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Sample records for avoid hypothermia caused

  1. Hypothermia in neonatal piglets: Interactions and causes of individual differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Trine S; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jørgensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal piglets. However, there are considerable individual differences in the successful recovery from postnatal hypothermia in the common farrowing environment, and so far the causes and interactions of causes have not been studied in detail. Using...... 635 crossbred neonatal piglets, the aim of this study was to identify the links among different physiological and behavioral measures and their connections to the piglets’ ability to overcome initial postnatal hypothermia, with rectal temperature at 2 h as the response variable. The data included......: birth weight, hypoxia at birth (viability score and lactate in umbilical cord blood), latency to first udder contact and first suckle, scans of individual piglet position during the first 2 h after birth, and rectal temperature at birth and 2 h post partum. A graphical chain model was used to analyze...

  2. Early Implementation of THAM for ICP Control: Therapeutic Hypothermia Avoidance and Reduction in Hypertonics/Hyperosmotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Zeiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tromethamine (THAM has been demonstrated to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP. Early consideration for THAM may reduce the need for other measures for ICP control. Objective. To describe 4 cases of early THAM therapy for ICP control and highlight the potential to avoid TH and paralytics and achieve reduction in sedation and hypertonic/hyperosmotic agent requirements. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 4 patients treated with early THAM for ICP control. Results. We identified 2 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and 2 with traumatic brain injury (TBI receiving early THAM for ICP control. The mean time to initiation of THAM therapy was 1.8 days, with a mean duration of 5.3 days. In all patients, after 6 to 12 hours of THAM administration, ICP stability was achieved, with reduction in requirements for hypertonic saline and hyperosmotic agents. There was a relative reduction in mean hourly hypertonic saline requirements of 89.1%, 96.1%, 82.4%, and 97.0% for cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, comparing pre- to post-THAM administration. Mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and paralytics were avoided in all patients. Conclusions. Early administration of THAM for ICP control could potentially lead to the avoidance of other ICP directed therapies. Prospective studies of early THAM administration are warranted.

  3. Hypothermia in mouse is caused by adenosine A1 and A3 receptor agonists and AMP via three distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jesse Lea; Jain, Shalini; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Wan, Tina C; Tosh, Dilip K; Xiao, Cuiying; Auchampach, John A; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2017-03-01

    Small mammals have the ability to enter torpor, a hypothermic, hypometabolic state, allowing impressive energy conservation. Administration of adenosine or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) can trigger a hypothermic, torpor-like state. We investigated the mechanisms for hypothermia using telemetric monitoring of body temperature in wild type and receptor knock out (Adora1 -/- , Adora3 -/- ) mice. Confirming prior data, stimulation of the A 3 adenosine receptor (AR) induced hypothermia via peripheral mast cell degranulation, histamine release, and activation of central histamine H 1 receptors. In contrast, A 1 AR agonists and AMP both acted centrally to cause hypothermia. Commonly used, selective A 1 AR agonists, including N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), N 6 -cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), and MRS5474, caused hypothermia via both A 1 AR and A 3 AR when given intraperitoneally. Intracerebroventricular dosing, low peripheral doses of Cl-ENBA [(±)-5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-N 6 -endo-norbornyladenosine], or using Adora3 -/- mice allowed selective stimulation of A 1 AR. AMP-stimulated hypothermia can occur independently of A 1 AR, A 3 AR, and mast cells. A 1 AR and A 3 AR agonists and AMP cause regulated hypothermia that was characterized by a drop in total energy expenditure, physical inactivity, and preference for cooler environmental temperatures, indicating a reduced body temperature set point. Neither A 1 AR nor A 3 AR was required for fasting-induced torpor. A 1 AR and A 3 AR agonists and AMP trigger regulated hypothermia via three distinct mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Use of Normothermic Default Humidifier Settings Causes Excessive Humidification of Respiratory Gases During Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoichiro; Iwata, Sachiko; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Sakai, Sayaka; Saikusa, Mamoru; Shindo, Ryota; Harada, Eimei; Okada, Junichiro; Hisano, Tadashi; Kanda, Hiroshi; Maeno, Yasuki; Araki, Yuko; Ushijima, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Teruo; Yamashita, Yushiro; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-12-01

    Adult patients frequently suffer from serious respiratory complications during therapeutic hypothermia. During therapeutic hypothermia, respiratory gases are humidified close to saturated vapor at 37°C (44 mg/L) despite that saturated vapor reduces considerably depending on temperature reduction. Condensation may cause serious adverse events, such as bronchial edema, mucosal dysfunction, and ventilator-associated pneumonia during cooling. To determine clinical variables associated with inadequate humidification of respiratory gases during cooling, humidity of inspiratory gases was measured in 42 cumulative newborn infants who underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Three humidifier settings of 37-default (chamber outlet, 37°C; distal circuit, 40°C), 33.5-theoretical (chamber outlet, 33.5°C; distal circuit, 36.5°C), and 33.5-adjusted (optimized setting to achieve 36.6 mg/L using feedback from a hygrometer) were tested to identify independent variables of excessively high humidity >40.7 mg/L and low humidity <32.9 mg/L. The mean (SD) humidity at the Y-piece was 39.2 (5.2), 33.3 (4.1), and 36.7 (1.2) mg/L for 37-default, 33.5-theoretical, and 33.5-adjusted, respectively. The incidence of excessive high humidity was 10.3% (37-default, 31.0%; 33.5-theoretical, 0.0%; 33.5-adjusted, 0.0%), which was positively associated with the use of a counter-flow humidifier (p < 0.001), 37-default (compared with 33.5-theoretical and 33.5-adjusted, both p < 0.001) and higher fraction of inspired oxygen (p = 0.003). The incidence of excessively low humidity was 17.5% (37-default, 7.1%; 33.5-theoretical, 45.2%; 33.5-adjusted, 0.0%), which was positively associated with the use of a pass-over humidifier and 33.5-theoretical (both p < 0.001). All patients who used a counter-flow humidifier achieved the target gas humidity at the Y-piece (36.6 ± 0.5 mg/L) required for 33.5-adjusted with 33.5-theoretical. During cooling, 37-default is associated with

  5. Active body surface warming systems for preventing complications caused by inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Eva; Urrútia, Gerard; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Pardo-Hernandez, Hector; Campos, Juan Manuel; Paniagua, Pilar; Maestre, Luz; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2016-04-21

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a phenomenon that can occur as a result of the suppression of the central mechanisms of temperature regulation due to anaesthesia, and of prolonged exposure of large surfaces of skin to cold temperatures in operating rooms. Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia has been associated with clinical complications such as surgical site infection and wound-healing delay, increased bleeding or cardiovascular events. One of the most frequently used techniques to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is active body surface warming systems (ABSW), which generate heat mechanically (heating of air, water or gels) that is transferred to the patient via skin contact. To assess the effectiveness of pre- or intraoperative active body surface warming systems (ABSW), or both, to prevent perioperative complications from unintended hypothermia during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 9, 2015); MEDLINE (PubMed) (1964 to October 2015), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2015), and CINAHL (Ovid) (1982 to October 2015). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an ABSW system aimed at maintaining normothermia perioperatively against a control or against any other ABSW system. Eligible studies also had to include relevant clinical outcomes other than measuring temperature alone. Several authors, by pairs, screened references and determined eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by discussion and consensus, with the collaboration of a third author. We included 67 trials with 5438 participants that comprised 79 comparisons. Forty-five RCTs compared ABSW versus control, whereas 18 compared two different types of ABSW, and 10 compared two different techniques to administer the same type of ABSW. Forced-air warming (FAW) was by far the most studied intervention.Trials varied widely regarding whether the interventions were

  6. Accidental Hypothermia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-03

    Physiological aspects of hypothermia. A, Ann Rev Physiol 1957; 19: 83. 241. Kearsley JH, Musso AF: Hypothermia and coma in the Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome . Med 3...decline. Included in this group are patients with hypothalamic lesions and agenesis of the corpus callosum, termed the Shapiro Syndrome .46 1�...peculiar fIat affect is conuon. Psychomotor impairrrent resembles organic brain syndrome . 8 1� Appropriate adaptive behavior is often lacking.82 An

  7. Cross-sectional study on prevalence, causes and avoidable causes of visual impairment in Maori children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cheefoong; Dai, Shuan

    2013-08-02

    To provide information and comparison pertaining to visual impairment of Maori children with other children in New Zealand in particular: prevalence of blindness, causes of visual impairment, and avoidable causes of visual impairment. Retrospective data collection utilising the WHO/PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision at Blind and Low Vision Education Network New Zealand (BLENNZ), Homai. Individuals not of Maori ethnicity or over the age of 16 were excluded from the study. 106 blind and 64 low-vision Maori children were studied. The main cause of blindness in Maori children is cortical visual impairment. Twenty-eight percent of causes of blindness in this population are potentially avoidable with non-accidental injury as the main cause. The prevalence of blindness and low vision in children amounts to 0.05% and 0.03%, respectively. The prevalence and causes of childhood blindness are comparable to the other ethnic groups in New Zealand. The main difference lies in avoidable causes of blindness, which appeared to be much higher in the Maori population. The leading cause of avoidable blindness in Maori children is caused by non-accidental injuries.

  8. The International Double Taxation – causes and avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The politics and tax legislation being a manifestation of strict sovereignty of the State, the phenomenon of double taxation occursfrequently representing a difficult poison for the foreign trade activity, especially hindering investments abroad, technology transfer or proliferationoutside of the state of the companies’ branches. Therefore, international legal double taxation, by the repeated taxation of the income, it is anobstacle to the development of economic relations between states, reducing the revenue of the international operators and their interests in makinginvestment abroad. This paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economic double taxation and theinternational legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation and avoidance methods.

  9. Recognizing Hypothermia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    Hypothermia is a serious medical condition that strikes during very cold weather or when people are chilled from rain, sweat, or cold water.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 12/13/2007.

  10. Hypothermia for treatment of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Youl Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of neurological disability and death in industrialized nations. Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to protect the brain from ischemia, stroke, and other acute neurological insults at the laboratory level. It has been shown to improve neurological outcome in certain clinical settings including anoxic brain injury due to cardiac arrest and hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy. Hypothermia seems to affect multiple aspects of brain physiology and it is likely that multiple mechanisms underlie its protective effect. Understanding the events that occur in the ischemic brain during hypothermia might help lead to an understanding of how to protect the brain against acute injuries.

  11. CT findings in neonatal hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, H.; Laufer, L.; Berginer, J.; Hertzanu, Y.; Hershkowitz, E.; Berenstein, T.; Sofer, S.; Maor, E.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Newborn infants are particularly prone to hypothermia, a condition with a high mortality. Objective. To study the CT brain patterns in infants with hypothermia and neurological symptoms. Materials and methods. We reviewed the brain CT of nine infants with neonatal hypothermia, multiple organ failure, seizures and coma. Results. Two infants had normal CT scans, acutely and at follow-up, and were clinically normal at follow-up. In seven infants, CT showed diffuse cerebral oedema, with reversal of the normal density relationship between grey and white matter and a relative increased density of the thalami, brainstem and cerebellum - the 'reversal sign'. In six surviving infants with severe developmental delay, follow-up CT revealed cerebral atrophy with multicystic encephalomalacia. Conclusions. The 'reversal sign' has been described in the abused child, birth asphyxia and anoxia due to drowning. Neonatal hypothermia is offered as a further cause. (orig.)

  12. CT findings in neonatal hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, H.; Laufer, L.; Berginer, J.; Hertzanu, Y. [Department of Radiology, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P. O. Box 151, Beer-Sheva 84101 (Israel); Hershkowitz, E.; Berenstein, T.; Sofer, S. [Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Maor, E. [Department of Pathology, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    Background. Newborn infants are particularly prone to hypothermia, a condition with a high mortality. Objective. To study the CT brain patterns in infants with hypothermia and neurological symptoms. Materials and methods. We reviewed the brain CT of nine infants with neonatal hypothermia, multiple organ failure, seizures and coma. Results. Two infants had normal CT scans, acutely and at follow-up, and were clinically normal at follow-up. In seven infants, CT showed diffuse cerebral oedema, with reversal of the normal density relationship between grey and white matter and a relative increased density of the thalami, brainstem and cerebellum - the `reversal sign`. In six surviving infants with severe developmental delay, follow-up CT revealed cerebral atrophy with multicystic encephalomalacia. Conclusions. The `reversal sign` has been described in the abused child, birth asphyxia and anoxia due to drowning. Neonatal hypothermia is offered as a further cause. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  13. Stroke and Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Ozkan Kuscu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is significant cause of morbidity and mortality caused by disruption of blood flow. Neural injury occurs with two stage; while primary neural injury occurs with disruption of blood flow, after days and hours with metabolic processes secondary injury develops in tissues which is non injured in the first stage. Therefore it is important to prevent and treat the secondary injury as much as preventing and treating the primary neural injury. In this article developing pathophysiological changes after stroke, mechanisms of therapeutic hypothermia, application methods, the factors that determine the effectiveness, side effects and complications were reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 351-368

  14. Paraplegia following epidural analgesia: A potentially avoidable cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeson R Doctor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological deficit is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of epidural anesthesia. Epidural hematomas and abscesses are the most common causes of such neurological deficit. We report the case of a patient with renal cell carcinoma with lumbar vertebral metastasis who developed paraplegia after receiving thoracic epidural anesthesia for a nephrectomy. Subsequently, on histo-pathological examination of the laminectomy specimen, the patient was found to have previously undiagnosed thoracic vertebral metastases which led to a thoracic epidural hematoma. In addition, delayed reporting of symptoms of neurological deficit by the patient may have impacted his outcome. Careful pre-operative investigation, consideration to using alternative modalities of analgesia, detailed patient counseling and stringent monitoring of patients receiving central neuraxial blockade is essential to prevent such complications.

  15. The causes and consequences of an avoidance-focus for interracial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, E Ashby; Butz, David A

    2006-06-01

    The current work examined the causes and consequences of non-Black people's desire to avoid interracial interactions (an avoidance-focus). Expecting to respond with racial bias in inter-racial interactions was argued to result in an avoidance-focus for such interactions, which was hypothesized to have negative implications for the quality of interracial interactions. Across three studies, feedback indicating that non-Black participants would respond with racial bias in interactions with Black people resulted in anxiety and the desire to avoid the interaction. In addition, when participants with an avoidance-focus interacted with a Black confederate (Study 2), they had shorter interactions that were rated as less pleasant by the confederate and participant as compared to those without an avoidance-focus. Avoidance-focused participants were less interested in future interactions and came across as more avoidant and biased to their partner than less avoidance-focused participants. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for racial relations.

  16. Hypothermia Induction and Recovery in Free-Ranging Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuBose, D. A; Leon, L. R; Morehouse, D. H; Rufolo, D. M; Blaha, M. D; Gordon, C. J

    2007-01-01

    1. To avoid anesthesia confounders, free-ranging rats were exposed to cool water, warm water, or temperate air to induce hypothermia, or control for water or novel environment stress, respectively. 2...

  17. Hypothermia and targeted temperature management in cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Andrea; Wright, Annie; Cortes, Yonaira

    2017-03-01

    To review current knowledge surrounding the effects, treatment, and prognosis of hypothermia in people, dogs, and cats, as well as the application of therapeutic hypothermia in clinical medicine. Hypothermia may be a primary or secondary condition, and may be due to environmental exposure, illness, medications, anesthesia, or trauma. Hypothermia has been applied therapeutically in human medicine for a variety of conditions, including postcardiac arrest. In veterinary medicine, the technique has been applied in cardiac surgeries requiring bypass and in a patient with intractable seizures. Hypothermia can be diagnosed based on presenting temperature or clinical signs, and appropriate diagnosis may require nontraditional thermometers. Rewarming is the primary treatment for accidental hypothermia, with intensity ranging from passive surface rewarming to extracorporeal rewarming. The goal is to return the core temperature to a level that restores normal physiologic function of all body processes. Other supportive therapies such as intravenous fluids are typically indicated, and if cardiopulmonary arrest is present, prolonged resuscitation may be required. In cases of secondary hypothermia, reversal of the underlying cause is important. There are few prognostic indicators in human and veterinary patients with hypothermia. Even the most severely affected individuals, including those presenting in cardiopulmonary arrest, have potential for complete recovery with appropriate therapy. Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve outcome in people following cardiac arrest. Further studies are needed to examine this application in veterinary medicine, as well as appropriate therapy and prognosis for cases of spontaneous hypothermia. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  18. Physiological responses to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment currently recommended for moderate or severe encephalopathy of hypoxic‒ischaemic origin in term neonates. Though the effects of hypothermia on human physiology have been explored for many decades, much of the data comes from animal or adult studies; the latter originally after accidental hypothermia, followed by application of controlled hypothermia after cardiac arrest or trauma, or during cardiopulmonary bypass. Though this work is informative, the effects of hypothermia on neonatal physiology after perinatal asphyxia must be considered in the context of a prolonged hypoxic insult that has already induced a number of significant physiological sequelae. This article reviews the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters, including glycaemic control and feeding requirements. The potential pitfalls of blood‒gas analysis and overtreatment of physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters are also discussed. Finally, the effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism are covered, focusing on how the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and dosing requirements of drugs frequently used in neonatal intensive care may change during therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypothermia following antipsychotic drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marum, R.J. van; Wegewijs, M.A.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Beers, E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Hypothermia is an adverse drug reaction (ADR) of antipsychotic drug (APD) use. Risk factors for hypothermia in ADP users are unknown. We studied which risk factors for hypothermia can be identified based on case reports. Method: Case reports of hypothermia in APD-users found

  20. Hypothermia following antipsychotic drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marum, Rob J.; Wegewijs, Michelle A.; Loonen, Anton J. M.; Beers, Erna

    Objective Hypothermia is an adverse drug reaction (ADR) of antipsychotic drug (APD) use. Risk factors for hypothermia in ADP users are unknown. We studied which risk factors for hypothermia can be identified based on case reports. Methods Case reports of hypothermia in APD-users found in PUBMED or

  1. Thermal bridges. Causes and impacts, information on reduction and avoidance; Waermebruecken. Ursachen und Auswirkungen, Hinweise zur Verringerung und Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, Wolfgang; Born, Rolf

    2012-11-15

    Thermal bridges increase the heat demand, affect the thermal comfort, facilitate mould cultures and cause structural damage. Many thermal bridges can be avoided by proper building construction details. At least the impact of thermal bridges can be avoided.

  2. Hypothermia for the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Guillermo; Mayer, Stephan A

    2009-07-01

    Hypothermia is considered nature's "gold standard" for neuroprotection, and its efficacy for improving outcome in patients with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury as a result of cardiac arrest is well-established. Hypothermia reduces brain edema and intracranial pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury. By contrast, only a few small pilot studies have evaluated hypothermia as a treatment for acute ischemic stroke, and no controlled trials of hypothermia for hemorrhagic stroke have been performed. Logistic challenges present an important barrier to the widespread application of hypothermia for stroke, most importantly the need for high-quality critical care to start immediately in the emergency department. Rapid induction of hypothermia within 3 to 6 hrs of onset has been hampered by slow cooling rates, but is feasible. Delayed cooling for the treatment of cytotoxic brain edema does not provide definitive or lasting treatment for intracranial mass effect, and should not be used as an alternative to hemicraniectomy. Sustained fever control is feasible in patients with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but has yet to be tested in a phase III study. Important observations from studies investigating the use of hypothermia for stroke to date include the necessity for proactive antishivering therapy for successful cooling, the importance of slow controlled rewarming to avoid rebound brain edema, and the high risk for infectious and cardiovascular complications in this patient population. More research is clearly needed to bring us closer to the successful application of hypothermia in the treatment for stroke.

  3. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coagulopathy associates with poor outcome in sepsis. Mild induced hypothermia has been proposed as treatment in sepsis but it is not known whether this intervention worsens functional coagulopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interim analysis data from an ongoing randomized controlled...... trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three....... At enrollment, 3%, 38%, and 59% had a hypocoagulable, normocoagulable, and hypercoagulable TEG clot strength (MA), respectively. In the hypothermia group, functional coagulopathy improved during the hypothermia phase, measured by R and MA, in patients with hypercoagulation as well as in patients...

  4. [Functional and morphological study of the local and systemic hypothermia on dog's liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Venilton José; Taha, Murched Omar; Fagundes, Djalma José; Gomes, Paulo de Oliveira; Juliano, Yara; Bruzzadelli, Renata Marcon zanelatto; Caputto, Lucélia Rita Galdino

    2005-01-01

    To compare hepatic lesions produced by two types of hypothermia; the systemic and the local or topic. Twenty dogs distributed in two groups were studied: the first submitted to local hypothermia and the second to systemic hypothermia. In all groups, biochemical dosages for alanina allytransferase (A.L.T.), aspartate aminotrasnferase (A.S.T.) and direct bilirubin (T.D.), conventional optical microscopy and electronic transmission microscopy were performed in times T0, Test, and T60, that is, before the hypothermia (T0), after temperature stabilization at 10 degrees lower than initial temperature (Test), and after sixty minutes of hypothermia (T60). The data analysis, both of the biochemical profile and of the microscopy showed that in the group of animals with selective hypothermia, the hepatic lesions were more intense when compared to the systemic hypothermia group. The selective hypothermia causes more lesions to the liver than the systemic.

  5. A thermodynamic assessment of therapeutic hypothermia techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian; Henriques, Izabela Batista; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2015-01-01

    According to literature, therapeutic hypothermia has been applied for treating conditions that causes an interruption in the delivery of oxygen to the brain, giving the patient better chances of survival with a neurological recovery and without any irreversible damage to the brain. Hypothermia is also used during surgeries and circulatory arrest. In this article, the objective temperature of hypothermia is 32 °C, which is considered mild: 32–35 °C. Three techniques of hypothermia induction were considered: external blood cooling, endovascular cooling with a catheter insertion and water bath. Energy and exergy analyses were performed to determine the clinical effectiveness of these techniques and to evaluate the best test parameters, from which it was possible to calculate the body internal temperature, destroyed exergy and exergy efficiency. Moreover, it was proposed an exergy performance index, which takes into account the ability of a given technique to change the exergy of the body. Results indicate that therapeutic hypothermia takes the subject to a state of lower destroyed exergy and higher body exergy efficiency. The exergy performance index shows that lower rates of cooling lead to a better transformation of the exergy removed from the body into variation of the body exergy. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic study of the human body under mild hypothermia. • Energy and Exergy analysis were applied to the human thermal model. • Calculation of destroyed exergy, exergy efficiency. • Hypothermia led the body to a state of lower destroyed exergy. • EBC achieved higher values of destroyed exergy and exergy efficiency

  6. New frontiers in hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ancora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic hypothermia has currently become a standard of care for asphyctic newborns with moderate-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Strict criteria are required to include these newborns in the hypothermic treatment. On some occasions, in the clinical practice, some discrepancies were found among the 3 inclusion criteria. In such circumstances the knowledge of the accuracy of each criterion, the knowledge of the evolution of clinical and neurophysiologic parameters in the few hours following birth, and the knowledge of the pathogenesis of the asphyxia can help to take the right decision on who to treat with hypothermia. The usefulness of hypothermia in newborns of gestational age lower than 36 weeks or when started beyond the 6th hour of life remains unclear. Perinatal stroke, as HIE, is an evolving process and if early diagnosed could benefit from hypothermia. In addition, infants may experience hypoxic-ischemic episodes that are not related to the birth such as early apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs or near miss events. Also in these cases hypothermia can be theoretically efficacious in preventing the progression of brain damage. The above issues will be discussed in the present paper. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  7. Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants with Admission Hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yang Chang

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypothermia remains a common problem and is related to elevated morbidities and mortality. However, the long-term neurodevelopmental effects of admission hypothermia are still unknown. This study attempted to determine the short-term and long-term consequences of admission hypothermia in VLBW preterm infants.This retrospective study measured the incidence and compared the outcomes of admission hypothermia in very low birth weight (VLBW preterm infants in a tertiary-level neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were divided into the following groups: normothermia (36.5-37.5°C, mild hypothermia (36.0-36.4°C, moderate hypothermia (32.0-35.9°C, and severe hypothermia (< 32°C. We compared the distribution, demographic variables, short-term outcomes, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months of corrected age among groups.We studied 341 infants: 79 with normothermia, 100 with mild hypothermia, 162 with moderate hypothermia, and 0 with severe hypothermia. Patients in the moderate hypothermia group had significantly lower gestational ages (28.1 wk vs. 29.7 wk, P < .02 and smaller birth weight (1004 g vs. 1187 g, P < .001 compared to patients in the normothermia group. Compared to normothermic infants, moderately hypothermic infants had significantly higher incidences of 1-min Apgar score < 7 (63.6% vs. 31.6%, P < .001, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS (58.0% vs. 39.2%, P = .006, and mortality (18.5% vs. 5.1%, P = .005. Moderate hypothermia did not affect neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years' corrected age. Mild hypothermia had no effect on short-term or long-term outcomes.Admission hypothermia was common in VLBW infants and correlated inversely with birth weight and gestational age. Although moderate hypothermia was associated with higher RDS and mortality rates, it may play a limited role among multifactorial causes of neurodevelopmental impairment.

  8. Preventing Hypothermia and Frostbite

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    Protect yourself against hypothermia and frostbite during cold weather. Wear warm clothing that covers your skin and remove any wet clothing immediately.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 12/13/2007.

  9. Hypothalamic control of pituitary and adrenal hormones during hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, C; Miyazaki, M; Kuriyama, K

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate neuroendocrinological mechanisms of hypothermia, we determined the changes in plasma concentrations of corticosterone (CS), prolactin (PRL), and thyrotropin (TSH), and their correlations with alterations in hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), in rats restrained and immersed in a water bath at various temperatures. A graded decrease of body temperature induced a progressive increase in the plasma level of CS, whereas that of PRL showed a drastic decrease. The plasma level of TSH also showed an increase during mild hypothermia (about 35 degrees C), but this increase was not evident during profound hypothermia (below 24 degrees C). The changes in these hormones were readily reversed by rewarming animals. Although DA content in the hypothalamus was not affected, its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), showed an increase following the decrease of body temperature. Pretreatment of the animals with sulpiride, a D2-antagonist, prevented the hypothermia-induced inhibition of PRL release. Hypothalamic TRH was significantly decreased during mild hypothermia, and it returned to control levels after rewarming. These results suggest that the decrease in plasma PRL induced by hypothermia may be associated with the activation of hypothalamic DA neurons, whereas the increase in plasma TSH during mild hypothermia seems to be caused by the increased release of TRH in the hypothalamus.

  10. A comparative analysis of avoidable causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia with low income, middle income and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, C L; Patel, D K; Tajunisah, I; Subrayan, V; Lansingh, V C

    2015-04-01

    To determine the avoidable causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia and to compare this to other middle income countries, low income countries and high income countries. Data were obtained from a school of the blind study by Patel et al. and analysed for avoidable causes of childhood blindness. Six other studies with previously published data on childhood blindness in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Indonesia, China and the United Kingdom were reviewed for avoidable causes. Comparisons of data and limitations of the studies are described. Prevalence of avoidable causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia is 50.5 % of all the cases of childhood blindness, whilst in the poor income countries such as Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Indonesia, the prevalence was in excess of 60 %. China had a low prevalence, but this is largely due to the fact that most schools were urban, and thus did not represent the situation of the country. High income countries had the lowest prevalence of avoidable childhood blindness. In middle income countries, such as Malaysia, cataract and retinopathy of prematurity are the main causes of avoidable childhood blindness. Low income countries continue to struggle with infections such as measles and nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin A, both of which are the main contributors to childhood blindness. In high income countries, such as the United Kingdom, these problems are almost non-existent.

  11. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought...

  12. Years of Life Lost (YLL in Colombia 1998-2011: Overall and Avoidable Causes of Death Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Castillo-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Estimate the Years of Life Lost (YLL for overall and avoidable causes of death (CoD in Colombia for the period 1998-2011.From the reported deaths to the Colombian mortality database during 1998-2011, we classified deaths from avoidable causes. With the reference life table of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2010 study, we estimated the overall YLL and YLL due to avoidable causes. Calculations were performed with the difference between life expectancy and the age of death. Results are reported by group of cause of death, events, sex, year and department. Comparative analysis between number of deaths and YLL was carried out.A total of 83,856,080 YLL were calculated in Colombia during period 1998-2011, 75.9% of them due to avoidable CoD. The year 2000 reported the highest number of missed YLL by both overall and avoidable CoD. The departments with the highest YLL rates were Caquetá, Guaviare, Arauca, Meta, and Risaralda. In men, intentional injuries and cardiovascular and circulatory diseases had the higher losses, while in women YLL were mainly due to cardiovascular and circulatory diseases.The public health priorities should focus on preventing the loss of YLL due to premature death and differentiated interventions by sex.

  13. [Mild therapeutic hypothermia in cardiogenic shock : Retrospective analysis of 80 patients with preclinical cardiac arrest due to cardiac causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, C; Pfister, R; Baldus, S; Reuter, H

    2017-02-01

    The mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains high despite advances in resuscitation and early revascularization strategies. The use of mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) for improvement of survival and neurological outcome in patients with cardiogenic shock is currently subject to renewed discussion. The aim of this study was the detection of risk factors for mortality and morbidity in patients under MTH in cardiogenic shock following preclinical resuscitation for OHCA. A total of 80 consecutive patients in cardiogenic shock after successful resuscitation (mean age 60 ± 3.2 years) treated with MTH were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were cooled to 33 °C for 24 h using an endovascular cooling device. Neurological outcome was assessed after 2 months based on the Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance category (CPC) and correlated with various blood parameter values. After 2 months 31 patients (39 %) showed a good neurological recovery with CPC scores of 1-2, 20 patients (25 %) had a poor neurological outcome with CPC scores of 3-4 and 29 (36 %) patients enrolled in the trial died (CPC 5). Patients with a poor outcome showed significantly higher mean serum levels for lactate, creatinine and urea. In addition, these patients showed a continuous increase of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) values in contrast to patients with a good outcome (∆ NSE from admission to day 1, CPC 1 and 2: - 10.6 ± 3 µg/l and CPC 3-5: 33 ± 12 µg/l, p = 0.02). Changes in the course of serum creatinine, urea and NSE levels within the first 72 h after OHCA could provide valuable additional information for the early assessment of the neurological prognosis in patients treated with MTH.

  14. Mechanism underlying the inner membrane retention of Escherichia coli lipoproteins caused by Lol avoidance signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2003-10-10

    Escherichia coli lipoproteins are localized to either the inner or outer membrane depending on the residue at position 2. The inner membrane retention signal, Asp at position 2 in combination with certain residues at position 3, functions as a Lol avoidance signal, i.e. the signal inhibits the recognition of lipoproteins by LolCDE that releases lipoproteins from the inner membrane. To understand the role of the residue at position 2, outer membrane-specific lipoproteins with Cys at position 2 were subjected to chemical modification followed by the release reaction in reconstituted proteoliposomes. Sulfhydryl-specific introduction of nonprotein molecules or a negative charge to Cys did not inhibit the LolCDE-dependent release. In contrast, oxidation of Cys to cysteic acid resulted in generation of the Lol avoidance signal, indicating that the Lol avoidance signal requires a critical length of negative charge at the second residue. Furthermore, not only modification of the carboxylic acid of Asp at position 2 but also that of the amine of phosphatidylethanolamine abolished the Lol avoidance function. Based on these results, the Lol avoidance mechanism is discussed.

  15. ECG Changes Due to Hypothermia Developed After Drowning: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiye YILMAZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drowning is one of the fatal accidents frequently encountered during the summer and is the most common cause of accidental death in the world. Anoxia, hypothermia, and metabolic acidosis are mainly responsible for morbidty. Cardiovascular effects may occur secondary to hypoxia and hypothermia. Atrial fibrillation, sinus dysrhythmias (rarely requiring treatment, and, in serious cases, ventricular fibrillation or asystole may develop, showing as rhythm problems on electrocardiogram and Osborn wave can be seen, especially during hypothermia. A 16-year-old male patient who was admitted to our hospital's emergency service with drowning is presented in this article. In our case, ventricular fibrillation and giant J wave (Osborn wave associated with hypothermia developed after drowning was seen. We present this case as a reminder of ECG changes due to hypothermia that develop after drowning. Response to cardiopulmonary resuscitation after drowning and hypothermia is not very good. Mortality is very high, so early resuscitation and aggressive treatment of cardiovascular and respiratory problems are important for life.

  16. Future Directions for Hypothermia following Severe Traumatic Brian Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Annie W; Hinson, Holly E

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health care problem on both individual and public health levels. As a major cause of death and disability in the United States, it is associated with a significant economic and public health burden. Although the evidence to support the use of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest is well established, its use in treating TBI remains controversial. Hypothermia has the potential to mitigate some of the destructive processes that occur as part of secondary brain injury after TBI. Hypothermia can be helpful in lowering intracranial pressure, for example, but its influence on functional outcome is unclear. There is insufficient evidence to support the broad use of prophylactic hypothermia for neuroprotection after TBI. Investigators are beginning to more carefully select patients for temperature modulating therapies, in a more personalized approach. Examples include targeting immunomodulation and scaling hypothermia to achieve metabolic targets. This review will summarize the clinical evidence for the use of hypothermia to limit secondary brain injury following acute TBI. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Episodic spontaneous hypothermia: a periodic childhood syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cynthia; Gener, Blanca; Garaizar, Carmen; Prats, José M

    2003-04-01

    Episodic spontaneous hypothermia is an infrequent disorder, with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. A systemic cause or underlying brain lesion has not been found for the disease. We report four new patients, 3-9 years old, with episodic hypothermia lower than 35 degrees C, marked facial pallor, and absent shivering. The episodes could last a few hours or four days, and recurred once a week or every 2-3 months. Two patients also demonstrated bradycardia, mild hypertension, and somnolence during the events; in one of them, profuse sweating was also a feature, and all four presented with either headache, a periodic childhood syndrome, or both (recurrent abdominal pain, cyclic vomiting, or vertigo). Three patients reported a family history of migraine. Neurologic examination, endocrine function, and imaging studies were normal. Migraine prophylactic therapy was of moderate efficacy. Spontaneous resolution was observed in one patient. The clinical characteristics of the syndrome allow for its inclusion as a childhood periodic syndrome related to migraine.

  18. Efficient trawl avoidance by mesopelagic fishes causes large underestimation of their biomass

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-06-07

    Mesopelagic fishes occur in all the world’s oceans, but their abundance and consequently their ecological significance remains uncertain. The current global estimate based on net sampling prior to 1980 suggests a global abundance of one gigatonne (109 t) wet weight. Here we report novel evidence of efficient avoidance of such sampling by the most common myctophid fish in the Northern Atlantic, i.e. Benthosema glaciale. We reason that similar avoidance of nets may explain consistently higher acoustic abundance estimates of mesopelagic fish from different parts of the world’s oceans. It appears that mesopelagic fish abundance may be underestimated by one order of magnitude, suggesting that the role of mesopelagic fish in the oceans might need to be revised.

  19. Emergency Department Visits at the End of Life of Patients With Terminal Cancer: Pattern, Causes, and Avoidability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsirafy, Samy A; Raheem, Ahmad A; Al-Zahrani, Abdullah S; Mohammed, Amrallah A; Sherisher, Mohamed A; El-Kashif, Amr T; Ghanem, Hafez M

    2016-08-01

    Frequent emergency department visits (EDVs) by patients with terminal cancer indicates aggressive care. The pattern and causes of EDVs in 154 patients with terminal cancer were investigated. The EDVs that started during working hours and ended by home discharge were considered avoidable. During the last 3 months of life, 77% of patients had at least 1 EDV. In total, 309 EDVs were analyzed. The EDVs occurred out of hour in 67%, extended for an average of 3.6 hours, and ended by hospitalization in 52%. The most common chief complaints were pain (46%), dyspnea (13%), and vomiting (12%). The EDVs were considered avoidable in 19% of the visits. The majority of patients with terminal cancer visit the ED before death, mainly because of uncontrolled symptoms. A significant proportion of EDVs at the end of life is potentially avoidable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Perforation of the right ventricle in pulmonalis angiography: Possible causes and how to avoid them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, V.; Grabenwoeger, F.; Farres, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    This is a report on a perforation of the myocardium during pulmonalis angiography. The choice of the cather is very important for the occurrence of such complications. We used a Cook 7 French polyethylene multipurpose catheter, which did not guarantee sufficient stabilisation due to its small number of sideholes during injection of contrast medium. On the other hand the straight top of the catheter promoted its penetration into the myocardium to avoid such often lethal complications, catheters with pigtail-configuration should be used. (orig.) [de

  1. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detached intestinal epithelial cells in hypothermia group showed ... of apoptosis than those in normothermia group at 4 h (17.30 ± 2.56 vs. ... intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, which could be attenuated by therapeutic hypothermia.

  2. Systemic hypothermia for the treatment of acute cervical spinal cord injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, William Dalton; Cappuccino, Andrew; Cappuccino, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that affects approximately 12,000 patients each year in the United States. Major causes for spinal cord injury include motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, and direct trauma. Moderate hypothermia has gained attention as a potential therapy due to recent experimental and clinical studies and the use of modest systemic hypothermia (MSH) in high profile case of spinal cord injury in a National Football League (NFL) player. In experimental models of spinal cord injury, moderate hypothermia has been shown to improve functional recovery and reduce overall structural damage. In a recent Phase I clinical trial, systemic hypothermia has been shown to be safe and provide some encouraging results in terms of functional recovery. This review will summarize recent preclinical data, as well as clinical findings that support the continued investigations for the use of hypothermia in severe cervical spinal cord injury.

  3. Popcorn-worker lung caused by corporate and regulatory negligence: an avoidable tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilman, David; Mailloux, Caroline; Valentin, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Diacetyl-containing butter flavor was identified as the cause of an outbreak of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and other lung diseases in popcorn-plant workers. Litigation documents show that the outbreak was both predictable and preventable. The industry trade organization was aware of BO cases in workers at butter-flavoring and popcorn-manufacturing plants but often failed to implement industrial hygiene improvements and actively hid pertinent warning information. Due to weaknesses in the organization and mandates of regulatory bodies, organizations such as NIOSH, OSHA, the FDA, particularly the "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) system, and the EPA failed to detect and prevent the outbreak, which highlights the need for systemic changes in food-product regulation, including the need for corporations to act responsibly, for stronger regulations with active enforcement, for a restructuring of the GRAS system, and for criminal penalties against corporations and professionals who knowingly hide information relevant to worker protection.

  4. Cause of death and potentially avoidable deaths in Australian adults with intellectual disability using retrospective linked data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian; Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Xu, Han; Howlett, Sophie

    2017-02-07

    To investigate mortality and its causes in adults over the age of 20 years with intellectual disability (ID). Retrospective population-based standardised mortality of the ID and Comparison cohorts. The ID cohort comprised 42 204 individuals who registered for disability services with ID as a primary or secondary diagnosis from 2005 to 2011 in New South Wales (NSW). The Comparison cohort was obtained from published deaths in NSW from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from 2005 to 2011. We measured and compared Age Standardised Mortality Rate (ASMR), Comparative Mortality Figure (CMF), years of productive life lost (YPLL) and proportion of deaths with potentially avoidable causes in an ID cohort with an NSW general population cohort. There were 19 362 adults in the ID cohort which experienced 732 (4%) deaths at a median age of 54 years. Age Standardised Mortality Rates increased with age for both cohorts. Overall comparative mortality figure was 1.3, but was substantially higher for the 20-44 (4.0) and 45-64 (2.3) age groups. YPLL was 137/1000 people in the ID cohort and 49 in the comparison cohort. Cause of death in ID cohort was dominated by respiratory, circulatory, neoplasm and nervous system. After recoding deaths previously attributed to the aetiology of the disability, 38% of deaths in the ID cohort and 17% in the comparison cohort were potentially avoidable. Adults with ID experience premature mortality and over-representation of potentially avoidable deaths. A national system of reporting of deaths in adults with ID is required. Inclusion in health policy and services development and in health promotion programmes is urgently required to address premature deaths and health inequalities for adults with ID. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Radioprotective effect of local hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong-Su; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Higano, Shuichi; Nakamura, Mamoru; Hoshino, Fumihiko

    1985-01-01

    We attempted local hypothermia to prevent radiation dermatitis and stomatitis. With regard to parasternal skin reactions postoperatively irradiated breast cancer, dry and moist desquamation, which occasionally occurred with conventional irradiation was not observed in combination with local cooling. As for head and neck tumors, patients who complained of stomatitis decreased with the local cooling, and no one wanted a pause in irradiation before 40 Gy. As local hypothermia is free from danger and does not require special equipment, it was considered to be widely applicable. (author)

  6. Adherence to drug label recommendations for avoiding drug interactions causing statin-induced myopathy--a nationwide register study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Settergren

    Full Text Available To investigate the extent to which clinicians avoid well-established drug-drug interactions that cause statin-induced myopathy. We hypothesised that clinicians would avoid combining erythromycin or verapamil/diltiazem respectively with atorvastatin or simvastatin. In patients with statin-fibrate combination therapy, we hypothesised that gemfibrozil was avoided to the preference of bezafibrate or fenofibrate. When combined with verapamil/diltiazem or fibrates, we hypothesized that the dispensed doses of atorvastatin/simvastatin would be decreased.Cross-sectional analysis of nationwide dispensing data. Odds ratios of interacting erythromycin, verapamil/diltiazem versus respective prevalence of comparator drugs doxycycline, amlodipine/felodipine in patients co-dispensed interacting statins simvastatin/atorvastatin versus patients unexposed (pravastatin/fluvastatin/rosuvastatin was calculated. For fibrates, OR of gemfibrozil versus fenofibrate/bezafibrate in patients co-dispensed any statin was assessed.OR of interacting erythromycin versus comparator doxycycline did not differ between patients on interacting and comparator statins either in patients dispensed high or low statin doses (adjusted OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.60-1.25 and 0.92; 95% CI 0.69-1.23. Interacting statins were less common among patients dispensed verapamil/diltiazem as compared to patients on amlodipine/felodipine (OR high dose 0.62; CI 0.56-0.68 and low dose 0.63; CI 0.58-0.68. Patients on any statin were to a lesser extent dispensed gemfibrozil compared to patients not dispensed a statin (OR high dose 0.65; CI 0.55-0.76 and low dose 0.70; CI 0.63-0.78. Mean DDD (SD for any statin was substantially higher in patients co-dispensed gemfibrozil 178 (149 compared to patients on statin monotherapy 127 (93, (p<0.001.Prescribers may to some extent avoid co-prescription of statins with calcium blockers and fibrates with an increased risk of myopathy. We found no evidence for avoiding co

  7. OPEN HEART SURGERY UNDER HYPOTHERMIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pulmonary blood flow by operation under hypothermia; open heart surgery ... po ition with the right arm abducted and the left arm at the ideo The ... pulmonary valve stenosis is pre ent. Mobilization ... The anaesthetist must try and prevent shivering,. 2. HOURS .... The exploratory inci ion into the right atrial cavity is then clo ed ...

  8. Accidental hypothermia-an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paal, Peter; Gordon, Les; Strapazzon, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper provides an up-to-date review of the management and outcome of accidental hypothermia patients with and without cardiac arrest. METHODS: The authors reviewed the relevant literature in their specialist field. Summaries were merged, discussed and approved to produce this nar......BACKGROUND: This paper provides an up-to-date review of the management and outcome of accidental hypothermia patients with and without cardiac arrest. METHODS: The authors reviewed the relevant literature in their specialist field. Summaries were merged, discussed and approved to produce...... this narrative review. RESULTS: The hospital use of minimally-invasive rewarming for non-arrested, otherwise healthy, patients with primary hypothermia and stable vital signs has the potential to substantially decrease morbidity and mortality for these patients. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has...... and post-resuscitation care. CONCLUSIONS: Based on new evidence, additional clinical experience and clearer management guidelines and documentation, the treatment of accidental hypothermia has been refined. ECLS has substantially improved survival and is the treatment of choice in the patient with unstable...

  9. Mild hypothermia as a treatment for central nervous system injuries: Positive or negative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, Rami; Yan, Yi

    2013-10-05

    Besides local neuronal damage caused by the primary insult, central nervous system injuries may secondarily cause a progressive cascade of related events including brain edema, ischemia, oxida-tive stress, excitotoxicity, and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Hypothermia is a beneficial strategy in a variety of acute central nervous system injuries. Mild hypothermia can treat high intra-cranial pressure following traumatic brain injuries in adults. It is a new treatment that increases sur-vival and quality of life for patients suffering from ischemic insults such as cardiac arrest, stroke, and neurogenic fever following brain trauma. Therapeutic hypothermia decreases free radical produc-tion, inflammation, excitotoxicity and intracranial pressure, and improves cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia, thus protecting against central nervous system dam-age. Although a series of pathological and physiological changes as well as potential side effects are observed during hypothermia treatment, it remains a potential therapeutic strategy for central nervous system injuries and deserves further study.

  10. Role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Harris, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia was examined. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neurotensin produced dose-dependent hypothermia. Histamine appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hypothermia because the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and antihistamines blocked the hypothermic effects of neurotensin. An ICV pretreatment with neurotensin antibody attenuated neurotensin-induced hypothermia, but did not attenuate radiation-induced hypothermia, suggesting that radiation-induced hypothermia was not mediated by neurotensin

  11. Hypothermia-Related Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyawzaw Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is an inflammatory disease presenting from mild localized inflammation to severe infected necrotic pancreatic tissue. In the literature, there are a few cases of hypothermia-induced AP. However, the association between hypothermia and AP is still a myth. Generally, mortality from acute pancreatitis is nearly 3–6%. Here, we present a 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female who presented with acute pancreatitis induced by transient hypothermia. A 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female was hypothermic at 81°F on arrival which was improved to 91.7°F with warming blanket and then around 97°F in 8 h. Laboratory tests including complete blood count, lipid panel, and comprehensive metabolic panels were within the normal limit. Serum alcohol level was 0.01, amylase 498, lipase 1,200, ammonia 26, serum carboxyhemoglobin level 2.4, and β-HCG was negative. The entire sepsis workup was negative. During rewarming period, she had one episode of witnessed generalized tonic-clonic seizure. It was followed by transient hypotension. Fluid challenge was successful with 2 L of normal saline. Sonogram (abdomen showed fatty liver and trace ascites. CAT scan (abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of acute pancreatitis without necrosis, peripancreatic abscess, pancreatic mass, or radiopaque gallstones. The patient was managed medically and later discharged from the hospital on the 4th day as she tolerated a normal low-fat diet. In our patient, transient hypothermia from chronic alcohol abuse and her social circumstances might predispose to microcirculatory disturbance resulting in acute pancreatitis. Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation prevents complications.

  12. Hypothermia--it's more than a toy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Gunther J; Kurz, Andrea

    2005-04-01

    Perioperative hypothermia triples the incidence of adverse myocardial outcomes in high-risk patients; it significantly increases blood loss and augments allogeneic transfusion requirements. Even mild hypothermia increases the incidence of surgical wound infection following colon resection and therefore the duration of hospitalization. Hypothermia adversely affects antibody- and cell-mediated immune defenses, as well as the oxygen availability in the peripheral wound tissues. Mild perioperative hypothermia changes the kinetics and action of various anesthetic and paralyzing agents, increases thermal discomfort, and is associated with delayed postanesthetic recovery. On the other hand however, therapeutic hypothermia may be an interesting approach in various settings. Lowering core temperature to 32-34 degrees C may reduce cell injury by suppressing excitotoxins and oxygen radicals, stabilizing cell membranes, and reducing the number of abnormal electrical depolarizations. Evidence in animals indicates that even mild hypothermia provides substantial protection against cerebral ischemia and myocardial infarction. Mild hypothermia has been shown to improve outcome after cardiac arrest in humans. Randomized trials are in progress to evaluate the potential benefits of mild hypothermia during aneurysm clipping and after stroke or acute myocardial infarction. This article reviews recent publications in the field of accidental as well as therapeutic hypothermia, and tries to assess what evidence is available at the present time.

  13. Effect of hypothermia on radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nias, A.H.W.; Perry, P.; Photiou, A.; Reghebi, K.

    1986-01-01

    The blood supply and oxygen tension have been measured in C3H mouse mammary tumours under hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen, and the enhancement of radiosensitivity by hyperbaric oxygen has been estimated in mice irradiated at different temperatures with and without anaesthesia. Measurement of xenon-133 clearance showed that the blood supply of a tumour tended to increase when anaesthetized mice became hypothermic. Oxygen cathode data showed that the oxygen tension tended to be relatively higher in tumours and lower in subcutaneous tissue when mice exposed to hyperbaric oxygen became hypothermic under anaesthesia. Hyperbaric oxygen enhanced the radiation response of the tumour in terms of an increase in regrowth delay by a factor of 1.7 when the mice had been anaesthetized, whether or not they became hypothermic. A lower factor of 1.4 was obtained without anaesthesia although induced hypothermia increased the response to a small extent. The authors conclude that anaesthesia and hypothermia affect oxygen metabolism in tumours by different mechanisms. (author)

  14. Induced hypothermia in patients with septic shock and respiratory failure (CASS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis Skovsgaard; Johansen, Maria Egede; Bestle, Morten

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal models of serious infection suggest that 24 h of induced hypothermia improves circulatory and respiratory function and reduces mortality. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of core temperature to 32-34°C attenuates organ dysfunction and reduces mortality in ventilator...... h of induced hypothermia (target 32-34°C) followed by 48 h of normothermia (36-38°C). The primary endpoint was 30 day all-cause mortality in the modified intention-to-treat population (all randomly allocated patients except those for whom consent was withdrawn or who were discovered to meet....... FINDINGS: Between Nov 1, 2011, and Nov 4, 2016, we screened 5695 patients. After recruitment of 436 of the planned 560 participants, the trial was terminated for futility (220 [50%] randomly allocated to hypothermia and 216 [50%] to routine thermal management). In the hypothermia group, 96 (44·2%) of 217...

  15. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui YUAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypothermia. A series of rewarming measures, such as infusion of warm fluids, inspiration of warm air, abdominal infusion of warm fluid, instruction of warm fluid into pleural cavity, intravenous infusion of warm fluid, rewarming through ECMO, etc. have been used recently. Advance in research on the classification of hypothermia, its impact to the body and the treatment methods are reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.15

  16. Surgery for pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta under moderate hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Hyup

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare complication after cardiac surgery. Particularly, pseudoaneurysm due to postoperative infection in the ascending aorta requires surgical treatment with antibiotics. If a large sized pseudoaneurysm is located at the retrosternal space, then there is a very high risk of massive bleeding from rupture during performance of resternotomy. To avoid this risk, we performed femoro-femoral bypass under moderate hypothermia with transient circulatory arrest, and we report here on the successful result of this case.

  17. The thermoregulatory mechanism of melatonin-induced hypothermia in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenboim, I; Miara, L; Wolfenson, D

    1998-01-01

    The involvement of melatonin (Mel) in body temperature (Tb) regulation was studied in White Leghorn layers. In experiment 1, 35 hens were injected intraperitoneally with seven doses of Mel (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg Mel/kg body wt) dissolved in ethanol. Within 1 h, Mel had caused a dose-dependent reduction in Tb. To eliminate a possible vehicle effect, 0, 80, and 160 mg/kg body wt Mel dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was injected. NMP had no effect on Tb, with Mel again causing a dose-dependent hypothermia. In experiment 2 (n = 30), Mel injected before exposure of layers to heat reduced Tb and prevented heat-induced hyperthermia. Injection after heat stress had begun did not prevent hyperthermia. Under cold stress, Mel induced hypothermia, which was not observed in controls. In experiment 3 (n = 12), Mel injection reduced Tb and increased metatarsal and comb temperatures (but not feathered-skin temperature), respiratory rate, and evaporative water loss. Heart rate rose and then declined, and blood pressure increased 1 h after Mel injection. Heat production rose slightly during the first hour, then decreased in parallel to the Tb decline. We conclude that pharmacological doses of Mel induce hypothermia in hens by increasing nonevaporative skin heat losses and slightly increasing respiratory evaporation.

  18. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Causes Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice Under Approach-Avoidance Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlu; Yan, Yixiu; Cheng, Jingjing; Xiao, Gang; Gu, Jueqing; Zhang, Luqi; Yuan, Siyu; Wang, Junlu; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal approach-avoidance behavior has been linked to deficits in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of the brain. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important pattern-recognition receptor in the innate immune system, can be directly activated by substances of abuse, resulting in an increase of the extracellular DA level in the nucleus accumbens. We thus hypothesized that TLR4-dependent signaling might regulate approach-avoidance behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared the novelty-seeking and social interaction behaviors of TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in an approach-avoidance conflict situation in which the positive motivation to explore a novel object or interact with an unfamiliar mouse was counteracted by the negative motivation to hide in exposed, large spaces. We found that TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced novelty-seeking and social interaction in the large open spaces. In less stressful test apparatuses similar in size to the mouse cage, however, TLR4(-/-) mice performed normally in both novelty-seeking and social interaction tests. The reduced exploratory behaviors under approach-avoidance conflict were not due to a high anxiety level or an enhanced fear response in the TLR4(-/-) mice, as these mice showed normal anxiety and fear responses in the open field and passive avoidance tests, respectively. Importantly, the novelty-seeking behavior in the large open field induced a higher level of c-Fos activation in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Partially inactivating the NAcSh via infusion of GABA receptor agonists restored the novelty-seeking behavior of TLR4(-/-) mice. These data suggested that TLR4 is crucial for positive motivational behavior under approach-avoidance conflict. TLR4-dependent activation of neurons in the NAcSh may contribute to this phenomenon.

  19. Locally induced hypothermia for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: A physical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotboom, J.; Kiefer, C.; Brekenfeld, C.; Ozdoba, C.; Remonda, L.; Nedeltchev, K.; Schroth, G.; Arnold, M.; Mattle, H.

    2004-01-01

    During the treatment of stroke by local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) it is frequently possible to pass the blood clot with a micro-catheter, allowing perfusion of brain tissue distally to the occlusion. This possibility allows for new early treatments of ischaemic brain tissue, even before the blood clot has been removed. One potential new approach to preserve brain tissue at risk may be locally induced endovascular hypothermia. Physical parameters such as the required micro-catheter input pressure, output velocity and flow rates, and a heat exchange model, applicable in the case of a micro-catheter placed within a guiding catheter, are presented. Also, a simple cerebral temperature model is derived that models the temperature response of the brain to the perfusion with coolant fluids. Based on this model, an expression has been derived for the time needed to reach a certain cerebral target temperature. Experimental in vitro measurements are presented that confirm the usability of standard commercially available micro-catheters to induce local hypothermia of the brain. If applied in vivo, the model predicts a local cooling rate of ischaemic brain tissue of 300 g of approximately 1 C in 1 min, which is up to a factor 30-times faster than the time-consuming systemic hypothermia via the skin. Systemic body temperature is only minimally affected by application of local hypothermia, thus avoiding many limitations and complications known in systemic hypothermia. (orig.)

  20. Locally induced hypothermia for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: A physical feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotboom, J.; Kiefer, C.; Brekenfeld, C.; Ozdoba, C.; Remonda, L.; Nedeltchev, K.; Schroth, G. [Inselspital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University of Bern, Berne (Switzerland); Arnold, M.; Mattle, H. [University of Bern, Department of Neurology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2004-11-01

    During the treatment of stroke by local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) it is frequently possible to pass the blood clot with a micro-catheter, allowing perfusion of brain tissue distally to the occlusion. This possibility allows for new early treatments of ischaemic brain tissue, even before the blood clot has been removed. One potential new approach to preserve brain tissue at risk may be locally induced endovascular hypothermia. Physical parameters such as the required micro-catheter input pressure, output velocity and flow rates, and a heat exchange model, applicable in the case of a micro-catheter placed within a guiding catheter, are presented. Also, a simple cerebral temperature model is derived that models the temperature response of the brain to the perfusion with coolant fluids. Based on this model, an expression has been derived for the time needed to reach a certain cerebral target temperature. Experimental in vitro measurements are presented that confirm the usability of standard commercially available micro-catheters to induce local hypothermia of the brain. If applied in vivo, the model predicts a local cooling rate of ischaemic brain tissue of 300 g of approximately 1 C in 1 min, which is up to a factor 30-times faster than the time-consuming systemic hypothermia via the skin. Systemic body temperature is only minimally affected by application of local hypothermia, thus avoiding many limitations and complications known in systemic hypothermia. (orig.)

  1. Vaginal delivery to reduce the risk of hypothermia to newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulala, Nuli Nuryanti; Sitaresmi, Mei Neni; Sulistyaningsih

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of hypothermia in the world is in the range of 8.5% to 52%, while in Indonesia it is around 47%. Hypothermia has caused 6.3% of neonatal deaths. The method in the process of giving birth determines the way to take care of the newborn. This study aims to observe the effect of the method of delivery on the hypothermia in newborn. This research has obtained an approval from the Ethics Committee of Aisyiyah University, Yogyakarta. This prospective cohort study was conducted to 74 newborns in November 2016. The research subjects were divided into the group of Caesarian section (n = 28) and the group of vaginal delivery (n = 46). Axillary temperature was measured using a digital thermometer at 1st minute, 30th minute, 60th minute, 6th hour, 12th hour and 24th hour. The average temperature difference between the caesarian section group and vaginal delivery group at the 1st minute was at 36°C vs. 36.4° C, at 30th minute at 35.7°C vs. 36.5°C, at 60th minute at 36°C vs. 36.5°C), at 6th hour at 36.2 °C vs. 36.6°C), 12th hour at 36.4°C vs. 36.7°C, and at 24th hour at 36.7°C vs. 36.8°C. The results of the study showed that vaginal delivery could reduce the risk of hypothermia by 1.5 times compared to caesarian section (ρ-value 0.004 CI 95% 1.154 to 1.880)

  2. Development of a Rat Model of Hypothermia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuBose, David A; Morehouse, David H; Rufolo, Dennis; Blaha, Michael; Leon, Lisa R

    2005-01-01

    Hypothermia can significantly impact the outcome of military missions, since it is a seasonal and geographic pervasive physiological phenomenon that reduces not only soldier performance, but may lead to their death...

  3. Devices for Emergency Hypothermia and Military Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing research by the Safar Center for Resuscitation Research and others, indicates the need for the development of compact, mobile, and portable devices for the induction of therapeutic hypothermia...

  4. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stravitz, R.T.; Larsen, Finn Stolze

    2009-01-01

    transplantation or spontaneous liver regeneration follows in short order. To buy time, the induction of therapeutic hypothermia (core temperature 32 degrees C-35 degrees C) has been shown to effectively bridge patients to transplant. Similar to the experience in patients with cerebral edema after other neurologic...... insults, hypothermia reduces cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension in patients with acute liver failure by decreasing splanchnic ammonia production, restoring normal regulation of cerebral hemodynamics, and lowering oxidative metabolism within the brain. Hypothermia may also ameliorate the degree...... of liver injury. Hypothermia has not been adequately studied for its safety and theoretically may increase the risk of infection, cardiac dysrhythmias, and bleeding, all complications independently associated with acute liver failure. Therefore, although an ample body of experimental and human data...

  5. Prospective Audit of Avoidable Factors in Institutional Stillbirths and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    We conducted a prospective audit of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths at Tikur Anbessa. Hospital in Addis Ababa, ... investigated to determine causes of death and the circumstances that ..... role of significant hypothermia and hypoglycemia.

  6. Localized hypothermia aggravates bleeding in the collagenase model of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Roseleen F; Williamson, Michael R; Dietrich, Kristen; Colbourne, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Animal studies testing whether therapeutic hypothermia is neuroprotective after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been inconclusive. In rodents, ICH is often produced in the striatum by infusing collagenase, which causes prolonged hemorrhaging from multiple vessels. Our previous data shows that this bleeding (hematoma) is worsened by systemic hypothermia given soon after collagenase infusion. In this study we hypothesized that localized brain hypothermia would also aggravate bleeding in this model (0.2 U of collagenase in 1.2 μL of saline). We also evaluated cooling after intrastriatal thrombin infusion (1 U in 30 μL of saline)-a simplified model of ICH thought to cause bleeding. Focal hypothermia was achieved by flushing cold water through an implanted cooling device attached to the skull underneath the temporalis muscle of adult rats. Previous work and data at this time shows this method cools the striatum to ∼33°C, whereas the body remains normothermic. In comparison to normothermic groups, cooling significantly worsened bleeding when instituted at 6 hours (∼94 vs. 42 μL, p=0.018) and 12 hours (79 vs. 61 μL, p=0.042) post-ICH (24-hour survival), but not after a 24-hour delay (36-hour survival). Rats were cooled until euthanasia when hematoma size was determined by a hemoglobin-based spectrophotometry assay. Cooling did not influence cerebral blood volume after just saline or thrombin infusion. The latter is explained by the fact that thrombin did not cause bleeding beyond that caused by saline infusion. In summary, local hypothermia significantly aggravates bleeding many hours after collagenase infusion suggesting that bleeding may have confounded earlier studies with hypothermia. Furthermore, these findings serve as a cautionary note on using cooling even many hours after cerebral bleeding.

  7. Causes and avoidance of container damages by means of biocorrosion; Ursachen und Vermeidung von Behaelterschaeden durch Biokorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuever, Jan [Amtliche Materialpruefungsanstalt Bremen (MPA), Bremen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The contribution under consideration deals with the causes and prevention of vessel damages due to corrosion by microorganisms (MIC, microbially induced corrosion) in the presence and absence of oxygen. In particular, the microbially induced corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria and the formation of sulfuric acid by microorganisms are described. Consequential damage caused by microorganisms are inactivation of filters and catalysts, degradation products from the fermentation process and deposits in the pipe system.

  8. Hypothermia with Extreme Bradycardia following Spinal Cord Infarction of Septic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hantson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other autonomic dysfunctions complicating acute spinal cord injury, deep hypothermia is rare but may induce serious cardiovascular complications. There are few pharmacological options to influence hypothermia. A 66-year-old woman was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU for serious cardiac arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation and asystole in the context of a deep hypothermia (axillary temperature below 32°C. She had been admitted to the hospital two months before for an acute L4-L5 infectious spondylodiscitis without any initial neurological deficit. After surgery for epidural abscess drainage, she became paraplegic due to spinal cord infarction (from C7 to T6 levels in the upper territory of the anterior spinal artery. In the ICU, the patient experienced several episodes of asystole and hypotension associated with a core body temperature below 35°C. Common causes of hypothermia (drugs, hypothyroidism, etc. were excluded. A definitive pacemaker had to be inserted, but hypotension persisted. The prescription of oral progesterone (200 mg·d−1 helped to maintain a core temperature higher than 35°C, with a withdrawal of vasopressors. This case report illustrates that patients with incomplete spinal cord injury may present with delayed and deep hypothermia leading to serious cardiovascular complications. Progesterone could be able to influence positively central and peripheral thermal regulation.

  9. Effect of hypothermia on cell kinetics and response to hyperthermia and x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rijn, J.; van den Berg, J.; Kipp, J.B.A.; Schamhart, D.H.J.; van Wijk, R.

    1985-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a potent radio enhancer. Studies using hypothermia in combination with irradiation have given confusing results due to lack of uniformity in experimental design. This report shows that hypothermia might have potential significance in the treatment of malignant cells with both thermo- and radiotherapy. Reuber H35 hepatoma cells, clone KRC-7 were used to study the effect of hypothermia on cell kinetics and subsequent response to hyperthermia and/or X rays. Cells were incubated at 8.5 0 C or between 25 and 37 0 C for 24 hr prior to hyperthermia or irradiation. Hypothermia caused sensitization to both hyperthermia and X rays. In contrast to the effect of hypothermia on either hyperthermia or X rays alone, thermal radiosensitization was decreased in hypothermically pretreated cells (24 hr at 25 0 C) compared to control cells (37 0 C). The expression of thermotolerance and the rate of development at 37 0 C after an initial heating at 42.5 0 C were not influenced after preincubation at 25 0 C for 24 hr. The expression of thermotolerance for heat or heat plus X rays during incubation at 41 0 C occurred in a significantly smaller number of cells after 24 hr preincubation at 25 0 C. The enhanced thermo- and radiosensitivity in hypothermically treated cells disappeared in approximately 6 hr after return to 37 0 C

  10. Hypothermia reduces sulphur mustard toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Lei; Gong Wenrong; Nelson, Peggy; Martin, Leanne; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 deg. C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no significant HD-induced toxicity was evident up to 4 days posttreatment when the cells were incubated at 25 deg. C. However, these protective effects were lost by 24 h when the cells were switched back to 37 deg. C. The protective effects of hypothermia were also demonstrated when apoptotic endpoints were examined. The HD concentration-dependent induction of fragmented DNA (as quantitated using soluble DNA and the TUNEL reaction), morphology, and p53 expression were all significantly depressed when cell cultures were incubated at 25 deg. C compared to 37 deg. C. When animals were exposed to HD vapour for 2, 4, and 6 min and left at room temperature, lesions were produced whose severity was dependent on exposure time and that were maximal by 72 h posttreatment. Moderate cooling (5-10 deg. C) of HD exposure sites posttreatment (4-6 h) significantly reduced the severity of the resultant lesions. However, in contrast to the in vitro results, these effects were permanent. It appears that the early and noninvasive act of cooling HD-exposed skin may provide a facile means of reducing the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions

  11. Detecting child abuse based on parental characteristics: does the Hague Protocol cause parents to avoid the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diderich, Hester M; Fekkes, Minne; Dechesne, Mark; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    The Hague Protocol is used by professionals at the adult Emergency Departments (ED) in The Netherlands to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (1) domestic violence, (2) substance abuse or (3) suicide attempt or self-harm. After detection, a referral is made to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN). This study investigates whether implementing this Protocol will lead parents to avoid medical care. We compared the number of patients (for whom the Protocol applied) who attended the ED prior to implementation with those attending after implementation. We conducted telephone interviews (n = 14) with parents whose children were referred to the RCCAN to investigate their experience with the procedure. We found no decline in the number of patients, included in the Protocol, visiting the ED during the 4 year implementation period (2008-2011). Most parents (n = 10 of the 14 interviewed) were positive and stated that they would, if necessary, re-attend the ED with the same complaints in the future. ED nurses and doctors referring children based on parental characteristics do not have to fear losing these families as patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accidental hypothermia in Poland – estimation of prevalence, diagnostic methods and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiński, Sylweriusz; Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Drwiła, Rafał

    2015-02-06

    The incidence of hypothermia is difficult to evaluate, and the data concerning the morbidity and mortality rates do not seem to fully represent the problem. The aim of the study was to estimate the actual prevalence of accidental hypothermia in Poland, as well as the methods of diagnosis and management procedures used in emergency rooms (ERs). A specially designed questionnaire, consisting of 14 questions, was mailed to all the 223 emergency rooms (ER) in Poland. The questions concerned the incidence, methods of diagnosis and risk factors, as well as the rewarming methods used and available measurement instruments. The analysis involved data from 42 ERs providing emergency healthcare for the population of 5,305,000. The prevalence of accidental hypothermia may have been 5.05 cases per 100.000 residents per year. Among the 268 cases listed 25% were diagnosed with codes T68, T69 or X31, and in 75% hypothermia was neither included nor assigned a code in the final diagnosis. The most frequent cause of hypothermia was exposure to cold air alongside ethanol abuse (68%). Peripheral temperature was measured in 57%, core temperature measurement was taken in 29% of the patients. Peripheral temperature was measured most often at the axilla, while core temperature measurement was predominantly taken rectally. Mild hypothermia was diagnosed in 75.5% of the patients, moderate (32-28°C) in 16.5%, while severe hypothermia (less than 28°C) in 8% of the cases. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was carried out in 7.5% of the patients. The treatment involved mainly warmed intravenous fluids (83.5%) and active external rewarming measures (70%). In no case was extracorporeal rewarming put to use. The actual incidence of accidental hypothermia in Polish emergency departments may exceed up to four times the official data. Core temperature is taken only in one third of the patients, the treatment of hypothermic patients is rarely conducted in intensive care wards and extracorporeal rewarming

  13. Paradoxical undressing associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage in a non-hypothermia case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, Emilienne; Ducrot, Kewin; Scarpelli, Maria Pia; Lobrinus, Alexander; Palmiere, Cristian

    2017-09-01

    Paradoxical undressing is a phenomenon characterizing some fatal hypothermia cases. The victims, despite low environmental temperatures, paradoxically remove their clothes due to a sudden feeling of warmth. In this report, we describe a case of suspected paradoxical undressing in a non-hypothermia case. The victim, a 51-year-old Caucasian man, was found dead wearing only sneakers and socks. All other clothing was found in his car. Postmortem investigations allowed the hypothesis of hypothermia to be ruled out and revealed the presence of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm that caused a subarachnoid hemorrhage, the latter responsible for the death. The absence of any elements suggesting a voluntary undressing or any third party's DNA profile or involvement along with the possibility that the subarachnoid hemorrhage might have determined a hypothalamic injury, somehow rendered conceivable the hypothesis of an inappropriate feeling of warmth due to hemorrhage-induced dysregulation of the hypothalamic temperature-regulating centers.

  14. Olanzapine-associated hypothermia: a case report of a rare event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Monti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia, a potentially fatal condition, is defined as a drop of the body temperature below 35°C. The most common cause of severe hypothermia is the environmental exposure to low-temperatures. Other causes include septicemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, trauma, acute spinal cord injury, prolonged cardiac arrest and hypothyroidism. The hypothermia is an infrequent, but previously documented, adverse effect of antipsychotic medications. A 83-year-old Italian woman was transported to the Emergency Room with a reduced level of consciousness, Glasgow coma scale 7. She was bradycardic (heart rate 42 bpm, 80/150 mmHg blood pressure and respiratory rate 26/min. Her physical examination was significant for an anal temperature of 31°C. Blood exam and chest X-ray were unremarkable. In her clinical history, she was suffering from generalized anxiety disorder for the last 2 years and was prescribed olanzapine 7.5 mg daily. In recent days, the patient experienced a cognitive impairment with heat intolerance and had been reduced the dose of olanzapine 5 mg daily. On the basis of the clinical findings, the patient’s body temperature and blood exam, the diagnosis of olanzapine-associated hypothermia was made. The patient was gradually rewarmed with blankets and warm saline infusion and the olanzapine therapy was discontinued. She gradually regained consciousness after 18 h and, after 1 day, the patient’s body temperature increased up to 37.8°C with an improvement of the neurological conditions. We reported about the case of a patient treated with stable doses of olanzapine for a long period of time that developed hypothermia, a potentially fatal complication. This case shows that it is important to consider every change in the patient behavior, e.g., the poor resistance to heat present in our patient, that should exhibit warning sign of hypothermia.

  15. Socioeconomic gradients in all-cause, premature and avoidable mortality among immigrants and long-term residents using linked death records in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anam M; Urquia, Marcelo; Kornas, Kathy; Henry, David; Cheng, Stephanie Y; Bornbaum, Catherine; Rosella, Laura C

    2017-07-01

    Immigrants have been shown to possess a health advantage, yet are also more likely to reside in arduous economic conditions. Little is known about if and how the socioeconomic gradient for all-cause, premature and avoidable mortality differs according to immigration status. Using several linked population-based vital and demographic databases from Ontario, we examined a cohort of all deaths in the province between 2002 and 2012. We constructed count models, adjusted for relevant covariates, to attain age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios for all-cause, premature and avoidable mortality across income quintile in immigrants and long-term residents, stratified by sex. A downward gradient in age-adjusted all-cause mortality was observed with increasing income quintile, in immigrants (males: Q5: 13.32, Q1: 20.18; females: Q5: 9.88, Q1: 12.51) and long-term residents (males: Q5: 33.25, Q1: 57.67; females: Q5: 22.31, Q1: 36.76). Comparing the lowest and highest income quintiles, male and female immigrants had a 56% and 28% lower all-cause mortality rate, respectively. Similar trends were observed for premature and avoidable mortality. Although immigrants had consistently lower mortality rates compared with long-term residents, trends only differed statistically across immigration status for females (pimmigration status. Additionally, the immigrant health advantage was observed and income disparities were less pronounced in immigrants compared with long-term residents. These findings support the need to examine the factors that drive inequalities in mortality within and across immigration status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Hypothermia for Neuroprotection in Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legriel, Stephane; Lemiale, Virginie; Schenck, Maleka; Chelly, Jonathan; Laurent, Virginie; Daviaud, Fabrice; Srairi, Mohamed; Hamdi, Aicha; Geri, Guillaume; Rossignol, Thomas; Hilly-Ginoux, Julia; Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Louart, Benjamin; Malissin, Isabelle; Mongardon, Nicolas; Planquette, Benjamin; Thirion, Marina; Merceron, Sybille; Canet, Emmanuel; Pico, Fernando; Tran-Dinh, Yves-Roger; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Azoulay, Elie; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Cariou, Alain

    2016-12-22

    Convulsive status epilepticus often results in permanent neurologic impairment. We evaluated the effect of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcomes in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 270 critically ill patients with convulsive status epilepticus who were receiving mechanical ventilation to hypothermia (32 to 34°C for 24 hours) in addition to standard care or to standard care alone; 268 patients were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was a good functional outcome at 90 days, defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5 (range, 1 to 5, with 1 representing death and 5 representing no or minimal neurologic deficit). The main secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, progression to electroencephalographically (EEG) confirmed status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus on day 1, "super-refractory" status epilepticus (resistant to general anesthesia), and functional sequelae on day 90. A GOS score of 5 occurred in 67 of 138 patients (49%) in the hypothermia group and in 56 of 130 (43%) in the control group (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.99; P=0.43). The rate of progression to EEG-confirmed status epilepticus on the first day was lower in the hypothermia group than in the control group (11% vs. 22%; odds ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.79; P=0.009), but there were no significant differences between groups in the other secondary outcomes. Adverse events were more frequent in the hypothermia group than in the control group. In this trial, induced hypothermia added to standard care was not associated with significantly better 90-day outcomes than standard care alone in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; HYBERNATUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01359332 .).

  17. Expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 and vacuolization in the pituitary glands in cases of fatal hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doberentz, Elke; Markwerth, Philipp; Wagner, Rebecca; Madea, Burkhard

    2017-09-01

    Hypothermia causes systemic cellular stress. The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland and plays an important role in thermoregulation. When the core body temperature drops, the pituitary gland is activated by stimulation of hypothalamic hormones. In this study, we investigated morphological alterations of the pituitary gland in cases of fatal hypothermia. Several morphological alterations of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, such as hemorrhage, vacuolization, and hyperemia, have been previously described in fatal hypothermia. However, the diagnostic value of these findings is controversial. We compared 11 cases of fatal hypothermia with 10 cases lacking antemortem hypothermic influences. In the presence of thermal cellular stress, the expression of heat shock proteins increases to protect cellular structures. Therefore, we immunohistochemically analyzed Hsp27 and Hsp70. Hsp27 expression was detected in 27.3% of the cases of fatal hypothermia and in 10.0% of the control cases, whereas Hsp70 expression was not detected in any case. Additionally, Sudan staining was performed to quantify fatty degeneration. A positive reaction was found in 45.5% of the study group and in 10.0% of the control group. This indicates that fatty degeneration might be a valuable marker when other macroscopic signs of hypothermia are absent.

  18. Quality-Improvement Effort to Reduce Hypothermia Among High-Risk Infants on a Mother-Infant Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine; Whatley, Colleen; Smith, Meaghan; Brayton, Emily Caron; Simone, Suzanne; Holmes, Alison Volpe

    2018-02-14

    Neonatal hypothermia is common in low birth weight (LBW) (preventive measures for LPIs and/or LBW infants in a mother-infant unit. We conducted plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles aimed at decreasing environmental hypothermia for LPIs and/or LBW infants in a mother-infant unit with no other indications for NICU-level care. Interventions included using warm towels after delivery, a risk identification card, an occlusive hat, delayed timing of first bath, submersion instead of sponge-bathing, and conducting all assessments under a radiant warmer during the initial hours of life. We implemented these interventions in 3 PDSA cycles and followed hypothermia rates by using statistical process control methods. The baseline mean monthly hypothermia rate among mother-infant unit LPIs and/or LBW infants was 29.8%. Postintervention, the rate fell to 13.3% (-16.5%; P = .002). This decrease occurred in a stepwise fashion in conjunction with the PDSA cycles. In the final, full-intervention period, the rate was 10.0% (-19.8%; P = .0003). A special-cause signal shift was observed in this final period. Targeted interventions can significantly reduce hypothermia in otherwise healthy LPIs and/or LBW newborns and allow them to safely remain in a mother-infant unit. If applied broadly, such preventive practices could decrease preventable hypothermia in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Hypothermia for Stroke: call to action 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macleod, Malcolm R; Petersson, Jesper; Norrving, Bo

    2010-01-01

    The European Hypothermia Stroke Research Workshop was held in January 2010, in response to the alarming prospects of a significant increase of stroke expected in the coming years globally. Considering that a minority of patients (around 10%) are currently eligible for thrombolytic treatment, ther...

  20. [Hypothermia in people in situations of precarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Human beings are physiologically warm blooded. Confronted with extreme cold, they become subject to hypothermia. Between a mountain climber and a person living in the street, the functions of resistance to a drop in external temperature are not the same. Studies on this subject remain to be carried out.

  1. Safety and feasibility of local myocardial hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterspoor, L.C.; van 't Veer, M.; van Nunen, L.X.; Wijnbergen, I.F.; Tonino, W.A.L.; Pijls, N.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), reduction in time to reperfusion of the occluded coronary artery reduces infarct size. In animal models, an additional reduction of infarct size was observed when hypothermia was induced before reperfusion, despite a longer ischemic time.

  2. Hypothermia in a surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelha, Fernando J; Castro, Maria A; Neves, Aida M; Landeiro, Nuno M; Santos, Cristina C

    2005-06-06

    Inadvertent hypothermia is not uncommon in the immediate postoperative period and it is associated with impairment and abnormalities in various organs and systems that can lead to adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, the predictive factors and outcome of core hypothermia on admission to a surgical ICU. All consecutive 185 adult patients who underwent scheduled or emergency noncardiac surgery admitted to a surgical ICU between April and July 2004 were admitted to the study. Tympanic membrane core temperature (Tc) was measured before surgery, on arrival at ICU and every two hours until 6 hours after admission. The following variables were also recorded: age, sex, body weight and height, ASA physical status, type of surgery, magnitude of surgical procedure, anesthesia technique, amount of intravenous fluids administered during anesthesia, use of temperature monitoring and warming techniques, duration of the anesthesia, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay and SAPS II score. Patients were classified as either hypothermic (Tc 35 degrees C). Univariate analysis and multiple regression binary logistic with an odds ratio (OR) and its 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) were used to compare the two groups of patients and assess the relationship between each clinical predictor and hypothermia. Outcome measured as ICU length of stay and mortality was also assessed. Prevalence of hypothermia on ICU admission was 57.8%. In univariate analysis temperature monitoring, use of warming techniques and higher previous body temperature were significant protective factors against core hypothermia. In this analysis independent predictors of hypothermia on admission to ICU were: magnitude of surgery, use of general anesthesia or combined epidural and general anesthesia, total intravenous crystalloids administrated and total packed erythrocytes administrated, anesthesia longer than 3 hours and SAPS II scores. In multiple logistic regression analysis

  3. Hypothermia in a surgical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landeiro Nuno M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadvertent hypothermia is not uncommon in the immediate postoperative period and it is associated with impairment and abnormalities in various organs and systems that can lead to adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, the predictive factors and outcome of core hypothermia on admission to a surgical ICU. Methods All consecutive 185 adult patients who underwent scheduled or emergency noncardiac surgery admitted to a surgical ICU between April and July 2004 were admitted to the study. Tympanic membrane core temperature (Tc was measured before surgery, on arrival at ICU and every two hours until 6 hours after admission. The following variables were also recorded: age, sex, body weight and height, ASA physical status, type of surgery, magnitude of surgical procedure, anesthesia technique, amount of intravenous fluids administered during anesthesia, use of temperature monitoring and warming techniques, duration of the anesthesia, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay and SAPS II score. Patients were classified as either hypothermic (Tc ≤ 35°C or normothermic (Tc> 35°C. Univariate analysis and multiple regression binary logistic with an odds ratio (OR and its 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI were used to compare the two groups of patients and assess the relationship between each clinical predictor and hypothermia. Outcome measured as ICU length of stay and mortality was also assessed. Results Prevalence of hypothermia on ICU admission was 57.8%. In univariate analysis temperature monitoring, use of warming techniques and higher previous body temperature were significant protective factors against core hypothermia. In this analysis independent predictors of hypothermia on admission to ICU were: magnitude of surgery, use of general anesthesia or combined epidural and general anesthesia, total intravenous crystalloids administrated and total packed erythrocytes administrated, anesthesia longer

  4. Motor impairment and neuronal damage following hypothermia in tropical amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daló, Nelson L; Bracho, Gustavo A; Piña-Crespo, Juan C

    2007-02-01

    Although the induction of mild to moderate cerebral hypothermia in mammals can have neuroprotective activity, some deleterious effects have been described when inducing deep hypothermia during cooling of the brain. In the spinal cord, rapid deep cooling can induce seizure activity accompanied by release of the excitatory neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate. We used cold-sensitive tropical amphibians as a model to determine (a) the critical temperature inside the central nervous system necessary to induce seizures during rapid cooling; (b) the survival rate during slow deep cooling of the whole animal; and (c) whether deep cooling can cause neuronal cell damage. Seizures induced by deep rapid (or=30 min) deep cooling of the whole animal (12 h at 2-3 degrees C), around 70% of animals died. Spinal reflexes were enhanced when temperatures within the spinal cord reached between 9.0 degrees C and 11.6 degrees C. A fivefold increase in blood glucose level was observed during slow deep cooling. Recovery after slow deep cooling was accompanied by motor impairment and the main histological findings were condensation of the cytoplasm and nuclear pyknosis. Severe neuronal cell damage was characterized by swelling, vacuolated cytoplasm with distended neuronal bodies. These results indicate that deep cooling can easily induce neuronal cell damage in the central nervous system of cold-sensitive animals. They also warn us to the potential sequels associated with the use of deep brain cooling as a neuroprotective strategy.

  5. Postconditioning by xenon and hypothermia in the rat heart in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwiebert, Christian; Huhn, Ragnar; Heinen, Andre; Weber, Nina C.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Schlack, Wolfgang; Preckel, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective Hypothermia protects against myocardial reperfusion injury. However, inducing hypothermia takes time, which makes it unsuitable as an emergency treatment. Combining mild hypothermia with low-dose xenon, applied either simultaneously or one after the other, protects the

  6. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  7. Atomoxetine Induced Hypothermia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Abali, Osman; Yilmaz, Onat

    2011-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are common in drugs used during childhood and adolescence. Atomoxetine, a selective reuptake inhibitor, was introduced as a safe non-stimulant alternative treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Described common side effects of atomoxetine include: headache, abdominal pain, decreased appetite, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and dizziness. In our case, we present an adolescent male who developed hypothermia under atomoxetine treatment. To our knowledge, this i...

  8. Refractory hypotension due to intraoperative hypothermia during spinal instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah Vanamoorthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of inadvertent hypothermia leading to severe hypotension resistant to high dose vasopressors, which responded to temperature correction in a patient undergoing spinal instrumentation surgery. A 60-year-old female developed severe hypotension during spinal instrumentation surgery. After review of all factors it was found to be secondary to hypothermia. The patient did not respond to high dose vasopressors. However, when normothermia was restored she recovered uneventfully. Patients undergoing lengthy spinal procedures in prone position are vulnerable to develop hypothermia and consequent cardiovascular depression so adequate measures should be taken to prevent hypothermia.

  9. Effects of prior aversive experience upon retrograde amnesia induced by hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R A; Riccio, D C; Gehres, L

    1975-08-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which retrograde amnesia (RA) is attenuated by prior learning experiences. In Experiment 1, rats initially received either passive avoidance training in a step-through apparatus, exposure to the apparatus, or noncontingent footshock. When training on a second but different passive avoidance task was followed by hypothermia treatment, RA was obtained only in the latter two groups. In Experiment 2, one-way active avoidance training, yoked noncontingent shocks, or apparatus exposure constituted the initial experience. Subsequent step-down passive avoidance training and amnestic treatment resulted in memory loss for the prior apparatus exposure group, but not for either of the preshocked conditions. These experiments demonstrate that certain types of prior aversive experience can substantially modify the magnitude of RA, and, in conjunction with other familiarization studies, emphasize a paradox for interpretations of RA based solely upon CNS disruption. The possibility that hypothermia treatment serves as an important contextual or encoding cue necessary for memory retrieval was considered. It was suggested that prior experience may block RA by enabling rats to differentiate training and treatment conditions.

  10. Preventing Hypothermia in Preterm Infants: A Program of Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal hypothermia is a worldwide problem and leads to increased morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. This paper describes a program of research to examine thermoregulation in premature infants and to decrease neonatal hypothermia. Our studies include 1) examining an intervention to reduce heat loss in ...

  11. Effects of a thermal ceiling on postoperative hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Eklund, A; Joachimsson, P O

    1985-01-01

    Moderate per- and postoperative hypothermia initiates an increased metabolism in the postoperative period. The subsequent demands on oxygen transport may be critical in poor risk patients. Nineteen healthy young women with moderate hypothermia after abdominal surgery were studied for 2 h...

  12. Neonatal hypothermia in sub-Saharan Africa: A review | Onalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result and Conclusion: Neonatal hypothermia is a major condition of public health importance in countries of sub- Saharan Africa. Awareness of the burden of the disease is still low in some communities. Risk factors for neonatal hypothermia in the region include poverty, home delivery, low birthweight, early bathing of ...

  13. Cellular mechanisms of the radiomodifying effect of hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmukhanov, S.B.; Karakulov, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The irradiation of experimental tumors with a dose of 2000 to 2500 rad (20 to 25 J/kg) under hypothermia promoted an inhibition of the growth to a greater degree than the irradiation under normal conditions. In Guerin's tumor the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis was more expressed after the irradiation under hypothermic conditions than under the irradiation, and/or hypothermia alone. After the irradiation of the Guerin's tumor under hypothermia the cells were synchronized during the presynthetic phase of the cycle (block G 1 to S), and the effect of synchronization was more expressed in the tumor than in the normal tissue. The irradiation under hypothermia decreased the proliferative pool to a greater degree than the irradiation and/or hypothermia alone. (author)

  14. A proposed methodology to control body temperature in patients at risk of hypothermia by means of active rewarming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Silvia; Cusumano, Alessia; Giaconia, Carlo; Mazzacane, Sante

    2014-01-01

    Hypothermia is a common complication in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. It has been noted that, during the first hour of surgery, the patient's internal temperature (Tcore) decreases by 0.5-1.5°C due to the vasodilatory effect of anesthetic gases, which affect the body's thermoregulatory system by inhibiting vasoconstriction. Thus a continuous check on patient temperature must be carried out. The currently most used methods to avoid hypothermia are based on passive systems (such as blankets reducing body heat loss) and on active ones (thermal blankets, electric or hot-water mattresses, forced hot air, warming lamps, etc.). Within a broader research upon the environmental conditions, pollution, heat stress, and hypothermia risk in operating theatres, the authors set up an experimental investigation by using a warming blanket chosen from several types on sale. Their aim was to identify times and ways the human body reacts to the heat flowing from the blanket and the blanket's effect on the average temperature Tskin and, as a consequence, on Tcore temperature of the patient. The here proposed methodology could allow surgeons to fix in advance the thermal power to supply through a warming blanket for reaching, in a prescribed time, the desired body temperature starting from a given state of hypothermia.

  15. Hypothermia in Uremic Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatchnick, E; Langston, C; Olson, B; Lamb, K E

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of uremic hypothermia (UH) and the effects of improving uremia on body temperature have not been determined in veterinary patients. To determine the prevalence of UH and correlations between uremia and body temperature in patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Uremic dogs (n = 122) and cats (n = 79) treated by IHD at the Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Retrospective review of medical records. The prevalence of hypothermia was 38% in azotemic cats and 20.5% in azotemic dogs. Statistically significant temperature differences were observed between uremic and nonuremic dogs (nonuremic: mean, 100.8°F; range, 91.2-109.5°F; uremic: mean, 99.9°F; range, 95.6-103.8°F; P cats (nonuremic: mean, 100.6°F; range, 94.0-103.8°F; uremic: mean, 99.3°F; range, 92.3-103.4°F; P dog dialysis patients, significant models included (1) timing (pre-dialysis versus post-dialysis) with weight class (small [P dogs), (2) timing with serum creatinine concentration (P = .021), and (3) timing with BUN concentration (P cat dialysis patients, there was a significant interaction between timing and weight as a categorical variable (cats and dogs. Uremic patients are hypothermic compared to ill nonuremic patients and body temperatures increase when uremia is corrected with IHD in dogs and in cats >5 kg. In cats, UH seems to be a more prevalent phenomenon driven by uremia. Uremic hypothermia does occur in dogs, but body weight is a more important predictor of body temperature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Alpha-lipoic acid protects mitochondrial enzymes and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Hypothermia is a key symptom of sepsis and the mechanism(s) leading to hypothermia during sepsis is largely unknown. To investigate a potential mechanism and find an effective treatment for hypothermia in sepsis, we induced hypothermia in mice by lipopolysaccharide (LP...

  17. Cellular Mechanism Underlying Hypothermia-Induced VT/VF in the Setting of Early Repolarization and the Protective Effect of Quinidine, Cilostazol and Milrinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurabi, Zsolt; Koncz, István; Patocskai, Bence; Nesterenko, Vladislav V.; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypothermia has been reported to induce ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF) in patients with early repolarization (ER) pattern. This study examines the cellular mechanisms underlying VT/VF associated with hypothermia in an experimental model of ER syndrome (ERS) and examines the effectiveness of quinidine, cilostazol and milrinone to prevent hypothermia-induced arrhythmias. Method and Results Transmembrane action potentials (AP) were simultaneously recorded from 2 epicardial and 1 endocardial site of coronary-perfused canine left-ventricular wedge preparations, together with a pseudo-ECG. A combination of NS5806 (3–10 µM) and verapamil (1µM) was used to pharmacologically model the genetic mutations responsible for ERS. Acetylcholine (3µM) was used to simulate increased parasympathetic tone, which is known to promote ER. In control, lowering the temperature of the coronary perfusate to induce mild hypothermia (32°C-34°C) resulted in increased J wave area on the ECG and accentuated epicardial AP notch but no arrhythmic activity. In the setting of ER, hypothermia caused further accentuation of the epicardial AP notch, leading to loss of the AP dome at some sites but not others, thus creating the substrate for development of phase-2-reentry and VT/VF. Addition of the Ito antagonist quinidine (5 µM) or the phosphodiesterase III inhibitors cilostazol (10 µM) or milrinone (5 µM), diminished the ER manifestations and prevented the hypothermia-induced phase 2 reentry and VT/VF. Conclusions Hypothermia leads to VT/VF in the setting of ER by exaggerating repolarization abnormalities, leading to development of phase-2-reentry. Quinidine, cilostazol and milrinone suppress the hypothermia-induced VT/VF by reversing the repolarization abnormalities. PMID:24429494

  18. Cellular mechanism underlying hypothermia-induced ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in the setting of early repolarization and the protective effect of quinidine, cilostazol, and milrinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurabi, Zsolt; Koncz, István; Patocskai, Bence; Nesterenko, Vladislav V; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Hypothermia has been reported to induce ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF) in patients with early repolarization (ER) pattern. This study examines the cellular mechanisms underlying VT/VF associated with hypothermia in an experimental model of ER syndrome and examines the effectiveness of quinidine, cilostazol, and milrinone to prevent hypothermia-induced arrhythmias. Transmembrane action potentials were simultaneously recorded from 2 epicardial and 1 endocardial site of coronary-perfused canine left ventricular wedge preparations, together with a pseudo-ECG. A combination of NS5806 (3-10 μmol/L) and verapamil (1 μmol/L) was used to pharmacologically model the genetic mutations responsible for ER syndrome. Acetylcholine (3 μmol/L) was used to simulate increased parasympathetic tone, which is known to promote ER. In controls, lowering the temperature of the coronary perfusate to induce mild hypothermia (32°C-34°C) resulted in increased J-wave area on the ECG and accentuated epicardial action potential notch but no arrhythmic activity. In the setting of ER, hypothermia caused further accentuation of the epicardial action potential notch, leading to loss of the action potential dome at some sites but not others, thus creating the substrate for development of phase 2 reentry and VT/VF. Addition of the transient outward current antagonist quinidine (5 μmol/L) or the phosphodiesterase III inhibitors cilostazol (10 μmol/L) or milrinone (5 μmol/L) diminished the ER manifestations and prevented the hypothermia-induced phase 2 reentry and VT/VF. Hypothermia leads to VT/VF in the setting of ER by exaggerating repolarization abnormalities, leading to development of phase 2 reentry. Quinidine, cilostazol, and milrinone suppress the hypothermia-induced VT/VF by reversing the repolarization abnormalities.

  19. Normal tissue complication probability modeling for cochlea constraints to avoid causing tinnitus after head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Yeh, Shyh-An; Chao, Pei-Ju; Chang, Liyun; Chiu, Chien-Liang; Ting, Hui-Min; Wang, Hung-Yu; Huang, Yu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced tinnitus is a side effect of radiotherapy in the inner ear for cancers of the head and neck. Effective dose constraints for protecting the cochlea are under-reported. The aim of this study is to determine the cochlea dose limitation to avoid causing tinnitus after head-and-neck cancer (HNC) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In total 211 patients with HNC were included; the side effects of radiotherapy were investigated for 422 inner ears in the cohort. Forty-nine of the four hundred and twenty-two samples (11.6 %) developed grade 2+ tinnitus symptoms after IMRT, as diagnosed by a clinician. The Late Effects of Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) criteria were used for tinnitus evaluation. The logistic and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were used for the analyses. The NTCP-fitted parameters were TD 50 = 46.31 Gy (95 % CI, 41.46–52.50), γ 50 = 1.27 (95 % CI, 1.02–1.55), and TD 50 = 46.52 Gy (95 % CI, 41.91–53.43), m = 0.35 (95 % CI, 0.30–0.42) for the logistic and LKB models, respectively. The suggested guideline TD 20 for the tolerance dose to produce a 20 % complication rate within a specific period of time was TD 20 = 33.62 Gy (95 % CI, 30.15–38.27) (logistic) and TD 20 = 32.82 Gy (95 % CI, 29.58–37.69) (LKB). To maintain the incidence of grade 2+ tinnitus toxicity <20 % in IMRT, we suggest that the mean dose to the cochlea should be <32 Gy. However, models should not be extrapolated to other patient populations without further verification and should first be confirmed before clinical implementation

  20. Early prognostication markers in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetkova, M; Koenig, M A; Jia, X

    2016-03-01

    Established prognostication markers, such as clinical findings, electroencephalography (EEG) and biochemical markers, used by clinicians to predict neurological outcome after cardiac arrest (CA) are altered under therapeutic hypothermia (TH) conditions and their validity remains uncertain. MEDLINE and Embase were searched for evidence on the current standards for neurological outcome prediction for out-of-hospital CA patients treated with TH and the validity of a wide range of prognostication markers. Relevant studies that suggested one or several established biomarkers and multimodal approaches for prognostication are included and reviewed. Whilst the prognostic accuracy of various tests after TH has been questioned, pupillary light reflexes and somatosensory evoked potentials are still strongly associated with negative outcome for early prognostication. Increasingly, EEG background activity has also been identified as a valid predictor for outcome after 72 h after CA and a preferred prognostic method in clinical settings. Neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, can identify functional and structural brain injury but are not readily available at the patient's bedside because of limited availability and high costs. A multimodal algorithm composed of neurological examination, EEG-based quantitative testing and somatosensory evoked potentials, in conjunction with newer magnetic resonance imaging sequences, if available, holds promise for accurate prognostication in CA patients treated with TH. In order to avoid premature withdrawal of care, prognostication should be performed more than 72 h after CA. © 2015 EAN.

  1. A new microcontroller supervised thermoelectric renal hypothermia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Hakan

    2005-10-01

    In the present study, a thermoelectric system controlled by a microcontroller is developed to induce renal hypothermia. Temperature value was managed by 8-byte microcontroller, PIC16F877, and was programmed using microcontroller MPASM package. In order to ensure hypothermia in the kidney 1-4 modules and sensors perceiving temperature of the area can be selected. Temperature values are arranged proportionately for the selected area and the determined temperature values can be monitored from an Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen. The temperature range of the system is between -50 and +50 degrees C. Renal hypothermia system was tried under in vivo conditions on the kidney of a dog.

  2. Prolonged drug-induced hypothermia in experimental stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Reith, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    In experimental and human stroke, hypothermia is strongly related to a favorable outcome. Previous attempts to manipulate the core temperature in focal cerebral ischemia have been based on mechanical cooling. The purpose of the study is to establish a model for long-term drug-induced hypothermia...... in focal ischemia by pharmacological alteration of the central thermoregulatory set-point. We tested the hypothesis that the dopaminergic agonist Talipexole, which induces hypothermia, reduces infarct size. Body temperature was monitored by a radio-pill-implant. Rats had reversible occlusion of the middle...... that the core body temperature was reduced by 1.7 degrees C for 24 hours after MCAO in rats treated with Talipexole. This treatment induced a significant reduction of infarct volume at 7 days after focal ischemia by 47%. We suggest that the reduction in infarct volume is related to drug-induced hypothermia...

  3. Therapeutic Hypothermia Following Traumatic Spinal Injury: Morphological and Functional Correlates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yezierski, Robert P

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of experiments carried out during the first year focused on the neuroprotective effects of systemic hypothermia and pharmacological treatments following moderate and severe spinal cord injury...

  4. Prognostic Value of EEG in Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at Children’s Hospitals in Milan, Italy, determined the prognostic value of electroencephalographic patterns in 23 newborns with severe perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, treated with hypothermia.

  5. Interventions for treating inadvertent postoperative hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warttig, Sheryl; Alderson, Phil; Campbell, Gillian; Smith, Andrew F

    2014-11-20

    Inadvertent postoperative hypothermia (a drop in core body temperature to below 36°C) occurs as an effect of surgery when anaesthetic drugs and exposure of the skin for long periods of time during surgery result in interference with normal temperature regulation. Once hypothermia has occurred, it is important that patients are rewarmed promptly to minimise potential complications. Several different interventions are available for rewarming patients. To estimate the effectiveness of treating inadvertent perioperative hypothermia through postoperative interventions to decrease heat loss and apply passive and active warming systems in adult patients who have undergone surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1956 to 21 February 2014), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1982 to 21 February 2014), the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1950 to 21 February 2014) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EBSCO host (1980 to 21 February 2014), as well as reference lists of articles. We also searched www.controlled-trials.com and www.clincialtrials.gov. Randomized controlled trials of postoperative warming interventions aiming to reverse hypothermia compared with control or with each other. Three review authors identified studies for inclusion in this review. One review author extracted data and completed risk of bias assessments; two review authors checked the details. Meta-analysis was conducted when appropriate by using standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 11 trials with 699 participants. Ten trials provided data for analysis. Trials varied in the numbers and types of participants included and in the types of surgery performed. Most trials were at high or unclear risk of bias because of inappropriate or unclear randomization procedures, and because blinding of assessors and participants generally was

  6. Neonatal hypothermia in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onalo, R

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major factor in neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. High prevalence of hypothermia has been reported widely even from warmer tropical countries. In spite of the World Health Organization's recommendation of maintenance of warm chain in newborn care, hypothermia continues to be a common neonatal condition which has remained under-recognized, under-documented, and poorly-managed. This review aims at providing the incidence of and risk factors for neonatal hypothermia as well as provides a pathophysiological overview and management options for neonates with the condition in sub-Saharan Africa. All available published literature on neonatal hypothermia was searched electronically and manually. The principal electronic reference libraries and sites searched were PubMed, Embase, Ajol, Cochrane Reference Libraries and Google Scholar. The search terms used included 'neonatal hypothermia,' 'Cold stress in newborn' 'thermal care of the newborn,' 'neonatal thermogenesis,' 'neonatal cold injury,' among others. Pertinent books and monographs were accessed. Data in formats inaccessible to the reviewer were excluded. Neonatal hypothermia is a major condition of public health importance in countries of sub- Saharan Africa. Awareness of the burden of the disease is still low in some communities. Risk factors for neonatal hypothermia in the region include poverty, home delivery, low birthweight, early bathing of babies, delayed initiation of breastfeeding and inadequate knowledge among health workers. Low-tech facilities to prevent heat losses and provide warmth are available in sub-Saharan Africa and are thus recommended as well as continuous efforts at sensitizing caregivers on the thermal needs of newborns.

  7. The enhancement of immunological activity by mild hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawal, Takeo; Gu, Yeun Hwa; Miyata, Katuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In general, the term hypothermia is applied for the therapeutic method for the treatment of cancer using micro wave, RF wave thermal system or intra-tissue thermal device. It was found to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is one of cytokines secreted by macrophages 'P'j. With remarkable progress in the instruments and technique in recent years, fundamental and clinical research showed extensive development 'Q'j. At present, hypothermia is clinically very important as inter- disciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumor 'R'j. Also, hypothermia is characterized by its selective thermal effect on tumor 'S'j. In this sense, it is called mild hypothermia. There have been not many reports, which described mild hypothermia for the purpose of treating the cases with cancer. This suggests the possibility of immunological response by heating relatively mild temperature (39-42). In this respect, by experiments using mouse as model, we evaluated the effects of hypothermia under temperature of 42.5 and lower and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect can be obtained

  8. The enhancement of immunological activity by mild hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawal, Takeo; Gu, Yeun Hwa; Miyata, Katuyuki [Graduate School of Suzuka Univ. of Med Sci. Master, Suzuka (Japan)] (and others)

    2004-11-15

    In general, the term hypothermia is applied for the therapeutic method for the treatment of cancer using micro wave, RF wave thermal system or intra-tissue thermal device. It was found to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is one of cytokines secreted by macrophages 'P'j. With remarkable progress in the instruments and technique in recent years, fundamental and clinical research showed extensive development 'Q'j. At present, hypothermia is clinically very important as inter- disciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumor 'R'j. Also, hypothermia is characterized by its selective thermal effect on tumor 'S'j. In this sense, it is called mild hypothermia. There have been not many reports, which described mild hypothermia for the purpose of treating the cases with cancer. This suggests the possibility of immunological response by heating relatively mild temperature (39-42). In this respect, by experiments using mouse as model, we evaluated the effects of hypothermia under temperature of 42.5 and lower and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect can be obtained.

  9. Hypothermia therapy for newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia reduces cerebral injury and improves the neurological outcome secondary to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. It has been indicated for asphyxiated full-term or near-term newborn infants with clinical signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). A search was performed for articles on therapeutic hypothermia in newborns with perinatal asphyxia in PubMed; the authors chose those considered most significant. There are two therapeutic hypothermia methods: selective head cooling and total body cooling. The target body temperature is 34.5 °C for selective head cooling and 33.5 °C for total body cooling. Temperatures lower than 32 °C are less neuroprotective, and temperatures below 30 °C are very dangerous, with severe complications. Therapeutic hypothermia must start within the first 6h after birth, as studies have shown that this represents the therapeutic window for the hypoxic-ischemic event. Therapy must be maintained for 72 h, with very strict control of the newborn's body temperature. It has been shown that therapeutic hypothermia is effective in reducing neurologic impairment, especially in full-term or near-term newborns with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Therapeutic hypothermia is a neuroprotective technique indicated for newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Feasibility of adjunct therapeutic hypothermia treatment for hyperammonemia and encephalopathy due to urea cycle disorders and organic acidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Nadkarni, Vinay; Moudgil, Asha; Cook, Noah; Poeschl, Johannes; Meyer, Michael T; Dimmock, David; Baumgart, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    Children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) or organic acidemias (OAs) and acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy are at great risk for neurological injury, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and death. Nutritional support, intravenous alternative pathway therapy, and dialysis are used to treat severe hyperammonemia associated with UCDs and nutritional support and dialysis are used to treat severe hyperammonemia in OAs. Brain protective treatment while therapy is initiated may improve neurological and cognitive function for the lifetime of the child. Animal experiments and small clinical trials in hepatic encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure suggest that therapeutic hypothermia provides neuroprotection in hyperammonemia associated encephalopathy. We report results of an ongoing pilot study that assesses if whole body cooling during rescue treatment of neonates with acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy is feasible and can be conducted safely. Adjunct whole body therapeutic hypothermia was conducted in addition to standard treatment in acutely encephalopathic, hyperammonemic neonates with UCDs and OAs requiring dialysis. Therapeutic hypothermia was initiated using cooling blankets as preparations for dialysis were underway. Similar to standard therapeutic hypothermia treatment for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, patients were maintained at 33.5°C±1°C for 72h, they were then slowly rewarmed by 0.5°C every 3h over 18h. In addition data of age-matched historic controls were collected for comparison. Seven patients were cooled using the pilot study protocol and data of seven historic controls were reviewed. All seven patients survived the initial rescue and cooling treatment, 6 patients were discharged home 2-4weeks after hospitalization, five of them feeding orally. The main complication observed in a majority of patients was hypotension. Adjunct therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with UCDs and OAs receiving standard treatment was

  11. Human pathogen avoidance adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen

  12. Anticonvulsant treatment of asphyxiated newborns under hypothermia with lidocaine : efficacy, safety and dosing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Marcel P. H.; Rademaker, Carin M. A.; van Straaten, Henrica L. M.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Toet, Mona C.; de Vries, Linda S.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; Groenendaal, Floris

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine is an antiarrythmicum used as an anticonvulsant for neonatal seizures, also during therapeutic hypothermia following (perinatal) asphyxia. Hypothermia may affect the efficacy, safety and dosing of lidocaine in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and safety of

  13. Excitotoxic median raphe lesions aggravate working memory storage performance deficits caused by scopolamine infusion into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the inhibitory avoidance task in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between the median raphe nucleus (MRN serotonergic system and the septohippocampal muscarinic cholinergic system in the modulation of immediate working memory storage performance were investigated. Rats with sham or ibotenic acid lesions of the MRN were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and tested in a light/dark step-through inhibitory avoidance task in which response latency to enter the dark compartment immediately after the shock served as a measure of immediate working memory storage. MRN lesion per se did not alter response latency. Post-training intrahippocampal scopolamine infusion (2 and 4 µg/side produced a more marked reduction in response latencies in the lesioned animals compared to the sham-lesioned rats. Results suggest that the immediate working memory storage performance is modulated by synergistic interactions between serotonergic projections of the MRN and the muscarinic cholinergic system of the hippocampus.

  14. Pressure Infusion Cuff and Blood Warmer during Massive Transfusion: An Experimental Study About Hemolysis and Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Pruneau, Denise; Dorval, Josée; Thibault, Louis; Fisette, Jean-François; Bédard, Suzanne K; Jacques, Annie; Beauregard, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Blood warmers were developed to reduce the risk of hypothermia associated with the infusion of cold blood products. During massive transfusion, these devices are used with compression sleeve, which induce a major stress to red blood cells. In this setting, the combination of blood warmer and compression sleeve could generate hemolysis and harm the patient. We conducted this study to compare the impact of different pressure rates on the hemolysis of packed red blood cells and on the outlet temperature when a blood warmer set at 41.5°C is used. Pressure rates tested were 150 and 300 mmHg. Ten packed red blood cells units were provided by Héma-Québec and each unit was sequentially tested. We found no increase in hemolysis either at 150 or 300 mmHg. By cons, we found that the blood warmer was not effective at warming the red blood cells at the specified temperature. At 150 mmHg, the outlet temperature reached 37.1°C and at 300 mmHg, the temperature was 33.7°C. To use a blood warmer set at 41.5°C in conjunction with a compression sleeve at 150 or 300 mmHg does not generate hemolysis. At 300 mmHg a blood warmer set at 41.5°C does not totally avoid a risk of hypothermia.

  15. Incidence of intraoperative hypothermia: adopting protocol for its prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qahtani, Ali S.; Messahel, Farouk M.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the incidence of hypothermia during surgical procedures when adequate methods of preserving normothermia are applied .For this was a study in which patients ASA I-IV presented for surgery at the Armed Forces Hospital, Wadi Al- Dawasir, kingdom of Saudi Arabia ,during the period from July 2000 to February 2003 in whom body core temprature was between 35-37C ,were included. Ambient temperature of the operating room was thermostatically adjusted to record 26C and 24C if patents were < 10 year-old or above .Depending on type of surgery ;the patients were provided with space blankents and were lying on warm mattresses. Fluid or blood warmers and forced-air surface were used when needed for this. = Aggressive measures must be adopted to preserve normothermia as prevention of intraoperative hypothermia improves patients outcome .All patients shoud have their body temprature monitored during surgery .However application of available methods of keeping normothermia reduces the the incidence of intraoperative hypothermia but does not abolish it completely . Hypothermia patients should be closely moniterd during gradual rewarming preferably in the intensive care setting. A protocol for prevention of intraoperative hypothermia must be adopted by all operating theatres. (author)

  16. Hypothermia in Preterm Infants in the First Hours after Birth : Occurrence, Course and Risk Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mank, Arenda; van Zanten, Henriëtte A; Meyer, Michael P; Pauws, Steffen; Lopriore, Enrico; Te Pas, Arjan B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Preterm infants frequently have hypothermia when they are admitted to the NICU, but there is no data on the occurrence of hypothermia during the first hours after admission. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence

  17. Feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia in awake patients with acute stroke through surface cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Rasmussen, B H; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig

    2000-01-01

    Hypothermia reduces neuronal damage in animal stroke models. Whether hypothermia is neuroprotective in patients with acute stroke remains to be clarified. In this case-control study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia by a surface cooling method in awake patients...

  18. The effect of induced hypothermia on respiratory parameters in mechanically ventilated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslami, Hamid; Binnekade, Jan M.; Horn, Janneke; Huissoon, Sandra; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mild hypothermia is increasingly applied in the intensive care unit. Knowledge on the effects of hypothermia on respiratory parameters during mechanical ventilation is limited. In this retrospective study, we describe the effect of hypothermia on gas exchange in patients cooled for 24 h after a

  19. Drug-induced Hypothermia by 5HT1A Agonists Provide Neuroprotection in Experimental Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hasseldam, Henrik; Nybro Smith, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced hypothermia reduces brain damage in animal stroke models and is an undiscovered potential in human stroke treatment. We studied hypothermia induced by the serotonergic agonists S14671 (1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]-4[1-(7- methoxynaphtyl)]piperazine) and ipsapirone in a rat...... therapeutic hypothermia....

  20. Intraoperative hypothermia and its clinical outcomes in patients undergoing general anesthesia: National study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yi

    Full Text Available Inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia (core temperature 2 h (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 2.09-3.24.The incidence of intraoperative hypothermia in China is high, and the rate of active warming of patients during operation is low. Hypothermia is associated with more postoperative shivering, increased ICU admissions, and longer postoperative hospital days.

  1. Hypothermia and hypokalemia in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Saito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 36-year-old man with type-1 diabetes who was hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. On admission, he had hypothermia, hypokalemia and combined metabolic and respiratory alkalosis, in addition to hyperglycemia. Hypothermia, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis, with a concurrent respiratory alkalosis, are not commonly seen in DKA. After admission, intravenous infusion of 0.45% saline was administered, which resulted in the development of pure metabolic acidosis. After starting insulin infusion, hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia became evident and finally resulted in massive rhabdomyolysis. Hyperkalemia accompanying oliguric acute kidney injury (AKI warranted initiation of hemodialysis (HD on Day-five. On the 45th hospital day, his urine output started to increase and a total of 22 HD sessions were required. We believe that in this case severe dehydration, hypothermia and hypokalemia might have contributed to the initial symptoms of DKA as well as the prolongation of AKI.

  2. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Søholm, Helle

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopres......AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level...

  3. Facts and Fiction: The Impact of Hypothermia on Molecular Mechanisms following Major Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Frink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous multiple trauma and surgical patients suffer from accidental hypothermia. While induced hypothermia is commonly used in elective cardiac surgery due to its protective effects, accidental hypothermia is associated with increased posttraumatic complications and even mortality in severely injured patients. This paper focuses on protective molecular mechanisms of hypothermia on apoptosis and the posttraumatic immune response. Although information regarding severe trauma is limited, there is evidence that induced hypothermia may have beneficial effects on the posttraumatic immune response as well as apoptosis in animal studies and certain clinical situations. However, more profound knowledge of mechanisms is necessary before randomized clinical trials in trauma patients can be initiated.

  4. Intestinal obstruction caused by endometriosis: Endoscopic stenting and expedited laparoscopic resection avoiding stoma. A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Calcagno

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endometriosis is the growth of endometrium outside the uterine cavity. In 5–15% of cases the disease can affect the colon and small bowel, causing complete obstruction and requiring resection in about 1% of cases. Case summary: We describe a case of sigmoid obstruction due to endometriosis in a 38 years old woman with personal history of endometriosis. She was admitted for abdominal pain and constipation. The patient was treated with endoscopic stenting and subsequent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy. Discussion: Bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis is a rare event. Its diagnosis can thus be a clinical and radiological challenge but it may be suspected in all young woman with colonic obstruction. At present, the management of endometriosis is an integrate approach of both medical and surgical therapy. In case of irreversible colonic obstruction surgery is mandatory. The treatment of choice is usually an emergency procedure (either Hartmann procedure or resection and anastomosis with stoma placement. This approach entails all the risks related to emergency procedures and can have important psychological and biological drawbacks. Conclusion: Endoscopic prosthesis placement as bridge to surgery is a feasible therapeutic strategy in colonic obstruction due to endometriosis. It brings about all the advantages of an expedited one step laparoscopic surgical procedure. Laparoscopic elective resection has a lower rate of stoma placement and has a postoperative pregnancy rate grater than open surgery. Keywords: Endometriosis, Bowel obstruction, Laparoscopy, Endoscopic stent, Stoma

  5. Induced Hypothermia Does Not Harm Hemodynamics after Polytrauma: A Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommsen, Philipp; Pfeifer, Roman; Mohr, Juliane; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Flohé, Sascha; Fröhlich, Matthias; Keibl, Claudia; Seekamp, Andreas; Witte, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The deterioration of hemodynamics instantly endangers the patients' life after polytrauma. As accidental hypothermia frequently occurs in polytrauma, therapeutic hypothermia still displays an ambivalent role as the impact on the cardiopulmonary function is not yet fully understood. Methods. We have previously established a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, penetrating abdominal trauma, and hemorrhagic shock. Therapeutic hypothermia (34°C) was induced for 3 hours. We documented cardiovascular parameters and basic respiratory parameters. Pigs were euthanized after 15.5 hours. Results. Our polytrauma porcine model displayed sufficient trauma impact. Resuscitation showed adequate restoration of hemodynamics. Induced hypothermia had neither harmful nor major positive effects on the animals' hemodynamics. Though heart rate significantly decreased and mixed venous oxygen saturation significantly increased during therapeutic hypothermia. Mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and wedge pressure showed no significant differences comparing normothermic trauma and hypothermic trauma pigs during hypothermia. Conclusions. Induced hypothermia after polytrauma is feasible. No major harmful effects on hemodynamics were observed. Therapeutic hypothermia revealed hints for tissue protective impact. But the chosen length for therapeutic hypothermia was too short. Nevertheless, therapeutic hypothermia might be a useful tool for intensive care after polytrauma. Future studies should extend therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:26170533

  6. Induced Hypothermia Does Not Harm Hemodynamics after Polytrauma: A Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weuster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The deterioration of hemodynamics instantly endangers the patients’ life after polytrauma. As accidental hypothermia frequently occurs in polytrauma, therapeutic hypothermia still displays an ambivalent role as the impact on the cardiopulmonary function is not yet fully understood. Methods. We have previously established a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, penetrating abdominal trauma, and hemorrhagic shock. Therapeutic hypothermia (34°C was induced for 3 hours. We documented cardiovascular parameters and basic respiratory parameters. Pigs were euthanized after 15.5 hours. Results. Our polytrauma porcine model displayed sufficient trauma impact. Resuscitation showed adequate restoration of hemodynamics. Induced hypothermia had neither harmful nor major positive effects on the animals’ hemodynamics. Though heart rate significantly decreased and mixed venous oxygen saturation significantly increased during therapeutic hypothermia. Mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and wedge pressure showed no significant differences comparing normothermic trauma and hypothermic trauma pigs during hypothermia. Conclusions. Induced hypothermia after polytrauma is feasible. No major harmful effects on hemodynamics were observed. Therapeutic hypothermia revealed hints for tissue protective impact. But the chosen length for therapeutic hypothermia was too short. Nevertheless, therapeutic hypothermia might be a useful tool for intensive care after polytrauma. Future studies should extend therapeutic hypothermia.

  7. Clinical, electrophysiological, and prognostic study of postinjection sciatic nerve injury: An avoidable cause of loss of limb in the peripheral medical service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Maqbool

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post injection sciatic nerve injury is a common cause of sciatic nerve mononeuropathy in the developing world largely due to inadequate health care facilites in the rural regions. Objective: The study was conducted to analyse the pattern of this nerve lesion in clinical and electrophysiological parameters and also to study the outcome in a conservatively treated cohort. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six patients who underwent evaluation at our laboratory from 2000 to 2006 for post injection sciatic neuropathy formed the study population. Twenty two of these were followed up (mean 6.6 months for the outcome. Results: In the cases with full data, common peroneal division of the sciatic nerve was affected alone or predominantly. On follow up, 72% cases showed little or partial recovery. Thirty two percent patients had residual trophic changes and causalgia at their last visit. Conclusion: The majority of cases of postinjection sciatic nerve injury have poor prognosis on conservative treatment.

  8. Evolution of the Therapeutic Effects of Induced Local Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Basiri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is one of the most important causes of permanent damage to brain tissue that redound to mortality and/or late sequelae such as cerebral palsy or delayed neural development. 15-20 percent of Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE cases die during neonatal period and 25-30 percent of those who survive suffer from neural development problems such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Hypothermia or lowering temperature of brain or total body is a new and promising treatment. The present study was done to assess therapeutic effects of induced local hypothermia in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE among neonates admitted to Fatemieh and Beset hospitals of Hamadan city.Materials & Method: The present study was performed as a randomized clinical trial upon 36 neonates who had inclusion criteria to be imported into the study. In the first 6 hours after birth, the neonates were randomly classified into two 18 person groups. In the control group the neonates were managed with routine treatments consisted of preservative measures and anti-convulsive treatments, if necessary. In the case group the neonates received induced local hypothermia for 6 hours in addition to routine therapeutic managements. The data were analyzed using SPSS Version 13.Results: 72.7% of the neonates of the case and control groups were male. There was no significant difference between the case and control groups in sex, birth weight, gestational age and perinatal obstetric complications. The mean duration of admission was 7.72±4.23 days in the case group and 10.06±5.99 days in the control group with no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.199. The mean time of starting oral feeding was 3.44±3.11 days and 4.53±2.74 days in the control and case groups respectively and this difference was not statistically significant either (P=0.737.The mean time of regaining consciousness was 3.72±3.19 days in the case

  9. [Effects of craniocerebral hypothermia on the course of climacteric syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishenko, V I; Sherbina, N A; Lipko, O P

    1992-01-01

    Craniocerebral hypothermia was used in the treatment of 43 women aged 48 to 55, suffering from the climacteric syndrome of varying severity. The treatment efficacy was confirmed by EEG data and changes in blood levels of ACTH, LH, prolactin, and hydrocortisone.

  10. Neonatal hypothermia in sub-Saharan Africa: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Apr-Jun 2013 • Vol 16 • Issue 2 ... it is estimated that 17 million newborns develop hypothermia ... Transfer of radiant energy by radiation from the body ..... in the evaluation of critically ill patients for brain death. ... use of the condition in neonatal encephalopathies and.

  11. Cooling the crisis: Therapeutic hypothermia after sickle cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metske, Hennie A.; Postema, Pieter G.; Biemond, Bart J.; Bouman, Catherine S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The management of patients with sickle-cell disease and cardiac arrest presents special challenges. Mild therapeutic hypothermia may improve survival and neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest, however, it may also precipitate sickling in patients with sickle-cell disease. Rigorous

  12. Neonatal Hypothermia and Associated Risk Factors at Baby Friendly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperatures were recorded immediately after birth and at the age of 1, 2 and 4 h after birth in order to estimate the prevalence of neonatal hypothermia, defined as axillary temperature less than ... Odds ratios (ORs) were assessed using maximum likelihood and associated 95% confidence intervals were computed.

  13. The incidence and risk factors for intra-operative hypothermia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... at the Kenyatta National Hospital is 30%. Gender (male), lower body temperature at induction, use of caudal block and the volume of intravenous fluids infused were significant independent predictors of core hypothermia. The most significant predictor was body temperature at the time of induction of general anaesthesia.

  14. Evaluation and prognosis of neonates with asphyxia treated by hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jannatdoust

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asphyxia is a perinatal accident with a high mortality rate, therapeutic hypothermia in both head or whole body was suggested as effective therapeutic methods. In this study, we compare these methods in neonates with asphyxia. Methods and Materials: 16 neonates with asphyxia in two hospitals including Alzahra(head hypothermia and Taleghani hospital (total body hypothermia went under the therapeutic hypothermia for 72 hours. Maintaining temperature controlled by several sensors precisely. Body cooling were performed on the trunk and limbs of the neonates. Temperature and vital signs controlled every 1 hour and biochemistry, and coagulation tests were performed regularly, early and late complications of patients including developmental disorders, were evaluated. Comparing two groups was performed using Chi square and Mann Whitney U test, on the software SPSS16 , p less than 0.05 was significant. Results: 16 cases with gestation age of 38 ± 2weeks were enrolled. Of 9 cases by head cooling 1 patient died and 2 patients got mild developmental disorders. Of the 7 newborns of whole body cooling trail, 3 died and 1 got minor developmental disorders and one case showed major.. Feeding time (head group 5±2 , body group 8±5 days and also discharge time (head group 15±8 days and body group 14±5 days had no significant differences . Conclusion: It seems head hypothermia method is associated with a lower mortality than the whole body method. In the above sample size, the differences were not statistically significant. Performing these procedures on larger samples could be approval.

  15. Passive hypothermia (≥35 - newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellam, Aurélie; Lode, Noëlla; Ayachi, Azzedine; Jourdain, Gilles; Dauger, Stéphane; Jones, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Hypothermia initiated in the first six hours of life in term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces the risk of death and severe neurological sequelae. Our study's principal objective was to evaluate transport predictors potentially influencing arrival in NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) at a temperature ≥35-Newborns were selected for inclusion according to biological and clinical criteria before transport using passive hypothermia using a target temperature of ≥35-<36°C. Data on 120 of 126 inclusions were available for analysis. Thirty-three percent of the children arrived in NICU with the target temperature of ≥35-<36°C. The mean temperature for the whole group of infants on arrival in NICU was 35.4°C (34.3-36.5). The median age of all infants on arrival in NICU was 3h03min [2h25min-3h56min]. Three infants arrived in NICU with a temperature of <33°C and eleven with a temperature ≥37°C. Adrenaline during resuscitation was associated with a lower mean temperature on arrival in NICU. Our strategy using ≥35-<36°C passive hypothermia combined with short transport times had little effect on temperature after the arrival of Neonatal Transport Team although did reduce numbers of infants arriving in NICU in deep hypothermia. For those infants where hypothermia was discontinued in NICU our strategy facilitated re-warming. Re-adjustment to a lower target temperature to ≥34.5-<35.5°C may reduce the proportion of infants with high/normothermic temperatures.

  16. Evaluation and prognosis of neonates with asphyxia treated by hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jannatdoust

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asphyxia is a perinatal accident with a high mortality rate, therapeutic hypothermia in both head or whole body was suggested as effective therapeutic methods. In this study, we compare these methods in neonates with asphyxia.Methods and Materials: 16 neonates with asphyxia in two hospitals including Alzahra(head hypothermia and Taleghani hospital (total body hypothermia went under the therapeutic hypothermia for 72 hours. Maintaining temperature controlled by several sensors precisely. Body cooling were performed on the trunk and limbs of the neonates. Temperature and vital signs controlled every 1 hour and biochemistry, and coagulation tests were performed regularly, early and late complications of patients including developmental disorders, were evaluated. Comparing two groups was performed using Chi square and Mann Whitney U test, on the software SPSS16 , p less than 0.05 was significant.Results: 16 cases with gestation age of 38 ± 2weeks were enrolled. Of 9 cases by head cooling 1 patient died and 2 patients got mild developmental disorders. Of the 7 newborns of whole body cooling trail, 3 died and 1 got minor developmental disorders and one case showed major.. Feeding time (head group 5±2 , body group 8±5 days and also discharge time (head group 15±8 days and body group 14±5 days had no significant differences .Conclusion: It seems head hypothermia method is associated with a lower mortality than the whole body method. In the above sample size, the differences were not statistically significant. Performing these procedures on larger samples could be approval.

  17. Postanoxic coma: prognosis after therapeutic hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwes, A.

    2012-01-01

    Postanoxic coma, also known as anoxic-ischemic coma, is a state of unconsciousness caused by global anoxia of the brain. The most common cause is primary cardiac arrest followed by successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Other causes include primary respiratory arrest, near-drowning,

  18. Rear end collision: Causes and avoidance techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nekovee, Maziar; Bie, Jing; Naja, Rola

    2013-01-01

    Rear-end collision is one of the most frequent accidents occurring on roadways. This chapter investigates how vehicle’s local parameters in a platoon of cars (i.e., perception and information collection, vehicle speed, safe distance, braking parameters) affect the global behavior of the traffic

  19. Reversible inactivation and excitation of nucleus raphe magnus can modulate tail blood flow of male Wistar rats in response to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Seyed Mansour; Kourosh Arami, Masoomeh; Sarihi, Abdorahman; Hajizadeh, Sohrab; Behzadi, Gila; Shahidi, Siamak; Komaki, Alireza; Heshmatian, Behnam; Vahabian, Mehrangiz

    2008-10-01

    The nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is involved in thermoregulatory processing. There is a correlation between changes in the firing rates of the cells in the NRM and the application of the peripheral thermal stimulus. we examined the effect of reversible inactivation and excitation of NRM on mechanisms involved in tail blood flow (TBF) regulation in hypothermia. Hypothermia was induced in Male Wistar rats and cannula was implanted above the NRM. To evaluate the effect of nucleus inactivation on TBF, the amount of TBF was measured by Laser Doppler in hypothermic rats, before and after lidocaine microinjection into NRM. TBF was also measured after glutamate microinjection to assess the effect of nucleus excitation in hypothermic rats. Results indicated that after dropping TBF by hypothermia, microinjection of lidocaine into NRM significantly decreased TBF from 54.43 +- 5.7 to 46.81 +- 3.4, whereas glutamate microinjection caused a significant increase from 44.194 +- 0.6 to 98 +- 10.0 CONCLUSION: These data suggest that NRM have thermoregulatory effect in response to hypothermia.

  20. Can induced hypothermia be assured during brain MRI in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintermark, Pia; Labrecque, Michelle; Hansen, Anne; Warfield, Simon K.; DeHart, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Until now, brain MRIs in asphyxiated neonates who are receiving therapeutic hypothermia have been performed after treatment is complete. However, there is increasing interest in utilizing early brain MRI while hypothermia is still being provided to rapidly understand the degree of brain injury and possibly refine neuroprotective strategies. This study was designed to assess whether therapeutic hypothermia can be maintained while performing a brain MRI. Twenty MRI scans were obtained in 12 asphyxiated neonates while they were treated with hypothermia. The median difference between esophageal temperature on NICU departure and return was 0.1 C (range: -0.8 to 0.8 C). We found that therapeutic hypothermia can be safely and reproducibly maintained during a brain MRI. Hypothermia treatment should not prevent obtaining an early brain MRI if clinically indicated. (orig.)

  1. Drug-Induced Hypothermia as Beneficial Treatment before and after Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming F; Hasseldam, Henrik; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Hypothermia is still unproven as beneficial treatment in human stroke, although in animal models, conditioning the brain with hypothermia has induced tolerance to insults. Here, we delineate the feasibility of drug-induced mild hypothermia in reducing ischemic brain damage when...... conditioning before (preconditioning) and after (postconditioning) experimental stroke. Methods: Hypothermia was induced in rats with a bolus of 6 mg/kg talipexole followed by 20 h continuous talipexole infusion of 6 mg/kg in total. Controls received similar treatment with saline. The core body temperature...... was continuously monitored. In preconditioning, hypothermia was terminated before either reversible occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 60 min or global ischemia for 10 min with 2-vessel occlusion and hypotension. In postconditioning, rats experienced 60 min of MCAO before hypothermia was induced...

  2. Can induced hypothermia be assured during brain MRI in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintermark, Pia [Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Montreal Children' s Hospital, Division of Newborn Medicine, Montreal, QC (Canada); Labrecque, Michelle; Hansen, Anne [Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Warfield, Simon K.; DeHart, Stephanie [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Until now, brain MRIs in asphyxiated neonates who are receiving therapeutic hypothermia have been performed after treatment is complete. However, there is increasing interest in utilizing early brain MRI while hypothermia is still being provided to rapidly understand the degree of brain injury and possibly refine neuroprotective strategies. This study was designed to assess whether therapeutic hypothermia can be maintained while performing a brain MRI. Twenty MRI scans were obtained in 12 asphyxiated neonates while they were treated with hypothermia. The median difference between esophageal temperature on NICU departure and return was 0.1 C (range: -0.8 to 0.8 C). We found that therapeutic hypothermia can be safely and reproducibly maintained during a brain MRI. Hypothermia treatment should not prevent obtaining an early brain MRI if clinically indicated. (orig.)

  3. OUTCOMES in CHILDHOOD FOLLOWING THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA for NEONATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY (HIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Girija; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we review the childhood outcomes of neonates with birth depression and/or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The outcomes of these children prior to the era of hypothermia for neuroprotection will first be summarized, followed by discussion of results from randomized controlled trials of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The predictors of outcome in childhood following neonatal HIE using clinical and imaging biomarkers following hypothermia therapy will be described. PMID:27863707

  4. Outcomes in childhood following therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Girija; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we review the childhood outcomes of neonates with birth depression and/or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The outcomes of these children prior to the era of hypothermia for neuroprotection will first be summarized, followed by discussion of results from randomized controlled trials of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The predictors of outcome in childhood following neonatal HIE using clinical and imaging biomarkers following hypothermia therapy will be described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of risk factors on the improvement of hypothermia neonatal using fuzzy transition

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Salmani; Alireza Abadi; S. Mahmoud Taheri; Hamid Alavi Majd; Fatemeh Nayeri

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Neonatal hypothermia is a major risk factor for mortality after delivery. This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with transition in hypothermia state with new definition of hypothermia states.Methods:  Four hundred and seventy nine (479) neonates hospitalized in NICU of Valiasr in Tehran, Iran in 2005 participated in this study. The rectal temperature of neonatal was measured immediately after delivery and every 30 min afterwards, until neonates became nor...

  6. Role of Neurotensin in Radiation-Induced Hypothermia in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    radiation-in- appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hylothemnia becaus duced hypothermia and to elucidate the mechanisms in- th mas cell stabilizer...of neurotensin an- tibody alone had no effect on body temperature. An ICV administration of the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromo- 30 3 120glycate...David Kopf Instruments. No. 320) A single cannula was in- pear to be centrally mediated (4. 5). H- stamine has been serteil aseptically into the

  7. Study on Control of Brain Temperature for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    The brain hypothermia treatment is an attractive therapy for the neurologist because of its neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients. The present paper deals with the possibility of controlling the brain and other viscera in different temperatures from the viewpoint of system control. It is theoretically attempted to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment to cool only the head but to warm the body by using the simple apparatus such as the cooling cap, muffler and warming blanket. For this purpose, a biothermal system concerning the temperature difference between the brain and the other thoracico-abdominal viscus is synthesized from the biothermal model of hypothermic patient. The output controllability and the asymptotic stability of the system are examined on the basis of its structure. Then, the maximum temperature difference to be realized is shown dependent on the temperature range of the apparatus and also on the maximum gain determined from the coefficient matrices A, B and C of the biothermal system. Its theoretical analysis shows the realization of difference of about 2.5°C, if there is absolutely no constraint of the temperatures of the cooling cap, muffler and blanket. It is, however, physically unavailable. Those are shown by simulation example of the optimal brain temperature regulation using a standard adult database. It is thus concluded that the surface cooling and warming apparatus do no make it possible to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment, because the brain temperature cannot be cooled lower than those of other viscera in an appropriate temperature environment. This study shows that the ever-proposed good method of clinical treatment is in principle impossible in the actual brain hypothermia treatment.

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with neonatal encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Ng, Chee M; Dillon, Christina H; Barks, John D E; Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha

    2013-02-01

    Phenobarbital is the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures. Many neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy are treated with therapeutic hypothermia, and about 40% have clinical seizures. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy who undergo therapeutic hypothermia. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on phenobarbital pharmacokinetics, taking into account maturational changes. Level 3 neonatal ICU. Infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and suspected seizures, all treated with phenobarbital. Some of these infants also received treatment with therapeutic hypothermia. None. A retrospective cohort study of 39 infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with phenobarbital (20 were treated with therapeutic hypothermia and 19 were not). Data on phenobarbital plasma concentrations were collected in 39 subjects with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with or without therapeutic hypothermia. Using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital were developed with a total of 164 plasma concentrations. A one-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics. The clearance of phenobarbital was linearly related to body weight and matured with increasing age with a maturation half-life of 22.1 days. Therapeutic hypothermia did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenobarbital. Therapeutic hypothermia does not influence the clearance of phenobarbital after accounting for weight and age. Standard phenobarbital dosing is appropriate for the initial treatment of seizures in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

  9. Estudo da hipotermia acidental em idosos institucionalizados Study on accidental hypothermia in institutionalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Palma Seman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência, causas e evolução da hipotermia acidental em idosos institucionalizados. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo realizado entre janeiro e dezembro de 2004, no Hospital Geriátrico e de Convalescentes D. Pedro II, com 483 internos. Hipotermia foi confirmada por termômetro esofágico, utilizado em todos os pacientes com temperatura axilar menor ou igual a 35ºC (95ºF. Tanto o diagnóstico etiológico quanto as complicações da hipotermia foram observados em exames clínico e subsidiários de urgência como eletrocardiograma, radiografia de tórax, hemograma, gasometria arterial, glicemia, metabólitos, amilase, função hepática e renal, sorologias para HIV, sífilis e hepatite B e urina tipo I. Foram adotadas medidas de reaquecimento entre outras do protocolo de tratamento. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de hipotermia foi de 7,2% especialmente em mulheres (65,7%, e a média de idade do grupo foi 76,4 anos. A maioria dos pacientes (77,1% apresentava elevado grau de dependência (Katz "F" e "G". Hipotermia leve foi identificada na maioria dos idosos (71,4%. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 62,8%, sendo 31,4% em vigência de hipotermia e 31,4% após sua reversão. Em 100,0% dos casos, a etiologia foi infecciosa: pneumonia em 80%, infecção urinária em 60,0%, e úlceras por pressão em 17,1%. Em 60% dos casos havia mais de um foco infeccioso. CONCLUSÃO: A hipotermia em idosos institucionalizados é uma grave condição clínica, com altos índices de mortalidade. A prevenção, o diagnóstico precoce e medidas de reaquecimento central corroboram para um melhor prognóstico.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence, causes and outcome of hypothermia in institutionalized elderly. METHODS: prospective study held from January to December, 2004 at the Hospital Geriátrico e de Convalescentes Dom Pedro II (Geriatric and Convalescent Hospital Dom Pedro II, with 483 long-term care beds. Hypothermia was diagnosed by esophageal thermometer

  10. Variability in Glycemic Control with Temperature Transitions during Therapeutic Hypothermia

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    Krystal K. Haase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH and continuous insulin may be at increased risk of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, particularly during temperature transitions. This study aimed to evaluate frequency of glucose excursions during each phase of TH and to characterize glycemic control patterns in relation to survival. Methods. Patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital for circulatory arrest and treated with both therapeutic hypothermia and protocol-based continuous insulin between January 2010 and June 2013 were included. Glucose measures, insulin, and temperatures were collected through 24 hours after rewarming. Results. 24 of 26 patients experienced glycemic excursions. Hyperglycemic excursions were more frequent during initiation versus remaining phases (36.3%, 4.3%, 2.5%, and 4.0%, p=0.002. Hypoglycemia occurred most often during rewarming (0%, 7.7%, 23.1%, and 3.8%, p=0.02. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia had higher insulin doses prior to rewarming (16.2 versus 2.1 units/hr, p=0.03. Glucose variation was highest during hypothermia and trended higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (13.38 versus 9.16, p=0.09. Frequency of excursions was also higher in nonsurvivors (32.3% versus 19.8%, p=0.045. Conclusions. Glycemic excursions are common and occur more often in nonsurvivors. Excursions differ by phase but risk of hypoglycemia is increased during rewarming.

  11. Therapeutic Hypothermia in Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza eFaridar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic hypothermia (TH is considered to improve survival with favorable neurological outcome in the case of global cerebral ischemia after cardiac arrest and perinatal asphyxia. The efficacy of hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke (AIS and traumatic brain injury (TBI, however, is not well studied. Induction of TH typically requires a multimodal approach, including the use of both pharmacological agents and physical techniques. To date, clinical outcomes for patients with either AIS or TBI who received TH have yielded conflicting results; thus, no adequate therapeutic consensus has been reached. Nevertheless, it seems that by determining optimal TH parameters and also appropriate applications, cooling therapy still has the potential to become a valuable neuroprotective intervention.Among the various methods for hypothermia induction, intravascular cooling (IVC may have the most promise in the awake patient in terms of clinical outcomes. Currently, the IVC method has the capability of more rapid target temperature attainment and more precise control of temperature. However, this technique requires expertise in endovascular surgery that can preclude its application in the field and/or in most emergency settings. It is very likely that combining neuroprotective strategies will yield better outcomes than utilizing a single approach.

  12. A new microcontroller-based human brain hypothermia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapidere, Metin; Ahiska, Raşit; Güler, Inan

    2005-10-01

    Many studies show that artificial hypothermia of brain in conditions of anesthesia with the rectal temperature lowered down to 33 degrees C produces pronounced prophylactic effect protecting the brain from anoxia. Out of the methods employed now in clinical practice for reducing the oxygen consumption by the cerebral tissue, the most efficacious is craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH). It is finding even more extensive application in cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, neurorenimatology and many other fields of medical practice. In this study, a microcontroller-based designed human brain hypothermia system (HBHS) is designed and constructed. The system is intended for cooling and heating the brain. HBHS consists of a thermoelectric hypothermic helmet, a control and a power unit. Helmet temperature is controlled by 8-bit PIC16F877 microcontroller which is programmed using MPLAB editor. Temperature is converted to 10-bit digital and is controlled automatically by the preset values which have been already entered in the microcontroller. Calibration is controlled and the working range is tested. Temperature of helmet is controlled between -5 and +46 degrees C by microcontroller, with the accuracy of +/-0.5 degrees C.

  13. 2-Iminobiotin Superimposed on Hypothermia Protects Human Neuronal Cells from Hypoxia-Induced Cell Damage: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Zitta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia represents one of the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hypothermia is currently the only established treatment for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE, but additional pharmacological strategies are being explored to further reduce the damage after perinatal asphyxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 2-iminobiotin (2-IB superimposed on hypothermia has the potential to attenuate hypoxia-induced injury of neuronal cells. In vitro hypoxia was induced for 7 h in neuronal IMR-32 cell cultures. Afterwards, all cultures were subjected to 25 h of hypothermia (33.5°C, and incubated with vehicle or 2-IB (10, 30, 50, 100, and 300 ng/ml. Cell morphology was evaluated by brightfield microscopy. Cell damage was analyzed by LDH assays. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was measured using fluorometric assays. Western blotting for PARP, Caspase-3, and the phosphorylated forms of akt and erk1/2 was conducted. To evaluate early apoptotic events and signaling, cell protein was isolated 4 h post-hypoxia and human apoptosis proteome profiler arrays were performed. Twenty-five hour after the hypoxic insult, clear morphological signs of cell damage were visible and significant LDH release as well as ROS production were observed even under hypothermic conditions. Post-hypoxic application of 2-IB (10 and 30 ng/ml reduced the hypoxia-induced LDH release but not ROS production. Phosphorylation of erk1/2 was significantly increased after hypoxia, while phosphorylation of akt, protein expression of Caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP were only slightly increased. Addition of 2-IB did not affect any of the investigated proteins. Apoptosis proteome profiler arrays performed with cellular protein obtained 4 h after hypoxia revealed that post-hypoxic application of 2-IB resulted in a ≥ 25% down regulation of 10/35 apoptosis-related proteins: Bad, Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved Caspase-3, TRAILR1, TRAILR2, PON2, p21, p27, and phospho

  14. Modelling hypothermia in patients undergoing surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severens, N.M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Anesthesia causes substantial perturbation in the human heat balance. Nearly all patients administered anesthesia become hypothermic. Under normal physiological conditions, the core-to-peripheral temperature gradient is maintained by tonic vasoconstriction. By the induction of anesthesia,

  15. Outcome after resuscitation beyond 30 minutes in drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia : Dutch nationwide retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieboom, J. K.; Verkade, H. J.; Burgerhof, J. G.; Bierens, J. J.; van Rheenen, P. F.; Kneyber, M. C.; Albers, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the outcome of drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia, and to determine distinct criteria for termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in drowned children with hypothermia and absence of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN Nationwide retrospective cohort study.

  16. Glycemia in conditions of hypothermia in patients with intracranial aneurysmal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Олександрівна Дудукіна

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the proven effectiveness of hypothermia as a method of neuroprotection, the presence of significant side effects requires further development of detailed protocols of usage, especially glucose.Aim: Improving treatment outcomes of patients with subarachnoid aneurysmal hemorrhage by preventing the development of hyperglycemia during systemic hypothermia.Materials and Methods: The study involved 48 patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage of aneurysmal origin. All patients were conducted intracranial surgery - clipping aneurysms of cerebral vessels during regression of arterial vascular spasm (AVS in the systemic hypothermia prevention. Therapeutic hypothermia was performed in 29 patients with complicated disease course for 48 hours. It is evaluated the effectiveness of its own method of prevention and correction of hyperglycemia - permanent short-acting insulin before the warm saline at a dose of 2 units/hour during hypothermiaResults: During the prevention of hypothermia using methods of hyperglycemia episodes of above 10 mmol / L did not observe the rejection of a group of patients using the conventional method of correction of glycemia. Episodes of hypoglycemia do not observed in both groups of the study. Up to 48 hours of therapeutic hypothermia glucose levels remained stable, after 48 hours of hypothermia it is observed a significant increase in blood glucose that was cool termination criterion.Conclusions: Holding insulin infusion at short-acting dose of 2 units/hour during prophylactic hypothermia prevents episodes of hyperglycemia and consequently helps to maintain homeostasis. Carrying insulin infusion at short-acting dose of 2 units/hour during therapeutic hypothermia promotes stable blood glucose levels to 48 hours. After 48 hours of hypothermia in 51.72% of patients experienced a significant increase in blood glucose, which is one of the criteria for termination of cooling

  17. Comparison of the WarmCloud and Bair Hugger Warming Devices for the Prevention of Intraoperative Hypothermia in Patients Undergoing Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Brett; Mattheyse, Linda; Ellard, Louise; Desmond, Fiona; Pillai, Param; Weinberg, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    Background The avoidance of hypothermia is vital during prolonged and open surgery to improve patient outcomes. Hypothermia is particularly common during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and associated with undesirable physiological effects that can adversely impact on perioperative morbidity. The KanMed WarmCloud (Bromma, Sweden) is a revolutionary, closed-loop, warm-air heating mattress developed to maintain normothermia and prevent pressure sores during major surgery. The clinical effectiveness of the WarmCloud device during OLT is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether the WarmCloud device reduces hypothermia and prevents pressure injuries compared with the Bair Hugger underbody warming device. Methods Patients were randomly allocated to receive either the WarmCloud or Bair Hugger warming device. Both groups also received other routine standardized multimodal thermoregulatory strategies. Temperatures were recorded by nasopharyngeal temperature probe at set time points during surgery. The primary endpoint was nasopharyngeal temperature recorded 5 minutes before reperfusion. Secondary endpoints included changes in temperature over the predefined intraoperative time points, number of patients whose nadir temperature was below 35.5°C and the development of pressure injuries during surgery. Results Twenty-six patients were recruited with 13 patients randomized to each group. One patient from the WarmCloud group was excluded because of a protocol violation. Baseline characteristics were similar. The mean (standard deviation) temperature before reperfusion was 36.0°C (0.7) in the WarmCloud group versus 36.3°C (0.6) in the Bairhugger group (P = 0.25). There were no statistical differences between the groups for any of the secondary endpoints. Conclusions When combined with standardized multimodal thermoregulatory strategies, the WarmCloud device does not reduce hypothermia compared with the Bair Hugger device in

  18. Post-hypothermia fever is associated with increased mortality after out-of-hospital cardiac arres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Hassager, Christian; Wanscher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Post-cardiac arrest fever has been associated with adverse outcome before implementation of therapeutic hypothermia (TH), however the prognostic implications of post-hypothermia fever (PHF) in the era of modern post-resuscitation care including TH has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim...

  19. Systemic hypothermia after neonatal encephalopathy: outcomes of neo.nEURO.network RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simbruner, Georg; Mittal, Rashmi A; Rohlmann, Friederike

    2010-01-01

    Mild hypothermia after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) reduces neurologic sequelae without significant adverse effects, but studies are needed to determine the most-efficacious methods.......Mild hypothermia after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) reduces neurologic sequelae without significant adverse effects, but studies are needed to determine the most-efficacious methods....

  20. Influence of Peri-Operative Hypothermia on Surgical Site Infection in Prolonged Gastroenterological Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Toshie; Takesue, Yoshio; Ichiki, Kaoru; Uede, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhiko; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Uchino, Motoi

    2016-10-01

    There have been several recent studies on the correlation between intra-operative hypothermia and the occurrence of surgical site infection (SSI). Differences in the depth and timing of hypothermia and the surgical procedure may have led to conflicting results. Patients undergoing gastroenterologic surgery with a duration of >3 h were analyzed. Hypothermia was defined as a core temperature <36°C and was classified as mild (35.5-35.9°C), moderate (35.0-35.4°C), or severe (<35.0°C). Hypothermia also was classified as early-nadir (<36°C within two h of anesthesia induction) and late-nadir (after that time). Risk factors for SSIs were analyzed according to these classifications. Among 1,409 patients, 528 (37.5%) had hypothermia, which was classified as mild in 358, moderate in 137, and severe in 33. Early-nadir and late-nadir hypothermia was found in 23.7% and 13.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of SSIs between patients with and without hypothermia (relative risk 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.25; p = 0.997). However, there was a significantly greater incidence of SSIs in patients with severe hypothermia (33.3%) than in those with normothermia (19.2%; p = 0.045) or mild hypothermia (17.0%; p = 0.021). The incidence of SSIs also was significantly greater in patients with late-nadir than in those with early-nadir hypothermia (23.7% vs. 16.5%; p = 0.041). The incidence of organ/space SSIs was significantly greater in patients with late-nadir hypothermia (19.6%) than in patients with normothermia (12.7%; p = 0.012). In multivariable analysis, neither severe hypothermia (odds ratio 1.24; 95% CI 0.56-2.77] nor late-nadir hypothermia (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.46-1.01) was an independent risk factor for SSIs. Severe and late-nadir hypothermia were associated with a greater incidence of SSIs and organ/space SSIs. However, neither of these patterns was identified as an independent risk factor for SSIs, possibly

  1. Development of regional cerebral sub-hypothermia with perfusion of hypothermic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Ji Xunming

    2007-01-01

    The neuroprotection of induced hypothermia has been investigated intensively and confirmed in animal models and it has been used clinically in many fields since the finding of sub-hypothermia can also reduce cerebral injury. However the use of hypothermia in clinics is limited by the simultaneously induced systemic complications. Recently the sub-hypothermia induced by hypothermic regional arterial perfusion is proved to be the most effective method to reach the goal, including hypothermic normal saline with no influences on whole body temperature, cardiac rhythm and blood coagulation. According to the well development, fruitful achievement in the present status of this field, the authors are surely to have the inspiration for the further investigation and development of regional cerebral sub-hypothermia with perfusion of hypothermic liquids. (authors)

  2. Proteomics in Hypothermia as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammad, Moman A; Noc, Marco; Lang, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers in therapeutic hypothermia have been studied in cardiac arrest, but data on patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with therapeutic hypothermia are currently unavailable. A multiplex proximity extension assay allowed us...... patients with STEMI, randomized to hypothermia as adjunctive therapy to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or standard care with PCI only. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (0 hour), 6, 24, and 96 hours post PCI, and stored at -80°C until they were analyzed by PROSEEK Multiplex CVD and PROSEEK...... in the hypothermia group as compared with the control group. In addition, seven markers were slightly elevated in the hypothermia group (OPG, FGF21, FS, IL12B, PRL, TIM, IL6). In a prespecified subgroup analysis of anterior infarctions, two additional markers were reduced (PTX3 and SELE). In this explorative...

  3. A forgotten approach after cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial ınfarction: Neuroprotective therapeutic hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Özçelik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with spontaneous circulation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, therapeutic hypothermia is defined as the reduction of body temperature to 32-34 ° C within the first 4-6 hours for neuroprotective purposes and to be maintained at this level for 12-24 hours after reaching the target temperature. Therapeutic hypothermia has been practiced since the 1940s. The aim of therapeutic hypothermia is to reduce cerebral edema, convulsive activity, metabolic demand and associated complications by providing low body heat. Therapeutic hypothermia is applied to increase life expectancy and quality of life. In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, should be performed in comatose patients where initial rhythm is ventricular fibrillation and spontaneous circulation is returned. Herein, we present a 44 years old patient who had an aborted sudden cardiac death due to acute myocardial infarction and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation for 30 minutes and discharged after 6 days with a successful therapeutic hypothermia.

  4. Delayed minocycline but not delayed mild hypothermia protects against embolic stroke

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    Noor Raza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory reactions occurring in the brain after ischemia may contribute to secondary damage. In the present study, effects of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent, alone or in combination with mild hypothermia on focal embolic cerebral ischemia have been examined. Methods Focal ischemic injury was induced by embolizing a preformed clot into the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Infarction volume was measured at 48 h after the injury. Mortality was also recorded. Results Delayed administration of minocycline alone or delayed minocycline plus delayed mild hypothermia reduced the infarction volume significantly. However, delayed mild hypothermia alone was not protective and delayed mild hypothermia in combination with minocycline did not show any additive effect. Conclusions These results suggest that minocycline is beneficial in focal ischemic brain injury, and the lack of the enhanced neuroprotection may be due to the brief exposure to hypothermia.

  5. Calcium depletion in rabbit myocardium. Calcium paradox protection by hypothermia and cation substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, T L; Langer, G A

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to define further the basis of control of myocardial membrane permeability by further examination of the "calcium paradox." To this end, the protective effect of hypothermia and addition of micromolar amounts of divalent cations during the Ca-free perfusion period were studied. Damage during Ca++ repletion to the isolated arterially perfused, interventricular rabbit septum was assessed by contracture development, loss of developed tension, and loss of 42K and creatine kinase. Progressive hypothermia prolongs the time of Ca-free perfusion needed to cause similar 42K, creatine kinase and developed tension losses upon Ca++ repletion. Complete protection against the Ca-paradox after 30-60 minutes Ca-free perfusion is seen at 18 degree C. The inclusion of 50 microM Ca++ during 30 minutes "Ca-free" perfusion also provides complete protection during Ca++ repletion i.e., there was full mechanical recovery with no 42K or creatine kinase loss. Other divalent cations perfused in 50 microM concentrations during the Ca-free period exhibited variable ability to protect when Ca++ was reperfused. The order of effectiveness (Ca++ greater than Cd++ greater than Mn++ greater than Co++ greater than Mg++) was related to the crystal ionic radius, with those cations whose radii are closest to that of Ca++ (0.99 A) exerting the greatest protective effect. The cation sequence for effectiveness in Ca-paradox protection is the same sequence for potency of excitation-contraction uncoupling. The mechanism of hypothermic protection is likely a phase transition in the membrane lipids (from a more liquid to a less liquid state) which stabilizes membrane structure and preserves Ca++ permeability characteristics during the Ca-free period. The mechanism of protection via cation addition is perhaps a cation's ability to substitute for Ca++ (dependent on unhydrated crystal ionic radius) at critical sarcolemmal binding sites to preserve control of Ca++ permability during

  6. Behavioral hypothermia of a domesticated lizard under treatment of the hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyoungbong; Shin, Haksup; Ju, Hyunwoo; Chung, Chan-Moon; Choi, Inho

    2017-05-03

    Ectothermic animals rely on behavioral thermoregulation due to low capacity of heat production and storage. Previously, lizards were shown to achieve 'fever' during microbial infection by increasing their preferred body temperature (PBT) behaviorally, thereby attaining a relatively high survival rate. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether domesticated lizards pursued 'behavioral hypothermia' induced by a hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). We found that treatment with 8.0 mg/kg T1AM caused a lizard species, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), to decrease its ventilation and oxygen consumption rates 0.64- and 0.76-fold, respectively, compared to those of the control (P<0.05). The lizards, habituated at an ambient temperature of 30 ± 0.5°C, also showed a significant decrease in the PBT range over a freely accessible thermal gradient between 5°C and 45°C. The upper limit of the PBT in the treated lizards lowered from 31.9°C to 30.6°C, and the lower limit from 29.5°C to 26.3°C (P<0.001). These findings demonstrate that the treated lizards pursued behavioral hypothermia in conjunction with hypoventilation and hypometabolism. Because prior studies reported a similar hypometabolic response in T1AM-injected laboratory mice, the domesticated lizards, as a part of the vertebrate phylogeny, may be a useful laboratory model for biological and pharmacological researches such as drug potency test.

  7. Therapeutic Hypothermia after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moler, Frank W; Silverstein, Faye S; Holubkov, Richard; Slomine, Beth S; Christensen, James R; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Meert, Kathleen L; Browning, Brittan; Pemberton, Victoria L; Page, Kent; Gildea, Marianne R; Scholefield, Barnaby R; Shankaran, Seetha; Hutchison, Jamie S; Berger, John T; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Newth, Christopher J L; Topjian, Alexis; Bennett, Kimberly S; Koch, Joshua D; Pham, Nga; Chanani, Nikhil K; Pineda, Jose A; Harrison, Rick; Dalton, Heidi J; Alten, Jeffrey; Schleien, Charles L; Goodman, Denise M; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Bhalala, Utpal S; Schwarz, Adam J; Porter, Melissa B; Shah, Samir; Fink, Ericka L; McQuillen, Patrick; Wu, Theodore; Skellett, Sophie; Thomas, Neal J; Nowak, Jeffrey E; Baines, Paul B; Pappachan, John; Mathur, Mudit; Lloyd, Eric; van der Jagt, Elise W; Dobyns, Emily L; Meyer, Michael T; Sanders, Ronald C; Clark, Amy E; Dean, J Michael

    2017-01-26

    Targeted temperature management is recommended for comatose adults and children after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; however, data on temperature management after in-hospital cardiac arrest are limited. In a trial conducted at 37 children's hospitals, we compared two temperature interventions in children who had had in-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose children older than 48 hours and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a score of 70 or higher on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II, on which scores range from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients who had had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before the cardiac arrest. The trial was terminated because of futility after 329 patients had undergone randomization. Among the 257 patients who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest and who could be evaluated, the rate of the primary efficacy outcome did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (36% [48 of 133 patients] and 39% [48 of 124 patients], respectively; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.27; P=0.63). Among 317 patients who could be evaluated for change in neurobehavioral function, the change in VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.70). Among 327 patients who could be evaluated for 1-year survival, the rate of 1-year survival did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (49% [81 of 166 patients] and 46% [74 of 161 patients], respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.34; P=0.56). The incidences of blood-product use, infection, and serious adverse

  8. Intravenous administration of levothyroxine for treatment of suspected myxedema coma complicated by severe hypothermia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henik, R A; Dixon, R M

    2000-03-01

    A 7-year-old male English Coonhound with suspected myxedema coma complicated by severe hypothermia and metabolic abnormalities was treated with a combination of active external and core rewarming techniques, i.v. and oral administration of levothyroxine, supplemental oxygen, and administration of fluids (0.9% NaCl solution). Myxedema coma develops as a consequence of severe hypothyroidism and is characterized by a hypometabolic, stuporous state. Myxedema coma is associated with a high mortality rate, and most reported cases have involved Doberman Pinschers. Intravenous administration of levothyroxine can be used successfully in combination with oral administration to restore normal metabolic function and assist in warming and thermoregulation, although dosages should be conservative to avoid adverse cardiovascular effects.

  9. Warming of intravenous and irrigation fluids for preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gillian; Alderson, Phil; Smith, Andrew F; Warttig, Sheryl

    2015-04-13

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (a drop in core temperature to below 36°C) occurs because of interference with normal temperature regulation by anaesthetic drugs, exposure of skin for prolonged periods and receipt of large volumes of intravenous and irrigation fluids. If the temperature of these fluids is below core body temperature, they can cause significant heat loss. Warming intravenous and irrigation fluids to core body temperature or above might prevent some of this heat loss and subsequent hypothermia. To estimate the effectiveness of preoperative or intraoperative warming, or both, of intravenous and irrigation fluids in preventing perioperative hypothermia and its complications during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid SP (1956 to 4 February 2014), EMBASE Ovid SP (1982 to 4 February 2014), the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1950 to 4 February 2014), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) EBSCOhost (1980 to 4 February 2014) and reference lists of identified articles. We also searched the Current Controlled Trials website and ClinicalTrials.gov. We included randomized controlled trials or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing fluid warming methods versus standard care or versus other warming methods used to maintain normothermia. Two review authors independently extracted data from eligible trials and settled disputes with a third review author. We contacted study authors to ask for additional details when needed. We collected data on adverse events only if they were reported in the trials. We included in this review 24 studies with a total of 1250 participants. The trials included various numbers and types of participants. Investigators used a range of methods to warm fluids to temperatures between 37°C and 41°C. We found that evidence was of moderate quality because descriptions of trial design were

  10. Out-of-Hospital therapeutic hypothermia. A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nélida Conejo Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated therapeutic mild hypothermia improves neurological outcome of patients after suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.Other studies in animals suggest that the sooner hypothermia is started after return of spontaneous circulation, the lower neurological symptoms are suffered by patients.The aim of this work is to know the efficiency of the therapeutic moderated hipotermia after the cardiopulmonar resuscitation realized extra hospitable.Methods: We made a literature search in Medline (Pubmed, Cinahl, Cuiden, Cochrane Library and the Joanna Briggs Institute, combining mesh and free terms; and searched in the journals Circulation, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine Journal manually last year. We selected systematic reviews and randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials which had contrasted in-hospital and out-of-hospital TMH with over 18 years patients.Results: Only 5 articles met the inclusion criteria of the 35 selected: four randomized clinical trials and one nonrandomized. They were then subjected to a critical methodological evaluation (CASPe and statistic evaluation (IDIPaz.Conclusions: Pre hospital TMH is an effective and safe technique in comatose patients after being resuscitated from cardiac arrest, improving the neurological status at hospital discharge.

  11. Therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Chiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic hypothermia (TH is a recommended regimen for newborn infants who are at or near term with evolving moderate-to-severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. The Task Force of the Taiwan Child Neurology Society and the Taiwan Society of Neonatology held a joint meeting in 2015 to establish recommendations for using TH on newborn patients with HIE. Based on current evidence and experts' experiences, this review article summarizes the key points and recommendations regarding TH for newborns with HIE, including: (1 selection criteria for TH; (2 choices of method and equipment for TH; (3 TH prior to and during transport; (4 methods for temperature maintenance, monitoring, and rewarming; (5 systemic care of patients during TH, including the care of respiratory and cardiovascular systems, management of fluids, electrolytes, and nutrition, as well as sedation and drug metabolism; (6 monitoring and management of seizures; (7 neuroimaging, prognostic factors, and outcomes; and (8 adjuvant therapy for TH. Key Words: hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, neonate, patient care, perinatal asphyxia, therapeutic hypothermia

  12. Infrared fibers for radiometer thermometry in hypothermia and hyperthermia treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzir, A.; Bowman, H.F.; Asfour, Y.; Zur, A.; Valeri, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Hypothermia is a condition which results from prolonged exposure to a cold environment. Rapid and efficient heating is needed to rewarm the patient from 32-35 degrees C to normal body temperature. Hyperthermia in cancer treatment involves heating malignant tumors to 42.5-43.0 degrees C for an extended period (e.g., 30 min) in an attempt to obtain remission. Microwave or radio frequency heating is often used for rewarming in hypothermia or for temperature elevation in hyperthermia treatment. One severe problem with such heating is the accurate measurement and control of temperature in the presence of a strong electromagnetic field. For this purpose, we have developed a fiberoptic radiometer system which is based on a nonmetallic, infrared fiber probe, which can operate either in contact or noncontact mode. In preliminary investigations, the radiometer worked well in a strong microwave or radiofrequency field, with an accuracy of +/- 0.5 degrees C. This fiberoptic thermometer was used to control the surface temperature of objects within +/- 2 degrees C

  13. The effects of risk factors on the improvement of hypothermia neonatal using fuzzy transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salmani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Neonatal hypothermia is a major risk factor for mortality after delivery. This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with transition in hypothermia state with new definition of hypothermia states.Methods:  Four hundred and seventy nine (479 neonates hospitalized in NICU of Valiasr in Tehran, Iran in 2005 participated in this study. The rectal temperature of neonatal was measured immediately after delivery and every 30 min afterwards, until neonates became normal.Results: The mean weight of neonatal was 2580±882.9 g and mean of delivery room temperature was 29.2±1.45 °C. Most of the neonatal were mild hypothermia. There were significant associations between weight of neonatal, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and Apgar score with hypothermia state (P<0.05.  Death of neonatal was related to hypothermia state.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that a major risk factor for hypothermia was low weight of neonatal.

  14. Neonatal hypothermia and associated risk factors among newborns of southern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeClerq Steven C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hypothermia is associated with an increased mortality risk for 28 days. There are few community-based data on specific risk factors for neonatal hypothermia. Estimates of association between neonatal hypothermia in the community and risk factors are needed to guide the design of interventions to reduce exposure. Methods A cohort of 23,240 babies in rural southern Nepal was visited at home by field workers who measured axillary temperatures for 28 days (213,316 temperature measurements. The cumulative incidence of hypothermia (defined as Results Ten percent of the babies (n = 2342 were observed with temperatures of 2500 g. Risk varied inversely along the entire weight spectrum: for every 100 g decrement hypothermia risk increased by 7.4%, 13.5% and 31.3%% for babies between 3000 g and 2500 g, 2500 g and 2000 g and Conclusions In addition to season in which the babies were born, weight is an important risk factor for hypothermia. Smaller babies are at higher relative risk of hypothermia during the warm period and do not receive the protective seasonal benefit apparent among larger babies. The need for year-round thermal care, early breastfeeding and maternal thermal care should be emphasized. Further work is needed to quantify the benefits of other simple neonatal thermal care practices.

  15. Hypothermia and postconditioning after cardiopulmonary resuscitation reduce cardiac dysfunction by modulating inflammation, apoptosis and remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Meybohm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest is neuroprotective, but its effect on myocardial dysfunction that is a critical issue following resuscitation is not clear. This study sought to examine whether hypothermia and the combination of hypothermia and pharmacological postconditioning are cardioprotective in a model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation following acute myocardial ischemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty pigs (28-34 kg were subjected to cardiac arrest following left anterior descending coronary artery ischemia. After 7 minutes of ventricular fibrillation and 2 minutes of basic life support, advanced cardiac life support was started according to the current AHA guidelines. After successful return of spontaneous circulation (n = 21, coronary perfusion was reestablished after 60 minutes of occlusion, and animals were randomized to either normothermia at 38 degrees C, hypothermia at 33 degrees C or hypothermia at 33 degrees C combined with sevoflurane (each group n = 7 for 24 hours. The effects on cardiac damage especially on inflammation, apoptosis, and remodeling were studied using cellular and molecular approaches. Five animals were sham operated. Animals treated with hypothermia had lower troponin T levels (p<0.01, reduced infarct size (34+/-7 versus 57+/-12%; p<0.05 and improved left ventricular function compared to normothermia (p<0.05. Hypothermia was associated with a reduction in: (i immune cell infiltration, (ii apoptosis, (iii IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA up-regulation, and (iv IL-1beta protein expression (p<0.05. Moreover, decreased matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity was detected in the ischemic myocardium after treatment with mild hypothermia. Sevoflurane conferred additional protective effects although statistic significance was not reached. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hypothermia reduced myocardial damage and dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation possible via a reduced rate of apoptosis

  16. Neuroprotection with hypothermia and allopurinol in an animal model of hypoxic-ischemic injury: Is it a gender question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is one of the most important causes of neonatal brain injury. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH is the standard treatment for term newborns after perinatal hypoxic ischemic injury (HI. Despite this, TH does not provide complete neuroprotection. Allopurinol seems to be a good neuroprotector in several animal studies, but it has never been tested in combination with hypothermia. Clinical findings show that male infants with (HI fare more poorly than matched females in cognitive outcomes. However, there are few studies about neuroprotection taking gender into account in the results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential additive neuroprotective effect of allopurinol when administrated in association with TH in a rodent model of moderate HI. Gender differences in neuroprotection were also evaluated.P10 male and female rat pups were subjected to HI (Vannucci model and randomized into five groups: sham intervention (Control, no treatment (HI, hypothermia (HIH, allopurinol (HIA, and dual therapy (hypothermia and allopurinol (HIHA. To evaluate a treatment's neuroprotective efficiency, 24 hours after the HI event caspase3 activation was measured. Damaged area and hippocampal volume were also measured 72 hours after the HI event. Negative geotaxis test was performed to evaluate early neurobehavioral reflexes. Learning and spatial memory were assessed via Morris Water Maze (MWM test at 25 days of life.Damaged area and hippocampal volume were different among treatment groups (p = 0.001. The largest tissue lesion was observed in the HI group, followed by HIA. There were no differences between control, HIH, and HIHA. When learning process was analyzed, no differences were found. Females from the HIA group had similar results to the HIH and HIHA groups. Cleaved caspase 3 expression was increased in both HI and HIA. Despite this, in females cleaved caspase-3 was only differently increased in the HI group. All

  17. Recovery from near drowning and postanoxic status epilepticus with controlled hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pont, A C J M; de Jager, C P C; van den Bergh, W M; Schultz, M J

    2011-04-01

    A diver was resuscitated after cardiac arrest due to near drowning and was hypothermic on hospital arrival. During rewarming, status epilepticus occurred, previously identified as a predictor of poor outcome. The seizures responded well to treatment with antiepileptic drugs and controlled hypothermia. After six weeks, the patient had completely recovered. This case supports the hypothesis that hypothermia offers neuroprotection, even in the presence of status epilepticus. We recommend that near-drowning victims who are comatose after resuscitation for cardiac arrest be treated with controlled mild hypothermia for 12 to 24 hours.

  18. Hypothermia in Multiple Sclerosis: Beyond the Hypothalamus? A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Berti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is a rare and poorly understood complication of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. We report on a 66-year-old patient currently with Secondary Progressive MS (SP-MS who developed unexplained hypothermia associated with multiple hospitalisations and we review the literature on this topic. In our case, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain failed to highlight hypothalamic disease, but spinal MRI identified a number of spinal cord lesions. Given the incidence and clinical significance of spinal involvement in MS and the hypothermic disturbances observed in high Spinal Cord Injury (SCI, we hypothesise that upper spinal cord pathology, along with hypothalamic and brainstem dysfunctions, can contribute to hypothermia.

  19. Moderate hypothermia technique for chronic implantation of a total artificial heart in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Grady, Patrick; Sinkewich, Martin; Sunagawa, Gengo; Dessoffy, Raymond; Byram, Nicole; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2017-06-01

    The benefit of whole-body hypothermia in preventing ischemic injury during cardiac surgical operations is well documented. However, application of hypothermia during in vivo total artificial heart implantation has not become widespread because of limited understanding of the proper techniques and restrictions implied by constitutional and physiological characteristics specific to each animal model. Similarly, the literature on hypothermic set-up in total artificial heart implantation has also been limited. Herein we present our experience using hypothermia in bovine models implanted with the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart.

  20. Cerebral Pressure Passivity In Newborns With Encephalopathy Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinaswamy Bhavanandhan Govindan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We extended our recent modification of the power spectral estimation approach to quantify spectral coherence. We tested both the standard and the modified approaches on simulated data which showed that the modified approach was highly specific and sensitive to the coupling introduced in the simulation while the standard approach lacked these features. We also applied the modified and standard approaches to quantify the pressure passivity in 4 infants receiving therapeutic hypothermia. This was done by measuring the coupling between continuous cerebral hemoglobin differences and mean arterial blood pressure. Our results showed that the modified approach identified a lower pressure passivity index (PPI, percent time the coherence was above a predefined threshold than the standard approach ($P=0.0027$.

  1. Hypothermia in VGKC antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S; Irani, S R; Rajabally, Y A; Grubneac, A; Walters, R J; Yazaki, M; Clover, L; Vincent, A

    2008-02-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody (VGKC-Ab)-associated limbic encephalitis (LE) is a recently described syndrome that broadens the spectrum of immunotherapy-responsive central nervous system disorders. Limbic encephalitis is typically characterised by a sub-acute onset of disorientation, amnesia and seizures, but the clinical spectrum is not yet fully defined and the syndrome could be under-diagnosed. We here describe the clinical profile of four patients with VGKC-Ab-associated LE who had intermittent, episodic hypothermia. One of the patients also described a prodrome of severe neuropathic pain preceding the development of limbic symptoms. Both of these novel symptoms responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, with concurrent amelioration of amnesia/seizures.

  2. Hypothermia and acute alcohol intoxication in Dutch adolescents : The relationship between core and outdoor temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Claire J.; Van Hoof, Joris J.; van der Lely, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate hypothermia and its potential association with core and outdoor temperatures in adolescents suffering from acute alcohol intoxication. Methods: Data were derived from the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System, which monitors alcohol intoxication among all Dutch adolescents.

  3. Influence of mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest on hospital mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Greetje; Brinkman, Sylvia; Bisschops, Laurens L. A.; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W.; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; de Lange, Dylan W.; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Pickkers, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Following two randomized controlled trials that demonstrated reduced mortality and better neurological outcome in cardiac arrest patients, mild therapeutic hypothermia was implemented in many intensive care units. Up to now, no large observational studies have confirmed the beneficial

  4. Preliminary Study on the Oxygen Consumption Dynamics During Brain Hypothermia Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, Yan

    2001-01-01

    .... Two cooling approaches (the surface cooling and volumetric cooling are applied to analyze the effect of hypothermia on the transient temperature and the oxygen consumption rate in different regions of brain...

  5. The impact of therapeutic hypothermia on neurological function and quality of life after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Horsted, Tina I

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the impact of therapeutic hypothermia on cognitive function and quality of life in comatose survivors of out of Hospital Cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: We prospectively studied comatose survivors of OHCA consecutively admitted in a 4-year period. Therapeutic hypothermia......=0.01. No significant differences were found in long-term survival (57% vs. 56% alive at 30 months), MMSE, or SF-36. Therapeutic hypothermia (hazard ratio: 0.15, p=0.007) and bystander CPR (hazard ratio 0.19, p=0.002) were significantly related to survival in the intervention period. CONCLUSION: CPC...... at discharge from hospital was significantly improved following implementation of therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients resuscitated from OCHA with VF/VT. However, significant improvement in survival, cognitive status or quality of life could not be detected at long-term follow-up....

  6. The pathways by which mild hypothermia inhibits neuronal apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that mild hypothermia exhibits a neuroprotective role and it can inhibit endothelial cell apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing casp-ase-3 expression. It is hypothesized that mild hypothermia exhibits neuroprotective effects on neurons exposed to ischemia/reperfusion condition produced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. Mild hypothermia significantly reduced the number of apoptotic neurons, decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, with the peak of anti-apoptotic effect appearing between 6 and 12 hours after the injury. These findings indicate that mild hypothermia inhibits neuronal apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury by protecting the mitochondria and that the effective time window is 6-12 hours after ischemia/reperfusion injury

  7. Cytokine changes in newborns with therapeutic hypothermia after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, C J; Youn, Y A; Yum, S K; Sung, I K

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine changes in cytokines according to therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for newborn hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We studied 20 neonates who were admitted with a diagnosis of HIE in the neonatal intensive care unit. Cytokine concentration assay was carried out for neonates (n=12) who received TH and neonates (n=8) who were not treated with hypothermia by collecting blood sample at 12, 48 and 120 h after birth. At 48 h after birth, interleukin (IL)-6 in the normothermia group was higher than that in the hypothermia group (P=0.010). At 48 h after birth, IL-10 was higher in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (P=0.038). This study confirmed that TH performs a role in the prevention of inflammatory process by way of maintaining proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 at low levels and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 at high levels.

  8. Donor dopamine treatment limits pulmonary oedema and inflammation in lung allografts subjected to prolonged hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanusch, Christine; Nowak, Kai; Toerlitz, Patrizia; Gill, Ishar S.; Song, Hui; Rafat, Neysan; Brinkkoetter, Paul T.; Leuvenink, Henri G.; Van Ackern, Klaus C.; Yard, Benito A.; Beck, Grietje C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Endothelial barrier dysfunction severely compromises organ function after reperfusion. Because dopamine pretreatment improves hypothermia mediated barrier dysfunction, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine treatment of lung allografts positively affects tissue damage associated with

  9. Mild hypothermia for refractory focal status epilepticus in an infant with hemimegalencephaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, Jan Willem; van der Naalt, Joukje; Fock, Johanna Maria

    Hypothermia can reduce seizure frequency in animal models of status epilepticus, and its effectiveness in human status epilepticus has been reported occasionally. We report an infant with hemimegalencephaly who presented with generalized status epilepticus. After high dose intravenous drug therapy,

  10. "Cool" Topic: Feeding During Moderate Hypothermia After Intracranial Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobak, Stephanie; Rincon, Fred

    2017-09-01

    Therapeutic moderate hypothermia (MH; T core 33°C-34°C) is being studied for treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Nutrition assessment begins with accurate basal metabolic rate (BMR) determination. Although early enteral nutrition (EN) is associated with improved outcomes, it is often deferred until rewarming. We sought to determine the accuracy of predictive BMR equations and the safety and tolerance of EN during MH after ICH. Patients were randomized to 72 hours of MH or normothermia (NT; T core 36°C-37°C). Harris-Benedict (BMR-HB) and Penn-State equation (BMR-PS) calculations were compared with indirect calorimetry (IC) at day (D) 0 and D1-3. Patients with MH received trophic semi-elemental gastric EN. Occurrences of feeding intolerance, gastrointestinal (GI)-related adverse events, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were analyzed with a double-sided matched pairs t test. Thirteen patients with ICH participated (6 MH, 7 NT). Mean time to initiate EN: 29.9 (MH) vs 18.4 (NT) hours ( P = .046). Average daily EN calories received D0-3: 398 (MH) vs 1006 (NT) ( P BMR-HB remained stable (1331 kcal), BMR-PS decreased (1511 vs 1145 kcal, P = .5), and IC decreased (1413 vs 985 kcal, P = .2). In patients with ICH undergoing MH, resting energy expenditure is decreased and predictive equations overestimate BMR. EN is feasible, although delayed EN initiation, high gastric residuals, and less EN provision are common. Future studies should focus on EN initiation within 24 hours, advanced EN rates, and postpyloric feeds during hypothermia.

  11. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Induces Hypothermia During Acute Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Josh; Mauger, Alexis R; Govus, Andrew; Hewson, David; Taylor, Lee

    2017-11-01

    Acetaminophen is an over-the-counter drug used to treat pain and fever, but it has also been shown to reduce core temperature (T c ) in the absence of fever. However, this side effect is not well examined in humans, and it is unknown if the hypothermic response to acetaminophen is exacerbated with cold exposure. To address this question, we mapped the thermoregulatory responses to acetaminophen and placebo administration during exposure to acute cold (10 °C) and thermal neutrality (25 °C). Nine healthy Caucasian males (aged 20-24 years) participated in the experiment. In a double-blind, randomised, repeated measures design, participants were passively exposed to a thermo-neutral or cold environment for 120 min, with administration of 20 mg/kg lean body mass acetaminophen or a placebo 5 min prior to exposure. T c , skin temperature (T sk ), heart rate, and thermal sensation were measured every 10 min, and mean arterial pressure was recorded every 30 min. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Differences in thermal sensation were analysed using a cumulative link mixed model. Acetaminophen had no effect on T c in a thermo-neutral environment, but significantly reduced T c during cold exposure, compared with a placebo. T c was lower in the acetaminophen compared with the placebo condition at each 10-min interval from 80 to 120 min into the trial (all p  0.05). This preliminary trial suggests that acetaminophen-induced hypothermia is exacerbated during cold stress. Larger scale trials seem warranted to determine if acetaminophen administration is associated with an increased risk of accidental hypothermia, particularly in vulnerable populations such as frail elderly individuals.

  12. Angiogenesis dysregulation in term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Shaikh

    Full Text Available Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns.This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns.Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns.Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns.These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery.

  13. Biomarkers of brain injury in neonatal encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, An N; Chang, Taeun; Kadom, Nadja; Tsuchida, Tammy; Scafidi, Joseph; Glass, Penny; McCarter, Robert; Baumgart, Stephen; Vezina, Gilbert; Nelson, Karin B

    2012-09-01

    To determine if early serum S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels are associated with neuroradiographic and clinical evidence of brain injury in newborns with encephalopathy. Patients who received therapeutic whole-body hypothermia were prospectively enrolled in this observational study. Serum specimens were collected at 0, 12, 24, and 72 hours of cooling. S100B and NSE levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in surviving infants at 7-10 days of life. Standardized neurologic examination was performed by a child neurologist at 14 days of life. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between S100B and NSE levels and unfavorable outcome (death or severe magnetic resonance imaging injury/significant neurologic deficit). Cutoff values were determined by receiver operating curve analysis. Newborns with moderate to severe encephalopathy were enrolled (n = 75). Median pH at presentation was 6.9 (range, 6.5-7.35), and median Apgar scores of 1 at 1 minute, 3 at 5 minutes, and 5 at 10 minutes. NSE and S100B levels were higher in patients with unfavorable outcomes across all time points. These results remained statistically significant after controlling for covariables, including encephalopathy grade at presentation, Apgar score at 5 minutes of life, initial pH, and clinical seizures. Elevated serum S100B and NSE levels measured during hypothermia were associated with neuroradiographic and clinical evidence of brain injury in encephalopathic newborns. These brain-specific proteins may be useful immediate biomarkers of cerebral injury severity. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Angiogenesis Dysregulation in Term Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Henna; Boudes, Elodie; Khoja, Zehra; Shevell, Michael; Wintermark, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns. Design/Methods Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns. Results Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns. Conclusions These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery. PMID:25996847

  15. Hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: NICHD Neonatal Research Network contribution to the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Seetha; Natarajan, Girija; Chalak, Lina; Pappas, Athina; McDonald, Scott A; Laptook, Abbot R

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we summarize the NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) trial of whole-body hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in relation to other randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of hypothermia neuroprotection. We describe the NRN secondary studies that have been published in the past 10 years evaluating clinical, genetic, biochemical, and imaging biomarkers of outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain hypothermia therapy for childhood acute encephalopathy based on clinical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    IMATAKA, GEORGE; ARISAKA, OSAMU

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have reported on the effectiveness of brain hypothermia therapy in childhood acute encephalopathy, additional studies in this field are necessary. In this review, we discussed brain hypothermia therapy methods for two clinical conditions for which sufficient evidences are currently available in the literature. The first condition is known as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and occurs in newborns and the second condition is acute encephalopathy which occurs in adults ...

  17. Cost-effective therapeutic hypothermia treatment device for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen RH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available John J Kim,1,2 Nathan Buchbinder,1,† Simon Ammanuel,1,4,5,† Robert Kim,1,† Erika Moore,1 Neil O'Donnell,1 Jennifer K Lee,3 Ewa Kulikowicz,3 Soumyadipta Acharya,1 Robert H Allen,1,9 Ryan W Lee,6,7 Michael V Johnston4–81Department of Biomedical Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 4Kennedy Krieger Institute, 5Hugo W Moser Research Institute, 6Department of Neurology, 7Department of Pediatrics, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; 9Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA†These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%–50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors

  18. Therapeutic Hypothermia Reduces Oxidative Damage and Alters Antioxidant Defenses after Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenhaar, Fernanda S.; Medeiros, Tássia M.; Heemann, Fernanda M.; Behling, Camile S.; Putti, Jordana S.; Mahl, Camila D.; Verona, Cleber; da Silva, Ana Carolina A.; Guerra, Maria C.; Gonçalves, Carlos A. S.; Oliveira, Vanessa M.; Riveiro, Diego F. M.; Vieira, Silvia R. R.

    2017-01-01

    After cardiac arrest, organ damage consequent to ischemia-reperfusion has been attributed to oxidative stress. Mild therapeutic hypothermia has been applied to reduce this damage, and it may reduce oxidative damage as well. This study aimed to compare oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in patients treated with controlled normothermia versus mild therapeutic hypothermia during postcardiac arrest syndrome. The sample consisted of 31 patients under controlled normothermia (36°C) and 11 patients treated with 24 h mild therapeutic hypothermia (33°C), victims of in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Parameters were assessed at 6, 12, 36, and 72 h after cardiac arrest in the central venous blood samples. Hypothermic and normothermic patients had similar S100B levels, a biomarker of brain injury. Xanthine oxidase activity is similar between hypothermic and normothermic patients; however, it decreases posthypothermia treatment. Xanthine oxidase activity is positively correlated with lactate and S100B and inversely correlated with pH, calcium, and sodium levels. Hypothermia reduces malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, markers of oxidative damage. Concomitantly, hypothermia increases the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase while decreasing the activity of serum paraoxonase-1. These findings suggest that mild therapeutic hypothermia reduces oxidative damage and alters antioxidant defenses in postcardiac arrest patients. PMID:28553435

  19. A study of cerebral circulation in patients on moderate hypothermia therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Mitsuru; Kushida, Tsuyoshi; Nagao, Takeki; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Iekado

    2003-01-01

    Recently, moderate hypothermia with cooling of the brain to 32-33 deg C has been widely applied to patients with severe brain damage. We evaluated the cerebral circulation of patients treated with moderate hypothermia therapy. In 16 patients with severe brain damage, both Xe-CT and Perfusion CT were performed during moderate hypothermia. The study included 5 head injury patients, 6 anoxic brain patients, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, 2 cerebral embolization patients and 1 cerebral hemorrhage patient. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) values using Xe-CT and mean transit time (MTT) by Perfusion CT and calculated cerebral blood volume (CBV) using an AZ-7000W98 computer system. In 16 patients, moderate hypothermia decreased both CBF (21.4±14.0 ml/100 g/min) and CBV (3.4±2.9 ml/100 g) and increased MTT (9.6±l.9 sec) compared to normal volunteers. However, patients who became brain death during moderate hypothermia maintained high levels of CBF and CBV. Based on the present results, we propose that reduction of CBV and CBF by moderate hypothermia can play important role in protecting brain from damage. (author)

  20. Maintenance of whole-body therapeutic hypothermia during patient transport and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tai-Wei; McLean, Claire; Friedlich, Philippe; Seri, Istvan; Grimm, John; Bluml, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has become standard treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), with brain MRI commonly performed after the child has been rewarmed. However, early imaging during hypothermia might provide information important in designing clinical trials that refine and personalize therapeutic hypothermia. We tested a protocol to ensure safety and maintenance of hypothermia during in-hospital transport and MRI. MRI during therapeutic hypothermia was performed in 13 newborns on the 2nd-3rd postnatal days. Mean one-way transport time was 20.0 ± 3.3 min. Mean rectal temperatures ( C) leaving the unit, upon arrival at the MR suite, during MRI scan and upon return to the unit were 33.5 ± 0.3 C, 33.3 ± 0.3 C, 33.1 ± 0.4 C and 33.4 ± 0.3 C, respectively. Using our protocol therapeutic hypothermia was safely and effectively continued during in-hospital transport and MRI without adverse effects. (orig.)

  1. Maintenance of whole-body therapeutic hypothermia during patient transport and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tai-Wei; McLean, Claire; Friedlich, Philippe; Seri, Istvan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Center for Fetal and Neonatal Medicine and the USC Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, LAC/USC Medical Center, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Grimm, John; Bluml, Stefan [University of Southern California, LAC/USC Medical Center, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Therapeutic hypothermia has become standard treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), with brain MRI commonly performed after the child has been rewarmed. However, early imaging during hypothermia might provide information important in designing clinical trials that refine and personalize therapeutic hypothermia. We tested a protocol to ensure safety and maintenance of hypothermia during in-hospital transport and MRI. MRI during therapeutic hypothermia was performed in 13 newborns on the 2nd-3rd postnatal days. Mean one-way transport time was 20.0 ± 3.3 min. Mean rectal temperatures ( C) leaving the unit, upon arrival at the MR suite, during MRI scan and upon return to the unit were 33.5 ± 0.3 C, 33.3 ± 0.3 C, 33.1 ± 0.4 C and 33.4 ± 0.3 C, respectively. Using our protocol therapeutic hypothermia was safely and effectively continued during in-hospital transport and MRI without adverse effects. (orig.)

  2. Mild Hypothermia May Offer Some Improvement to Patients with MODS after CPB Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Zhao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To summarize the effect of mild hypothermia on function of the organs in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Methods: The patients were randomly divided into two groups, northermia group (n=71 and hypothermia group (n=89. We immediately began cooling the hypothermia group when test results showed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, meanwhile all patients of two groups were drawn blood to test blood gas, liver and kidney function, blood coagulation function, and evaluated the cardiac function using echocardiography from 12 to 36 hours. We compared the difference of intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation rate and mortality within one month after intensive care unit admission. Results: Among the 160 patients, 36 died, 10 (11.24% patients were from the hypothermia group and 26 (36.6% from the northermia group (P 0.05. But the platelet count has significantly difference between the two groups at the 36th hour (P <0.05. The aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and creatinine were improved significantly in the hypothermia group, and they were significantly better than the northermia group (P <0.05. Conclusion: Mild hypothermia is feasible and safe for patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

  3. [Assessment of therapeutic passive hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy that need interhospital transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ruiz, José A; Lagares-Franco, Carolina; Rodríguez-Molina, Óscar; Cordero-Cañas, Enrique; Benavente-Fernández, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    Induced hypothermia for the first hours of life in a newborn is an effective treatment to reduce mortality and serious effects in neonates that had suffered a hypoxia episode. This method needs an universal attendance independently of the place of birth being usually necessary a transfer to the reference hospital. To analyze the efficacy of the newborn with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy transfer in passive hypothermia. Descriptive study of series of cases with retrospective character of newborn from Cadiz's province that need induced hypothermia. 46 newborn were included in the study: 33 of them (71.74%) needed being transfer by the Critical Patients Transport service (CPT group), the rest (28.26%) were born into the reference hospital. Both groups are similar in age gestational at birth, sex, weight and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy degree. It analyzed variables related to hypothermia therapy and in addition in CPT group transfer specific variables. At discharge, it does not exist significant differences between groups in the efficiency-consequence of neuroprotection therapy with hypothermia (p = 0.159). It does not find complications derived from the interhospital move. Neonatal inter-hospital transfer in passive therapeutic hypothermia is effective, safe and necessary for the therapy compliance. It is required reach an agreement between the attendance and the reference service, setting up guides for the support and suitable range of temperature.

  4. Therapeutic hypothermia in the prevention of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy: new categories to be enrolled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancia, Paolo; Pomero, Giulia

    2012-10-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is now the standard of care for brain injury control in term infants with perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Accumulated evidence shows a reduction in mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental disability at 12-24 months of age, with more favourable effects in the less severe forms of HIE. Only few trials recruited newborns encephalopathy with base deficit (BD) newborns with stroke. Preterm HIE: Therapeutic hypothermia shows a good safety profile in clinical studies, and no adverse effects were noted in the preterm fetal animal model. Recently, it has been shown that mild hypothermia in preterm newborns with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) does not increase mortality, bleeding, infection, or need for inotropes in cooled newborns. A pilot study (NCT00620711) is currently recruiting newborns of > 32 but newborn. In a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies of focal cerebral ischemia, hypothermia reduced the infarct size by 44%. No specific neuroprotective interventions are available for the management of acute perinatal stroke. Hypothermia may decrease seizures in newborns with encephalopathy and a focal infarct, potentially improving the long-term outcome for these infants. Future studies of therapeutic hypothermia should include the categories of newborns excluded from the published clinical trials, that is infants encephalopathy not imputable to HIE. New entry criteria will allow significant number of newborns to benefit from the treatment.

  5. An unusual case of hypothermia associated with therapeutic doses of olanzapine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake Shiroma L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case of a 42-year-old man who had symptomatic hypothermia as a result of taking olanzapine for paranoid schizophrenia. According to published data, only a few cases of hypothermia associated with olanzapine have been reported since its introduction into clinical use. Case presentation A 42-year-old Sri Lankan man with schizophrenia who was being treated with a therapeutic dose of olanzapine presented with reduced level of consciousness. He had a core temperature of 32°C and was bradycardic. At the time of admission, the electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia with J waves. He did not have any risk factors for developing hypothermia except the use of olanzapine. There was improvement in his clinical condition with reversal of electrocardiogram changes following gradual rewarming and the omission of olanzapine. Conclusion Hypothermia induced by antipsychotic medications is not uncommon, but olanzapine-induced hypothermia is rare and occurrence has been reported during initiation or increasing the dose. But here the patient developed hypothermia without dose adjustment.

  6. Twenty-four hours hypothermia has temporary efficacy in reducing brain infarction and inflammation in aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Buga, Ana Maria; Balseanu, Adrian Tudor

    2016-01-01

    in aged animals. Because the duration of hypothermia in most clinical trials is between 24 and 48 hours, we questioned whether 24 hours exposure to gaseous hypothermia confers the same neuroprotective efficacy as 48 hours exposure. We found that a shorter exposure to hypothermia transiently reduced both...... inflammation and infarct size. However, after 1 week, the infarct size became even larger than in controls and after 2 weeks there was no beneficial effect on regenerative processes such as neurogenesis. Behaviorally, hypothermia also had a limited beneficial effect. Finally, after hydrogen sulfide......-induced hypothermia, the poststroke aged rats experienced a persistent sleep impairment during their active nocturnal period. Our data suggest that cellular events that are delayed by hypothermia in aged rats may, in the long term, rebound, and diminish the beneficial effects....

  7. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Collision avoidance for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) traveling at high relative speeds is a challenging task. It requires both the detection of a possible collision...

  8. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: prognostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Søholm, Helle; Wanscher, Michael; Lippert, Freddy K; Møller, Jacob E; Køber, Lars; Hassager, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopressor support and mortality. In a 6-year period, 310 comatose OHCA patients treated with TH were included. Temperature, hemodynamic parameters and level of vasopressors were registered from admission to 24h after rewarming. Level of vasopressor support was assessed by the cardiovascular sub-score of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). The population was stratified by use of dopamine as first line intervention (D-group) or use of dopamine+norepinephrine/epinephrine (DA-group). Primary endpoint was 30-day mortality and secondary endpoint was in-hospital cause of death. Patients in the DA-group carried a 49% all-cause 30-day mortality rate compared to 23% in the D-group, plog-rank<0.0001, corresponding to an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.0 (95% CI: 1.3-3.0), p=0.001). The DA-group had an increased 30-day mortality due to neurological injury (HR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.7), p=0.02). Cause of death was anoxic brain injury in 78%, cardiovascular failure in 18% and multi-organ failure in 4%. The hemodynamic changes of TH reversed at normothermia, although the requirement for vasopressor support (cardiovascular SOFA≥3) persisted in 80% of patients. In survivors after OHCA treated with TH the induced hemodynamic changes reversed after normothermia, while the need for vasopressor support persisted. Patients requiring addition of norepinephrine/epinephrine on top of dopamine had an increased 30-day all-cause mortality, as well as death from neurological injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wrist Hypothermia Related to Continuous Work with a Computer Mouse: A Digital Infrared Imaging Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Reste

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer work is characterized by sedentary static workload with low-intensity energy metabolism. The aim of our study was to evaluate the dynamics of skin surface temperature in the hand during prolonged computer mouse work under different ergonomic setups. Digital infrared imaging of the right forearm and wrist was performed during three hours of continuous computer work (measured at the start and every 15 minutes thereafter in a laboratory with controlled ambient conditions. Four people participated in the study. Three different ergonomic computer mouse setups were tested on three different days (horizontal computer mouse without mouse pad; horizontal computer mouse with mouse pad and padded wrist support; vertical computer mouse without mouse pad. The study revealed a significantly strong negative correlation between the temperature of the dorsal surface of the wrist and time spent working with a computer mouse. Hand skin temperature decreased markedly after one hour of continuous computer mouse work. Vertical computer mouse work preserved more stable and higher temperatures of the wrist (>30 °C, while continuous use of a horizontal mouse for more than two hours caused an extremely low temperature (<28 °C in distal parts of the hand. The preliminary observational findings indicate the significant effect of the duration and ergonomics of computer mouse work on the development of hand hypothermia.

  10. A quality improvement project to reduce hypothermia in infants undergoing MRI scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, Priti G.; Parekh, Uma; Dhar, Padmani; McQuillan, Patrick M.; Porath, Janelle; Mujsce, Dennis; Wang, Ming; Hulse, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia prevention strategies during MRI scanning under general anesthesia in infants may pose a challenge due to the MRI scanner's technical constraints. Previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results related to increase or decrease in post-scan temperatures in children. We noted occurrences of post-scan hypothermia in anesthetized infants despite the use of routine passive warming techniques. The aims of our quality improvement project were (a) to identify variables associated with post-scan hypothermia in infants and (b) to develop and implement processes to reduce occurrence of hypothermia in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants undergoing MRI. One hundred sixty-four infants undergoing MRI scanning were prospectively audited for post-scan body temperatures. A multidisciplinary team identified potential variables associated with post-scan hypothermia and designed preventative strategies: protocol development, risk factor identification, vigilance and use of a vacuum immobilizer. Another audit was performed, specifically focusing on NICU infants. In the initial phase, we found that younger age (P = 0.002), lower weight (P = 0.005), lower pre-scan temperature (P < 0.01), primary anesthetic technique with propofol (P < 0.01), advanced airway devices (P = 0.02) and being in the NICU (P < 0.01) were associated with higher odds for developing post-scan decrease in body temperature. Quality improvement processes decreased the occurrence of hypothermia in NICU infants undergoing MRI scanning from 65% to 18% (95% confidence interval for the difference, 26-70%, P < 0.001). Several variables, including being in the NICU, are associated with a decrease in post-scan temperature in infants undergoing MRI scanning under sedation/general anesthesia. Implementation of strategies to prevent hypothermia in infants may be challenging in the high-risk MRI environment. We were able to minimize this problem in clinical practice by applying quality improvement

  11. Temperature control during therapeutic hypothermia for newborn encephalopathy using different Blanketrol devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptook, Abbot R; Kilbride, Howard; Shepherd, Edward; McDonald, Scott A; Shankaran, Seetha; Truog, William; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2014-12-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia improves the survival and neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with newborn encephalopathy of a hypoxic-ischemic origin. The NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) Whole Body Cooling trial used the Cincinnati Sub-Zero Blanketrol II to achieve therapeutic hypothermia. The Blanketrol III is now available and provides additional cooling modes that may result in better temperature control. This report is a retrospective comparison of infants undergoing hypothermia using two different cooling modes of the Blanketrol device. Infants from the NRN trial were cooled with the Blanketrol II using the Automatic control mode (B2 cohort) and were compared with infants from two new NRN centers that adopted the NRN protocol and used the Blanketrol III in a gradient mode (B3 cohort). The primary outcome was the percent time the esophageal temperature stayed between 33°C and 34°C (target 33.5°C) during maintenance of hypothermia. Cohorts had similar birth weight, gestational age, and level of encephalopathy at the initiation of therapy. Baseline esophageal temperature differed between groups (36.6°C ± 1.0°C for B2 vs. 33.9°C ± 1.2°C for B3, p<0.0001) reflecting the practice of passive cooling during transport prior to initiation of active device cooling in the B3 cohort. This difference prevented comparison of temperatures during induction of hypothermia. During maintenance of hypothermia the mean and standard deviation of the percent time between 33°C and 34°C was similar for B2 compared to B3 cohorts (94.8% ± 0.1% vs. 95.8% ± 0.1%, respectively). Both the automatic and gradient control modes of the Blanketrol devices appear comparable in maintaining esophageal temperature within the target range during maintenance of therapeutic hypothermia.

  12. Under-humidification and over-humidification during moderate induced hypothermia with usual devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouche, François; Qader, Siham; Taille, Solenne; Lyazidi, Aissam; Brochard, Laurent

    2006-07-01

    In mechanically ventilated patients with induced hypothermia, the efficacy of heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers to adequately humidify the airway is poorly known. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of different humidification devices during moderate hypothermia. Prospective, cross-over randomized study. Medical Intensive Care Unit in a University Hospital. Nine adult patients hospitalized after cardiac arrest in whom moderate hypothermia was induced (33 degrees C for 24[Symbol: see text]h). Patients were ventilated at admission (period designated "normothermia") with a heat and moisture exchanger, and were randomly ventilated during hypothermia with a heat and moisture exchanger, a heated humidifier, and an active heat and moisture exchanger. Core temperature, inspired and expired gas absolute and relative humidity were measured. Each system demonstrated limitations in its ability to humidify gases in the specific situation of hypothermia. Performances of heat and moisture exchangers were closely correlated to core temperature (r (2)[Symbol: see text]=[Symbol: see text]0.84). During hypothermia, heat and moisture exchangers led to major under-humidification, with absolute humidity below 25[Symbol: see text]mgH(2)O/l. The active heat and moisture exchanger slightly improved humidification. Heated humidifiers were mostly adequate but led to over-humidification in some patients, with inspiratory absolute humidity higher than maximal water content at 33 degrees C with a positive balance between inspiratory and expiratory water content. These results suggest that in the case of moderate hypothermia, heat and moisture exchangers should be used cautiously and that heated humidifiers may lead to over-humidification with the currently recommended settings.

  13. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  14. Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy: a UK survey of opinion, practice and neuro-investigation at the end of 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Andrew; Azzopardi, Denis; Wyatt, John; Robertson, Nicola J

    2009-04-01

    The 2007 Cochrane review of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy (NE) indicates a significant reduction in adverse outcome. UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines are awaited. To benchmark current opinion and practice to inform future strategies for optimal knowledge transfer for therapeutic hypothermia. A web based questionnaire (30 sections related to opinion and practice of management of NE) sent to the clinical leads of Level I, II and III neonatal units throughout the UK in November/December 2007. One hundred and twenty-five (out of 195) UK neonatal units responded (response rate 66%). Ten percent, 37.5% and 51.5% responses were from level I, II and III units respectively. Twenty eight percent of all units provided therapeutic hypothermia locally (52% of level III units), however 80% of responders would offer therapeutic hypothermia if there was the facility. Overall, 57% of responders considered therapeutic hypothermia effective or very effective - similar for all unit levels; 43% considered more data are required. Regional availability of therapeutic hypothermia exists in 55% of units and 41% of units offer transfer to a regional centre for therapeutic hypothermia. In the UK in 2007, access to therapeutic hypothermia was widespread although not universal. More than half of responders considered therapeutic hypothermia effective. Fifty-five percent of perinatal networks have the facility to offer therapeutic hypothermia. The involvement of national bodies may be necessary to ensure the adoption of therapeutic hypothermia according to defined protocols and standards; registration is important and will help ensure universal neurodevelopmental follow up.

  15. Anaesthesia generates neuronal insulin resistance by inducing hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland Calum

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaesthesia is commonly employed prior to surgical investigations and to permit icv injections in rodents. Indeed it is standard practise in many studies examining the subsequent actions of hormones and growth factors on the brain. Recent evidence that the basal activity of specific intracellular signalling proteins can be affected by anaesthesia prompted us to examine the effect of anaesthesia not only on the basal activity but also the insulin sensitivity of the major insulin signalling pathways. Results We find that urethane- and ketamine-induced anaesthesia results in rapid activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PKB signalling pathway in the brain, increases tau phosphorylation while at the same time reducing basal activity of the Ras-ERK pathway. Subsequent injection of insulin does not alter the activity of either the PI 3-kinase or ERK signalling pathways, indicating a degree of neuronal molecular insulin resistance. However, if body temperature is maintained during anaesthesia then there is no alteration in the basal activity of these signalling molecules. Subsequent response of both pathways to insulin injection is restored. Conclusion The data is consistent with a hypothermia related alteration in neuronal signalling following anaesthesia, and emphasises the importance of maintaining the body temperature of rodents when monitoring insulin (or growth factor/neurotrophic agent action in the brain of anesthetised rodents.

  16. Cardiac hypertrophy in chick embryos induced by hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, C.; Johnson, T.R.; Caston, J.D.; Przybylski, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A decrease in incubation temperature from 38 to 32 0 C elicits a decrease in chicken embryo size and weight with concomitant heart enlargement if done after day 10 of incubation. When assayed at day 18 of incubation with the hypothermia started on day 11 or 14, evidence is presented that the heart enlargement is an hypertrophy with no detectable hyperplasia. Supporting data are presented for various physical parameters showing increases in heart wet and dry weight, volume, area, wall thickness, and cell size. There was little difference in DNA content and nuclear [ 3 H]thymidine labeling index between hearts of control and hypothermic embryos. Hearts of hypothermic embryos showed a slight increase in water content and considerable increases in RNA, protein, and glycogen content per unit DNA. The average size of polysomes isolated from hypothermic hearts was larger than that of polysomes isolated from controls. Microscopic studies showed no obvious increase in amount of capillary beds, connective tissue, and myocardial cells. Annulate lamellae were found only in myocardial cells of hypothermic embryos in sparse amounts and low frequency but always associated with large deposits of glycogen

  17. Hypothermia reduces cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in newborn pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busija, D.W.; Leffler, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined effects of hypothermia on cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in anesthetized, newborn pigs (1-4 days old). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined with 15-μm radioactive microspheres. Regional CBF ranged from 44 to 66 ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , and cerebral metabolic rate was 1.94 ± 0.23 ml O 2 ·100 g -1 ·min -1 during normothermia (39 degree C). Reduction of rectal temperature to 34-35 degree C decreased CBF and cerebral metabolic rate 40-50%. In another group of piglets, they examined responsiveness of the cerebral circulation to arterial hypercapnia during hypothermia. Although absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic CBF were reduced by hypothermia and absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic cerebrovascular resistance were increased, the percentage changes from control in these variables during hypercapnia were similar during normothermia and hypothermia. In another group of animals that were maintained normothermic and exposed to two episodes of hypercapnia, there was no attenuation of cerebrovascular dilation during the second episode. They conclude that hypothermia reduces CBF secondarily to a decrease in cerebral metabolic rate and that percent dilator responsiveness to arterial hypercapnia is unaltered when body temperature is reduced

  18. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  19. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  20. Systemic Effects of Hypothermia due to Hypothalamic Dysfunction after Resection of a Craniopharyngioma : Case Report and Review of Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vetten, L.; Bocca, Gianni

    Objective With this case report, we aim to improve recognition of the systemic effects of hypothermia due to hypothalamic dysfunctioning. We present a patient who developed temperature dysregulation after surgery for craniopharyngioma. He suffered from several episodes of hypothermia associated with

  1. The influence of body composition on therapeutic hypothermia: a prospective observational study of patients after cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink, Joost J.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Paulus, Frederique; Mathus-Vliegen, Lisbeth M. H.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Vroom, Margreeth B.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) benefit from therapeutic hypothermia for 24 hours. The time needed to reach hypothermia (target temperature of 32 degrees C to 34 degrees C) varies widely. In this study, we explore the relation between measures of body composition

  2. Novel approach for independent control of brain hypothermia and systemic normothermia: cerebral selective deep hypothermia for refractory cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chou, Heng-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chih; Hwang, Joey-Jen; Gilbert, John R; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2017-08-01

    A 38-year-old man was found unconscious, alone in the driver's seat of his car. The emergency medical team identified his condition as pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation was attempted but failed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was started in the emergency room 52 min after the estimated arrest following the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) protocol in our center. The initial prognosis under the standard protocol was <25% chance of survival. A novel adjunctive to our ECPR protocol, cerebral selective deep (<30°C) hypothermia (CSDH), was applied. CSDH adds a second independent femoral access extracorporeal circuit, perfusing cold blood into the patient's common carotid artery. The ECMO and CSDH circuits demonstrated independent control of cerebral and core temperatures. Nasal temperature was lowered to below 30°C for 12 hours while core was maintained at normothermia. The patient was discharged without significant neurological deficit 32 days after the initial arrest. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Combined use of intravenous anesthetics and hypothermia in treating refractory status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-ping REN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary choice of treating refractory status epilepticus (RSE is intravenous anesthetics, but the seizures of some patients can not get a good control. Thus, other therapies must be combined. Hypothermia not only can terminate seizures, but also play a part in brain protection. Though combined use of intravenous anesthetics and hypothermia is not a regular clinical scheme, the favorable effect has been proved by a lot of clinical research. This paper mainly focuses on the dose of intravenous anesthetics, the time, temperature and procedure of hypothermia, the indications and contraindications of combined therapy, and so on. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.006

  4. Detection and significance of S-100 protein and NSE during mild hypothermia cardiopulmonary bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiuqin; Jin Mu; Tan Jiefang; Huang Wenqi; Chen Bingxue; Huang Weiming; Huang Xiongqing

    2001-01-01

    To observe dynamic changes of S-100 protein and NSE during mild hypothermia cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the venous blood samples of 25 patients with elective cardiac surgery were obtained simultaneously from the left artery and left jugular bulb before CPB(A), hypothermia period (32-35 degree C) (B) and rewarming to 36 degree C (C) during CPB, 30 minutes (D), 4-6 hours (E) and 24 hours (F) after CPB. Plasma S-100 protein concentration was determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and NSE level was determined by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the levels of S-100 protein and NSE increased significantly during CPB, and NSE peaked at 30 minutes (D) after CPB. It suggested the central nervous system dysfunctions. The S-100 protein and NSE concentrations decreased gradually and retuned to normal nearly (F) after mild hypothermia CPB. It suggested that there were not obvious central nervous system dysfunctions

  5. Intelligent Hypothermia Care System using Ant ‎Colony Optimization for Rules Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Naser Khraibet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Hypothermia Care System (IHCS is an intelligence system uses set of methodologies, algorithms, architectures and processes to determine where patients in a postoperative recovery area must be sent. Hypothermia is a significant concern after surgery. This paper utilizes the classification task in data mining to propose an intelligent technique to predict where to send a patient after surgery: intensive care unit, general floor or home. To achieve this goal, this paper evaluates the performance of decision tree algorithm, exemplifying the deterministic approach, against the AntMiner algorithm, exemplifying the heuristic approach, to choose the best approach in detecting the patient’s status. Results show the outperformance of the heuristic approach. The implication of this proposal will be twofold: in hypothermia treatment and in the application of ant colony optimization

  6. Involvement of histamine H1 and H2 receptors in hypothermia induced by ionizing radiation in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced hypothermia was examined in guinea pigs. Exposure to the head alone or whole-body irradiation induced hypothermia, whereas exposure of the body alone produced a small insignificant response. Systemic injection of disodium cromoglycate (a mast cell stabilizer) and cimetidine (H2-receptor antagonist) had no effect on radiation-induced hypothermia, whereas systemic and central administration of mepyramine (H1-receptor antagonist) or central administration of disodium cromoglycate or cimetidine attenuated it, indicating the involvement of central histamine through both H1 and H2 receptors in this response. Serotonin is not involved, since the serotonin antagonist methysergide had no effect on radiation-induced hypothermia. These results indicate that central histaminergic systems may be involved in radiation-induced hypothermia. 34 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  7. Randomized trial of plastic bags to prevent term neonatal hypothermia in a resource-poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsches, Theodore C; Tilly, Alyssa E; Miller, Tonya R; Kambeyanda, Rohan H; Leadford, Alicia; Manasyan, Albert; Chomba, Elwyn; Ramani, Manimaran; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2013-09-01

    Term infants in resource-poor settings frequently develop hypothermia during the first hours after birth. Plastic bags or wraps are a low-cost intervention for the prevention of hypothermia in preterm and low birth weight infants that may also be effective in term infants. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that placement of term neonates in plastic bags at birth reduces hypothermia at 1 hour after birth in a resource-poor hospital. This parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted at University Teaching Hospital, the tertiary referral center in Zambia. Inborn neonates with both a gestational age ≥37 weeks and a birth weight ≥2500 g were randomized 1:1 to either a standard thermoregulation protocol or to a standard thermoregulation protocol with placement of the torso and lower extremities inside a plastic bag within 10 minutes after birth. The primary outcome was hypothermia (plastic bag (n = 135) or to standard thermoregulation care (n = 136) had similar baseline characteristics (birth weight, gestational age, gender, and baseline temperature). Neonates in the plastic bag group had a lower rate of hypothermia (60% vs 73%, risk ratio 0.76, confidence interval 0.60-0.96, P = .026) and a higher axillary temperature (36.4 ± 0.5°C vs 36.2 ± 0.7°C, P plastic bag at birth reduced the incidence of hypothermia at 1 hour after birth in term neonates born in a resource-poor setting, but most neonates remained hypothermic.

  8. Comparison of resistive heating and forced-air warming to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M; Crook, D; Dasari, K; Eljelani, F; El-Haboby, A; Harper, C M

    2016-02-01

    Forced-air warming is a commonly used warming modality, which has been shown to reduce the incidence of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (heating mattresses offer a potentially cheaper alternative, however, and one of the research recommendations from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence was to evaluate such devices formally. We conducted a randomized single-blinded study comparing perioperative hypothermia in patients receiving resistive heating or forced-air warming. A total of 160 patients undergoing non-emergency surgery were recruited and randomly allocated to receive either forced-air warming (n=78) or resistive heating (n=82) in the perioperative period. Patient core temperatures were monitored after induction of anaesthesia until the end of surgery and in the recovery room. Our primary outcome measures included the final intraoperative temperature and incidence of hypothermia at the end of surgery. There was a significantly higher rate of hypothermia at the end of surgery in the resistive heating group compared with the forced-air warming group (P=0.017). Final intraoperative temperatures were also significantly lower in the resistive heating group (35.9 compared with 36.1°C, P=0.029). Hypothermia at the end of surgery in both warming groups was common (36% forced air warming, 54% resistive heating). Our results suggest that forced-air warming is more effective than resistive heating in preventing postoperative hypothermia. NCT01056991. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The role of multiple dopamine receptors in apomorphine and N-n-propylnorapomorphine-induced climbing and hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N A; Axton, M S

    1990-03-20

    Apomorphine and N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) were compared for their ability to induce stereotyped cage climbing and hypothermia in mice. Climbing behavior was produced by similar doses of apomorphine and NPA (0.625-2.5 mg/kg s.c.), whereas NPA was 43 times more potent than apomorphine in inducing a hypothermic response. SKF38393 caused a shift to the left in the dose-response curve for NPA-induced climbing, the ED50 changing from 0.98 to 0.014 mg/kg. SKF38393 had no effect on apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour. The climbing response produced by apomorphine was antagonised by both D-1 and D-2 antagonists. Climbing behaviour induced by NPA (2.5 mg/kg) could be antagonised by SCH23390 but not by clebopride, however climbing behaviour induced by a low dose of NPA (0.06 mg/kg) plus SKF38393 could be blocked by both D-1 and D-2 receptor antagonists. The hypothermic responses produced by either apomorphine or NPA could only be reversed by the selective D-2 antagonist, clebopride. These results demonstrate that dopamine agonist-induced stereotyped cage climbing requires both D-1 and D-2 receptor stimulation, whereas the hypothermic response is D-2-mediated. The results also show that it is possible to assess the relative activity of a dopamine agonist at D-1 or D-2 receptors in vivo by comparing the ability of the compound to induce hypothermia and climbing behaviour.

  10. Motion sickness increases the risk of accidental hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel, Gerard; Eiken, Ola; Tribukait, Arne; Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2006-09-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been found to increase body-core cooling during immersion in 28 degrees C water, an effect ascribed to attenuation of the cold-induced peripheral vasoconstriction (Mekjavic et al. in J Physiol 535(2):619-623, 2001). The present study tested the hypothesis that a more profound cold stimulus would override the MS effect on peripheral vasoconstriction and hence on the core cooling rate. Eleven healthy subjects underwent two separate head-out immersions in 15 degrees C water. In the control trial (CN), subjects were immersed after baseline measurements. In the MS-trial, subjects were rendered motion sick prior to immersion, by using a rotating chair in combination with a regimen of standardized head movements. During immersion in the MS-trial, subjects were exposed to an optokinetic stimulus (rotating drum). At 5-min intervals subjects rated their temperature perception, thermal comfort and MS discomfort. During immersion mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (DeltaTff), oxygen uptake and heart rate were recorded. In the MS-trial, rectal temperature decreased substantially faster (33%, P < 0.01). Also, the DeltaTff response, an index of peripheral vasomotor tone, as well as the oxygen uptake, indicative of the shivering response, were significantly attenuated (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) by MS. Thus, MS may predispose individuals to hypothermia by enhancing heat loss and attenuating heat production. This might have significant implications for survival in maritime accidents.

  11. Robotic partial nephrectomy with intracorporeal renal hypothermia using ice slush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouk, Jihad H; Samarasekera, Dinesh; Krishnan, Jayram; Autorino, Riccardo; Acka, Oktay; Brando, Luis Felipe; Laydner, Humberto; Zargar, Homayoun

    2014-09-01

    To outline our technique for intracorporeal cooling with ice slush during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN), with real-time parenchymal temperature monitoring. Eleven consecutive patients with enhancing solid renal masses suitable for treatment with RPN between September 2013 and January 2014 were included in the analysis. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Preoperative patient characteristics, intraoperative surgical parameters including patient body temperature and ipsilateral kidney temperature with real-time monitoring, and short-term functional outcomes were analyzed. Median age was 55 years (range, 39-75 years) and American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 3 (range, 2-4). Median tumor size was 4 cm (range, 2.3-7.1) and RENAL nephrometry score was 9 (range, 5-11). One patient had a solitary kidney. During cooling, the lowest median renal parenchymal temperature was 17.05°C (range, 11°C-26°C) and cold ischemia time was 27.17 minutes (range, 18-49 minutes). Median time to latest postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was 12 days (range, 2-30 days). Median glomerular filtration rate preservation was 81% (range, 47.9%-126%). There was one positive margin. There were no postoperative complications, and no patients experienced a prolonged ileus. The limitations of this study include a small number of patients and short-term follow-up. RPN with renal hypothermia using intracorporeal ice slush is technically feasible. Our simplified method of introducing the ice slush was free of complications and highly reproducible. The use of a needle temperature probe allowed us to monitor in real time cooling of the renal parenchyma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Olanzapine causes hypothermia, inactivity, a deranged feeding pattern and weight gain in female Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S. S.; Calcagnoli, F.; van Dijk, G.; Scheurink, A. J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an a-typical antipsychotic drug antagonizing predominantly 5-HT and dopamine but also histamine muscarin and a adrenergic receptors In humans Olanzapine induces weight gain and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes The underlying mechanisms of Olanzapine-induced weight gain are unclear

  13. Scandinavian clinical practice guidelines for therapeutic hypothermia and post-resuscitation care after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrén, M; Silfvast, T; Rubertsson, S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sudden cardiac arrest survivors suffer from ischaemic brain injury that may lead to poor neurological outcome and death. The reperfusion injury that occurs is associated with damaging biochemical reactions, which are suppressed by mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH). In several...... of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI). METHODS: Relevant studies were identified after two consensus meetings of the SSAI Task Force on Therapeutic Hypothermia (SSAITFTH) and via literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Medline. Evidence was assessed and consensus...

  14. Kinetic distribution of the radio-sodium among the rabbit in hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Combrisson, A.

    1955-01-01

    The experimental hypothermia, by the deep modifications of the circulatory hemodynamic, which it drags, and by the huge reduction of the oxidative processes that it characterizes, represent a particular physiological state that must permit to specify physico-chemical mechanisms which order the exchanges of the partition of the blood in capillaries and notably electrolytes exchanges. To do this study we followed the distribution kinetics of the sodium 24 in the blood system of 30 rabbits that was either in hypothermia, either to normal temperature. (M.B.) [fr

  15. Sinus bradycardia during hypothermia in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bradycardia is a common finding in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), presumably as a normal physiological response to low body temperature. We hypothesized that a normal physiological response with sinus bradycardia (SB...... the hypothermia phase of TH had a 17% 180-day mortality rate compared to 38% in no-SB patients (phypothermia was directly associated with lower odds of unfavorable...... neurological outcome (ORunadjusted=0.42 (0.23-0.75, phypothermia is independently associated with a lower 180-day mortality rate and may thus be a novel, early marker of favorable outcome in comatose survivors of OHCA....

  16. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  17. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  18. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  19. Milrinone ameliorates cardiac mechanical dysfunction after hypothermia in an intact rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrichs, Erik Sveberg; Kondratiev, Timofei; Tveita, Torkjel

    2014-12-01

    Rewarming from hypothermia is often complicated by cardiac dysfunction, characterized by substantial reduction in stroke volume. Previously we have reported that inotropic agents, working via cardiac β-receptor agonism may exert serious side effects when applied to treat cardiac contractile dysfunction during rewarming. In this study we tested whether Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, is able to ameliorate such dysfunction when given during rewarming. A rat model designed for circulatory studies during experimental hypothermia with cooling to a core temperature of 15°C, stable hypothermia at this temperature for 3h and subsequent rewarming was used, with a total of 3 groups: (1) a normothermic group receiving Milrinone, (2) a hypothermic group receiving Milrinone the last hour of hypothermia and during rewarming, and (3) a hypothermic saline control group. Hemodynamic function was monitored using a conductance catheter introduced to the left ventricle. After rewarming from 15°C, stroke volume and cardiac output returned to within baseline values in Milrinone treated animals, while these variables were significantly reduced in saline controls. Milrinone ameliorated cardiac dysfunction during rewarming from 15°C. The present results suggest that at low core temperatures and during rewarming from such temperatures, pharmacologic efforts to support cardiovascular function is better achieved by substances preventing cyclic AMP breakdown rather than increasing its formation via β-receptor stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy - where to from here?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne O. Davidson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia before or around the time of birth occurs in approximately 2/1000 live births and is associated with a high risk of death or lifelong disability. Therapeutic hypothermia is now well established as standard treatment for infants with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy but is only partially effective. There is compelling preclinical and clinical evidence that hypothermia is most protective when it is started as early as possible after hypoxia-ischemia. Further improvements in outcome from therapeutic hypothermia are very likely to arise from strategies to reduce the delay before starting treatment of affected infants. In this review we examine evidence that current protocols are reasonably close to the optimal depth and duration of cooling, but that the optimal rate of rewarming after hypothermia is unclear. The potential for combination treatments to augment hypothermic neuroprotection has considerable promise, particularly with endogenous targets such as melatonin and erythropoietin and noble gases such as xenon. We dissect the critical importance of preclinical studies using realistic delays in treatment and clinically relevant cooling protocols when examining combination treatment, and that for many strategies overlapping mechanisms of action can substantially attenuate any effects.

  1. Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest in Lower Austria--a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Andreas; Gamper, Gunnar; Mayr, Harald

    2011-04-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after cardiac arrest in Lower Austria. A questionnaire was sent to intensive care units (ICUs) in Lower Austria. Methods of inducing and maintaining hypothermia, the practise of rewarming, concomitant therapies and reasons not to cool were documented. Of the 23 ICUs 10 (43%) used TH. Nine (39%) cooled their patients to 32-34°C and one to 34-35°C. Duration of cooling was 24 h (n=8, 35%), 24-48 h (n=1) or 48 h (n=1). For induction of hypothermia, ICUs used cold infusions (n=5, 22%), surface (n=7, 30%) or endovascular cooling (n=6, 26%). The same methods were used during the maintenance period. Reasons not to cool were insufficient staff resources (n=4, 17%), technical complexity of cooling (n=4, 17%) and too little information (n=3, 13%). In conclusion, TH has been poorly implemented in Lower Austria. The reasons for not using hypothermia could possibly be dispelled by education.

  2. Unexpected fatal neurological deterioration after successful cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and therapeutic hypothermia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, R.; Tjan, D.H.; Adriaanse, M.W.; Vugt, R. van; Zanten, A.R. van

    2008-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to pulseless electrical activity. She was treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia to minimise secondary anoxic brain damage. After a 24 h period of

  3. Changes in blood flow by local hypothermia and its application to cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong-Su; Higano, Shuichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Mamoru; Hoshino, Humihiko

    1984-01-01

    Protective effects of local hypothermia on radiation dermatitis and mucositis were shown. It was considered that the main factor influencing radioprotection was decrease of local blood flow. Our examinations showed that blood flow of the skin and oral mucosa decreased while that of the tumors did not so change. Adequate results were obtained in the combined treatment of radiation and chemotherapy. (author)

  4. Admission Hypothermia in Very Preterm Infants and Neonatal Mortality and Morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Emilija; Maier, Rolf F; Norman, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    -28 days (risk ratio 1.79; 1.15-2.78) but not after 28 days of age. We found no associations between admission temperature and neonatal morbidity. CONCLUSION: Admission hypothermia after very preterm birth is a significant problem in Europe, associated with an increased risk of early and late neonatal...

  5. EFFECTS OF CANNABIDIOL PLUS HYPOTHERMIA ON SHORT-TERM NEWBORN PIG BRAIN DAMAGE AFTER ACUTE HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Lafuente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothermia is standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but near 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms to hypothermia and would improve neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate.Objective: To test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets.Methods: Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomized to receive 30 min after the insult: 1 normothermia- and vehicle-treated group; 2 normothermia- and cannabidiol-treated group; 3 hypothermia- and vehicle-treated group; and 4 hypothermia- and cannabidiol-treated group. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to qualify the number of neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate. Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress and expression of caspase-3 (apoptosis and TNFα (inflammation.Results: Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on histological damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone.Conclusion: Cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  6. Whole-body hypothermia has central and peripheral influences on elbow flexor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Farrell; Kalmar, Jayne M; Pretorius, Thea; Gardiner, Phillip F; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2011-05-01

    The superimposed twitch technique was used to study the effect of whole-body hypothermia on maximal voluntary activation of elbow flexors. Seven subjects [26.4 ± 4 years old (mean ± SD)] were exposed to 60 min of either immersion in 8°C water (hypothermia) or sitting in 22°C air (control). Voluntary activation was assessed during brief (3 s) maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and then during a 2 min fatiguing sustained MVC. Hypothermia (core temperature 34.8 ± 0.9°C) decreased maximal voluntary torque from 98.2 ± 1.0 to 82.8 ± 5.8% MVC (P < 0.001) and increased central conduction time from 7.9 ± 0.4 to 9.1 ± 0.7 ms (P < 0.05). Hypothermia also decreased maximal resting twitch amplitude from 17.6 ± 4.0 to 10.0 ± 1.7% MVC (P < 0.005) and increased the time-to-peak twitch tension from 55.4 ± 4.0 to 79.0 ± 11.7 ms (P < 0.001). During the 2 min contraction, hypothermia decreased initial torque (P < 0.01) but attenuated the subsequent rate of torque decline (control from 95.5 ± 4 to 29.4 ± 8% MVC; and hypothermia from 85.3 ± 8 to 37.3 ± 5% MVC; P < 0.01). Cortical superimposed twitches increased as fatigue developed but were always lower in the hypothermic conditions. Cortical superimposed twitches increased from a value of 0.4 ± 0.3% MVC prefatigue to 3.9 ± 1.4% MVC postfatigue (P < 0.001) in the hypothermic conditions and from 1.7 ± 0.9 to 5.5 ± 2.3% MVC in control conditions. Our results suggest that hypothermia decreases MVCs primarily via peripheral mechanisms and attenuates the rate of fatigue development by reducing central fatigue.

  7. Quantitative analysis of normal tissue effects in the clinic (QUANTEC) guideline validation using quality of life questionnaire datasets for parotid gland constraints to avoid causing xerostomia during head-and-neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Fang, Fu-Min

    2013-01-01

    effectively avoid xerostomia, and the QUANTEC 25-Gy guideline is justified for NPC cohorts

  8. Post-stroke gaseous hypothermia increases vascular density but not neurogenesis in the ischemic penumbra of aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Uzoni, Adriana; Ciobanu, Ovidiu

    2016-01-01

    of several genes involved in protein degradation, thereby leading to better preservation of infarcted tissue. Further, hypothermia increased the density of newly formed blood vessels in the peri-lesional cortex did not enhance neurogenesis in the infarcted area of aged rats. Likewise, there was improved......-PCR and immunofluorescence, we assessed infarct size, vascular density, neurogenesis and as well as the expression of genes coding for proteasomal proteins as well as in post-stroke aged Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to H2S- induced hypothermia. Results: Two days exposure to mild hypothermia diminishes the expression...

  9. Evolução da mortalidade por causas evitáveis e expansão dos recursos municipais de saúde em Maringá, Paraná Evolution of mortality from avoidable causes and expansion of municipal health resources in a Southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Scochi

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução do perfil da mortalidade por doenças evitáveis, em Maringá, PR, relacionando-o à qualidade de assistência á saúde. MÉTODOS: A partir da proposição de estudos de resultado da assistência foram selecionadas 11 causas de mortes. À evolução dos óbitos foi associada a evolução dos recursos disponíveis, bem como ao grau de escolarização e saneamento básico, no período de 1983-1993. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Os dados revelaram que as taxas de mortalidade da maioria das causas evitáveis tenderam ao declínio, com uma redução de 39%, em contraposição a 16% das demais. Observou-se uma melhora das condições de escolarização e de saneamento. A evolução positiva das condições gerais da população dificulta atribuir imediatamente aos serviços a responsabilidade sobre o declínio das mortes evitáveis, mas a diferença entre estas mortes e as demais permite inferir que, se diante de condições satisfatórias de vida ocorresse um recrudescimento desses indicadores, poder-se-ia constatar uma falta de efetividade dos serviços. A constatação do arrefecimento dos indicadores pode fazer supor que a expansão dos serviços auxiliou no declínio.OBJECTIVE: An assessment of the evolution of the profile of mortality from avoidable diseases, in the municipality of Maringá, PR (Brazil, 1980 through 1993, as related to the quality of health attendance. METHODS: Based on the proposal to study caregiving results, eleven causes of avoidable deaths were selected. The evolution of resources available, level of schooling and sanitation were associated with the evolution of mortality. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The data revealed that the mortality rates for most of the avoidable causes tended to decline faster than those for other causes (a reduction of 39% as against 16%. A significant improvement in schooling and sanitary conditions was also observed over the same period. The positive evolution of the general

  10. BIOMARKERS S100B AND NSE PREDICT OUTCOME IN HYPOTHERMIA-TREATED ENCEPHALOPATHIC NEWBORNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, An N.; Chang, Taeun; Baumgart, Stephen; McCarter, Robert; Nelson, Karin B.; Glass, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if serum S100B protein and neuron specific enolase (NSE) measured during therapeutic hypothermia are predictive of neurodevelopmental outcome at 15 months in children with neonatal encephalopathy (NE). Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study Setting A level IV neonatal intensive care unit in a free-standing children’s hospital. Patients Term newborns with moderate to severe NE referred for therapeutic hypothermia during the study period. Interventions Serum NSE and S100B were measured at 0, 12, 24 and 72 hrs of hypothermia. Measurements and Main Reseults Of the 83 infants were enrolled, fifteen (18%) died in the newborn period. Survivors were evaluated by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II) at 15 months of age. Outcomes were assessed in 49/68 (72%) survivors at a mean age of 15.2±2.7 months. Neurodevelopmental outcome was classified by BSID-II Mental (MDI) and Psychomotor (PDI) Developmental Index scores, reflecting cognitive and motor outcomes respectively. Four-level outcome classifications were defined a priori: normal= MDI/PDI within 1SD (>85), mild= MDI/PDI <1SD (70–85), moderate/severe= MDI/PDI <2SD (<70), or died. Elevated serum S100B and NSE levels measured during hypothermia were associated with increasing outcome severity after controlling for baseline and soceioeconomic characteristics in ordinal regression models. Adjusted odds ratios for cognitive outcome were: S100B 2.5 (95% CI 1.3–4.8) and NSE 2.1 (1.2–3.6); for motor outcome: S100B 2.6 (1.2–5.6) and NSE 2.1 (1.2–3.6). Conclusions Serum S100B and NSE levels in babies with NE are associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 15 months. These putative biomarkers of brain injury may help direct care during therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:24777302

  11. Therapeutic mild hypothermia improves early outcomes in rats subjected to severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wu; Shen, Yuehong; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Shouyin; Shen, Huahao

    2018-04-15

    Therapeutic hypothermia has shown beneficial effects in sepsis. This study focused on its mechanism. Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cecal ligation and perforation and subsequently were treated with either hypothermia (HT; body temperature cooled and maintained at 34 °C by ice pad for 10 h; n = 8) or normothermia (NT; n = 8). Three additional rats underwent sham surgery. The body temperatures of the sham-operated and NT groups were maintained at 38 °C with a thermal pad. After the hypothermia treatment, the HT rats were rewarmed for 2 h. The groups were compared for circulating cytokines (IL-6, IL-10), lactate, high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), and lung and intestinal lesions. Animals were observed for 24 h. Compared with the sham-operated group, the 2 sepsis group rats had significantly higher circulating IL-6, HMGB1, and lactate levels, and tissue injury. In the HT rats, the levels of IL-6, HMGB1, and lactate, the lung wet-to-dry ratio, and lung and intestinal damage were significantly lower than that of the NT group. Circulating IL-10 levels increased significantly after 12 h in the sepsis groups compared with sham animals, while that of the NT and HT groups were comparable. The survival rates of the NT and HT rats were also comparable. Therapeutic hypothermia in a rat model of sepsis was associated with lower levels of circulating IL-6 and HMGB1, and less capillary leakage and tissue edema. These results suggest that mild hypothermia has potential as a therapy in sepsis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Management Of Patients With Stroke In Critical Care Units, Considering Osmotic Therapy And Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic brain edema is an early complication of stroke which increases the possibility of secondary ischemia. Hypertonic solutions, mannitol and recently hypertonic saline (HS has been considered for treatment of increased ICP. HS could decrease ICP especially in hypotensive patients with different mechanisms, direct effect on edema, decreasing inflammation which is mediated by attenuation of TNFa and IL-1b stimulation on Na-K-Cl cotransporter 1 and improvement of microcirculation. Improvement of microcirculation is so important for hypertonic solutions to be effective in ischemia especially focal ischemia. Based on the literature, hypertonic saline is more effective in decreasing cerebral edema than the equal volume of mannitol. The optimal dose and duration of therapy needs more trials. Caution should be performed with patients with moderate size hemispheric infarcts on presentation, race and genetic factors regarding osmotic therapy. Hypothermia has been rated as one of the most active modes of neuroprotection based on the results of different trials. Hypothermia in both ways, surface and intravascular, decreases cerebral metabolic rate of O2 and glucose and reduces brain oxygen consumption, inflammation and oxidative stress. Recent data continue to support consideration of therapeutic hypothermia for cerebral ischemia in larger clinical trials of acute ischemic stroke. By increasing the time window to therapy initiation and decreasing the treatment duration, selective intracarotid cold saline administration brings increased feasibility, potentially better outcomes and perhaps fewer complications compared with the whole body cooling. Hypothermia is now recommended as a targeted temperature management with defined protocol which should be started early; it may be performed pharmacologically in combination with other therapies. Applying hypothermia should be considered regarding its cost, using in awaked patients, re-warming protocol

  13. Hospitalization of children under five years of age due to avoidable causes Hospitalizaciones en menores de cinco años por causas evitables Hospitalizações de menores de cinco anos por causas evitáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the profile of hospital morbidity according to the main diagnosis upon admission, in individuals younger than five years old, residents of three cities (Maringá, Sarandi and Paiçandu in the Paraná state, Brazil. Information contained in hospital admission forms from 1998 to 2009 was used. The hospitalizations of 41,220 individuals younger than five years old were analyzed. The results indicate a decline of 16.1% in hospital admissions of patients younger than five years old in relation to the total number of admissions in all age groups. As for the main diagnoses, there were diseases of the respiratory system (55.6%, infectious and parasitic diseases (14.8% and diseases originating in the perinatal period (12.9%. Such conditions can be avoided by implementing primary health care measures, which shows the need to intensify the actions recommended by the programs directed to child health.El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el perfil de la morbilidad hospitalaria según el diagnóstico principal de internación, en menores de cinco años, residentes en las ciudades de Maringá, Sarandi y Paiçandu. Fueron utilizadas informaciones registradas en los formularios de Autorización de Internación Hospitalaria, en los años de 1998 a 2009. Se analizaron 41.220 internaciones en menores de 5 años. Los resultados evidencian una disminución de 16,1% de internaciones de menores de cinco años en relación al total de internaciones en todos los intervalos de edad. En cuanto a las principales causas de hospitalización se encontraron las enfermedades del aparato respiratorio (55,6%, enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias (14,8% y afecciones originadas en el período perinatal (12,9%; estas enfermedades pueden evitadas con medidas de atención básica, señalando la necesidad de intensificar las acciones preconizadas por los programas dirigidos a la salud del niño.O estudo objetivou caracterizar o perfil da morbidade

  14. Electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging comparison as a predicting factor for neurodevelopmental outcome in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy infant treated with hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Del Balzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is an important cause of acute neurological damage in newborns at (or near term. Several trials in recent years have shown that moderate hypothermia by total body cooling or selective head is an effective intervention to reduce mortality and major disability in infants survived a perinatal hypoxic-ischemic attack. Follow-up in these patients is very important to establish neurodevelopmental outcome, and specific markers can lead us to detect predicting sign for good or poor outcome. We reported a few cases of newborn with HIE treated with hypothermia, in whom the comparison between electroencephalogram (EEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI represents the first marker for neurodevelopment outcome prediction. The continuous EEG monitoring showed a depressed EEG activity with diffuse burst depression in 7 patients. No epileptic abnormalities were registered. In 10 out of 20 patients no abnormalities of the background activity and no epileptic abnormalities were observed. We found that a depressed EEG activity during the first 72 h of life and a diffused alteration of basal ganglia at MRI were correlated with a poor neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months of follow-up.

  15. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  16. Reversible Hypothermia-Induced Inhibition of Human Platelet Activation in Whole Blood in Vitro and in Vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michelson, A

    1992-01-01

    Platelets and other blood components are often transfused in clinical settings associated with hypothermia and a bleeding diathesis, such as cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, other major surgery, and multiple trauma...

  17. Induced hypothermia is protective in a rat model of pneumococcal pneumonia associated with increased adenosine triphosphate availability and turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, Charlotte J. P.; Aslami, Hamid; Kuipers, Maria T.; Horn, Janneke; Vroom, Margreeth B.; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of induced hypothermia on bacterial growth, lung injury, and mitochondrial function in a rat model of pneumococcal pneumosepsis. Design: Animal study. Setting: University research laboratory. Subjects: Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: Subjects were

  18. TherapeuTic hypoThermia afTer peri-inTervenTional in-hospiTal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... percutaneous dilation tracheostomy on the icu under analgosedation. during the .... ice-water gastric lavage could have been used for further facilitating .... cerebral hypothermia after cardiac arrest in dogs: a prospective ...

  19. Use of plastic bags to prevent hypothermia at birth in preterm infants--do they work at lower gestations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, C P H; Yoxall, C W

    2009-02-01

    Hypothermia at birth is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Occlusive wrapping of preterm infants during resuscitation, including polythene bags have been shown to prevent hypothermia. To evaluate the effectiveness of the introduction of polythene bags at resuscitation of infants born below 30 weeks gestation in a large tertiary neonatal centre. Retrospective audit of admission temperatures of all infants born below 30 weeks gestation for two years before and two years after the introduction of polythene bags. Hypothermia was defined as admission axillary temperature bags. The main reduction in hypothermia was seen in infants born above 28 weeks gestation (19.4% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.017). There was no significant effect in infants born between 28 weeks and 30 weeks (29.3% vs. 24.8%, p = 0.58). Polythene bags are effective in reducing the incidence of hypothermia at admission in infants born below 30 weeks gestation. The benefit in infants born below 28 weeks gestation was only marginal. This is in contrast to previously published studies. This may be related to the comparatively low incidence of hypothermia at the study centre even prior to introduction of polythene bags.

  20. Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy-Associated Liver Fatty Degeneration and the Effects of Therapeutic Hypothermia in Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroyuki; Shimono, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shinji; Koyano, Kosuke; Jinnai, Wataru; Yamato, Satoshi; Yasuda, Saneyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Tanaka, Aya; Fujii, Takayuki; Kanenishi, Kenji; Chiba, Yoichi; Miki, Takanori; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Although liver can be injured under the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) condition, there is currently no histopathological evidence. Therapeutic hypothermia is used to protect the brain; however, the therapeutic potential for concomitant liver injury is unknown. This study aimed to histopathologically prove HIE-associated liver injury and to investigate the influence of therapeutic hypothermia in a newborn piglet HIE model. Eighteen newborn piglets were divided into 3 groups: control (n = 4), HIE (n = 8), and therapeutic hypothermia (n = 6) groups. The hypoxic insult was induced by decreasing the fraction of inspiratory oxygen from 21 to 2-4% over 40 min while monitoring cerebral blood volume and cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation. For therapeutic hypothermia, whole-body cooling at 33-34°C was administered for 24 h after the hypoxic insult. We hematologically and histopathologically investigated the liver injury in all groups. Alanine transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the HIE group were significantly elevated compared with those in the control group. Micro-lipid droplet accumulation in the periportal zone, but not in the perivenous zone, was significantly greater in the HIE group than in the control group and significantly smaller in the therapeutic hypothermia group than in the HIE group. We demonstrated that micro-lipid droplet accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in the periportal zone occurs under the HIE condition and that this accumulation is suppressed by therapeutic hypothermia. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. [Neuroprotection with hypothermia in the newborn with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Standard guidelines for its clinical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, D; García-Alix, A; Valverde, E; Tenorio, V; Vento, M; Cabañas, F

    2011-11-01

    Standardisation of hypothermia as a treatment for perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is supported by current scientific evidence. The following document was prepared by the authors on request of the Spanish Society of Neonatology and is intended to be a guide for the proper implementation of this therapy. We discuss the difficulties that may arise when moving from the strict framework of clinical trials to clinical daily care: early recognition of clinical encephalopathy, inclusion and exclusion criteria, hypothermia during transport, type of hypothermia (selective head or systemic cooling) and side effects of therapy. The availability of hypothermia therapy has changed the prognosis of children with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and our choices of therapeutic support. In this sense, it is especially important to be aware of the changes in the predictive value of the neurological examination and the electroencephalographic recording in cooled infants. In order to improve neuroprotection with hypothermia we need earlier recognition of to recognise earlier the infants that may benefit from cooling. Biomarkers of brain injury could help us in the selection of these patients. Every single infant treated with hypothermia must be included in a follow up program in order to assess neurodevelopmental outcome. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Preferential cephalic redistribution of left ventricular cardiac output during therapeutic hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochwald, Ori; Jabr, Mohammad; Osiovich, Horacio; Miller, Steven P; McNamara, Patrick J; Lavoie, Pascal M

    2014-05-01

    To determine the relationship between left ventricular cardiac output (LVCO), superior vena cava (SVC) flow, and brain injury during whole-body therapeutic hypothermia. Sixteen newborns with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were studied using echocardiography during and immediately after therapeutic hypothermia. Measures were also compared with 12 healthy newborns of similar postnatal age. Newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia also had cerebral magnetic resonance imaging as part of routine clinical care on postnatal day 3-4. LVCO was markedly reduced (mean ± SD 126 ± 38 mL/kg/min) during therapeutic hypothermia, whereas SVC flow was maintained within expected normal values (88 ± 27 mL/kg/min) such that SVC flow represented 70% of the LVCO. The reduction in LVCO during therapeutic hypothermia was mainly accounted by a reduction in heart rate (99 ± 13 vs 123 ± 17 beats/min; P newborns without brain injury (P = .013). Newborns with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy showed a preferential systemic-to-cerebral redistribution of cardiac blood flow during whole-body therapeutic hypothermia, which may reflect a lack of cerebral vascular adaptation in newborns with more severe brain injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutic hypothermia brings favorable neurologic outcomes in children with near drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Chun; Chu, Chia-Hsiang; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Lin, Jun-Song; Chen, Jui-Hsia; Chang, Yu-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-10-month-old boy was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit due to near drowning with pulmonary edema. A conventional ventilator with 100% oxygen supplementation was used initially, but was shifted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation as his oxygen saturation was around 84-88%. Therapeutic hypothermia was applied due to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with severe acidosis. His respiratory condition improved and he was extubated successfully on the 6 th hospital day. The patient had no obvious neurological defects and he was discharged in a stable condition after 17 days of hospitalization. Our case report demonstrates the advantages of therapeutic hypothermia on survival and neurological outcomes in treating pediatric near drowning patients.

  4. Photoplethysmographic signals and blood oxygen saturation values during artificial hypothermia in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, M; Kyriacou, P A

    2012-01-01

    Pulse oximetry utilizes the technique of photoplethysmography to estimate arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) values. During hypothermia, the amplitude of the photoplethysmograph (PPG) is compromised which can lead to inaccurate estimation of SpO 2 . A new mutlimode PPG/pulse oximeter sensor was developed to investigate the behaviour of PPGs during conditions of induced hypothermia (hand immersed in an ice bath). PPG measurements from 20 volunteers were conducted and SpO 2 values were estimated at all stages of the experiment. Good quality PPG signals were observed from the majority of the volunteers at almost all hand temperatures. At low temperature ranges, from 13 to 21 °C, the failure rate to estimate SpO 2 values from the multimode transreflectance PPG sensor was 2.4% as compared to the commercial pulse oximeter with a failure rate of 70%. (paper)

  5. Single-dose relative biological effectiveness and toxicity studies under conditions of hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, E.R.; Blekkenhorst, G.; Harrison, G.G.; Morrell, D.; Korrubel, J.; Gregory, A.; Phillips, J.; Manca, V.; Sealy, R.; Cape Town Univ.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to using hyperbaric oxygen with radiation in a clinical situation has been described in the preceding paper in this issue. To ascertain whether there might be a change in the relative biological effectiveness of radiation on normal mammalian tissue treated under conditions of hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen, the acute reaction to radiation of pig skin was studied. A single dose enhancement ratio at the erythema reaction level of 1.4+-0.08 was obtained when compared with irradiation at normal body temperature in air. The authors studied also a series of antioxidant enzymes in rat liver and lung after exposure to hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen. Enzyme changes were such as to combat oxygen toxicity which might develop as a result of the pre-treatment. (author)

  6. Modification of postradiation developments in Guerin's tumour by means of hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakulov, R.K.; Balmukhanov, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    Albino noninbred mice weighing 100-110 g were used to study the growth rate of the entire mass of Guerin's tumour and changes is cytokinetic parameters during irradiation and under the conditions of hypothermia. The animals were cooled according to the Giaja method down to the rectal temperature of 20-21 deg C, the tumour was exposed to single irradiation, locally in a dose of 2500 R. It was shown that irradiation against the background of hypothermia enhanced inhibition of the tumour growth that points to a greater tumour damage. The radiomodifying effect of the low temperature manifests itself cytokinetically as a decrease in the proliferative pool and prolongation of intermitotic time, mainly at the expense of the DNA synthesis phase

  7. Septicemia in a Neonate following Therapeutic Hypothermia: The Literature Review of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a term neonate with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy who underwent a 72-hour therapeutic hypothermia. He developed unstable body temperature associated with coagulase negative staphylococcus septicemia 2 weeks later which was promptly treated with intravenous antibiotics and made a good recovery. PubMed (a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine was searched for the terms “therapeutic hypothermia” and “septicemia,” with limits activated (humans, English, age 0–18 years. There were only 6 randomized controlled trials, 1 non-randomized controlled trial, 1 retrospective cohort, and 1 case-control trial, which showed no definite evidence of increased risk of septicemia or neutrophil dysfunction in infants following hypothermia therapy.

  8. Key conclusions from AVOID Work Stream One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    AVOID work stream (WS1)one has produced emission scenarios that simulate potential future global emission pathways for greenhouse gases during the 21st century. The study explored the influence of three key features of such pathways: (1) the year in which emissions peak globally, (2) the rate of emission reduction, and (3) the minimum level to which emissions are eventually reduced. It examined the resultant climate change, climate change impacts and economic implications using computer simulations. Avoided impacts, carbon taxes and GDP change increase throughout the 21st century in the models. AVOID-WS1 showed that in the absence of climate policy it is very likely that global mean temperatures would exceed 3 degrees and there are evens chances that the temperature would rise by 4 degrees relative to pre-industrial times. Scenarios that peak emissions in 2016 were more effective at constraining temperatures to below 3 degrees than those that peaked in 2030: one ‘2016' scenario achieved a probability of 45% of avoiding breaching of a 2 degree threshold. Scenarios peaking in 2030 were inconsistent with constraining temperatures to below 2 degrees. Correspondingly, scenarios that peak in 2030 are more effective at avoiding climate impacts than scenarios that peak in 2016, for all sectors that we studied. Hence the date at which emissions peak is more important than the rate of subsequent emissions reduction in determining the avoided impacts. Avoided impacts increase with time, being negligible in the 2030s, significant by the 2050s and large by the 2080s. Finally, the choice of GCM influences the magnitude of the avoided impacts strongly, so that the uncertainties in our estimates of avoided impacts for each scenario are larger than the difference between the scenarios. Our economic analysis is based on models which differ greatly in the assumptions that they make, but generally show that the date at which emissions peak is a stronger driver of induced GDP changes

  9. A retrospective analysis on the relationship between intraoperative hypothermia and postoperative ileus after laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ji-Won; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Lee, Eun-Jee; Kim, Jea-Youn

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is an important factor prolonging the length of hospital stay following colorectal surgery. We retrospectively explored whether there is a clinically relevant association between intraoperative hypothermia and POI in patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery for malignancy within the setting of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program between April 2016 and January 2017 at our institution. In total, 637 patients were analyzed, of whom 122 (19.2%...

  10. Induction, maintenance, and reversal of therapeutic hypothermia with an esophageal heat transfer device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulstad, Erik; Metzger, Anja K; Courtney, D Mark; Rees, Jennifer; Shanley, Patrick; Matsuura, Timothy; McKnite, Scott; Lurie, Keith

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate a novel esophageal heat transfer device for use in inducing, maintaining, and reversing hypothermia. We hypothesized that this device could successfully induce, maintain (within a 1 °C range of goal temperature), and reverse, mild therapeutic hypothermia in a large animal model over a 30-h treatment protocol. Five female Yorkshire swine, weighing a mean of 65 kg (range 61-70) kg each, were anesthetized with inhalational isoflurane via endotracheal intubation and instrumented. The esophageal device was connected to an external chiller and then placed into the esophagus and connected to wall suction. Reduction to goal temperature was achieved by setting the chiller to cooling mode, and a 24h cooling protocol was completed before rewarming and recovering the animals. Histopathologic analysis was scheduled for 3-14 days after protocol completion. Average baseline temperature for the 5 animals was 38.6 °C (range 38.1-39.2 °C). All swine were cooled successfully, with average rate of temperature decrease of 1.3 °C/h (range 1.1-1.9) °C/h. Standard deviation from goal temperature averaged 0.2 °C throughout the steady-state maintenance phase, and no treatment for shivering was necessary during the protocol. Histopathology of esophageal tissue showed no adverse effects from the device. A new esophageal heat transfer device successfully and safely induced, maintained, and reversed therapeutic hypothermia in large swine. Goal temperature was maintained within a narrow range, and thermogenic shivering did not occur. These findings suggest a useful new modality to induce therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Brugada sign in a patient with hyperkalemia due to rhabdomyolysis in hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcsányi, Kristóf; Tomcsányi, János

    The Brugada sign may appear as an indication of severe hyperkalemia. This phenomena has recently been called as the "Brugada phenocopy". Hyperthermia and hypothermia may lead to rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis and the release of intracellular muscle constituents into the circulation. We present a case where rhabdomyolysis-related delayed hyperkalemia showed Brugada sign on the ECG mimicking ventricular tachycardia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of two polyethylene covers in prevention of hypothermia among premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Talakoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After the umbilical cord is cut, premature neonates face numerous problems including hypothermia. With regard to serious complications of hypothermia and incapability of conventional methods in preservation of neonates′ temperature after admission, the researcher decided to conduct a study on the effects of two polyethylene covers in prevention of hypothermia among premature neonates. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 96 neonates aged 28-32 weeks that randomly allocated, by drawing of lots, to three 32-subject groups as follows: Intervention group 1 (a plastic bag cover and a cotton hat, intervention group 2 (a plastic bag cover and a plastic hat, and a control group receiving routine care. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics through SPSS V.14. Results: Mean axillary temperatures in intervention groups 1 and 2 were different after admission and 1 and 2 h later, but this difference was not significant and the mean axillary temperature increased with time. Mean axillary temperature in the control group showed no significant difference at these time points and it did not increase with time. The mean temperatures in preterm infants were significantly higher in the intervention groups after admission and 1 and 2 h after birth, compared to the control group. Mean axillary temperature in intervention group 2 was significantly higher than in intervention group 1. Conclusions: Usage of a plastic bag cover and a plastic hat (with no risk of hyperthermia is more effective in preventing hypothermia among neonates aged 28-32 weeks, compared to usage of a plastic bag cover and a cotton hat.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of phenobarbital in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia: a thermopharmacological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M P H; Groenendaal, F; Toet, M C; van Straaten, H L M; van Hasselt, J G C; Huitema, A D R; de Vries, L S; Egberts, A C G; Rademaker, C M A

    2012-10-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia can influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, the discipline which is called thermopharmacology. We studied the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in asphyxiated neonates, and the clinical efficacy and the effect of phenobarbital on the continuous amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in a prospective study. Data were obtained from the prospective SHIVER study, performed in two of the ten Dutch level III neonatal intensive care units. Phenobarbital data were collected between 2008 and 2010. Newborns were eligible for inclusion if they had a gestational age of at least 36 weeks and presented with perinatal asphyxia and encephalopathy. According to protocol in both hospitals an intravenous (repeated) loading dose of phenobarbital 20 mg/kg divided in 1-2 doses was administered if seizures occurred or were suspected before or during the hypothermic phase. Phenobarbital plasma concentrations were measured in plasma using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. aEEG was monitored continuously. A one-compartmental population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was developed using a multi-level Markov transition model. No (clinically relevant) effect of moderate therapeutic hypothermia on phenobarbital pharmacokinetics could be identified. The observed responsiveness was 66%. While we still advise an initial loading dose of 20 mg/kg, clinicians should not be reluctant to administer an additional dose of 10-20 mg/kg. An additional dose should be given before switching to a second-line anticonvulsant drug. Based on our pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model, administration of phenobarbital under hypothermia seems to reduce the transition rate from a continuous normal voltage (CNV) to discontinuous normal voltage aEEG background level in hypothermic asphyxiated newborns, which may be attributed to the additional neuroprotection of phenobarbital in infants with a CNV pattern.

  14. Avoiding powerless future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, I.

    1999-01-01

    Except for oil, energy resources are plentiful. The author argued that we should be planning now for the inevitable changes to our transport system after the peak of world oil production, variously estimated as between about 2005 and 2020. More generally, heavy use of coal and oil is causing a wide range of environmental problems. The world's increasing use of these fossil fuels is now recognised, even by the Australian government, to be changing the global climate. Growing concern about the likely consequences led to the adoption of the Kyoto agreement, which commits all major fossil fuel-using OECD nations except Australia to reduce gas emissions. Technologies such as solar, wind and biomass energy systems are seen as cleaner and more worthy of subsidy than coal, oil and shale, all of which receive government subsidies and tax concessions

  15. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  16. Optimization of induction of mild therapeutic hypothermia with cold saline infusion: A laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Fluher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cold fluid infusions can be used to induce mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Fluid temperature higher than 4°C can increase the volume of fluid needed, prolong the induction phase of hypothermia and thus contribute to complications. We performed a laboratory experiment with two objectives. The first objective was to analyze the effect of wrapping fluid bags in ice packs on the increase of fluid temperature with time in bags exposed to ambient conditions. The second objective was to quantify the effect of insulating venous tubing and adjusting flow rate on fluid temperature increase from bag to the level of an intravenous cannula during a simulated infusion. The temperature of fluid in bags wrapped in ice packs was significantly lower compared to controls at all time points during the 120 minutes observation. The temperature increase from the bag to the level of intravenous cannula was significantly lower for insulated tubing at all infusion rates (median temperature differences between bag and intravenous cannula were: 8.9, 4.8, 4.0, and 3.1°C, for non-insulated and 5.9, 3.05, 1.1, and 0.3°C, for insulated tubing, at infusion rates 10, 30, 60, and 100 mL/minute, respectively. The results from this study could potentially be used to decrease the volume of fluid infused when inducing mild hypothermia with an infusion of cold fluids.

  17. A retrospective analysis on the relationship between intraoperative hypothermia and postoperative ileus after laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Won; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Lee, Eun-Jee; Kim, Jea-Youn

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is an important factor prolonging the length of hospital stay following colorectal surgery. We retrospectively explored whether there is a clinically relevant association between intraoperative hypothermia and POI in patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery for malignancy within the setting of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program between April 2016 and January 2017 at our institution. In total, 637 patients were analyzed, of whom 122 (19.2%) developed clinically and radiologically diagnosed POI. Overall, 530 (83.2%) patients experienced intraoperative hypothermia. Although the mean lowest core temperature was lower in patients with POI than those without POI (35.3 ± 0.5°C vs. 35.5 ± 0.5°C, P = 0.004), the independence of intraoperative hypothermia was not confirmed based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. In addition to three variables (high age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index score, long duration of surgery, high maximum pain score during the first 3 days postoperatively), cumulative dose of rescue opioids used during the first 3 days postoperatively was identified as an independent risk factor of POI (odds ratio = 1.027 for each 1-morphine equivalent [mg] increase, 95% confidence interval = 1.014-1.040, P POI within an ERAS pathway, in which items other than thermal measures might offset its negative impact on POI. However, as it was associated with delayed discharge from the hospital, intraoperative maintenance of normothermia is still needed.

  18. Lactate as an early predictor of psychomotor development in neonates with asphyxia receiving therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackova, Renata; Salounova, Dana; Kantor, Lumir

    2017-12-04

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between persistently elevated lactate values in the arterial blood of newborns with grade II and III hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (treated with therapeutic hypothermia) and psychomotor development at 24 months. 51 neonates of gestational age from 36 to 41 weeks receiving therapeutic hypothermia for moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy had arterial blood lactate levels regularly analysed. At 24 months the infants' psychomotor development was evaluated and they were divided into two groups - those where the outcome was favourable (i.e. normal psychomotor development) and adverse (severe motor or sensory impairment or death). The lactate dynamics over time were retrospectively evaluated from the data collected, with the normal upper limit set at 4 mmol/L. Of the 51 affected neonates, 7 died over the course of the study. 34 of the remaining 44 infants demonstrated normal psychomotor findings at 2 years old, with adverse findings in 10 cases. Although both groups experienced significant reductions in lactate over time, there were statistically significant differences between them regarding currently measured lactate levels. Absolute lactate values and their development over time can be a used as an auxiliary factor in making early estimates of the long-term outcome for newborns with neonatal asphyxia being treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

  19. Neonatal therapeutic hypothermia outside of standard guidelines: a survey of U.S. neonatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnsed, Jennifer; Zanelli, Santina A

    2017-11-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is standard of care in term infants with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). The goal of this survey was to explore the attitudes of U.S. neonatologists caring for infants with HIE who fall outside of current guidelines. Case-based survey administered to members of the Section on Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine of the American Academy of Pediatrics. A total of 447 responses were analysed, a response rate of 19%. We found significant variability amongst U.S. neonatologists with regard to the use of therapeutic hypothermia for infants with HIE who fall outside standard inclusion criteria. Scenarios with the most variability included HIE in a late preterm infant and HIE following a postnatal code. Provision of therapeutic hypothermia outside of standard guidelines was not influenced by number of years in practice, neonatal intensive care type (NICU) or NICU size. Significant variability in practice exists when caring for infants with HIE who do not meet standard inclusion criteria, emphasizing the need for continued and rigorous research in this area. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Cerebral vasoreactivity to carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary perfusion at normothermia and hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, P.; Messeter, K.; Ryding, E.; Kugelberg, J.; Stahl, E.

    1989-01-01

    With the pH-stat acid-base regulation strategy during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is generally administered to maintain the partial pressure of arterial CO 2 at a higher level than with the alpha-stat method. With preserved CO 2 vasoreactivity during CPB, this induction of respiratory acidosis can lead to a much higher cerebral blood flow level than is motivated metabolically. To evaluate CO 2 vasoreactivity, cerebral blood flow was measured using a xenon 133 washout technique before, during, and after CPB at different CO 2 levels in patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with perfusion at either hypothermia or normothermia. The overall CO 2 reactivity was 1.2 mL/100 g/min/mm Hg. There was no difference between the groups. The CO 2 reactivity was not affected by temperature or CPB. The induced hemodilution resulted in higher cerebral blood flow levels during CPB, although this was counteracted by the temperature-dependent decrease in the hypothermia group. After CPB, a transient increase in cerebral blood flow was noted in the hypothermia group, the reason for which remains unclear. The study shows that manipulation of the CO 2 level at different temperatures results in similar changes in cerebral blood flow irrespective of the estimated metabolic demand. This finding further elucidates the question of whether alpha-stat or pH-stat is the most physiological way to regulate the acid-base balance during hypothermic CPB

  1. Bumetanide augments the neuroprotective efficacy of phenobarbital plus hypothermia in a neonatal hypoxia-ischemia model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YiQing; Shangguan, Yu; Barks, John D.E.; Silverstein, Faye S.

    2014-01-01

    The NaKCl cotransporter NKCC1 facilitates intraneuronal chloride accumulation in the developing brain. Bumetanide, a clinically available diuretic, inhibits this chloride transporter, and augments the antiepileptic effects of phenobarbital in neonatal rodents. In a neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model, elicited by right carotid ligation, followed by 90 min 8% O2 exposure in 7-day-old(P7) rats, phenobarbital(PB) increases the neuroprotective efficacy of hypothermia. We evaluated whether bumetanide influenced the neuroprotective efficacy of combination treatment with PB and hypothermia(HT). P7 rats underwent HI lesioning; 15 min later, all received PB (30 mg/kg). 10 min later, half received bumetanide (10 mg/kg, PB-HT+BUM) and half received saline (PB-HT+SAL). One hour after HI, all were cooled (30°C, 3h). Contralateral forepaw sensorimotor function and brain damage were evaluated 1 to 4 weeks later. Forepaw functional measures were close to normal in the PB-HT+BUM group, while deficits persisted in PB-HT+SAL controls; there were corresponding reductions in right cerebral hemisphere damage (at P35, % damage: PB-HT+BUM, 21±16 versus 38±20 in controls). These results provide evidence that NKCC1 inhibition amplifies phenobarbital bioactivity in the immature brain, and suggest that co-administration of phenobarbital and bumetanide may represent a clinically feasible therapy to augment the neuroprotective efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia in asphyxiated neonates. PMID:22398701

  2. The International Double Taxation – causes and avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu; Florin Tudor

    2009-01-01

    The politics and tax legislation being a manifestation of strict sovereignty of the State, the phenomenon of double taxation occurs frequently representing a difficult poison for the foreign trade activity, especially hindering investments abroad, technology transfer or proliferation outside of the state of the companies’ branches. Therefore, international legal double taxation, by the repeated taxation of the income, it is an obstacle to the development of economic relations between states, ...

  3. Common errors of drug administration in infants: causes and avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B J; Ellis, J F

    1999-01-01

    Drug administration errors are common in infants. Although the infant population has a high exposure to drugs, there are few data concerning pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, or the influence of paediatric diseases on these processes. Children remain therapeutic orphans. Formulations are often suitable only for adults; in addition, the lack of maturation of drug elimination processes, alteration of body composition and influence of size render the calculation of drug doses complex in infants. The commonest drug administration error in infants is one of dose, and the commonest hospital site for this error is the intensive care unit. Drug errors are a consequence of system error, and preventive strategies are possible through system analysis. The goal of a zero drug error rate should be aggressively sought, with systems in place that aim to eliminate the effects of inevitable human error. This involves review of the entire system from drug manufacture to drug administration. The nuclear industry, telecommunications and air traffic control services all practise error reduction policies with zero error as a clear goal, not by finding fault in the individual, but by identifying faults in the system and building into that system mechanisms for picking up faults before they occur. Such policies could be adapted to medicine using interventions both specific (the production of formulations which are for children only and clearly labelled, regular audit by pharmacists, legible prescriptions, standardised dose tables) and general (paediatric drug trials, education programmes, nonpunitive error reporting) to reduce the number of errors made in giving medication to infants.

  4. Predictors of avoiding medical care and reasons for avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Viji Diane; Veazie, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Delayed medical care has negative health and economic consequences; interventions have focused on appraising symptoms, with limited success in reducing delay. To identify predictors of care avoidance and reasons for avoiding care. Using the Health Information National Trends Survey (2007), we conducted logistic regressions to identify predictors of avoiding medical visits deemed necessary by the respondents; and, we then conducted similar analyses on reasons given for avoidance behavior. Independent variables included geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, personal health, health behavior, health care system, and cognitive characteristics. Approximately one third of adults avoided doctor visits they had deemed necessary. Although unadjusted associations existed, avoiding needed care was not independently associated with geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Avoidance behavior is characterized by low health self-efficacy, less experience with both quality care and getting help with uncertainty about health, having your feelings attended to by your provider, no usual source of care, negative affect, smoking daily, and fatalistic attitude toward cancer. Reasons elicited for avoidance include preference for self-care or alternative care, dislike or distrust of doctors, fear or dislike of medical treatments, time, and money; respondents also endorsed discomfort with body examinations, fear of having a serious illness, and thoughts of dying. Distinct predictors distinguish each of these reasons. Interventions to reduce patient delay could be improved by addressing the health-related behavioral, belief, experiential, and emotional traits associated with delay. Attention should also be directed toward the interpersonal communications between patients and providers.

  5. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  6. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.

  7. The effect of humidified heated breathing circuit on core body temperature in perioperative hypothermia during thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Ho Sik; Moon, Se Ho; Do Jeong, Hyeon; Jeon, Young Jae; Do Han, Keung; Koh, Hyun Jung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: During general anesthesia, human body easily reaches a hypothermic state, which is mainly caused by heat redistribution. Most studies suggested that humidified heated breathing circuits (HHBC) have little influence on maintenance of the core temperature during early phase of anesthesia. This study was aimed at examining heat preservation effect with HHBC in case of undergoing surgery with less exposure of surgical fields and short surgical duration. Methods: Patients aged 19 to 70 yr - old, ASA-PS I or II who were scheduled for elective thyroidectomy were assigned and divided to the group using HHBC (G1) and the group using conventional circuit (G2) by random allocation. During operation, core, skin, and room temperatures were measured every 5minutes by specific thermometer. Results: G1 was decreased by a lesser extent than G2 in core temperature, apparently higher at 30 and 60 minutes after induction. Skin and room temperatures showed no differences between the two groups (p>0.05). Consequently, we confirmed HHBC efficiently prevented a decrease in core temperature during early period in small operation which has difficulty in preparing warming devices or environments were not usually considered. Conclusions: This study showed that HHBC influences heat redistribution in early period of operation and can lessen the magnitude of the decrease in core body temperature. Therefore, it can be applied efficiently for other active warming devices in mild hypothermia.

  8. Challenges in Identifying Effects and Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Hüsecken, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers worldwide try to hinder tax avoidance. In order to implement effective tax regulations, it is essential to completely understand why corporations avoid taxes and why some appear to be more effective than others. However, various challenges in identifying effects and determinants of corporate tax avoidance cause knowledge gaps. This thesis consists of three essays highlighting the necessity of refined identification strategies. The first essay “The Undersheltering Puzzle and its P...

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medication in asphyxiated newborns during controlled hypothermia. The PharmaCool multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan Timo R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, perinatal asphyxia (severe perinatal oxygen shortage necessitating newborn resuscitation occurs in at least 200 of the 180–185.000 newly born infants per year. International randomized controlled trials have demonstrated an improved neurological outcome with therapeutic hypothermia. During hypothermia neonates receive sedative, analgesic, anti-epileptic and antibiotic drugs. So far little information is available how the pharmacokinetics (PK and pharmacodynamics (PD of these drugs are influenced by post resuscitation multi organ failure and the metabolic effects of the cooling treatment itself. As a result, evidence based dosing guidelines are lacking. This multicenter observational cohort study was designed to answer the question how hypothermia influences the distribution, metabolism and elimination of commonly used drugs in neonatal intensive care. Methods/Design Multicenter cohort study. All term neonates treated with hypothermia for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE resulting from perinatal asphyxia in all ten Dutch Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs will be eligible for this study. During hypothermia and rewarming blood samples will be taken from indwelling catheters to investigate blood concentrations of several antibiotics, analgesics, sedatives and anti-epileptic drugs. For each individual drug the population PK will be characterized using Nonlinear Mixed Effects Modelling (NONMEM. It will be investigated how clearance and volume of distribution are influenced by hypothermia also taking maturation of neonate into account. Similarly, integrated PK-PD models will be developed relating the time course of drug concentration to pharmacodynamic parameters such as successful seizure treatment; pain assessment and infection clearance. Discussion On basis of the derived population PK-PD models dosing guidelines will be developed for the application of drugs during neonatal hypothermia treatment. The

  10. Therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moler, Frank W; Silverstein, Faye S; Holubkov, Richard; Slomine, Beth S; Christensen, James R; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Meert, Kathleen L; Clark, Amy E; Browning, Brittan; Pemberton, Victoria L; Page, Kent; Shankaran, Seetha; Hutchison, Jamie S; Newth, Christopher J L; Bennett, Kimberly S; Berger, John T; Topjian, Alexis; Pineda, Jose A; Koch, Joshua D; Schleien, Charles L; Dalton, Heidi J; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Goodman, Denise M; Fink, Ericka L; McQuillen, Patrick; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Thomas, Neal J; van der Jagt, Elise W; Porter, Melissa B; Meyer, Michael T; Harrison, Rick; Pham, Nga; Schwarz, Adam J; Nowak, Jeffrey E; Alten, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Derek S; Bhalala, Utpal S; Lidsky, Karen; Lloyd, Eric; Mathur, Mudit; Shah, Samir; Wu, Theodore; Theodorou, Andreas A; Sanders, Ronald C; Dean, J Michael

    2015-05-14

    Therapeutic hypothermia is recommended for comatose adults after witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but data about this intervention in children are limited. We conducted this trial of two targeted temperature interventions at 38 children's hospitals involving children who remained unconscious after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose patients who were older than 2 days and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II), score of 70 or higher (on a scale from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients with a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest. A total of 295 patients underwent randomization. Among the 260 patients with data that could be evaluated and who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest, there was no significant difference in the primary outcome between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (20% vs. 12%; relative likelihood, 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 2.76; P=0.14). Among all the patients with data that could be evaluated, the change in the VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months was not significantly different (P=0.13) and 1-year survival was similar (38% in the hypothermia group vs. 29% in the normothermia group; relative likelihood, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.79; P=0.13). The groups had similar incidences of infection and serious arrhythmias, as well as similar use of blood products and 28-day mortality. In comatose children who survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, therapeutic hypothermia, as compared with therapeutic normothermia, did not confer a significant benefit in survival with a good functional outcome at 1 year. (Funded by

  11. Conflict Avoidance and University Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.

    The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…

  12. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  13. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting m...

  14. Involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and endothelin-A receptors in the effect of agmatine on morphine and oxycodone-induced hypothermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2013-10-01

    Potentiation of opioid analgesia by endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist, BMS182874, and imidazoline receptor/α₂-adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and agmatine are well known. It is also known that agmatine blocks morphine hyperthermia in rats. However, the effect of agmatine on morphine or oxycodone hypothermia in mice is unknown. The present study was carried out to study the role of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors in morphine and oxycodone hypothermia in mice. Body temperature was determined over 6 h in male Swiss Webster mice treated with morphine, oxycodone, agmatine, and combination of agmatine with morphine or oxycodone. Yohimbine, idazoxan, and BMS182874 were used to determine involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors, respectively. Morphine and oxycodone produced significant hypothermia that was not affected by α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, imidazoline receptor/α₂ adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan, or ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874. Agmatine did not produce hypothermia; however, it blocked oxycodone but not morphine-induced hypothermia. Agmatine-induced blockade of oxycodone hypothermia was inhibited by idazoxan and yohimbine. The blockade by idazoxan was more pronounced compared with yohimbine. Combined administration of BMS182874 and agmatine did not produce changes in body temperature in mice. However, when BMS182874 was administered along with agmatine and oxycodone, it blocked agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. This is the first report demonstrating that agmatine does not affect morphine hypothermia in mice, but reverses oxycodone hypothermia. Imidazoline receptors and α₂-adrenoceptors are involved in agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. Our findings also suggest that ET(A) receptors may be involved in blockade of oxycodone hypothermia by agmatine. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de

  15. 13C NMR metabolomic evaluation of immediate and delayed mild hypothermia in cerebrocortical slices after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Segal, Mark R; Kelly, Mark J S; Pelton, Jeffrey G; Kim, Myungwon; James, Thomas L; Litt, Lawrence

    2013-11-01

    Mild brain hypothermia (32°-34°C) after human neonatal asphyxia improves neurodevelopmental outcomes. Astrocytes but not neurons have pyruvate carboxylase and an acetate uptake transporter. C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of rodent brain extracts after administering [1-C]glucose and [1,2-C]acetate can distinguish metabolic differences between glia and neurons, and tricarboxylic acid cycle entry via pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase. Neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices receiving a C-acetate/glucose mixture underwent a 45-min asphyxia simulation via oxygen-glucose-deprivation followed by 6 h of recovery. Protocols in three groups of N=3 experiments were identical except for temperature management. The three temperature groups were: normothermia (37°C), hypothermia (32°C for 3.75 h beginning at oxygen--glucose deprivation start), and delayed hypothermia (32°C for 3.75 h, beginning 15 min after oxygen-glucose deprivation start). Multivariate analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance metabolite quantifications included principal component analyses and the L1-penalized regularized regression algorithm known as the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. The most significant metabolite difference (Pglucose deprivation, compared with delayed starting or no hypothermia, has higher pyruvate carboxylase throughput, suggesting that better glial integrity is one important neuroprotection mechanism of earlier hypothermia.

  16. Hypothermia broadens the therapeutic time window of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Chang, Yun Sil; Sung, Dong Kyung; Sung, Se In; Park, Won Soon

    2018-05-16

    Recently, we have demonstrated that concurrent hypothermia and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation synergistically improved severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The current study was designed to determine whether hypothermia could extend the therapeutic time window of MSC transplantation for severe neonatal HIE. To induce HIE, newborn rat pups were exposed to 8% oxygen for 2 h following unilateral carotid artery ligation on postnatal day (P) 7. After approving severe HIE involving >50% of the ipsilateral hemisphere volume, hypothermia (32 °C) for 2 days was started. MSCs were transplanted 2 days after HIE modeling. Follow-up brain MRI, sensorimotor function tests, assessment of inflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and histological evaluation of peri-infarction area were performed. HIE induced progressively increasing brain infarction area over time, increased cell death, reactive gliosis and brain inflammation, and impaired sensorimotor function. All these damages observed in severe HIE showed better, robust improvement with a combination treatment of hypothermia and delayed MSC transplantation than with either stand-alone therapy. Hypothermia itself did not significantly reduce brain injury, but broadened the therapeutic time window of MSC transplantation for severe newborn HIE.

  17. NCAM deficiency in the mouse forebrain impairs innate and learned avoidance behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandewiede, J; Stork, O; Schachner, M

    2014-06-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has been implicated in the development and plasticity of neural circuits and the control of hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and behaviour. Previous studies in constitutive NCAM null mutants identified emotional behaviour deficits related to disturbances of hippocampal and amygdala functions. Here, we studied these behaviours in mice conditionally deficient in NCAM in the postmigratory forebrain neurons. We report deficits in both innate and learned avoidance behaviours, as observed in elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tasks. In contrast, general locomotor activity, trait anxiety or neophobia were unaffected by the mutation. Altered avoidance behaviour of the conditional NCAM mutants was associated with a deficit in serotonergic signalling, as indicated by their reduced responsiveness to (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)-tetralin-induced hypothermia. Another serotonin-dependent behaviour, namely intermale aggression that is massively increased in constitutively NCAM-deficient mice, was not affected in the forebrain-specific mutants. Our data suggest that genetically or environmentally induced changes of NCAM expression in the late postnatal and mature forebrain determine avoidance behaviour and serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor signalling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Hipotermia terapêutica pós-reanimação cardiorrespiratória: evidências e aspectos práticos Therapeutical hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: evidences and practical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares Feitosa-Filho

    2009-03-01

    out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Considering its formal recommendation as a therapy, post-return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest, the objective of this study was to review the clinical aspects of therapeutic hypothermia. Non-systematic review of articles using the keywords "cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cooling, hypothermia, post resuscitation syndrome" in the Med-Line database was performed. References of these articles were also reviewed. Unconscious adult patients with spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia should be cooled. Moreover, for any other rhythm or in the intra-hospital scenario, such cooling may also be beneficial. There are different ways of promoting hypothermia. The cooling system should be adjusted as soon as possible to the target temperature. Mild therapeutic hypothermia should be administered under close control, using neuromuscular blocking drugs to avoid shivering. The rewarming process should be slow, and reach 36º C, usually in no less then 8 hours. When temperature increases to more than 35º C, sedation, analgesia, and paralysis could be discontinued. The expected complications of hypothermia may be pneumonia, sepsis, cardiac arrhythmias, and coagulopathy. In spite of potential complications which require rigorous control, only six patients need to be treated to save one life.

  19. Outcome of accidental hypothermia with or without circulatory arrest. Experience from the Danish Præstø Fjord boating accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Michael Christopher J; Sørensen, Lisbeth Agersnap; Ravn, Jesper Bohsen

    2012-01-01

    Resuscitation guidelines for the treatment of accidental hypothermia are based primarily on isolated cases. Mortality rates are high despite aggressive treatment aimed at restoring spontaneous circulation and normothermia.......Resuscitation guidelines for the treatment of accidental hypothermia are based primarily on isolated cases. Mortality rates are high despite aggressive treatment aimed at restoring spontaneous circulation and normothermia....

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF HYPOTHERMIA (SURFACE COOLING) ON THE TIME-COURSE OF ACTION AND ON THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF ROCURONIUM IN HUMANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEAUFORT, AM; WIERDA, JMKH; BELOPAVLOVIC, M; NEDERVEEN, PJ; KLEEF, UW; AGOSTON, S

    Hypothermia prolongs the time-course of action of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. The mechanism, however, is unknown. We studied the influence of hypothermia (by surface cooling, nasopharyngeal temperature less than or equal to 31 degrees C) on the time-course of action and on the

  1. Benefits of starting hypothermia treatment within 6 h vs. 6-12 h in newborns with moderate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wen; Lei, Xiaoping; Dong, Wenbin; Li, Qingping

    2018-02-12

    It has been suggested that mild hypothermia treatment of hypoxia-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) should start within 6 h after HIE, but many children are admitted to the hospital > 6 h, particularly in developing areas. We aimed to determine whether hypothermia treatment could remain effective within 12 h after birth. According to their admission, 152 newborns were enrolled in the newborns received conventional treatment combined with mild head hypothermia therapy, according to our routine clinical practice. Some newborns only received conventional treatment (lacking informed consent). All newborns received amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) monitoring for 4 h and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) measurement before and after 3 days of therapy. Compared to the conventional treatment, hypothermia significantly improved the aEEG scores and NSE values in all newborns of the newborns with moderate HIE. Hypothermia treatment seems to have no effect in newborns with severe HIE after 6 h (P > 0.05). Hypothermia improved the rates of neonatal death and 18-month disability (all P newborns with moderate HIE, starting hypothermia therapy < 6 h and 6-12 h after HIE showed curative effects. In those with severe HIE, only starting hypothermia therapy within 6 h showed curative effects.

  2. Avoided intersections of nodal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble

  3. Who participates in tax avoidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Jacob, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of heterogeneity in legal tax avoidance strategies across individuals. Three conditions are required for a taxpayer to participate in tax avoidance: incentive, access, and awareness. Using rich Swedish administrative panel data with a unique link between corporate and individual tax returns, we analyze individual participation in legal tax planning around the 2006 Swedish tax reform. Our results suggest that closely held corporations are utilized to facilitate ...

  4. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-06

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  5. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  6. Opposite effects of WR-2721 and WR-1065 on radiation-induced hypothermia: possible correlation with oxygen uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Kumar, K.S.; Hunt, W.A.; Weiss, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces hypothermia in guinea pigs. While systemic injection of the radioprotectant S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) did not block hyperthermia induced by exposure to 10 Gy of gamma radiation, central administration did attenuate it. The dephosphorylated metabolite of WR-2721, N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane (WR-1065), accentuated radiation-induced hypothermia by both routes of administration. In brain homogenates, oxygen uptake was inhibited by WR-2721 but elevated by WR-1065. These results suggest that the antagonism of radiation-induced hypothermia found only after central administration of WR-2721 is due to its direct actions and not to its dephosphorylated metabolite and that this effect may be correlated with the inhibition by WR-2721 of oxygen uptake

  7. The anti-influenza drug oseltamivir evokes hypothermia in mice through dopamine D2 receptor activation via central actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Fukushima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oseltamivir has a hypothermic effect in mice when injected intraperitoneally (i.p. and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.. Here we show that the hypothermia evoked by i.c.v.-oseltamivir is inhibited by non-selective dopamine receptor antagonists (sulpiride and haloperidol and the D2-selective antagonist L-741,626, but not by D1/D5-selective and D3-selective antagonists (SCH-23390 and SB-277011-A, respectively. The hypothermic effect of i.p.-administered oseltamivir was not inhibited by sulpiride, haloperidol, L-741,626 and SCH-23390. In addition, neither sulpiride, haloperidol nor SCH-23390 blocked hypothermia evoked by i.c.v.-administered oseltamivir carboxylate (a hydrolyzed metabolite of oseltamivir. These results suggest that oseltamivir in the brain induces hypothermia through activation of dopamine D2 receptors.

  8. Controle ácido-básico na hipotermia The acid-base management in hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Gomes

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available O emprego da hipotermia profunda tem se constituído, atualmente, numa Importante estratégia para melhoria da qualidade técnica e resultados em cirurgia cardiovascular. A hipotermia reduz os danos teciduais induzidos pela isquemia por diminuir o metabolismo e preservar os fosfatos energéticos. A regulação do pH tecidual durante a hipotermia é fundamental para a manutenção da homeostasia celular, já que a hipotermia induz alterações desse pH pela mudança provocada na constante de dissociação da água. A questão do melhor manuseio dos gases sangüíneos durante a hipotermia induzida tem sido objeto de controvérsia. Duas abordagens têm sido preconizadas para o manejo das alterações iónicas durante a hipotermia. A regulção pH-stat envolve a manutenção do pH constante de 7,40 em todas as temperaturas com ajustes da PaCO2 e a regulação α-stat permite a variação do pH sangüíneo, que aumenta conforme a diminuição da temperatura e o conteúdo total corpóreo de CO2 é mantido constante. Nesta presente revisão a relação entre pH sangüíneo e intracelular e as alterações iónicas induzidas pela hipotermia são discutidas.Deep hypothermia is a usefull tool to improve technical results in cardiovascular surgery and is nowadays the major strategy used to reduce ischemic injury. Hypothermia reduces metabolism and preserves cellular stores of high-energy phosphates. The regulation of tissue pH during hypothermia is important for cellular homeostasis. Furthermore, hypothermia has important effects on pH by altering the dissociation constant of water and various metabolics intermediates and the question of optimal blood gas management during deliberate hypothermia has been subject of much controversy. Two approaches have been advocated for pH management during hypothermia, the first termed pH strategy, where blood pH is maintained constant at 7,40 at all temperatures with PaCO2 adjustment, and in the second type of

  9. Plastic bags for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadford, Alicia E; Warren, Jamie B; Manasyan, Albert; Chomba, Elwyn; Salas, Ariel A; Schelonka, Robert; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2013-07-01

    Hypothermia contributes to neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially in preterm and low birth weight infants in developing countries. Plastic bags covering the trunk and extremities of very low birth weight infants reduces hypothermia. This technique has not been studied in larger infants or in many resource-limited settings. The objective was to determine if placing preterm and low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth maintains normothermia. Infants at 26 to 36 weeks' gestational age and/or with a birth weight of 1000 to 2500 g born at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized by using a 1:1 allocation and parallel design to standard thermoregulation (blanket or radiant warmer) care or to standard thermoregulation care plus placement inside a plastic bag at birth. The primary outcome measure was axillary temperature in the World Health Organization-defined normal range (36.5-37.5°C) at 1 hour after birth. A total of 104 infants were randomized. At 1 hour after birth, infants randomized to plastic bag (n = 49) were more likely to have a temperature in the normal range as compared with infants in the standard thermoregulation care group (n = 55; 59.2% vs 32.7%; relative risk 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.81; P = .007). The temperature at 1 hour after birth in the infants randomized to plastic bag was 36.5 ± 0.5°C compared with 36.1 ± 0.6°C in standard care infants (P 38.0°C) did not occur in any infant. Placement of preterm/low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth compared with standard thermoregulation care reduced hypothermia without resulting in hyperthermia, and is a low-cost, low-technology tool for resource-limited settings.

  10. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by GABA in the rostral parapyramidal area of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, T

    2014-05-16

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature (Tc) in a variety of animals. The neuronal mechanisms of this response include, at least in part, glutamatergic activation in the lateral preoptic area (LPO) of the hypothalamus. As the sympathetic premotor neurons in the medulla oblongata constitute a cardinal relay station in the descending neuronal pathway from the hypothalamus for thermoregulation, their inhibition can also be critically involved in the mechanisms of the hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Here, I examined the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced hypothermia is mediated by glutamate-responsive neurons in the LPO that activate GABAergic transmission in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) and neighboring parapyramidal region (PPy) of the medulla oblongata in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. Unilateral microinjection of GABA (15nmol) into the rRPa and PPy regions elicited a prompt increase in tail skin temperature (Ts) and decreases in Tc, oxygen consumption rate (VO2), and heart rate. Next, when the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline methiodide (bicuculline methiodide (BMI), 10pmol) alone was microinjected into the rRPa, it elicited unexpected contradictory responses: simultaneous increases in Ts, VO2 and heart rate and a decrease in Tc. Then, when BMI was microinjected bilaterally into the PPy, no direct effect on Ts was seen; and thermogenic and tachycardic responses were slight. However, pretreatment of the PPy with BMI, but not vehicle saline, greatly attenuated the hypothermic responses evoked by hypoxic (10%O2-90%N2, 5min) ventilation or bilateral microinjections of glutamate (5nmol, each side) into the LPO. The results suggest that hypoxia-induced hypothermia was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of GABAA receptors in the PPy. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy efficiency comparison of forced-air versus resistance heating devices for perioperative hypothermia management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayazit, Yilmaz; Sparrow, Ephraim M.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia is a state in which the temperature of a human body is below the normal temperature, with the onset of the hypothermic state commonly regarded as 36 o C. This state may be encountered due to exposure to a very cold environment in the outdoors or, surprisingly, in a hospital operating room. In the latter situation, the diminution of metabolic heat generation, coupled with moderate temperatures in the surroundings and absence of a covering over the afflicted parts of the body, creates the possibility of hypothermia. There are several available devices that are designed to ward off the onset of hypothermia. These currently most frequently used devices can be placed in two categories: (a) convective air warming and (b) direct-contact heat conduction. The warming principles that underlie these two approaches are distinctly different. Furthermore, the energy efficiencies of the two approaches differ significantly. The energy penalty which results from these different efficiencies may be compounded by the fact that the portion of the input energies to these devices which escapes into the operating room ambient must be extracted to maintain a comfortable temperature for the surgical staff. Since energy-extracting equipments such as air-conditioning machines are far from being perfectly efficient, the heat-extraction process also introduces wasted energy. Experiments were performed to determine the energy-utilization efficiencies of the representative devices in the two categories cited above. This information, taken together with the known efficiencies of air-conditioning machines, enabled an overall efficiency encompassing both the therapeutic device and the heat-extraction device to be calculated. The experimental data revealed that the specifics of individual devices within a category played a larger role with regard to energy efficiency than did the category itself.

  12. Hypothermia postpones DNA damage repair in irradiated cells and protects against cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, Brandon J.; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Nakamura, Asako J.; Redon, Christophe E.; Parekh, Palak; Griko, Yuri V.; Aziz, Khaled; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Bonner, William M.; Martin, Olga A.

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation is an established strategy used by some homeothermic organisms to survive cold environments. In true hibernation, the core body temperature of an animal may drop to below 0 o C and metabolic activity almost cease. The phenomenon of hibernation in humans is receiving renewed interest since several cases of victims exhibiting core body temperatures as low as 13.7 o C have been revived with minimal lasting deficits. In addition, local cooling during radiotherapy has resulted in normal tissue protection. The experiments described in this paper were prompted by the results of a very limited pilot study, which showed a suppressed DNA repair response of mouse lymphocytes collected from animals subjected to 7-Gy total body irradiation under hypothermic (13 o C) conditions, compared to normothermic controls. Here we report that human BJ-hTERT cells exhibited a pronounced radioprotective effect on clonogenic survival when cooled to 13 o C during and 12 h after irradiation. Mild hypothermia at 20 and 30 o C also resulted in some radioprotection. The neutral comet assay revealed an apparent lack on double strand break (DSB) rejoining at 13 o C. Extension of the mouse lymphocyte study to ex vivo-irradiated human lymphocytes confirmed lower levels of induced phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) and persistence of the lesions at hypothermia compared to the normal temperature. Parallel studies of radiation-induced oxidatively clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs) revealed partial repair at 13 o C compared to the rapid repair at 37 o C. For both γ-H2AX foci and OCDLs, the return of lymphocytes to 37 o C resulted in the resumption of normal repair kinetics. These results, as well as observations made by others and reviewed in this study, have implications for understanding the radiobiology and protective mechanisms underlying hypothermia and potential opportunities for exploitation in terms of protecting normal tissues against radiation.

  13. Energy efficiency comparison of forced-air versus resistance heating devices for perioperative hypothermia management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayazit, Yilmaz; Sparrow, Ephraim M. [Laboratory for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Practice, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0111 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Hypothermia is a state in which the temperature of a human body is below the normal temperature, with the onset of the hypothermic state commonly regarded as 36 C. This state may be encountered due to exposure to a very cold environment in the outdoors or, surprisingly, in a hospital operating room. In the latter situation, the diminution of metabolic heat generation, coupled with moderate temperatures in the surroundings and absence of a covering over the afflicted parts of the body, creates the possibility of hypothermia. There are several available devices that are designed to ward off the onset of hypothermia. These currently most frequently used devices can be placed in two categories: (a) convective air warming and (b) direct-contact heat conduction. The warming principles that underlie these two approaches are distinctly different. Furthermore, the energy efficiencies of the two approaches differ significantly. The energy penalty which results from these different efficiencies may be compounded by the fact that the portion of the input energies to these devices which escapes into the operating room ambient must be extracted to maintain a comfortable temperature for the surgical staff. Since energy-extracting equipments such as air-conditioning machines are far from being perfectly efficient, the heat-extraction process also introduces wasted energy. Experiments were performed to determine the energy-utilization efficiencies of the representative devices in the two categories cited above. This information, taken together with the known efficiencies of air-conditioning machines, enabled an overall efficiency encompassing both the therapeutic device and the heat-extraction device to be calculated. The experimental data revealed that the specifics of individual devices within a category played a larger role with regard to energy efficiency than did the category itself. (author)

  14. Model-based investigation of intracellular processes determining antibody Fc-glycosylation under mild hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Si Nga; Jedrzejewski, Philip M; Lee, Ken; Sellick, Christopher; Polizzi, Karen M; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2017-07-01

    Despite the positive effects of mild hypothermic conditions on monoclonal antibody (mAb) productivity (q mAb ) during mammalian cell culture, the impact of reduced culture temperature on mAb Fc-glycosylation and the mechanism behind changes in the glycan composition are not fully established. The lack of knowledge about the regulation of dynamic intracellular processes under mild hypothermia restricts bioprocess optimization. To address this issue, a mathematical model that quantitatively describes Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell behavior and metabolism, mAb synthesis and mAb N-linked glycosylation profile before and after the induction of mild hypothermia is constructed. Results from this study show that the model is capable of representing experimental results well in all of the aspects mentioned above, including the N-linked glycosylation profile of mAb produced under mild hypothermia. Most importantly, comparison between model simulation results for different culture temperatures suggests the reduced rates of nucleotide sugar donor production and galactosyltransferase (GalT) expression to be critical contributing factors that determine the variation in Fc-glycan profiles between physiological and mild hypothermic conditions in stable CHO transfectants. This is then confirmed using experimental measurements of GalT expression levels, thereby closing the loop between the experimental and the computational system. The identification of bottlenecks within CHO cell metabolism under mild hypothermic conditions will aid bioprocess optimization, for example, by tailoring feeding strategies to improve NSD production, or manipulating the expression of specific glycosyltransferases through cell line engineering. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1570-1582. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  15. Comparison of three different prehospital wrapping methods for preventing hypothermia - a crossover study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariassen Erik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental hypothermia increases mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Various methods for insulating and wrapping hypothermic patients are used worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal insulating effects and comfort of bubble wrap, ambulance blankets / quilts, and Hibler's method, a low-cost method combining a plastic outer layer with an insulating layer. Methods Eight volunteers were dressed in moistened clothing, exposed to a cold and windy environment then wrapped using one of the three different insulation methods in random order on three different days. They were rested quietly on their back for 60 minutes in a cold climatic chamber. Skin temperature, rectal temperature, oxygen consumption were measured, and metabolic heat production was calculated. A questionnaire was used for a subjective evaluation of comfort, thermal sensation, and shivering. Results Skin temperature was significantly higher 15 minutes after wrapping using Hibler's method compared with wrapping with ambulance blankets / quilts or bubble wrap. There were no differences in core temperature between the three insulating methods. The subjects reported more shivering, they felt colder, were more uncomfortable, and had an increased heat production when using bubble wrap compared with the other two methods. Hibler's method was the volunteers preferred method for preventing hypothermia. Bubble wrap was the least effective insulating method, and seemed to require significantly higher heat production to compensate for increased heat loss. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a combination of vapour tight layer and an additional dry insulating layer (Hibler's method is the most efficient wrapping method to prevent heat loss, as shown by increased skin temperatures, lower metabolic rate and better thermal comfort. This should then be the method of choice when wrapping a wet patient at risk of developing hypothermia in prehospital

  16. Revisited: A Systematic Review of Therapeutic Hypothermia for Adult Patients Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hannah I; Shepherd, Andrew A; Rhodes, Jonathan K J; Andrews, Peter J D

    2018-06-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been of topical interest for many years and with the publication of two international, multicenter randomized controlled trials, the evidence base now needs updating. The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials is to assess the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia in adult traumatic brain injury focusing on mortality, poor outcomes, and new pneumonia. The following databases were searched from January 1, 2011, to January 26, 2018: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE. Only foreign articles published in the English language were included. Only articles that were randomized controlled trials investigating adult traumatic brain injury sustained following an acute, closed head injury were included. Two authors independently assessed at each stage. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. All extracted data were combined using the Mantel-Haenszel estimator for pooled risk ratio with 95% CIs. p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were conducted using RevMan 5 (Cochrane Collaboration, Version 5.3, Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2014). Twenty-two studies with 2,346 patients are included. Randomized controlled trials with a low risk of bias show significantly more mortality in the therapeutic hypothermia group (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04-1.79; p = 0.02), whereas randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias show the opposite with a higher mortality in the control group (risk ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.82; p < 0.00001). Overall, this review is in-keeping with the conclusions published by the most recent randomized controlled trials. High-quality studies show no significant difference in mortality, poor outcomes, or new pneumonia. In addition, this review shows a place for fever control in the management of traumatic brain injury.

  17. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 Hours after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Anne Murtha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental Middle Cerebral Artery occlusion (MCAo - 3 hour occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19-20 months. At one hour after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 hours hypothermia-treatment (32.5 °C or normothermia (37 °C. ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 hours post-occlusion, and at 24 hours post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03. Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 hours post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients.

  18. Impact of hypothermia on implementation of CPAP for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carns, Jennifer; Kawaza, Kondwani; Quinn, M K; Miao, Yinsen; Guerra, Rudy; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Oden, Maria; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is widely associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, but remains a pervasive global problem. No studies have examined the impact of hypothermia on outcomes for preterm infants treated with CPAP for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). This retrospective analysis assessed the impact of hypothermia on outcomes of 65 neonates diagnosed with RDS and treated with either nasal oxygen (N = 17) or CPAP (N = 48) in a low-resource setting. A classification tree approach was used to develop a model predicting survival for subjects diagnosed with RDS. Survival to discharge was accurately predicted based on three variables: mean temperature, treatment modality, and mean respiratory rate. None of the 23 neonates with a mean temperature during treatment below 35.8°C survived to discharge, regardless of treatment modality. Among neonates with a mean temperature exceeding 35.8°C, the survival rate was 100% for the 31 neonates treated with CPAP and 36.4% for the 11 neonates treated with nasal oxygen (pCPAP, outcomes were poor if more than 50% of measured temperatures indicated hypothermia (5.6% survival). In contrast, all 30 neonates treated with CPAP and with more than 50% of temperature measurements above 35.8°C survived to discharge, regardless of initial temperature. The results of our study suggest that successful implementation of CPAP to treat RDS in low-resource settings will require aggressive action to prevent persistent hypothermia. However, our results show that even babies who are initially cold can do well on CPAP with proper management of hypothermia.

  19. A multicentre randomized controlled trial of moderate hypothermia to prevent intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, William; Murphy, Nicholas; Brown, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Animal models and human case series of acute liver failure (ALF) suggest moderate hypothermia (MH) to have protective effects against cerebral oedema (CO) development and intracranial hypertension (ICH). However, the optimum temperature for patient management is unknown...... by sealed envelope to targeted temperature management (TTM) groups of 34°C (MH) or 36°C (control) for a period of 72h. Investigators were not blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was a sustained elevation in ICP >25mmHg, with secondary outcomes the occurrence of predefined serious adverse...

  20. The Thompson Encephalopathy Score and Short-Term Outcomes in Asphyxiated Newborns Treated With Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Patricia; Jansen-van der Weide, Martine C; Groenendaal, Floris; Onland, Wes; van Straaten, Henrika L M; Zonnenberg, Inge; Vermeulen, Jeroen R; Dijk, Peter H; Dudink, Jeroen; Rijken, Monique; van Heijst, Arno; Dijkman, Koen P; Cools, Filip; Zecic, Alexandra; van Kaam, Anton H; de Haan, Timo R

    2016-07-01

    The Thompson encephalopathy score is a clinical score to assess newborns suffering from perinatal asphyxia. Previous studies revealed a high sensitivity and specificity of the Thompson encephalopathy score for adverse outcomes (death or severe disability). Because the Thompson encephalopathy score was developed before the use of therapeutic hypothermia, its value was reassessed. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of the Thompson encephalopathy score with adverse short-term outcomes, defined as death before discharge, development of severe epilepsy, or the presence of multiple organ failure in asphyxiated newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. The study period ranged from November 2010 to October 2014. A total of 12 tertiary neonatal intensive care units participated. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the "PharmaCool" multicenter study, an observational cohort study analyzing pharmacokinetics of medication during therapeutic hypothermia. With multiple logistic regression analyses the association of the Thompson encephalopathy scores with outcomes was studied. Data of 142 newborns were analyzed (male: 86; female: 56). Median Thompson score was 9 (interquartile range: 8 to 12). Median gestational age was 40 weeks (interquartile range 38 to 41), mean birth weight was 3362 grams (standard deviation: 605). All newborns manifested perinatal asphyxia and underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Death before discharge occurred in 23.9% and severe epilepsy in 21.1% of the cases. In total, 59.2% of the patients had multiple organ failure. The Thompson encephalopathy score was not associated with multiple organ failure, but a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥12 was associated with death before discharge (odds ratio: 3.9; confidence interval: 1.3 to 11.2) and with development of severe epilepsy (odds ratio: 8.4; confidence interval: 2.5 to 27.8). The Thompson encephalopathy score is a useful clinical tool, even in cooled asphyxiated

  1. Full recovery two months after therapeutic hypothermia following cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a patient with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.; Cha, K.S.; Oh, J.H.; Lee, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Neurologic impairments are very common among patients who get a recovery of spontaneous circulation after suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Therapeutic hypothermia is established as a standardized therapeutic strategy for those patients in whom it decreases mortality rate and improves neurologic outcome. Herein, we report a case of patient who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with ischaemic heart disease and ventricular arrhythmia and got a full recovery without any neurologic impediments 2 months after being managed with therapeutic hypothermia. (author)

  2. Predictors of task-persistent and fear-avoiding behaviors in women with sexual pain disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Marieke; Lakeman, Mariëlle; van Lunsen, Rik; Laan, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Dyspareunia and vaginismus are the most common sexual pain disorders (SPDs). Literature suggests that many women with dyspareunia continue with intercourse despite pain (task persistence), whereas many women with vaginismus avoid penetrative activities that may cause pain (fear avoidance). Both

  3. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroprotection via RNA-binding protein RBM3 expression is regulated by hypothermia but not by hypoxia in human SK-N-SH neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenthal LM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lisa-Maria Rosenthal,1 Giang Tong,1 Christoph Walker,1 Sylvia J Wowro,1 Jana Krech,1 Constanze Pfitzer,1,2 Georgia Justus,1 Felix Berger,1,3 Katharina Rose Luise Schmitt1 1Department of Congenital Heart Disease/Pediatric Cardiology, German Heart Institute Berlin, 2Berlin Institute of Health (BIH, 3Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Charité – University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany Objective: Therapeutic hypothermia is an established treatment for perinatal asphyxia. Yet, many term infants continue to die or suffer from neurodevelopmental disability. Several experimental studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect of mild-to-moderate hypothermia after hypoxic injury, but the understanding of hypothermia-induced neuroprotection remains incomplete. In general, global protein synthesis is attenuated by hypothermia, but a small group of RNA-binding proteins including the RNA-binding motif 3 (RBM3 is upregulated in response to cooling. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro model to investigate the effects of hypoxia and hypothermia on neuronal cell survival, as well as to examine the kinetics of concurrent cold-shock protein RBM3 gene expression. Methods: Experiments were performed by using human SK-N-SH neurons exposed to different oxygen concentrations (21%, 8%, or 0.2% O2 for 24 hours followed by moderate hypothermia (33.5°C or normothermia for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Cell death was determined by quantification of lactate dehydrogenase and neuron-specific enolase releases into the cell cultured medium, and cell morphology was assessed by using immunofluorescence staining. The regulation of RBM3 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis.Results: Exposure to hypoxia (0.2% O2 for 24 hours resulted in significantly increased cell death in SK-N-SH neurons, whereas exposure to 8% O2 had no significant impact on cell viability. Post-hypoxia treatment with

  5. Hipotermia terapêutica em pacientes pós-parada cardiorrespiratória: mecanismos de ação e desenvolvimento de protocolo assistencial Mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: mechanism of action and protocol development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Helena Rech

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A parada cardiorrespiratória é um evento de alta mortalidade. A isquemia cerebral difusa relacionada ao hipofluxo cerebral frequentemente leva à injúria neurológica grave e ao desenvolvimento de estado vegetativo persistente. A hipotermia terapêutica representa um importante avanço no tratamento da encefalopatia anóxica pós-parada cardíaca. Seus efeitos neuroprotetores têm sido amplamente demonstrados em várias situações de isquemia neuronal. Apesar de ser um procedimento associado com redução de mortalidade nesses pacientes, a hipotermia ainda é um tratamento subutilizado no manejo da síndrome pós-ressuscitação. Nosso objetivo é revisar aspectos referentes aos mecanismos de ação da hipotermia e seus efeitos em pacientes críticos reanimados pós- parada cardiorrespiratória e propor um protocolo assistencial simples, que possa ser implantado em qualquer unidade de terapia intensiva.Cardiac arrest is a high mortality event and the associated brain ischemia frequently causes severe neurological damage and persistent vegetative state. Therapeutic hypothermia is an important tool for the treatment of post-anoxic coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It has been shown to reduce mortality and to improve neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest. Nevertheless, hypothermia is underused in critical care units. This manuscript aims to review the hypothermia mechanism of action in cardiac arrest survivors and to propose a simple protocol, feasible to be implemented in any critical care unit.

  6. Promotion of Viral IRES-Mediated Translation Initiation under Mild Hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licursi

    Full Text Available Internal ribosome entry site (IRES-mediated translation is an essential replication step for certain viruses. As IRES-mediated translation is regulated differently from cap-dependent translation under various cellular conditions, we sought to investigate whether temperature influences efficiency of viral IRES-mediated translation initiation by using bicistronic reporter constructs containing an IRES element of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, human rhinovirus (HRV or poliovirus (PV. Under mild hypothermic conditions (30 and 35°C, we observed increases in the efficiency of translation initiation by HCV and HRV IRES elements compared to translation initiation at 37°C. The promotion of HRV IRES activity was observed as early as 2 hours after exposure to mild hypothermia. We also confirmed the promotion of translation initiation by HRV IRES under mild hypothermia in multiple cell lines. The expression levels and locations of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB and upstream of N-Ras (unr, the IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs of HCV and HRV IRES elements, were not modulated by the temperature shift from 37°C to 30°C. Taken together, this study demonstrates that efficiency of translation initiation by some viral IRES elements is temperature dependent.

  7. Influence of argon on temperature modulation and neurological outcome in hypothermia treated rats following cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücken, Anne; Bleilevens, Christian; Föhr, Philipp; Nolte, Kay; Rossaint, Rolf; Marx, Gernot; Fries, Michael; Derwall, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Combining xenon and mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) after cardiac arrest (CA) confers a degree of protection that is greater than either of the two interventions alone. However, xenon is very costly which might preclude a widespread use. We investigated whether the inexpensive gas argon would enhance hypothermia induced neurologic recovery in a similar manner. Following nine minutes of CA and three minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive MTH (33°C for 6h), MTH plus argon (70% for 1h), or no treatment. A first day condition score assessed behaviour, motor activity and overall condition. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was calculated daily for seven days following the experiment before the animals were killed and the brains harvested for histopathological analysis. All animals survived. Animals that received MTH alone showed best overall neurologic function. Strikingly, this effect was abolished in the argon-augmented MTH group, where animals showed worse neurologic outcome being significant in the first day condition score and on day one to three and five in the NDS in comparison to MTH treated rats. Results were reflected by the neurohistopathological analysis. Our study demonstrates that argon augmented MTH does not improve functional recovery after CA in rats, but may even worsen neurologic function in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitric oxide in the nucleus raphe magnus modulates cutaneous blood flow in rats during hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kourosh Arami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM that is involved in the regulation of body temperature contains nitric oxide (NO synthase. Considering the effect of NO on skin blood flow control, in this study, we assessed its thermoregulatory role within the raphe magnus. Materials and Methods: To this end, tail blood flow of male Wistar rats was measured by laser doppler following the induction of hypothermia. Results: Intra-NRM injection of SNP (exogenous NO donor, 0.1- 0.2 μl, 0.2 nM increased the blood flow. Similarly, unilateral microinjection of glutamate (0.1- 0.2 μl, 2.3 nM into the nucleus increased the blood flow. This effectof L-glutamate was reduced by prior intra NRM administrationof NO synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine or NG-nitro-L-argininemethyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 µl, 100 nM. Conclusion: It is concluded that NO modulates the thermoregulatory response of NRM to hypothermia and may interactwith excitatory amino acids in central skin blood flow regulation.

  9. Poor outcome prediction by burst suppression ratio in adults with post-anoxic coma without hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinglin; Su, Yingying; Hussain, Mohammed; Chen, Weibi; Ye, Hong; Gao, Daiquan; Tian, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Burst suppression ratio (BSR) is a quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) parameter. The purpose of our study was to compare the accuracy of BSR when compared to other EEG parameters in predicting poor outcomes in adults who sustained post-anoxic coma while not being subjected to therapeutic hypothermia. EEG was registered and recorded at least once within 7 days of post-anoxic coma onset. Electrodes were placed according to the international 10-20 system, using a 16-channel layout. Each EEG expert scored raw EEG using a grading scale adapted from Young and scored amplitude-integrated electroencephalography tracings, in addition to obtaining qEEG parameters defined as BSR with a defined threshold. Glasgow outcome scales of 1 and 2 at 3 months, determined by two blinded neurologists, were defined as poor outcome. Sixty patients with Glasgow coma scale score of 8 or less after anoxic accident were included. The sensitivity (97.1%), specificity (73.3%), positive predictive value (82.5%), and negative prediction value (95.0%) of BSR in predicting poor outcome were higher than other EEG variables. BSR1 and BSR2 were reliable in predicting death (area under the curve > 0.8, P coma who do not undergo therapeutic hypothermia when compared to other qEEG parameters.

  10. Therapeutic hypothermia following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; does it start in the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, R; Sherren, P B

    2010-12-01

    The use of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest is a well-practised treatment modality in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, recent evidence points to advantages in starting the cooling process as soon as possible after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). There are no data on implementation of this treatment in the emergency department. A telephone survey was conducted of the 233 emergency departments in the UK. The most senior available clinician was asked if, in cases where they have a patient with a ROSC after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, would therapeutic hypothermia be started in the emergency department. Of the 233 hospitals called, 230 responded, of which 35% would start cooling in the emergency department. Of this 35%, over half (56%) said the decision to start cooling was made by the emergency physician before consultation with the ICU. Also, of the 35% who would begin cooling in the emergency department, 55% would cool only for ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia, 66% would monitor temperature centrally, and 14% would use specialised cooling equipment. There is often a delay in getting patients to ICU from the emergency department, and thus the decision not to start cooling in the emergency department may impact significantly on patient outcome. The dissemination of these data may persuade emergency physicians that starting treatment in the emergency department is an appropriate and justifiable decision that is becoming a more accepted practice throughout the UK.

  11. Patient Outcomes After Palliative Care Consultation Among Patients Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Priya; Brown, Tartania; Khilkin, Michael; Chuang, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of patients who did and did not receive palliative care consultation among those who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and underwent therapeutic hypothermia. We identified patients at a single academic medical center who had undergone therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between 2009 and 2013. We performed a retrospective chart review for demographic data, hospital and critical care length of stay, and clinical outcomes of care. We reviewed the charts of 62 patients, of which 35 (56%) received a palliative care consultation and 27 (44%) did not. Palliative care consultation occurred an average of 8.3 days after admission. Patients receiving palliative care consultation were more likely to have a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order placed (odds ratio: 2.3, P care or not (16.7 vs 17.1 days, P = .90). Intensive care length of stay was also similar (11.3 vs 12.6 days, P = .55). Palliative care consultation was underutilized and utilized late in this cohort. Palliative consultation was associated with DNR orders but did not affect measures of utilization such as hospital and intensive care length of stay.

  12. Nitric oxide in the nucleus raphe magnus modulates cutaneous blood flow in rats during hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arami, Masoumeh Kourosh; Zade, Javad Mirnajafi; Komaki, Alireza; Amiri, Mahmood; Mehrpooya, Sara; Jahanshahi, Ali; Jamei, Behnam

    2015-10-01

    Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM) that is involved in the regulation of body temperature contains nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Considering the effect of NO on skin blood flow control, in this study, we assessed its thermoregulatory role within the raphe magnus. To this end, tail blood flow of male Wistar rats was measured by laser doppler following the induction of hypothermia. Intra-NRM injection of SNP (exogenous NO donor, 0.1- 0.2 μl, 0.2 nM) increased the blood flow. Similarly, unilateral microinjection of glutamate (0.1- 0.2 μl, 2.3 nM) into the nucleus increased the blood flow. This effect of L-glutamate was reduced by prior intra NRM administration of NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-methyl-L-arginine or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 µl, 100 nM). It is concluded that NO modulates the thermoregulatory response of NRM to hypothermia and may interact with excitatory amino acids in central skin blood flow regulation.

  13. Automatic Incubator-type Temperature Control System for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    An automatic air-cooling incubator is proposed to replace the manual water-cooling blanket to control the brain tissue temperature for brain hypothermia treatment. Its feasibility is theoretically discussed as follows: First, an adult patient with the cooling incubator is modeled as a linear dynamical patient-incubator biothermal system. The patient is represented by an 18-compartment structure and described by its state equations. The air-cooling incubator provides almost same cooling effect as the water-cooling blanket, if a light breeze of speed around 3 m/s is circulated in the incubator. Then, in order to control the brain temperature automatically, an adaptive-optimal control algorithm is adopted, while the patient-blanket therapeutic system is considered as a reference model. Finally, the brain temperature of the patient-incubator biothermal system is controlled to follow up the given reference temperature course, in which an adaptive algorithm is confirmed useful for unknown environmental change and/or metabolic rate change of the patient in the incubating system. Thus, the present work ensures the development of the automatic air-cooling incubator for a better temperature regulation of the brain hypothermia treatment in ICU.

  14. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting method,on the other hand, but the comparing of tax reduction between methods of exemption and crediting.

  15. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  16. Hipotermia acidental em um país tropical Accidental hypothermia cases in a tropical country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Golin

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudar a presença, forma de apresentação e as conseqüências da hipotermia em nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo em hipotérmicos atendidos no Serviço de Emergência de Clínica Médica da Santa Casa de São Paulo, com 212 pacientes com hipotermia leve, moderada e grave, entre 1987 a 2001, a maioria constituída por alcoólatras crônicos e moradores de rua. Foram analisados os resultados quanto ao sexo, faixa etária, temperatura central, eletrocardiograma, comorbidades e mortalidade. RESULTADOS: A hipotermia predominou no sexo masculino em 75,9%. Quanto à faixa etária prevaleceu a idade entre 30 e 59 anos. Em 70,3% dos pacientes a temperatura central foi inferior a 32ºC, sendo que em 26,4% destes, a temperatura foi menor que 28ºC. A associação com quadros infecciosos ocorreu em 76,8% dos casos. Os pacientes com hipotermia leve responderam melhor à terapêutica (96,8% quando comparados com os hipotérmicos moderados (72,1% e graves (87,5%. A onda de Osborn esteve presente em 42,6% dos pacientes. A mortalidade geral foi de 38,2%. CONCLUSÕES: A hipotermia acidental em serviços de emergência de país tropical é fato inegável. O socorrista deve estar atento e treinado para o reconhecimento desta doença de alta morbidade e mortalidade. A mortalidade aumenta com a presença de doenças associadas, particularmente processos infecciosos, desnutrição e alcoolismo crônico.OBJECTIVE: This paper has by objective to study the hypothermia's presence, presentation form and consequences in our environment. METHODS: A prospective study in hypothermic patients assisted in the Medical Clinic Emergency Service of Santa Casa of São Paulo, with 212 patients with mild, moderate and serious hypothermia from 1987 to 2001, the most part of them constituted by chronic alcoholics and homeless. The results were analyzed in reference to sex, age group, central temperature, electrocardiogram, co-morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: The

  17. How to avoid sedation complications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure patient safety, it is crucial that the airway is safeguarded. The single most important responsibility is to protect it. An unobstructed airway, with intact protective reflexes and respiratory drive, is essential to avoid complications. In some procedures, e.g. dental, the airway may need to be shared with the surgeon.

  18. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  19. Mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion-induced injury by improving lysosomal function and autophagic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianen; Liang, Lian; Liang, Yanran; Yu, Tao; Zeng, Chaotao; Jiang, Longyuan

    2017-09-15

    Mild hypothermia has been proven to be useful to treat brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to determine whether mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion(OGD/R)-induced injury via improving lysosomal function and autophagic flux. The results showed that OGD/R induced the occurrence of autophagy, while the acidic environment inside the lysosomes was altered. The autophagic flux assay with RFP-GFP tf-LC3 was impeded in hippocampal neurons after OGD/R. Mild hypothermia recovered the lysosomal acidic fluorescence and the lysosomal marker protein expression of LAMP2, which decreased after OGD/R.Furthermore, we found that mild hypothermia up-regulated autophagic flux and promoted the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes in hippocampal neurons following OGD/R injury, but could be reversed by treatment with chloroquine, which acts as a lysosome inhibitor. We also found that mild hypothermia improved mitochondrial autophagy in hippocampal neurons following OGD/R injury. Finally,we found that chloroquine blocked the protective effects of mild hypothermia against OGD/R-induced cell death and injury. Taken together, the present study indicates that mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons against OGD/R-induced injury by improving lysosomal function and autophagic flux. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Use of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles to decrease incidence of neonatal hypothermia in the labor room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Subhash Chandra; Devgan, Amit; Anila, Sushila; Anushree, Neha; Debnath, Himadri

    2018-04-01

    Body temperature of a neonate continues to be under-documented, under-recognized, and under-managed, even though studies have shown that neonatal hypothermia increases mortality and morbidity. We aimed to reduce neonatal hypothermia (body temperature improvement (QI) initiative using the rapid-cycle Plan-Do-Study-Act approach (PDSA) improvement model and the project was conducted from 15 Jan 2017 to 25 Feb 2017. All singleton neonates with gestational ages above 34 completed weeks born by vaginal delivery were targeted. Exclusion criteria included neonates needing any form of resuscitation, those developing respiratory distress after birth needing any form of respiratory support or observation in NICU. We ran PDSA cycles (including pre-warmed cloths, skin to skin care with mother, early breast feeding, delaying weight check by 1 h and checklist of planned steps), every week, after taking the baseline data in the first week. A total of 46 neonates were studied. After 4 PDSA cycles, incidence of neonatal hypothermia at 1 h of birth dropped to zero from 50% at baseline and we were able to sustain 100% normal temperature (36.5-37.5 °C) since then. This QI project has significantly reduced the incidence of hypothermia in term and late preterm neonates born by vaginal delivery in our institute.

  1. Drug-induced mild therapeutic hypothermia obtained by administration of a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Keld; Weber, Uno J; Gotfredsen, Jacob W

    2010-01-01

    Background  The use of mechanical/physical devices for applying mild therapeutic hypothermia is the only proven neuroprotective treatment for survivors of out of hospital cardiac arrest. However, this type of therapy is cumbersome and associated with several side-effects. We investigated the feas......Background  The use of mechanical/physical devices for applying mild therapeutic hypothermia is the only proven neuroprotective treatment for survivors of out of hospital cardiac arrest. However, this type of therapy is cumbersome and associated with several side-effects. We investigated...... the feasibility of using a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist for obtaining drug-induced sustainable mild hypothermia. Methods First, we screened a heterogeneous group of TRPV1 agonists and secondly we tested the hypothermic properties of a selected candidate by dose-response studies...... was stopped. Finally, in calves the intravenous infusion of DHC was able to maintain mild hypothermia with ΔT > -3°C for more than 12 hours. Conclusions Our data support the hypothesis that infusion of dihydrocapsaicin is a candidate for testing as a primary or adjunct method of inducing and maintaining...

  2. Serum Potassium Changes During Therapeutic Hypothermia After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest-Should It Be Treated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soeholm, Helle; Kirkegaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with adverse events, for example hypokalemia and arrhythmias. In the present study, we report the impact of serum potassium changes related to the rate of cardiac arrhythmias, and the advantages...

  3. Hypothermia due to limbic system involvement and longitudinal myelitis in a case of Japanese encephalitis: a case report from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Santhosh Narayanan,1 NK Thulaseedharan,1 Gomathy Subramaniam,2 Geetha Panarkandy,1 VK Shameer,1 Arathi Narayanan1 1Department of General Medicine, 2Department of Radiodiagnosis, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India Abstract: Japanese encephalitis (JE is an infectious encephalitis prevalent in Asia. It usually presents with fever, headache, convulsions and extrapyramidal symptoms. Limbic system involvement and hypothermia though common in autoimmune encephalitis have never been reported in JE. We report a case of an 18-year-old girl with no previous comorbidities who presented to us with a history of fever and headache for 1 week duration. She developed bilateral lateral rectus palsy and asymmetric flaccid weakness of all four limbs, after 2 days of admission, which was followed by altered sensorium and intermittent hypothermia. Neuroimaging revealed longitudinal myelitis extending from pons till the L1 level along with bilateral thalamic hemorrhage in brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was positive for IgM antibody to JE virus. She was treated with supportive measures, but she developed intractable hypothermia and seizures and succumbed to illness after 2 weeks of admission. Keywords: Japanese encephalitis, hypothermia, limbic system

  4. Influence of hypothermia combined with erythropoietin on serum neurological function indexes in newborns with severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the influence of hypothermia combined with erythropoietin (EPO on serum neurological function indexes in newborns with severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Methods: A total of 48 cases of newborns with severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in our hospital were enrolled and divided into control group and observation group according to random number table, 24 cases in each group. On the basis of conventional treatment, patients in control group were treated with mild hypothermia, and those in observation group were treated with mild hypothermia combined with EPO. Serum nerve injury indexes, neurological function indexes and nerve apoptosis indexes were compared between two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, differences in the levels of nerve injury indexes, neurological function indexes and nerve apoptosis indexes were not statistically significant between two groups. After treatment, serum nerve injury indexes NSE and S-100B levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, neurolocial function indexes BDNF, NGF, IGF-1 and GH levels of observation group were higher than those of control group, and nerve apoptosis indexes sFas and sFasL levels of observation group were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Mild hypothermia combined with EPO can reduce the neurological damage and inhibit neuronal apoptosis in children with severe HIE.

  5. Biomarkers S100B and neuron-specific enolase predict outcome in hypothermia-treated encephalopathic newborns*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, An N; Chang, Taeun; Baumgart, Stephen; McCarter, Robert; Nelson, Karin B; Glass, Penny

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate if serum S100B protein and neuron-specific enolase measured during therapeutic hypothermia are predictive of neurodevelopmental outcome at 15 months in children with neonatal encephalopathy. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. A level IV neonatal ICU in a freestanding children's hospital. Term newborns with moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy referred for therapeutic hypothermia during the study period. Serum neuron-specific enolase and S100B were measured at 0, 12, 24, and 72 hours of hypothermia. Of the 83 infants enrolled, 15 (18%) died in the newborn period. Survivors were evaluated by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II at 15 months. Outcomes were assessed in 49 of 68 survivors (72%) at a mean age of 15.2 ± 2.7 months. Neurodevelopmental outcome was classified by Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index scores, reflecting cognitive and motor outcomes, respectively. Four-level outcome classifications were defined a priori: normal = Mental Developmental Index/Psychomotor Developmental Index within 1 SD (> 85), mild = Mental Developmental Index/Psychomotor Developmental Index less than 1 SD (70-85), moderate/severe = Mental Developmental Index/Psychomotor Developmental Index less than 2 SD (encephalopathy are associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 15 months. These putative biomarkers of brain injury may help direct care during therapeutic hypothermia.

  6. Serial measurement of neuron specific enolase improves prognostication in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuron specific enolase (NSE has repeatedly been evaluated for neurological prognostication in patients after cardiac arrest. However, it is unclear whether current guidelines for NSE cutoff levels also apply to cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Thus, we investigated the prognostic significance of absolute NSE levels and NSE kinetics in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Methods In a prospective study of 35 patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest, NSE was measured daily for four days following admission. Outcome was assessed at ICU discharge using the CPC score. All patients received hypothermia treatment for 24 hours at 33°C with a surface cooling device according to current guidelines. Results The cutoff for absolute NSE levels in patients with unfavourable outcome (CPC 3-5 72 hours after cardiac arrest was 57 μg/l with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.82 (sensitivity 47%, specificity 100%. The cutoff level for NSE kinetics in patients with unfavourable outcome (CPC 3-5 was an absolute increase of 7.9 μg/l (AUC 0.78, sensitivity 63%, specificity 100% and a relative increase of 33.1% (AUC 0.803, sensitivity 67%, specificity 100% at 48 hours compared to admission. Conclusion In cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia, prognostication of unfavourable outcome by NSE kinetics between admission and 48 hours after resuscitation may be superior to prognostication by absolute NSE levels.

  7. Blood Coagulation and Acid-Base Balance at Craniocerebral Hypothermia in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Avakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic therapeutic hypothermia has gained a negative reputation in treating multiple trauma patients and is regarded as one of the factors in the lethal triad of shock, acidosis, and hypothermia. This fact owes to no relationship between acidosis and hypothermia; the effects of the latter on coagulation are evident and complexly reversible in the presence of acidosis.Objective: to determine the impact of noninvasive local brain cooling on the metabolic and blood coagulation indicators of a patient with acute cerebral ischemia.Subjects and methods. The subjects of the study were 113 patients with severe brain injury, including that complicated by the involvement of stem structures, who underwent brain cooling in different modifications. In so doing, the val ues of acidbase balance and coagulation system in arterial and venous blood were investigated.Results. Local brain hypother mia was not found to affect coagulation while the baseline negative values of excess buffer bases showed positive values (a right shift by the end of cooling. Recommendations were given to prevent metabolic shifts.Conclusion. Patients at very high risk for bleeding may be safely cooled to a brain temperature of 32—34°C even in the presence of moderatetosevere acidosis. This is a great advantage of local hypothermia over systemic one.

  8. Serotonin and dopamine protect from hypothermia/rewarming damage through the CBS/H2S pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talaei, Fatemeh; Bouma, Hjalmar; Van der Graaf, Adrianus; Strijkstra, Arjen; Schmidt, Martina; Henning, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines have been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptotic cell death. Herein we show for the first time that serotonin and dopamine increase H2S production by the endogenous enzyme cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced reactive oxygen

  9. Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Hector; Pazos, Maria R.; Alvarez, Antonia; Mohammed, Nagat; Santos, Martín; Arizti, Maialen; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Martinez-Orgado, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to quantify the number of damaged neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate) and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate). Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress), content of caspase-3 (apoptosis) and TNFα (inflammation). Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on cell damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone. The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult. PMID:27462203

  10. Passive hypothermia (≥35 - <36°C during transport of newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Sellam

    Full Text Available Hypothermia initiated in the first six hours of life in term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces the risk of death and severe neurological sequelae. Our study's principal objective was to evaluate transport predictors potentially influencing arrival in NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at a temperature ≥35-<36°C.A multi-centric, prospective cohort study was conducted during 18 months by the three Neonatal Transport Teams and 13 NICUs. Newborns were selected for inclusion according to biological and clinical criteria before transport using passive hypothermia using a target temperature of ≥35-<36°C. Data on 120 of 126 inclusions were available for analysis. Thirty-three percent of the children arrived in NICU with the target temperature of ≥35-<36°C. The mean temperature for the whole group of infants on arrival in NICU was 35.4°C (34.3-36.5. The median age of all infants on arrival in NICU was 3h03min [2h25min-3h56min]. Three infants arrived in NICU with a temperature of <33°C and eleven with a temperature ≥37°C. Adrenaline during resuscitation was associated with a lower mean temperature on arrival in NICU.Our strategy using ≥35-<36°C passive hypothermia combined with short transport times had little effect on temperature after the arrival of Neonatal Transport Team although did reduce numbers of infants arriving in NICU in deep hypothermia. For those infants where hypothermia was discontinued in NICU our strategy facilitated re-warming. Re-adjustment to a lower target temperature to ≥34.5-<35.5°C may reduce the proportion of infants with high/normothermic temperatures.

  11. Avoiding Complications with MPFL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marvin K; Werner, Brian C; Diduch, David R

    2018-05-12

    To discuss the potentially significant complications associated with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Additionally, to review the most current and relevant literature with an emphasis on avoiding these potential complications. Multiple cadaveric studies have characterized the anatomy of the MPFL and the related morphologic abnormalities that contribute to recurrent lateral patellar instability. Such abnormalities include patella alta, excessive tibial tubercle to trochlear grove (TT-TG) distance, trochlear dysplasia, and malalignment. Recent studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes associated with the treatment of concomitant pathology in combination with MPFL reconstruction, which is critical in avoiding recurrent instability and complications. Although there remains a lack of consensus regarding various critical aspects of MPFL reconstruction, certain concepts remain imperative. Our preferred methods and rationales for surgical techniques are described. These include appropriate work up, a combination of procedures to address abnormal morphology, anatomical femoral insertion, safe and secure patellar fixation, appropriate graft length fixation, and thoughtful knee flexion during fixation.

  12. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe,Lisa; Malhi,Gin

    2018-01-01

    Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective t...

  13. Pathogen avoidance by insect predators

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.

    2008-01-01

    Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...

  14. Hypothermia postpones DNA damage repair in irradiated cells and protects against cell killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Brandon J.; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Nakamura, Asako J.; Redon, Christophe E.; Parekh, Palak [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, CCR, NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Griko, Yuri V. [Radiation and Space Biotechnology Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Aziz, Khaled; Georgakilas, Alexandros G. [Biology Department, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Bonner, William M. [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, CCR, NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Martin, Olga A., E-mail: sedelnio@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, CCR, NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-06-03

    Hibernation is an established strategy used by some homeothermic organisms to survive cold environments. In true hibernation, the core body temperature of an animal may drop to below 0 {sup o}C and metabolic activity almost cease. The phenomenon of hibernation in humans is receiving renewed interest since several cases of victims exhibiting core body temperatures as low as 13.7 {sup o}C have been revived with minimal lasting deficits. In addition, local cooling during radiotherapy has resulted in normal tissue protection. The experiments described in this paper were prompted by the results of a very limited pilot study, which showed a suppressed DNA repair response of mouse lymphocytes collected from animals subjected to 7-Gy total body irradiation under hypothermic (13 {sup o}C) conditions, compared to normothermic controls. Here we report that human BJ-hTERT cells exhibited a pronounced radioprotective effect on clonogenic survival when cooled to 13 {sup o}C during and 12 h after irradiation. Mild hypothermia at 20 and 30 {sup o}C also resulted in some radioprotection. The neutral comet assay revealed an apparent lack on double strand break (DSB) rejoining at 13 {sup o}C. Extension of the mouse lymphocyte study to ex vivo-irradiated human lymphocytes confirmed lower levels of induced phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) and persistence of the lesions at hypothermia compared to the normal temperature. Parallel studies of radiation-induced oxidatively clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs) revealed partial repair at 13 {sup o}C compared to the rapid repair at 37 {sup o}C. For both {gamma}-H2AX foci and OCDLs, the return of lymphocytes to 37 {sup o}C resulted in the resumption of normal repair kinetics. These results, as well as observations made by others and reviewed in this study, have implications for understanding the radiobiology and protective mechanisms underlying hypothermia and potential opportunities for exploitation in terms of protecting normal tissues against

  15. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe L

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD, schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. Keywords: avoidant personality disorder, social anxiety disorder, social cognition, psychotherapy, attachment

  16. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  17. Predictable and avoidable: What’s next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Pezzuto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper (Dr. Ivo Pezzuto has been one of the first authors to write back in 2008 about the alleged "subprime mortgage loans fraud" which has triggered the 2008 financial crisis, in combination with multiple other complex, highly interrelated, and concurrent factors. The author has been also one of the first authors to report in that same working paper of 2008 (available on SSRN and titled "Miraculous Financial Engineering or Toxic Finance? The Genesis of the U.S. Subprime Mortgage Loans Crisis and its Consequences on the Global Financial Markets and Real Economy" the high probability of a Eurozone debt crisis, due to a number of unsolved structural macroeconomic problems, the lack of a single crisis resolution scheme, current account imbalances, and in some countries, housing bubbles/high private debt. In the book published in 2013 and titled "Predictable and Avoidable: Repairing Economic Dislocation and Preventing the Recurrence of Crisis", Dr. Ivo Pezzuto has exposed the root causes of the financial crisis in order to enables readers to understand that the crisis we have seen was predictable and should have been avoidable, and that a recurrence can be avoided, if lessons are learned and the right action taken. Almost one year after the publication of the book "Predictable and Avoidable: Repairing Economic Dislocation and Preventing the Recurrence of Crisis", the author has decided to write this working paper to explore what happened in the meantime to the financial markets and to the financial regulation implementation. Most of all, the author with this working paper aims to provide an updated analysis as strategist and scenario analyst on the topics addressed in the book "Predictable and Avoidable" based on a forward-looking perspective and on potential "tail risk" scenarios. The topics reported in this paper relate to financial crises; Government policy; financial regulation; corporate governance; credit risk management

  18. A Case of Severe Accidental Hypothermia Successfully Treated with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfun M. Hatam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After missing for seven days, a 34-year-old female was found with a rectal temperature of 19.8oC. Instead of attempting aggressive rewarming in the emergency department she was directly transferred to the operating room for extracorporeal rewarming. She received cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB for 66 minutes at an initial warming rate of 12oC/ hour and warmed to 36.2oC. Her postoperative course was complicated by sepsis, which eventually led to bilateral below-knee amputations after refusing antibiotics. She was discharged 22 days after admission, with full neurologic recovery. This remarkable case highlights the emerging role of CPB as the definitive therapy for severe accidental hypothermia.

  19. Recurrent Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia Induced by Commotio Cordis Treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of commotio cordis is low, and there is often associated neurological disability if return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC can be achieved. We report a case of commotio cordis treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH that demonstrated a favorable outcome. A 16-year-old female was transferred to our emergency department (ED for collapse after being struck in the chest with a dodgeball. She has no history of heart problems. She was brought to our ED with pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT, and ROSC was achieved with defibrillation. She was comatose at our ED and was treated with TH at a target temperature of 33°C for 24 hours. After transfer to the intensive care unit, pulseless VT occurred, and defibrillation was performed twice. She recovered to baseline neurologic status with the exception of some memory difficulties.

  20. Impaired cerebral autoregulation and brain injury in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, An N; Govindan, R B; Vezina, Gilbert; Chang, Taeun; Andescavage, Nickie N; Wang, Yunfei; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Metzler, Marina; Harris, Kari; du Plessis, Adre J

    2015-08-01

    Impaired cerebral autoregulation may contribute to secondary injury in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Continuous, noninvasive assessment of cerebral pressure autoregulation can be achieved with bedside near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and systemic mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) monitoring. This study aimed to evaluate whether impaired cerebral autoregulation measured by NIRS-MAP monitoring during therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming relates to outcome in 36 newborns with HIE. Spectral coherence analysis between NIRS and MAP was used to quantify changes in the duration [pressure passivity index (PPI)] and magnitude (gain) of cerebral autoregulatory impairment. Higher PPI in both cerebral hemispheres and gain in the right hemisphere were associated with neonatal adverse outcomes [death or detectable brain injury by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), P < 0.001]. NIRS-MAP monitoring of cerebral autoregulation can provide an ongoing physiological biomarker that may help direct care in perinatal brain injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. The ability of different thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Malmkvist, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether hypothermia in newborn piglets could be reduced by applying different thermal aids. The experiment was performed on 150 newborn piglets from 24 sows. Right after birth, the piglets were moved to a wire mesh cage for the first 2 h of life where they experienced 1 of 7...... floor (RadiantC; n = 22) or a slatted floor (RadiantSlat; n = 18); and provision of straw on a solid floor (Straw; n = 8). Piglets’ rectal temperature was measured both continuously and manually every 10 min for the first 2 h after birth using a thermal sensor inserted in the rectum of the piglets...... were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed using a mixed model. All thermal aids/heat solutions resulted in a less steep drop in rectal temperature, a faster recovery, and, for the smaller piglets, also a greater average rectal temperature (except for built-in floor heating) and less time...

  2. Therapeutic Hypothermia for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction-Combined Analysis of the RAPID MI-ICE and the CHILL-MI Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Noc, Marko

    2015-01-01

    infarction CHILL-MI studies, hypothermia was rapidly induced in conscious patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by a combination of cold saline and endovascular cooling. Twenty patients in RAPID MI-ICE and 120 in CHILL-MI with large STEMIs, scheduled for primary percutaneous coronary...... intervention (PCI) within hypothermia induced by rapid infusion of 600-2000 mL cold saline combined with endovascular cooling or standard of care. Hypothermia was initiated before PCI and continued for 1-3 hours after reperfusion aiming at a target temperature...... of 33°C. The primary endpoint was myocardial infarct size (IS) as a percentage of myocardium at risk (IS/MaR) assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 4±2 days. Patients randomized to hypothermia treatment achieved a mean core body temperature of 34.7°C before reperfusion. Although significance...

  3. Accuracy of the Defining Characteristics of the Nursing Diagnosis Hypothermia in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Wislla Ketlly Menezes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; da Silva, Viviane Martins; Fróes, Nathaly Bianka Moraes; de Menezes, Angélica Paixão; Almeida, Aline de Aquino Peres; Sobreira, Bianca Alves

    2017-09-18

    To analyze the accuracy of the defining characteristics of hypothermia in newborns and to verify associations between defining characteristics and clinical variables. A cross-sectional accuracy study with statistical analysis. Slow capillary refill, decrease in ventilation, peripheral vasoconstriction, and insufficient weight gain were the defining characteristics with the highest specificity values, while slow gastric emptying, skin cool to touch, irritability, and bradycardia were the defining characteristics with the highest values for both sensitivity and specificity. Slow gastric emptying, skin cool to touch, irritability, and bradycardia are good clinical indicators to infer initial stages of hypothermia and to confirm its presence. Accuracy measures may contribute to the improvement of the diagnostic inferential process. Analisar acurácia das características definidoras de Hipotermia em recém-nascidos e identificar a associação delas com variáveis clínicas. MÉTODO: Estudo de acurácia transversal com análise estatística. Preenchimento capilar lento, diminuição da ventilação, vasoconstrição periférica e ganho de peso insuficiente apresentaram valores altos de especificidade enquanto esvaziamento gástrico lento, pele fria, irritabilidade e bradicardia apresentaram valores elevados de sensibilidade e especificidade. CONCLUSÃO: Esvaziamento gástrico lento, pele fria, irritabilidade e bradicardia são úteis para inferir estágios iniciais de hipotermia e para confirmação diagnóstica. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA PRÁTICA DE ENFERMAGEM: Medidas de acurácia podem contribuir para o processo de inferência do diagnóstico hipotermia. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  4. Temporal and spatial dispersion of human body temperature during deep hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatz, O; Trippel, T; Lochner, A; Werner, A; Stahn, A; Steinach, M; Lenk, J; Kuppe, H; Gunga, H C

    2013-11-01

    Clinical temperature management remains challenging. Choosing the right sensor location to determine the core body temperature is a particular matter of academic and clinical debate. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of measured temperatures at different sites during surgery in deep hypothermic patients. In this prospective single-centre study, we studied 24 patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery: 12 in normothermia, 3 in mild, and 9 in deep hypothermia. Temperature recordings of a non-invasive heat flux sensor at the forehead were compared with the arterial outlet temperature of a heart-lung machine, with the temperature on a conventional vesical bladder thermistor and, for patients undergoing deep hypothermia, with oesophageal temperature. Using a linear model for sensor comparison, the arterial outlet sensor showed a difference among the other sensor positions between -0.54 and -1.12°C. The 95% confidence interval ranged between 7.06 and 8.82°C for the upper limit and -8.14 and -10.62°C for the lower limit. Because of the hysteretic shape, the curves were divided into phases and fitted into a non-linear model according to time and placement of the sensors. During cooling and warming phases, a quadratic relationship could be observed among arterial, oesophageal, vesical, and cranial temperature recordings, with coefficients of determination ranging between 0.95 and 0.98 (standard errors of the estimate 0.69-1.12°C). We suggest that measured surrogate temperatures as indices of the cerebral temperature (e.g. vesical bladder temperature) should be interpreted with respect to the temporal and spatial dispersion during cooling and rewarming phases.

  5. Mechanism of avoiding little rip

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAI Xianghua; XI Ping

    2014-01-01

    The scalar phantom field Φ leads to various catastrophic fates of the universe including big rip,little rip and other future singularity depending on the choice of its potential.For example,little rip stems from a quadratic potential in general relativity.We suggest a new mechanism to avoid little rip in the 1/R gravity.The phantom field with different potentials,including quadratic,cubic and quantic potentials are studied via numerical calculation in the 1/R gravity with R2 correction.T...

  6. Safety and efficacy of topiramate in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia (NeoNATI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite progresses in neonatal care, the mortality and the incidence of neuro-motor disability after perinatal asphyxia have failed to show substantial improvements. In countries with a high level of perinatal care, the incidence of asphyxia responsible for moderate or severe encephalopathy is still 2–3 per 1000 term newborns. Recent trials have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia, started within 6 hours after birth and protracted for 72 hours, can significantly improve survival and reduce neurologic impairment in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is not currently known whether neuroprotective drugs can further improve the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Topiramate has been proven to reduce brain injury in animal models of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, the association of mild hypothermia and topiramate treatment has never been studied in human newborns. The objective of this research project is to evaluate, through a multicenter randomized controlled trial, whether the efficacy of moderate hypothermia can be increased by concomitant topiramate treatment. Methods/Design Term newborns (gestational age ≥ 36 weeks and birth weight ≥ 1800 g) with precocious metabolic, clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy will be randomized, according to their EEG pattern, to receive topiramate added to standard treatment with moderate hypothermia or standard treatment alone. Topiramate will be administered at 10 mg/kg once a day for the first 3 days of life. Topiramate concentrations will be measured on serial dried blood spots. 64 participants will be recruited in the study. To evaluate the safety of topiramate administration, cardiac and respiratory parameters will be continuously monitored. Blood samplings will be performed to check renal, liver and metabolic balance. To evaluate the efficacy of topiramate, the neurologic outcome of enrolled newborns will be evaluated by serial

  7. Safety and efficacy of topiramate in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia (NeoNATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippi Luca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite progresses in neonatal care, the mortality and the incidence of neuro-motor disability after perinatal asphyxia have failed to show substantial improvements. In countries with a high level of perinatal care, the incidence of asphyxia responsible for moderate or severe encephalopathy is still 2–3 per 1000 term newborns. Recent trials have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia, started within 6 hours after birth and protracted for 72 hours, can significantly improve survival and reduce neurologic impairment in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is not currently known whether neuroprotective drugs can further improve the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Topiramate has been proven to reduce brain injury in animal models of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, the association of mild hypothermia and topiramate treatment has never been studied in human newborns. The objective of this research project is to evaluate, through a multicenter randomized controlled trial, whether the efficacy of moderate hypothermia can be increased by concomitant topiramate treatment. Methods/Design Term newborns (gestational age ≥ 36 weeks and birth weight ≥ 1800 g with precocious metabolic, clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy will be randomized, according to their EEG pattern, to receive topiramate added to standard treatment with moderate hypothermia or standard treatment alone. Topiramate will be administered at 10 mg/kg once a day for the first 3 days of life. Topiramate concentrations will be measured on serial dried blood spots. 64 participants will be recruited in the study. To evaluate the safety of topiramate administration, cardiac and respiratory parameters will be continuously monitored. Blood samplings will be performed to check renal, liver and metabolic balance. To evaluate the efficacy of topiramate, the neurologic outcome of enrolled newborns

  8. Avoidance response of Enchytraeus albidus in relation to carbendazim ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobeticova, Klara; Hofman, Jakub; Holoubek, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, avoidance response of Enchytraeus albidus to LUFA 2.2 soil contaminated with pesticide carbendazim was investigated. The aim was to clarify minimal test duration and temporal changes in avoidance response due to contamination ageing. Firstly, the concentration causing 50% avoidance (EC 50 ) was determined as 7.6 mg/kg. Then, test duration needed to reach this value (ET 50 = approximately 18 h) was identified. Finally, the capability of E. albidus avoidance test to reflect the changes of pollutant bioavailability was tested. The soil was spiked with carbendazim at the EC 50 concentration 1, 14, or 28 days before the test started and avoidance effects of fresh versus aged contamination were compared. The results indicated that enchytraeids preferred soil contaminated for 28 days prior to assay where carbendazim was probably less bioavailable than in freshly spiked soil. Our results open an interesting research area of potential use of avoidance tests for contaminant bioavailability assessment. - The results of this study show that avoidance response of Enchytraeus albidus might identify changes of contaminant bioavailability

  9. Mild hypothermia attenuates changes in respiratory system mechanics and modifies cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.

  10. Cold Shock Induced Protein RBM3 but Not Mild Hypothermia Protects Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells From MPP+-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jie Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The cold shock protein RBM3 can mediate mild hypothermia-related protection in neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unclear whether RBM3 and mild hypothermia provide same protection in model of Parkinson's disease (PD, the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. In this study, human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells subjected to insult by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ served as an in-vitro model of PD. Mild hypothermia (32°C aggravated MPP+-induced apoptosis, which was boosted when RBM3 was silenced by siRNA. In contrast, overexpression of RBM3 significantly reduced this apoptosis. MPP+ treatment downregulated the expression of RBM3 both endogenously and exogenously and suppressed its induction by mild hypothermia (32°C. In conclusion, our data suggest that cold shock protein RBM3 provides neuroprotection in a cell model of PD, suggesting that RBM3 induction may be a suitable strategy for PD therapy. However, mild hypothermia exacerbates MPP+-induced apoptosis even that RBM3 could be synthesized during mild hypothermia.

  11. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the "severity continuum hypothesis", in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment.

  12. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. PMID:29563846

  13. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....

  14. Relationships between cerebral autoregulation and markers of kidney and liver injury in neonatal encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J K; Perin, J; Parkinson, C; O'Connor, M; Gilmore, M M; Reyes, M; Armstrong, J; Jennings, J M; Northington, F J; Chavez-Valdez, R

    2017-08-01

    We studied whether cerebral blood pressure autoregulation and kidney and liver injuries are associated in neonatal encephalopathy (NE). We monitored autoregulation of 75 newborns who received hypothermia for NE in the neonatal intensive care unit to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulation (MAP OPT ). Autoregulation parameters and creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were analyzed using adjusted regression models. Greater time with blood pressure within MAP OPT during hypothermia was associated with lower creatinine in girls. Blood pressure below MAP OPT related to higher ALT and AST during normothermia in all neonates and boys. The opposite occurred in rewarming when more time with blood pressure above MAP OPT related to higher AST. Blood pressures that optimize cerebral autoregulation may support the kidneys. Blood pressures below MAP OPT and liver injury during normothermia are associated. The relationship between MAP OPT and AST during rewarming requires further study.

  15. Case Report: A Case of Severe Cerebral Malaria Managed with Therapeutic Hypothermia and Other Modalities for Brain Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, AbdAllah; Ali, Sajjad; Zahoor, Talal; Azarov, Nick

    2018-04-01

    Malarial infections are uncommon in the United States and almost all reported cases stem from recent travelers coming from endemic countries. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe form of the disease usually affecting children and individuals with limited immunity. Despite proper management, mortality from CM can reach up to 25%, especially when it is associated with brain edema. Inefficient management of the edema may result in brain herniation and death. Uniform guidelines for management of CM-associated brain edema are lacking. In this report, we present a case of CM with associated severe brain edema that was successfully managed using a unique combination of therapeutic hypothermia, hypertonic saline, mannitol, and hyperventilation along with the antimalarial drugs quinidine and doxycycline. Our use of hypothermia was based on its proven benefit for improving neurological outcomes in post-cardiac arrest patients and previous in vitro research, suggesting its potential inhibitory role on malaria growth.

  16. Collision avoidance in robotic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized approach to the problem of collision avoidance in robotic environments is presented. This approach transforms the three dimensional but dynamic real-world changing geometric space of the robot in its environment into a multidimensional but static space such that any possible geometric arrangement of the robotic space becomes a point in hyperspace. Major advantages of this approach include clarification of and potential solution to the basic problem of finding optimized, collision free movements from an initial to a final configuration. A major disadvantage of the approach is related to computational and data storage problems. However these latter are technically solvable while the clarification of the control and guidance problem gained through the transformational approach and its general elucidation power remain prime conceptual tools for the problem of robot design and operation

  17. Raised Plasma Neurofilament Light Protein Levels Are Associated with Abnormal MRI Outcomes in Newborns Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyen K. Shah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims and hypothesisHypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE remains an important cause of death and disability in newborns. Mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH is safe and effective; however, there are no tissue biomarkers available at the bedside to select babies for treatment. The aim of this study was to show that it is feasible to study plasma neurofilament light (NfL levels from newborns and to evaluate their temporal course. Hypothesis: Raised plasma NFL protein levels from newborns who undergo TH after HIE are associated with abnormal MRI outcomes.MethodsBetween February 2014 and January 2016, term newborns with HIE treated with TH for 72 h had plasma samples taken at three time points: (i after the infant had reached target temperature, (ii prior to commencing rewarming, and (iii after completing rewarming. Infants with mild HIE who did not receive TH had a single specimen taken. NfL protein was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.ResultsTwenty-six newborns with moderate–severe HIE treated with TH were studied. Half of these had cerebral MRI predictive of an unfavorable outcome. Plasma NfL levels were significantly higher in the TH group with unfavorable outcome (median age 18 h compared to levels from both the mild HIE group and TH group with favorable outcome (F = 25.83, p < 0.0001. Newborns who had MRIs predictive of unfavorable outcome had significantly higher NfL levels compared to those with favorable outcomes, at all three time points (mixed models, F = 27.63, p < 0.001. A cutoff NfL level >29 pg/mL at 24 h is predictive of an unfavorable outcome [sensitivity 77%, specificity 69%, positive predictive value (PPV 67%, negative predictive value (NPV 72%] with increasing predictive value until after rewarming (sensitivity 92%, specificity 92%, PPV 92%, NPV 86%.Interpretation of researchPlasma NfL protein levels may be a useful biomarker of unfavorable MRI outcomes in newborns with moderate

  18. Hypothermia and near-drowning associated with life-threatening injuries: A remarkable recovery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Cachalia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A young male suffered multiple severe injuries after a fall and near-drowning. On presentation to the emergency department (ED, he was in a critical and unstable condition and his chances of survival were deemed very low. This case illustrates the management of the hypothermic multi-trauma patient and the remarkable recovery made possible by a high standard of care. Keywords: Polytrauma, Shock, Hypothermia, Coagulopathy, Trauma care

  19. The accuracy of PiCCO® in measuring cardiac output in patients under therapeutic hypothermia: Comparison with transthoracic echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto Moura, T; Aguiar Rosa, S; Germano, N; Cavaco, R; Sequeira, T; Alves, M; Papoila, A L; Bento, L

    2018-03-01

    Invasive cardiac monitoring using thermodilution methods such as PiCCO® is widely used in critically ill patients and provides a wide range of hemodynamic variables, including cardiac output (CO). However, in post-cardiac arrest patients subjected to therapeutic hypothermia, the low body temperature possibly could interfere with the technique. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (ECHO) has long proved its accuracy in estimating CO, and is not influenced by temperature changes. To assess the accuracy of PiCCO® in measuring CO in patients under therapeutic hypothermia, compared with ECHO. Thirty paired COECHO/COPiCCO measurements were analyzed in 15 patients subjected to hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Eighteen paired measurements were obtained at under 36°C and 12 at ≥36°C. A value of 0.5l/min was considered the maximum accepted difference between the COECHO and COPiCCO values. Under conditions of normothermia (≥36°C), the mean difference between COECHO and COPiCCO was 0.030 l/min, with limits of agreement (-0.22, 0.28) - all of the measurements differing by less than 0.5 l/min. In situations of hypothermia (<36°C), the mean difference in CO measurements was -0.426 l/min, with limits of agreement (-1.60, 0.75), and only 44% (8/18) of the paired measurements fell within the interval (-0.5, 0.5). The calculated temperature cut-off point maximizing specificity was 35.95°C: above this temperature, specificity was 100%, with a false-positive rate of 0%. The results clearly show clinically relevant discordance between COECHO and COPiCCO at temperatures of <36°C, demonstrating the inaccuracy of PiCCO® for cardiac output measurements in hypothermic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Temperature variability in the day-night cycle is associated with further intracranial pressure during therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Adriano Barreto; Annen, Eva; Boss, Oliver; Farokhzad, Faraneh; Sikorski, Christopher; Keller, Emanuela

    2017-08-03

    To assess whether circadian patterns of temperature correlate with further values of intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe brain injury treated with hypothermia. We retrospectively analyzed temperature values in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients treated with hypothermia by endovascular cooling. The circadian patterns of temperature were correlated with the mean ICP across the following day (ICP 24 ). We analyzed data from 17 days of monitoring of three subarachnoid hemorrhage patients that underwent aneurysm coiling, sedation and hypothermia due to refractory intracranial hypertension and/or cerebral vasospasm. ICP 24 ranged from 11.5 ± 3.1 to 24.2 ± 6.2 mmHg. The ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal period (18:00-6:00) and the preceding diurnal period (6:00-18:00) [temperature variability (TV)] ranged from 0.274 to 1.97. Regression analysis showed that TV correlated with ICP 24 (Pearson correlation = -0.861, adjusted R square = 0.725, p TV) mmHg or, for 80% prediction interval, [Formula: see text] mmHg. The results indicate that the occurrence of ICP 24 higher than 20 mmHg is unlikely after a day with TV ≥1.0. TV correlates with further ICP during hypothermia regardless the strict range that temperature is maintained. Further studies with larger series could clarify whether intracranial hypertension in severe brain injury can be predicted by analysis of oscillation patterns of autonomic parameters across a period of 24 h or its harmonics.

  1. Basal ganglia perfusion using dynamic color Doppler sonography in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy receiving therapeutic hypothermia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faingold, Ricardo; Cassia, Guilherme; Morneault, Linda; Saint-Martin, Christine; Sant'Anna, Guilherme

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cerebral perfusion of the basal ganglia in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) receiving hypothermia using dynamic color Doppler sonography (CDS) and investigate for any correlation between these measurements and survival. Head ultrasound (HUS) was performed with a 9S4 MHz sector transducer in HIE infants submitted to hypothermia as part of their routine care. Measurements of cerebral perfusion intensity (CPI) with an 11LW4 MHz linear array transducer were performed to obtain static images and DICOM color Doppler videos of the blood flow in the basal ganglia area. Clinical and radiological data were evaluated retrospectively. The video images were analyzed by two radiologists using dedicated software, which allows automatic quantification of color Doppler data from a region of interest (ROI) by dynamically assessing color pixels and flow velocity during the heart cycle. CPI is expressed in cm/sec and is calculated by multiplying the mean velocity of all pixels divided by the area of the ROI. Three videos of 3 seconds each were obtained of the ROI, in the coronal plane, and used to calculate the CPI. Data are presented as mean ± SEM or median (quartiles). A total of 28 infants were included in this study: 16 male, 12 female. HUS was performed within the first 48 hours of therapeutic hypothermia treatment. CPI values were significantly higher in the seven non-survivors when compared to survivors (0.226±0.221 vs . 0.111±0.082 cm/sec; P=0.02). Increased perfusion intensity of the basal ganglia area within the first 48 of therapeutic hypothermia treatment was associated with poor outcome in neonates with HIE.

  2. Effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong; LI Ai-lin; ZHI Da-shi; HUANG Hui-ling

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) using clinical microdialysis.Methods: Thirty-one patients with STBI ( GCS ≤8) were randomly divided into hypothermic group (Group A) and control group (Group B). Microdialysis catheters were inserted into the cerebral cortex of perilesional and normal brain tissue. All samples were analyzed using CMA microdialysis analyzer.Results: In comparison with the control group, lactate/glucose ratio ( L/G) , lactate/pyruvate ratio ( L/P) and glycerol (Gly) in perilensional tissue were significantly decreased; L/P in normal brain tissue was significantly decreased. In control group, L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue were higher than that in normal brain tissue. In the hypothermic group, L/P in perilensional tissue was higher than that in relative normal brain.Conclusions: Mild hypothermia protects brain tissues by decreasing L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue and L/P in "normal brain" tissues. The energy crisis and membrane phospholipid degradation in perilensional tissue are easier to happen after traumatic brain injury, and mild hypothermia protects brain better in perilensional tissue than in normal brain tissue.

  3. The Effectiveness of Local Hypothermia and Peritoneal Lavage-Dialysis in the Treatment of Patients with Acute Destructive Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniamin I. Shaposhnikov, PhD, ScD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the principles of the pathogenetic therapy of acute pancreatitis and assess the effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas, as well as peritoneal lavage-dialysis in the treatment of acute destructive pancreatitis. A total of 5889 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP were examined. The leading role played by the lesions of the pancreatic lymphatic system in the development of destructive processes was noted. In experiments done on eight dogs, the first day of experimental acute pancreatitis showed necrosis of the lumbar retroperitoneal lymph nodes with a violation of lymph drainage from the pancreas before the retroperitoneal fat necrosis was initiated. The effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas was experimentally demonstrated. In 32 patients with AP, the perioperative local hypothermia of the pancreas for 20-25 minutes was followed by the reduction of the alpha-amylase activity in the peripheral blood and in the portal system, as well as a significant reduction in the edema of the pancreas, that delayed the progression of the destructive lesions. An effective method of performing lavage-dialysis of the omental bursa, by using a transversely perforated tube with a pollution control device in the lumen, was developed.

  4. Secondary Physical Education Avoidance and Gender: Problems and Antidotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas; Poirier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to locate and evaluate the barriers that impact and cause females to avoid secondary elective physical education courses. We sought to find answers to stop the further decline of female enrolment in secondary physical education by looking into curricula, program and instructional variables. Anecdotal evidence informed this study which…

  5. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  6. The Global Attack on Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Franck, Gustav Grønborg; Runchel, Daniel Theis; Mac, Martin Tuannhien; Ahmed, Jahanzeeb; Bang, Lars Seneca

    2015-01-01

    The issue of tax avoidance has been subject for recommended regulations by the G20 countries in collaboration with OECD. We examine the usefulness of market failure theory to explain the economic and political issues of tax avoidance. We test our hypothesis using theory through a deductive approach incorporating content analysis to find convergence(s) between tax avoidance methods identified and the efforts of the G20 BEPS action plan to respond to those methods. The issue of tax avoidance...

  7. Tax Avoidance, Welfare Transfers, and Asset Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Gorea

    2013-01-01

    Does tax avoidance have any implications for financial markets? This paper quantifies the general equilibrium implications of tax avoidance by setting up an incomplete markets production economy model in which households pay capital gains taxes and have access to tax avoidance technologies provided by financial institutions. I find that changes in the level of tax avoidance have disproportionate effects on different groups of agents and generally benefit the old, wealthy and high income house...

  8. Electrocardiographic changes during induced therapeutic hypothermia in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo; Salinas; Esteban; Lopez-de-Sa; Laura; Pena-Conde; Ana; Viana-Tejedor; Juan; Ramon; Rey-Blas; Eduardo; Armada; Jose; Luis; Lopez-Sendon

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety of therapeutic hypothermia(TH) concerning arrhythmias we analyzed serial electrocardiograms(ECG) during TH.METHODS: All patients recovered from a cardiac arrest with Glasgow < 9 at admission were treated with induced mild TH to 32-34℃. TH was obtained with cool fluid infusion or a specific intravascular device. Twelvelead ECG before,during,and after TH,as well as ECG telemetry data was recorded in all patients. From a total of 54 patients admitted with cardiac arrest during the study period,47 patients had the 3 ECG and telemetry data available. ECG analysis was blinded and performed with manual caliper by two independent cardiologists from blinded copies of original ECG,recorded at 25 mm/s and 10 mm/m V. Coronary care unit staff analyzed ECG telemetry for rhythm disturbances. Variables measured in ECG were rhythm,RR,PR,QT and corrected QT(QTc by Bazett formula,measured in lead v2) intervals,QRS duration,presence of Osborn’s J wave and U wave,as well as ST segment displacement and T wave amplitude in leads Ⅱ,v2 and v5.RESULTS: Heart rate went down an average of 19 bpm during hypothermia and increased again 16 bpm with rewarming(P < 0.0005,both). There was a nonsignificant prolongation of the PR interval during TH and a significant decrease with rewarming(P = 0.041). QRS duration significantly prolonged(P = 0.041) with TH and shortened back(P < 0.005) with rewarming. QTc interval presented a mean prolongation of 58 ms(P < 0.005) during TH and a significant shortening with rewarming of 22.2 ms(P = 0.017). Osborn or J wave was found in 21.3% of the patients. New arrhythmias occurred in 38.3% of the patients. Most frequent arrhythmia was non-sustained ventricular tachycardia(19.1%),followed by severe bradycardia or paced rhythm(10.6%),accelerated nodal rhythm(8.5%) and atrial fibrillation(6.4%). No life threatening arrhythmias(sustained ventricular tachycardia,polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation) occurred

  9. Conflict Avoidance in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Allan E.; Wood, Lorinda

    2005-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores patterns of conflict avoidance among university students, professors, administrators and staff. Analysis of their narratives of conflict avoidance suggests that avoidance can be beneficial in some circumstances, depending upon personality issues, cost?benefit analysis, power imbalance, type of work, length of…

  10. Avoiding foot complications in diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preceded by a foot ulcer.1,2 Every 30 seconds a lower limb or part of a lower limb is ... of foot ulcers are peripheral neuropathy, deformity, peripheral vascular disease and ... Repetitive stresses cause hyperkeratosis, followed by subcutaneous ...

  11. Population avoidance in aimpoint selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    In most past studies of the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons vs the amount of collateral damage produced (civilian casualties), civilians have been congregated into idealized shaped towns and cities, and criteria for city avoidance were usually formulated in terms relating to a town's population. This treatment was sufficient in those studies where weapon yields were so large that great numbers of civilians were almost always placed at risk. As further studies developed, demonstrating that real progress could be made in reducing the numbers of civilians potentially placed at risk in tactical nuclear warfare situations, the inadequacies of the present treatment became obvious. The need existed for a more detailed description of the distribution of civilians. The method described determines the number of civilians at risk for a weapon under consideration being detonated at a given point and displays a symbol relating to the numbers at risk on a map or a transparency that overlays a 1:50,000 map of the region. Thus, a weapons planner making the selection of aimpoints for inflicting the necessary military damage required has the means to reduce potential civilian casualties by properly choosing the weapon and aimpoints

  12. High-dose amrinone is required to accelerate rewarming from deliberate mild intraoperative hypothermia for neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Satoki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kitaguchi, Katsuyasu; Furuya, Hitoshi; Sakaki, Toshisuke

    2002-07-01

    Since the time available to provide the cooling and rewarming is limited during deliberate mild hypothermia, the technique to accelerate the cooling and rewarming rate of core temperature has been studied. Amrinone has been reported to accelerate the cooling rate but not the rewarming rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia. The failure of amrinone effect on the rewarming rate might be due to an insufficient dose of amrinone during hypothermic conditions. The authors therefore tested whether higher doses of amrinone can accelerate the rewarming rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgery. After institutional approval and informed consent, 30 patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Patients in the control group (n = 10) did not receive amrinone; patients in the AMR 15 group (n = 10) received 15 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) amrinone with a 1.0-mg/kg loading dose of amrinone at the beginning of cooling; and patients in the ReAMR group (n = 10) received 5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) amrinone with 1.0-mg/kg loading and reloading doses of amrinone at the beginning of cooling and rewarming, respectively. Administration of amrinone was started just after the induction of cooling and continued until the end of anesthesia. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide in oxygen, propofol, and fentanyl. After induction of anesthesia, patients were cooled, and tympanic membrane temperature was maintained at 34.5 degrees C. After completion of the main surgical procedures, patients were actively rewarmed and extubated in the operating room. The cooling and rewarming rates of core temperature were both significantly faster in both amrinone groups than in the control group. During the cooling and rewarming periods, forearm minus fingertip temperature gradient was significantly smaller in both amrinone groups than in the control group. During the rewarming period, heart rate and mean arterial pressure in the AMR 15

  13. Technical Note: System for evaluating local hypothermia as a radioprotector of the rectum in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycushko, Brian A; Bing, Chenchen; Futch, Cecil; Wodzak, Michelle; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Medin, Paul M; Chopra, Rajiv

    2017-08-01

    The protective effects of induced or even accidental hypothermia on the human body are widespread with several medical uses currently under active research. In vitro experiments using human cell lines have shown hypothermia provides a radioprotective effect that becomes more pronounced at large, single-fraction doses common to stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments. This work describes the development of a system to evaluate local hypothermia for a radioprotective effect of the rat rectum during a large dose of radiation relevant to prostate SBRT. This includes the evaluation of a 3D-printed small animal rectal cooling device and the integration with a small animal irradiator. A 3-cm long, dual-lumen rectal temperature control apparatus (RTCA) was designed in SOLIDWORKS CAD for 3D printing. The RTCA was capable of recirculating flow in a device small enough for insertion into the rat rectum, with a metal support rod for strength as well as visibility during radiation treatment planning. The outer walls of the RTCA comprised of thin heat shrink plastic, achieving efficient heat transfer into adjacent tissues. Following leak-proof testing, fiber optic temperature probes were used to evaluate the temperature over time when placed adjacent to the cooling device within the rat rectum. MRI thermometry characterized the relative temperature distribution in concentric ROIs surrounding the probe. Integration with an image-guided small animal irradiator and associated treatment planning system included evaluation for imaging artifacts and effect of brass tubing on dose calculation. The rectal temperature adjacent to the cooling device decreased from body temperature to 15°C within 10-20 min from device insertion and was maintained at 15 ± 3°C during active cooling for the evaluated time of one hour. MR thermometry revealed a steep temperature gradient with increasing distance from the cooling device with the desired

  14. Earthworm avoidance of silver nanomaterials over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Amorim, Mónica J B; Jensen, John

    2018-01-01

    Avoidance behaviour offers a highly relevant information as it reveals the ability to avoid (or not) possible toxic compounds in the field, hence it provides information on reasons for the presence/absence in the field. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was used to study avoidance behaviour to four si...... exposure durations and showed a continuous higher avoidance with time (based on EC50 values). The AgNMs avoidance was in the order NM300Ksoil solution fraction that correlated with EC50 across materials....

  15. The San values of conflict prevention and avoidance in Platfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mollema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify measures that can prevent violent conflict through the maintenance of traditional cultural values that guide conflict avoidance. Moreover, the article focuses on the concepts of conflict prevention and conflict avoidance as applied by the San community of Platfontein. The causes of the inter-communal tensions between the San community members are also examined. A selected conflict situation, that of superstition and witchcraft, is assessed as factors increasing interpersonal conflict in the Platfontein community. This investigation is made to determine if the San preventive measures have an impact in the community, so as to prevent ongoing conflicts from escalating further.

  16. A Survey of Accidental Hypothermia Knowledge among Navy Members in China and the Implications for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Accidental hypothermia (AH is a potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to significant morbidity and life-long effects. Navy personnel are always at a greater risk of AH due to frequent outdoor work, wilderness exposure, prolonged immobility and exhaustion. The purpose of the survey was to assess Chinese Navy members’ awareness of AH and to make recommendations with regard to better measures for improving it. Methods: 111 Navy members completed a written questionnaire that was subsequently analyzed. Results: 30.6% of the respondents have experienced AH and 64.9% rated their knowledge of AH as “low” or “none”. Over half of them identified the initial symptom of AH as obvious shivering (69.4% and apathy (45.0%. As for the aggravate symptoms, 60.9% chose the wrong answer of more obvious shivering instead of the right one—absence of shivering (5.4%. In the case of the treatment of mild AH, more than half of the respondents chose the wrong answers. Conclusions: This study suggests that the basic skills of recognition and treatment of AH are inadequate in the Chinese Navy. Further work is required to develop a systematical, comprehensive and corresponding education method that would promote correct actions during AH.

  17. Main Complications of Mild Induced Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimanpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to assess the complications of mild induced hypothermia (MIH in patients with cardiac arrest. Presently, based on the guidelines of the American heart Association, MIH following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in unconscious adult patients due to ventricular fibrillation (VF with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA is essential and required. However, MIH could be associated with complications in Patients with cardiac arrest. Studies conducted on the precautions and care following cardiac arrest and MIH were included. Valid scientific data bases were used for data collection. The obtained results from different studies revealed that mild MIH could be associated with numerous complications and the knowledge and awareness of the medical staff from the complications is required to guarantee successful therapeutic approaches in MIH following cardiac arrest which is a novel medical facility with different styles and complications. Overall, further future studies are required to improve the quality of MIH, to increase survival and to decrease complications rates.

  18. Warming intravenous fluids reduces perioperative hypothermia in women undergoing ambulatory gynecological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C E; Gerdes, E; Sweda, S; Myles, C; Punjabi, A; Pinchak, A C; Hagen, J F

    1998-07-01

    We evaluated whether warming i.v. fluids resulted in less hypothermia (core temperature 30 min were randomized to two groups: fluid warming at 42 degrees C or control (room temperature fluids at approximately 21 degrees C). All patients received general anesthesia with isoflurane, tracheal intubation, standard operating room blankets and surgical drapes, and passive humidification of inspired gases. Tympanic membrane (core) temperatures were measured at baseline and at 15-min intervals after induction. The incidence of shivering and postoperative requirement for meperidine and/or radiant heat were evaluated. Core temperatures were lower in the control compared with the warm fluid group at the end of surgery (35.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C vs 36.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P unit or the incidence of shivering between the groups. We conclude that fluid warming, in conjunction with standard heat conservation measures, was effective in maintaining normothermia during outpatient gynecological surgery; however, there was no improvement in patient outcome. Women who received i.v. fluid at body temperature had significantly higher core temperatures during and after outpatient gynecological surgery compared with women who received i.v. fluids at the temperature of the operating room.

  19. Effect of hypothermia on the insulin-receptor interaction in skeletal muscle plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torlinska T, Mackowiak P.; Nogowski L, Kozlik J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of hypothermia on (125-I)-insulin binding to rat skeletal muscle membranes and to determine whether the decrease in blood insulin concentration could be related to changes in the number or in the affinity of insulin receptor sites according to the down-regulation theory. Rat skeletal muscle membranes were prepared from control, normothermic rats (Tr = 35.6 ± 0.3 degree C) and hypothermic rats (Tr = 26.0 ± 0.5 deg C) and purified according to Havrankowa. In order to determine the kinetic parameters of the hormone-receptor interaction the data from the competition binding studies were analysed by the method of Scatchard using the LIGAND Pc.v.3.1. computer program of Munson and Rodbard. We have shown that under hypothermic conditions insulin receptors number is significantly increased in specific hindlimb skeletal muscles but the changes take place mainly in the low affinity receptors class. The phenomenon probably results from the lack of spare high affinity insulin receptors in skeletal muscle as shown recently by Camps et al. (author). 36 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  20. A randomized clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia mode during transport for neonatal encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akula, Vishnu Priya; Joe, Priscilla; Thusu, Kajori; Davis, Alexis S; Tamaresis, John S; Kim, Sunhwa; Shimotake, Thomas K; Butler, Stephen; Honold, Jose; Kuzniewicz, Michael; DeSandre, Glenn; Bennett, Mihoko; Gould, Jeffrey; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Van Meurs, Krisa

    2015-04-01

    To determine if temperature regulation is improved during neonatal transport using a servo-regulated cooling device when compared with standard practice. We performed a multicenter, randomized, nonmasked clinical trial in newborns with neonatal encephalopathy cooled during transport to 9 neonatal intensive care units in California. Newborns who met institutional criteria for therapeutic hypothermia were randomly assigned to receive cooling according to usual center practices vs device servo-regulated cooling. The primary outcome was the percentage of temperatures in target range (33°-34°C) during transport. Secondary outcomes included percentage of newborns reaching target temperature any time during transport, time to target temperature, and percentage of newborns in target range 1 hour after cooling initiation. One hundred newborns were enrolled: 49 to control arm and 51 to device arm. Baseline demographics did not differ with the exception of cord pH. For each subject, the percentage of temperatures in the target range was calculated. Infants cooled using the device had a higher percentage of temperatures in target range compared with control infants (median 73% [IQR 17-88] vs 0% [IQR 0-52], P newborns with neonatal encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rewarming affects EEG background in term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birca, Ala; Lortie, Anne; Birca, Veronica; Decarie, Jean-Claude; Veilleux, Annie; Gallagher, Anne; Dehaes, Mathieu; Lodygensky, Gregory A; Carmant, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    To investigate how rewarming impacts the evolution of EEG background in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We recruited a retrospective cohort of 15 consecutive newborns with moderate (9) and severe (6) HIE monitored with a continuous EEG during TH and at least 12h after its end. EEG background was analyzed using conventional visual and quantitative EEG analysis methods including EEG discontinuity, absolute and relative spectral magnitudes. One patient with seizures on rewarming was excluded from analyses. Visual and quantitative analyses demonstrated significant changes in EEG background from pre- to post-rewarming, characterized by an increased EEG discontinuity, more pronounced in newborns with severe compared to moderate HIE. Neonates with moderate HIE also had an increase in the relative magnitude of slower delta and a decrease in higher frequency theta and alpha waves with rewarming. Rewarming affects EEG background in HIE newborns undergoing TH, which may represent a transient adaptive response or reflect an evolving brain injury. EEG background impairment induced by rewarming may represent a biomarker of evolving encephalopathy in HIE newborns undergoing TH and underscores the importance of continuously monitoring the brain health in critically ill neonates. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of profound hypothermia on pancreas ischemic injury: a new experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Ferro, Oscar Cavalcante; Pantanali, Carlos Andrés; Seixas, Marcel Povlovistsch; Pecora, Rafael Antonio Arruda; Pinheiro, Rafael Soares; Claro, Laura Carolina López; Abdo, Emílio Elias; Chaib, Eleazar; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) has a key role in pancreas surgery and transplantation. Most experimental models evaluate the normothermic phase of the IR. We proposed a hypothermic model of pancreas IR to evaluate the benefic effects of the cold ischemic phase. We performed a reproducible model of hypothermic pancreatic IR. The ischemia was induced in the pancreatic tail portion (1-hour ischemia, 4-hour reperfusion) in 36 Wistar rats. They are divided in 3 groups as follows: group 1 (control), sham; group 2, normothermic IR; and group 3, hypothermic IR. In group 3, the temperature was maintained as close to 4.5°C. After reperfusion, serum amylase and lipase levels, inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6), and pancreas histology were evaluated. In pancreatic IR groups, amylase, cytokines, and histological damage were significantly increased when compared with group 1. In the group 3, we observed a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.004) and interleukin 6 (P = 0.001) when compared with group 2. We did not observe significant difference in amylase (P = 0.867), lipase (P = 0.993), and histology (P = 0.201). In our experimental model, we reproduced the cold phase of pancreas IR, and the pancreas hypothermia reduced the inflammatory mediators after reperfusion.

  3. Implementation of therapeutic hypothermia guidelines for post-cardiac arrest syndrome at a glacial pace: seeking guidance from the knowledge translation literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven C; Morrison, Laurie J

    2008-06-01

    The 2005 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations document represents the most extensive and rigorous systematic review of the resuscitation literature to date and included evidence-based recommendations for post-resuscitation care. A new recommendation for the induction of mild therapeutic hypothermia for comatose cardiac arrest survivors was included in this document. Accordingly, constituent national member associations of ILCOR, including the American Heart Association, incorporated the recommendation for therapeutic hypothermia into their respective guidelines. Despite these endorsements there is a concern that therapeutic hypothermia is not being used in practice. Data from a number of surveys in Europe and the United States suggest that rates of use among physicians may be as low as 30-40%. Despite the cost and effort associated with the production of these guidelines and the potential impact on patient care, current efforts in implementing the guideline have not achieved widespread success. This commentary explores the issue of underutilization of the American Heart Association guidelines for therapeutic hypothermia and looks to the knowledge translation literature to inform a new approach to implementation. We will review the underlying phenomenon of research implementation into practice, specific barriers to guideline implementation and interventions that may improve therapeutic hypothermia uptake.

  4. Evolution of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Fractional Anisotropy in the Cerebrum of Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia over the First Month of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the evolution of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI over the first month of life in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia and to compare it with that of healthy newborns. Asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were enrolled prospectively; and the presence and extent of brain injury were scored on each MRI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA values were measured in the basal ganglia, in the white matter and in the cortical grey matter. Sixty-one asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia had a total of 126 ADC and FA maps. Asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury eventually had significantly decreased ADC values on days 2-3 of life and decreased FA values around day 10 and 1 month of life compared with those not developing brain injury. Despite hypothermia treatment, asphyxiated newborns may develop brain injury that still can be detected with advanced neuroimaging techniques such as DWI and DTI as early as days 2-3 of life. A study of ADC and FA values over time may aid in the understanding of how brain injury develops in these newborns despite hypothermia treatment.

  5. Effect of mild hypothermia combined with VitC and EPO therapy on target organ damage in children with neonatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yun Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of mild hypothermia combined with vitamin C (VitC and erythropoietin (EPO therapy on target organ damage in children with neonatal asphyxia. Methods: Children with neonatal asphyxia who were treated in Taihe County People’s Hospital between April 2014 and February 2017 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, mild hypothermia group received mild hypothermia combined VitC and EPO therapy, and control group received VitC and EPO therapy. Serum levels of of target organ damage markers, oxidative stress indexes and apoptosis indexes were measured before treatment as well as 3 d and 7 d after treatment. Results: 3 d and 7 d after treatment, serum NSE, H-FABP, cTnI, CysC, MDA, Caspase-3, PDCD5, sFas and sFasL levels of both groups of children were significantly lower than those before treatment while TAS, SOD, GSH and Bcl-2 levels were significantly higher than those before treatment, and serum NSE, H-FABP, cTnI, CysC, MDA, Caspase-3, PDCD5, sFas and sFasL levels of mild hypothermia group were significantly lower than those of control group while TAS, SOD, GSH and Bcl-2 levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Mild hypothermia combined with VitC and EPO therapy can reduce the target organ damage of children with neonatal asphyxia by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  6. Pandemic: how to avoid panic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Greco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami that took place on 26th December 2004 in the Indian Ocean and hurricane Katrina, that last August struck the Mexican Gulf, are two recent natural events that turned into catastrophes for mankind, causing several thousands victims. One of the reasons behind this can be traced back to the fact that useful information in the hands of scientists and experts did not reach the right people within the right time. A crushing defeat for risk communication was witnessed in these two recent events. All the more paradoxical since we live in what we like to name “the era of communication and information”.

  7. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  8. Avoidance of Ag nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the avoidance behaviour of earthworms, Eisenia fetida to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly as antibacterial agents....... The avoidance behaviour could not be explained by the release of silver ions in the soil-solution. Although, Ag-ions release (if any) may still have had an influence on behaviour. The present results suggests that the earthworms perceive the presence of actual nanoparticles in the soil. Our results suggest that...... and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworms avoided commercially fabricated silver nanoparticles in a dose and time dependent manner. The earthworms were exposed to 3 nanoparticles: NM...

  9. Aggressive re-warming at 38.5 degrees C following deep hypothermia at 21 degrees C increases neutrophil membrane bound elastase activity and pro-inflammatory factor release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Min; Zhao, Xiao-gang; He, Yi; Gu, Yan; Mei, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is often performed under hypothermic condition. The effects of hypothermia and re-warming on neutrophil activity are unclear. This study aimed to compare the effects of different hypothermia and re-warming regimens on neutrophil membrane bound elastase (MBE)

  10. Collision avoidance using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugathan, Shilpa; Sowmya Shree, B. V.; Warrier, Mithila R.; Vidhyapathi, C. M.

    2017-11-01

    Now a days, accidents on roads are caused due to the negligence of drivers and pedestrians or due to unexpected obstacles that come into the vehicle’s path. In this paper, a model (robot) is developed to assist drivers for a smooth travel without accidents. It reacts to the real time obstacles on the four critical sides of the vehicle and takes necessary action. The sensor used for detecting the obstacle was an IR proximity sensor. A single layer perceptron neural network is used to train and test all possible combinations of sensors result by using Matlab (offline). A microcontroller (ARM Cortex-M3 LPC1768) is used to control the vehicle through the output data which is received from Matlab via serial communication. Hence, the vehicle becomes capable of reacting to any combination of real time obstacles.

  11. Spaced taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    We succeeded in taste avoidance conditioning with sucrose as the conditional stimulus (CS) and an electrical stimulus (∼1000V, 80μA) as the unconditional stimulus (US). With 15 paired CS-US presentations on a single day, we were able to elicit both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) persisting for at least one week. However, while STM was elicited with 5, 8, 10, and 20 paired presentations of the CS-US on a single day, LTM was not. We found, however, that if we inserted a 3h interval between a first and a second set of CS-US pairings that both 8 and 20 paired CS-US presentations on a single day was now sufficient to cause LTM formation. Exposing snails to bryostatin before or during training enhanced LTM formation such that 8 paired presentations of the CS-US resulted in LTM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Approach-avoidance activation without anterior asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally, the expected effects of approach-avoidance motivation on anterior EEG alpha asymmetry fail to emerge, particularly in studies using affective picture stimuli. These null findings have been explained by insufficient motivational intensity of, and/or overshadowing interindividual variability within the responses to emotional pictures. These explanations were systematically tested using data from 70 students watching 5 types of affective pictures ranging from very pleasant to unpleasant. The stimulus categories reliably modulated self-reports as well as the amplitude of late positive potential, an ERP component reflecting orienting towards motivationally significant stimuli. The stimuli did not, however, induce expected asymmetry effects either for the sample or individual participants. Even while systematic stimulus-dependent individual differences emerged in self-reports as well as LPP amplitudes, the asymmetry variability was dominated by stimulus-independent interindividual variability. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest that under some circumstances anterior asymmetry may not be an inevitable consequence of core affect. Instead, state asymmetry shifts may be overpowered by stable trait asymmetry differences and/or stimulus-independent yet situation-dependent interindividual variability, possibly caused by processes such as emotion regulation or anxious apprehension.

  13. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  14. Early Recognition of Foreign Body Aspiration as the Cause of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration (FBA is uncommon in the adult population but can be a life-threatening condition. Clinical manifestations vary according to the degree of airway obstruction, and, in some cases, making the correct diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion combined with a detailed history and exam. Sudden cardiac arrest after FBA may occur secondary to asphyxiation. We present a 48-year-old male with no history of cardiac disease brought to the emergency department after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. The patient was resuscitated after 15 minutes of cardiac arrest. He was initially managed with therapeutic hypothermia (TH. Subsequent history suggested FBA as a possible etiology of the cardiac arrest, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a piece of meat and bone lodged in the left main stem bronchus. The foreign body was removed with the bronchoscope and the patient clinically improved with full neurological recovery. Therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest due to asphyxia has been reported to have high mortality and poor neurological outcomes. This case highlights the importance of early identification of FBA causing cardiac arrest, and we report a positive neurological outcome for postresuscitation therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest due to asphyxia.

  15. Mild hypothermia increases pulmonary anti-inflammatory response during protective mechanical ventilation in a piglet model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruces, Pablo; Erranz, Benjamín; Donoso, Alejandro; Carvajal, Cristóbal; Salomón, Tatiana; Torres, María Fernanda; Díaz, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The effects of mild hypothermia (HT) on acute lung injury (ALI) are unknown in species with metabolic rate similar to that of humans, receiving protective mechanical ventilation (MV). We hypothesized that mild hypothermia would attenuate pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in piglets with ALI managed with a protective MV. Acute lung injury (ALI) was induced with surfactant deactivation in 38 piglets. The animals were then ventilated with low tidal volume, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and permissive hypercapnia throughout the experiment. Subjects were randomized to HT (33.5°C) or normothermia (37°C) groups over 4 h. Plasma and tissue cytokines, tissue apoptosis, lung mechanics, pulmonary vascular permeability, hemodynamic, and coagulation were evaluated. Lung interleukin-10 concentrations were higher in subjects that underwent HT after ALI induction than in those that maintained normothermia. No difference was found in other systemic and tissue cytokines. HT did not induce lung or kidney tissue apoptosis or influence lung mechanics or markers of pulmonary vascular permeability. Heart rate, cardiac output, oxygen uptake, and delivery were significantly lower in subjects that underwent HT, but no difference in arterial lactate, central venous oxygen saturation, and coagulation test was observed. Mild hypothermia induced a local anti-inflammatory response in the lungs, without affecting lung function or coagulation, in this piglet model of ALI. The HT group had lower cardiac output without signs of global dysoxia, suggesting an adaptation to the decrease in oxygen uptake and delivery. Studies are needed to determine the therapeutic role of HT in ALI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation and limitations of 34-35 degree 3 day cooling hypothermia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaoka, Hiroyuki; Takasato, Yoshio; Hayakawa, Takanori

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, we adopted mild hypothermia of the present cooling protocol for 3 days at 34-35 degrees to improve outcomes of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of this protocol retrospectively. Between 2000 and 2008, a total of 35 patients with severe TBI, 16 to 69 years of age, were enrolled. The initial Glasgow Coma Scale scores (GCS) of all patients ranged from 3 to 13, but many patients' GCS fell down immediately to under 5. All patients had intracranial mass lesions and brain swelling with significant midline shift and underwent hematoma removal operations and craniectomies (subdural hematoma (SDH) 22 cases, contusion 6 and bilateral brain swelling 7). Mild hypothermia was induced by surface cooling and continued 3 days at 34-35degC. Then, the patients were rewarmed at a rate 0.5degC/day. The Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge indicated that 20 cases had a favorable outcome (57%) and the mortality rate was 20% in all patients. No patient had severe septic complication during the therapy. We found that this protocol did not improve the prognoses of patients aged 51 years and above, those with higher intracranial pressure (ICP) than 30 mmHg immediately after surgery and those with large contusion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) findings on CT. Also subdural hematomas thicker than 18 mm and midline shift of greater than 16 mm on CT were predictive of a poor outcome. The GCS on admission, the presence of pupillary abnormalities were not predictable factors of outcome. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) values measured immediately after operations by Xenon-CT, predicted accurately unfavorable outcome. Based on these findings, hypothermia therapy of the present protocol are safe and effective and the age, initial ICP, findings of initial damage and thickness of subdural hematomas or midline shift on CT are predictive factors of outcomes. (author)

  17. Revealing Tax Avoidance in the Family-owned Company: Ethnomethodology Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Wempi

    2016-01-01

    This paper dismantles the occurance of Tax Avoidance found in the family company in Malang. The method used in this research is etnomethodology, a method that is used to investigate indexical expressions and other practical actions as a unified settlement that is being done (the organized Tax Avoidance) and how to apprehed their everyday world. It is mentioned in the beginning that there are a number of factors which cause tax avoidance, that is a drive to "enrich" themselves faster, gluttony...

  18. Brief rewarming blunts hypothermia-induced alterations in sensation, motor drive and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brazaitis

    2016-12-01

    hypothermia-induced alterations in neural drive transmission (4.3±0.5 versus 3.4±0.8 mV H-reflex and 4.9±0.2 versus 4.4±0.4 mV V-wave, P<0.05, which increased central fatigue during a 2-min maximum load (P<0.05. Furthermore, only in brief warm water rewarming cerebral alterations were restored to the control level and it was indicated by shortened reaction times (P<0.05.Conclusions: Brief rewarming in warm water rather than the same duration rewarming in thermoneutral environment blunted the hypothermia-induced alterations for thermoregulation, sensation, motor drive and cognition, despite the fact that rectal and deep muscle temperature remained lowered.

  19. Hypothermia Modulates Cytokine Responses After Neonatal Rat Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury and Reduces Brain Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangpeng Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While hypothermia (HT is the standard-of-care for neonates with hypoxic ischemic injury (HII, the mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective effect are poorly understood. We examined ischemic core/penumbra and cytokine/chemokine evolution in a 10-day-old rat pup model of HII. Pups were treated for 24 hr after HII with HT (32℃; n = 18 or normothermia (NT, 35℃; n = 15. Outcomes included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, neurobehavioral testing, and brain cytokine/chemokine profiling (0, 24, 48, and 72 hr post-HII. Lesion volumes (24 hr were reduced in HT pups (total 74%, p < .05; penumbra 68%, p < .05; core 85%, p = .19. Lesion volumes rebounded at 72 hr (48 hr post-HT with no significant differences between NT and HT pups. HT reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β at all time points (p < .05; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 trended toward being decreased in HT pups (p = .09. The stem cell signaling molecule, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 was not altered by HT. Our data demonstrate that HT reduces total and penumbral lesion volumes (at 24 and 48 hr, potentially by decreasing IL-1β without affecting SDF-1. Disassociation between the increasing trend in HII volumes from 48 to 72 hr post-HII when IL-1β levels remained low suggests that after rewarming, mechanisms unrelated to IL-1β expression are likely to contribute to this delayed increase in injury. Additional studies should be considered to determine what these mechanisms might be and also to explore whether extending the duration or degree of HT might ameliorate this delayed increase in injury.

  20. Ontogeny of a surgical technique: Robotic kidney transplantation with regional hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; McCulloch, Peter; Dahm, Philipp; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Jeong, Wooju; Bhandari, Mahendra; Menon, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Innovation is a hallmark of surgical practice. It is generally accepted that a new procedure will undergo technical changes during its evolution; however, quantitative accounts of the process are limited. Multiple groups, including our own, have recently described a minimally-invasive approach to conventional kidney transplantation (KT) operation. Unique to our experience is a structured development of the technique within the confines of a safe surgical innovation framework - the IDEAL framework (idea, development, exploration, assessment, long-term monitoring; stages 0-4). We here provide a first-hand narrative of the progress of robotic KT operation from preclinical trial to clinical application. Overall, 54 patients underwent robotic KT with regional hypothermia successfully. Major technical changes including selection of optimal patient position (flank vs. lithotomy), robotic instrumentation, vascular occlusion method (bulldog vs. tourniquet) and suture material (prolene vs. GoreTex) occurred early during the procedure development (IDEAL stage 0, preclinical). Minor technical changes such as utilization of the aortic punch for arteriotomy (case 3), use of barbed suture during ureteroneocystostomy (case 6) and extraperitonealization of the graft kidney (case 6) that increased the efficiency and safety of the procedure continued throughout procedure development (IDEAL stages 1-2, clinical stages). We demonstrate that a surgical technique evolves continually; although, the majority of technical alterations occur early in the life-cycle of the procedure. Development of a new technique within the confines a structured surgical innovation framework allows for evidence based progression of the technique and may minimize the risk of harm to the patient. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Local Hypothermia as a Radioprotector of the Rectal Wall During Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrycushko, Brian A., E-mail: Brian.Hrycushko@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Chopra, Rajiv [Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Sayre, James W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Department of Radiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Richardson, James A. [Department of Pathology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Department of Molecular Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Folkert, Michael R.; Timmerman, Robert D.; Medin, Paul M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To compare the single-fraction dose-related incidence of rectal obstruction and/or bleeding in normothermic and hypothermic rectums of a rat model. Methods and Materials: A 1.9-cm length of rectum was irradiated with a single fraction in 57 Sprague-Dawley rats using a dedicated image-guided small animal irradiator and Monte Carlo–based treatment planning system. All rats had a rectal temperature control apparatus placed during irradiation and were stratified to achieve either a normothermic (37°C) or hypothermic (15°C) rectal wall temperature. Radiation was delivered to a 1-cm-diameter cylindrical volume about the cooling device and rectal wall. The radiation dose was escalated from 16 Gy up to 37 Gy to assess the dose response in each arm. The primary endpoint of this study was rectal obstruction and/or bleeding during a follow-up of 180 to 186 days. Histologic scoring was performed on all study rats. Results: Probit analysis showed a dose associated with a 50% incidence of rectal obstruction of 24.6 Gy and 40.8 Gy for normothermic and hypothermic arms, respectively. The occurrence of obstruction and/or bleeding correlated with the posttreatment histologic score for normothermic rats; however, there was no difference in histologic score between normothermic and hypothermic rats at the highest dose levels evaluated. Conclusions: A significant radioprotective effect was observed using local hypothermia during a single large dose of radiation for the functional endpoint of rectal obstruction and/or bleeding. A confirmatory study in a large animal model with anatomic and physiologic similarities to humans is suggested.

  2. Local Hypothermia as a Radioprotector of the Rectal Wall During Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Chopra, Rajiv; Sayre, James W.; Richardson, James A.; Folkert, Michael R.; Timmerman, Robert D.; Medin, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the single-fraction dose-related incidence of rectal obstruction and/or bleeding in normothermic and hypothermic rectums of a rat model. Methods and Materials: A 1.9-cm length of rectum was irradiated with a single fraction in 57 Sprague-Dawley rats using a dedicated image-guided small animal irradiator and Monte Carlo–based treatment planning system. All rats had a rectal temperature control apparatus placed during irradiation and were stratified to achieve either a normothermic (37°C) or hypothermic (15°C) rectal wall temperature. Radiation was delivered to a 1-cm-diameter cylindrical volume about the cooling device and rectal wall. The radiation dose was escalated from 16 Gy up to 37 Gy to assess the dose response in each arm. The primary endpoint of this study was rectal obstruction and/or bleeding during a follow-up of 180 to 186 days. Histologic scoring was performed on all study rats. Results: Probit analysis showed a dose associated with a 50% incidence of rectal obstruction of 24.6 Gy and 40.8 Gy for normothermic and hypothermic arms, respectively. The occurrence of obstruction and/or bleeding correlated with the posttreatment histologic score for normothermic rats; however, there was no difference in histologic score between normothermic and hypothermic rats at the highest dose levels evaluated. Conclusions: A significant radioprotective effect was observed using local hypothermia during a single large dose of radiation for the functional endpoint of rectal obstruction and/or bleeding. A confirmatory study in a large animal model with anatomic and physiologic similarities to humans is suggested.

  3. Fluoro jade-C staining in the assessment of brain injury after deep hypothermia circulatory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ren; Ma, Wei-Guo; Gao, Guo-Dong; Mao, Qun-Xia; Zheng, Jun; Sun, Li-Zhong; Liu, Ying-Long

    2011-02-04

    To evaluate the efficacy of Fluoro Jade-C staining (FJC) in the assessment of brain injury after deep hypothermia circulatory arrest (DHCA). Six healthy adult miniature male pigs underwent DHCA, the rectal temperature was down to 18°C, circulation was stopped , circulatory arrest was maintained for 60 minutes. On postoperative day 1, perfusion-fixation was performed on brain tissue. Cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum were taken for sampling. FJC, hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE), nissl staining (NISSL), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) were performed to detect the histological and pathological changes. Histological scores of all slices were ranked. Comparison between the FJC and other techniques was done by analysis of variance (ANOVA) according to histological scores. All animals survived the operation. On the cerebral cortex, in comparison of FJC between HE, NISSL and TUNEL, the p value was 0.90, 0.40, 0.16 respectively (p>0.05). On the hippocampus, the comparison of FJC with HE, NISSL and TUNEL had a p value of 0.12, 0.23, 0.62 respectively (p>0.05). On the cerebellum, in comparing FJC with HE, NISSL and TUNEL, the p value was 0.96, 0.77, 0.96 respectively (p>0.05). On representative regions, the results of FJC were in accordance with that of TUNEL, NISSL and HE. Furthermore, ascertainment of brain injury is easier with FJC. FJC is a reliable and convenient method to assess brain injury after DHCA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adherence to hypothermia guidelines: a French multicenter study of fullterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chevallier

    Full Text Available AIM: The objective of this study was to describe the French practice of hypothermia treatment (HT in full-term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE and to analyze the deviations from the guidelines of the French Society of Neonatology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2010 to March 2012 we recorded all cases of HIE treated by HT in a French national database. The population was divided into three groups, "optimal HT" (OHT, "late HT" (LHT and "non-indicated" HT (NIHT, according to the guidelines. RESULTS: Of the 311 newborns registered in the database and having HT, 65% were classified in the OHT group, 22% and 13% in the LHT and NIHT groups respectively. The severity of asphyxia and HIE were comparable between newborns with OHT and LHT, apart from EEG. HT was initiated at a mean time of 12 hours of life in the LHT group. An acute obstetrical event was more likely to be identified among newborns with LHT (46%, compared to OHT (34% and NIHT (22%. There was a gradation in the rate of complications from the NIHT group (29% to the LHT (38% group and the OHT group (52%. Despite an insignificant difference in the rates of death or abnormal neurological examination at discharge, nearly 60% of newborns in the OHT group had an MRI showing abnormalities, compared to 44% and 49% in the LHT and NIHT groups respectively. CONCLUSION: The conduct of the HT for HIE newborns is not consistent with French guidelines for 35% of newborns, 22% being explained by an excessive delay in the start of HT, 13% by the lack of adherence to the clinical indications. This first report illustrates the difficulties in implementing guidelines for HT and should argue for an optimization of perinatal care for HIE.

  5. Surgery and magnetic resonance imaging increase the risk of hypothermia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Paul, Joel M; Perkins, Elizabeth J; Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Suka, Asha; Farrell, Olivia; Gunn, Julia K; Rajapaksa, Anushi E; Tingay, David G

    2018-04-01

    Maintaining normothermia is a tenet of neonatal care. However, neonatal thermal care guidelines applicable to intra-hospital transport beyond the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and during surgery or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion of infants normothermic (36.5-37.5°C) on return to NICU after management during surgery and MRI, and during standard clinical care in both environments. Sixty-two newborns requiring either surgery in the operating theatre (OT) (n = 41) or an MRI scan (n = 21) at the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne) NICU were prospectively studied. Core temperature, along with cardiorespiratory parameters, was continuously measured from 15 min prior to leaving the NICU until 60 min after returning. Passive and active warming (intra-operatively) was at clinician discretion. The study reported 90% of infants were normothermic before leaving NICU: 86% (MRI) and 93% (OT). Only 52% of infants were normothermic on return to NICU (relative risk (RR) 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.31; number needed to harm (NNH) 2.6). Between departure from the NICU and commencement of surgery, core temperature decreased by mean 0.81°C (95% CI 0.30-1.33; P = 0.0001, analysis of variance), with only 24% of infants normothermic when surgery began (P surgery in the OT and MRI in neonates, indicating that evidence-based warming strategies to prevent hypothermia should be developed. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, V.

    1973-01-01

    Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

  7. Summary of avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J H; Andersen, A; Dreyer, L

    1997-01-01

    An overview is given of the most important known causes of cancer in the five Nordic countries and the resulting number of cancers that are potentially avoidable. The main causes include active and passive smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to asbestos and other occupational carcinogens, solar...... and ionizing radiation, obesity, human papillomavirus infection in the female genital tract and infection with Helicobacter pylori. The organs most commonly affected are those of the respiratory system, the upper digestive tract and stomach, skin, the lower urinary tract and the uterine cervix. Annually, more...... than 18,000 cancers in men and 11,000 in women in the Nordic populations could be avoided by eliminating exposure to known carcinogens which is equivalent to 33% and 20% of all cancers arising in men and women, respectively, around the year 2000. Smoking habits account for a little more than half...

  8. Aesthetic rhinoplasty: Avoiding unfavourable results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulwant S Bhangoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in plastic surgery. It is not surprising that a significant number of patients end up with unfavourable outcomes. Many of these unfavourable outcomes could be the result of poor judgment and wrong decision making. Most frequently, the unfavourable outcome is the result of errors in surgical technique. In this paper, unfavourable outcomes resulting from errors in surgical technique are discussed under the heading of each operative step. Poor placement of intra-nasal incision can result in internal valve obstruction. Bad columellar scars can result from errors during open rhinoplasty. Unfavourable results associated with skeletonisation are mentioned. Tip plasty, being the most difficult part of rhinoplasty, can result in lack of tip projection, asymmetry and deformities associated with placement of tip grafts. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilages during tip plasty can also result in pinched nose, alar collapse causing external valve obstruction and other alar rim deformities. Humpectomy can result in open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and over-resection resulting in saddle nose. The so-called poly beak deformity is also a preventable unfavourable outcome when dealing with a large dorsal hump. Complications resulting from osteotomies include narrowing of nasal airway, open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and asymmetry of the bony wall resulting from incomplete or green stick fractures. Judicious use of grafts can be very rewarding. By the same token, grafts also carry with them the risk of complications. Allografts can result in recurrent infection, atrophy of the overlying skin and extrusion resulting in crippling deformities. Autografts are recommended by the author. Unfavourable results from autografts include displacement of graft, visibility of the graft edges, asymmetry, warping, and resorption.

  9. [Survey on avoidable blindness and visual impairment in Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maritza; Brea, Ileana; Yee, Rita; Yi, Rodolfo; Carles, Víctor; Broce, Alberto; Limburg, Hans; Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Determine prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in adults aged ≥ 50 years in Panama, identify their main causes, and characterize eye health services. Cross-sectional population study using standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology. Fifty people aged ≥ 50 years were selected from each of 84 clusters chosen through representative random sampling of the entire country. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen chart; lens and posterior pole status were assessed by direct ophthalmoscopy. Cataract surgery coverage was calculated and its quality assessed, along with causes of visual acuity blindness was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.3-3.6). The main cause of blindness was cataract (66.4%), followed by glaucoma (10.2%). Cataract (69.2%) was the main cause of severe visual impairment and uncorrected refractive errors were the main cause of moderate visual impairment (60.7%). Surgical cataract coverage in individuals was 76.3%. Of all eyes operated for cataract, 58.0% achieved visual acuity ≤ 20/60 with available correction. Prevalence of blindness in Panama is in line with average prevalence found in other countries of the Region. This problem can be reduced, since 76.2% of cases of blindness and 85.0% of cases of severe visual impairment result from avoidable causes.

  10. A Demonstration of Approach and Avoidance Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, W. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and…

  11. Effects of IFRS adoption on tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nogueira Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigates the association between mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adoption and corporate tax avoidance. In this study, tax avoidance is defined as a reduction in the effective corporate income tax rate through tax planning activities, whether these are legal, questionable, or even illegal. Three measures of tax avoidance are used and factors at the country and firm level (that have already been associated with tax avoidance in prior research are controlled. Using samples that range from 9,389 to 15,423 publicly-traded companies from 35 countries, covering 1999 to 2014, it is found that IFRS adoption is associated with higher levels of corporate tax avoidance, even when the level of book-tax conformity required in the countries and the volume of accruals are controlled, both of which are considered potential determinants of this relationship. Furthermore, the results suggest that after IFRS adoption, firms in higher book-tax conformity environments engage more in tax avoidance than firms in lower book-tax conformity environments. It is also identified that engagement in tax avoidance after IFRS adoption derives not only from accruals management, but also from practices that do not involve accruals. The main conclusion is that companies engage more in tax avoidance after mandatory IFRS adoption.

  12. Improved anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Capatina, O; Foreste, A; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Quesnel, J

    2009-01-01

    As presented in the previous speech, the incident in sector 3-4 of the LHC caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum resulting in high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers. This resulted in braking floor and floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barrier. The strategy of improving anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement is presented and discussed.

  13. Differences in avoidable mortality between migrants and the native Dutch in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Stirbu (Irina); A.E. Kunst (Anton); V. Bos (Vivian); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The quality of the healthcare system and its role in influencing mortality of migrant groups can be explored by examining ethnic variations in 'avoidable' mortality. This study investigates the association between the level of mortality from 'avoidable' causes and ethnic

  14. Higher threat avoidance costs reduce avoidance behaviour which in turn promotes fear extinction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattel, Julina A; Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task. After differential acquisitions of shock-expectancy to a predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+), participants underwent extinction where they could either take a risky shortcut, while anticipating shock signaled by the CS+, or choose a costly avoidance option (lengthy detour); thus, they were faced with an approach-avoidance conflict. Groups with higher avoidance costs (longer detours) showed lower proportions of avoiders. Avoiders gave heightened shock-expectancy ratings post-extinction, demonstrating 'protecting from extinction', i.e. failure to extinguish. Moreover, there was an indirect effect of avoidance costs on protection from extinction through avoidance behaviour. No moderating role of trait-anxiety was found. Theoretical implications of avoidance behaviour are discussed, considering the involvement of instrumental learning in the maintenance of fear responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidative stress is enhanced by hypothermia imposed on cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats Aumento do estresse oxidativo após hipotermia em ratos com pancreatite induzida por ceruleína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Andraus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is a frequent event in severe acute pancreatitis (AP and its real effects on the normal pancreas have not been well demonstrated. Moreover, neither have its effects on the outcome of acute pancreatitis been fully investigated. One hypothesis is that oxidative stress may be implicated in lesions caused or treated by hypothermia. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effect of hypothermia in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (CIAP in rats and the role played by oxidative stress in this process. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into hypothermic and normothermic groups. Hypothermia was induced with a cold mattress and rectal temperature was kept at 30ºC for one hour. Acute pancreatitis was induced with 2 doses of cerulein (20 ìg/kg administered at a one-hour interval. Serum amylase, pancreas vascular permeability by Evan's blue method, pancreas wet-to-dry weight ratio and histopathology were analyzed in each group. RESULTS: When compared with normothermic rats, hypothermic animals, with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, showed higher levels of pancreatic vascular permeability (p BACKGROUND: Hipotermia é um evento freqüente em episódios de pancreatite aguda, contudo seu efeito real sobre pâncreas normal ainda não esta bem demonstrado. Além do mais, o efeito da hipotermia no decorrer da pancreatite aguda também não está completamente esclarecido. Uma das hipóteses sobre as causas das lesões causadas ou tratadas por hipotermia aventa a implicação de estresse oxidativo. OBJETIVOS: Investigar o efeito da hipotermia em ratos com pancreatite aguda induzida por ceruleína e o papel do estresse oxidativo neste processo. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em grupos hipotérmicos e normotérmicos. Hipotermia foi induzida com uma bolsa gelada de forma que a temperatura retal permanecesse em 30ºC por uma hora. Pancreatite aguda foi induzida com duas aplicações de ceruleína (20 ìg/kg administradas

  16. İşçilerin Haklarını Kullanmaktan Kaçınmaları: Nedenleri ve Çözüm Yaklaşımları (Workers Avoidance of Using Their Rights: The Causes and Solution Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış SEÇER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the legislation which regulates the working life, workers have a lot of statutory rights. But it doesn’t mean that the workers exercises this rights certainly. In spite of the legal sanctions, workers can avoid to exercise their rights. Because rights have a dimension which shaped by the worker’s subjective consideration. Workers make an cost/benefit assessment about exercising rights. These assessments affected by some factors such as personality characteristics, job and employer related factors, unemployment and job insecurity. The main aim of this study is explaining the process of exercising rights of workers and the factors which affects these process. In this study, trade unions and workplace committees which can provide the exercising these rights are discussed. On the other hand, discrimination and employment security regulations, and social responsibility practices are also addressed.

  17. From Hypothermia to Cephalosomatic Anastomoses: The Legacy of Robert White (1926-2010) at Case Western Reserve University of Cleveland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjila, Sunil; Alambyan, Vilakshan; Singh, Gagandeep; Satish, Priyanka; Geertman, Robert T

    2018-05-01

    Dr. Robert J. White (1926-2010) was an eminent neurosurgeon and bioethicist, renowned for his classic work in hypothermia and pioneering mammalian head transplant experiments. He founded the Division of Neurosurgery at the Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital (currently MetroHealth Medical Center, a level 1 trauma county hospital) and became the youngest full professor at the Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. With over 500 research articles to his credit, he founded the Brain Research Laboratory at what was then the Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, which was also home to future leaders in neurosurgery, neurosciences, and allied specialties. He transferred a healthy monkey head onto a surgically beheaded monkey body under deep hypothermic conditions drawing both laurels and criticisms alike. Despite a largely controversial neurosurgical research career, his original contributions to deep hypothermia have found profound clinical applications in modern trauma and vascular neurosurgery. The new fusogens and myelorrhaphy methods being tried in Europe hold promise for a future of reanastomosing 2 homologous or heterologous tracts in the neuraxis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of lightweight outdoor clothing on the prevention of hypothermia during low-intensity exercise in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Kofler, Philipp; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Philippe, Marc; Fischer, Kathrin; Walther, Rebekka; Herten, Anne

    2012-11-01

    To study protective effects of windbreaker jacket and pants during exercise in the cold. Randomized pilot study. Climate chamber. Nine well-trained (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 61.7 ± 6.6 mL/min/kg) sport students (6 male and 3 female participants). Subjects started walking for 1 hour in a climate chamber (0°C ambient temperature and wind speed of 10 km/h) at 70% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max wearing gloves, a T-shirt, and shorts. Then, the walking speed was reduced to 30% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for an additional 60 minutes or until core temperature dropped below 35.5°C. Subsequently, 3 groups of 3 participants continued walking without change of clothing or obtaining additionally a cap and a windbreaker jacket or windbreaker jacket and pants. Core and skin temperature, thermal comfort. The main findings of this study were that exercising at 70% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the cold was sufficient to prevent hypothermia and that during low-intensity exercise (30% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), the combined use of a polyester cap, lightweight windbreaker jacket, and pants was necessary to increase a prehypothermic core temperature. We strongly recommend taking a cap, windbreaker jacket, and pants for the prevention of hypothermia during exhaustive walking or running in cold weather conditions.

  19. Intra-operative warming with a forced-air warmer in preventing hypothermia after tourniquet deflation in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-S; Jeon, Y-S; Lee, J-A; Park, W-K; Koh, H-S; Joo, J-D; In, J-H; Seo, K-W

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, single-blind study aimed to explore the effects of intra-operative warming with a forced-air warmer in the prevention of hypothermia after tourniquet deflation in elderly patients undergoing unilateral total knee replacement arthroplasty under general anaesthesia. Patients were randomized to receive either intra-operative warming using a forced-air warmer with an upper body blanket (warming group; n = 12) or no intra-operative warming (nonwarming group; n = 12). Oesophageal temperature was measured as core body temperature. At 30 min following tourniquet inflation, the core body temperature started to increase in the warming group whereas it continued to drop in the non-warming group. This difference was statistically significant. The final core body temperature after tourniquet deflation was significantly higher in the warming group (mean +/- SD 36.1 +/- 0.2 degrees C) than in the non-warming group (35.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C). Intra-operative forced-air warming increased the core body temperature before tourniquet deflation and prevented subsequent hypothermia in elderly patients under general anaesthesia.

  20. The clinical efficacy and prognosis of hemisphere skull bone flap decompression and mild hypothermia treatment for severe craniocerebral trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Hua-tang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 1626 patients with severe craniocerebral trauma were assessed by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, 886 patients of 3-5 score and 740 of 6-8 score. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Ninety hundred and eleven patients (496 of 3-5 score and 415 of 6-8 score underwent hemisphere calvarial bone flap decompression with auxiliary mild hypothermia (experiment group, and 715 patients (390 of 3-5 score and 325 of 6-8 score underwent traditional frontal, temporal, parietal large traumatic craniotomy (control group. After operation the treatment of 2 groups was basically the same. Compared with control group, the intracranial pressure of experiment group on the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th days after surgery decreased significantly (P < 0.05, for all; the consciousness recovery time was significantly shorter (P < 0.05, for all; the prognosis after 3 months was better (P < 0.05, for all. Hemisphere calvarial bone flap decompression with auxiliary mild hypothermia treatment could significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality, and improve the quality of life and prognosis of patients with severe craniocerebral trauma.

  1. White matter tract integrity and developmental outcome in newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, An N; Evangelou, Iordanis; Fatemi, Ali; Vezina, Gilbert; Mccarter, Robert; Glass, Penny; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether corpus callosum (CC) and corticospinal tract (CST) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures relate to developmental outcome in encephalopathic newborn infants after therapeutic hypothermia. Encephalopathic newborn infants enrolled in a longitudinal study underwent DTI after hypothermia. Parametric maps were generated for fractional anisotropy, mean, radial, and axial diffusivity. CC and CST were segmented by DTI-based tractography. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association of DTI measures with Bayley-II Mental (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) at 15 months and 21 months of age. Fifty-two infants (males n=32, females n=20) underwent DTI at median age of 8 days. Two were excluded because of poor magnetic resonance imaging quality. Outcomes were assessed in 42/50 (84%) children at 15 months and 35/50 (70%) at 21 months. Lower CC and CST fractional anisotropy were associated with lower MDI and PDI respectively, even after controlling for gestational age, birth weight, sex, and socio-economic status. There was also a direct relationship between CC axial diffusivity and MDI, while CST radial diffusivity was inversely related to PDI. In encephalopathic newborn infants, impaired microstructural organization of the CC and CST predicts poorer cognitive and motor performance respectively. Tractography provides a reliable method for early assessment of perinatal brain injury. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Does Whole-Body Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Affect Surfactant Disaturated-Phosphatidylcholine Kinetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespeca, Matteo; Giorgetti, Chiara; Nobile, Stefano; Ferrini, Ilaria; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Cogo, Paola; Carnielli, Virgilio Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether Whole-Body Hypothermia (WBH) affects pulmonary function. In vitro studies, at relatively low temperatures, suggest that hypothermia may induce significant changes to the surfactant composition. The effect of WBH on surfactant kinetics in newborn infants is unknown. We studied in vivo kinetics of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in asphyxiated newborns during WBH and in normothermic controls (NTC) with no or mild asphyxia. Both groups presented no clinically apparent lung disease. Twenty-seven term or near term newborns requiring mechanical ventilation were studied (GA 38.6±2.2 wks). Fifteen during WBH and twelve NTC. All infants received an intra-tracheal dose of 13C labelled DSPC and tracheal aspirate were performed. DSPC amount, DSPC half-life (HL) and pool size (PS) were calculated. DSPC amount in tracheal aspirates was 0.42 [0.22-0.54] and 0.36 [0.10-0.58] mg/ml in WBH and NTC respectively (p = 0.578). DSPC HL was 24.9 [15.7-52.5] and 25.3 [15.8-59.3] h (p = 0.733) and DSPC PS was 53.2 [29.4-91.6] and 40.2 [29.8-64.6] mg/kg (p = 0.598) in WBH and NTC respectively. WBH does not alter DSPC HL and PS in newborn infants with no clinical apparent lung disease.

  3. Ecology: avoidance of disease by social lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2006-05-25

    Transmissible pathogens are the bane of social animals, so they have evolved behaviours to decrease the probability of infection. There is no record, however, of social animals avoiding diseased individuals of their own species in the wild. Here we show how healthy, normally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) avoid conspecifics that are infected with a lethal virus. Early detection and avoidance of infected, though not yet infectious, individuals by healthy lobsters confers a selective advantage and highlights the importance of host behaviour in disease transmission among natural populations.

  4. A chance to avoid mistakes human error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, Pablo; Obeso, Eduardo; Gomez, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Trying to give an answer to the lack of public information in the industry, in relationship with the different tools that are managed in the nuclear industry for minimizing the human error, a group of workers from different sections of the St. Maria de Garona NPP (Quality Assurance/ Organization and Human Factors) decided to embark on a challenging and exciting project: 'Write a book collecting all the knowledge accumulated during their daily activities, very often during lecture time of external information received from different organizations within the nuclear industry (INPO, WANO...), but also visiting different NPP's, maintaining meetings and participating in training courses related de Human and Organizational Factors'. Main objective of the book is presenting to the industry in general, the different tools that are used and fostered in the nuclear industry, in a practical way. In this way, the assimilation and implementation in others industries could be possible and achievable in and efficient context. One year of work, and our project is a reality. We have presented and abstract during the last Spanish Nuclear Society meeting in Sevilla, last October...and the best, the book is into the market for everybody in web-site: www.bubok.com. The book is structured in the following areas: 'Errare humanum est': Trying to present what is the human error to the reader, its origin and the different barriers. The message is that the reader see the error like something continuously present in our lives... even more frequently than we think. Studying its origin can be established aimed at barriers to avoid or at least minimize it. 'Error's bitter face': Shows the possible consequences of human errors. What better that presenting real experiences that have occurred in the industry. In the book, accidents in the nuclear industry, like Tree Mile Island NPP, Chernobyl NPP, and incidents like Davis Besse NPP in the past, helps to the reader to make a reflection about the

  5. The 6-hydroxychromanol derivative SUL-109 ameliorates renal injury after deep hypothermia and rewarming in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, Pieter C; Roorda, Maurits; de Vrij, Edwin L; Houwertjes, Martin C; Goris, Maaike; Bouma, Hjalmar; van der Graaf, Adrianus C; Krenning, Guido; Henning, Robert H

    2018-04-11

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in kidney damage in various pathologies, including acute and chronic kidney injury and diabetic nephropathy. In addition to the well-studied ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, hypothermia/rewarming (H/R) also inflicts acute kidney injury. Substituted 6-hydroxychromanols are a novel class of mitochondrial medicines that ameliorate mitochondrial oxidative stress and protect the mitochondrial network. To identify a novel 6-hydroxychromanol that protects mitochondrial structure and function in the kidney during H/R, we screened multiple compounds in vitro and subsequently assessed the efficacy of the 6-hydroxychromanol derivatives SUL-109 and SUL-121 in vivo to protect against kidney injury after H/R in rats. Human proximal tubule cell viability was assessed following exposure to H/R for 48/4 h in the presence of various 6-hydroxychromanols. Selected compounds (SUL-109, SUL-121) or vehicle were administered to ketamine-anaesthetized male Wistar rats (IV 135 µg/kg/h) undergoing H/R at 15°C for 3 h followed by rewarming and normothermia for 1 h. Metabolic parameters and body temperature were measured throughout. In addition, renal function, renal injury, histopathology and mitochondrial fitness were assessed. H/R injury in vitro lowered cell viability by 94 ± 1%, which was counteracted dose-dependently by multiple 6-hydroxychomanols derivatives. In vivo, H/R in rats showed kidney injury molecule 1 expression in the kidney and tubular dilation, accompanied by double-strand DNA breaks and protein nitrosylation. SUL-109 and SUL-121 ameliorated tubular kidney damage, preserved mitochondrial mass and maintained cortical adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels, although SUL-121 did not reduce protein nitrosylation. The substituted 6-hydroxychromanols SUL-109 and SUL-121 ameliorate kidney injury during in vivo H/R by preserving mitochondrial mass, function and ATP levels. In addition, both 6-hydroxychromanols

  6. Increased Brain Perfusion Persists over the First Month of Life in Term Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia: Does it Reflect Activated Angiogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Henna; Lechpammer, Mirna; Jensen, Frances E; Warfield, Simon K; Hansen, Anne H; Kosaras, Bela; Shevell, Michael; Wintermark, Pia

    2015-06-01

    Many asphyxiated newborns still develop brain injury despite hypothermia therapy. The development of brain injury in these newborns has been related partly to brain perfusion abnormalities. The purposes of this study were to assess brain hyperperfusion over the first month of life in term asphyxiated newborns and to search for some histopathological clues indicating whether this hyperperfusion may be related to activated angiogenesis following asphyxia. In this prospective cohort study, regional cerebral blood flow was measured in term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia around day 10 of life and around 1 month of life using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arterial spin labeling. A total of 32 MRI scans were obtained from 24 term newborns. Asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia displayed an increased cerebral blood flow in the injured brain areas around day 10 of life and up to 1 month of life. In addition, we looked at the histopathological clues in a human asphyxiated newborn and in a rat model of neonatal encephalopathy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was expressed in the injured brain of an asphyxiated newborn treated with hypothermia in the first days of life and of rat pups 24-48 h after the hypoxic-ischemic event, and the endothelial cell count increased in the injured cortex of the pups 7 and 11 days after hypoxia-ischemia. Our data showed that the hyperperfusion measured by imaging persisted in the injured areas up to 1 month of life and that angiogenesis was activated in the injured brain of asphyxiated newborns.

  7. Data on pharmacological applications and hypothermia protection against in vitro oxygen-glucose-deprivation-related neurodegeneration of adult rat CA1 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Öz

    2017-02-01

    Here, the use CA1sp width measurements on Nissl-stained hippocampal slices is introduced as a valid and affordable method for detecting the level of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection on hippocampal slices. The protective effect of hypothermia was found to be more pronounced compared to other agents.

  8. Efficacy of Prewarming With a Self-Warming Blanket for the Prevention of Unintended Perioperative Hypothermia in Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Charlotte; Vamosi, Marianne; Lauridsen, Jorgen T.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Unintended perioperative hypothermia (UPH) is a common and serious complication for patients undergoing anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of UPH and evaluate the efficacy of a self-warming blanket on the drop in core temperature and risk of UPH in patients...

  9. Hypothermia of newborns is associated with excess mortality in the first 2 months of life in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Nielsen, Jens; Veirum, Jens

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term effects of neonatal hypothermia (HT) on survival. METHODS: Using the longitudinal community and hospital surveillance system of the Bandim Health Project, we followed children born between 1997 and 2002 at the only maternity ward in the city. All children...

  10. Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles KidsHealth / For Parents / Toddlers at the Table: ... common concerns into opportunities to teach healthy eating habits. Most Toddlers Are Picky Eaters Many toddlers express ...

  11. How to avoid overheating during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000865.htm How to avoid overheating during exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... condition can get heat illness. Stay Cool During Exercise Try these tips to help prevent heat-related ...

  12. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  13. Directional Collision Avoidance in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yu; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of directional collision avoidance schemes, in which antenna systems are used to direct the transmission and reception of control and data packets in channel access...

  14. Foods to Avoid or Limit during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... during pregnancy Foods to avoid or limit during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  15. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  16. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  17. ADVERTISING AVOIDANCE PADA IKLAN DI MEDIA TELEVISI

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Dwi Pratama; Ujang Sumarwan; Hari Wijayanto

    2016-01-01

    One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES), advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the p...

  18. Banking deregulation and corporate tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill B. Francis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether tax avoidance substitutes for external financing. We exploit interstate banking deregulation as a quasi-external shock to examine whether firms engage in less tax avoidance after banking deregulation, because of cheaper and easier access to credit from banks. We find no empirical evidence to support this substitutive relation, even for firms with higher financial constraints or firms with higher external financing dependence.

  19. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  20. Pathological demand avoidance: Exploring the behavioural profile.

    OpenAIRE

    O Nions, E.; Viding, E.; Greven, C. U.; Ronald, A.; Happé, F.

    2014-01-01

    'Pathological Demand Avoidance' is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to 'socially manipulative' behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand avoidance is thought to share aspects of social impairment with autism spectrum disorders, but autism spectrum disorder-appropriate strategies, such as routine and repetition, ...

  1. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord

  2. How biological microtubules may avoid decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameroff, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Entangled superpositions persisting for hundreds of milliseconds in protein assemblies such as microtubules (MTs) are proposed in biological functions, e.g. quantum computation relevant to consciousness in the Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' model. Cylindrical polymers of the protein tubulin, MTs organize cell activities. The obvious question is how biological quantum states could avoid decoherence, e.g. in the brain at 37.6 degrees centigrade. Screening/sheelding: tubulin protein states/functions are governed by van der Waals London forces, quantum interactions among clouds of delocalizable electrons in nonpolar 'hydrophobic' intra-protein pockets screened from external van der Waals thermal interactions. Such pockets include amino acid resonance structures benzene and indole rings. (Anesthetic gases erase consciousness solely by interfering with London forces in hydrophobic pockets in various brain proteins). Hence tubulin states may act as superpositioned qubits also shielded at the MT level by counter-ion Debye plasma layers (due to charged C-termini tails on tubulin) and by water-ordering actin gels which embed MTs in a quasi-solid. Biological systems may also exploit thermodynamic gradients to give extremely low effective temperatures. Decoherence free subspaces: paradoxically, a system coupled strongly to its environment through certain degrees of freedom can effectively 'freeze' other degrees of freedom (quantum Zeno effect), enabling coherent superpositions and entanglement to persist. Metabolic energy supplied to MT collective dynamics (e.g. Froehlich coherence) can cause Bose-Einstein condenzation and counter decoherence as lasers avoid decoherence at room temperature. Topological quantum error correction: MT lattice structure reveals various helical winding paths through adjacent tubulins which follow the Fibonacci series. Propagation/interactions of quasi-particles along these paths may process information. As proposed by Kitaev (1997), various

  3. A knowledge translation collaborative to improve the use of therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest patients: protocol for a stepped wedge randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainty, Katie N; Scales, Damon C; Brooks, Steve C; Needham, Dale M; Dorian, Paul; Ferguson, Niall; Rubenfeld, Gordon; Wax, Randy; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Thorpe, Kevin; Morrison, Laurie J

    2011-01-14

    Advances in resuscitation science have dramatically improved survival rates following cardiac arrest. However, about 60% of adults that regain spontaneous circulation die before leaving the hospital. Recently it has been shown that inducing hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors immediately following their arrival in hospital can dramatically improve both overall survival and neurological outcomes. Despite the strong evidence for its efficacy and the apparent simplicity of this intervention, recent surveys show that therapeutic hypothermia is delivered inconsistently, incompletely, and often with delay. This study will evaluate a multi-faceted knowledge translation strategy designed to increase the utilization rate of induced hypothermia in survivors of cardiac arrest across a network of 37 hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The study is designed as a stepped wedge randomized trial lasting two years. Individual hospitals will be randomly assigned to four different wedges that will receive the active knowledge translation strategy according to a sequential rollout over a number of time periods. By the end of the study, all hospitals will have received the intervention. The primary aim is to measure the effectiveness of a multifaceted knowledge translation plan involving education, reminders, and audit-feedback for improving the use of induced hypothermia in survivors of cardiac arrest presenting to the emergency department. The primary outcome is the proportion of eligible OHCA patients that are cooled to a body temperature of 32 to 34°C within six hours of arrival in the hospital. Secondary outcomes will include process of care measures and clinical outcomes. Inducing hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors immediately following their arrival to hospital has been shown to dramatically improve both overall survival and neurological outcomes. However, this lifesaving treatment is frequently not applied in practice. If this trial is positive, our results

  4. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Asphyxial Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Due to Drowning: A Systematic Review of Case Series and Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, K-F; Leung, Reynold; Leung, Ling-Pong

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize published evidence of the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in patients with drowning-associated asphyxial out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and to explore any preliminary favorable factors in the management of therapeutic hypothermia to improve survival and neurological outcome. Drowning may result in asphyxial OHCA or hypothermic OHCA, but the former does not provide any potential neuroprotective effect as the latter may do. Electronic literature searches of Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were performed for all years from inception to July 2016. Primary studies in the form of case reports, letters to the editor, and others with higher quality are included, but guidelines, reviews, editorials, textbook chapters, conference abstracts, and nonhuman studies are excluded. Non-English articles are excluded. Relevant studies are then deemed eligible if the drowning OHCA patient's initial temperature was above 28°C, which implies asphyxial cardiac arrest, and intentional therapeutic hypothermia was instituted. Because of the narrow scope of interest and strict definition of the condition, limited studies addressed it, and no randomized controlled trials (RCT) could be selected. Thirteen studies covering 35 patients are included. No quantitative synthesis, assessment of study quality, or assessment of bias was performed. It is conjectured that extended therapeutic hypothermia of 48-72 hours might help prevent reperfusion injury during the intermediate phase of postcardiac arrest care to benefit patients of drowning-associated asphyxial OHCA, but this finding only serves as preliminary observation for future research. No conclusive recommendation could be made regarding the duration of and the time of onset of therapeutic hypothermia. Future research should put effort on RCT, particularly the effect of extended duration of 48-72 hours. Important parameters should be reported in detail. Asphyxial

  5. Disruption avoidance by means of electron cyclotron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, B; Granucci, G; Nowak, S; Lazzaro, E; Maraschek, M; Giannone, L; Gude, A; Igochine, V; McDermott, R; Poli, E; Reich, M; Sommer, F; Stober, J; Suttrop, W; Treutterer, W; Zohm, H

    2011-01-01

    Disruptions are very challenging to ITER operation as they may cause damage to plasma facing components due to direct plasma heating, forces on structural components due to halo and eddy currents and the production of runaway electrons. Electron cyclotron (EC) waves have been demonstrated as a tool for disruption avoidance by a large set of recent experiments performed in ASDEX Upgrade and FTU using various disruption types, plasma operating scenarios and power deposition locations. The technique is based on the stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes (mainly m/n = 2/1) through the localized injection of EC power on the resonant surface. This paper presents new results obtained in ASDEX Upgrade regarding stable operation above the Greenwald density achieved after avoidance of density limit disruptions by means of ECRH and suitable density feedback control (L-mode ohmic plasmas, I p = 0.6 MA, B t = 2.5 T) and NTM-driven disruptions at high-β limit delayed/avoided by means of both co-current drive (co-ECCD) and pure heating (ECRH) with power ≤1.7 MW (H-mode NBI-heated plasmas, P NBI ∼ 7.5 MW, I p = 1 MA, B t = 2.1 T, q 95 ∼ 3.6). The localized perpendicular injection of ECRH/ECCD onto a resonant surface leads to the delay and/or complete avoidance of disruptions. The experiments indicate the existence of a power threshold for mode stabilization to occur. An analysis of the MHD mode evolution using the generalized Rutherford equation coupled to the frequency and phase evolution equations shows that control of the modes is due to EC heating close to the resonant surface. The ECRH contribution (Δ' H term) is larger than the co-ECCD one in the initial and more important phase when the discharge is 'saved'. Future research and developments of the disruption avoidance technique are also discussed.

  6. Examination of the program to avoid round-off error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Y.; Kusunoki, T.; Tabushi, K.; Shimomura, K.; Kitou, S.

    2005-01-01

    The MACRO programs which express a simple shape such as PLANE, SPHERE, CYLINDER and CONE, are used to the formation of the geometry in EGS4. Each MACRO calculates the important value for the main code to recognize the configured geometry. This calculation process may generate the calculation error due to the effect of a round-off error. SPHERE, CYLINDER and CONE MACRO include the function to avoid the effect, but PLANE MACRO dose not include. The effect of the round-off error is small usually in case of PLANE MACRO, however a slant plane may cause the expansion of the effect. Therefore, we have configured the DELPLANE program with the function to avoid the effect of the round-off error. In this study, we examine the DELPLANE program using the simply geometry with slant plane. As a result, the normal PLANE MACRO generates the round-off error, however DELPLANE program dose not generates one. (author)

  7. ADVERTISING AVOIDANCE PADA IKLAN DI MEDIA TELEVISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Dwi Pratama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES, advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the program, and advertising sector, and competition (DayPart. The study attempted to measure the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia and its relation to various factors that influence it by using the secondary data generated by Nielsen Audience Measurement Indonesia through Television Audience Measurement (TAM. The methods utilized consisted of the t-test independent sample, one way ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn Bonferoni. The result showed that the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia reached by 23%, with relatively similar results to the other studies in various countries. The hypothesis test results also showed a significant relationship between the advertising avoidance and demographic variables, advertising attributes, and competitions affecting this avoidance. On one hand, the findings of the study are expected to be useful for the advertisers to plan their advertisements on television so that they become more effective and efficient. On the other hand, television stations can utilize these findings as a development strategy to expand their audience segmentation and to accommodate the needs of the advertisers more optimally.Keywords: advertising avoidance, television advertisement, TAM, ANOVA, Tukey

  8. Robotic kidney transplantation with regional hypothermia: evolution of a novel procedure utilizing the IDEAL guidelines (IDEAL phase 0 and 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Mani; Abaza, Ronney; Sood, Akshay; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Ghani, Khurshid R; Jeong, Wooju; Kher, Vijay; Kumar, Ramesh K; Bhandari, Mahendra

    2014-05-01

    Surgical innovation is essential for progress of surgical science, but its implementation comes with potential harms during the learning phase. The Balliol Collaboration has recommended a set of guidelines (Innovation, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term study [IDEAL]) that permit innovation while minimizing complications. To utilize the IDEAL model of surgical innovation in the development of a novel surgical technique, robotic kidney transplantation (RKT) with regional hypothermia, and describe the process of discovery and development. Phase 0 (simulation) studies included the establishment of techniques for pelvic cooling, graft placement in a robotic prostatectomy model, and simulation of the RKT procedure in a cadaveric model. Phase 1 (innovation) studies began in January 2013 and involved treatment of a highly selective small group of patients (n=7), using the principles utilized in the phase 0 studies, at a tertiary referral center. IDEAL model implementation in the development of RKT with regional hypothermia. For phase 0 studies, the outcomes evaluated included pelvic and body temperature measurements, and technical feasibility assessment. The primary outcome during phase 1 was post-transplant graft function. Other outcomes measured were operative and ischemic times, perioperative complications, and intracorporeal graft surface temperature. Phase 0 (simulation phase): Pelvic cooling to 15-20(o)C was achieved reproducibly. Using the surgical approach developed for robotic radical prostatectomy, vascular and ureterovesical anastomoses could be done without redocking the robot. Phase 1 (innovation phase): All patients underwent live-donor RKT in the lithotomy position. All grafts functioned immediately. Mean console, anastomotic, and warm ischemia times were 154 min, 29 min, and 2 min, respectively. One patient was re-explored on postoperative day 1. Adherence to the IDEAL guidelines put forth by the Balliol Collaboration provided a practical

  9. [Hypothermia risk factors in the very low weight newborn and associated morbidity and mortality in a neonatal care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz Rodrigo, F; Rivero Rodríguez, S; Siles Quesada, C

    2014-03-01

    Heat loss in the newborn after delivery could interfere with post-natal adaptation due to metabolic and hemodynamic instability. Associated perinatal factors and their relationship with morbidity and mortality during the neonatal period have not been systematically studied in our unit. To determine the temperature of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants on admission to our NICU, and to determine the associated perinatal variables, and the association of temperature with morbidity and mortality. Infants born in our maternity from January 2006 to November 2012, with birth weights (BW) 401 g to 1,499 g and/or less than 30 weeks gestational age, were included. A multivariate analysis was performed using the perinatal variables and the temperature on admission, as well as a logistic regression between these and the morbidity-mortality variables, in order to detect any independent associations. A total of 635 infants were included, with a mean (± SD) birth weight and gestational age of 1,137.6 ± 257.6g, and 29.5 ± 2.0 weeks, respectively. The mean admission temperature was 35.8 ± 0.6°C (range: 33.0-37.8°C). The proportion of infants with a temperature < 36°C was 44.4%. Independently associated perinatal variables were chorioamnionitis, birth weight, vaginal delivery, and advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Admission hypothermia was associated with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) (grades 3 and 4) (OR: 0.377; 95% CI: 0.221-0.643; P<.001), and mortality (OR: 0.329; 95% CI: 0.208-0.519; P=.012). Hypothermia on admission is frequent among our VLBW infants. Birth weight, vaginal delivery, and advanced CPR were the principal variables associated with hypothermia. A low temperature on admission was related to an increased risk of IVH and mortality. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Harm avoidance and disability in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Buchman, Aron S; Arnold, Steven E; Shah, Raj C; Tang, Yuxiao; Bennett, David A

    2006-01-01

    The relation of personality to disability in old age is not well understood. The authors examined the relation of harm avoidance, a trait indicating a tendency to worry, fear uncertainty, be shy, and tire easily, to disability in a group of 474 older persons without dementia. Participants completed the 35-item Harm Avoidance scale. Disability was assessed with the Rosow-Breslau scale, a self-report measure of physical mobility. Performance-based tests of lower limb functions were also administered from which composite measures of gait, balance, and strength were derived. In a logistic regression model controlled for age, sex, education, and lower limb function, persons with high levels of harm avoidance were nearly three times as likely to report mobility limitations as persons with low levels, and these effects largely reflected fatigability and fear of uncertainty. The association of harm avoidance with disability was not explained or modified by frailty, physical activity, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, or cognition. The results suggest that harm avoidance is associated with disability in old age.

  11. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  12. DNA elasticity: topology of self-avoidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Supurna; Ghosh, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical treatment of DNA stretching and twisting experiments, in which we discuss global topological subtleties of self-avoiding ribbons and provide an underlying justification for the worm-like rod chain (WLRC) model proposed by Bouchiat and Mezard. Some theoretical points regarding the WLRC model are clarified: the 'local writhe formula' and the use of an adjustable cut-off parameter to 'regularize' the model. Our treatment brings out the precise relation between the worm-like chain (WLC), the paraxial worm-like chain (PWLC) and the WLRC models. We describe the phenomenon of 'topological untwisting' and the resulting collapse of link sectors in the WLC model and note that this leads to a free energy profile periodic in the applied link. This periodicity disappears when one takes into account the topology of self-avoidance or at large stretch forces (paraxial limit). We note that the difficult non-local notion of self-avoidance can be replaced (in an approximation) by the simpler local notion of 'south avoidance'. This gives an explanation for the efficacy of the approach of Bouchiat and Mezard in explaining the 'hat curves' using the WLRC model, which is a south avoiding model. We propose a new class of experiments to probe the continuous transition between the periodic and aperiodic behaviour of the free energy

  13. Peer conflict avoidance: associations with loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H D; LaVoie, J C; Spenceri, M C; Mahoney-Wernli, M A

    2001-02-01

    Failure to resolve peer conflict is associated with children's reports of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance. Although these relationships are well established, researchers have not examined the association between the avoidance of peer conflict and various adjustment characteristics. The current study examined the association between avoidance of conflict and measures of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance for 59 pupils in Grade 4 (31 boys and 28 girls) and 47 in Grade 8 (22 boys and 25 girls). Volunteers indicated that conflict avoidance based on autonomy, e.g., independence issues, and interpersonal issues, e.g., closeness and cohesion, was associated with scores on loneliness for boys and girls, respectively. Conflict avoidance for emotional and physical well-being and fear of punishment was associated with increased reports of loneliness and social anxiety for children in Grade 4.

  14. A Transient Dopamine Signal Represents Avoidance Value and Causally Influences the Demand to Avoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultorak, Katherine J.; Schelp, Scott A.; Isaacs, Dominic P.; Krzystyniak, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Abstract While an extensive literature supports the notion that mesocorticolimbic dopamine plays a role in negative reinforcement, recent evidence suggests that dopamine exclusively encodes the value of positive reinforcement. In the present study, we employed a behavioral economics approach to investigate whether dopamine plays a role in the valuation of negative reinforcement. Using rats as subjects, we first applied fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to determine that dopamine concentration decreases with the number of lever presses required to avoid electrical footshock (i.e., the economic price of avoidance). Analysis of the rate of decay of avoidance demand curves, which depict an inverse relationship between avoidance and increasing price, allows for inference of the worth an animal places on avoidance outcomes. Rapidly decaying demand curves indicate increased price sensitivity, or low worth placed on avoidance outcomes, while slow rates of decay indicate reduced price sensitivity, or greater worth placed on avoidance outcomes. We therefore used optogenetics to assess how inducing dopamine release causally modifies the demand to avoid electrical footshock in an economic setting. Increasing release at an avoidance predictive cue made animals more sensitive to price, consistent with a negative reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a worse outcome than expected). Increasing release at avoidance made animals less sensitive to price, consistent with a positive reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a better outcome than expected). These data demonstrate that transient dopamine release events represent the value of avoidance outcomes and can predictably modify the demand to avoid. PMID:29766047

  15. Exposure to creosote bush phenolic resin causes avoidance in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lobicornis (Formicidae: Attini La exposición a la resina fenólica de jarilla causa deterrencia en la hormiga cortadora de hojas Acromyrmex lobicornis (Formicidae: Attini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I MEDINA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We focused our study on the effects of Larrea cuneifolia phenolic resin on leaf-cutting ants from two populations (Sierra de las Quijadas National Park and San Roque of Acromyrmex lobicornis in San Luis, Argentina. We conducted two bioassays of food choice (field and laboratory to compare the effects of phenolic resin on ant workers from these two populations. Results of the field experiment indicated that there were no differences in preference for either leaves treated with resin or untreated leaves among colonies from both localities. However, results of the laboratory experiments with individual ants indicated a significant effect of population and treatment on the time spent in different treatments. While leaf-cutting individual workers from Quijadas preferred the phenolic resin, workers from San Roque avoided it. These results evidence that ants respond according to time of exposure to chemicals from plants (presence or absence and that the effects of resin among a population can be observed and measured on individual ant workers, even in the absence of fungus garden influences in the nest.Este estudio se ha centrado en los efectos que produce la resina fenólica de Larrea cuneifolia sobre dos poblaciones distintas (Parque Nacional de Sierra de las Quijadas y la localidad de San Roque de Acromyrmex lobicornis en San Luis, Argentina. Se disenaron dos tipos de bioensayos (a campo y en laboratorio para comparar los efectos de la resina fenólica sobre las hormigas obreras de estas dos poblaciones. Los resultados de los experimentos de elección de la oferta alimentaria en el campo, indicaron que no hubo ninguna diferencia de preferencia entre las colonias, ni por las hojas tratadas con resina ni por las hojas sin tratar para ambas localidades. Sin embargo, los resultados de los experimentos de laboratorio con las hormigas obreras individualmente indicaron efectos significativos entre las poblaciones y entre los tratamientos. Mientras que las

  16. An avoidance layer in hierarchical process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Callatay, A.

    1994-01-01

    A project of layered software architecture is proposed: a safety-critical real-time non-stop simple kernel system includes a layer avoiding threatening actions from operators or programs in other control systems. Complex process-control applications (such as fuzzy systems) are useful for the smooth operation of the system, optimum productivity, efficient diagnostics, and safe management of degraded modes of operation. Defects in these complex process-control applications do not have an impact on safety if their commands have first to be accepted by a safety-critical module. The development, testing, and certification of complex applications computed in the outside layers can be made simpler and less expensive than for those in the kernel. Avoidance systems use rule-base systems having negative fuzzy conditions and actions. Animal and human behaviour cannot be explained without active avoidance

  17. New apparatus for training the avoidance reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1988-01-01

    A new apparatus for active avoidance training in rats consists of a short, wide runway which can be tilted from a horizontal to vertical position. One half of the electrifiable grid floor is covered by a nonconducting sheet. For brightness (black-white) discrimination training a white walled goal box can be inserted into the runway and shifted from left to right during training. Avoidance training of 24 rats (female Wistar SPF) required 14.1 +/- 2.6 (mean +/- SEM) to-criterion trials (9/10) and was completed in less than 4 min. Brightness discrimination training required 21.3 +/- 2.1 to-criterion trials and the time of training did not exceed 12 min. The retention of the acquired responses was very good in both cases. The main advantage of the apparatus is very rapid acquisition of the one-way and discriminated avoidance without the necessity of manual manipulation of the animal.

  18. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Latiolais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.

  19. MILD INDUCED HYPOTHERMIA AND PERCUTANEOUS CORONARYINTERVENTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENT WITH PREHOSPITALCARDIAC ARREST DUE TO ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stojić

    2008-06-01

    We report on a 48-year old male who suffered out-of-hospital cardiac arrest one hour afteronset of chest pain. Bystander basic life support was not provided. On arrival of prehospital emergency medical team ventricular fibrillation (VF was documented. Followingchest compression and defibrillation spontaneous circulation was established. 12-lead EKGrevealed STEMI. Since patient remained comatose despite successful re-establishment ofspontaneous circulation MIH was immediately started. Upon hospital admission urgentcoronary angiography and successful primary percutaneous intervention were performed.Because of impending cardiogenic shock intra-aortic balloon pump was inserted. Hypothermia with target body temperature between 32 and 34 degrees C was maintainedfor 24 hours. Standard intensive care procedures were employed. The patient survivedhospital discharge without any neurological deficit and lives normal life without anysymptoms of left ventricular dysfunction for more than 250 days.Discussion Early aggressive and combined treatment of comatose survivors with sudden cardiacarrest due to STEMI proves to be safe, feasible and efficient in preventing neurologicaldamage

  20. First experience with hypothermia as a component of radiotherapy for locally-advanced skin cancer of the face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shental', V.V.; Goldobenko, G.V.; Pustynskij, I.N.; Tkachev, S.I.

    2000-01-01

    The experience of applying hypothermia by radiation therapy in 20 patients with locally advanced skin cancer of the face is described. The radiation effect was achieved with application of photon (6 MeV) and electron (8-10 MeV) radiation and in rare cases with application of gamma-beams. The irradiation was accomplished give times a week with a single focal dose of 2 or 3 Gy. After 2-3 weeks interval the treatment continued by the same scheme up to the total dose of 60-65 Gy. Cooling the tumor by cryoirrigation with vapor-liquid nitrogen was conducted up to 0-5 deg C before each irradiation procedure. It is shown, that combination of cryogenic and radiation impacts on the tumor leads to complete regression of neoplasms oven in the patients with advanced inoperable forms of the head skin cancer. Good functional and cosmetic results are noted [ru

  1. A feasibility study of a new approach to clinical radiosensitisation: hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen in combination with pharmacological vasodilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealy, R.; Harrison, G.G.; Morrell, D.; Cape Town Univ.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed that hyperbaric oxygen fails in the clinical situation due to a high proportion (greater than 33%) of hypoxic cells in human tumours. The means of overcoming this problem are reviewed. Additional to hyperbaric oxygenation, moderate hypothermia (30 0 C) to allow redistribution of oxygen in the tumour is proposed. A system of externally controlled intravenous anaesthesia has been developed for the single-subject hypervaric cylinder. Pharmacological vasodilatation is induced in the anaesthetised patient who is then fluid loaded and cooled. Initial single-sensitising treatments are advocated. Twenty-nine patients with advanced mouth cancer have completed a course of this treatment, of whom five of nine were free of disease after 2 years and 10 of 21 at 1 year, with three intercurrent deaths. Fifteen have experienced local failure. This approach would appear to be practical, safe and promising. (author)

  2. Effect of radiant heat at the birth site in farrowing crates on hypothermia and behaviour in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    It has been documented that floor heating of the farrowing area in loose housed sows improves survival of piglets significantly. However, today, the majority of farrowing pens are designed with crating of sows and slatted floor at the birth site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether...... providing radiant heat at the birth site to new-born piglets in pens with crated sows reduced hypothermia, time to first milk intake and growth of the piglets during the 1st week. Second parity Danish Landrace×Yorkshire sows (n=36) were randomly divided into two groups: Control (CG) and heat (HG......). In the area behind the sow (zone 1), two radiant heat panels were mounted above the slatted floor in the HG. The farrowings were attended, and the heaters were turned on at birth of first piglet and turned off 12 h after. Birth time, time to leave zone 1, time to first contact with udder and time to first...

  3. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongtao Sun,1,* Maohua Zheng,2,* Yanmin Wang,1 Yunfeng Diao,1 Wanyong Zhao,1 Zhengjun Wei1 1Sixth Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2 in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI. Methods: There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP, jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Results: Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Conclusion: Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome. Keywords: severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia, brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, therapy

  4. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ming-Huan [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Neuroscience, National Changchi University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Shiang-Sheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Yuli Veterans Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Chen, Hwei-Hsien, E-mail: hwei@nhri.org.tw [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  5. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chung, Shiang-Sheng; Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  6. Induced hypothermia for infants with hypoxic- ischemic encephalopathy using a servo-controlled fan: an exploratory pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Alan; Thompson, Clare; Woods, David; Nel, Alida; Bekker, Adrie; Rhoda, Natasha; Pieper, Clarissa

    2009-06-01

    Several trials suggest that hypothermia is beneficial in selected infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. However, the cooling methods used required repeated interventions and were either expensive or reported significant temperature variation. The objective of this pilot study was to describe the use, efficacy, and physiologic impact of an inexpensive servo-controlled cooling fan blowing room-temperature air. A servo-controlled fan was manufactured and used to cool 10 infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy to a rectal temperature of 33 degrees C to 34 degrees C. The infants were sedated with phenobarbital, but clonidine was administered to some infants if shivering or discomfort occurred. A servo-controlled radiant warmer was used simultaneously with the fan to prevent overcooling. The settings used on the fan and radiant warmer differed slightly between some infants as the technique evolved. A rectal temperature of 34 degrees C was achieved in a median time of 58 minutes. Overcooling did not occur, and the mean temperature during cooling was 33.6 degrees C +/- 0.2 degrees C. Inspired oxygen requirements increased in 6 infants, and 5 infants required inotropic support during cooling, but this was progressively reduced after 1 to 2 days. Dehydration did not occur. Five infants shivered when faster fan speeds were used, but 4 of the 5 infants had hypomagnesemia. Shivering was controlled with clonidine in 4 infants, but 1 infant required morphine. Servo-controlled fan cooling with room-temperature air, combined with servo-controlled radiant warming, was an effective, simple, and safe method of inducing and maintaining rectal temperatures of 33 degrees C to 34 degrees C in sedated infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. After induction of hypothermia, a low fan speed facilitated accurate temperature control, and warmer-controlled rewarming at 0.2 degrees C increments every 30 minutes resulted in more appropriate rewarming than when 0.5 degrees C

  7. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... on information control to insulating leaders by using technical experts and agencies as 'lightning rods.' In 2003, the Chinese strategy of information containment and secrecy backfired, and the Chinese leadership eventually received blame at home and internationally for crisis mismanagement. In 2009, China put...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....

  8. Causes of ischemic electrocardiographic changes in near drowning: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hesham R; Sprenker, Collin; Bosco, Gerardo; Mangar, Devanand; Camporesi, Enrico M

    2015-10-01

    Drowning is a main cause of accidental death among children and adolescents worldwide. Ischemic electrocardiographic (ECG) changes are often encountered in victims of near drowning. We reviewed the literature for near drowning cases reporting ischemic ECG changes to study the underlying etiology for these findings. Among the 8 cases included in the analysis, ischemic ECG changes were due to takotsubo cardiomyopathy (in elderly cases especially females); coronary artery spasm (in younger cases); or hypothermia effect on ECG; and, to a lesser extent, myocardial ischemia resulting from occlusive coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulation study on avoiding runaway electron generation by magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, S.; Yoshino, R.; Matsumoto, T.; Hudson, S.R.; Kawano, Y.; Takizuka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Simulations have demonstrated that magnetic islands having the widths expected on the major disruption cause the collisionless loss of the relativistic electrons, and that the resultant loss rate is high enough to avoid or to suppress the runaway generation. It is because, for the magnetic fluctuations in the disruption, the loss of the electron confinement due to the breakdown of the toroidal momentum conservation overwhelms the runaway electron confinement due to the phase-averaging effect of relativistic electrons. Simulation results agree closely with recent experiments on fast plasma shutdown, showing that it is possible to prevent the generation of runaway electrons. (author)

  10. Human Robot Interaction for Hybrid Collision Avoidance System for Indoor Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Ghandour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach for collision avoidance for indoor mobile robots based on human-robot interaction is realized. The main contribution of this work is a new technique for collision avoidance by engaging the human and the robot in generating new collision-free paths. In mobile robotics, collision avoidance is critical for the success of the robots in implementing their tasks, especially when the robots navigate in crowded and dynamic environments, which include humans. Traditional collision avoidance methods deal with the human as a dynamic obstacle, without taking into consideration that the human will also try to avoid the robot, and this causes the people and the robot to get confused, especially in crowded social places such as restaurants, hospitals, and laboratories. To avoid such scenarios, a reactive-supervised collision avoidance system for mobile robots based on human-robot interaction is implemented. In this method, both the robot and the human will collaborate in generating the collision avoidance via interaction. The person will notify the robot about the avoidance direction via interaction, and the robot will search for the optimal collision-free path on the selected direction. In case that no people interacted with the robot, it will select the navigation path autonomously and select the path that is closest to the goal location. The humans will interact with the robot using gesture recognition and Kinect sensor. To build the gesture recognition system, two models were used to classify these gestures, the first model is Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN, and the second model is Support Vector Machine (SVM. Furthermore, a novel collision avoidance system for avoiding the obstacles is implemented and integrated with the HRI system. The system is tested on H20 robot from DrRobot Company (Canada and a set of experiments were implemented to report the performance of the system in interacting with the human and avoiding

  11. Effect of Therapeutic Hypothermia Initiated After 6 Hours of Age on Death or Disability Among Newborns With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Tyson, Jon E; Munoz, Breda; Bell, Edward F; Goldberg, Ronald N; Parikh, Nehal A; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Pedroza, Claudia; Pappas, Athina; Das, Abhik; Chaudhary, Aasma S; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Hensman, Angelita M; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Chalak, Lina F; Khan, Amir M; Hamrick, Shannon E G; Sokol, Gregory M; Walsh, Michele C; Poindexter, Brenda B; Faix, Roger G; Watterberg, Kristi L; Frantz, Ivan D; Guillet, Ronnie; Devaskar, Uday; Truog, William E; Chock, Valerie Y; Wyckoff, Myra H; McGowan, Elisabeth C; Carlton, David P; Harmon, Heidi M; Brumbaugh, Jane E; Cotten, C Michael; Sánchez, Pablo J; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2017-10-24

    Hypothermia initiated at less than 6 hours after birth reduces death or disability for infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at 36 weeks' or later gestation. To our knowledge, hypothermia trials have not been performed in infants presenting after 6 hours. To estimate the probability that hypothermia initiated at 6 to 24 hours after birth reduces the risk of death or disability at 18 months among infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. A randomized clinical trial was conducted between April 2008 and June 2016 among infants at 36 weeks' or later gestation with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy enrolled at 6 to 24 hours after birth. Twenty-one US Neonatal Research Network centers participated. Bayesian analyses were prespecified given the anticipated limited sample size. Targeted esophageal temperature was used in 168 infants. Eighty-three hypothermic infants were maintained at 33.5°C (acceptable range, 33°C-34°C) for 96 hours and then rewarmed. Eighty-five noncooled infants were maintained at 37.0°C (acceptable range, 36.5°C-37.3°C). The composite of death or disability (moderate or severe) at 18 to 22 months adjusted for level of encephalopathy and age at randomization. Hypothermic and noncooled infants were term (mean [SD], 39 [2] and 39 [1] weeks' gestation, respectively), and 47 of 83 (57%) and 55 of 85 (65%) were male, respectively. Both groups were acidemic at birth, predominantly transferred to the treating center with moderate encephalopathy, and were randomized at a mean (SD) of 16 (5) and 15 (5) hours for hypothermic and noncooled groups, respectively. The primary outcome occurred in 19 of 78 hypothermic infants (24.4%) and 22 of 79 noncooled infants (27.9%) (absolute difference, 3.5%; 95% CI, -1% to 17%). Bayesian analysis using a neutral prior indicated a 76% posterior probability of reduced death or disability with hypothermia relative to the noncooled group (adjusted posterior risk ratio, 0.86; 95% credible interval

  12. Rewarding peak avoidance: the Dutch 'Spitsmijden' projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knockaert, J.; Bakens, J.; Ettema, D.F.; Verhoef, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch road network is becoming increasingly congested. In late 2006, a group of companies, universities and government institutions established the Spitsmijden project. ‘Spitsmijden’ is the Dutch term for ‘avoiding the peak’. This joint initiative aimed to identify and assess a short-term

  13. The Netherlands Bird Avoidance Model, Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to

  14. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  15. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  16. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  17. Avoidance motivation and conservation of energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  18. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  19. ALUMINUM AVOIDANCE BY MUCUNA-PRURIENS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; VANNOORDWIJK, M; STULEN, [No Value; KUIPER, PJC

    The hypothesis was tested that the avoidance of acid subsoil by the velvet bean Mucuna pruriens is based on a mechanism acting on the whole root system rather than on individual roots. In a split-root experiment with circulating nutrient solution the growth of plants with Al-containing (+/+) or

  20. Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can significantly decrease perinatal mortality. H. R. G. Ward, G. R. Howarth, O. J. N. Jennings,. R. C. Pattinson .... 6 months) and seven interns. The study was .... maternity care notes study: a randomized control trial to assess the effects of giving expectant mothers ...