patch test and wash test showed similar results. The alcohol-based test preparations showed minimal irritation rather comparable to the application of water. However, the detergent SLS produced stronger barrier disruption, erythema and dryness than the alcohol-based preparations. There was no additional irritation at the combined use of SLS and disinfectants. By contrary, there was even a decrease in barrier disruption and erythema induced by the tandem application of SLS followed by alcohol-based disinfection compared with the use of SLS alone. These findings show a less irritant effect of alcohol-based disinfectants on the skin than detergents. Our study shows that there is no summation of irritating effects of a common detergent and propanol and that the combination of washing and disinfection has a rather protective aspect compared with washing alone.

  20. Sensitivity to environmental irritants and quality of life in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ternesten-Hasséus E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Ternesten-Hasséus, Sven Larsson, Eva MillqvistDepartment of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: It is a common clinical experience that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD complain of airway symptoms provoked by environmental irritants like chemicals and scents, although few studies can confirm such connections. The aim was to study the prevalence of airway symptoms induced by chemicals and scents in a group of patients with newly diagnosed CPOD and to analyze any relation to illness severity and quality of life. Eighty-one patients with COPD were recruited to the study. By mail they were asked to answer three questionnaires regarding symptoms, quality of life, and social and emotional influence of airway symptoms induced by environmental irritants. A majority (62% of the COPD patients claimed to be hyperreactive to chemicals and scents. As a group they scored higher on a questionnaire measuring social and emotional influences of such environmental irritants compared to healthy control subjects. Further, high scores were more common among patients with a very severe form of COPD and among patients with regular use of β2-stimulants. High scores were also associated with significantly more airway symptoms and, in some aspects, with impaired quality of life. In conclusion, the results of this study show that airway symptoms induced by environmental irritants are common in patients with COPD and that this increased airway sensitivity follows the impairment of lung capacity. The mechanisms behind this remain unclear.Keywords: COPD, hyperresponsiveness, environmental irritants, sensory hyperreactivity, quality of life

  1. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams.

  2. Determination of eye irritation potential of low-irritant products: comparison of in vitro results with the in vivo draize rabbit test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Martins da Nóbrega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to build the evaluation strategies to assess the human eye irritation, a reassessment of some in vitro tests is necessary, particularly concerning the non-irritants, mild and moderate irritants. Thus, the correlations between results obtained from the Draize test with the in vitro methods HET-CAM (Hens Egg Test-Chorion Allantonic Membrane and RBC haemolysis assay to assess the ocular irritancy potential of 20 eye drops were examined. Parameters such as accuracy (% and specificity (% were determined. All results were correlated with RBC correctly with the results obtained in the Draize test. The HET-CAM presented four false-positive results, showing a tendency of data overestimation. Despite the high specificity provided mainly by the RBC, it would be necessary to test a wider range of products representing all the scales of irritation to confirm its ability to be used as a first alternative to test products that could be presumptive non-irritants.

  3. Tomographic patient registration and conformal avoidance tomotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Jennifer Stacy

    Development of tomotherapy has led to the emergence of several processes, providing the basis for many unique investigative opportunities. These processes include setup verification, tomographic verification, megavoltage dose reconstruction, and conformal avoidance tomotherapy. Setup verification and conformal avoidance tomotherapy, in particular, are two closely intertwined matters. In order to avoid critical structures located within or adjacent to indistinct tumor regions, accurate patient positioning from fraction to fraction must be ensured. With tomographic patient registration, a higher level of assurance is offered than with traditional positioning methods. Translational and rotational offsets are calculated directly from projection data using cross- correlation or fast Fourier transforms. Experiments assessing the algorithm's ability to calculate individual offsets were conducted using the University of Wisconsin's Tomotherapy Benchtop. These experiments indicate statistical errors within +/-1 mm for offsets up to approximately 20 mm, with maximum offset errors of about +/-2 mm for displacements up to 35 mm. The angular offset component is within +/-2°. To evaluate the registration process as a whole, experimental results from a few multi-parameter examples are also analyzed. With the development of tomographic patient registration in projection space, efforts to promote further sparing of critical structures are justified. Conformal avoidance tomotherapy has as its objective to treat an indistinct tumor region while conformally avoiding any normal critical structures in that region. To demonstrate the advantages of conformal avoidance tomotherapy, conventional and tomotherapy treatments are contrasted for both nasopharyngeal and breast carcinoma cases. For initial research efforts, computed tomography data sets of a human male and female were obtained via the ``Visible Human Project''. Since these data sets are on the order of hundreds of megabytes, both

  4. Comparison of human skin irritation patch test data with in vitro skin irritation assays and animal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jírová, Dagmar; Basketter, David; Liebsch, Manfred; Bendová, Hana; Kejlová, Kristina; Marriott, Marie; Kandárová, Helena

    2010-02-01

    Efforts to replace the rabbit skin irritation test have been underway for many years, encouraged by the EU Cosmetics Directive and REACH. Recently various in vitro tests have been developed, evaluated and validated. A key difficulty in confirming the validity of in vitro methods is that animal data are scarce and of limited utility for prediction of human effects, which adversely impacts their acceptance. This study examines whether in vivo or in vitro data most accurately predicted human effects. Using the 4-hr human patch test (HPT) we examined a number of chemicals whose EU classification of skin irritancy is known to be borderline, or where in vitro methods provided conflicting results. Of the 16 chemicals classified as irritants in the rabbit, only five substances were found to be significantly irritating to human skin. Concordance of the rabbit test with the 4-hr HPT was only 56%, whereas concordance of human epidermis models with human data was 76% (EpiDerm) and 70% (EPISKIN). The results confirm observations that rabbits overpredict skin effects in humans. Therefore, when validating in vitro methods, all available information, including human data, should be taken into account before making conclusions about their predictive capacity.

  5. From topical antidote against skin irritants to a novel counter-irritating and anti-inflammatory peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Berta; Erlanger-Rosengarten, Avigail; Proscura, Elena; Shapira, Elena; Wormser, Uri

    2008-06-15

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the counter-irritating activity of topical iodine against skin lesions induced by chemical and thermal stimuli. The hypothesis that iodine exerts its activity by inducing an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor was confirmed by exposing guinea pig skin to heat stimulus followed by topical iodine treatment and skin extraction. Injection of the extract into naïve guinea pigs reduced heat-induced irritation by 69%. The protective factor, identified as a new nonapeptide (histone H2A 36-44, H-Lys-Gly-Asn-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Ileu-Ala-OH), caused reduction of 40% in irritation score in heat-exposed guinea pigs. The murine analog (H-Lys-Gly-His-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Val-Gly-OH, termed IIIM1) reduced sulfur mustard (SM)-induced ear swelling at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner reaching peak activity of 1 mg/kg. Cultured keratinocytes transfected with the peptide were more resistant towards SM than the control cells. The peptide suppressed oxidative burst in activated neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the peptide reduced glucose oxidase-induced skin edema in mice at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner. Apart from thermal and chemical-induced skin irritation this novel peptide might be of potential use in chronic dermal disorders such as psoriasis and pemphigus as well as non-dermal inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and colitis.

  6. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  7. The Development of Negative Reactivity in Irritable Newborns as a Function of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Laura J.; Stupica, Brandi; Dykas, Matthew J.; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Cassidy, Jude

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study builds on existing research exploring the developmental course of infants’ negative reactivity to frustration in a sample of 84 irritable infants. We investigated whether infants’ negative reactivity to frustration differed during the first year as a function of infant attachment classification. Various elements of the designs of previous studies investigating negative reactivity and attachment preclude the strong conclusion that negative reactivity develops differently as a function of attachment. Thus, we utilized the same observational assessment of infant negative reactivity, conducted without parental involvement, at 5 and 12 months. One proposition, based in attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Cassidy, 1994), is that relative to secure infants, insecure-avoidant infants come to minimize their negative emotional reactions, whereas insecure-ambivalent infants come to maximize their negative emotional reactions. As expected, we found that at 5 months, attachment groups did not differ in reactivity, but at 12 months, insecure-avoidant infants were the least reactive, followed by secure infants, and insecure-ambivalent infants were the most reactive. Results are discussed in terms of conceptualizing the development of emotion regulation and their implications for future research. PMID:23287637

  8. The role of diet in the pathogenesis and management of irritable bowel syndrome (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, M; Ostgaard, H; Gundersen, D; Hatlebakk, J G; Hausken, T

    2012-05-01

    Most patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) believe that diet plays a significant role in inducing IBS symptoms and desire to know what foods to avoid. It has been found that the intake of calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fat by IBS patients does not differ from that of the background population. IBS patients were found to avoid certain food items that are rich in fermentable oligo-, di- and monosacharides and polyols (FODMAPs), but they did have a high consumption of many other FODMAP-rich food items. The diet of IBS patients was found to consist of a low calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin B2 and vitamin A content. There is no consistent evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy, nor is there documented evidence that food intolerance plays a role in IBS symptoms. Abnormalities in gut hormones have been reported in IBS patients. As gut hormones control and regulate gastrointestinal motility and sensation, this may explain the abnormal gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity reported in these patients. Guidance concerning food management which includes individually based restrictions of FODMAP-rich food items and individual evaluation of the effects of protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich/poor diets may reduce IBS symptoms.

  9. Treating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Treating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Treating Infertility Page ... Treating Infertility FAQ137, March 2015 PDF Format Treating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is infertility? What treatment options ...

  10. A comparison of the effect of certain inorganic salts on suppression acute skin irritation by human biometric assay: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedali Fatemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strontium, zinc, and potassium salts have been demonstrated to inhibit irritation and inflammation when applied topically. Particularly, strontium chloride (SC and potassium nitrate (KN are reported to reduce skin and tooth sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-irritant effects of four inorganic salts and assign the ingredient which can suppress skin irritation due to chemical or environmental exposure, more effectively. We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of SC, strontium nitrate (SN, KN, and zinc chloride (ZC. Materials and Methods: This double-blind trial was conducted on 32 healthy volunteers with sensitive skin. Irritation was induced by 24 h exposure with 1.0% sodium lauryl sulfate on arms.. Treatments were applied by an ointment of SN, SC hexahydrate, KN, and ZC and their 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v concentrations were prepared. The dosage was twice daily for 6 days to the irritated areas. Skin reactions were evaluated instrumentally. Results: SC had a beneficial effect that was significant overall. All other treatments exert a protective effect in skin barrier function but not significantly. With the exception of ZC, all test substances improved skin hydration but the effect of SC was significant. In respect of colorimetric assessment, all treatments, excluding ZC, reduced erythema significantly compared with an untreated control 7 days after treatment start. There was no support for a dose-response effect. Conclusion: Analysis of the biometric measurements revealed that the strontium salts are best, not treating is worst, and there is little difference between the other treatments. Hence, the skin care products containing SC and SN may reduce the signs and symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis.

  11. Impact of topical bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% on conjunctival irritation in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi B Ogundele

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abayomi B Ogundele, Guangming Li, Joel J EllisAlcon Research, Ltd., Fort Worth, TX, USAIntroduction: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the conjunctival irritation (congestion, swelling, and discharge of topical bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.01% and bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% in rabbits.Methods: Six healthy New Zealand White rabbits were treated with either bimatoprost 0.01% or bimatoprost 0.03% (3 animals/group. One dose (2 drops/dose of study medication was administered to the right eye of each animal every 30 minutes for 4.5 hours. Approximately 1 hour after the last dose, conjunctival irritation was assessed using a slit-lamp biomicroscope to individually evaluate conjunctival congestion, swelling, and discharge.Results: The mean conjunctival congestion, swelling and discharge scores for bimatoprost 0.03% were 1.67, 0.33 and 0.33, respectively, and for bimatoprost 0.01% were 2.00, 0.33 and 1.33, respectively.Conclusions: Despite the lower drug concentration of the 0.01% formulation, bimatoprost 0.01% does not reduce conjunctival irritation, including conjunctival congestion, swelling, and discharge, in rabbits compared to bimatoprost 0.03%. Further studies would be needed to determine whether the increase in the mean conjunctival congestion and discharge scores may be attributed to the increased BAK concentration in the bimatoprost 0.01% formulation.Keywords: bimatoprost, conjunctiva, ocular toxicity, preclinical, prostaglandin analog, rabbits

  12. Irritancy potential of 17 detergents used commonly by the Indian household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austoria A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detergents are used by almost every household in the developed and developing world. Soap and most detergents are anionic surfactants and attack the horny layer of the skin and increase its permeability with little or no inflammatory change and may result in hand eczema, which is very distressing and incapacitating. Aim: To evaluate the irritant potential of common household detergents (laundry and dish wash used by the Indian population using a 24-hour patch test and to convincingly educate the patients on the detergents less likely to cause irritation in the particular individual. Methods: Seventeen commonly used detergents found in Indian market were included in the study, of which, 12 were laundry detergents (powders - seven, bar soap - five and five were dish wash detergents (powder - one, liquid - one, bar soap - three. The irritant potential of the 17 detergents were evaluated in 30 volunteers. Thirty microliters of each of the detergent bar solutions, distilled water (negative control, and 20% SDS (positive control were applied to Finn chambers with a micropipette and occluded for 24 hours. Erythema, scaling, and edema were graded in comparison to the reaction at the negative control site (distilled water for each volunteer separately. The scoring of erythema / dryness and wrinkling on a 0 - 4 point scale and edema on another 0 - 4 point scale was based on the Draize scale. The pH of each of the detergent solutions was determined using litmus papers (Indikrom papers from Qualigens fine chemicals. Results: The difference between detergents (F value was significant for erythema / dryness and wrinkling (F = 3.374; p = 0.000, but not significant for edema (F = 1.297; p = 0.194. [Table 2] lists the means for erythema / dryness and wrinkling, and edema. The F value of the totals of the means for erythema / dryness and wrinkling and edema was significant (F = 2.495; p = 0.001. The pH of all the detergents was found to be alkaline

  13. Irritancy potential of 17 detergents used commonly by the Indian household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austoria, A J; Lakshmi, Chembolli; Srinivas, C R; Anand, C V; Mathew, A C

    2010-01-01

    Detergents are used by almost every household in the developed and developing world. Soap and most detergents are anionic surfactants and attack the horny layer of the skin and increase its permeability with little or no inflammatory change and may result in hand eczema, which is very distressing and incapacitating. To evaluate the irritant potential of common household detergents (laundry and dish wash) used by the Indian population using a 24-hour patch test and to convincingly educate the patients on the detergents less likely to cause irritation in the particular individual. Seventeen commonly used detergents found in Indian market were included in the study, of which, 12 were laundry detergents (powders--seven, bar soap--five) and five were dish wash detergents (powder--one, liquid--one, bar soap--three). The irritant potential of the 17 detergents were evaluated in 30 volunteers. Thirty microliters of each of the detergent bar solutions, distilled water (negative control), and 20% SDS (positive control) were applied to Finn chambers with a micropipette and occluded for 24 hours. Erythema, scaling, and edema were graded in comparison to the reaction at the negative control site (distilled water) for each volunteer separately. The scoring of erythema/dryness and wrinkling on a 0-4 point scale and edema on another 0-4 point scale was based on the Draize scale. The pH of each of the detergent solutions was determined using litmus papers (Indikrom papers from Qualigens fine chemicals). The difference between detergents (F value) was significant for erythema/dryness and wrinkling (F = 3.374; p = 0.000), but not significant for edema (F = 1.297; p = 0.194). [Table 2] lists the means for erythema/dryness and wrinkling, and edema. The F value of the totals of the means for erythema/dryness and wrinkling and edema was significant (F = 2.495; p = 0.001). The pH of all the detergents was found to be alkaline except Pril utensil cleaner which tested acidic (pH 6). The

  14. Avoidance: grammatical or semantic causes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Marchena, E.

    1989-01-01

    This article follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs, such as ‘let down’, while preferring one-word verbs, such as ‘;disappoint’, since phrasal verbs do not exist in Hebrew. A corollary derived from Dagut and Laufer's study is t

  15. Avoidance: grammatical or semantic causes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Marchena, E.

    1989-01-01

    This article follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs, such as ‘let down’, while preferring one-word verbs, such as ‘;disappoint’, since phrasal verbs do not exist in Hebrew. A corollary derived from Dagut and Laufer's study is t

  16. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  17. The relation between celiac disease, nonceliac gluten sensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Gilja, Odd Helge; Hausken, Trygve

    2015-09-07

    Wheat products make a substantial contribution to the dietary intake of many people worldwide. Despite the many beneficial aspects of consuming wheat products, it is also responsible for several diseases such as celiac disease (CD), wheat allergy, and nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). CD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients have similar gastrointestinal symptoms, which can result in CD patients being misdiagnosed as having IBS. Therefore, CD should be excluded in IBS patients. A considerable proportion of CD patients suffer from IBS symptoms despite adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). The inflammation caused by gluten intake may not completely subside in some CD patients. It is not clear that gluten triggers the symptoms in NCGS, but there is compelling evidence that carbohydrates (fructans and galactans) in wheat does. It is likely that NCGS patients are a group of self-diagnosed IBS patients who self-treat by adhering to a GFD.

  18. The possible role of gastrointestinal endocrine cells in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Hausken, Trygve; Gilja, Odd Helge; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar

    2017-02-01

    The etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is unknown, but several factors appear to play a role in its pathophysiology, including abnormalities of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. The present review illuminates the possible role of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathophysiology of IBS and the possibility of utilizing the current knowledge in treating the disease. Areas covered: Research into the intestinal endocrine cells and their possible role in the pathophysiology of IBS is discussed. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells in IBS patients are revealed. Expert commentary: The abnormalities observed in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells in IBS patients explains their visceral hypersensitivity, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and abnormal intestinal secretion, as well as the interchangeability of symptoms over time. Clarifying the role of the intestinal stem cells in the pathophysiology of IBS may lead to new treatment methods for IBS.

  19. Moxibustion on Shenque (CV 8) Improves Effect of Acupuncture for Diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-xia

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Methods: A total of 60 IBS-D patients were randomly allocated into a treatment group and a control group, 30 in each group. Patients in the treatment group were treated with acupuncture combined with ginger and salt-partitioned moxibustion on Shenque (CV 8), whereas patients in the control group only received acupuncture treatment. Six days made up a course of treatment, and the clinical effects were statistically analyzed after 4 courses. Results: The overall response rate in the treatment group was 96.7%, versus 76.7% in the control group, showing a statistical significance (P Conclusion: Acupuncture combined with ginger and salt-partitioned moxibustion on Shenque (CV 8) can obtain better effect for ISB-D than acupuncture alone.

  20. In vivo irritation study of Melastoma malabathricum cream formulation on ICR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Rabiahtul Adarwiyah Mohd; Jemon, Khairunadwa; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md

    2016-11-01

    Melastoma malabathricum is a traditional herb that is used to treat wound on skin. It has also been proven to have antiviral activity against Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In this study, M. malabathricum cream formulation was developed by incorporating M. malabathricum aqueous extract into cream base. The safety and biocompatibility of the formulated cream was investigated by topically applying the cream onto the back of ICR mice skin. Treatment with M. malabathricum was found to accelerate wound contraction with less scar formation. The effect of M. malabathricum has prompted a possibility that M. malabathricum might contribute in enhancing the healing process of cutaneous lesion caused by HSV-1. The formulated cream did not cause any skin irritation or adverse effect to ICR mice when topically applied within seven days of exposure.

  1. [Splenic flexure and irritable colon syndromes: conjugate conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipenko, M F; Bikbulatova, E A; Mut-Gusaim, V I

    2008-01-01

    To investigate phenotypical and clinical characteristics in individuals with high fixation of the splenic angle (HFSA). The study group included 82 patients with HFSA, the comparison group--76 patients with irritable colon syndrome (ICS), control group--19 patients without colon pathology. the results of the following examinations were analysed: the disease history, detailed intestinal investigation, rectal sensitivity, constitution, connective tissue weakness, vegetative dysfunction and regulation. HFSA is encountered mainly in persons with hyperstenic constitution. Some HFSA patients have pain on the left side--splenic flexure syndrome (SFS). The pain corresponds most to clinical criteria of irritable colon syndrome diagnosis and is accompanied with reduced threshold of pain sensitivity to balloon extension. Provoking factors of the symptoms are stress situations in childhood. SFS can be considered as a variant of ICS arising in HFSA. The treatment should be based on the principles of ICS treatment.

  2. Nasal pungency, odor, and eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

    1991-08-01

    We measured detection thresholds for nasal pungency (in anosmics), odor (in normosmics) and eye irritation employing a homologous series of acetates: methyl through octyl acetate, decyl and dodecyl acetate. All anosmics reliably detected the series up to heptyl acetate. Only the anosmics without smell since birth (congenital) reliably detected octyl acetate, and only one congenital anosmic detected decyl and dodecyl acetate. Anosmics who lost smell from head trauma proved to be selectively less sensitive. As expected, odor thresholds lay well below pungency thresholds. Eye irritation thresholds for selected acetates came close to nasal pungency thresholds. All three types of thresholds decreased logarithmically with carbon chain length, as previously seen with homologous alcohols and as seen in narcotic and toxic phenomena. Results imply that nasal pungency for these stimuli rests upon a physical, rather than chemical, interaction with susceptible mucosal structures. When expressed as thermodynamic activity, nasal pungency thresholds remain remarkably constant within and across the homologous series of acetates and alcohols.

  3. Evaluation Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms Amongst Warsaw University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemyjska Sylwia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS belongs to functional gastrointestinal disorders and is characterized by abdominal pain and change in stool consistency and/or bowel habits. Etiological factors include gastrointestinal peristalsis disturbances, visceral hypersensitivity, chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane, dysbacteremia, intestinal infections, psychosomatic and nutritional factors. Gastrointestinal motility disturbances in case of IBS are manifested by the inhibition of the intestinal passage, which favors the development of constipation or occurrence of diarrhea.

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome and vocational stress: individual psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anita D Stuart; H Gertie Pretorius; Patricia K Nel

    2003-01-01

    M.A. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an individualized holistic psychotherapy and synergistic stress management programme for the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and stress, both of which are common disorders in this present day and age. IBS is a functional bowel disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that leads to change in bowel habits with the additional features of abdominal pain and distension (Drossman, 1994b). This functional disorder has been ...

  5. Baclofen Withdrawal Presenting as Irritability in a Developmentally Delayed Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anthoney Lim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to lifethreatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair.

  6. Severe irritant contact dermatitis induced by povidone iodine solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Mangala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit uncommon occurrence, irritant contact dermatitis induced by povidone iodine can be an unfortunate adverse reaction complicating its use as an antiseptic. We hereby present the case report of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to povidone iodine, employed as an antiseptic during spinal anesthesia. On conservative management with soframycin ointment, the lesions resembling chemical burns healed in a month without extensive scarring or other complications.

  7. Severe irritant contact dermatitis induced by povidone iodine solution

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy Mangala; Krishnamurthy Bhaskar

    2009-01-01

    Albeit uncommon occurrence, irritant contact dermatitis induced by povidone iodine can be an unfortunate adverse reaction complicating its use as an antiseptic. We hereby present the case report of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to povidone iodine, employed as an antiseptic during spinal anesthesia. On conservative management with soframycin ointment, the lesions resembling chemical burns healed in a month without extensive scarring or other complications.

  8. Simmering Innards: Does Irritable Bowl Syndrome Have an Immunological Basis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Andrews

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Not so long ago, physicians construed the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS as being a neurotic trait: it was all in the head. Today most clinicians believe that the main abnormality lies in the brain (and spinal cord, which reacts abnormally to stimuli from the gut. Recent studies are identifying a basis for these neural changes - low grade inflammation in the gut - which may play a key role in IBS.

  9. Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Magge, Suma; Lembo, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are common disorders that have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life. These disorders present major challenges to healthcare providers, as few effective medical therapies are currently available. Recently, there has been increasing interest in dietary therapies for IBS, particularly a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs). Since ingestion of FODMAPs incre...

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and the microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The review aims to update the reader on current developments in our understanding of how the gut microbiota impact on inflammatory bowel disease and the irritable bowel syndrome. It will also consider current efforts to modulate the microbiota for therapeutic effect. Recent findings Gene polymorphisms associated with inflammatory bowel disease increasingly suggest that interaction with the microbiota drives pathogenesis. This may be through modulation of the immune response,...

  11. Overgrowth of the indigenous gut microbiome and irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Culture-independent molecular techniques have demonstrated that the majority of the gut microbiota is uncultivable. Application of these molecular techniques to more accurately identify the indigenous gut microbiome has moved with great pace over recent years, leading to a substantial increase in understanding of gut microbial communities in both health and a number of disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Use of culture-independent molecular techniques already employed to char...

  12. The microbiota link to irritable bowel syndrome: An emerging story

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder which is likely to involve a number of causative factors. The contribution of altered intestinal microbiota composition or function to this disorder is controversial, and is the subject of much current research. Until recently, the technical limitations of the methodologies available have not permitted an adequate survey of low-abundance microbial species. Recent technological developments have enabled the analysis of the g...

  13. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The...

  14. Gut Microbiota as Potential Orchestrators of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional disorder with no clearly defined etiology or pathophysiology. Modern culture-independent techniques have improved the understanding of the gut microbiota’s composition and demonstrated that an altered gut microbiota profile might be found in at least some subgroups of IBS patients. Research on IBS from a microbial perspective is gaining momentum and advancing. This review will therefore highlight potential links between the gut mic...

  15. The Gut Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Friend or Foe?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), once thought to be a purely psychosomatic disease, has advanced considerably and low-grade inflammation and changes in the gut microbiota now feature as potentially important. The human gut harbours a huge microbial ecosystem, which is equipped to perform a variety of functions such as digestion of food, metabolism of drugs, detoxification of toxic compounds, production of essential vitamins, prevention of...

  16. Irritant contact facial dermatitis due to nebulizer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eedy, D. J.; Barton, K.; Stanford, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with long-standing, severe airflow obstruction requiring long-term nebulizer therapy developing a facial dermatitis in the area bounded by the nebulizer mask. The facial dermatitis seems to be the result of the combined irritancy of the nebulizer solutions and moisture, and prophylactic measures are suggested for patients requiring long-term nebulizer therapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:2973007

  17. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible cau...

  18. [Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with dicetelium and spasmomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedogoda, S V; Parshev, V V

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare clinical efficacy of new spasmolytics--pinaverium bromide (dicetel, Solvay Pharma) and otilonium bromide (spasmomen, Menarini-Berlin-Chemie)--in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Effects appearing during the treatment with anxiolytic drug tofisopam (grandaxin, Egis) after using dicetel and spasmomen were also studied. The results indicate marked clinical efficiency of dicetel and spasmomen which improve vegetative functions and psychoemotional status. Grandaxin provides further improvement of clinical symptoms and additionally corrects psychoemotional status.

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome - An inflammatory disease involving mast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Philpott, Hamish; Gibson, Peter; Thien, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally defined as a functional disorder - that is the presence of symptoms in the absence of demonstrable pathological abnormalities. In recent times, low grade inflammatory infiltrates in both the small and large bowel of some patients with IBS - often rich in mast cells, along with serological markers of low grade inflammation have focussed attention on IBS as an inflammatory disease. The observation that mast cells often lie in close association to ...

  20. An Irritable Infant and the Runaway Redback: An Instructive Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The envenomation syndrome of Redback spider bites, lactrodectism, is distinctive. However diagnosis can be difficult due to an atypical presentation. We describe the case of a 1 year old boy with irritability, diaphoresis and reduced oral intake, in whom a diagnosis was made of redback spider bite. Successful resolution of symptoms was achieved following treatment with antivenom. The symptoms and management of redback spider bites is discussed.

  1. Current and Novel Therapeutic Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Management

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting up to 3-15% of the general population in western countries. It is characterized by unexplained abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating in association with altered bowel habits. The pathophysiology of IBS is multifactorial involving disturbances of the brain-gut-axis. The pathophysiology provides the rationale for pharmacotherapy: abnormal gastrointestinal motor functions, visceral hypersensitivity, psychosocia...

  2. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, d...

  3. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you try a special diet—called low FODMAP or FODMAP—to reduce or avoid certain foods containing carbohydrates that are hard to digest. Examples of high FODMAP foods and products you may reduce or avoid ...

  4. Lubiprostone for constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Ashok K; Rao, Satish S C

    2008-12-01

    Chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome are heterogeneous disorders characterized by altered bowel habits, abdominal discomfort and/or difficult defecation. These conditions have a significant impact on patients' quality of life, as well as on the US economy, both in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity. Treatment typically begins with lifestyle changes, increased fiber intake and osmotic and stimulant laxative intake. However, treatments for constipation vary in terms of their efficacy and safety. Furthermore, surveys of physicians and patients have revealed a strong desire for improved therapeutic options. Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid that is gut selective and stimulates type 2 chloride channels, resulting in increased chloride, sodium and water secretion into the lumen. The increased fluid secretion causes luminal distension, secondary peristalsis and laxation. Randomized Phase III trials have shown that lubiprostone is efficacious in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. The US FDA has approved lubiprostone at a dose of 24 microg twice daily for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults, and at a dose of 8 microg twice daily for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in adult women. Nausea, diarrhea and headaches are the most commonly reported side effects. In long-term studies, lubiprostone appears to be safe.

  5. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Tang, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2014-10-21

    Psychological stress is an important factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More and more clinical and experimental evidence showed that IBS is a combination of irritable bowel and irritable brain. In the present review we discuss the potential role of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of IBS and provide comprehensive approaches in clinical treatment. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies showed that psychological stresses have marked impact on intestinal sensitivity, motility, secretion and permeability, and the underlying mechanism has a close correlation with mucosal immune activation, alterations in central nervous system, peripheral neurons and gastrointestinal microbiota. Stress-induced alterations in neuro-endocrine-immune pathways acts on the gut-brain axis and microbiota-gut-brain axis, and cause symptom flare-ups or exaggeration in IBS. IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, therefore, the treatment of IBS should focus on managing stress and stress-induced responses. Now, non-pharmacological approaches and pharmacological strategies that target on stress-related alterations, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous agents, 5-HT synthesis inhibitors, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, and specific 5-HT receptor antagonists or agonists have shown a critical role in IBS management. A integrative approach for IBS management is a necessary.

  6. How Probiotic Reduce Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khalesi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common gastrointestinal disorder in children that may lead to anxiety, frequent physician visits and school absenteeism. The aim of this study is to reviewe effects of probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome.   Materials and Methods: This study review articles about probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome in pubmed and google scholar.   Results: Multiple etiologic factors were suggested for IBS, including psychosocial factors, altered gastrointestinal motility,   malfermentation of food residues and changes in the intestinal micro flora. It is reported that patients with IBS have a great homogeneity in the fecal flora with a decrease in lactobacilli, coliforms and bifidobacteria in comparison to healthy individuals. The beneficial effects of probiotics in IBS could be explained by increasing the mass of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli strains in the digestive tract, decreasing bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel. Recently it was also demonstrated that some lactobacilli strains may modulate intestinal pain attacks by inducing the expression of μ-opioid and cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells. Probiotics can also reinforce the intestinal mucosal barrier and normalize the motility of the digestive tract and its visceral sensitivity and reversing the imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines so that suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS.   Conclusion: Probiotic has been suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS by modulation pathophysiologic events in these patients. Keyword: Probiotic, IBS, Children.

  7. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 1-6

  8. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 1-6

  9. Calcium polycarbophil compared with placebo in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toskes, P P; Connery, K L; Ritchey, T W

    1993-02-01

    Calcium polycarbophil was compared with placebo in 23 patients with irritable bowel syndrome in a six-month, randomized double-blind crossover study. Patients received polycarbophil tablets at a dosage of 6 g/day (twelve 0.5-g tablets) or matching placebo tablets. At study end, among patients expressing a preference, 15 of 21 (71%) chose polycarbophil over placebo for relief of the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Statistically significant differences favouring polycarbophil were found among the following patient subgroups: 15 (79%) of 19 with constipation: all six with alternating diarrhoea and constipation; 13 (87%) of 15 with bloating: and 11 (92%) of 12 with two or more symptoms. Polycarbophil was rated better than placebo in monthly global responses to therapy. Patient diary entries showed statistically significant improvement for ease of passage with polycarbophil. Polycarbophil was rated better than placebo for relief of nausea, pain, and bloating. The data suggest that calcium polycarbophil can benefit irritable bowel syndrome patients with constipation or alternating diarrhoea and constipation and may be particularly useful in patients with bloating as a major complaint.

  10. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. A single-case experimental design across 13 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Katja; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Edebol-Carlman, Hanna; Schrooten, Martien; Linton, Steven J; Brummer, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent disorder with a significant impact on quality of life. The presence of psychological symptoms in IBS patients such as catastrophic worry and behavioral avoidance suggests the possible efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be a promising approach but has only been investigated in a few studies and mainly via the Internet. Therefore, the aims of this study were to extend and replicate previous findings and to evaluate whether an individual, face-to-face, exposure-based CBT leads to improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life in IBS patients. Thirteen patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria participated in a single-case experimental study using a five-week baseline and a subsequent twelve-session intervention phase focusing on psycho-education, mindfulness and in vivo exposure. Standardized measurement of gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life was conducted weekly during baseline as well as intervention phase and at six-month follow-up. Results showed that over 70% of patients improved significantly on gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and quality of life. Effects on avoidance behavior were modest. These results strengthen and extend earlier findings and provide further support for the efficacy of exposure-based strategies for IBS.

  11. Obstacle Avoidance Through Visual Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Keerio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel controlling approach forHumanoid Robot to work safely in critical situations like badlight environment using Visual Teleoperation. In this regardmodeling environments for Humanoid Teleoperation Systemis developed. Here virtual reality modeling environmentincludes development of virtual Humanoid BHR-2, andvirtual objects like table etc. The main goal of this work is toenhance our visual teleoperation system for BHR-2 in orderto avoid any collision during real time operation. SoftwareMaya is used for modeling and simulations. Maya plug-insin VC++ provides efficient modeling rule, real timeinteraction, and time saving rendering approach in a virtualenvironment. In this paper the validity of proposed scheme isshown by conducting experiments using offline step overtrajectory to avoid obstacle in bad light environment.

  12. Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Il-Horn Hann; Kai-Lung Hui; Sang-Yong Tom Lee; Ivan Png

    2005-01-01

    We introduce consumer avoidance into analytical marketing research. We show that consumer efforts to conceal themselves and to deflect marketing have a crucial impact on sellers¡¯ marketing strategy. Under reasonable conditions, seller marketing is a strategic complement with consumer concealment. Hence, consumer measures to conceal themselves from marketing will increase its cost-effectiveness and lead sellers to market more. Policies that encourage consumers to conceal their identities woul...

  13. [Influence of iridoid from Valeriana jatamansi on 5-HT and 5-HIAA in rats with irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xingli; Hong, Ying; Shi, Jinli; Qin, Yi; Zhang, Jianjun; Lin, Qing; Chen, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Ren; Cui, Xiaoli; Gao, Xuemin

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the mechanism of iridoid from Valeriana jatamansi treating irritable bowel syndrome. Sixty male SD rats were equally divided into 6 groups (2 controls, 1 model and 3 treatment doses) with 10 rats per group. The test groups were administered with iridoid (24.92, 12.46, 6. 23 mg x kg(-1)) while the control groups were administered with fluoxetine (2.5 mg x kg(-1), positive control) or distilled water (negative control). The model was established by chronic stress and independent feeding. The influence of iridoid from V. jatamansi on 5-HT and 5-HIAA in colon, serum and hypothalamic were observed in all groups. In the model group, the content of 5-HT in colon and serum increased significantly, but the content of 5-HT in hypothalamic decreased significantly. The content of 5-HIAA and the value of 5-HT/5-HIAA had no significant change. In three iridoid-treated groups, the content of 5-HT in colon and serum decreased, but the content of 5-HT in hypothalamic increased. The content of 5-HIAA had no significant change. The value of 5-HT/5-HIAA in colon and serum reduced. The mechanism of iridoid from V. jatamansi treating irritable bowel syndrome may be related to the regulation effect to the levels of 5-HT from Gastrointestinal to central nervous system.

  14. Incidence of a clinical diagnosis of the irritable bowel syndrome in a United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, G R; Yawn, B P; Wollan, P C; Melton, L J; Lydick, E; Talley, N J

    2004-05-01

    The incidence of irritable bowel syndrome is uncertain. We aimed to determine the incidence of clinically diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome in the community. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, all diagnoses of irritable bowel syndrome made among adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, over a 3-year period were identified. The complete medical records of a random sample of the potential subjects were reviewed for the 10 years prior to the irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis and any patient who had received a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was excluded (prevalent cases). The diagnostic index listed 1245 possible irritable bowel syndrome patients; 416 patient charts were reviewed and, of these, 149 were physician diagnosed incident cases of irritable bowel syndrome. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate was 196 per 100,000 person-years and increased with age (P = 0.006). The age-adjusted annual incidence per 100,000 in women was higher than in men: 238 vs. 141 (ratio 3:2; P = 0.005). The overall symptom frequency at the time of diagnosis was abdominal pain (73%), diarrhoea (41%) and constipation (16%). The incidence of a clinical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome in adults was estimated to be two per 1000 per year, increased with age and was higher in women than men. As many people with irritable bowel syndrome do not seek care, the true incidence of irritable bowel syndrome is likely to be higher.

  15. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Alternatives to corticosteroids in the treatment of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) are needed and may include glycerol and topical immunomodulators like tacrolimus. Because the efficacy of different treatments in experimentally induced ICD may vary depending on the irritant......, respectively) in a cumulative wash test. Induction of ICD was obtained by three daily washings for 7 days, followed by a maintenance phase with two daily washings for 12 days. Treatment (triamcinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, tacrolimus and glycerol ointment) was started at day 7 and applied...... toward worsened irritancy by tacrolimus on SLS-irritated skin. Explained variance in the experiment by anova revealed a very small effect of treatments compared with an immense and significant subject effect. Conclusion: No claims of effective anti-irritant properties for any of the ointments can...

  16. Tong-xie-ning, a Chinese herbal formula, in treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective,randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; HUANG Xi; ZHANG Rui-ming; LI Ting-qian; WANG Lei; XIA Qing; CHANG Jing; ZHANG Ying; WAN Mei-hua; GUO Jia; CHENG Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Currently the main components of treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) include patient education and reassurance, dietary modification,symptomatic treatment, and psychological treatment,but little evidence exists that the current pharmaceutical agents routinely used in treating IBS patients are efficacious.1 Partly from lack of effective conventional therapeutics and in search of better treatment options, many patients with IBS in both the east and west have turned to complementary and alternative approaches, including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).2,3

  17. Learning to Avoid Risky Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Malfaz, María; Miguel A. Salichs

    2011-01-01

    When a reinforcement learning agent executes actions that can cause frequent damage to itself, it can learn, by using Q-learning, that these actions must not be executed again. However, there are other actions that do not cause damage frequently but only once in a while, for example, risky actions such as parachuting. These actions may imply punishment to the agent and, depending on its personality, it would be better to avoid them. Nevertheless, using the standard Q-learning algorithm, the a...

  18. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  19. Association of gluten enteropathy and irritable bowel syndrome in adult Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdil, Kamil; Sokmen, Mehmet; Ersoy, Ozdal; Demirsoy, Huseyin; Kesici, Besir; Karaca, Cetin; Akbayir, Nihat; Erdem, Levent; Alkim, Canan; Sakiz, Damlanur

    2008-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is generally diagnosed according to the symptoms of the patient, and gluten enteropathy can also be presented with similar symptoms (diarrhea and/or constipation) of irritable bowel syndrome. Aimed to assess the association and the frequency of gluten enteropathy in a group of Turkish patients diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome. Found anti-gliadin IgA positivity only in four patients among patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, none of these four patients had anti-endomycium positivity or any histopathological findings specific for gluten enteropathy. All these four patients had normal histology in their small bowel biopsies. Irritable bowel syndrome is a common problem in the population, but gluten enteropathy is not associated with the vast majority of subjects with irritable bowel syndrome as expected. The need for screening gluten enteropathy among these patients is still unclear, and screening with serology only without small bowel biopsy may lead to false positive results.

  20. Human exposure to acrolein: Time-dependence and individual variation in eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Lind, Nina

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the time dependence on sensory irritation detection following exposure to threshold levels of acrolein, in humans. The exposures occurred in an exposure chamber and the subjects were breathing fresh air through a mask that covered the nose and mouth. All participants participated in four exposure conditions, of which three consisted of a mixture of acrolein and heptane and one of only heptane. Exposure to acrolein at a concentration half of the TLV-C lead to sensory irritation. The perceived sensory irritation resulted in both increased detectability and sensory irritation after about 6.8min of exposure in 58% of the participants. The study confirm the previously suggested LOAEL of about 0.34mg/m(3) for eye irritation due to acrolein exposure. The sensory irritation was still significant 10min after exposure. These results have implications for risk assessment and limit setting in occupational hygiene.

  1. Extended analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 15-week study with otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glende, Manfred; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Evangelista, Stefano

    2002-12-01

    In order to follow the most recent developments and recommendations in trial methodology for drug evaluation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, we performed an extended analysis of a large clinical trial from a previously published study of otilonium bromide, using an assessment that integrates the key symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. A large-scale clinical trial with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study design was conducted in 378 patients, treated for 15 weeks with the recommended standard dose of 40 mg otilonium bromide or placebo three times daily. The study was based on the collection of 12 single efficacy endpoints. The new efficacy assessment was based on the data reported by the patients. Rather than demonstrating score differences between the treatment groups of the study, we carried out an assessment that integrates the most frequent symptoms reported (pain frequency and intensity, presence of meteorism and distension) by the patient. The rate of response to treatment within 2-4 months (the primary efficacy outcome measure) was significantly higher in the otilonium bromide group (36.9%) than in the placebo group (22.5%; P = 0.007). In each month of treatment, the rate of monthly response was higher in the otilonium bromide group as compared to the placebo group (P otilonium bromide than in the placebo-treated group, with differences ranging from 10% to 20%. The subgroup analysis of the intestinal habits endpoint indicates that patients with diarrhoea have an additional benefit. The present re-evaluation of a previously published study confirms that otilonium bromide is more effective than placebo for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, being very efficient in relieving pain and discomfort.

  2. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  3. New and emerging therapies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an update for gastroenterologists

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder with gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. abdominal pain, straining, urgency, incomplete evacuation, nausea, and bloating) that occur alongside bowel function alterations (i.e. constipation, diarrhea, or both). Patients with irritable bowel syndrome may also experience comorbid anxiety and depression. Irritable bowel syndrome is common, with a prevalence estimated between 3% and 28%, affecting patient health and quality of life. Patients with...

  4. Development of an in vitro alternative assay method for vaginal irritation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Cannon, Chris; LaRosa, Karen; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah J.; Klausner, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    The vaginal mucosa is commonly exposed to chemicals and therapeutic agents that may result in irritation and/or inflammation. In addition to acute effects, vaginal irritation and inflammation can make women more susceptible to infections such as HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2. Hence, the vaginal irritation potential of feminine care formulations and vaginally administered therapeutic agents is a significant public health concern. Traditionally, testing of such materials has been performed u...

  5. Are Histrionic Personality Traits Associated with Irritability during Conscious Sedation Endoscopy?

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Shin Lee; Hyung Hun Kim; Hyo Jung Park

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to evaluate whether histrionic personality traits are associated with irritability during conscious sedation endoscopy (CSE). Materials and Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was planned. Irritability during CSE was classified into five grades: 0, no response; I, minimal movement; II, moderate movement; III, severe movement; IV, fighting against procedure. Patients in grades III and IV were defined as the irritable group. Participants were required to complete question...

  6. Clinical, endoscopical and morphological efficacy of mesalazine in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeyev AE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrey E Dorofeyev1, Elena A Kiriyan2, Inna V Vasilenko1, Olga A Rassokhina1, Andrey F Elin11National Medical University, Donetsk, Ukraine; 2Gastroenterological Center of Poltava Hospital Clinic, Poltava, UkraineObjectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical efficacy and cytomorphologic changes of colon mucosa following the treatment of patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS with mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA].Methods: In this controlled, randomized, blind clinical trial, a total of 360 patients with varying subtypes of IBS were randomly treated with 500 mg of mesalazine qid or by standard therapy without mesalazine for a period of 28 days. Pre- and post-treatment pain intensity, pain duration, meteorism, stool abnormalities and endoscopic parameters were monitored, and biopsies or brush biopsies were examined histologically.Results: Treatment of IBS patients with mesalazine significantly reduced intensity and duration of pain in all subtypes of IBS, except for duration of pain in the subtype “undifferentiated”, where the difference was not significant. In addition, in patients with diarrhea type and undifferentiated type of IBS, mesalazine also significantly reduced the abnormal stool pattern. In comparison to the control group, administration of mesalazine reduced the incidence of endoscopic and cytomorphologic changes of the bowel mucosa, including changes in colon mucus, mucus production, cytologic or histologic parameters, epithelial cell degeneration, appearance of leukocytes and macrophages and cell infiltrations.Conclusion: Mesalazine was effective in reducing several symptoms characteristic of IBS. It significantly reduced pain intensity and duration and improved cytohistologic parameters of the bowel mucosa.Keywords: 5-amino salicylic acid, 5-ASA, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, IBS, meteorism, stool abnormalities

  7. Nondermal irritating hyperosmotic nanoemulsions reduce treatment times in a contamination model of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sean; Li, Jianming; Durkes, Abigail; Zaroura, Mohammed; Shi, Riyi

    2016-07-01

    Increased microbial burden within the wound often complicates wound healing and may lead to subsequent infection or delayed healing. Here, we investigate a novel topical for addressing wound contamination that utilizes hyperosmotic saccharides with a cell membrane disrupting emulsion. These hyperosmotic nanoemulsions (HNE) were administered topically in a full-thickness biopsy model of wound healing. Results show that HNE were well tolerated in noninfected animals with no indications of dermal irritation or acute toxicity. Additionally, HNE was able to reduce bacterial bioburden (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) levels by 3 logs within 24 h when wounds were inoculated with 5 × 10(6) total CFU. These bactericidal values were similar to wounds treated with silver sulfadiazine. Wound closure showed HNE wounds closed in 7.6 ± 0.2 days while SSD and control required 10.2 ± 0.4 and 10.4 ± 0.3 days, respectively. HNE maintained a moist wound environment, were well debrided, and exhibited improved hemostatic response. Further histological examination revealed enhanced granulation tissue as compared to silver sulfadiazine and control cohorts. These results were corroborated with 3D topographical imprints of the wounds at day 14 which qualitatively showed a smoother surface. In contrast, silver sulfadiazine appeared to delay wound closure. Finally, dermal sensitization and irritation studies conducted in guinea pig and rabbits did not reveal any acute dermal side effects from HNE exposure. The cumulative data indicates nonantibiotic-based HNEs may be a promising topical treatment for the management of contaminated wounds.

  8. Comparison of the effect of glycerol and triamcinolone acetonide on cumulative skin irritation in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: So-called anti-irritants are added to cosmetic formulations because of their alleged beneficial effect on irritated skin. Documentation for these claims is often limited. However, glycerol has shown anti-irritant properties in experimentally induced irritation from sodium lauryl sulfate...... and nonanoic acid (NON). This study was designed to further substantiate that glycerol added to cosmetic formulations has an anti-irritant effect on experimentally induced skin irritation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare glycerol with triamcinolone acetonide as treatments for cutaneous irritation in human....... The treatments (including vehicle and no treatment) were randomized to sites using a Latin square design. The reactions were evaluated clinically and instrumentally. LIMITATIONS: Study was designed to only detect potent anti-irritants. CONCLUSION: Glycerol reduced the irritant effect of both sodium lauryl...

  9. Serotonin receptor modulators in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fayyaz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Fayyaz, Jeffrey M LacknerDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo School of Medicine, SUNY, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: The aim of this article is to review the pathophysiology and clinical role of serotonin receptor modulators used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin is an important monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a key role in the initiation of peristaltic and secretory reflexes, and in modulation of visceral sensations. Several serotonin receptor subtypes have been characterized, of which 5HT3, 5HT4, and 5HT1b are the most important for GI function. 5HT4 agonists (eg, tegaserod potentiate peristalsis initiated by 5HT1 receptor stimulation. 5HT4 agonists are therefore useful in constipation predominant form of IBS and in chronic constipation. 5HT3 antagonists (Alosetron and Cilansetron prevent the activation of 5HT3 receptors on extrinsic afferent neurons and can decrease the visceral pain associated with IBS. These agents also retard small intestinal and colonic transit, and are therefore useful in diarrhea-predominant IBS. Tegaserod has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo controlled trials to relieve global IBS symptoms as well as individual symptoms of abdominal discomfort, number of bowel movements and stool consistency. Several randomized, controlled trials have shown that alosetron relieves pain, improves bowel function, and provides global symptom improvement in women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, ischemic colitis and severe complications of constipation have been major concerns leading to voluntary withdrawal of Alosetron from the market followed by remarketing with a comprehensive risk management program.Keywords: serotonin, irritable bowel syndrome, tegaserod

  10. Effect of Ispaghula and Oxyphenonium Bromide on the Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome - A Comparative Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paik, B; Saha, SK; Masud, H; Kabir, MA; Roy, PK; Hasan, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic continuous or remittent gastrointestinal illness characterized by frequent unexplained symptoms that include abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel disturbance...

  11. Claudin-2 expression is upregulated in the ileum of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Haruka; Oshima, Tadayuki; Sei, Hiroo; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Kondo, Takashi; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial barrier function is impaired in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Claudins are highly expressed in cells with tight junctions and are involved in the intestinal epithelial barrier function. The expression pattern of tight junction proteins in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have not been fully elucidated. We therefore recruited 17 diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients and 20 healthy controls. The expression of the tight junction-related proteins was examined in the ileal, cecal, and rectal mucosa of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients using real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Claudin-2 expression was high in the ileum of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients. Claudin-2 expression was the same in cecum and rectal mucosa of control and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients. Similarly, the expression of clauidn-1, claudin-7, JAM-A, occludin, and ZO-1 in the ileal, cecal, and rectal mucosa did not change between control and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome samples. Infiltration of eosinophil and mast cells in the mucosa of ileum, cecum and rectum was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining and was not affected by diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Claudin-2 was expressed on the apical side of villi and crypts of ileal mucosal epithelial cells. Clauidn-2 expression is upregulated in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients and may contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:28366996

  12. Augmentation of skin response by exposure to a combination of allergens and irritants - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Held, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Clinical experimental studies on contact dermatitis (CD) often evaluate the effect of one allergen or one irritant at a time. In real life, the skin is often exposed to more allergens, more irritants or allergens and irritants in combination. This combined exposure may potentially influence...... irritant effects as well as allergenicity of the substances. Mechanisms for a changed response can be immunological effects or enhanced penetration. Knowledge about the influence on skin reaction of combined exposures may influence skin reactivity and is important for prevention of CD. For allergens...

  13. Ehealth: Low FODMAP diet vs Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Natalia; Andersen, Nynne Nyboe; Végh, Zsuzsanna; Jensen, Lisbeth; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria; Simonsen, Mette Hestetun; Burisch, Johan; Munkholm, Pia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of a low fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols diet (LFD) and the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  14. Gastric sarcoidosis mimicking irritable bowel syndrome-Cause not association?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Samuel Leeds; Mark Edward McAlindon; Eleanor Lorenz; Asha Kumari Dube; David Surendran Sanders

    2006-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown aetiology that may affect any organ in the body. The gastrointestinal tract however is only rarely affected outside the liver. Symptoms may be non-specific.Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common diagnosis.The recognition of TBS is aided by the use of the Rome Ⅱ criteria - in the absence of organic disease. We describe the first case of a patient with gastric sarcoidosis who presented with IBS symptoms but subsequently responded to immunosuppressive therapy.

  15. Purpuric irritant contact dermatitis induced by Agave americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpelis, B S; Fenske, N A

    2000-10-01

    The sap of Agave americana, a popular ornamental plant, may cause irritant contact dermatitis. This rare eruption is typically vesiculopapular; however, a new purpuric variant with evidence of leukocytoclastic vasculitis has recently been reported. We report an additional case of a purpuric eruption associated with severe constitutional symptoms further supporting a possible vasculitic component. Both cases resulted from direct exposure to sap propelled by a chainsaw. We speculate that oxalic acid crystals, which are recognized systemic toxins, are embedded in the skin with resulting oxalism, which may result in vascular damage.

  16. [The gastrointestinal motor function in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagami, Yasuhiro; Hongo, Michio

    2006-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is presumed to be a gastrointestinal motility disorder with the brain-gut interaction. Psychological stress and stimuli of the colonic lumen increase colonic motor function which is exaggerated in IBS patients. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is considered to be a major mediator of stress responses in the brain-gut interaction. Similarly, peripheral administration of CRH affects colonic motility, induces abdominal symptoms and stimulates ACTH secretion, all of which are exaggerated in IBS patients. CRH antagonist blocks the greater responses of colonic motility in IBS. CRH is a key peptide in the pathophysiology of IBS with the brain-gut interaction.

  17. Tax avoidance with cross-border hybrid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The rules demarcating debt and equity for tax purposes differ between countries, hence the possibility that a hybrid financial instrument is treated as equity in one country and debt in another. This may create a scope for tax avoidance by allowing firms that invest in foreign countries to combine...... tax deductible interest expenses in the host country and tax favored dividend income in the home country. In this paper, we first develop a formal model of hybrid instruments and show that, for a given pair of countries, firms in at least one country and sometimes in both can avoid taxes on investment...

  18. Efficacy of Dialectical Behavior Therapy on Stress, Resilience and Coping Strategies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Abbas Haghayegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most common gastrointestinal disorder that have considerable psychological features. Objectives This research aimed to determine the efficacy of dialectical behavioral therapy on stress, resilience and coping strategies of IBS patients. Methods The study was quasi-experimental that including two intervention and control groups. Fifty-two IBS patients who met this diagnosis- according the Rome III criteria- were selected and assigned to two experimental and control groups with 26 IBS patients in each group. The dialectical behavioral therapy-according to Moonshine s manual- was conducted in 8 weekly sessions in a gastroenterology clinic in Isfahan. The questionnaires of stress, resilience and coping strategies were completed as the pretest, post-test and follow-up. Data were analyzed with SPSS.20. Results Results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that dialectical behavioral therapy had a significant effect in reduction of post-test mean scores of emotional coping strategies (P < 0. 05, and there was an acceptable effect size for all variables (except avoidance strategies. Conclusions Dialectical behavioral therapy could be useful to improvement of psychological status of IBS patients, but it needs longer therapeutic period for more persistent effects.

  19. The low-FODMAP diet for irritable bowel syndrome: Lights and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Serra, Jordi; Fernandez-Bañares, Fernando; Mearin, Fermín

    2016-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 10-15% of the western population. Drug therapy for this entity has shown limited efficacy. The low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides And Polyols (FODMAP) diet has recently emerged as an effective intervention for reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Currently, several mechanistic studies have proven the rational basis of carbohydrate restriction. In addition, high-quality evidence (prospective studies and randomized controlled trials) from a variety of countries supports the high effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet for IBS symptoms (70%), especially abdominal bloating, pain, and diarrhea. Importantly, this diet seems to be superior to a gluten-free diet for patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The most controversial features of the low FODMAP diet are its short- and long-term limitations (a high level of restriction, the need for monitoring by an expert dietitian, potential nutritional deficiencies, significant gut microbiota reduction, lack of predictors of response), as well as the potential lack of advantage over alternative dietary, pharmacological and psychological interventions for IBS. Although liberalization of carbohydrate intake is recommended in the long-term, the reintroduction process remains to be clarified as, theoretically, global carbohydrate restriction is deemed to be necessary to avoid additive effects.

  20. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  1. Diet and effects of diet management on quality of life and symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostgaard, Hege; Hausken, Trygve; Gundersen, Doris; El-Salhy, Magdy

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the diet and quality of life of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients in comparison to the background population. Furthermore, it studied the effects of guidance on diet management on changes in food intake, quality of life and symptoms. A total of 35 healthy controls, 36 IBS patients and 43 IBS patients who had received guidance on diet management 2 years earlier were included. The controls and patients were asked to complete an FFQ questionnaire, an SF-NDI questionnaire, an IBS-QoL questionnaire and a Birmingham IBS symptom score questionnaire. There were no statistical differences in the intake of calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fat between the controls and IBS patients, with or without guidance on diet management. IBS patients made a conscious choice to avoid certain food items, some of which belong to fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosacharides and polyols (FODMAPs). They had a higher consumption, however, of other food items that are rich in FODMAPs. They also avoided other food sources which are crucial for their health. Two years after receiving guidance on diet management, IBS patients had a different diet profile. They avoided all FODMAP‑rich food, consumed more food with probiotic supplements and did not avoid food sources that were crucial to their health. In addition, they had improved quality of life and reduced symptoms. Although at first sight the diet of IBS patients did not differ from that of the background population, detailed examination showed avoidance of certain food items. Guidance on the management of diet improved their choice of a healthier diet, improved quality of life and reduced IBS symptoms.

  2. Effect of Modified Sinisan(四逆散) on Anorectal Manometry of the Constipation Predominant Type of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Su-ping; YE Hui; HA Nan-lin; DING Shu-qing; CHEN Gao

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the mechanism in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) of the Forty-seven IBS patients with the constipation predominant type were randomly divided into the treated group (n=24) and the control group (n=23). Another group of 22 healthy subjects was set up for healthy control.The treated group was treated with modified SNS, and the control group was treated with Cisapride, the therapeutic course for both groups was 8 weeks. The changes of symptom scoring and anorectal manometry (the anorectal resting pressure, anal tract systolic pressure, anal tract diastolic pressure, rectal threshold feeling, maximal tolerance volume of rectum, and rectum compliance) of these two groups were recorded respectively and compared with each other. Results: Compared with the healthy control group, the rectal threshold feeling, maximal tolerance volume of rectum and rectal compliance of the treated groups got reduced significantly before treatment (P<0.05). After treatment, the symptom scoring, rectal threshold feeling and maximal tolerance volume of rectum were improved in both groups (P<0.05), and the improvement of the treated group was more significant than that of the control group(P<0.01). The total effective rate and recurrence rate of the treated group were superior to those of the control group significantly (P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusion: SNS has good effect on IBS of the constipation predominant type.

  3. Impact of irritability: a 2-year observational study of outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Lesley; Hallam, Karen T; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Lewis, Andrew James; Austin, David W; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Dodd, Seetal; de Castella, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Berk, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Many people experience irritability when manic, hypomanic, or depressed, yet its impact on illness severity and quality of life in bipolar and schizoaffective disorders is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the relationship between irritability and symptom burden, functioning, quality of life, social support, suicidality, and overall illness severity in a naturalistic cohort of people with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder. We used data from 239 adult outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder in the Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS) - a non-interventional observational study with a 2-year follow-up period. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of participants with and without irritability were compared. A mixed-model repeated measures analysis was conducted to examine the longitudinal effect of irritability on clinical and quality-of-life variables over follow-up using significant baseline variables. At baseline, 54% of participants were irritable. Baseline irritability was associated with illness severity, mania, depression, psychotic symptoms, suicidality, poor functioning, and quality of life, but not diagnosis (schizoaffective/bipolar disorder). Participants with irritability were less likely to have a partner and perceived less adequate social support. On average, over follow-up, those with irritability reported more symptoms, functional impairment, and suicidality. Furthermore, the effects of irritability could not be fully explained by illness severity. Irritability was associated with more negative symptomatic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes and suicidality. The identification, monitoring, and targeted treatment of irritability may be worth considering, to enhance health and wellbeing outcomes for adults with bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lubiprostone: chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Chey, William D

    2009-01-01

    Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite analogue of prostaglandin E1. The FDA has approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women and the treatment of women with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Lubiprostone specifically activates type-2-chloride channels on the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Lubiprostone acts locally within the intestinal tract, is rapidly metabolized and has very low systemic bioavailability. Animal studies have demonstrated that lubiprostone increases gastrointestinal fluid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Clinical studies performed in men and women with chronic constipation using 24 microg of lubiprostone twice-daily demonstrated objective improvement in stool frequency and consistency, as well as symptoms of straining and incomplete evacuation. A multi-center study of patients with IBS-C found that 8 microg of lubiprostone twice-daily improved both global and individual symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone is generally well tolerated and serious adverse events are rare. The most common reported side effects are nausea, headache and diarrhea. This monograph provides a brief overview on chloride channel function in the gastrointestinal tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses the safety and efficacy of this new medication for the treatment of chronic constipation and IBS-C.

  5. Association between Blastocystis hominis and irritable bowel syndrome(IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Darabian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the association between Blastocystis hominis and irritable bowel syndrome(IBS. In this case-control study that conducted in Mashhad, Iran in 2014-2015, one hundred IBS cases and one hundred matched (age and sex healthy people were participated. Direct stool examination, formalin-ether concentration technique and trichrome staining were done. The data were analyzed by SPSS20 with Fisher's exact test and T-test. One hundred IBS patients (31 males and 69 females had a mean age of 29.5 (±7.4 years. B. hominis were positive in 26% of IBS participants, and 9% in control group (P-value=0.002,Risk Estimate=3.5. Giardia lamblia were positive in 6% of IBS participants, and in none of control participants (P-value=0.01. Trichrome staining for detection of B. hominis was more sensitive than direct examination and formalin-ether concentration technique (P-value <0/001. B. hominis was more frequent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. For detection of B. hominis, trichrome staining was more sensitive than other methods. Authors suggest that in patients with IBS, stool should be examined with different methods for three times to obtain a more reliable diagnosis.

  6. Role of FODMAPs in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Seidita, Aurelio; D'Alcamo, Alberto; Carroccio, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, flatus, and altered bowel habits. The role of dietary components in inducing IBS symptoms is difficult to explore. To date, foods are not considered a cause but rather symptom-triggering factors. Particular interest has been given to the so-called FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols). We aimed to summarize the evidence from the most common approaches to manage suspected food intolerance in IBS, with a particular interest in the role of FODMAPs and the effects of a low FODMAP diet. We reviewed literature, consulting PubMed and Medline by using the search terms FODMAP(s), fructose, lactose, fructans, galactans, polyols (sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, xylitol, erythritol, polydextrose, and isomalt), irritable bowel syndrome, and functional gastrointestinal symptoms. FODMAP-restricted diets have been used for a long time to manage patients with IBS. The innovation in the so-called FODMAP concept is that a global restriction should have a more consistent effect than a limited one in preventing abdominal distension. Even though all the potential low FODMAP diets provide good relief of symptoms in many patients, there is just a little relief in others. Several studies highlight the role of low FODMAP diets to improve symptoms in patients with IBS. The evidence on this dietary approach supports the hypothesis that a low FODMAP diet should be the first dietary approach. However, many points remain to be clarified, including the evaluation of possibly significant nutrition concerns.

  7. CLINICAL RESEARCH ON MOXIBUSTION TREATMENT OF DIARREHEA TYPE IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪莹莹; 陆建芹

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of moxibustion in treatment of diarrhea type irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods: 56 cases of IBS were divided into treatment group (n=30) and control group (n=26). Patients of the former group were treated with moxibustion of Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zusanli (ST 36) in combination with Xiajuxu (ST 39) for lowering abdominal pain and with Shangjuxu (ST 37) for left lower abdominal pain; whilethose of the later group were treated with oral administration of Nifedipinum (10 mg, 3 times a day) and Smecta (1 bag, 3 times daily). After 15 days' treatment, the therapeutic effect was evaluated. Results: After treatment, the effective rates for abdominal pain, abdominal distension, abnormal frequency, abnormal stool, dyspepsia in treatment group were 100.00%, 94.74%, 96.67%, 100.00% and 95.00% respectively, with a total improving rate of 79.30% ; and those in control group 95.65%, 82.35%, 92.31%, 96.15% and 75.00% separately, with the total improving rate being 63.98%. There were significant differences between two groups in the effective rate of dyspepsia and the total improving rate of symptoms (P<0.05,0.01 ). Conclusion: Moxibustion treatment is effective in treatment of IBS and superior to that of Western medicines

  8. Role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: importance of the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Brent; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2009-01-01

    A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala facilitating the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system in response to stress. Moreover, chronic stress enhances function of the amygdala and promotes neural plasticity throughout the amygdaloid complex. This review outlines the latest findings obtained from human studies and animal models related to the role of the emotional brain in the regulation of enteric function, specifically how increasing the gain of the amygdala to induce anxiety-like behavior using corticosterone or chronic stress increases responsiveness to both visceral and somatic stimuli in rodents. A focus of the review is the relative importance of mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanisms within the amygdala in the regulation of anxiety and nociceptive behaviors that are characteristic features of IBS. This review also discusses several outstanding questions important for future research on the role of the amygdala in the generation of abnormal GI function that may lead to potential targets for new therapies to treat functional bowel disorders such as IBS.

  9. Role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: importance of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Myers

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA facilitating the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system in response to stress. Moreover, chronic stress enhances function of the amygdala and promotes neural plasticity throughout the amygdaloid complex. This review outlines the latest findings obtained from human studies and animal models related to the role of the emotional brain in the regulation of enteric function, specifically how increasing the gain of the amygdala to induce anxiety-like behavior using corticosterone (CORT or chronic stress increases responsiveness to both visceral and somatic stimuli in rodents. A focus of the review is the relative importance of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR-mediated mechanisms within the amygdala in the regulation of anxiety and nociceptive behaviors that are characteristic features of IBS. This review also discusses several outstanding questions important for future research on the role of the amygdala in the generation of abnormal GI function that may lead to potential targets for new therapies to treat functional bowel disorders such as IBS.

  10. A Randomised, Cross-Over, Placebo-Controlled Study of Aloe vera in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Effects on Patient Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, H A; Wareham, K; Baxter, J N; Atherton, P; Kingham, J G C; Duane, P; Thomas, L; Thomas, M; Ch'ng, C L; Williams, J G

    2011-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, difficult to treat condition. The efficacy of Aloe vera in treating IBS symptoms is not yet proven. The purpose of this study was to determine if Aloe vera is effective in improving quality of life. Methods. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, cross-over placebo controlled study design. Patients were randomised to Aloe vera, wash-out, placebo or placebo, washout, Aloe vera. Each preparation (60 mL) was taken orally twice a day. Patient quality of life was measured using the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Score, Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life, EuroQol and the Short-Form-12 at baseline and treatment periods 1 and 2. Results. A total of 110 patients were randomised, but only 47 completed all questionnaires and both study arms. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the placebo and Aloe vera treatment in quality of life. Discussion. This study was unable to show that Aloe vera was superior to placebo in improving quality of life. Drop outs and other confounding factors may have impacted on the power of the study to detect a clinically important difference. Conclusion. This study failed to find Aloe vera superior to placebo in improving quality of life proven Irritable Bowel Syndrome patients.

  11. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.; Gemert, L.J. van; Emmen, H.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Marquart, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure limit

  12. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.; Gemert, L.J. van; Emmen, H.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Marquart, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure

  13. AGONISTIC SENSORY EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CHEMICALS IN MIXTURES: ODOR, NASAL PUNGENCY, AND EYE IRRITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threshold responses of odor, nasal pungency (irritation), and eye irritation were measured for single chemicals (1-propanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl acetate, heptyl acetate, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, toluene, ethyl benzene, and propyl benzene) and mixtures of them (two three-component m...

  14. A single exposure to photochemical smog causes airway irritation and cardiac dysrhythmia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented here shows that a single exposure to photochemical smog causes airway irritation and cardiac dysrhythmia in mice. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components whi...

  15. AGONISTIC SENSORY EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CHEMICALS IN MIXTURES: ODOR, NASAL PUNGENCY, AND EYE IRRITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threshold responses of odor, nasal pungency (irritation), and eye irritation were measured for single chemicals (1-propanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl acetate, heptyl acetate, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, toluene, ethyl benzene, and propyl benzene) and mixtures of them (two three-component m...

  16. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  17. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  18. Are Histrionic Personality Traits Associated with Irritability during Conscious Sedation Endoscopy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Shin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to evaluate whether histrionic personality traits are associated with irritability during conscious sedation endoscopy (CSE. Materials and Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was planned. Irritability during CSE was classified into five grades: 0, no response; I, minimal movement; II, moderate movement; III, severe movement; IV, fighting against procedure. Patients in grades III and IV were defined as the irritable group. Participants were required to complete questionnaire sheet assessing the extent of histrionic personality traits, extraversion-introversion, and current psychological status. The present authors also collected basic sociodemographic data including alcohol use history. Results. A total of 32 irritable patients and 32 stable patients were analyzed. The histrionic personality trait score of the irritable group was higher than that of the stable group (9.5 ± 3.1 versus 6.9 ± 2.9; P = 0.001, as was the anxiety score (52.8 ± 8.6 versus 46.1 ± 9.6; P = 0.004. Heavy alcohol use was more frequently observed in the irritable group (65.6% versus 28.1%; P = 0.003. In multivariate analysis, all these three factors were independently correlated with irritability during CSE. Conclusion. This study revealed that histrionic personality traits, anxiety, and heavy alcohol use can affect irritability during CSE.

  19. Are Histrionic Personality Traits Associated with Irritability during Conscious Sedation Endoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Shin; Kim, Hyung Hun; Park, Hyo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to evaluate whether histrionic personality traits are associated with irritability during conscious sedation endoscopy (CSE). Materials and Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was planned. Irritability during CSE was classified into five grades: 0, no response; I, minimal movement; II, moderate movement; III, severe movement; IV, fighting against procedure. Patients in grades III and IV were defined as the irritable group. Participants were required to complete questionnaire sheet assessing the extent of histrionic personality traits, extraversion-introversion, and current psychological status. The present authors also collected basic sociodemographic data including alcohol use history. Results. A total of 32 irritable patients and 32 stable patients were analyzed. The histrionic personality trait score of the irritable group was higher than that of the stable group (9.5 ± 3.1 versus 6.9 ± 2.9; P = 0.001), as was the anxiety score (52.8 ± 8.6 versus 46.1 ± 9.6; P = 0.004). Heavy alcohol use was more frequently observed in the irritable group (65.6% versus 28.1%; P = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, all these three factors were independently correlated with irritability during CSE. Conclusion. This study revealed that histrionic personality traits, anxiety, and heavy alcohol use can affect irritability during CSE.

  20. Short-term stability of subtypes in the irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, A L; Simren, M; Bytzer, P

    2012-01-01

    In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtyping is used in research and clinical practice. Knowledge of subtype stability is needed for proper design of trials and treatment strategies.......In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtyping is used in research and clinical practice. Knowledge of subtype stability is needed for proper design of trials and treatment strategies....

  1. Management of irritant contact dermatitis: continuously a problem for patients and dermatologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    Skin irritants may induce irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in various ways but the end result remains the same: a clinical picture which in most cases is practically indistinguishable from allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A treatment that works for ACD does not necessarily work for ICD. Manage...

  2. Differentiating allergic and irritant contact dermatitis by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is important because of different management requirements. Various non-invasive tests have been used in an attempt to improve diagnosis. In irritant dermatitis, thickening of the epidermis has been a constant...

  3. Obstacle avoidance sonar for submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Albert C.; Webman, Kenneth M.

    2002-05-01

    The Advanced Mine Detection Sonar (AMDS) system was designed to operate in poor environments with high biological and/or shallow-water boundary conditions. It provides increased capability for active detection of volume, close-tethered, and bottom mines, as well as submarine and surface target active/passive detection for ASW and collision avoidance. It also provides bottom topography mapping capability for precise submarine navigation in uncharted littoral waters. It accomplishes this by using advanced processing techniques with extremely narrow beamwidths. The receive array consists of 36 modules arranged in a 15-ft-diameter semicircle at the bottom of the submarine sonar dome to form a chin-mounted array. Each module consists of 40 piezoelectric rubber elements. The modules provide the necessary signal conditioning to the element data prior to signal transmission (uplink) through the hull. The elements are amplified, filtered, converted to digital signals by an A/D converter, and multiplexed prior to uplink to the inboard receiver. Each module also has a downlink over which it receives synchronization and mode/gain control. Uplink and downlink transmission is done using fiberoptic telemetry. AMDS was installed on the USS Asheville. The high-frequency chin array for Virginia class submarines is based on the Asheville design.

  4. Assessment of the skin irritation potential of chemicals by using the SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal model and the common skin irritation protocol evaluated in the ECVAM skin irritation validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandárová, Helena; Liebsch, Manfred; Schmidt, Elisabeth; Genschow, Elke; Traue, Dieter; Spielmann, Horst; Meyer, Kirstin; Steinhoff, Claudia; Tornier, Carine; De Wever, Bart; Rosdy, Martin

    2006-08-01

    Currently, two reconstructed human skin models, EpiDerm and EPISKIN are being evaluated in an ECVAM skin irritation validation study. A common skin irritation protocol has been developed, differing only in minor technical details for the two models. A small-scale study, applying this common skin irritation protocol to the SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermis (RHE), was performed at ZEBET at the BfR, Berlin, Germany, to consider whether this protocol could be successfully transferred to another epidermal model. Twenty substances from Phase III of the ECVAM prevalidation study on skin irritation were tested with the SkinEthic RHE. After minor, model-specific adaptations for the SkinEthic RHE, almost identical results to those obtained with the EpiDerm and EPISKIN models were achieved. The overall accuracy of the method was more than 80%, indicating a reliable prediction of the skin irritation potential of the tested chemicals when compared to in vivo rabbit data. As a next step, inter laboratory reproducibility was assessed in a study conducted between ZEBET and the Department of Experimental Toxicology, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany. Six coded substances were tested in both laboratories, with three different batches of the SkinEthic model. The assay results showed good reproducibility and correct predictions of the skin irritation potential for all six test chemicals. The results obtained with the SkinEthic RHE and the common protocol were reproducible in both phases, and the overall outcome is very similar to that of earlier studies with the EPISKIN and EpiDerm models. Therefore, the SkinEthic skin irritation assay test protocol can now be evaluated in a formal "catch-up" validation study.

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and it is now evident that irritable bowel syndrome is a multi-factorial complex of changes in microbiota and immunology. The bidirectional neurohumoral integrated communication between the microbiota and the autonomous...... nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review...... recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome....

  6. Human Cumulative Irritation Tests of Common Preservatives Used in Personal Care Products: A Retrospective Analysis of Over 45 000 Subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, Russel M; Khanna, Preeya; Hamilton, Matthew; Mays, David A; Telofski, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative irritation test (CIT) is an accepted method used to evaluate the skin irritation potential and safety of individual ingredients and formulas of leave-on skin care and cosmetic compounds...

  7. Doxepin is More Effective than Nortriptyline and Placebo for the Treatment of Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Triple-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Ghadir M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current treatment of IBS is often unsatisfactory and frustrating. Several controlled trials have demonstrated benefits of tricyclic antidepressants for irritable bowel syndrome, especially when pain is a prominent symptom but the efficacy of antidepressants in irritable bowel syndrome is controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of doxepin and nortriptyline on diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.Methods: Seventy-five patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria were treated for two months. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups treated with doxepin, nortriptyline or placebo. Subjects were assessed clinically one month and two months after treatment. The symptoms and adverse effects of the drugs were recorded in the questionnaire. The total score was considered as the number of the symptoms for each patient, which ranged between zero and six.Results: Improvements in abdominal pain and bloating in the doxepin group were significantly higher than the nortriptyline or the placebo groups (P=0.001 and P=0.012, respectively. However, improvement in diarrhea in patients on nortriptyline was significantly higher than the other groups (P=0.018. The average improvement of symptoms in the patients after two months of treatment in doxepin, nortriptyline and placebo groups, respectively were 2.56, 2 and 0.6 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Both doxepin and nortriptyline are effective for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in a period of two months but doxepin seems to be more efficacious than nortriptyline in this regard. However, larger comparative trials are suggested.

  8. Prediction of eye irritation from organic chemicals using membrane-interaction QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A; Hopfinger, A J; Osborne, R; Bruner, L H; Thompson, E D

    2001-02-01

    Eye irritation potency of a compound or mixture has traditionally been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test (Draize et al., 1944). In order to aid predictions of eye irritation and to explore possible corresponding mechanisms of eye irritation, a methodology termed "membrane-interaction QSAR analysis" (MI-QSAR) has been developed (Kulkarni and Hopfinger 1999). A set of Draize eye-irritation data established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (Bagley et al., 1992) was used as a structurally diverse training set in an MI-QSAR analysis. Significant QSAR models were constructed based primarily upon aqueous solvation-free energy of the solute and the strength of solute binding to a model phospholipid (DMPC) monolayer. The results demonstrate that inclusion of parameters to model membrane interactions of potentially irritating chemicals provides significantly better predictions of eye irritation for structurally diverse compounds than does modeling based solely on physiochemical properties of chemicals. The specific MI-QSAR models reported here are, in fact, close to the upper limit in both significance and robustness that can be expected for the variability inherent to the eye-irritation scores of the ECETOC training set. The MI-QSAR models can be used with high reliability to classify compounds of low- and high-predicted eye irritation scores. Thus, the models offer the opportunity to reduce animal testing for compounds predicted to fall into these two extreme eye-irritation score sets. The MI-QSAR paradigm may also be applicable to other toxicological endpoints, such as skin irritation, where interactions with cellular membranes are likely.

  9. Mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giovanni; Cremon, Cesare; De Giorgio, Roberto; Dothel, Giovanni; Zecchi, Lisa; Bellacosa, Lara; Carini, Giovanni; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is currently considered a key pathophysiological mechanism involved in pain perception in large subgroups of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In IBS, visceral hypersensitivity has been described in 20%-90% of patients. The contribution of the central nervous system and psychological factors to visceral hypersensitivity in patients with IBS may be significant, although still debated. Peripheral factors have gained increasing attention following the recognition that infectious enteritis may trigger the development of persistent IBS symptoms, and the identification of mucosal immune, neural, endocrine, microbiological, and intestinal permeability abnormalities. Growing evidence suggests that these factors play an important role in pain transmission from the periphery to the brain via sensory nerve pathways in large subsets of patients with IBS. In this review, we will report on recent data on mechanisms involved in visceral hypersensitivity in IBS, with particular attention paid to peripheral mechanisms.

  10. Psychological Interventions for Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, Sarah; Keefer, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    Psychological interventions have been designed and implemented effectively in a wide range of medical conditions, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). The psychological treatments for IBS and IBD with the strongest evidence base include: cognitive behavioral therapy, hypnosis, and mindfulness-based therapies. The evidence for each of these therapies is reviewed here for both IBS and IBD. In general, there is a stronger and larger evidence base to support the use of psychological interventions in IBS compared with IBD. This is likely due to the high level of psychiatric comorbidity associated with IBS and the involvement of the stress-response in symptom presentation of IBS. Further research in psychosocial interventions for IBD is necessary. Finally, the importance of conceptualizing both IBS and IBD in a biopsychosocial model is discussed and several resources for accessing Clinical Health Psychology materials and referrals are provided. PMID:28102860

  11. Editorial: Can gluten contribute to irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Elena F

    2011-03-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders are the most common gastroenterological problem in our society. Changes in gut function, including pain perception, motility, and intestinal permeability, and low-grade inflammation have been described in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The triggering factors for the described immunity and gut functional changes in patients with IBS are not completely understood. Similarly to post-infective IBS, some patients with IBS symptoms exhibit immunological evidence of gluten sensitivity but have no overt intestinal mucosal injury. They have symptoms that meet the diagnostic criteria for IBS and respond symptomatically to exclusion of gluten from the diet. Thus, gluten sensitivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of a subgroup of IBS patients. Unfortunately, there remain many unanswered questions regarding the mechanistic link between gluten sensitivity and functional gastrointestinal symptoms.

  12. Intestinal microbiota and its role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Lena; Simrén, Magnus

    2013-05-01

    Gut microbiota alterations are increasingly being recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The onset of IBS symptoms after a bout of gastroenteritis comprises one of the strongest indications for the importance of gut microbiota for IBS. Moreover, recent studies have identified several susceptibility genes for IBS involved in the innate immunity and recognition of bacteria but also maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier. During recent years, it has also been demonstrated that IBS patients, or subgroups thereof, may have an altered microbiota composition relative to healthy individuals, mainly based on the analysis of fecal microbiota. Moreover, a positive effect of treatment with non-absorbable antibiotics and probiotics in IBS provides further indirect support for the relevance of gut microbiota alterations in IBS.

  13. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowski, Mateusz; Likońska, Aleksandra; Zatorski, Hubert; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS. We discuss associated disturbances in homeostasis, such as changes in intestinal microbiome and related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the effect of environmental factors on the GI tract, we also propose novel targets in IBS treatment.

  14. psychosocial impact of irritable bowel syndrome: A brief review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah; Ballou; Alyse; Bedell; Laurie; Keefer

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with unclear etiology and no reliable biomarker. Like other chronic and functional disorders, medical treatments for IBS are suboptimal and the overall illness burden is high. Patients with IBS report high rates of psychopathology, low quality of life, and increased suicidal ideation. These patients also miss more days of work, are less productive at work, and use many healthcare resources. However, little is known about the burden of IBS on daily functioning. The primary aim of this paper is to review the current literature on the burden of IBS and to highlight the need for further research to evaluate the impact of IBS on daily activities. This research would contribute to our existing understanding of the impact of IBS on overall quality of life and well-being.

  15. Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magge, Suma; Lembo, Anthony

    2012-11-01

    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are common disorders that have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. These disorders present major challenges to healthcare providers, as few effective medical therapies are currently available. Recently, there has been increasing interest in dietary therapies for IBS, particularly a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs). Since ingestion of FODMAPs increases the delivery of readily fermentable substrates and water to the distal small intestine and colon-which results in luminal distention and gas-the reduction of FODMAPs in a patient's diet may improve functional gastrointestinal symptoms. This paper will review the pathophysiology of IBS and the role of FODMAPs for the treatment of this condition.

  16. Mind/Body Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Naliboff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: is the colonic mucosa to blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jill M

    2012-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered gastrointestinal function of unknown etiology. Studies of colonic mucosal biopsies from patients with IBS have suggested altered immune system function as a potential mechanism in the pathophysiology of IBS, but efforts to identify the mucosal mediators responsible for the manifestation of symptoms that define the disorder have been limited. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Buhner et al. and Balestra et al. report findings from studies linking increased excitability of the enteric nervous system with mucosal mediators released from biopsies of patients with IBS. These studies provide evidence for the concept that mediators present in the colonic mucosa may contribute to the manifestation of clinical symptoms present in IBS.

  18. Review of the Pharmacotherapy of Irritability of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Dean; Lalani, Zaahira

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the randomized controlled trial data regarding pharmacotherapy of irritability of autism. Method: A literature review was conducted using the MEDLine search terms: ‘autism’ OR ‘autism spectrum disorder’ with the following limits: Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), human trials, English language. Additional articles were identified from reference information. Trials involving nutritional supplements, hormones or drugs not approved by either Health Canada or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were excluded from analysis. Results: Twenty-three RCTs that met criteria were identified. The greatest number of RCTs involved risperidone, with six of seven placebo-controlled risperidone trials reporting statistically significant improvements on the primary outcome measure. Two aripiprazole RCTs and one olanzapine RCT reported statistically significant improvement in primary outcome measures. Haloperidol was superior to both clomipramine and placebo in a head-to-head crossover trial, while risperidone was superior to haloperidol for treatment of behavioural symptoms in a separate head-to-head trial. Clonidine, methylphenidate, valproate and levocarnitine monotherapy were superior to placebo in single RCTs, while adjunctive treatments cyproheptadine, pentoxifylline and topiramate were superior to placebo in small studies when given in combination with an antipsychotic. Adverse events from RCTs were summarized, including weight gain and metabolic effects, if available. Conclusion: The bulk of positive RCT evidence for the pharmacotherapy of irritability of autism pertains to FDA approved antipsychotics risperidone and aripiprazole. RCTs supporting efficacy of several alternative and adjunctive agents may afford additional treatment options when optimal antipsychotic doses fail to control symptoms or cause intolerable adverse effects. Behavioural therapy should be employed where possible either before, or in addition to pharmacotherapy. PMID

  19. Surfactant irritation: in vitro corneosurfametry and in vivo bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, B; Chatelain, E; Bieli, E; Haas, S

    2001-02-01

    Irritant reactions to surfactants, cleansing products, soaps and detergents are common in clinical and occupational dermatology. Mildness has become a major benefit claimed, and testing for mildness now ranks among the first concerns of the manufacturing industry. A wealth of publications deals with this problem, trying to improve the methodology, reduce the costs of testing and facilitate decision-making. Differences in vivo can be measured clinically and/or instrumentally. This is difficult, as commercially available products are generally safe to use and none are harsh in the absolute sense. Nineteen different products (syndets, shampoos, personal cleansers), all claiming to be mild, were tested in vitro by a newly introduced method, corneosurfametry. For evaluating the aggressiveness of the products, the calculation of an index of irritation (IOI) was proposed. A concentration-effect curve of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as standard and model surfactant was obtained. Some of the products were further tested in vivo with a flex wash test and with a soap chamber test and compared to SLS. Bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss TEWL, skin color) were used to evaluate the results. The results of the corneosurfametry allowed us to classify the products in three categories, with increasing aggressiveness towards the stratum corneum, according to their IOIs. The in vivo tests were not able to discriminate between the products, but ranks from the results of the bioengineering measurements showed a good correlation between TEWL changes, but not between colour changes, and IOIs from corneosurfametry. Corneosurfametry emerged as a simple, low-cost and fast method for ranking commercial products according to their mildness. However, the skin bioengineering techniques showed that some products could lead to skin reactions, such as erythema, that could not be detected by the in vitro technique.

  20. Five personality dimensions in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farnam

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Farnam, Mohammad H Somi, Firouz Sarami, Sara FarhangLiver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranAim: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS as a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract has been related to psychological factors. Aim of this study is to study the differences of personality factors between IBS patients compared to our general population.Methods: This study was performed in clinics of Tabriz Medical University during 2006–2007. IBS was diagnosed using the Rome II diagnostic criteria after exclusion of organic bowel pathology. The entry of each patient was confirmed following a psychiatric interview and after any comorbid psychiatry disorder was ruled out. Personality traits and score of each factor was evaluated using NEO five factor personality inventory compared to results of a previous study on general population of Iran.Results: One hundred and sixty six patients were studied. The mean age (±SD of them was 33.6(±11.4 years (60.8% female. Our study population had their symptoms for a mean interval of 47.3 month. The bowel problems were provoked by distress in more than 80% of patients. Pain in female patients was reported to be more frequent but both gender described the association between stressors and their symptoms. NEO Five-Factor Inventory showed a significantly higher level of neuroticism and conscientiousness and lower level of openness and agreeableness in theses nonpsychiatric IBS patients. Women with IBS had significantly higher levels of openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion compared to men.Conclusion: Differences were observed between IBS patients and general population. Patients with IBS may benefit from psychological interventions.Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, personality, five-factor model

  1. Gene expression in rat skin induced by irritating chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James V; Garrett, Carol M; McDougal, James N

    2003-01-01

    Occupational skin disease is the second most significant cause of occupational disease, after accidents. Irritation from occupational chemicals such as solvents, hydrocarbons, and surfactants are one cause of this disease. Gene expression studies provide useful information about normal processes in the skin and responses of the skin to exogenous chemicals. We exposed rats, cutaneously, to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, 1% and 10% aqueous solution), m-xylene (pure liquid), and d-limonene (pure liquid) for 1 h and measured transcriptional responses at the end of the exposure and 3 h later for comparison with untreated skin samples. Total skin RNA was isolated and analyzed using the Affymetrix RatTox U34 array. Using the Affymetrix software, we found that 234 of approximately 850 genes were detected as present in at least 80% of the normal skin samples. The largest number of these genes was related to metabolism, oxidative/cellular stress, and signal transduction. Limonene caused the largest change in mRNA levels with a total of 34 increased transcripts and 4 decreased transcripts. Xylene treatment resulted in 6 increased transcripts and 14 decreased transcripts, while 10% SLS caused 5 transcripts to increase and 17 to decrease. Only two transcripts were observed to change in skin following a 1% SLS exposure. Sodium lauryl sulfate transcript changes increased with dose and were maximum at 4 h. Limonene transcript changes were more numerous at 1 h than at 4 h. The observed differences may reflect different mechanisms of irritation. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:123-137, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.10079

  2. In vitro skin irritation testing: Improving the sensitivity of the EpiDerm skin irritation test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandárová, Helena; Hayden, Patrick; Klausner, Mitch; Kubilus, Joseph; Kearney, Paul; Sheasgreen, John

    2009-12-01

    A skin irritation test (SIT) utilising a common protocol for two in vitro reconstructed human epidermal (RhE) models, EPISKIN and EpiDerm, was developed, optimised and evaluated as a replacement for the in vivo rabbit skin irritation test in an ECVAM-sponsored validation study. In 2007, both RhE models were recognised by an independent peer-review panel and the ECVAM Scientific Advisory Committee (ESAC) as validated for use with the common SIT protocol. The EPISKIN SIT was endorsed as a full replacement of the in vivo rabbit test. Since the EpiDerm SIT proved to be less sensitive than the in vivo test and the EPISKIN SIT, the test was recognised as a validated component of a tiered testing strategy, in which positive results are accepted and negative results require further confirmation. The ESAC, in its April 2007 statement, also recommended increasing the sensitivity of the EpiDerm SIT, in order to gain the full acceptance. Analysis of the EpiDerm and EPISKIN data from the ECVAM validation study indicated that the lower sensitivity of the EpiDerm SIT might be linked to the more robust barrier properties of the EpiDerm model. This hypothesis was also in line with results published previously. To overcome the relatively low sensitivity of the EpiDerm protocol as a hindrance to full regulatory acceptance, a modification of exposure conditions was introduced into the protocol to achieve better agreement with the in vivo rabbit data. In the Modified EpiDerm SIT protocol, the test chemical exposure time was increased from 15 minutes to 60 minutes. In addition, part of the exposure was performed at 37 degrees C. When the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay endpoint was used for classification, a significant increase of sensitivity was obtained (86.1%), whilst maintaining the high specificity of the method (76.3%). With the change to the EU classification system, which now uses higher cut-off for the classification of

  3. The evaluation of otilonium bromide treatment in asian patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Chen, Tseng-Shing; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2011-10-01

    Antispasmodics including otilonium bromide (OB) are recommended to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, reports about OB experience in Asia is sparse. The purpose of present study was to provide the efficacy of OB in treating Asian IBS patients. Overall, 117 IBS patients meeting Rome II criteria were enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, active-controlled and single center trial. Randomized participants received either OB 40 mg or mebeverine 100 mg 3 doses daily. The primary endpoints were to evaluate the net changes of abdominal pain/discomfort frequency score (APDFS) and safety profile, while the secondary endpoints were to assess the changes in abdominal pain/discomfort intensity, flatulence, abdominal bloating, satisfied stool frequency etc. Finally, 49 OB and 52 mebeverine subjects were eligible for efficacy analysis. Compared to baselines in per protocol populations, the reduced APDFSs in OB and mebeverine were 0.55 ± 1.20 (P = 0.011) and 0.37 ± 1.11 (P = 0.042), respectively, to show similarly reduced scores. The most reported side effects included dry mouth, nausea and dizziness. Besides, the improved APDFSs at 4th week visit, final alleviations in abdominal pain intensity, flatulence, abdominal bloating and satisfied stool frequency with global assessments filled by both patients and investigators were significantly achieved by both treatments, and OB was not inferior to mebeverine in treating these parameters. In Orientals, OB is as effective as mebeverine for alleviating IBS symptoms in terms of abdominal pain, flatulence, abdominal bloating etc. However, obvious side effects are also observed. A large-scaled trial and post-marketing surveillance are recommended to confirm its efficacy and safety.

  4. Activation of 5-HT and NR2B contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Xian; Chen, Yu; Fu, Rui; Liu, Sai-Yue; Yang, Qin-Qin; Shen, Tang-Biao

    2016-01-01

    The roles of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and spinal N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) in visceral hypersensitivity were investigated. A rat model with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was established by intracolonic injections of acetic acid onpost-natal days 8-21. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal intact (control) group, IBS model group, Ro25-6981-treated IBS rats (Ro25-6981, a NR2B antagonist) group, amitriptyline-treated IBS rats (amitriptyline, a 5-HT antagonist) and Ro25-6981 plus amitriptyline-treated IBS rats (Ro25-6981+amitriptyline) group. The expressions of 5-HT, NR2B, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT7R, SERT, TNF-α and IL-1β in colon, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hypothalamus, respectively, were measured by Immunohistochemical staining, Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed increased DRG and hypothalamus expression of 5-HT, NR2B, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT7R in IBS model group and decreased expression of those in Ro25-6981 and amitriptyline alone or both treatment groups. Moreover, SERT expression was decreased in colorectal, DRG and hypothalamus of ISB model rats, but increased by Ro25-6981 and amitriptyline alone or both treatments. Ro25-6981 and amitriptyline treatment also decreased colorectal expression of TNF-α and IL-1β induced by IBS model. In conclusion, activation of 5-HT and NR2B may play a crucial role in visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome in rats. PMID:28078028

  5. Evaluation of TOPKAT, Toxtree, and Derek Nexus in Silico Models for Ocular Irritation and Development of a Knowledge-Based Framework To Improve the Prediction of Severe Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Wilson, Daniel M; Parks, Amanda K; Carney, Edward W; Spencer, Pamela J

    2016-05-16

    Assessment of ocular irritation is an essential component of any risk assessment. A number of (Q)SARs and expert systems have been developed and are described in the literature. Here, we focus on three in silico models (TOPKAT, BfR rulebase implemented in Toxtree, and Derek Nexus) and evaluate their performance using 1644 in-house and 123 European Centre for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) compounds with existing in vivo ocular irritation classification data. Overall, the in silico models performed poorly. The best consensus predictions of severe ocular irritants were 52 and 65% for the in-house and ECETOC compounds, respectively. The prediction performance was improved by designing a knowledge-based chemical profiling framework that incorporated physicochemical properties and electrophilic reactivity mechanisms. The utility of the framework was assessed by applying it to the same test sets and three additional publicly available in vitro irritation data sets. The prediction of severe ocular irritants was improved to 73-77% if compounds were filtered on the basis of AlogP_MR (hydrophobicity with molar refractivity). The predictivity increased to 74-80% for compounds capable of preferentially undergoing hard electrophilic reactions, such as Schiff base formation and acylation. This research highlights the need for reliable ocular irritation models to be developed that take into account mechanisms of action and individual structural classes. It also demonstrates the value of profiling compounds with respect to their chemical reactivity and physicochemical properties that, in combination with existing models, results in better predictions for severe irritants.

  6. Neural substrates of child irritability in typically developing and psychiatric populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Perlman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritability is an aspect of the negative affectivity domain of temperament, but in severe and dysregulated forms is a symptom of a range of psychopathologies. Better understanding of the neural underpinnings of irritability, outside the context of specific disorders, can help to understand normative variation but also characterize its clinical salience in psychopathology diagnosis. This study assessed brain activation during reward and frustration, domains of behavioral deficits in childhood irritability. Children (age 6–9 presenting in mental health clinics for extreme and impairing irritability (n = 26 were compared to healthy children (n = 28. Using developmentally sensitive methods, neural activation was measured via a negative mood induction paradigm during fMRI scanning. The clinical group displayed more activation of the anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus during reward, but less activation during frustration, than healthy comparison children. The opposite pattern was found in the posterior cingulate. Further, in clinical subjects, parent report of irritability was dimensionally related to decreased activation of the anterior cingulate and striatum during frustration. The results of this study indicate neural dysfunction within brain regions related to reward processing, error monitoring, and emotion regulation underlying clinically impairing irritability. Results are discussed in the context of a growing field of neuroimaging research investigating irritable children.

  7. Longitudinal Stability of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Irritability: From Childhood to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A; Myers, John; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about genetic influences on juvenile irritability and whether such influences are developmentally stable and/or dynamic. This study examined the temporal pattern of genetic and environmental effects on irritability using data from a prospective, four-wave longitudinal twin study. Parents and their twin children (N=2,620 children) from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development reported on the children's irritability, defined using a previously identified scale from the Child Behavior Checklist. Genetic effects differed across the sexes, with males exhibiting increasing heritability from early childhood through young adulthood and females exhibiting decreasing heritability. Genetic innovation was also more prominent in males than in females, with new genetic risk factors affecting irritability in early and late adolescence for males. Shared environment was not a primary influence on irritability for males or females. Unique, nonshared environmental factors suggested strong effects early for males followed by an attenuating influence, whereas unique environmental factors were relatively stable for females. Genetic effects on irritability are developmentally dynamic from middle childhood through young adulthood, with males and females displaying differing patterns. As males age, genetic influences on irritability increase while nonshared environmental influences weaken. Genetic contributions are quite strong in females early in life but decline in importance with age. In girls, nonshared environmental influences are fairly stable throughout development.

  8. Categorical evaluation of the ocular irritancy of cosmetic and consumer products by human ocular instillation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Kanengiser, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of ocular irritation potential is an important part of safety testing for cosmetic and consumer products. The purpose of this investigation was to examine ocular irritancy levels elicited in humans by various categories of a specific class of cosmetic and consumer products that have a potential to enter the eye inadvertently during use. Test materials assessed belonged to one of seven categories, which included liquid makeup, shampoo, baby wash, mascara, eye makeup remover, powder eye shadow, and facial cleanser. These test materials were evaluated by human ocular instillation, followed by examinations, for which subjective perceptions of irritation were recorded, and component areas of ocular tissues were individually examined for inflammation and for the area and density of fluorescein staining patterns at 30 seconds and at 5, 15, 60, and 120 minutes post-instillation. Subjective and objective ocular irritation scores of 410 eyes were analyzed by product classification. Average score levels were determined for subjective responses, inflammation, and fluorescein staining patterns. This investigation determined that irritation levels of the evaluated test materials varied markedly with respect to product category, type of ocular irritation, and ocular tissue, demonstrating that these factors are important considerations for the prediction of the ocular irritancy of a test material.

  9. Detection And Avoidance Of Obstacles By Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.; Sridhar, Banavar

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses problems relevant to control subsystems enabling helicopters on nap-of-the-Earth flight paths to detect and avoid obstacles automatically. Indicates similarities between this and obstacle-avoidance problem of industrial mobile robots. Two approaches extend two-dimensional obstacle-avoidance concept to three dimensions. First involves direct search of three-dimensional range-map data for indications of openings between obstacles. Second involves compression of data into two-dimensional map for path search.

  10. Mobile Robot Collision Avoidance in Human Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lingqi Zeng; Gary M. Bone

    2013-01-01

    Collision avoidance is a fundamental requirement for mobile robots. Avoiding moving obstacles (also termed dynamic obstacles) with unpredictable direction changes, such as humans, is more challenging than avoiding moving obstacles whose motion can be predicted. Precise information on the future moving directions of humans is unobtainable for use in navigation algorithms. Furthermore, humans should be able to pursue their activities unhindered and without worrying about the robots around them....

  11. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism predicts placebo effect in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn T Hall

    Full Text Available Identifying patients who are potential placebo responders has major implications for clinical practice and trial design. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, an important enzyme in dopamine catabolism plays a key role in processes associated with the placebo effect such as reward, pain, memory and learning. We hypothesized that the COMT functional val158met polymorphism, was a predictor of placebo effects and tested our hypothesis in a subset of 104 patients from a previously reported randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The three treatment arms from this study were: no-treatment ("waitlist", placebo treatment alone ("limited" and, placebo treatment "augmented" with a supportive patient-health care provider interaction. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in IBS-Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS after three weeks of treatment. In a regression model, the number of methionine alleles in COMT val158met was linearly related to placebo response as measured by changes in IBS-SSS (p = .035. The strongest placebo response occurred in met/met homozygotes treated in the augmented placebo arm. A smaller met/met associated effect was observed with limited placebo treatment and there was no effect in the waitlist control. These data support our hypothesis that the COMT val158met polymorphism is a potential biomarker of placebo response.

  12. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism predicts placebo effect in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathryn T; Lembo, Anthony J; Kirsch, Irving; Ziogas, Dimitrios C; Douaiher, Jeffrey; Jensen, Karin B; Conboy, Lisa A; Kelley, John M; Kokkotou, Efi; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2012-01-01

    Identifying patients who are potential placebo responders has major implications for clinical practice and trial design. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an important enzyme in dopamine catabolism plays a key role in processes associated with the placebo effect such as reward, pain, memory and learning. We hypothesized that the COMT functional val158met polymorphism, was a predictor of placebo effects and tested our hypothesis in a subset of 104 patients from a previously reported randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The three treatment arms from this study were: no-treatment ("waitlist"), placebo treatment alone ("limited") and, placebo treatment "augmented" with a supportive patient-health care provider interaction. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in IBS-Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) after three weeks of treatment. In a regression model, the number of methionine alleles in COMT val158met was linearly related to placebo response as measured by changes in IBS-SSS (p = .035). The strongest placebo response occurred in met/met homozygotes treated in the augmented placebo arm. A smaller met/met associated effect was observed with limited placebo treatment and there was no effect in the waitlist control. These data support our hypothesis that the COMT val158met polymorphism is a potential biomarker of placebo response.

  13. Drug development for the irritable bowel syndrome: current challenges and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eDe Ponti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Medications are frequently used for the treatment of patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, although their actual benefit is often debated. In fact, the recent progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of IBS, accompanied by a large number of preclinical and clinical studies of new drugs, has not been matched by a significant improvement of the armamentarium of medications available to treat IBS. The aim of this review is to outline the current challenges in drug development for IBS, taking advantage of what we have learnt through the Rome process (Rome I, Rome II and Rome III. The key questions that will be addressed are: a do we still believe in the "magic bullet", i.e. a very selective drug displaying a single receptor mechanism capable of controlling IBS symptoms? b IBS is a "functional disorder" where complex neuroimmune and brain-gut interactions occur and minimal inflammation is often documented: do we need to target gut motility, visceral sensitivity or minimal inflammation? c are there validated biomarkers (accepted by regulatory agencies for studies of sensation and motility with experimental medications in humans? d do animal models have predictive and translational value? d in the era of personalised medicine, does pharmacogenomics applied to these medications already play a role? Finally, this review will briefly outline medications currently used or in development for IBS. It is anticipated that a more focussed interaction between basic science investigators, pharmacologists and clinicians will lead to better treatment of IBS.

  14. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase val158met Polymorphism Predicts Placebo Effect in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathryn T.; Lembo, Anthony J.; Kirsch, Irving; Ziogas, Dimitrios C.; Douaiher, Jeffrey; Jensen, Karin B.; Conboy, Lisa A.; Kelley, John M.; Kokkotou, Efi; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying patients who are potential placebo responders has major implications for clinical practice and trial design. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an important enzyme in dopamine catabolism plays a key role in processes associated with the placebo effect such as reward, pain, memory and learning. We hypothesized that the COMT functional val158met polymorphism, was a predictor of placebo effects and tested our hypothesis in a subset of 104 patients from a previously reported randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The three treatment arms from this study were: no-treatment (“waitlist”), placebo treatment alone (“limited”) and, placebo treatment “augmented” with a supportive patient-health care provider interaction. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in IBS-Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) after three weeks of treatment. In a regression model, the number of methionine alleles in COMT val158met was linearly related to placebo response as measured by changes in IBS-SSS (p = .035). The strongest placebo response occurred in met/met homozygotes treated in the augmented placebo arm. A smaller met/met associated effect was observed with limited placebo treatment and there was no effect in the waitlist control. These data support our hypothesis that the COMT val158met polymorphism is a potential biomarker of placebo response. PMID:23110189

  15. Complementary and alternative medicines in irritable bowel syndrome: An integrative view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Oliver; Yoon, Saunjoo L

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with a high incidence in the general population. The diagnosis of IBS is mainly based on exclusion of other intestinal conditions through the absence of inflammatory markers and specific antigens. The current pharmacological treatment approaches available focus on reducing symptom severity while often limiting quality of life because of significant side effects. This has led to an effectiveness gap for IBS patients that seek further relief to increase their quality of life. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have been associated with a higher degree of symptom management and quality of life in IBS patients. Over the past decade, a number of important clinical trials have shown that specific herbal therapies (peppermint oil and Iberogast®), hypnotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, acupuncture, and yoga present with improved treatment outcomes in IBS patients. We propose an integrative approach to treating the diverse symptoms of IBS by combining the benefits of and need for pharmacotherapy with known CAM therapies to provide IBS patients with the best treatment outcome achievable. Initial steps in this direction are already being considered with an increasing number of practitioners recommending CAM therapies to their patients if pharmacotherapy alone does not alleviate symptoms sufficiently. PMID:24574705

  16. Oh my aching gut: irritable bowel syndrome, Blastocystis, and asymptomatic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiao-Nong

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blastocystis is a prevalent enteric protozoan that infects a variety of vertebrates. Infection with Blastocystis in humans has been associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, skin rash, and other symptoms. Researchers using different methods and examining different patient groups have reported asymptomatic infection, acute symptomatic infection, and chronic symptomatic infection. The variation in accounts has lead to disagreements concerning the role of Blastocystis in human disease, and the importance of treating it. A better understanding of the number of species of Blastocystis that can infect humans, along with realization of the limitations of the existing clinical laboratory diagnostic techniques may account for much of the disagreement. The possibility that disagreement was caused by the emergence of particular pathogenic variants of Blastocystis is discussed, along with the potential role of Blastocystis infection in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Findings are discussed concerning the role of protease-activated receptor-2 in enteric disease which may account for the presence of abdominal pain and diffuse symptoms in Blastocystis infection, even in the absence of fever and endoscopic findings. The availability of better diagnostic techniques and treatments for Blastocystis infection may be of value in understanding chronic gastrointestinal illness of unknown etiology.

  17. What about OMT and nutrition for managing the irritable bowel syndrome? An overview and treatment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collebrusco, Luca; Lombardini, Rita

    2014-01-01

    A chronic continuous or intermittent gastrointestinal tract dysfunction, the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), appears to be due to dysregulation of brain-gut-microbiota communication. Furthermore, the "microbiota" greatly impacts the bi-directional brain-gut axis communication. This article describes IBS in relation to similar diseases, presents the background to osteopathy, and proposes osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to manage IBS. In IBS, OMT focuses on the nervous and circulatory systems, spine, viscera, and thoracic and pelvic diaphragms in order to restore homeostatic balance, normalize autonomic activity in the intestine, promote lymphatic flow, and address somatic dysfunction. Lymphatic and venous congestion are treated by the lymphatic pump techniques and stimulation of Chapman׳s reflex points. A simple treatment plan designed to lessen chronic pain and inflammation in IBS is presented based on current evidence-based literature. Since food itself, food allergies, and intolerance could contribute to symptom onset or even cause IBS, this article also provides dietary modifications to consider for patients.

  18. The enhanced anti-obesity effect and reduced gastric mucosa irritation of capsaicin-loaded nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Muwen; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2017-05-24

    Capsaicin (CAP), the major active component of chili peppers, is known to have thermogenic and weight-loss potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of capsaicin-loaded nanoemulsions (C-NE) on male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with a high-fat diet (HFD). The food grade C-NE was prepared using capsaicin, medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) (Neobee 1053), sucrose stearate S-370, Tween 80 and distilled water with an emulsion droplet size of 168 nm and a capsaicin loading of 80.4 mg mL(-1). Results showed that C-NE effectively decreased body weight gain and hypercholesterolemia induced by HFD in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluations of the liver and adipose tissue confirmed that C-NE had significant effects on inhibiting diet-induced hepatic steatosis, reducing epididymal adipocyte size and tissue mass. A gastric mucosa irritation test demonstrated that C-NE was effective in alleviating the gastric inflammation caused by free unformulated CAP crystals.

  19. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  20. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  1. Validation of the Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome in secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Bercik, Premysl; Morgan, David G; Bolino, Carolina; Pintos-Sanchez, Maria Ines; Moayyedi, Paul

    2013-12-01

    There are few validation studies of existing diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a validation study of the Rome and Manning criteria in secondary care. We collected complete symptom, colonoscopy, and histology data from 1848 consecutive adult patients with gastrointestinal symptoms at 2 hospitals in Hamilton, Ontario; the subjects then underwent colonoscopy. Assessors were blinded to symptom status. Individuals with normal colonoscopy and histopathology results, and no evidence of celiac disease, were classified as having no organic gastrointestinal disease. The reference standard used to define the presence of true IBS was lower abdominal pain or discomfort in association with a change in bowel habit and no organic gastrointestinal disease. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, were calculated for each diagnostic criteria. In identifying patients with IBS, sensitivities of the criteria ranged from 61.9% (Manning) to 95.8% (Rome I), and specificities from 70.6% (Rome I) to 81.8% (Manning). Positive likelihood ratios ranged from 3.19 (Rome II) to 3.39 (Manning), and negative likelihood ratios from 0.06 (Rome I) to 0.47 (Manning). The level of agreement between diagnostic criteria was greatest for Rome I and Rome II (κ = 0.95), and lowest for Manning and Rome III (κ = 0.59). Existing diagnostic criteria perform modestly in distinguishing IBS from organic disease. There appears to be little difference in terms of accuracy. More accurate ways of diagnosing IBS, avoiding the need for investigation, are required. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Principal Component Analysis of Tissue Scores from Substances used in the COLIPA Eye Irritation Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, D P

    1999-06-01

    Principal component analyses (PCA) have been carried out on the tissue scores from Draize eye irritation tests on the 55 formulations and chemical ingredients included in the COLIPA Eye Irritation Validation Study. A PCA was carried out on the tissue scores 24, 48 and 72 hours after instillation of the substances. The first Principal Component (PC I) explained 77% of the total variation in the tissues scores and showed a high negative correlation (r=-0.971) with the scores used to derive the Modified Maximum Average Score (MMAS). The second component (PC II) explained 7% of the total variability and contrasted corneal and iris damage with conjunctival damage as in a similar analysis carried out previously on the ECETOC databank. The third component (PCIII), while only explaining about 3% of the variability, identified individuals treated with formulations that were observed to have low corneal opacity but large corneal area scores. This may represent some particular manner of scoring at the laboratory administering the Draize test or a specific effect of some formulations. A further PCA was carried out on tissue scores from observations at 1hr to 21 days. PC I in this analysis explained 62% of the variability and there was a high negative correlation with the sum of all the tissue scores, while PC II explained 14% of the variability and contrasted damage up to 72 hours with damage after 72 hours. A number of formulations were identified with relatively low MMAS scores but tissue damage that persisted. PCA analysis is thus shown to be a powerful method for exploring complex datasets and for identification of outliers and subgroups. It has shown that the MMAS score captures most of the information on tissue scores in the first 72 hours following exposure, and it is unlikely to be of any advantage in using individual tissue scores for comparisons with alternative tests. The relationship of the classifications schemes used by three alternative methods in the COLIPA

  3. Mortality, morbidity and occupational exposure to airway-irritating agents among men with a respiratory diagnosis in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebert, P; Svartengren, M; Lindberg, M; Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Nise, G

    2008-02-01

    To examine the influence of an airway diagnosis in adolescence on future health and occupation in Swedish men. Data were collected from the linkage of four Swedish national registers: the Military Service Conscription Register, the Population and Housing Censuses, the Inpatient Care Register and the National Cause of Death Register. A job-exposure matrix for airway-irritating substances was developed for application on the conscription cohort. The cohort included 49 321 Swedish men born 1949-51. Three groups-(1) healthy, (2) asthmatics (mild and severe asthma) and (3) subjects with allergic rhinitis without concurrent asthma-were identified at conscription and analysed for mortality, in-patient care and strategies for choice of occupation with emphasis on airway-irritating job exposure. Analyses were adjusted for smoking and childhood socioeconomic position. The prevalence of total asthma was 1.8%, severe asthma 0.45% and allergic rhinitis 2.7%. Mortality for all causes was significantly higher in total asthma, hazard ratio (HR) 1.49 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.23), and lower in allergic rhinitis, HR 0.52 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.91). Asthma was a risk factor for inpatient care while allergic rhinitis was associated with less in-patient care (odds ratio (OR) for total asthma 1.16 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.34), severe asthma 1.38 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.85), allergic rhinitis 0.92 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.03)). Those with asthma tended to avoid jobs with a high probability for airway-irritating exposure (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.09), but not to the same extent as subjects with allergic rhinitis (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.70) (ORs from 1990). Subjects with asthma did not change their exposure situation to the same extent as subjects with allergic rhinitis. Further, asthmatics had an increased risk for morbidity and mortality compared to healthy subjects and subjects with allergic rhinitis.

  4. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements.

  5. Treating Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Treating meningitis Steven Karceski, MD WHAT DID THE AUTHORS STUDY? ... study, “ Dexamethasone and long-term survival in bacterial meningitis, ” Dr. Fritz and his colleagues carefully evaluated 2 ...

  6. Treating Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours. Your pediatrician usually won’t prescribe a drug to treat the vomiting, but some doctors will prescribe antinausea medications to children. If your child also has diarrhea, ask your pediatrician for instructions on giving liquids ...

  7. IN VIVO EVALUATION OF SKIN IRRITATION POTENTIAL, MELASMA AND SEBUM CONTENT FOLLOWING LONG TERM APPLICATION OF SKIN CARE CREAM IN HEALTHY ADULTS, USING NON-INVASIVE BIOMETROLOGICAL TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Atif I; Khan, Shoaib H M; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Asif; Sarfraz, Rai Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to evaluate non-invasively, various functional skin parameters i.e., irritation potential, melasma and sebum contents following long term application of topical cream (w/o) loaded with 2% methanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. versus placebo control (base) in healthy adults. Healthy human volunteers (n = 11, aged 20-30 years) were recruited for investigation and written informed consent was taken from each volunteer. In this single blinded study every volunteer applied formulation on one side of face and placebo on the other side of face twice daily for a period of 12 weeks (three months). Different skin parameters i.e., skin irritancy, melasma, and sebum contents were measured on both sides of face at baseline and after two weeks interval, using photometric device Mexameter and Sebumeter in a draught free room with modulated conditions of temperature (22-25°C) and humidity (55-60%). It was evident from the results that no primary skin irritancy was observed with patch test. Besides, statistical interpretation indicates that treatment with formulation is superior to placebo because it significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the skin irritancy, melasma and sebum secretions throughout the study and reaching maximum -20.76 ± 0.89, -54.2 ± 0.37 and -40.71 ± 0.75%, respectively, at the end of study period. Antioxidant activity of extract was 92% compared to standard antioxidant. Conclusively, active cream loaded with fruit extract was well tolerated by all the volunteers and suitable to treat contact dermatitis, greasy skin, acne and seborrheic dermatitis and augmenting beauty and attraction by depigmentation of human skin. So, in the future, there is need to clinically evaluate these formulations in patients with compromised skin functions i.e., contact dermatitis, melasma, and acne vulgaris in order to explore the actual potential of this fruit.

  8. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) (b) Where two or more licensees are assigned a common...

  9. Human Hippocampus Arbitrates Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R.; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Packard, Pau A.; Miró, Júlia; Falip, Mercè; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Animal models of human anxiety often invoke a conflict between approach and avoidance [1, 2]. In these, a key behavioral assay comprises passive avoidance of potential threat and inhibition, both thought to be controlled by ventral hippocampus [2–6]. Efforts to translate these approaches to clinical contexts [7, 8] are hampered by the fact that it is not known whether humans manifest analogous approach-avoidance dispositions and, if so, whether they share a homologous neurobiological substrate [9]. Here, we developed a paradigm to investigate the role of human hippocampus in arbitrating an approach-avoidance conflict under varying levels of potential threat. Across four experiments, subjects showed analogous behavior by adapting both passive avoidance behavior and behavioral inhibition to threat level. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observe that threat level engages the anterior hippocampus, the human homolog of rodent ventral hippocampus [10]. Testing patients with selective hippocampal lesions, we demonstrate a causal role for the hippocampus with patients showing reduced passive avoidance behavior and inhibition across all threat levels. Our data provide the first human assay for approach-avoidance conflict akin to that of animal anxiety models. The findings bridge rodent and human research on passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition and furnish a framework for addressing the neuronal underpinnings of human anxiety disorders, where our data indicate a major role for the hippocampus. PMID:24560572

  10. Efficacy of otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavé, Pere; Tack, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Otilonium bromide (OB) is a spasmolytic agent acting as an L-type calcium channel antagonist in intestinal and colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We analyzed three independent clinical trials with homogeneous design on patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). After 2 weeks receiving placebo, patients were randomized to receive OB (3 × 40 mg daily) or placebo for 15 weeks. We aimed to perform a pooled analysis of the data from these homogeneous clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of OB treatment on symptoms and global response of patients. A total of 883 patients with IBS (69.8% women, mean age 46.2 years, 43.8% mixed type) were included, 442 treated with OB and 441 with placebo. The efficacy results from the three studies at weeks 5, 10 and 15 were pooled in an intention-to-treat (ITT) strategy, analyzed with a logistic regression model and described by forest plots. Despite a placebo effect in all efficacy variables, a significant therapeutic effect of OB was observed at weeks 10 and 15 with reference to: (a) intensity and frequency of abdominal pain; (b) rate of responders as evaluated by patients (71.8% at week 10 and 77.2% at week 15); (c) severity of bloating; (d) rate of responders as evaluated by physicians (55% at week 10 and 63.9% at week 15). No significant OB effect was observed in stool frequency and consistency. OB is more effective than placebo in IBS treatment. Therapeutic benefits are significant after 10 weeks and are maximal after 15 weeks of treatment.

  11. Heme Attenuation Ameliorates Irritant Gas Inhalation-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Lam, Adam; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Carlisle, Matthew A; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam; Matalon, Sadis

    2016-01-10

    Exposure to irritant gases, such as bromine (Br2), poses an environmental and occupational hazard that results in severe lung and systemic injury. However, the mechanism(s) of Br2 toxicity and the therapeutic responses required to mitigate lung damage are not known. Previously, it was demonstrated that Br2 upregulates the heme degrading enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Since heme is a major inducer of HO-1, we determined whether an increase in heme and heme-dependent oxidative injury underlies the pathogenesis of Br2 toxicity. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Br2 gas (600 ppm, 30 min) and returned to room air. Thirty minutes postexposure, mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of the heme scavenging protein, hemopexin (Hx) (3 μg/gm body weight), or saline. Twenty-four hours postexposure, saline-treated mice had elevated total heme in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma and acute lung injury (ALI) culminating in 80% mortality after 10 days. Hx treatment significantly lowered heme, decreased evidence of ALI (lower protein and inflammatory cells in BALF, lower lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and decreased airway hyperreactivity to methacholine), and reduced mortality. In addition, Br2 caused more severe ALI and mortality in mice with HO-1 gene deletion (HO-1-/-) compared to wild-type controls, while transgenic mice overexpressing the human HO-1 gene (hHO-1) showed significant protection. This is the first study delineating the role of heme in ALI caused by Br2. The data suggest that attenuating heme may prove to be a useful adjuvant therapy to treat patients with ALI.

  12. A belated revelation: from gastroesophageal reflux derived asthma to laryngotracheal irritation even spasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The author has been inspired by the Global Evidence-Based Consensus for gastroesophageal reflux (GER),which put forward four extra-esophageal syndromes:reflux cough syndrome,reflux laryngitis syndrome,reflux dental erosion syndrome and the reflux asthma syndrome.The author himself happened to receive five emergency rescue treatments following apparent "bronchial asthma",which was to be diagnosed as GER at his own insistence.PPI resulted in some relief.After being rescued again from suffocation,he had a fundaplication,which was performed at the Englewood Hospital & Medical Center,Englewood,USA in March 2006.The procedure immediately cleared up his "asthma".A month later he brought forth a Center for GER in an army hospital in Beijing,China.Up to now,601 patients with mainly respiratory distress(84%)were treated by Stretta Radiofrequency,58 by surgery and more by PPI.The GER Center is now complete with a ward.GER patients with respiratory distresses turned out to fare better than those with acid regurgitation.A nozzle"shaped pharynx was found in patients with the reflux.Animal study revealed that the refluxate entered into trachea and even lungs.Gradually a hypothesis of a gastrooesophago-laryngo-tracheal reflux took shape.Our modest effort to treat GER-derived respiratory distresses has got off to an encouraging start amid relative shortage of experience and facilities.We would like to share two thoughts with scholars and experts at home and abroad:1.The GER-derived asthma is not asthma,but GER pure and simple;2.The pathogenesis of "asthma" is not asthma,but laryngotracheal irritation/spasm and its sequence.

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome: pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Lekha

    2014-06-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic and debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects 9%-23% of the population across the world. The percentage of patients seeking health care related to IBS approaches 12% in primary care practices and is by far the largest subgroup seen in gastroenterology clinics. It has been well documented that these patients exhibit a poorer quality of life and utilize the health care system to a greater degree than patients without this diagnosis. The pathophysiology of IBS is not clear. Many theories have been put forward, but the exact cause of IBS is still uncertain. According to the updated ROME III criteria, IBS is a clinical diagnosis and presents as one of the three predominant subtypes: (1) IBS with constipation (IBS-C); (2) IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D); and (3) mixed IBS (IBS-M); former ROME definitions refer to IBS-M as alternating IBS (IBS-A). Across the IBS subtypes, the presentation of symptoms may vary among patients and change over time. Patients report the most distressing symptoms to be abdominal pain, straining, myalgias, urgency, bloating and feelings of serious illness. The complexity and diversity of IBS presentation makes treatment difficult. Although there are reviews and guidelines for treating IBS, they focus on the efficacy of medications for IBS symptoms using high-priority endpoints, leaving those of lower priority largely unreported. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive evidence-based review of the diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment to guide clinicians diagnosing and treating their patients.

  14. Are You a Gut Responder? Hints on Coping with an Irritable Bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how much they communicate distress verbally or through body language. This may be partly learned. Whatever the reason, ... more prolonged predicaments (a difficult job, a tense relationship), may provoke an irritable bowel. But, it is ...

  15. Pediatric irritable bowel syndrome patient and parental characteristics differ by care management type

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates whether certain patient or parental characteristics are associated with gastroenterology (GI) referral versus primary pediatrics care for pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A retrospective clinical trial sample of patients meeting pediatric Rome III IBS criteria was assem...

  16. Perceived odor and irritation of isopropanol: a comparison between naive controls and occupationally exposed workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M.A.M.; Dalton, P.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To assess sensory irritation levels from isopropanol (IPA) unconfounded by subjective evaluations of odor for comparison against the recommended exposure limits (400 ppm threshold limit value (TLV); American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). Method. The lateralization

  17. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of cumulative irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of six skin-care formulations (SCFs) on experimentally induced cumulative irritation was studied in hairless guinea-pigs (HLGPs) and in human volunteers (HVs). The formulations were a basic cream, a carbomer cream and four modifications of the carbomer cream, containing...... either 10% isopropyl palmitate (IPP cream), 10% glycerol (glycerol cream), 19.5% canola oil (canola oil cream) or 0.5% (-)-alpha-bisabolol (bisabolol cream). METHODS: In HLGP, irritant dermatitis was induced with 30 min daily exposure for 4 days to 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate aq. (SLS). In HVs, irritant...... measured at baseline (day 0) in the middle and at the end of treatment. Treatments were applied twice daily. The basic cream and the IPP cream were excluded from testing in HLGP because they were known from previous studies to be irritant in HLGP, while all formulations were known to be equally and well...

  18. Perceived odor and irritation of isopropanol: a comparison between naive controls and occupationally exposed workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M.A.M.; Dalton, P.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To assess sensory irritation levels from isopropanol (IPA) unconfounded by subjective evaluations of odor for comparison against the recommended exposure limits (400 ppm threshold limit value (TLV); American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). Method. The lateralization me

  19. Eye Irritation Test of Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solutions for Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to investigate the safety of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. Methods : The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration (2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, the auther observed eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t physical problem at 9 rabbits. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solutionwas medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Conclusions : I suggested that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution didn’t induced eye irritation in rabbits.

  20. Building a Definition of Irritability From Academic Definitions and Lay Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C; Holtzman, Susan; Cunningham, Shannon; O'Connor, Brian P; Stewart, Donna E

    2016-04-08

    The current work builds a definition of irritability from both academic definitions and lay perspectives. In Study 1, a quantitative content analysis of academic definitions resulted in eight main content categories (i.e., behaviour, emotion or affect, cognition, physiological, qualifiers, irritant, stability or endurance, and other). In Study 2, a community sample of 39 adults participated in qualitative interviews. A deductive thematic analysis resulted in two main themes. The first main theme dealt with how participants positioned irritability in relation to other negative states. The second dealt with how participants constructed irritability as both a loss of control and as an experience that should be controlled. The discussion integrates the findings of both studies and provides a concise, but comprehensive definition.

  1. [Current researching situation of mucosal irritant compontents in Araceae family plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ling-Yun; Wu, Hao

    2006-09-01

    Plants in Acaceae family are often considered as ornamental and medicines. However many of them have irritation properties. As medicinal plants some of them are recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and they are figured as poisonous. Through investigating the domestic and overseas studied paper, the needle-like calcium oxalate crystal exits in the plants of Acaceae family could be thought as irritation components of them. This conclusion is same with the studied conclusion of our study group in the medicines plant of Pinellia ternate belonging to the Acaceae family and our studies showed that the needle-like calcium oxalate crystal was the main irritation component of raw P. ternate. The irritated mechanism of raphides is relevant to its special shape, the protein enzyme adhering to it and idioblasts in plants.

  2. Stratum corneum lipid removal by surfactants: relation to in vivo irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebe, C L; Simion, F A; Rhein, L D; Cagan, R H; Kligman, A

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the in vivo irritation potential of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) and the ability of these two surfactants to remove lipid from the stratum corneum (SC) in vitro were investigated. Either surfactant removes detectable levels of lipids only above its critical micelle concentration (CMC). At high concentrations the surfactants removed only very small amounts of cholesterol, free fatty acid, the esters of those materials, and possibly squalene. SLS and LAS have been shown, below the CMC, to bind to and irritate the SC. Thus, clinical irritation provoked by SLS or LAS is unlikely to be directly linked with extraction of SC lipid. The milder forms of irritation--dryness, tightness, roughness--may involve both surfactant binding to and denaturation of keratin as well as disruption of lipid. Our findings challenge earlier assumptions that surfactants' degreasing of the SC is involved in the induction of erythema.

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome--prognosis and diagnostic safety. A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Munck, L K; Andersen, J R

    1985-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome is the commonest diagnosis in gastroenterological clinics, although diagnostic criteria and investigatory programs vary. To elucidate the diagnostic safety and prognosis of the syndrome, a retrospective study was conducted. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients ...

  4. Transient gastric irritation in the neonatal rats leads to changes in hypothalamic CRF expression, depression- and anxiety-like behavior as adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liansheng Liu

    Full Text Available AIMS: A disturbance of the brain-gut axis is a prominent feature in functional bowel disorders (such as irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia and psychological abnormalities are often implicated in their pathogenesis. We hypothesized that psychological morbidity in these conditions may result from gastrointestinal problems, rather than causing them. METHODS: Functional dyspepsia was induced by neonatal gastric irritation in male rats. 10-day old male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.1% iodoacetamide (IA or vehicle by oral gavage for 6 days. At 8-10 weeks of age, rats were tested with sucrose preference and forced-swimming tests to examine depression-like behavior. Elevated plus maze, open field and light-dark box tests were used to test anxiety-like behaviors. ACTH and corticosterone responses to a minor stressor, saline injection, and hypothalamic CRF expression were also measured. RESULTS: Behavioral tests revealed changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in IA-treated, but not control rats. As compared with controls, hypothalamic and amygdaloid CRF immunoreactivity, basal levels of plasma corticosterone and stress-induced ACTH were significantly higher in IA-treated rats. Gastric sensory ablation with resiniferatoxin had no effect on behaviors but treatment with CRF type 1 receptor antagonist, antalarmin, reversed the depression-like behavior in IA-treated rats CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that transient gastric irritation in the neonatal period can induce a long lasting increase in depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, increased expression of CRF in the hypothalamus, and an increased sensitivity of HPA axis to stress. The depression-like behavior may be mediated by the CRF1 receptor. These findings have significant implications for the pathogenesis of psychological co-morbidity in patients with functional bowel disorders.

  5. Role of psychiatric disorders and irritable bowel syndrome in asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The goals of the study were the following: 1 to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders and irritable bowel syndrome in patients with asthma and 2 to compare the frequency of these disorders in patients with asthma to their frequency in healthy controls. INTRODUCTION: Patients with asthma have a higher frequency of irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disorders. METHODS: We evaluated 101 patients with bronchial asthma and 67 healthy subjects. All subjects completed the brief version of the Bowel Symptoms Questionnaire and a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis disorders (SCID-I/CV. RESULTS: There were 37 cases of irritable bowel syndrome in the group of 101 stable asthma patients (36.6% and 12 cases in the group of 67 healthy subjects (17.9% (p = 0.009. Irritable bowel syndrome comorbidity was not related to the severity of asthma (p = 0.15. Regardless of the presence of irritable bowel syndrome, psychiatric disorders in asthma patients (52/97; 53.6% were more common than in the control group (22/63, 34.9% (p = 0.02. Although psychiatric disorders were more common in asthma patients with irritable bowel syndrome (21/35, 60% than in those without irritable bowel syndrome (31/62, 50%, the difference was not significant (p = 0.34. In asthma patients with irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disorders, the percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 was lower than it was in those with no comorbidities (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Both irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disorders were more common in asthma patients than in healthy controls. Psychiatric disorders were more common in asthma patients with irritable bowel syndrome than in those without irritable bowel syndrome, although the differences failed to reach statistical significance. In asthma patients with IBS and psychiatric disorders, FEV1s were significantly lower than in other asthma patients. It is important for clinicians to accurately

  6. Lubiprostone: in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Natalie J; Scott, Lesley J

    2009-06-18

    Lubiprostone is an oral bicyclic fatty acid that selectively activates type 2 chloride channels in the apical membrane of human gastrointestinal epithelial cells, thereby increasing chloride-rich fluid secretion. Although the mechanism is unclear, this may then decrease intestinal transit time, allowing the passage of stool and alleviating symptoms of constipation. Oral lubiprostone was effective in the treatment of patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) in large (n = 193-583) phase II (dose-finding) and phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials. The number of patients with IBS-C demonstrating an overall response to treatment (primary endpoint) in the two phase III trials was significantly greater in patients receiving lubiprostone 8 microg twice daily for 3 months than in those receiving placebo. In addition, a randomized, 4-week withdrawal period at the end of one of the phase III trials demonstrated that discontinuation of lubiprostone was not associated with rebound of IBS symptoms. Lubiprostone was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with the majority of adverse events being of mild to moderate severity. In patients with IBS-C who received lubiprostone 8 microg twice daily, nausea was the most frequently occurring adverse event that was considered possibly or probably treatment related. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in a 36-week open-label extension to the phase III trials.

  7. Stratum corneum dynamic function measurements after moisturizer or irritant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffel, P; Gabard, B

    1995-01-01

    Two simple tests were conducted which allowed the quantification of parameters that characterize the stratum corneum (SC) dynamic functions in vivo under physiological conditions after moisturizer applications for 1 h and after irritation with different concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS; 0.5-4%) applied under occlusion for 15 min or 24 h. Both tests, the sorption-desorption test (SDT) and the moisture accumulation test (MAT), were performed with a Nova Dermal Phase Meter 9003. The following parameters were quantified: prehydration state (SDT, MAT), hygroscopicity, water-holding capacity (SDT), water accumulation velocity and water accumulation (MAT). These procedures allowed the demonstration of the water-holding effect of urea contained in moisturizers. Differences between the long and the short application time of SLS were characterized by differences in SC dynamic functions while the hydration state was not changed. An effect on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was noted only after the long application time, although the MAT clearly showed dynamic parameters to be changed after 15 min of treatment. These tests were simple in practice and allowed the demonstration of functional modifications of the SC while other parameters remained unchanged. They gave insight into possible action mechanisms of urea and SLS in the SC.

  8. Therapeutic Advances in Functional Gastrointestinal Disease: Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaman, Alexandru; Bucur, Maria Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Reported prevalence rates of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are between 8% to 20% in the US general population with an average medical expenditure of US$1.35 billion direct and US$205 million indirect costs. Current pathophysiologic theories are based on abnormalities of both the brain and gut, thus setting a new stage for current and future therapeutic approaches. There are numerous treatment options in IBS acting centrally and peripherally by influencing motility and visceral sensitivity. Clinical evidence is variable; however, newer emerging treatments are being evaluated using better-designed clinical trials. Accurate assessment of IBS drug efficacy is still hampered by heterogeneity of the IBS population. Novel methods such as pharmacogenomics or brain imaging may be helpful in the future to better understand and characterize IBS patient subtypes, and this in turn will lead to more specific and efficient therapeutic options. Patient subpopulation measurement of side effects is also a clinical challenge and further understanding could improve treatment efficacy by enhancing the patient compliance. PMID:19936327

  9. Immune biomarkers in irritable bowel syndrome: a review

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    Gras-Miralles B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Gras-Miralles, Efi KokkotouGastroenterology Department, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects about 9%–13% of the general population. IBS is one of the main reasons to consult a primary care physician, and nearly 30% of visits to a gastroenterologist are for IBS. The diagnosis of IBS relies on subjective, patient-reported symptoms, thus making urgent the need for IBS-specific biomarkers. The same biomarkers, or perhaps different ones, can also be used to monitor disease evolution and response to treatment. A significant number of studies have looked in the immune system for establishing IBS biomarkers, based on the concept that IBS might represent a condition of immune dysregulation somewhere in the spectrum between health and inflammatory bowel disease. Such biomarkers can be detected in blood, intestinal biopsies, or luminal contents. Overall, results are rarely consistent between studies; small sample size, patient and disease heterogeneity, presence of comorbidities, and variation in sampling might contribute to these discrepancies. So far, studies have failed to provide a diagnostic immune biomarker for IBS, but they have considerably advanced our understanding of the disease pathophysiology, including the role of the individual's genetic make-up, and of the host–microbial interactions. High throughput analysis of a large number of well characterized patients holds promise for developing appropriate biomarkers for IBS.Keywords: neuroimmune interactions, mast cells, genetic polymorphisms, cytokines, toll-like receptors

  10. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2015-07-07

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not completely known, although it has been shown that genetic/social learning factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal low-grade inflammation, and abnormal gastrointestinal endocrine cells play a major role. Studies of familial aggregation and on twins have confirmed the heritability of IBS. However, the proposed IBS risk genes are thus far nonvalidated hits rather than true predisposing factors. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, with the effect exerted by diet seemingly caused by intake of poorly absorbed carbohydrates and fiber. Obesity is a possible comorbidity of IBS. Differences in the microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls have been reported, but the association between IBS symptoms and specific bacterial species is uncertain. Low-grade inflammation appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of a major subset of IBS, namely postinfectious IBS. The density of intestinal endocrine cells is reduced in patients with IBS, possibly as a result of genetic factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, and low-grade inflammation interfering with the regulatory signals controlling the intestinal stem-cell clonogenic and differentiation activities. Furthermore, there is speculation that this decreased number of endocrine cells is responsible for the visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, and abnormal gut secretion seen in IBS patients.

  11. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 10(14) cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS.

  12. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients' diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota.

  13. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.

  14. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-02-21

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required.

  15. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Per G. Farup

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria, cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests, and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the “Depression” and “Neurological” group, respectively. In the “Depression” group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression.

  16. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Kang Nyeong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received much attention with the role of mast cells in IBS. Mast cells are abundant in the intestines and function as intestinal gatekeepers at the interface between the luminal environment in the intestine and the internal milieu under the intestinal epithelium. As a gatekeeper at the interface, mast cells communicate with the adjacent cells such as epithelial, neuronal, and other immune cells throughout the mediators released when they themselves are activated. Many studies have suggested that mast cells play a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. This review will focus on studies of the role of mast cell in IBS and the limitations of studies and will also consider future directions.

  17. Rome III survey of irritable bowel syndrome among ethnic Malays.

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    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Waid, Anuar; Tan, Huck Joo; Chua, Andrew Seng Boon; Whitehead, William E

    2012-11-28

    To survey irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using Rome III criteria among Malays from the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia. A previously validated Malay language Rome III IBS diagnostic questionnaire was used in the current study. A prospective sample of 232 Malay subjects (80% power) was initially screened. Using a stratified random sampling strategy, a total of 221 Malay subjects (112 subjects in a "full time job" and 109 subjects in "no full time job") were recruited. Subjects were visitors (friends and relatives) within the hospital compound and were representative of the local community. Red flags and psychosocial alarm symptoms were also assessed in the current study using previously translated and validated questionnaires. Subjects with IBS were sub-typed into constipation-predominant, diarrhea-predominant, mixed type and un-subtyped. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for association between socioeconomic factors and presence of red flags and psychosocial alarm features among the Malays with IBS. IBS was present in 10.9% (24/221), red flags in 22.2% (49/221) and psychosocial alarm features in 9.0% (20/221). Red flags were more commonly reported in subjects with IBS (83.3%) than psychosocial alarm features (20.8%, P 50 years old and this was reported by 16.7% of subjects with IBS. Using the Rome III criteria, IBS was common among ethnic Malays from the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia.

  18. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Manifestations, Dietary Influences, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Ikechi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of an overtly identifiable cause. It is the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorder, accounting for about one third of gastroenterology visits. It generally presents as a complex of symptoms, including psychological dysfunction. Hypersensitivity to certain foods, especially foods that contain high amounts of fructose, plays a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. Elevated consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS has been discussed in this aspect. The treatment options for IBS are challenging and varied. In addition to dietary restrictions for HFCS-induced IBS, such as low-FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharide, Monosaccharides, and Polyols diets, existing drug therapies are administered based on the predominant symptoms and IBS-subtype. Patients with IBS are likely to suffer from issues, such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic-stress disorder. Biopsychosocial factors particularly socioeconomic status, sex, and race should, thus, be considered for diagnostic evaluation of patients with IBS.

  19. Gut memories: towards a cognitive neurobiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Paul J; Clarke, Gerard; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Groeger, John A; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2012-01-01

    The brain and the gut are engaged in continual crosstalk along a number of pathways collectively termed the 'brain-gut axis'. Over recent years it has become increasingly clear that dysregulation of the axis at a number of levels can result in disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). With recent advances in neuroimaging technologies, insights into the neurobiology of IBS are beginning to emerge. However the cognitive neurobiology of IBS has remained relatively unexplored to date. In this review we summarise the available data on cognitive function in IBS. Moreover, we specifically address three key pathophysiological factors, namely; stress, immune activation and chronic pain, together with other factors involved in the manifestation of IBS, and explore how each of these components may impact centrally, what neurobiological mechanisms might be involved, and consider the implications for cognitive functioning in IBS. We conclude that each factor addressed could significantly impinge on central nervous system function, supporting the view that future research efforts must be directed towards a detailed assessment of cognitive function in IBS.

  20. Benefits from Long-Term Treatment in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Stefano Evangelista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic disease of cyclic nature characterized by recurrent symptoms. IBS patients should receive, as initial therapeutic approach a short course of treatment which, if effective, has the additional value of confirming the diagnosis. Long-term treatment should be reserved to diagnosed IBS patients with recurrent symptoms. Clinical trials with stabilized therapies and new active treatments showed an improvement of the symptoms over placebo that is often time-dependent but with high relapse rates (around 40%–50% when stopping treatment. Relapse is not always immediate after stopping treatment and the recent data from OBIS trial with otilonium bromide or with psychotherapy, showed that due to different chemico-physical characteristics of the drugs or the psychosomatic impact to the disease not all treatment gave the same relapsing rate if compared to placebo. Results of IBS clinical trials with different therapies tailored to the patient needs indicate that a cyclic treatment therapy is advisable to counteract the nature of the disease.

  1. Benefits from long-term treatment in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    It is known that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disease of cyclic nature characterized by recurrent symptoms. IBS patients should receive, as initial therapeutic approach a short course of treatment which, if effective, has the additional value of confirming the diagnosis. Long-term treatment should be reserved to diagnosed IBS patients with recurrent symptoms. Clinical trials with stabilized therapies and new active treatments showed an improvement of the symptoms over placebo that is often time-dependent but with high relapse rates (around 40%-50% when stopping treatment). Relapse is not always immediate after stopping treatment and the recent data from OBIS trial with otilonium bromide or with psychotherapy, showed that due to different chemico-physical characteristics of the drugs or the psychosomatic impact to the disease not all treatment gave the same relapsing rate if compared to placebo. Results of IBS clinical trials with different therapies tailored to the patient needs indicate that a cyclic treatment therapy is advisable to counteract the nature of the disease.

  2. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients.

  3. Synesthesia, pseudo-synesthesia, and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Synesthesia is a sensory disorder where the stimulation of one sensory modality can lead to a reaction in another which would not usually be expected to respond; for instance, someone might see a color on hearing a word such as a day of the week. Disordered perception of sensory information also appears to contribute to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The purpose of this exploratory study was to ascertain whether these two conditions might be linked in any way. Two hundred consecutive IBS outpatients were screened for synesthesia and compared with 200 matched healthy volunteers (controls). Positive responders were tested for two types of synesthesia (grapheme-color and music-color/shape) using a questionnaire which was repeated after 3 months to test for reproducibility. Of the 200 IBS outpatients screened, 26 (13%) patients and six (3%) controls claimed to be synesthetic (P synesthesia. IBS patients clearly differ from controls in terms of claiming to have synesthetic experiences. These results justify additional studies on the relationship between IBS and synesthesia to further understand the neural mechanisms underpinning these two conditions and to establish whether they may be linked.

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome - An inflammatory disease involving mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Hamish; Gibson, Peter; Thien, Frank

    2011-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally defined as a functional disorder - that is the presence of symptoms in the absence of demonstrable pathological abnormalities. In recent times, low grade inflammatory infiltrates in both the small and large bowel of some patients with IBS - often rich in mast cells, along with serological markers of low grade inflammation have focussed attention on IBS as an inflammatory disease. The observation that mast cells often lie in close association to enteric neurons, and in-vitro and in-vivo animal studies demonstrating that mast cell mediators may influence enteric motility provides a biologically plausible causal mechanism in IBS. Pilot studies on patients with IBS using the mast cell stabiliser sodium cromoglycate ('proof of concept') have been encouraging. The essential question remains why mast cells infiltrate the bowel of IBS patients. A disturbance of the 'brain-gut axis' is the current favoured hypothesis, whereby childhood stress or psychiatric comorbidity act via neuro-immune mechanisms to modulate low grade inflammation. An alternative hypothesis is that food allergy may be responsible. Serum specific IgE, and skin prick tests are not elevated in IBS patients, suggesting type 1 IgE mediated food allergy is not the cause. However questionnaire based studies indicate IBS patients have higher rates of atopic disease, and increased bronchial reactivity to methacholine has been demonstrated. In this review, we highlight the potential role of mast cells in IBS, and current and future research directions into this intriguing condition.

  5. Constructive thinking, rational intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enrique Rey; Marta Moreno Ortega; Monica Olga Garcia Alonso; Manuel Diaz-Rubio

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate rational and experiential intelligence in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) sufferers.METHODS: We recruited 100 subjects with IBS as per Rome n criteria (50 consulters and 50 non-consulters) and 100 healthy controls, matched by age, sex and educational level. Cases and controls completed a clinical questionnaire (including symptom characteristics and medical consultation) and the following tests: rational-intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition); experiential-intelligence (Constructive Thinking Inventory); personality (NEO personality inventory); psychopathology (MMPI-2), anxiety (state-trait anxiety inventory) and life events (social readjustment rating scale). Analysis of variance was used to compare the test results of IBS-sufferers and controls, and a logistic regression model was then constructed and adjusted for age, sex and educational level to evaluate any possible association with IBS.RESULTS: No differences were found between IBS cases and controls in terms of IQ (102.0 ± 10.8 vs 102.8 ± 12.6), but IBS sufferers scored significantly lower in global constructive thinking (43.7 ± 9.4 vs 49.6 ± 9.7). In the logistic regression model, global constructive thinking score was independently linkedto suffering from IBS [OR 0.92 (0.87-0.97)], without significant OR for total IQ.CONCLUSION: IBS subjects do not show lower rational intelligence than controls, but lower experiential intelligence is nevertheless associated with IBS.

  6. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required. PMID:26900286

  7. Vitamin D status in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa

    2017-01-01

    Importance Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear. Aim To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design. Hypothesis Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration will be similar between patients with IBS and controls. Subjects and methods A retrospective case-controlled study of 116 controls (age 14.6 ± 4.3 y), female (n = 67; 58%) and 55 subjects with IBS (age 16.5 ± 3.1y), female (n = 44; 80%). Overweight was defined as BMI of ≥85th but anxiety, and migraine. Results More than 50% of IBS subjects had vitamin D deficiency at a cut-off point of 90% of IBS subjects had vitamin D deficiency at a cut-off point of 50% of the subjects with IBS had vitamin D deficiency. This is a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to IBD and other malabsorption syndromes. Monitoring for vitamin D deficiency should be part of the routine care for patients with IBS. Randomized control trials are warranted to determine the role of adjunctive vitamin D therapy in pediatric IBS. PMID:28192499

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome: Physicians' awareness and patients' experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Bjork Olafsdottir; Hallgrímur Gudjonsson; Heidur Hrund Jonsdottir; Jon Steinar Jonsson; Einar Bjornsson; Bjarni Thjodleifsson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO study if and how physicians use the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnostic criteria and to assess treatment strategies in IBS patients.METHODS:A questionnaire was sent to 191 physicians regarding IBS criteria,diagnostic methods and treatment.Furthermore,94 patients who were diagnosed with IBS underwent telephone interview.RESULTS:A total of 80/191 (41.9%) physicians responded to the survey.Overall,13 patients were diagnosed monthly with IBS by specialists in gastroenterology (SGs) and 2.5 patients by general practitioners (GPs).All the SGs knew of the criteria to diagnose IBS,as did 46/70 (65.7%) GPs.Seventy-nine percent used the patient's history,38% used a physical examination,and 38% exclusion of other diseases to diagnose IBS.Only 18/80 (22.5%) physicians used specific IBS criteria.Of the patients interviewed,5g/94 (62.8%) knew they had experienced IBS.Two out of five patients knew IBS and had seen a physician because of IBS symptoms.Half of those received a diagnosis of IBS.A total of 13% were satisfied with treatment.IBS affected daily activities in 43% of cases.CONCLUSION:Half of the patients with IBS who consuited a physician received a diagnosis.Awareness and knowledge of diagnostic criteria for IBS differ between SGs and GPs.

  9. The Gut Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Friend or Foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday C. Ghoshal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, once thought to be a purely psychosomatic disease, has advanced considerably and low-grade inflammation and changes in the gut microbiota now feature as potentially important. The human gut harbours a huge microbial ecosystem, which is equipped to perform a variety of functions such as digestion of food, metabolism of drugs, detoxification of toxic compounds, production of essential vitamins, prevention of attachment of pathogenic bacteria to the gut wall, and maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. A subset of patients with IBS may have a quantitative increase in bacteria in the small bowel (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Qualitative changes in gut microbiota have also been associated with IBS. Targeting the gut microbiota using probiotics and antibiotics has emerged as a potentially effective approach to the treatment of this, hitherto enigmatic, functional bowel disorder. The gut microbiota in health, quantitative and qualitative microbiota changes, and therapeutic manipulations targeting the microbiota in patients with IBS are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Illness representation, coping and outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Claire L.; Rutter, Derek R.

    2002-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome has no observable symptom markers and there is little that the medical profession can do to help sufferers. Psychotherapy, antidepressants and drugs aimed at the most problematic symptoms have been shown to have limited efficacy. In an attempt to help understand the illness better, and to suggest alternative forms of intervention, the study tested whether outcome might be influenced by patients' representation of their illness and by their coping strategies. METHOD: All members of the IBS Network (an independent charitable support network based in the UK) were invited to participate via their quarterly newsletter, and 209 completed questionnaires were returned. Participants completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), the COPE, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and rated their quality of life and their satisfaction with their health. RESULTS: The reporting of serious consequences was associated with lower quality of life and lower satisfaction with health, and with higher scores for anxiety and depression (p life, lower satisfaction with health, and higher depression scores (p satisfaction with health (p life (p >.05). Psychological causal attribution of IBS was positively correlated with anxiety (p depression (p link between representation and outcome; and (3) when predicting depression, coping strategies predicted coping independently of representation dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the illness representations of IBS sufferers can have significant implications for outcome. Therapeutic interventions based on illness representations may prove useful for treatment.

  11. Vitamin D status in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear. To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration will be similar between patients with IBS and controls. A retrospective case-controlled study of 116 controls (age 14.6 ± 4.3 y), female (n = 67; 58%) and 55 subjects with IBS (age 16.5 ± 3.1y), female (n = 44; 80%). Overweight was defined as BMI of ≥85th but 90% of IBS subjects had vitamin D deficiency at a cut-off point of 50% of the subjects with IBS had vitamin D deficiency. This is a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to IBD and other malabsorption syndromes. Monitoring for vitamin D deficiency should be part of the routine care for patients with IBS. Randomized control trials are warranted to determine the role of adjunctive vitamin D therapy in pediatric IBS.

  12. Síndrome de intestino irritable: Una perspectiva actualizada

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    David Felipe Gómez Álvarez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de intestino irritable (SII es un desordengastrointestinal funcional (DGIF que hace parte de lacategorización según los criterios Roma III, como undesorden funcional del intestino. Debido a su altaprevalencia aproximada del 4 al 20% a nivel mundial, seconsidera una enfermedad de gran impacto por afectar lacalidad de vida. La manifestación clínica depende delsíntoma predominante: dolor o disconfort, diarrea,estreñimiento o un cuadro mixto. Su diagnóstico esbásicamente clínico por medio de los criterios de Roma III,descartando enfermedad orgánica. Las alternativasterapéuticas del SII son para el control sintomático de laenfermedad y mejoría de la calidad de vida, nunca comotratamiento definitivo. El objetivo del artículo es producir unarevisión actualizada de la temática para conocer, entender yabarcar una patología que en los últimos años ha generadoun alto compromiso en el paciente.

  13. Optimal management of constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnari, Manuele; de Bortoli, Nicola; Martinucci, Irene; Bodini, Giorgia; Revelli, Matteo; Marabotto, Elisa; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Del Nero, Lorenzo; Savarino, Edoardo; Giannini, Edoardo G; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, meanly characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habit. It is a complex disorder involving biological, environmental, and psychosocial factors. The diagnosis is achieved according to the Rome III criteria provided that organic causes have been excluded. Although IBS does not constitute a life-threatening condition, it has a remarkable prevalence and profoundly reduces the quality of life with burdening socioeconomic costs. One of the principal concerns about IBS is the lack of effective therapeutic options. Up to 40% of patients are not satisfied with any available medications, especially those suffering from chronic constipation. A correct management of IBS with constipation should evolve through a global approach focused on the patient, starting with careful history taking in order to assess the presence of organic diseases that might trigger the disorder. Therefore, the second step is to examine lifestyle, dietary habits, and psychological status. On these bases, a step-up management of disease is recommended: from fiber and bulking agents, to osmotic laxative drugs, to new molecules like lubiprostone and linaclotide. Although new promising tools for relief of bowel-movement-related symptoms are being discovered, a dedicated doctor-patient relationship still seems to be the key for success.

  14. Symptom patterns can distinguish diverticular disease from irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Rosario; Barbara, Giovanni; Andreozzi, Paolo; Bassotti, Gabrio; Casetti, Tino; Grassini, Mario; Ierardi, Enzo; Maconi, Giovanni; Marchi, Santino; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Savarino, Vincenzo; Usai, Paolo; Vozzella, Letizia; Annibale, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    Diverticular disease (DD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) share a similar symptom pattern. However, comparative studies are flawed by different age at onset of symptoms. We aimed to verify whether clinical features distinguish DD from IBS. Patients with DD or IBS, matched for age and gender (1/1) were consecutively recruited. Data on demographic parameters, voluptuary habits, inheritance of disease and symptoms were collected. Moreover, the association between pain > 24 h, and clinical parameters were evaluated. Ninety patients with DD and 90 patients with IBS (DD: F/M: 46/44; age: 50.9 years; IBS: 46/44; 50.4) were selected from an overall population of 1275 patients. Only nine patients with DD (10%) fulfilled the criteria for IBS diagnosis. Abdominal pain > 24 h was more prevalent in SDD than in patients with IBS (20 vs. 6 patients; P 24 h requiring medical attention (80% vs. 33%; P < 0.01). Abdominal pain lasting for more than 24 h discriminates patients with DD compared with those with IBS. Identifying this symptom could be an appropriate strategy to define the diagnosis and management. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Irritable bowel syndrome: diet and complementary medicine therapies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkens, A

    2012-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent and invalidating functional bowel disorder with entangled mechanisms. Its therapeutic approach is therefore complex. Classical therapies, prescribed alone or in combination in light of the predominant symptom, consist of antispasmodics, fibers, laxatives, antidiarrheals, and psychotropic agents. Other emerging pharmacological therapies, such as prokinetics, prosecretory or serotoninergic agents, bile acid modulators and antibiotics have been recently studied in clinical trials. Dietary measures can include reduction of short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (FODMAPs) and gluten restriction. Assessment of food allergy can be proposed in a subgroup of IBS patients. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies, that are generally low cost and safe, appear to be appreciated by patients. Probiotics have demonstrated action on the gut microbiote modulation, and may be helpful in a subset of patients. Peppermint oil has an established visceral analgesic effect. Hypnotherapy represents an original, global and effective approach. Finally, education, reassurance and listening to the patient, leading to a solid therapeutic relationship, represents an essential backdrop of remedy or diet effectiveness.

  16. Stress and visceral pain: focusing on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukudo, Shin

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in brain science have shown that the brain function encoding emotion depends on interoceptive signals such as visceral pain. Visceral pain arose early in our evolutionary history. Bottom-up processing from gut-to-brain and top-down autonomic/neuroendocrine mechanisms in brain-to-gut signaling constitute a circuit. Brain imaging techniques have enabled us to depict the visceral pain pathway as well as the related emotional circuit. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort associated with bowel dysfunction. It is also thought to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, is an obvious candidate in the pathophysiology of IBS. Indeed, administration of CRH has been shown to aggravate the visceral sensorimotor response in IBS patients, and the administration of peptidergic CRH antagonists seems to alleviate IBS pathophysiology. Serotonin (5-HT) is another likely candidate associated with brain-gut function in IBS, as 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, and antidepressants were demonstrated to regulate 5-HT neurotransmission in IBS patients. Autonomic nervous system function, the neuroimmune axis, and the brain-gut-microbiota axis show specific profiles in IBS patients. Further studies on stress and visceral pain neuropathways in IBS patients are warranted. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: role of food in pathogenesis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morcos, Ashraf

    2009-11-01

    Patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) commonly report the precipitation of symptoms on food ingestion. Though the role of dietary constituents in IBS has not been extensively studied, food could contribute to symptom onset or even the causation of IBS through a number of mechanisms. First, the physiological response of the intestine to food ingestion could precipitate symptoms in predisposed individuals; second, there is some evidence that allergy or intolerance to a particular food can produce IBS-like symptoms, third, certain foods may alter the composition of the luminal milieu, either directly or indirectly through effects on bacterial metabolism, and thus induce symptoms and, finally, IBS may develop following exposure to food-borne pathogens. Anticipatory, psychological factors generated by previous negative experiences with food ingestion or other factors may also contribute though their contribution has been scarcely quantified. Not surprisingly, there is considerable interest in the potential roles of diet and food supplements in the therapy of IBS; for the most part, the evidence base for such recommendations remains slim though certain probiotics show considerable promise.

  18. Sensory and pulmonary irritation of methyl isocyanate in mice and pulmonary irritation and possible cyanidelike effects of methyl isocyanate in guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Alarie, Y.; Ferguson, J S; Stock, M. F.; Weyel, D A; Schaper, M.

    1987-01-01

    Methyl isocyanate (MIC) was evaluated for sensory and pulmonary irritation in mice. MIC was found to be both a potent sensory and pulmonary irritant in this species. From these results, a safe level of exposure for a period of 8 hr was estimated to be about 0.02 ppm for humans. Guinea pigs were also exposed to MIC for a single 3-hr exposure at a concentration of 37 ppm. During exposure to MIC, coughing was observed in all animals. Pulmonary function was evaluated immediately following exposur...

  19. Systematic review: Complementary and alternative medicine in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussain, Z

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medical therapies and practices are widely employed in the treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome. AIM: To review the usage of complementary and alternative medicine in the irritable bowel syndrome, and to assess critically the basis and evidence for its use. METHODS: A systematic review of complementary and alternative medical therapies and practices in the irritable bowel syndrome was performed based on literature obtained through a Medline search. RESULTS: A wide variety of complementary and alternative medical practices and therapies are commonly employed by irritable bowel syndrome patients both in conjunction with and in lieu of conventional therapies. As many of these therapies have not been subjected to controlled clinical trials, some, at least, of their efficacy may reflect the high-placebo response rate that is characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome. Of those that have been subjected to clinical trials most have involved small poor quality studies. There is, however, evidence to support efficacy for hypnotherapy, some forms of herbal therapy and certain probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Doctors caring for irritable bowel syndrome patients need to recognize the near ubiquity of complementary and alternative medical use among this population and the basis for its use. All complementary and alternative medicine is not the same and some, such as hypnotherapy, forms of herbal therapy, specific diets and probiotics, may well have efficacy in irritable bowel syndrome. Above all, we need more science and more controlled studies; the absence of truly randomized placebo-controlled trials for many of these therapies has limited meaningful progress in this area.

  20. Sensory eye irritation in humans exposed to mixtures of volatile organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne Hempel; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    Eight subjects participated in a controlled eyes-only exposure study of human sensory irritation in ocular mucosal tissue. The authors investigated dose-response properties and the additive effects of three mixtures of volatile organic compounds. The dose-response relationships for these mixtures...... to as simple agonism. Finally, the authors addressed the comparability of two methods to measure sensory irritation intensity (visual analogue scale and a comparative scale). The results indicated that the two rating methods produced highly comparable results....

  1. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS).

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlsson Bodil; Bengtsson Mariette; Ulander Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, it...

  2. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Mariette; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ulander, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods: The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, item-redu...

  3. Toxicological study of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens: irritant action on skin and eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. B. R. Freitas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens are irritant to the rabbit eye in concentrations higher than 0.35% and to the rabbit skin in concentrations higher than 0.5%. Although this irritant potential does not proclude its use as a molluscicide, special precautions are recommended for hanbdling and application of the product and the hazard of skin tumor-promoting potencial should be carefully investigated before its use for schistosomiasis vector control.

  4. The use of nanoencapsulation to decrease human skin irritation caused by capsaicinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contri RV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renata V Contri,1 Luiza A Frank,2 Moacir Kaiser,1 Adriana R Pohlmann,1,3 Silvia S Guterres1,2 1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, 2Faculdade de Farmácia, 3Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Capsaicin, a topical analgesic used in the treatment of chronic pain, has irritant properties that frequently interrupt its use. In this work, the effect of nanoencapsulation of the main capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin on skin irritation was tested in humans. Skin tolerance of a novel vehicle composed of chitosan hydrogel containing nonloaded nanocapsules (CH-NC was also evaluated. The chitosan hydrogel containing nanoencapsulated capsaicinoids (CH-NC-CP did not cause skin irritation, as measured by an erythema probe and on a visual scale, while a formulation containing free capsaicinoids (chitosan gel with hydroalcoholic solution [CH-ET-CP] and a commercially available capsaicinoids formulation caused skin irritation. Thirty-one percent of volunteers reported slight irritation one hour after application of CH-NC-CP, while moderate (46% [CH-ET-CP] and 23% [commercial product] and severe (8% [CH-ET-CP] and 69% [commercial product] irritation were described for the formulations containing free capsaicinoids. When CH-NC was applied to the skin, erythema was not observed and only 8% of volunteers felt slight irritation, which demonstrates the utility of the novel vehicle. A complementary in vitro skin permeation study showed that permeation of capsaicinoids through an epidermal human membrane was reduced but not prevented by nanoencapsulation. Keywords: chitosan, nanocapsules, capsaicinoids, skin irritation, skin permeation

  5. An assessment of air quality reflecting the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess the air quality of an environment based on the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in such environment. We begin by approximating the sigmoid function that characterizes psychometric plots of probability of irritation detection (Q) versus VOC vapor concentration to a linear function. First, we apply an established equation that correlates and predicts human sensory irritation thresholds (SIT) (i.e., nasal and eye irritation) based on the transfer of the VOC from the gas phase to biophases, e.g., nasal mucus and tear film. Second, we expand the equation to include other biological data (e.g., odor detection thresholds) and to include further VOCs that act mainly by "specific" effects rather than by transfer (i.e., "physical") effects as defined in the article. Then we show that, for 72 VOCs in common, Q values based on our calculated SITs are consistent with the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) listed for those same VOCs on the basis of sensory irritation by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Third, we set two equations to calculate the probability (Qmix) that a given air sample containing a number of VOCs could elicit chemosensory irritation: one equation based on response addition (Qmix scale: 0.00 to 1.00) and the other based on dose addition (1000*Qmix scale: 0 to 2000). We further validate the applicability of our air quality assessment method by showing that both Qmix scales provide values consistent with the expected sensory irritation burden from VOC mixtures present in a wide variety of indoor and outdoor environments as reported on field studies in the literature. These scales take into account both the concentration of VOCs at a particular site and the propensity of the VOCs to evoke sensory irritation.

  6. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  7. Acute local irritative effect of (2''R)-4'-O-tetrahydropyranyladriamycin, a new antitumor antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, H; Kiyosaki, T; Cuthbert, J A; Carr, S M; Aitken, R

    1986-02-01

    (2"R)-4'-O-Tetrahydropyranyladriamycin hydrochloride (THP), a new antitumor antibiotic, was administered to rabbits at a concentration from 0.02 to 0.5% by instillation, or by intracutaneous, subcutaneous or intramuscular injection to study its local irritative effect. The irritative effect of THP increased with concentration. At a concentration of 0.5%, THP was irritant to the eye, skin and muscle but at a concentration of 0.1% practically no effect was observed. The effect was equal to or lower than that of doxorubicin. An instillation of 0.5% THP caused reversible irritation effect on the eye. Slight conjunctival responses (redness and chemoisis) were observed. Rinsing reduced the irritative effect. Intracutaneous injection of 0.1 ml of 0.5% THP caused well defined, moderate erythema, surface ulceration and dermal necrosis. Cutaneous muscle necrosis also occurred. At a concentration of 0.02%, dermal necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed. Erythema, as well as muscle necrosis and calcification with giant cell reaction and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed by an intramuscular injection at a concentration of 0.5%. Subcutaneous injection of 0.5% THP showed no irritative effect.

  8. Ocular irritation from product of pesticide degradation among workers in a seed warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Itoh, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Four workers at a seed supply warehouse in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, complained of ocular irritation on the job. Pesticide-coated seeds were stored in the warehouse but no significant amount of pesticide was detected in the air inside the warehouse. To identify the cause of the ocular irritation and to determine an appropriate solution to the problem, the authors used thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of the two warehouses at the site-warehouse A, where the four workers experienced ocular irritation, and warehouse B, where no workers experienced ocular irritation. Comparing the profiles of VOCs in these warehouses indicated that n-butyl isocyanate, a hydrolyzed product of the fungicide benomyl, was the cause of the workers' ocular irritation. n-Butyl isocyanate is known to be a contact irritant and if the benomyl-coated seeds were not properly dried before storage in the warehouse n-butyl isocyanate would have been produced. The results of the study suggest that more attention should be paid both to the pesticide itself and to the products of pesticide degradation. In this study, n-butyl isocyanate was identified as a product of pesticide degradation and a causative chemical affecting occupational health.

  9. Irritable mood and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The terms 'irritable mood' and 'irritability' have been applied to describe and define a variety of different categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. More precise diagnostic terms and concepts are needed. Methods A concise critical historical review of DSM categories characterized by irritability, anger, and aggression is presented followed by recommendations. Results This analysis describes the broad ranging and imprecise use of the term irritability since the first DSM in 1952. A more age-appropriate and functional realignment of psychiatric categories linked to dysfunctional anger is suggested. Among other recommendations, this realignment would remove irritability as a problematic definer in the present DSM mood categories: expand oppositional defiant disorder to include adults; link the callous unemotional subtype of conduct disorder in adolescents to antisocial personality disorder; move intermittent explosive disorder to an appropriate category: and expand the term 'mood' to apply also to dysfunctional anger and anxiety. Conclusion The non-specific term 'irritability' commonly used in the DSM has had an adverse effect on diagnostic specificity and thereby on treatment. Dysfunctional anger is a major mood disorder which merits a more prominent and better defined representation in psychiatric nomenclature.

  10. Assessment of skin and eye irritation of 14 products under the stepwise approach of the OECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Axel; Hernández, Osvaldo; González, Yana; Aldana, Lizet; Carballo, Onelio

    2008-01-01

    The determination of acute eye and skin irritation is included in international regulatory requirements for the testing of chemicals, because of the possibility of exposure during the production, transport, marketing, and disposal of products. Although there have been some advances in the areas of refinement and reduction, no single battery of tests has emerged as being acceptable as a complete replacement for the conventional Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation tests. Currently, dermal irritation and ocular irritation are generally evaluated in a sequential manner in the context of tiered assessment strategies. In this work, we show how 14 products, mostly designed to be used in agriculture, were evaluated in the Center of Experimental Toxicology of the Center for the Production of Laboratory Animals (Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio; CENPALAB) in order to assess their acute dermal and ocular effects. The performed studies include the acute dermal toxicity test, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion test, the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) method, and the acute eye irritation/corrosion test. In general, it could be concluded that of the 14 products assessed, none of them showed systemic effects, but local reactions mainly to the eyes. The most significant effects were apparently related to the effects of azadirachtin, an active principle of 2 tested neem derivatives.

  11. Honey Bees Avoiding Ant Harassment at Flowers Using Scent Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Sheena C; Wilson Rankin, Erin E

    2016-02-01

    Pollinators require resources throughout the year to maintain healthy populations. Along the urban-natural interface, floral resource availability may be limited especially when the system experiences extreme drought and fire threats. In such areas, succulents, such as Aloe spp., are commonly planted to serve as functional drought-tolerant, fire-protective landscaping, which can also support pollinator populations. However, access to this resource may be restricted by competition from other floral foragers, including invasive pests. We measured free-foraging honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) visitation rate and visitation duration to aloe flowers with and without Argentine ants (Linepithema humile (Mayr)) in a drought-stressed environment and found that bees actively avoided foraging on the ant-occupied flowers. To determine the mechanisms of avoidance, our subsequent experiments assessed visitation in the absence of ants and compared aloe flowers treated with ant pheromone to unmanipulated flowers lacking ant pheromone. Bees approached all flowers equally, but accepted flowers without ants at a higher rate than flowers with ants. Visitation duration also increased twofold on ant-excluded flowers, which suggests that Argentine ants may limit resource acquisition by bees. Honey bees similarly avoided flowers with Argentine ant pheromone and preferentially visited unmanipulated flowers at threefold higher rate. This study demonstrates that honey bees avoid foraging on floral resources with invasive Argentine ants and that bees use ant odors to avoid ant-occupied flowers. Resource limitation by this invasive pest ant may have serious implication for sustaining healthy pollinator populations at the urban-natural interface. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Treating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by a number of factors. Both male and female factors can contribute to infertility. What treatment options are available for infertility? Treatment ... problems. A common problem that leads to male infertility, varicocele , sometimes can be ... are hormonal problems treated in women? Abnormal levels of hormones ...

  13. USAID IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Office of the Chief Information Officer in the Management Bureau of USAID launched initiatives designed for IT cost savings and avoidance. This dataset includes...

  14. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  15. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  16. GSA IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — GSA IT provides data related to Agency IT initiatives that save or avoid expenditures. This data is provided as a requirement of OMB's Integrated Data Collection...

  17. Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... new food being offered. Avoid the Junk Food Trap Toddlers need to eat healthy to get the ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  18. Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other times, it develops into panic attacks and phobias. Identifying the Signs Anxiety disorders vary from teenager ... may begin to avoid normal activities and routines. Phobias Many fears of younger children are mild, passing, ...

  19. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  20. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in radar technology have resulted in commercial, automotive collision avoidance radars. These radar systems typically use 37GHz or 77GHz interferometry...

  1. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  2. 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... dietary supplements you use. back to top Computerized Medication Box FDA has cleared for marketing the Electronic ...

  3. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  4. The Role of Informative and Ambiguous Feedback in Avoidance Behavior: Empirical and Computational Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A Moustafa

    -than-expected outcomes, compared to subjects in the no-feedback condition. Additionally, in both task conditions, "avoiders" adjusted their behavior faster following worse-than-expected outcomes, and treated the ambiguous no-feedback outcome as less rewarding, compared to non-avoiders. Together, results shed light on the important role of ambiguous and informative feedback in avoidance behavior.

  5. The Role of Informative and Ambiguous Feedback in Avoidance Behavior: Empirical and Computational Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sheynin, Jony; Myers, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    , compared to subjects in the no-feedback condition. Additionally, in both task conditions, "avoiders" adjusted their behavior faster following worse-than-expected outcomes, and treated the ambiguous no-feedback outcome as less rewarding, compared to non-avoiders. Together, results shed light on the important role of ambiguous and informative feedback in avoidance behavior.

  6. Optimal management of constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furnari M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Manuele Furnari,1 Nicola de Bortoli,2 Irene Martinucci,2 Giorgia Bodini,1 Matteo Revelli,3 Elisa Marabotto,1 Alessandro Moscatelli,1 Lorenzo Del Nero,1 Edoardo Savarino,4 Edoardo G Giannini,1 Vincenzo Savarino1 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Translational Research and New Technology in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, San Bartolomeo Hospital, Sarzana, Italy; 4Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Surgery, Oncology, and Gastroenterology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, meanly characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habit. It is a complex disorder involving biological, environmental, and psychosocial factors. The diagnosis is achieved according to the Rome III criteria provided that organic causes have been excluded. Although IBS does not constitute a life-threatening condition, it has a remarkable prevalence and profoundly reduces the quality of life with burdening socioeconomic costs. One of the principal concerns about IBS is the lack of effective therapeutic options. Up to 40% of patients are not satisfied with any available medications, especially those suffering from chronic constipation. A correct management of IBS with constipation should evolve through a global approach focused on the patient, starting with careful history taking in order to assess the presence of organic diseases that might trigger the disorder. Therefore, the second step is to examine lifestyle, dietary habits, and psychological status. On these bases, a step-up management of disease is recommended: from fiber and bulking agents, to osmotic laxative drugs, to new molecules like lubiprostone and linaclotide. Although new promising tools for relief of bowel

  7. Managing irritable bowel syndrome: The impact of micro-physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Daniel; Benini, Patrice; Carayon, Pierre

    2017-03-16

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has a complex pathology, high prevalence and large impact on patients' quality of life. As conventional therapy may yield unsatisfactory results, a more holistic approach may be desirable. The current study assessed the effect of micro-physiotherapy on the severity of IBS symptoms. Methods In a double-blind study, 61 recurrent IBS patients were randomised to two sessions of micro-physiotherapy or sham micro-physiotherapy. Inclusion criteria were the presence of ≥1 IBS symptom from abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea or bloating. Exclusion criteria were previous major intestinal surgery and the presence of chronic diseases. The mean patient age was 53.5±15.3 years. Micro-physiotherapy consisted of micro-palpatory examination to identify osteopathic lesions, followed by micro-massage to stimulate self-healing. The control group underwent a sham procedure. The presence and severity of symptoms was assessed at baseline and at 1-month follow-up by the same gastroenterologist. Results Two patients did not complete the study. There was a significant difference in percentage of patients that improved after the first session, at 74 % for the micro-physiotherapy group and 38 % for the sham group, respectively (p=0.005). After the second session, the initial improvement was maintained in both groups, although with no further gains, and the differences between the study groups remained significant (p=0.007). Conclusions Micro-physiotherapy significantly improves IBS symptoms and should be explored further for use in mainstream healthcare.

  8. An expert system for the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdea-Blaga, Teodora; Dumitraşcu, Dan-Lucian

    2013-01-01

    For a long time functional digestive disorders (FGIDs), including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), were described based on what they are not, without considering them real entities. Although IBS evolution is benign, it has major effects on the quality of life, it determines a higher number of days of sick leave or days when work activities had to be interrupted, thus increasing the expenses for the society. Our system, developed using CORVID Exsys, is called IBS Expert and addresses both patients and physicians. Answering some simple questions, patients will receive information about their diagnosis, together with additional recommendations. Non-expert physicians will have rapid access to the algorithm of IBS diagnosis, and could use recommendations for future investigations. This expert system is based on the information provided by the most complete collection of data about FGIDs, created by an international group of experts, who elaborated Rome III criteria. The system consists of three sub-systems, including a set of eighteen questions and the diagnosis of IBS, as well as additional recommendations, established using confidence variables. The evaluation of the system consisted of verification (determining the accuracy of the results to ensure the delivery of diagnosis and recommendations as it was intended), validation of knowledge (met through the use of the gold standard in the field) and assessment of the impact on users, either patients or physicians (measuring overall satisfaction and the user effort score in using the system). The system is available online at www.gastroterra.ro and can be accessed by using any Java-enabled device, from standard computers to mobile devices.

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome evaluation using computed tomography colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgo, Hideki; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Yamaoka, Minoru; Yoneno, Kazuaki; Hosoe, Naoki; Mizukami, Takeshi; Nakamoto, Hidetomo

    2016-11-14

    To evaluate the morphology of the colon in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by using computed tomography colonography (CTC). Twelve patients with diarrhea type IBS (IBS-D), 13 patients with constipation type IBS (IBS-C), 12 patients with functional constipation (FC) and 14 control patients underwent colonoscopy following CTC. The lengths of the rectosigmoid colon, transverse colon and the total colon were measured. The diameters of the rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, transverse colon, and ascending colon were measured. The mean length of the total colon was 156.5 cm in group C, 158.9 cm in group IBS-D, 172.0 cm in group IBS-C, and 188.8 cm in group FC. The total colon in group FC was significantly longer than that in group C (P colon was 56.2 cm, 55.9 cm, 63.6cm, and 77.4 cm (NS). The mean length of the transverse colon was 49.9 cm, 43.1 cm, 57.0 cm, and 55.0 cm. The transverse colon in group IBS-D was significantly shorter than that in group IBS-C (P colon was 4.0 cm, 3.3 cm, 4.2 cm, and 4.3 cm (NS). The mean diameter of the descending colon was 3.6 cm, 3.1 cm, 3.8 cm, and 4.3 cm. The descending colon diameter in group IBS-D was significantly less than that in group IBS-C (P = 0.03) and that in group FC (P colon diameter in group FC was significantly greater than that in group C (P = 0.04). The mean diameter of the transverse colon was 4.4 cm, 3.3 cm, 4.2 cm, and 5.0 cm (NS). CT colonography might contribute the clarification of subtypes of IBS.

  10. Increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome after acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erica; Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Modi, Rusha; Vu, Michelle; Shahedi, Kamyar; Shah, Rena; Atia, Mary; Kurzbard, Nicole; Sheen, Victoria; Agarwal, Nikhil; Kaneshiro, Marc; Yen, Linnette; Hodgkins, Paul; Erder, M Haim; Spiegel, Brennan

    2013-12-01

    Individuals with diverticulosis frequently also have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but there are no longitudinal data to associate acute diverticulitis with subsequent IBS, functional bowel disorders, or related emotional distress. In patients with postinfectious IBS, gastrointestinal disorders cause long-term symptoms, so we investigated whether diverticulitis might lead to IBS. We compared the incidence of IBS and functional bowel and related affective disorders among patients with diverticulitis. We performed a retrospective study of patients followed up for an average of 6.3 years at a Veteran's Administration medical center. Patients with diverticulitis were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes, selected for the analysis based on chart review (cases, n = 1102), and matched with patients without diverticulosis (controls, n = 1102). We excluded patients with prior IBS, functional bowel, or mood disorders. We then identified patients who were diagnosed with IBS or functional bowel disorders after the diverticulitis attack, and controls who developed these disorders during the study period. We also collected information on mood disorders, analyzed survival times, and calculated adjusted hazard ratios. Cases were 4.7-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with IBS (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-14.0; P = .006), 2.4-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with a functional bowel disorder (95% CI, 1.6-3.6; P < .001), and 2.2-fold more likely to develop a mood disorder (CI, 1.4-3.5; P < .001) than controls. Patients with diverticulitis could be at risk for later development of IBS and functional bowel disorders. We propose calling this disorder postdiverticulitis IBS. Diverticulitis appears to predispose patients to long-term gastrointestinal and emotional symptoms after resolution of inflammation; in this way, postdiverticulitis IBS is similar to postinfectious IBS. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by

  11. Role of antispasmodics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaházi, Anita; Róka, Richárd; Rosztóczy, András; Wittmann, Tibor

    2014-05-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a long-lasting, relapsing disorder characterized by abdominal pain/discomfort and altered bowel habits. Intestinal motility impairment and visceral hypersensitivity are the key factors among its multifactorial pathogenesis, both of which require effective treatment. Voltage-gated calcium channels mediate smooth muscle contraction and endocrine secretion and play important roles in neuronal transmission. Antispasmodics are a group of drugs that have been used in the treatment of IBS for decades. Alverine citrate, a spasmolytic, decreases the sensitivity of smooth muscle contractile proteins to calcium, and it is a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Alverine, in combination with simethicone, has been demonstrated to effectively reduce abdominal pain and discomfort in a large placebo-controlled trial. Mebeverine is a musculotropic agent that potently blocks intestinal peristalsis. Non-placebo-controlled trials have shown positive effects of mebeverine in IBS regarding symptom control; nevertheless, in recent placebo-controlled studies, mebeverine did not exhibit superiority over placebo. Otilonium bromide is poorly absorbed from the GI tract, where it acts locally as an L-type calcium channel blocker, an antimuscarinic and a tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist. Otilonium has effectively reduced pain and improved defecation alterations in placebo-controlled trials in IBS patients. Pinaverium bromide is also an L-type calcium channel blocker that acts locally in the GI tract. Pinaverium improves motility disorders and consequently reduces stool problems in IBS patients. Phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol are non-specific antispasmodics that reduced pain in IBS patients in a placebo-controlled trial. Antispasmodics have excellent safety profiles. T-type calcium channel blockers can abolish visceral hypersensitivity in animal models, which makes them potential candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents in the

  12. Thermal hypersensitivity in a subset of irritable bowel syndrome patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiQi Zhou; Roger B Fillingim; Joseph L Riley III; G Nicholas Verne

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To characterize thermal hypersensitivity in patients with constipation- and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: Thermal pain sensitivity was tested among patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) and constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS) compared to healthy subjects. A total of 42 patients (29 female and patients (16 female and eight male; mean age 32.5participated in the study. Thermal stimuli were delivered using a Medoc Thermal Sensory Analyzer with a 3 cm heat pain tolerance (HPTo) were assessed on the left ventral forearm and left calf using an ascending method of limits. The Functional Bowel Disease Severity Index (FBDSI) was also obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Controls were less sensitive than C-IBS and D-IBS (both at P < 0.001) with no differences between C-IBS and D-IBS for HPTh and HPTo. Thermal hyperalgesia was present in both groups of IBS patients relative to controls, with IBS patients reporting significantly lower pain threshold and pain tolerance at both test sites. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of subgroups of IBS patients based on thermal hyperalgesia. One cluster (17% of the sample) showed a profile of heat pain sensitivity very similar to that of healthy controls; a second cluster (47% of the sample) showed moderate heat pain sensitivity; and a third cluster (36% of the sample) showed a very high degree of thermal hyperalgesia.CONCLUSION: A subset of IBS patients had thermal hypersensitivity compared to controls, who reported significantly lower HPTh and HPTo. All IBS patients had a higher score on the FBDSI than controls. Interestingly, the subset of IBS patients with high thermal sensitivity (36%) had the highest FBDSI score compared to the other two groups of IBS patients.

  13. Allergy in Children with Functional Constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Caffarelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Functional constipation (FC and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS represent very common pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs. Controversial results have suggested a potential role of food allergy as a trigger of functional bowel symptoms. Evidence Acquisition This review summarizes the literature regarding the role of allergic diseases in children with FC and IBS and discusses the hypothesis of the pathogenesis of constipation due to cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA. We searched systematic reviews, guidelines, or original data in PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials. Results The pathogenesis of FGIDs remains elusive and is likely multifactorial. Among these factors, adverse reactions to food may play a pathogenic role. Some features, such as abnormal bowel motility, visceral hypersensitivity, and changes in mucus composition caused by inflammation of the gastrointestinal wall, have been found both in IBS or FC and in food allergy. Since 1978, an increasing number of reports have suggested a relationship between CMPA and FC. Two randomized controlled studies conducted in children showed that CMPA may induce chronic FC; one study indicated that fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, and monosaccharide polyols (FODMAP foods may play a role in triggering IBS. Conclusions Food allergy in children with chronic constipation should be identified using an oral food challenge after being on a diet free of cow’s milk. A diet low in FODMAPs might also be recommended for children with IBS. This approach could be suggested for children with chronic FC and IBS, especially when they do not respond to standard treatment. However, it should also be considered that a minority of patients with FC or IBS could respond to an elimination diet. Further studies are needed to understand the complex pathogenic mechanisms of FGIDs; they also might be helpful to recognize markers for identifying children with

  14. Personality characteristics and irritable bowel syndrome in Shiraz, Southern Iran

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    Mousavinasab Seyed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder, and its definite etiology is still unclear. It has been shown that personality characteristics can affect the disease presentation and attitude of patient toward symptoms. This study was undertaken to evaluate the personality characteristics in patients with IBS in Shiraz, southern Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the personality characteristics of 60 patients with IBS and 55 healthy persons were compared using Minnesota II Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2. The cases were selected from patients who were referred to the Mottahari clinic affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Results: The patients recorded the highest scores on the hypochondriasis and psychoasthenia scales. The scores of the patient on the scales of lie, infrequency, hypochondriasis, depression and hysteria showed significant elevation in comparison to those of the control group. Furthermore, the scores on clinical scales in male subjects were higher for psychopathic-deviate, paranoia and social introversion scales in comparison to the males in the control group. Female subjects recorded lower scores on the social introversion scale in comparison to the females in the control group. Male subjects also recorded a higher score on the psychopathic-deviate, paranoia, psychoasthenia and social introversion scales in comparison to females. Female subjects had a relatively higher score on the masculinity/feminity scale. Based on the clinical interview using DMS-IV criteria, the most prevalent symptoms were anxiety and depression in patients with IBS. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with IBS, psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of these patients is recommended.

  15. Factors associated with irritable bowel syndrome symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bartosz Fiderkiewicz; Alicja Rydzewska-Rosolowska; Michal My(s)liwiec; Magdalena Birecka; Bo(z)enna Kaczanowska; Gra(z)yna Rydzewska; Andrzej Rydzewski

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate clinical characteristics associated with the presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms in hemodialysis (HD) patients.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A ques-tionnaire based on the Bowel Disease Questionnaire that records gastrointestinal symptoms was given to 294 patients in 4 dialysis centers. A total of 196 (67%) subjects returned the survey. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify factors signifi-cantly associated with IBS symptoms. RESULTS: Symptoms compatible with IBS were present in 27 (13.8%) subjects and independently associated with low post-dialysis serum potassium [OR = 0.258, 95% CI (0.075-0.891), P = 0.032], paracetamol use [OR = 3.159, 95% CI (1.214-8.220), P = 0.018], and Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) cognitive function score [OR = 0.977, 95% CI (0.956-0.999), P = 0.042]. Univari-ate regressions were also performed and the reported significance is for multivariate analysis. No association was detected for age, gender, depressed mood, smoking (present or past), body mass index, albumin level, Kt/V, sodium pre- or post-dialysis level, change in potassium level during HD, proton pump inhibitor or H2 blocker use, aspirin use, residual diuresis, hepatitis B or C infection, diabetes mellitus, marital status and education level.CONCLUSION: This study examined potential risk factors for symptoms compatible with IBS in HD pa-tients and identified an association with paracetamol use, post-dialysis potassium level and KDQOL-cognitive function score.

  16. Probiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Science and the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2015-01-01

    Although probiotics have been used for many years by those who suffer from what would now be defined as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a scientific rationale for their use in this indication and clinical evidence to support their benefits have only emerged very recently. Evidence to support considering strategies, such as probiotics, that modulate the gut microbiome, in IBS, has been provided by laboratory studies implicating the microbiome and the host response to the enteric microenvironment in IBS, as well as in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating the ability of various commensal bacteria to influence such relevant functions as motility, visceral sensation, gut barrier integrity, and brain-gut interactions. Clinical studies supporting a role for probiotics in the management of IBS predated such experimental data, and randomized controlled trials of probiotics in IBS continue to be reported. Their interpretation is hampered by the less than optimal quality of many studies; nevertheless, it is apparent that probiotics, as a category, do exert significant effects in IBS. Defining the optimal strain, dose, formulation, and duration of therapy is more challenging given the limitations of available data. There is also an urgent need for appropriately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials of appropriate duration of probiotics in IBS; such studies should also help to define those who are most likely to respond to probiotics. Future laboratory and translational research should attempt to define the mechanism(s) of action of probiotics in IBS and explore the response to bacterial components or products in this common and oftentimes troublesome disorder.

  17. The vigilance-avoidance model of avoidant recognition: An ERP study under threat priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jing; Chen, Xu; Ma, Jianling; Yang, Qingqing; Liu, Ying

    2016-12-30

    Our study examined attachment-related electrophysiological differences in recognition using event-related potentials (ERPs) measured during a study-test paradigm after threat priming. We identified ERP correlates of recognition by comparing the ERPs of attachment-related positive and negative images between avoidant and secure attachment orientations. Our results revealed that the distribution of early old/new effects was broader in avoidant individuals than in secure individuals, and an early parietal old/new effect was observed in avoidant individuals, which reflected their implicit memory. The late old/new effect was found only in secure individuals when evoked by negative pictures, and was not observed in avoidant individuals. The results suggest that avoidant individuals adopt the "vigilance-avoidance" dual-process model to recognize both positive and negative attachment-related stimuli and carry out preferential familiarity matching at the automatic level and avoidant retrieval at the controlled-processing level.

  18. Banking deregulation and corporate tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill B. Francis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether tax avoidance substitutes for external financing. We exploit interstate banking deregulation as a quasi-external shock to examine whether firms engage in less tax avoidance after banking deregulation, because of cheaper and easier access to credit from banks. We find no empirical evidence to support this substitutive relation, even for firms with higher financial constraints or firms with higher external financing dependence.

  19. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....

  20. Mobile Robot Collision Avoidance in Human Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingqi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance is a fundamental requirement for mobile robots. Avoiding moving obstacles (also termed dynamic obstacles with unpredictable direction changes, such as humans, is more challenging than avoiding moving obstacles whose motion can be predicted. Precise information on the future moving directions of humans is unobtainable for use in navigation algorithms. Furthermore, humans should be able to pursue their activities unhindered and without worrying about the robots around them. In this paper, both active and critical regions are used to deal with the uncertainty of human motion. A procedure is introduced to calculate the region sizes based on worst‐case avoidance conditions. Next, a novel virtual force field‐based mobile robot navigation algorithm (termed QVFF is presented. This algorithm may be used with both holonomic and nonholonomic robots. It incorporates improved virtual force functions for avoiding moving obstacles and its stability is proven using a piecewise continuous Lyapunov function. Simulation and experimental results are provided for a human walking towards the robot and blocking the path to a goal location. Next, the proposed algorithm is compared with five state‐of‐the‐art navigation algorithms for an environment with one human walking with an unpredictable change in direction. Finally, avoidance results are presented for an environment containing three walking humans. The QVFF algorithm consistently generated collision‐free paths to the goal.