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Sample records for avoid hypothermia caused

  1. Hypothermia in neonatal piglets: Interactions and causes of individual differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Trine S; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jørgensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal piglets. However, there are considerable individual differences in the successful recovery from postnatal hypothermia in the common farrowing environment, and so far the causes and interactions of causes have not been studied in detail. Using...

  2. Early Implementation of THAM for ICP Control: Therapeutic Hypothermia Avoidance and Reduction in Hypertonics/Hyperosmotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Zeiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tromethamine (THAM has been demonstrated to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP. Early consideration for THAM may reduce the need for other measures for ICP control. Objective. To describe 4 cases of early THAM therapy for ICP control and highlight the potential to avoid TH and paralytics and achieve reduction in sedation and hypertonic/hyperosmotic agent requirements. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 4 patients treated with early THAM for ICP control. Results. We identified 2 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and 2 with traumatic brain injury (TBI receiving early THAM for ICP control. The mean time to initiation of THAM therapy was 1.8 days, with a mean duration of 5.3 days. In all patients, after 6 to 12 hours of THAM administration, ICP stability was achieved, with reduction in requirements for hypertonic saline and hyperosmotic agents. There was a relative reduction in mean hourly hypertonic saline requirements of 89.1%, 96.1%, 82.4%, and 97.0% for cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, comparing pre- to post-THAM administration. Mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and paralytics were avoided in all patients. Conclusions. Early administration of THAM for ICP control could potentially lead to the avoidance of other ICP directed therapies. Prospective studies of early THAM administration are warranted.

  3. Avoidance: grammatical or semantic causes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Hulstijn; E. Marchena

    1989-01-01

    This article follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs, such as ‘let down’, while preferring one-word verbs, such as ‘;disappoint’, since phrasal verbs do not exist in Hebrew. A corollary derived from Dagut and Laufer's study is t

  4. Pulmonary embolism as a cause of cardiac arrest: Hypothermia in post-resuscitation period (cooling therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niković Vuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary embolism as a possible cause of acute heart failure is a potentially fatal condition that can cause death in all age groups. Patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest have a high risk of increased mortality and their poor long­term outcome is often associated with severe neurological complications. Case Outline. This is a case report of a 67­year­old man after a successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR which was followed by therapeutic hypothermia (TH. The patient visited the dermatological outpatients’ department with clinical presentation of pain and swelling of the right leg, shortness of breath and chest pain. During examination the patient lost consciousness, stopped breathing and had cardiac arrest. ECG was done which registered asystole. We began CPR. After 59 minutes of resuscitation return of heartbeat was achieved. The patient was transported to the Emergency Department. On admission, after computerized tomography (CT of the chest confirmed massive pulmonary embolism (PE, the patient was administered thrombolytic therapy with Metalyse (tenecteplase and anti­coagulation therapy (heparin. After stabilization, therapeutic hypothermia was applied. Combination of EMCOOLSpad on the chest and abdomen and cold Ringer lactate 500 ml at 4°C was flushed. Temperature was decreased to 33°C and kept stabile for 24 hours. After eight days the patient was conscious with a minimal neurological deficit. Conclusion. As shown in this case report, and according to the rich experience elsewhere, cooling therapy after out­of­hospital cardiac arrest and successful CRP may be useful in preventing neurological complications.

  5. Avoidance of Profound Hypothermia During Initial Reperfusion Improves the Functional Recovery of Hearts Donated After Circulatory Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C W; Ambrose, E; Müller, A; Li, Y; Le, H; Thliveris, J; Arora, R C; Lee, T W; Dixon, I M C; Tian, G; Nagendran, J; Hryshko, L V; Freed, D H

    2016-03-01

    The resuscitation of hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD) is gaining widespread interest; however, the method of initial reperfusion (IR) that optimizes functional recovery has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the impact of IR temperature on the recovery of myocardial function during ex vivo heart perfusion (EVHP). Eighteen pigs were anesthetized, mechanical ventilation was discontinued, and cardiac arrest ensued. A 15-min standoff period was observed and then hearts were reperfused for 3 min at three different temperatures (5°C; N = 6, 25°C; N = 5, and 35°C; N = 7) with a normokalemic adenosine-lidocaine crystalloid cardioplegia. Hearts then underwent normothermic EVHP for 6 h during which time myocardial function was assessed in a working mode. We found that IR coronary blood flow differed among treatment groups (5°C = 483 ± 53, 25°C = 722 ± 60, 35°C = 906 ± 36 mL/min, p < 0.01). During subsequent EVHP, less myocardial injury (troponin I: 5°C = 91 ± 6, 25°C = 64 ± 16, 35°C = 57 ± 7 pg/mL/g, p = 0.04) and greater preservation of endothelial cell integrity (electron microscopy injury score: 5°C = 3.2 ± 0.5, 25°C = 1.8 ± 0.2, 35°C = 1.7 ± 0.3, p = 0.01) were evident in hearts initially reperfused at warmer temperatures. IR under profoundly hypothermic conditions impaired the recovery of myocardial function (cardiac index: 5°C = 3.9 ± 0.8, 25°C = 6.2 ± 0.4, 35°C = 6.5 ± 0.6 mL/minute/g, p = 0.03) during EVHP. We conclude that the avoidance of profound hypothermia during IR minimizes injury and improves the functional recovery of DCD hearts. PMID:26780159

  6. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, R T

    1995-09-01

    Spontaneous periodic hypothermia is a rare syndrome of recurrent, centrally mediated hypothermia without an identifiable systemic cause or brain lesion. Most patients defend a temporarily lowered temperature "set point" during episodes of hypothermia, despite manifesting many well-known systemic consequences of core temperature hypothermia. No case of death directly attributable to an episode of spontaneous periodic hypothermia has been reported, although many of the serious systemic effects of hypothermia have been documented in these cases, so it is not unlikely that death may occur. The syndrome's cause, and that of Shapiro syndrome, remains unknown. Pharmacologic trials to date have been only modestly successful. Anticonvulsant agents, clonidine, and cyproheptadine appear the most likely to succeed, with cyproheptadine being a reasonable first choice. Given that the term "spontaneous periodic hypothermia" describes a syndrome, and not a pathophysiologic mechanism, it is likely to encompass a common eventuality, arrived at via several different pathways. One can postulate mechanisms such as structural abnormalities, trauma, infection, irritation, and degeneration involving strategic locations which create a focus for epileptic or other periodic dysfunction whose scope involves the centers for thermoregulation. The existence of 2 distinct, oppositional thermoregulatory centers would allow for speculation of similar mechanisms accounting for cases of both periodic hypo- and hyperthermia (61). Postmortem data regarding the hypothalamic and surrounding areas from future cases of Shapiro syndrome and spontaneous periodic hypothermia would be of great interest. Further, more sensitive in vivo testing methods are clearly needed. The role of PET or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc 99m HMPAO) performed acutely during an episode remains to be characterized (64, 103, 105). The term

  7. Analyzing the Objective Causes of Oral Chinglish and Error Avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁方娣

    2016-01-01

    Due to the inevitable influence of the mother tongue and some other objective causes, Chinglish is troubling Chinese learners of English in various ways, which has an bad effect on quality of oral communication. Therefore, minimizing or eliminating oral Chinglish will greatly improve the quality of communication. This paper will firstly explain the definition of Chinglish,then focus on description and analyzing of oral Chinglish mistakes, what’s more, the objective causes of oral Chinglish will be analyzed and founded, especially on the aspect of negative transfer. At last, some avoidance of oral Chinglish will be offered.

  8. Prevention of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Leona; Fitzpatrick, Jane

    All patients undergoing surgery are at risk of developing hypothermia; up to 70% develop hypothermia perioperatively. Inadvertent hypothermia is associated with complications such as impaired wound healing, increased blood loss, cardiac arrest and increased risk of wound infection. Anaesthesia increases the risk as the normal protective shivering reflex is absent. Ambient temperature also has a major effect on the patient's body temperature. Prevention of hypothermia not only reduces the incidence of complications, but patients also experience a greater level of comfort, and avoid postoperative shivering and the unpleasant sensation of feeling cold. Nurses should be aware of the risks of hypothermia so that preventative interventions can be employed to minimize the risk of hypothermia. Preoperative assessment is essential to enable identification of at-risk patients. Simple precautionary measures initiated by nurses can considerably reduce the amount of heat lost, minimize the risk of associated complications and ultimately improve patients' short- and long-term recovery. Minimizing skin exposure, providing adequate bed linen for the transfer to theatre and educating patients about the importance of keeping warm perioperatively are all extremely important. It is also worth considering using forced-air warmers preoperatively as research suggests that initiating active warming preoperatively may be successful in preventing hypothermia during the perioperative period. PMID:19966730

  9. Recognizing Hypothermia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    Hypothermia is a serious medical condition that strikes during very cold weather or when people are chilled from rain, sweat, or cold water.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 12/13/2007.

  10. Pediatric nonenvironmental hypothermia presenting to the emergency department: Episodic spontaneous hypothermia with hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard A; Rittichier, Kristine K

    2003-02-01

    Cases of pediatric nonenvironmental hypothermia are uncommon. When presenting to the emergency department, these patients are often evaluated for possible sepsis/shock, brain tumors, endocrine disorders, and drug ingestions. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to the pediatric emergency department on two occasions with hypothermia and lethargy. She was found to have an unusual cause of her symptoms: episodic spontaneous hypothermia with hyperhidrosis. PMID:12592112

  11. Our experiences with therapeutic hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The single most important clinically relevant cause of global cerebral ischemia is cardiac arrest. The estimated rate of sudden cardiac arrest is between 40 and 130 cases per 100.000 people per year. Almost 80% of patients initially resuscitated from cardiac arrest remain comatose for more than one hour. One year after cardiac arrest only 10-30% of these patients survive with good neurological outcome. The ability to survive anoxic no-flow states is dramatically increased with protective and preservative hypothermia. The results of clinical studies show a marked neuroprotective effect of mild hypothermia in resuscitation. Material and Methods. In our clinic, 12 patients were treated with therapeutic hypothermia. A combination of intravascular and external method of cooling was used according to the ILCOR (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation guidelines. The target temperature was 33oC, while the duration of cooling was 24 hours. After that, passive rewarming was allowed. All patients also received other necessary therapy. Results. Six patients (50% had a complete neurological recovery. Two patients (16.6% had partial neurological recovery. Four patients (33.3% remained comatose. Five patients (41.66% survived, while 7 (58.33% patients died. The main cause of cardiac arrest was acute myocardial infarction (91.6%. One patient had acute myocarditis. Conclusion. Mild resuscitative hypothermia after cardiac arrest improves neurological outcome and reduces mortality in comatose survivors. .

  12. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Max; Gazmuri, Jose Tomás; Marín, Arnaldo; Regueira, Tomas; Rovegno, Maximiliano

    2015-06-05

    Therapeutic hypothermia, recently termed target temperature management (TTM), is the cornerstone of neuroprotective strategy. Dating to the pioneer works of Fay, nearly 75 years of basic and clinical evidence support its therapeutic value. Although hypothermia decreases the metabolic rate to restore the supply and demand of O₂, it has other tissue-specific effects, such as decreasing excitotoxicity, limiting inflammation, preventing ATP depletion, reducing free radical production and also intracellular calcium overload to avoid apoptosis. Currently, mild hypothermia (33°C) has become a standard in post-resuscitative care and perinatal asphyxia. However, evidence indicates that hypothermia could be useful in neurologic injuries, such as stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. In this review, we discuss the basic and clinical evidence supporting the use of TTM in critical care for acute brain injury that extends beyond care after cardiac arrest, such as for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury. We review the historical perspectives of TTM, provide an overview of the techniques and protocols and the pathophysiologic consequences of hypothermia. In addition, we include our experience of managing patients with acute brain injuries treated using endovascular hypothermia.

  13. Avoidable causes on the waiting list for admissions to intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Luis Gomes Otto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate occurrence of avoidable-mortality causes on the waiting list of patients at the intensive care units. Methods: one thousand, two hundred and twelve enrollments of patients from all age groups were analyzed and classified according to the Brazilian Health System for causes of avoidable mortality. Descriptive statistics for simple, relative and mean frequency rates were employed for the comparative analysis of the variables. Results: cases of non-communicable diseases, among the avoidable-mortality causes, occupied more than 80.0% of intensive care unit´s beds. Hospitalizations comprised illnesses of the circulatory and respiratory apparatus, especially in patients over 40 years old, together with the external causes and consequences of pregnancy and puerperium with mortality rates within the 15-39 age group. Conclusion: the high proportion of patients with diseases from avoidable causes on the waiting list for intensive care units hospitalization suggest that improvements in the programs involved with the prevention of diseases, especially non-communicable diseases, are needed.

  14. [Prolonged hypothermia in refractory intracranial hypertension. Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovegno, Maximiliano; Valenzuela, José Luis; Mellado, Patricio; Andresen, Max

    2012-02-01

    The use of hypothermia after cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation is a standard clinical practice, however its use for neuroprotection has been extended to other conditions. We report a 23-year-old male with intracranial hypertension secondary to a parenchymal hematoma associated to acute hydrocephalus. An arterial malformation was found and embolized. Due to persistent intracranial hypertension, moderate hypothermia with a target temperature of 33°C was started. After 12 hours of hypothermia, intracranial pressure was controlled. After 13 days of hypothermia a definitive control of intracranial pressure was achieved. The patient was discharged 40 days after admission, remains with a mild hemiparesia and is reassuming his university studies.

  15. Thermal bridges. Causes and impacts, information on reduction and avoidance; Waermebruecken. Ursachen und Auswirkungen, Hinweise zur Verringerung und Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, Wolfgang; Born, Rolf

    2012-11-15

    Thermal bridges increase the heat demand, affect the thermal comfort, facilitate mould cultures and cause structural damage. Many thermal bridges can be avoided by proper building construction details. At least the impact of thermal bridges can be avoided.

  16. A thermodynamic assessment of therapeutic hypothermia techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to literature, therapeutic hypothermia has been applied for treating conditions that causes an interruption in the delivery of oxygen to the brain, giving the patient better chances of survival with a neurological recovery and without any irreversible damage to the brain. Hypothermia is also used during surgeries and circulatory arrest. In this article, the objective temperature of hypothermia is 32 °C, which is considered mild: 32–35 °C. Three techniques of hypothermia induction were considered: external blood cooling, endovascular cooling with a catheter insertion and water bath. Energy and exergy analyses were performed to determine the clinical effectiveness of these techniques and to evaluate the best test parameters, from which it was possible to calculate the body internal temperature, destroyed exergy and exergy efficiency. Moreover, it was proposed an exergy performance index, which takes into account the ability of a given technique to change the exergy of the body. Results indicate that therapeutic hypothermia takes the subject to a state of lower destroyed exergy and higher body exergy efficiency. The exergy performance index shows that lower rates of cooling lead to a better transformation of the exergy removed from the body into variation of the body exergy. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic study of the human body under mild hypothermia. • Energy and Exergy analysis were applied to the human thermal model. • Calculation of destroyed exergy, exergy efficiency. • Hypothermia led the body to a state of lower destroyed exergy. • EBC achieved higher values of destroyed exergy and exergy efficiency

  17. New frontiers in hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ancora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic hypothermia has currently become a standard of care for asphyctic newborns with moderate-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Strict criteria are required to include these newborns in the hypothermic treatment. On some occasions, in the clinical practice, some discrepancies were found among the 3 inclusion criteria. In such circumstances the knowledge of the accuracy of each criterion, the knowledge of the evolution of clinical and neurophysiologic parameters in the few hours following birth, and the knowledge of the pathogenesis of the asphyxia can help to take the right decision on who to treat with hypothermia. The usefulness of hypothermia in newborns of gestational age lower than 36 weeks or when started beyond the 6th hour of life remains unclear. Perinatal stroke, as HIE, is an evolving process and if early diagnosed could benefit from hypothermia. In addition, infants may experience hypoxic-ischemic episodes that are not related to the birth such as early apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs or near miss events. Also in these cases hypothermia can be theoretically efficacious in preventing the progression of brain damage. The above issues will be discussed in the present paper. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  18. Preventing Hypothermia and Frostbite

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    Protect yourself against hypothermia and frostbite during cold weather. Wear warm clothing that covers your skin and remove any wet clothing immediately.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 12/13/2007.

  19. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H;

    2014-01-01

    trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three...

  20. Hypothermia improves outcome from cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S A

    2005-12-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is common and patients who are initially resuscitated by ambulance officers and transported to hospital are usually admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). In the past, the treatment in the ICU consisted of supportive care only, and most patients remained unconscious due to the severe anoxic neurological injury. It was this neurological injury rather than cardiac complications that caused the high rate of morbidity and mortality. However, in the early 1990's, a series of animal experiments demonstrated convincingly that mild hypothermia induced after return of spontaneous circulation and maintained for several hours dramatically reduced the severity of the anoxic neurological injury. In the mid-1990's, preliminary human studies suggested that mild hypothermia could be induced and maintained in post-cardiac arrest patients without an increase in the rate of cardiac or other complications. In the late 1990's, two prospective, randomised, controlled trials were conducted and the results confirmed the animal data that mild hypothermia induced after resuscitation and maintained for 12 - 24 hours dramatically improved neurological and overall outcomes. On the basis of these studies, mild hypothermia was endorsed in 2003 by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation as a recommended treatment for comatose patients with an initial cardiac rhythm of ventricular fibrillation. However, the application of this therapy into routine clinical critical care practice has been slow. The reasons for this are uncertain, but may relate to the relative complexity of the treatment, unfamiliarity with the pathophysiology of hypothermia, lack of clear protocols and/or uncertainty of benefit in particular patients. Therefore, recent research in this area has focused on the development of feasible, inexpensive techniques for the early, rapid induction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Currently, the most promising strategy is a rapid

  1. Adherence to Drug Label Recommendations for Avoiding Drug Interactions Causing Statin-Induced Myopathy–A Nationwide Register Study

    OpenAIRE

    Settergren, Jennifer; Eiermann, Birgit; Mannheimer, Buster

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the extent to which clinicians avoid well-established drug-drug interactions that cause statin-induced myopathy. We hypothesised that clinicians would avoid combining erythromycin or verapamil/diltiazem respectively with atorvastatin or simvastatin. In patients with statin-fibrate combination therapy, we hypothesised that gemfibrozil was avoided to the preference of bezafibrate or fenofibrate. When combined with verapamil/diltiazem or fibrates, we hypothesized that the ...

  2. Maternal mortality in Bahrain 1987-2004: an audit of causes of avoidable death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, A K; Mustafa, F E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this report was to establish the national maternal mortality rate in Bahrain over the period 1987-2004, to identify preventable factors in maternal deaths and to make recommendations for safe motherhood. There were 60 maternal deaths out of 243 232 deliveries giving an average maternal mortality rate of 24.7 per 100 000 total births. The main causes of death were sickle-cell disease (25.0%), hypertension (18.3%), embolism (13.3%), haemorrhage (13.3%), heart disease (11.7%), infection (8.3%) and other (10.0%). In an audit of care, 17 (28.3%) out of 60 deaths were judged to be avoidable, nearly half of which were due to a shortage of intensive care beds. We recommend that a confidential enquiry of maternal deaths be conducted at the national level every 3 to 5 years.

  3. Postmortem pulmonary CT in hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Wolf; Thali, Michael; Giugni, Giannina; Winklhofer, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Fatal hypothermia has been associated with pulmonary edema. With postmortem full body computed tomography scanning (PMCT), the lungs can also be examined for CT attenuation. In fatal hypothermia cases low CT attenuation appeared to prevail in the lungs. We compared 14 cases of fatal hypothermia with an age-sex matched control group. Additionally, 4 cases of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning were examined. Furthermore, 10 test cases were examined to test predictability based on PMCT. Two readers measured CT attenuation on four different axial slices across the lungs (blinded to case group and other reader's results). Hypothermia was associated with statistically significantly lower lung PMCT attenuation and lower lung weights than controls, and there was a dose-effect relationship at an environmental temperature cutoff of 2 °C. CO poisoning yielded low pulmonary attenuation but higher lung weights. General model based prediction yielded a 94% probability for fatal hypothermia deaths and a 21% probability for non-hypothermia deaths in the test group. Increased breathing rate is known to accompany both CO poisoning and hypothermia, so this could partly explain the low PMCT lung attenuation due to an oxygen dissociation curve left shift. A more marked distension in fatal hypothermia, compared to CO poisoning, indicates that further, possibly different mechanisms, are involved in these cases. Increased dead space and increased stiffness to deflation (but not inflation) appear to be effects of inhaling cold air (but not CO) that may explain the difference in low PMCT attenuation seen in hypothermia cases.

  4. 术前联合术中保暖避免全麻手术低体温发生%Preoperative combined with intraoperative warming avoids hypothermia during surgery in general anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱帅; 闵昱源; 郑少华; 周艳楠; 张丽娜; 景桂霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of intraoperative warming with and without 1 hour of preoperative warming, in preventing intraoperative and postoperative hypothermia. Methods Thirty ASA physical status I and II female patients scheduled for elective abdominal surgery received standard general anesthesia. In 10 patients, no special precautions were taken ( Gl group ); 10 patients were submitted to preoperative and intraoperative active warming ( G2 group ); 10 patients were only warmed intraoperatively ( G3 group ). Temperatures were recorded at 30 min intervals. Results The patients in G2 had high skin and core temperatures than Gl group during two hours of anesthesia and the core temperatures were higher at 90 and 120 min than G3 group ( P <0.05 ). Patients in G2 and G3 were extubated early and none had shivering. In contrast, patients in Gl had low temperature and five patients shivered. Conclusion One hour of preoperative warning combined with intraoperative warming can prevent intra - or postoperative hypothermia and shivering and offer good conditions for early tracheal extubation.%目的 观察术中保暖联合或不联合术前1 h保暖,对全麻手术患者术中和术后低体温的影响.方法 收集30例美国麻醉师协会(ASA)分级I~Ⅱ级女性择期腹部手术常规全身麻醉患者.10例不给于保暖措施(G1组);10例术前1 h联合术中保暖(G2组);10例仅术中保暖(G3组).各组患者每30 min记录体温一次.结果 G2组患者手术2 h内体表和核心体均温高于G1组,其术中90 min和120 min核心体温高于G3组(P<0.05).G2和G3组术后拔管较早且无寒颤反应;G1组手术结束时体温较低且5例患者发生寒颤.结论 术前1 h联合术中保暖能避免全麻手术术中和术后低体温、寒颤发生,给拔管提供良好条件.

  5. Restriction-Modification systems interplay causes avoidance of GATC site in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Anna; Rusinov, Ivan; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Spirin, Sergey; Karyagina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Palindromes are frequently underrepresented in prokaryotic genomes. Palindromic 5[Formula: see text]-GATC-3[Formula: see text] site is a recognition site of different Restriction-Modification (R-M) systems, as well as solitary methyltransferase Dam. Classical GATC-specific R-M systems methylate GATC and cleave unmethylated GATC. On the contrary, methyl-directed Type II restriction endonucleases cleave methylated GATC. Methylation of GATC by Dam methyltransferase is involved in the regulation of different cellular processes. The diversity of functions of GATC-recognizing proteins makes GATC sequence a good model for studying the reasons of palindrome avoidance in prokaryotic genomes. In this work, the influence of R-M systems and solitary proteins on the GATC site avoidance is described by a mathematical model. GATC avoidance is strongly associated with the presence of alternate (methyl-directed or classical Type II R-M system) genes in different strains of the same species, as we have shown for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Eubacterium rectale, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We hypothesize that GATC avoidance can result from a DNA exchange between strains with different methylation status of GATC site within the process of natural transformation. If this hypothesis is correct, the GATC avoidance is a sign of a DNA exchange between bacteria with different methylation status in a mixed population.

  6. Efficient trawl avoidance by mesopelagic fishes causes large underestimation of their biomass

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-06-07

    Mesopelagic fishes occur in all the world’s oceans, but their abundance and consequently their ecological significance remains uncertain. The current global estimate based on net sampling prior to 1980 suggests a global abundance of one gigatonne (109 t) wet weight. Here we report novel evidence of efficient avoidance of such sampling by the most common myctophid fish in the Northern Atlantic, i.e. Benthosema glaciale. We reason that similar avoidance of nets may explain consistently higher acoustic abundance estimates of mesopelagic fish from different parts of the world’s oceans. It appears that mesopelagic fish abundance may be underestimated by one order of magnitude, suggesting that the role of mesopelagic fish in the oceans might need to be revised.

  7. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature...... is directly related to stroke severity and outcome, and fever after stroke is associated with substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Normalisation of temperature in acute stroke by antipyretics is generally recommended, although there is no direct evidence to support this treatment. Despite its...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought...

  8. Emergency Department Visits at the End of Life of Patients With Terminal Cancer: Pattern, Causes, and Avoidability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsirafy, Samy A; Raheem, Ahmad A; Al-Zahrani, Abdullah S; Mohammed, Amrallah A; Sherisher, Mohamed A; El-Kashif, Amr T; Ghanem, Hafez M

    2016-08-01

    Frequent emergency department visits (EDVs) by patients with terminal cancer indicates aggressive care. The pattern and causes of EDVs in 154 patients with terminal cancer were investigated. The EDVs that started during working hours and ended by home discharge were considered avoidable. During the last 3 months of life, 77% of patients had at least 1 EDV. In total, 309 EDVs were analyzed. The EDVs occurred out of hour in 67%, extended for an average of 3.6 hours, and ended by hospitalization in 52%. The most common chief complaints were pain (46%), dyspnea (13%), and vomiting (12%). The EDVs were considered avoidable in 19% of the visits. The majority of patients with terminal cancer visit the ED before death, mainly because of uncontrolled symptoms. A significant proportion of EDVs at the end of life is potentially avoidable. PMID:25877944

  9. European society of intensive care medicine study of therapeutic hypothermia (32-35°C for intracranial pressure reduction after traumatic brain injury (the Eurotherm3235Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stocchetti Nino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and severe disability worldwide with 1,000,000 hospital admissions per annum throughout the European Union. Therapeutic hypothermia to reduce intracranial hypertension may improve patient outcome but key issues are length of hypothermia treatment and speed of re-warming. A recent meta-analysis showed improved outcome when hypothermia was continued for between 48 hours and 5 days and patients were re-warmed slowly (1°C/4 hours. Previous experience with cooling also appears to be important if complications, which may outweigh the benefits of hypothermia, are to be avoided. Methods/design This is a pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial examining the effects of hypothermia 32-35°C, titrated to reduce intracranial pressure Participants are randomised to either standard care or standard care with titrated therapeutic hypothermia. Hypothermia is initiated with 20-30 ml/kg of intravenous, refrigerated 0.9% saline and maintained using each centre's usual cooling technique. There is a guideline for detection and treatment of shivering in the intervention group. Hypothermia is maintained for at least 48 hours in the treatment group and continued for as long as is necessary to maintain intracranial pressure 20 mmHg in accordance with the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines, 2007. Discussion The Eurotherm3235Trial is the most important clinical trial in critical care ever conceived by European intensive care medicine, because it was launched and funded by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and will be the largest non-commercial randomised controlled trial due to the substantial number of centres required to deliver the target number of patients. It represents a new and fundamental step for intensive care medicine in Europe. Recruitment will continue until January 2013 and interested clinicians from intensive care units worldwide can still join this important

  10. [Severe accidental hypothermia in an elderly woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, B; Mikhlin, A

    2001-11-01

    . Respiratory and metabolic, sometimes lactic, acidosis, lethargy and coma, hypercoagulopathy, hyperosmolar state, acute pancreatitis and renal and hepatic failure are frequent complications of hypothermia. Underlying predisposing causes of hypothermia are diabetic ketoacidosis, cerebrovascular disease, mental retardation, hypothyroidism, pituitary and adrenal insufficiency, malnutrition, acute alcoholism, liver damage, hypoglycemia, sepsis, hypothalamic dysfunction, sepsis and polypharmacy, and especially, the use of sedative and narcotic drugs. Our case demonstrates once again that CPR once begun should continue until the successful rewarming because "no one is dead until warm and dead". PMID:11759373

  11. Hypothermia: Novel Approaches for Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Rosemary D.; Shankaran, Seetha

    2011-01-01

    Hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy has recently permeated clinical practice for term infants. Speculation regarding a neuroprotective benefit of hypothermia for premature infants with HIE has been raised as a need for further research. Hypothermia for other indications including necrotizing enterocolitis with the hope of tissue preservation following injury is less well studied. A summary of evidence for hypothermia and premature infants is presented in this brief report.

  12. Hypothermia and room air resuscitation in NT2-N neurons, immature rats and newborn pigs

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia remains one of the major causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mild therapeutic hypothermia reduces brain injury after perinatal asphyxia. There is an ongoing search for strategies to further improve outcome, including best practice resuscitation and interventions that can be used in combination with hypothermia. The use of supplemental oxygen during resuscitation causes a number of harmful effects including increased cerebral injury. It is not known whethe...

  13. Adherence to drug label recommendations for avoiding drug interactions causing statin-induced myopathy--a nationwide register study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Settergren

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the extent to which clinicians avoid well-established drug-drug interactions that cause statin-induced myopathy. We hypothesised that clinicians would avoid combining erythromycin or verapamil/diltiazem respectively with atorvastatin or simvastatin. In patients with statin-fibrate combination therapy, we hypothesised that gemfibrozil was avoided to the preference of bezafibrate or fenofibrate. When combined with verapamil/diltiazem or fibrates, we hypothesized that the dispensed doses of atorvastatin/simvastatin would be decreased. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of nationwide dispensing data. Odds ratios of interacting erythromycin, verapamil/diltiazem versus respective prevalence of comparator drugs doxycycline, amlodipine/felodipine in patients co-dispensed interacting statins simvastatin/atorvastatin versus patients unexposed (pravastatin/fluvastatin/rosuvastatin was calculated. For fibrates, OR of gemfibrozil versus fenofibrate/bezafibrate in patients co-dispensed any statin was assessed. RESULTS: OR of interacting erythromycin versus comparator doxycycline did not differ between patients on interacting and comparator statins either in patients dispensed high or low statin doses (adjusted OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.60-1.25 and 0.92; 95% CI 0.69-1.23. Interacting statins were less common among patients dispensed verapamil/diltiazem as compared to patients on amlodipine/felodipine (OR high dose 0.62; CI 0.56-0.68 and low dose 0.63; CI 0.58-0.68. Patients on any statin were to a lesser extent dispensed gemfibrozil compared to patients not dispensed a statin (OR high dose 0.65; CI 0.55-0.76 and low dose 0.70; CI 0.63-0.78. Mean DDD (SD for any statin was substantially higher in patients co-dispensed gemfibrozil 178 (149 compared to patients on statin monotherapy 127 (93, (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Prescribers may to some extent avoid co-prescription of statins with calcium blockers and fibrates with an increased risk of myopathy

  14. Hypothermia activates adipose tissue to promote malignant lung cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangjun Du

    Full Text Available Microenvironment has been increasingly recognized as a critical regulator of cancer progression. In this study, we identified early changes in the microenvironment that contribute to malignant progression. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to methylnitrosourea (MNU caused a reduction in cell toxicity and an increase in clonogenic capacity when the temperature was lowered from 37°C to 28°C. Hypothermia-incubated adipocyte media promoted proliferation in A549 cells. Although a hypothermic environment could increase urethane-induced tumor counts and Lewis lung cancer (LLC metastasis in lungs of three breeds of mice, an increase in tumor size could be discerned only in obese mice housed in hypothermia. Similarly, coinjections using differentiated adipocytes and A549 cells promoted tumor development in athymic nude mice when adipocytes were cultured at 28°C. Conversely, fat removal suppressed tumor growth in obese C57BL/6 mice inoculated with LLC cells. Further studies show hypothermia promotes a MNU-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and protects the tumor cell against immune control by TGF-β1 upregulation. We also found that activated adipocytes trigger tumor cell proliferation by increasing either TNF-α or VEGF levels. These results suggest that hypothermia activates adipocytes to stimulate tumor boost and play critical determinant roles in malignant progression.

  15. Effect of therapeutic hypothermia on chromosomal aberration in perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahubali D Gane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perinatal asphyxia is a major cause for neonatal mortality and morbidity around the world. The reduction of O2results in the generation of reactive oxygen species which interact with nucleic acid and make alteration in the structure and functioning of the genome. We studied the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on chromosomes with karyotyping. Subjects and Methods: Babies in the hypothermia group were cooled for the first 72 h, using gel packs. Rectal temperature of 33–34°C was maintained. Blood sample was collected after completion of therapeutic hypothermia for Chromosomal analysis. It was done with IKAROS Karyotyping system, Metasystems, based on recommendations of International system of human cytogenetic nomenclature. Results: The median chromosomal aberration was lower in hypothermia [2(0-5] than control group [4(1-7] and chromatid breakage was commonest aberration seen. Chromosomal aberration was significantly higher in severe encephalopathy group than moderate encephalopathy group. Conclusion: We conclude that the TH significantly reduces DNA damage in perinatal asphyxia.

  16. Role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Harris, A.H. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia was examined. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neurotensin produced dose-dependent hypothermia. Histamine appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hypothermia because the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and antihistamines blocked the hypothermic effects of neurotensin. An ICV pretreatment with neurotensin antibody attenuated neurotensin-induced hypothermia, but did not attenuate radiation-induced hypothermia, suggesting that radiation-induced hypothermia was not mediated by neurotensin.

  17. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui YUAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypothermia. A series of rewarming measures, such as infusion of warm fluids, inspiration of warm air, abdominal infusion of warm fluid, instruction of warm fluid into pleural cavity, intravenous infusion of warm fluid, rewarming through ECMO, etc. have been used recently. Advance in research on the classification of hypothermia, its impact to the body and the treatment methods are reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.15

  18. Hypothermia and rewarming induce gene expression and multiplication of cells in healthy rat prostate tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kaija

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer has been extensively studied, but cellular stress responses in healthy prostate tissue are rarely investigated. Hypothermia is known to cause alterations in mRNA and protein expressions and stability. The aim of this study was to use normal rat prostate as a model in order to find out consequences of cold exposure and rewarming on the expressions of genes which are either members or functionally/structurally related to erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene B (ErbB signaling pathway. Relative mRNA expressions of amphiregulin (AMR, cyclin D1 (CyD1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, transmembrane form of the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP, thrombomodulin (TM and heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 in rat ventral prostate were quantified in mild (2 or 4.5 h at room temperature and severe (2 or 4.5 h at +10°C hypothermia and in rewarming after cold exposure (2 h at +10°C followed by 2 h at room temperature or 3 h at +28°C. AMR protein level, apoptotic Bcl-2 associated X protein to B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio and proliferative index Ki-67 were determined. 4.5-h mild hypothermia, 2-h severe hypothermia and rewarming increased expression of all these genes. Elevated proliferation index Ki-67 could be seen in 2-h severe hypothermia, and the proliferation index had its highest value in longer rewarming with totally recovered normal body temperature. Pro-apoptotic tendency could be seen in 2-h mild hypothermia while anti-apoptosis was predominant in 4.5-h mild hypothermia and in shorter rewarming with only partly recovered body temperature. Hypothermia and following rewarming promote the proliferation of cells in healthy rat prostate tissue possibly via ErbB signaling pathway.

  19. [Hypothermia--mechanism of action and pathophysiological changes in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, Przemysław; Mikrut, Kinga; Krauss, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the physiological responses and pathophysiological changes induced by hypothermia. Normal body function depends on its ability to maintain thermal homeostasis. The human body can be divided arbitrarily into two thermal compartments: a core compartment (trunk and head), with precisely regulated temperature around 37°C, and a peripheral compartment (skin and extremities) with less strictly controlled temperature, and lower than the core temperature. Thermoregulatory processes occur in three phases: afferent thermal sensing, central regulation, mainly by the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, and efferent response. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses including cutaneous vasoconstriction, shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis, and behavioral changes. Alterations of body temperature associated with impaired thermoregulation, decreased heat production or increased heat loss can lead to hypothermia. Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature below 35ºC, and may be classified according to the origin as accidental (e.g. caused by exposure to a cold environment, drugs, or illness) or intentional (i.e. therapeutic), or by the degree of hypothermia as mild, moderate or severe. Classification by temperature is not universal. Lowering of body temperature disrupts the physiological processes at the molecular, cellular and system level, but hypothermia induced prior to cardiosurgical or neurosurgical procedures, by the decrease in tissue oxygen demand, can reduce the risk of cerebral or cardiac ischemic damage. Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended as a clinical procedure in situations characterized by ischemia, such as cardiac arrest, stroke and brain injuries. PMID:25614675

  20. Use of cold intravenous fluid to induce hypothermia in a comatose child after cardiac arrest due to a lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Kyong, Yeon-Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kyu-Nam

    2008-11-01

    We report a case in which mild hypothermia was induced successfully using a cold intravenous fluid infusion in a 12-year-old boy who was comatose following 21 min of cardiac arrest caused by a lightning strike. PMID:18805616

  1. Locally induced hypothermia for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: a physical feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotboom, J; Kiefer, C; Brekenfeld, C; Ozdoba, C; Remonda, L; Nedeltchev, K; Arnold, M; Mattle, H; Schroth, G

    2004-11-01

    During the treatment of stroke by local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) it is frequently possible to pass the blood clot with a micro-catheter, allowing perfusion of brain tissue distally to the occlusion. This possibility allows for new early treatments of ischaemic brain tissue, even before the blood clot has been removed. One potential new approach to preserve brain tissue at risk may be locally induced endovascular hypothermia. Physical parameters such as the required micro-catheter input pressure, output velocity and flow rates, and a heat exchange model, applicable in the case of a micro-catheter placed within a guiding catheter, are presented. Also, a simple cerebral temperature model is derived that models the temperature response of the brain to the perfusion with coolant fluids. Based on this model, an expression has been derived for the time needed to reach a certain cerebral target temperature. Experimental in vitro measurements are presented that confirm the usability of standard commercially available micro-catheters to induce local hypothermia of the brain. If applied in vivo, the model predicts a local cooling rate of ischaemic brain tissue of 300 g of approximately 1 degrees C in 1 min, which is up to a factor 30-times faster than the time-consuming systemic hypothermia via the skin. Systemic body temperature is only minimally affected by application of local hypothermia, thus avoiding many limitations and complications known in systemic hypothermia. PMID:15551092

  2. Locally induced hypothermia for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: A physical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the treatment of stroke by local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) it is frequently possible to pass the blood clot with a micro-catheter, allowing perfusion of brain tissue distally to the occlusion. This possibility allows for new early treatments of ischaemic brain tissue, even before the blood clot has been removed. One potential new approach to preserve brain tissue at risk may be locally induced endovascular hypothermia. Physical parameters such as the required micro-catheter input pressure, output velocity and flow rates, and a heat exchange model, applicable in the case of a micro-catheter placed within a guiding catheter, are presented. Also, a simple cerebral temperature model is derived that models the temperature response of the brain to the perfusion with coolant fluids. Based on this model, an expression has been derived for the time needed to reach a certain cerebral target temperature. Experimental in vitro measurements are presented that confirm the usability of standard commercially available micro-catheters to induce local hypothermia of the brain. If applied in vivo, the model predicts a local cooling rate of ischaemic brain tissue of 300 g of approximately 1 C in 1 min, which is up to a factor 30-times faster than the time-consuming systemic hypothermia via the skin. Systemic body temperature is only minimally affected by application of local hypothermia, thus avoiding many limitations and complications known in systemic hypothermia. (orig.)

  3. Stridor in asphyxiated neonates undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Judith; Kissack, Christopher; Becher, Julie-Clare

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is an established standard of care in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Application of therapeutic hypothermia in the clinical setting may reveal a wider spectrum of adverse events than previously reported. We report 5 cases of transient respiratory stridor in 51 infants, occurring at different time points in the cooling process, which appeared to be unrelated to the intubation procedure. Therapeutic hypothermia was associated with transient stridor in this case series. Formal laryngoscopy is required to determine the underlying pathologic etiology.

  4. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Causes Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice Under Approach-Avoidance Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlu; Yan, Yixiu; Cheng, Jingjing; Xiao, Gang; Gu, Jueqing; Zhang, Luqi; Yuan, Siyu; Wang, Junlu; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal approach-avoidance behavior has been linked to deficits in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of the brain. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important pattern-recognition receptor in the innate immune system, can be directly activated by substances of abuse, resulting in an increase of the extracellular DA level in the nucleus accumbens. We thus hypothesized that TLR4-dependent signaling might regulate approach-avoidance behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared the novelty-seeking and social interaction behaviors of TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in an approach-avoidance conflict situation in which the positive motivation to explore a novel object or interact with an unfamiliar mouse was counteracted by the negative motivation to hide in exposed, large spaces. We found that TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced novelty-seeking and social interaction in the large open spaces. In less stressful test apparatuses similar in size to the mouse cage, however, TLR4(-/-) mice performed normally in both novelty-seeking and social interaction tests. The reduced exploratory behaviors under approach-avoidance conflict were not due to a high anxiety level or an enhanced fear response in the TLR4(-/-) mice, as these mice showed normal anxiety and fear responses in the open field and passive avoidance tests, respectively. Importantly, the novelty-seeking behavior in the large open field induced a higher level of c-Fos activation in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Partially inactivating the NAcSh via infusion of GABA receptor agonists restored the novelty-seeking behavior of TLR4(-/-) mice. These data suggested that TLR4 is crucial for positive motivational behavior under approach-avoidance conflict. TLR4-dependent activation of neurons in the NAcSh may contribute to this phenomenon.

  5. Hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wind and use a blanket to provide insulation from the cold ground. Cover the person's head ... Physician at FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, ...

  6. Halting Hypothermia: Cold Can Be Dangerous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the size of our small blood vessels and shivering—to help us maintain a healthy body temperature,” ... and hands Puffy or swollen face Pale skin Shivering (although people with hypothermia don’t always shiver) ...

  7. Hypothermia for hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Cotten, C. Michael; Shankaran, Seetha

    2010-01-01

    Moderate to severe hypoxic–ischemic injury in newborn infants, manifested as encephalopathy immediately or within hours after birth, is associated with a high risk of either death or a lifetime with disability. In recent multicenter clinical trials, hypothermia initiated within the first 6 postnatal hours has emerged as a therapy that reduces the risk of death or impairment among infants with hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy. Prior to hypothermia, no therapies directly targeting neonatal encep...

  8. Clear-cutting is causing large emissions of greenhouse gases - are there other harvest options that can avoid these emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Vestin, P.; Sundqvist, E.; Mölder, M.; Bâth, A.; Hellström, M.; Klemedtsson, L.; Weslien, P.

    2012-04-01

    just beside the clear-cut experiment. The CO2 fluxes from the forest were measured by eddy covariance method while soil CO2 and CH4 effluxes were measured by automatic chambers. The thinning was made in November/December 2008. Immediately after the thinning, we found significantly higher soil effluxes, probably due to increased decomposition of dead roots but the soil was still a sink of CH4. The stand level flux measurements showed no effect on total ecosystem respiration, probably because of reduced autotrophic respiration from canopy layer. Initially the GPP was slightly reduced as compared to the non-thinned sector but already after 6-7 months, no effect of the thinning on GPP could be detected. The results indicate that selective harvest such as thinning has the potential to avoid the emissions that occur after a heavy disturbance such as that caused by clear-cutting. Thus, more efforts should be made to study the long-term effects on the total GHG exchange by selective harvest methods as compared to clear-cut methods.

  9. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  10. Portable arteriovenous rewarming for hypothermia: cardiovascular considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Uwe M; Gill, Brijesh S; Aroom, Kevin; Fogle, Lindsey; Xue, Hasen; Cox, Charles S

    2008-01-01

    In trauma patients, continuous arteriovenous (AV) rewarming can effectively reverse hypothermia even if associated with hypovolemia. In battlefield conditions, however, portable fluid warmers driven by battery power show limited capacities. We studied the efficacy and safety of a portable fluid warmer that utilizes controlled hydrocarbon combustion (nonflame) for heat generation during continuous AV rewarming in a large animal model of hypothermia and hemorrhagic shock. Six dogs (26.1 +/- 0.8 kg) were cooled to a core temperature of 30 degrees C (hypo 1). After rewarming to 37 degrees C, dogs were bled by 20% of their estimated blood volume and cooled again to 30 degrees C (hypo 2) followed by rewarming. We recorded temperature (blood, esophageal, rectal, and bladder), left ventricular performance, hemodynamic parameters including superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow and blood flow through the fluid warmer. Especially, we measured the effect of the AV-shunt on cardiac output and regional blood flow (superior mesenteric artery). Rewarming after hypothermia took 45 +/- 6 minutes (hypothermia 1) and 55 +/- 6 minutes (hypothermia 2), respectively. The AV-shunt flow was correlated to the cardiac output and affected neither cardiac output nor regional blood flow at any time point during the experiment. Arteriovenous rewarming, using the tested portable fluid warmer, effectively reversed hypothermia without compromising hemodynamics or regional blood flow. PMID:18496278

  11. [Recent treatment of postischaemic anoxic brain damage after cardiac arrest by using therapeutic hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelić, Sladjana

    2008-01-01

    Organ injury caused by ischaemia and anoxia during prolonged cardiac arrest is compounded by reperfusion injury that occurs when spontaneous circulation is restored. Mild hypothermia (32-35 degrees C) is neuroprotective through several mechanisms, including suppression of apoptosis, reduced production of excitotoxins and free radicals, and anti-inflammatory actions. Experimental studies show that hypothermia is more effective the earlier it is started after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Two randomised clinical trials show improved survival and neurological outcome in adults who remained comatose after initial resuscitation from prehospital VF cardiac arrest, and who were cooled after ROSC. Different strategies can be used to induce hypothermia. Optimal timing of therapeutic hypothermia for cardiac ischaemia is unknown. In patients who failed to respond to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intra-arrest cooling using ice-cold intravenous (i.v.) fluid improved the chance of survival. Recently, fasudil, a Rho kinase inhibitor, was reported to prevent cerebral ischaemia in vivo by increasing cerebral blood flow and inhibiting inflammatory responses. In future, two different kinds of protective therapies, BCL-2 overexpression and hypothermia,will both inhibit aspects of apoptotic cell death cascades, and that combination treatment can prolong the temporal "therapeutic window" for gene therapy. PMID:19069351

  12. Recent treatment of postischaemic anoxic brain damage after cardiac arrest by using therapeutic hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Slađana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ injury caused by ischemia and anoxia during prolonged cardiac arrest is compounded by reperfusion injury that occurs when spontaneous circulation is restored. Mild hypothermia (32-35ºC is neuroprotective through several mechanisms, including suppression of apoptosis, reduced production of excitotoxins and free radicals, and anti-inflammatory actions. Experimental studies show that hypothermia is more effective the earlier it is started after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Two randomized clinical trials show improved survival and neurological outcome in adults who remained comatose after initial resuscitation from prehospital VF cardiac arrest, and who were cooled after ROSC. Different strategies can be used to induce hypothermia. Optimal timing of therapeutic hypothermia for cardiac ischemia is unknown. In patients who failed to respond to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intra-arrest cooling using ice-cold intravenous (i.v. fluid improved the chance of survival. Recently, fasudil, a Rho kinase inhibitor, was reported to prevent cerebral ischaemia in vivo by increasing cerebral blood flow and inhibiting inflammatory responses. In future, two different kinds of protective therapies, BCL-2 overexpression and hypothermia, will both inhibit aspects of apoptotic cell death cascades, and that combination treatment can prolong the temporal 'therapeutic window' for gene therapy.

  13. Hypothermia Reduces Toll-Like Receptor 3-Activated Microglial Interferon-β and Nitric Oxide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Matsui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic hypothermia protects neurons after injury to the central nervous system (CNS. Microglia express toll-like receptors (TLRs that play significant roles in the pathogenesis of sterile CNS injury. To elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia, we examined the effects of hypothermic culture on TLR3-activated microglial release of interferon (IFN-β and nitric oxide (NO, which are known to be associated with neuronal cell death. When rat or mouse microglia were cultured under conditions of hypothermia (33°C and normothermia (37°C with a TLR3 agonist, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, the production of IFN-β and NO in TLR3-activated microglia at 48 h was decreased by hypothermia compared with that by normothermia. In addition, exposure to recombinant IFN-β and sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, caused death of rat neuronal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner after 24 h. Taken together, these results suggest that the attenuation of microglial production of IFN-β and NO by therapeutic hypothermia leads to the inhibition of neuronal cell death.

  14. Causes and avoidance of container damages by means of biocorrosion; Ursachen und Vermeidung von Behaelterschaeden durch Biokorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuever, Jan [Amtliche Materialpruefungsanstalt Bremen (MPA), Bremen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The contribution under consideration deals with the causes and prevention of vessel damages due to corrosion by microorganisms (MIC, microbially induced corrosion) in the presence and absence of oxygen. In particular, the microbially induced corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria and the formation of sulfuric acid by microorganisms are described. Consequential damage caused by microorganisms are inactivation of filters and catalysts, degradation products from the fermentation process and deposits in the pipe system.

  15. Data on the gene expression of cardiomyocyte exposed to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Xue, Xiaodong; Xu, Yinli; Zhang, Yuji; Li, Zhi; Wang, Huishan

    2016-09-01

    Hypothermia is widely used in neurosurgery and cardiac surgeries. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. We previously reported that the transcriptome responses of cardiomyocyte exposed to hypothermia, "The transcriptome responses of cardiomyocyte exposed to hypothermia" [4]. Herein, we provide the hypothermia inhibited proliferation of cardiomyocyte cells in vitro and the details of transcription factors in regulation of differentially expressed genes. PMID:27274530

  16. Blackouts: causes, impacts and measures that can avoid it; Blecautes: causas, impactos e medidas que podem evita-los

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Marcos A.P.; Silveira, Jose Ricardo da

    1996-11-01

    This work traces a panorama of the blackouts in Brazil describing its causes and the several inconveniences that bring to society. It also presents the learnt lessons in function of the occurred events and the aspects that should be considered to increase the reliability of the power system 2 tabs.

  17. Hypothermia for Stroke: call to action 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macleod, Malcolm R; Petersson, Jesper; Norrving, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    , there is a need for an efficacious, cost-effective novel therapy that can be implemented broadly within European health care systems. Accordingly, the primary objective of the workshop was the definition of a research agenda aiming to assess the therapeutic benefits of hypothermia in patients with acute ischaemic...... Agency, and small- and medium-sized enterprises based in EU member states. The participants adopted the 'Hypothermia for Stroke--Call to Action 2010', a declaration specifying the priorities for hypothermia research in acute ischaemic stroke. The research programme outlined--a clinical study programme...... designed to identify and validate therapeutic cooling as a novel treatment providing benefit to a large number of stroke patients--contains a well-integrated series of Phase II studies aiming to refine the intervention (depth, duration, and mode of cooling; antishivering strategy; patient selection...

  18. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Søholm, Helle;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopres......AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level......-score of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). The population was stratified by use of dopamine as first line intervention (D-group) or use of dopamine+norepinephrine/epinephrine (DA-group). Primary endpoint was 30-day mortality and secondary endpoint was in-hospital cause of death. RESULTS: Patients in the DA......-group carried a 49% all-cause 30-day mortality rate compared to 23% in the D-group, plog-rankCause of death...

  19. Accidental hypothermia: Rewarming treatments, complications and outcomes from one university medical centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van der Ploeg; J.C. Goslings; B.H. Walpoth; J.J.L.M. Bierens

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study: Accidental hypothermia (AH) is a complex and life threatening condition. Knowledge about epidemiology, rewarming treatments, complications and outcome is limited. This study was initiated to obtain data on causes, rewarming treatments and complications. Methods: A retrospective coh

  20. Approach to indicators of avoidable cause of death among infants in Sichuan province%四川省婴儿可避免死亡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋迎佳; 吴方银; 曹静; 赵梓伶; 熊庆

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To determine avoidable death indication among infants in Sichuan province and reduce mortality of infants.[Method]Relative risk(RR) of mortality in infants between USA and Sichuan, rural and urban areas of Sichuan were measured to determine avoidable death indicators among Sichuan province.[Results]Septicemia, pneumonia, diarrhea, tetanus, neonatal scleredema, intracerebral hemorrhage, Down's syndrome, birth asphyxia, accident suffocation, drowning, accident falling were considered as avoidable death causes of Sichuan province.[Conclusion]Avoidable causes of death mortality among infants in Sichuan should be controlled by medical intervention.%[目的]明确四川省婴儿可避免死亡指标,为制定该省婴儿死亡率的卫生政策和医疗保健措施提供一定的理论依据.[方法]根据Rutstein等提出的可避免死亡指标,采用四川省与美国、本省城乡婴儿死因死亡率对比,计算相对危险度.[结果]四川省婴儿可避免死因为:败血症、肺炎、腹泻、新生儿破伤风、新生儿硬肿症、颅内出血、先天愚型、出生窒息、意外窒息、溺水和意外跌落.[结论]要降低本省婴儿死亡率,应加强可避免死因疾病的控制.

  1. Cooling strategies and transport theories for brain hypothermia resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing

    2007-01-01

    The brain is one of the most important organs in a biological body whose normal function depends heavily on an uninterrupted delivery of oxygen.Unlike skeletal muscles that can survive for hours without oxygen,neuron cells in the brain are easily subjected to an irreversible damage within minutes from the onset of oxygen deficiency.With the interruption of cardiopulmonary circulation in many cardiac surgical procedures or accidental events leading to cerebral circulation arrest,an imbalance between energy production and consumption will occur which causes a rapid depletion of oxygen due to the interrupted blood-flow to the brain.Meanwhile,the cooling function of the blood flow on the hot tissue will be stopped,while metabolic heat generation in the tissues still keeps running for awhile.Under such adverse situations,the potential for cerebral protection through hypothermia has been intensively investigated in clinics by lowering brain temperature to restrain the cerebral oxygen demands.The reason can be attributed to the decreased metabolic requirements of the cold brain tissues,which allows a longer duration for the brain to endure reduced oxygen delivery.It is now clear that hypothermia would serve as the principal way for neurologic protection in a wide variety of emergency medicines,especially in cerebral damage,anoxia,circulatory arrest,respiratory occlusion,etc.However,although brain cooling has been found uniquely significant in clinical practices,the serious lack of knowledge on the mechanisms involved prevents its further advancement in brain resuscitation.Compared with the expanded trials in clinics,only very limited efforts were made to probe the engineering issues involved,which turns out to be a major obstacle for the successful operation of brain hypothermia resuscitation.From the viewpoint of biothermal medical engineering,the major theories and strategies for administering brain cooling can generally be classified into three categories:heat transfer

  2. Mild hypothermia as a treatment for central nervous system injuries Positive or negative effects?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rami Darwazeh; Yi Yan

    2013-01-01

    Besides local neuronal damage caused by the primary insult, central nervous system injuries may secondarily cause a progressive cascade of related events including brain edema, ischemia, oxida-tive stress, excitotoxicity, and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Hypothermia is a beneficial strategy in a variety of acute central nervous system injuries. Mild hypothermia can treat high intra-cranial pressure fol owing traumatic brain injuries in adults. It is a new treatment that increases sur-vival and quality of life for patients suffering from ischemic insults such as cardiac arrest, stroke, and neurogenic fever fol owing brain trauma. Therapeutic hypothermia decreases free radical produc-tion, inflammation, excitotoxicity and intracranial pressure, and improves cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia, thus protecting against central nervous system dam-age. Although a series of pathological and physiological changes as wel as potential side effects are observed during hypothermia treatment, it remains a potential therapeutic strategy for central nervous system injuries and deserves further study.

  3. Experience of valve replacement under mild hypothermia on pump-beating heart:an analysis of 800 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏成; 肖颖彬; 陈林; 钟前进; 王学锋; 周骐; 易广兵

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the outcome of valve replacement under mild hypothermia on pump-beating heart and to discuss the risk factors of cardiac valve surgery. Methods: In the period from November 1997 to May 2003, a total of 800cases of valve replacement were carried out in our institute. The clinical data were reviewed and the technique of mild hypothermia and pump-beating heart to replace cardiac valve was described in detail. Results: 800 patients, 308 male and 492female, with age range from 8 to 66 years, weighing 19 to 88 kg, underwent operation. The average cardiopulmonary bypass time was (109.38 ± 40.64) min, the average clamping time of the vena cava was (77.87 ± 27.99) min and the average mechanical ventilation time was (17.78 ± 12.21) h. There were 17 patients died in the early postoperative stage with an early mortality rate of 2.13%. The causes of death were failure in the weaning of extracorporeal circulation in 2 cases, severe low output syndrome in 3 cases, ventricular fibrillation in 3 cases, obstruction of coronary ostium of mechanical prosthetic valve in 1 case, hepatic failure in 2 cases, pulmonary failure in 1 case, multiorgan failure in 4 cases, and prosthetic valve dysfunction in 1 case. Severe postopertive complications occurred in 51 cases (6.375%), which included reexploration because of excessive bleeding in 16 cases (2.0%), lavage of poststemal infection in 2 cases (0.25%), postoperative strike in 7 cases (0.875%), pulmonary failure in 5 cases (0.625%), hepatic failure in 4 cases (0.5%), multiorgan failure in 11 cases (1.375 % ), ventricular arrhythmia in 5 cases (0.625%) and peripheral circulation failure in 1 case(0. 125 % ). Conclusion: Mild hypothermia and pump-beating heart result in satisfying clinical outcome in patients undergoing valve replacement. The integrated sequenced deairing procedure ensures the avoidance of air embolism during operation.Pump-beating heart technique offers a safe and practical option especially in

  4. Hypothermia-induced anterograde amnesia: is memory loss attributable to impaired acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, A C; Kasenow, P M; Riccio, D C; Richardson, R

    1987-07-01

    The present investigation examined whether the poor test performance observed in studies of anterograde amnesia reflects a memory deficit or is a by-product of weaker initial learning resulting from impaired sensory, motivational, or associative processes. Two experiments were performed which utilized latent extinction (Experiment 1) and delay of punishment (Experiment 2) manipulations in order to assess the nature of original learning in rats trained under either hypothermic (29 degrees C) or normothermic conditions. Results from both experiments provided evidence that hypothermia treatment administered prior to training had relatively little influence on the animal's ability to acquire a passive avoidance response. Therefore, the rapid forgetting observed in hypothermia-induced anterograde amnesia is most likely due to memory deficits rather than an artifact of poorer acquisition. PMID:3632548

  5. Hypothermia for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Infants ≥ 36 weeks

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Rosemary D.; Shankaran, Seetha

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is a serious condition affecting infants which can result in death and disability. This is a summary of pathogenesis of HIE, animal studies of cooling for hypoxic and ischemic models, human hypothermia trials, and the American Academy of Pediatrics publication on hypothermia for HIE. Hypothermia for neonatal HIE is continuing to evolve as a therapy. Studies, gaps in knowledge and opportunities for research are presented herein.

  6. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Cardioprotection in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, In Sook; Fumiaki, Ikeno; Pyun, Wook Bum

    2016-01-01

    Mild therapeutic hypothermia of 32–35℃ improved neurologic outcomes in outside hospital cardiac arrest survivor. Furthermore, in experimental studies on infarcted model and pilot studies on conscious patients with acute myocardial infarction, therapeutic hypothermia successfully reduced infarct size and microvascular resistance. Therefore, mild therapeutic hypothermia has received an attention as a promising solution for reduction of infarction size after acute myocardial infarction which are...

  7. 旅游市场风险成因及规避研究%Research on Avoidance and Causes of the Tourism Market Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗治得; 李荣道; 刘倩

    2012-01-01

    Tourism market risk is difficult to solve which exists widely in tourism industry,however,with fewer studies on the tourism market risk.Based on the analysis of tourism market risk causes,the paper proposes some avoidable strategies,which will help knowing more about the tourism market risk and enrich the tourism market risk researches.%旅游市场风险是旅游业普遍存在且难以解决的问题,但有关旅游市场风险的研究较少。本文对旅游市场风险成因系统分析基础上,提出规避旅游市场风险的策略,以期提高对旅游市场风险的认识,丰富旅游市场风险研究的内容。

  8. Refractory hypotension due to intraoperative hypothermia during spinal instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah Vanamoorthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of inadvertent hypothermia leading to severe hypotension resistant to high dose vasopressors, which responded to temperature correction in a patient undergoing spinal instrumentation surgery. A 60-year-old female developed severe hypotension during spinal instrumentation surgery. After review of all factors it was found to be secondary to hypothermia. The patient did not respond to high dose vasopressors. However, when normothermia was restored she recovered uneventfully. Patients undergoing lengthy spinal procedures in prone position are vulnerable to develop hypothermia and consequent cardiovascular depression so adequate measures should be taken to prevent hypothermia.

  9. Outcome of accidental hypothermia with or without circulatory arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Michael; Agersnap, Lisbeth; Ravn, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Resuscitation guidelines for the treatment of accidental hypothermia are based primarily on isolated cases. Mortality rates are high despite aggressive treatment aimed at restoring spontaneous circulation and normothermia....

  10. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaizauskiene, A.; Gurevicius, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death ...

  11. Prolonged drug-induced hypothermia in experimental stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Reith, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    In experimental and human stroke, hypothermia is strongly related to a favorable outcome. Previous attempts to manipulate the core temperature in focal cerebral ischemia have been based on mechanical cooling. The purpose of the study is to establish a model for long-term drug-induced hypothermia...

  12. Treatment temperature and insult severity influence the neuroprotective effects of therapeutic hypothermia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is standard care for moderate and severe neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), the leading cause of permanent brain injury in term newborns. However, the optimal temperature for HT is still unknown, and few preclinical studies have compared multiple HT treatment temperatures. Additionally, HT may not benefit infants with severe encephalopathy. In a neonatal rat model of unilateral hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), the effect of five different HT temperatures was ...

  13. Hydrogen sulphide and mild hypothermia activate the CREB signaling pathway and prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Hai-bin; Ji, Xiangjun; Zhu, Si-Hai; Hu, Yi-min; Zhang, Li-dong; Miao, Xiao-lei; Ma, Ru-Meng; Duan, Man-lin; Li, Wei-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Both hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and mild hypothermia have been reported to prevent brain damage caused by reperfusion assault through regulating the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). However, the relationship between the two treatments and how they exert neuro-protective effects through NMDARs remain to be elucidated. Methods Transient cerebral ischemia was induced using the Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion method. We used sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) as the H2S donor. We randomly...

  14. Episodic spontaneous hypothermia with hyperhidrosis: implications for pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, R D; Barron, T F; Hartlage, P L

    1994-02-01

    Unprovoked hypothermia is an unusual presenting sign. When occurring with diaphoresis it has been referred to as episodic spontaneous hypothermia with hyperhidrosis. Earlier reports described episodic, spontaneous hypothermia with hyperhidrosis in patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum and postulated a midline congenital malformation of the central nervous system. Since then, various endocrine, electrolyte, autonomic, and sleep disturbances have been described but the etiology remains undetermined. Three unrelated children are reported each of whom had an intact corpus callosum and normal endocrine function. Shivering was consistently absent despite marked symptomatic hypothermia. One child had spontaneous resolution of episodic spontaneous hypothermia with hyperhidrosis and two children responded to the antiserotonergic, cyproheptadine. It is hypothesized that specific serotonergic dysfunction in the anterior hypothalamic extrapyramidal shivering mechanism is central in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:8198674

  15. Mild hypothermia protects liver against ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-You Wang; Yong Ni; Yan Liu; Zhi-Heng Huang; Min-Jie Zhang; Yong-Qiang Zhan; Hai-Bin Gao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether mild hypothermia could protect liver against ischemia and reperfusion injury in pigs. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy pigs were randomly divided into normothermia, mild hypothermia and normal control groups. The experimental procedure consisted of temporary interruption of blood flow to total hepatic lobe for different lengths of time and subsequent reperfusion. Hepatic tissue oxygen pressure (PtiO2) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values were evaluated, and ultrastructural analysis was carried out for all samples.RESULTS: Serum AST was significantly lower, and hepatic P,O2 values were significantly higher in the mild hypothermia group than in the normothermia group during liver ischemiareperfusion periods (P = 0.032, P = 0.028). Meanwhile, the histopathologic injury of liver induced by ischemiareperfusion was significantly improved in the mild hypothermia group, compared with that in the normothermia group. CONCLUSION: Mild hypothermia can protect the liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury in pigs.

  16. Alpha-lipoic acid protects mitochondrial enzymes and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Hypothermia is a key symptom of sepsis and the mechanism(s) leading to hypothermia during sepsis is largely unknown. To investigate a potential mechanism and find an effective treatment for hypothermia in sepsis, we induced hypothermia in mice by lipopolysaccharide (LP...

  17. Optimal timing of hypothermia in relation to myocardial reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götberg, Matthias; van der Pals, Jesper; Götberg, Michael; Olivecrona, Göran K; Kanski, Mikael; Koul, Sasha; Otto, Andreas; Engblom, Henrik; Ugander, Martin; Arheden, Håkan; Erlinge, David

    2011-09-01

    Two previous clinical trials investigating hypothermia as an adjunct therapy for myocardial infarction have failed. Recently a pilot study has demonstrated a significant reduction in infarct size. The aims of this study were to elucidate the effects of hypothermia on reperfusion injury and to investigate the optimal hypothermia protocol for a future clinical trial. Pigs (40-50 kg) were anesthetized and a normal pig temperature of 38°C was established utilizing an endovascular temperature modulating catheter. The pigs were randomized to a combination hypothermia group (1,000 ml of 4°C saline solution and endovascular cooling, n = 8), or to normothermic controls (n = 8). A PCI balloon was then inflated in the LAD for 40 min (control) or 45 min with hypothermia induced during the last 5 min. Furthermore, hypothermia induced by cold saline alone (n = 8), and prolonged combination hypothermia during reperfusion (n = 7) were also examined. Infarct size and area at risk were determined ex vivo after 4 h of reperfusion using gadolinium-enhanced MRI and Tc-99-tetrofosmin SPECT, respectively. All pigs in the combination hypothermia group were cooled to <35°C within 5 min. Combination hypothermia reduced IS/AAR by 18% compared with normothermic controls despite 5 min longer ischemic time (61 ± 5 vs. 74 ± 4%, p = 0.03). Cold saline did not reduce IS/AAR. Prolonging hypothermia treatment after onset of reperfusion by an additional 45 min over that used in a previous paper did not confer any additional benefit. The cardioprotective effects of hypothermia treatment are due to an attenuation of myocardial injury during both ischemia and reperfusion. The results suggest that a hypothermia protocol using a cold saline infusion and endovascular cooling enables hypothermia to be induced in a clinical setting without delaying reperfusion therapy.

  18. Normal tissue complication probability modeling for cochlea constraints to avoid causing tinnitus after head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced tinnitus is a side effect of radiotherapy in the inner ear for cancers of the head and neck. Effective dose constraints for protecting the cochlea are under-reported. The aim of this study is to determine the cochlea dose limitation to avoid causing tinnitus after head-and-neck cancer (HNC) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In total 211 patients with HNC were included; the side effects of radiotherapy were investigated for 422 inner ears in the cohort. Forty-nine of the four hundred and twenty-two samples (11.6 %) developed grade 2+ tinnitus symptoms after IMRT, as diagnosed by a clinician. The Late Effects of Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) criteria were used for tinnitus evaluation. The logistic and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were used for the analyses. The NTCP-fitted parameters were TD50 = 46.31 Gy (95 % CI, 41.46–52.50), γ50 = 1.27 (95 % CI, 1.02–1.55), and TD50 = 46.52 Gy (95 % CI, 41.91–53.43), m = 0.35 (95 % CI, 0.30–0.42) for the logistic and LKB models, respectively. The suggested guideline TD20 for the tolerance dose to produce a 20 % complication rate within a specific period of time was TD20 = 33.62 Gy (95 % CI, 30.15–38.27) (logistic) and TD20 = 32.82 Gy (95 % CI, 29.58–37.69) (LKB). To maintain the incidence of grade 2+ tinnitus toxicity <20 % in IMRT, we suggest that the mean dose to the cochlea should be <32 Gy. However, models should not be extrapolated to other patient populations without further verification and should first be confirmed before clinical implementation

  19. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  20. Hipotermia accidental secundaria a brote de psoriasis generalizada Accidental hypothermia due to generalized psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Agudo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La hipotermia accidental es una alteración de la termorregulación corporal, definida como una temperatura central igual o inferior a 35ºC. Según la intensidad se puede clasificar en ligera (35-32,2ºC, moderada (32,2-28ºC y grave (The accidental hypothermia is a disorder of corporal termoregulation, defined as a central temperature below 35ºC. According to the intensity may be classified in mild (35-32.2 ºC, moderate (32.2-28ºC and severe (below 28ºC. The most frequent causes are the exposure to cold, use of depressant drugs of central nervous system and hypoglycemia, although there are other less frequent. We present a case of moderate hypothermia due to generalized psoriasis which required admission in the Intensive Care Unit of Hospital García Orcoyen. The termoregulation, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of accidental hypothermia are reviewed.

  1. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stravitz, R.T.; Larsen, Finn Stolze

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute liver failure, the syndrome of abrupt loss of liver function in a patient with a previously healthy liver. Although the prevalence of cerebral edema appears to be decreasing, patients with rapidly progressive (hyperacute) liver...... liver failure often can be temporarily controlled by manipulating body position, increasing the degree of sedation, and increasing blood osmolarity through pharmacologic means. However, these maneuvers often postpone, but do not eliminate, the risk of brainstem herniation unless orthotopic liver...... transplantation or spontaneous liver regeneration follows in short order. To buy time, the induction of therapeutic hypothermia (core temperature 32 degrees C-35 degrees C) has been shown to effectively bridge patients to transplant. Similar to the experience in patients with cerebral edema after other neurologic...

  2. Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow during hypothermia with a time-resolved near-infrared technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel Bakhsheshi, Mohammad; Diop, Mamadou; St Lawrence, Keith; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2012-02-01

    Hypothermia, in which the brain is cooled to 32-33 °C, has been shown to be neuroprotective for brain injury caused by hypoxia-ischemia, head trauma, or neonatal asphyxia. Neuroprotective effect of Hypothermia is partly due to suppression of brain metabolism and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The ability to measure CBF at the bedside provides a means of detecting, and thereby preventing, secondary ischemia during neuro intensive care before brain injury occurs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the ability of a time-resolved near-infrared (TR-NIR) bolus-tracking method using indocyanine green as an intravascular flow tracer to measure CBF during cooling in a newborn animal model. For validation, CBF was independently measured by computed tomography (CT) perfusion. The results show a good agreement between CBF obtained with the two methods (R2 ~ 0.84, Δ ~ 5.84 ml. min -1.100 g -1, 32-38.5 °C), demonstrating the ability of the TR-NIR technique to non-invasively measure absolute CBF in-vivo during dynamic hypothermia. The TR-NIR technique reveals that CBF decreases from 54.3 +/- 5.4 ml. min -1.100 g -1, at normothermia (Tbrain of 38.5 °C), to 33.8 +/- 0.9 ml. min -1.100 g -1 at Tbrain of 32 °C during the hypothermia treatment.

  3. Mild hypothermia reduces cardiac post-ischemic reactive hyperemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Pals Jesper

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In experimentally induced myocardial infarction, mild hypothermia (33–35°C is beneficial if applied prior to ischemia or reperfusion. Hypothermia, when applied after reperfusion seems to confer little or no benefit. The mechanism by which hypothermia exerts its cell-protective effect during cardiac ischemia remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that hypothermia reduces the reperfusion damage; the additional damage incurred upon the myocardium during reperfusion. Reperfusion results in a massive increase in blood flow, reactive hyperemia, which may contribute to reperfusion damage. We postulated that hypothermia could attenuate the post-ischemic reactive hyperemia. Methods Sixteen 25–30 kg pigs, in a closed chest model, were anesthetized and temperature was established in all pigs at 37°C using an intravascular cooling catheter. The 16 pigs were then randomized to hypothermia (34°C or control (37°C. The left main coronary artery was then catheterized with a PCI guiding catheter. A Doppler flow wire was placed in the mid part of the LAD and a PCI balloon was then positioned proximal to the Doppler wire but distal to the first diagonal branch. The LAD was then occluded for ten minutes in all pigs. Coronary blood flow was measured before, during and after ischemia/reperfusion. Results The peak flow seen during post-ischemic reactive hyperemia (during the first minutes of reperfusion was significantly reduced by 43 % (p Conclusion Mild hypothermia significantly reduces post-ischemic hyperemia in a closed chest pig model. The reduction of reactive hyperemia during reperfusion may have an impact on cardiac reperfusion injury.

  4. School Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anxieties over social pressure or legitimate fears of violence at school. Let him know that school attendance is required ... to the classroom. If a problem like a school bully or an unreasonable teacher is the cause of your child's anxiety, become an advocate for ...

  5. Hypothermia-Induced Neurite Outgrowth is Mediated by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Katharina R. L.; Boato, Francesco; Diestel, Antje; Hechler, Daniel; Kruglov, Andrei; Berger, Felix; HENDRIX, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Systemic or brain-selective hypothermia is a well-established method for neuroprotection after brain trauma. There is increasing evidence that hypothermia exerts beneficial effects on the brain and may also support regenerative responses after brain damage. Here, we have investigated whether hypothermia influences neurite outgrowth in vitro via modulation of the post-injury cytokine milieu. Organotypic brain slices were incubated: deep hypothermia (2 h at 17 degrees C), rewarming (2 h up to 3...

  6. [Acetaminophen-induced hypothermia, an AIDS related side-effect? About 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Eric; Amaniou, Monique; Rogez, Jean-Philippe; Weinbreck, Pierre; Merle, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Hypothermia is an uncommon side effect of acetaminophen. We report 4 cases of HIV-infected patients who developed hypothermia after intravenous injection of propacetamol (the parenteral formulation of acetaminophen). The mechanism of this hypothermia is unknown. AIDS-induced changes in the metabolism of acetaminophen, could be an explanation. AIDS-associated opportunistic diseases may account for part of the mechanism. These hypothermias occur within 6 hours after the injection, are well tolerated and regress spontaneously. PMID:12486392

  7. Functional laser speckle imaging of cerebral blood flow under hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minheng; Miao, Peng; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2011-08-01

    Hypothermia can unintentionally occur in daily life, e.g., in cardiovascular surgery or applied as therapeutics in the neurosciences critical care unit. So far, the temperature-induced spatiotemporal responses of the neural function have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the functional change in cerebral blood flow (CBF), accompanied with neuronal activation, by laser speckle imaging (LSI) during hypothermia. Laser speckle images from Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8, male) were acquired under normothermia (37°C) and moderate hypothermia (32°C). For each animal, 10 trials of electrical hindpaw stimulation were delivered under both temperatures. Using registered laser speckle contrast analysis and temporal clustering analysis (TCA), we found a delayed response peak and a prolonged response window under hypothermia. Hypothermia also decreased the activation area and the amplitude of the peak CBF. The combination of LSI and TCA is a high-resolution functional imaging method to investigate the spatiotemporal neurovascular coupling in both normal and pathological brain functions.

  8. [Regulation of superoxide dismutase activity during deep hypothermia by simultaneous administration of water and lipid soluble antioxidants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkesters, A P; Utno, L Ia; Girgensone, M Ia

    1991-06-01

    Alongside anti-hypoxia activity, the method of deep hypothermia causes discoordination of metabolism in the heart. This is due to increased secretion of catecholamines in the process of cooling, to activation in free radical generation and lipid peroxidation. Pantethine and alpha-tocopherol were used. Pantethine reduced lipid peroxidation, preserved reaction activity of catalyzing resyntheses and transport of high energetic compounds in the heart, while alpha-tocopherol prevented lipid peroxidation activation and decrease in SOD. Simultaneous use of pantethine and alpha-tocopherol caused increase in SOD and normalization of heart metabolism. Thus, for protection of the heart against excessive free radical generation under deep hypothermia simultaneous use of antioxidants like pantethine and alpha-tocopherol is necessary. PMID:1893178

  9. Postconditioning by xenon and hypothermia in the rat heart in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Schwiebert; R. Huhn; A. Heinen; N.C. Weber; M.W. Hollmann; W. Schlack; B. Preckel

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective Hypothermia protects against myocardial reperfusion injury. However, inducing hypothermia takes time, which makes it unsuitable as an emergency treatment. Combining mild hypothermia with low-dose xenon, applied either simultaneously or one after the other, protects the neona

  10. Feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia in awake patients with acute stroke through surface cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Rasmussen, B H; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig;

    2000-01-01

    Hypothermia reduces neuronal damage in animal stroke models. Whether hypothermia is neuroprotective in patients with acute stroke remains to be clarified. In this case-control study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia by a surface cooling method in awake patients...

  11. Excitotoxic median raphe lesions aggravate working memory storage performance deficits caused by scopolamine infusion into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the inhibitory avoidance task in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between the median raphe nucleus (MRN serotonergic system and the septohippocampal muscarinic cholinergic system in the modulation of immediate working memory storage performance were investigated. Rats with sham or ibotenic acid lesions of the MRN were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and tested in a light/dark step-through inhibitory avoidance task in which response latency to enter the dark compartment immediately after the shock served as a measure of immediate working memory storage. MRN lesion per se did not alter response latency. Post-training intrahippocampal scopolamine infusion (2 and 4 µg/side produced a more marked reduction in response latencies in the lesioned animals compared to the sham-lesioned rats. Results suggest that the immediate working memory storage performance is modulated by synergistic interactions between serotonergic projections of the MRN and the muscarinic cholinergic system of the hippocampus.

  12. Nitrous oxide-induced hypothermia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quock, R.M.; Panek, R.W.; Kouchich, F.J.; Rosenthal, M.A.

    1987-08-10

    Exposure of rats to high levels of nitrous oxide (N2O) in oxygen reduced body temperature in a concentration-related manner. The hypothermia was partly reversed by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. But in rats rendered tolerant to morphine by pellet implantation, exposure to 75% N2O/25% O2 evoked a marked hypothermia similar to that observed in morphine-naive animals. In another experiment, the hypothermic effect of chloral hydrate was also sensitive to antagonism by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. These observations lead the authors to suspect that N2O-induced hypothermia in rats is possibly not mediated by opiate receptors. The thermotropic activity of N2O may result from some non-opioid action of N2O. Its selective antagonism by naloxone (but not naltrexone) may be due to a unique non-opioid analeptic action of naloxone. 32 references, 4 figures.

  13. Approach to Indicators of Avoidable Causes of Death among Children under Five in Jiangsu Province%江苏省5岁以下儿童可避免死因的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓南; 邓静云; 徐柏荣; 巴凌昊

    2001-01-01

    【目的】明确江苏省儿童可避免死亡指标,为制定我省儿童死亡率的卫生政策和医疗保健措施提供 一定的理论依据。【方法】根据Rutstein等提出的可避免死亡指标,采用江苏省与美国、本省农村和城市儿童死因 死亡率对比,计算相对危险度。【结果】江苏省儿童可避免主要死因为败血症、肺炎、腹泻、脑膜炎、营养不良、意外 窒息。可避免死因占全省总死亡的51.6%。【结论】要降低我省儿童死亡率,应加强可避免死因疾病的控制。%【 Objective】 In order to determine avoidable death indication among of Jiangsu Province and to reduce mortality of children under five. 【Methods】 We measured relative risk(RR) of mortality in children between the US and Jiangsu,rural and urban areas of Jiangsu to determine avoidable death indicators among Jiangsu Province. 【 Results】 Septicemia, pneumonia, diar rhea,meningitis,malnutrition,accident suffocation, drowing were considered as avoidable death causes of children in Jiangsu, which ac count for 51.6% of all death causes of children under five. 【 Conclusions】 Avoidable causes of death mortality among children under five in Jiangsu should be controlled by medical intervention.

  14. Facts and Fiction: The Impact of Hypothermia on Molecular Mechanisms following Major Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Frink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous multiple trauma and surgical patients suffer from accidental hypothermia. While induced hypothermia is commonly used in elective cardiac surgery due to its protective effects, accidental hypothermia is associated with increased posttraumatic complications and even mortality in severely injured patients. This paper focuses on protective molecular mechanisms of hypothermia on apoptosis and the posttraumatic immune response. Although information regarding severe trauma is limited, there is evidence that induced hypothermia may have beneficial effects on the posttraumatic immune response as well as apoptosis in animal studies and certain clinical situations. However, more profound knowledge of mechanisms is necessary before randomized clinical trials in trauma patients can be initiated.

  15. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia and hyperhidrosis: a possibly novel cerebral neurotransmitter disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Masruha, Marcelo; Lin, Jaime; Arita, Juliana Harumi; De Castro Neto, Eduardo Ferreira; Scerni, Débora Amado; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Mazzacoratti, Maria Da Graça Naffah; Vilanova, Luiz Celso Pereira

    2011-04-01

    Spontaneous periodic episodes of hypothermia still defy medical knowledge. In 1969, Shapiro et al. described the first two cases of spontaneous periodic hypothermia associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Recently, Dundar et al. reported a case of spontaneous periodic hypothermia and hyperhidrosis without corpus callosum agenesis, suggesting that the periodic episodes of hypothermia might be of epileptiform origin. Here we describe two paediatric patients with spontaneous periodic hypothermia without corpus callosum agenesis and demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, altered levels of neurotransmitter metabolites within the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:21166673

  16. Effects of Graded Hypothermia on Hypoxic-ischemic Brain Damage in the Neonatal Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan Xia; Yi-xin Xia

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of graded hypothermia on neuropathologic alteratiors of neonatal rat brain after exposed to hypoxic-ischemic insult at 37℃, 33℃, 31℃, and 28℃, respectively, and to observe the effect of hypothermia on 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72) expression after hypoxic-ischemic insult. Methods Seven days old Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia in 8% oxygen for 2 hours at 37℃, 33℃, 31℃, and 28℃, respectively. The brain temperature was monitored indirectly by inserting a mini-thermocouple probe into the temporal muscle during hypoxia. After hypoxia-ischemia their mortality was assessed. Neuronal damage was assessed with HE staining 72 hours after hypoxia. HSP72 expression at 0.5, 24, and 72 hours of recovery was immunohistochemically assessed using a monoclonal antibody to HSP72. Results Hypoxia-ischemia caused 10.5% (2/19) of mortality in rat of 37℃ group, but no death occurred in 33℃, 31℃ or 28℃ groups. HE staining showed neuropathologic damage was extensive in rats exposed to hypoxia-ischemia at 37℃ (more than 80.0%). The incidence of severe brain damage was significantly decreased in 33℃ (53.3%) and 31℃ groups (44.4%), and no histologic injury was seen in the 28℃ group of rats. Expression of HSP72 was manifest and persistent in the rat brain of 37℃ group, but minimum in the rat brain of 28℃ group. Conclusion Mild and moderate hypothermia might prevent cerebral visible neuropathologic damage associated with hypoxic-ischemic injury by decreasing stress response.

  17. Drug-induced mild therapeutic hypothermia obtained by administration of a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 agonist

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    Schneider Andreas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mechanical/physical devices for applying mild therapeutic hypothermia is the only proven neuroprotective treatment for survivors of out of hospital cardiac arrest. However, this type of therapy is cumbersome and associated with several side-effects. We investigated the feasibility of using a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 agonist for obtaining drug-induced sustainable mild hypothermia. Methods First, we screened a heterogeneous group of TRPV1 agonists and secondly we tested the hypothermic properties of a selected candidate by dose-response studies. Finally we tested the hypothermic properties in a large animal. The screening was in conscious rats, the dose-response experiments in conscious rats and in cynomologus monkeys, and the finally we tested the hypothermic properties in conscious young cattle (calves with a body weight as an adult human. The investigated TRPV1 agonists were administered by continuous intravenous infusion. Results Screening: Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC, a component of chili pepper, displayed a desirable hypothermic profile with regards to the duration, depth and control in conscious rats. Dose-response experiments: In both rats and cynomologus monkeys DHC caused a dose-dependent and immediate decrease in body temperature. Thus in rats, infusion of DHC at doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg/kg/h caused a maximal ΔT (°C as compared to vehicle control of -0.9, -1.5, -2.0, and -4.2 within approximately 1 hour until the 6 hour infusion was stopped. Finally, in calves the intravenous infusion of DHC was able to maintain mild hypothermia with ΔT > -3°C for more than 12 hours. Conclusions Our data support the hypothesis that infusion of dihydrocapsaicin is a candidate for testing as a primary or adjunct method of inducing and maintaining therapeutic hypothermia.

  18. Evolution of the Therapeutic Effects of Induced Local Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

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    B. Basiri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is one of the most important causes of permanent damage to brain tissue that redound to mortality and/or late sequelae such as cerebral palsy or delayed neural development. 15-20 percent of Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE cases die during neonatal period and 25-30 percent of those who survive suffer from neural development problems such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Hypothermia or lowering temperature of brain or total body is a new and promising treatment. The present study was done to assess therapeutic effects of induced local hypothermia in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE among neonates admitted to Fatemieh and Beset hospitals of Hamadan city.Materials & Method: The present study was performed as a randomized clinical trial upon 36 neonates who had inclusion criteria to be imported into the study. In the first 6 hours after birth, the neonates were randomly classified into two 18 person groups. In the control group the neonates were managed with routine treatments consisted of preservative measures and anti-convulsive treatments, if necessary. In the case group the neonates received induced local hypothermia for 6 hours in addition to routine therapeutic managements. The data were analyzed using SPSS Version 13.Results: 72.7% of the neonates of the case and control groups were male. There was no significant difference between the case and control groups in sex, birth weight, gestational age and perinatal obstetric complications. The mean duration of admission was 7.72±4.23 days in the case group and 10.06±5.99 days in the control group with no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.199. The mean time of starting oral feeding was 3.44±3.11 days and 4.53±2.74 days in the control and case groups respectively and this difference was not statistically significant either (P=0.737.The mean time of regaining consciousness was 3.72±3.19 days in the case

  19. Hypothermia in bleeding trauma: a friend or a foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochanek Ashley R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The induction of hypothermia for cellular protection is well established in several clinical settings. Its role in trauma patients, however, is controversial. This review discusses the benefits and complications of induced hypothermia--emphasizing the current state of knowledge and potential applications in bleeding patients. Extensive pre-clinical data suggest that in advanced stages of shock, rapid cooling can protect cells during ischemia and reperfusion, decrease organ damage, and improve survival. Yet hypothermia is a double edged sword; unless carefully managed, its induction can be associated with a number of complications. Appropriate patient selection requires a thorough understanding of the pre-clinical literature. Clinicians must also appreciate the enormous influence that temperature modulation exerts on various cellular mechanisms. This manuscript aims to provide a balanced view of the published literature on this topic. While many of the advantageous molecular and physiological effects of induced hypothermia have been outlined in animal models, rigorous clinical investigations are needed to translate these promising findings into clinical practice.

  20. Prevention of hypothermia in cats during routine oral hygiene procedures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, F A; Anthony, J M

    1997-01-01

    While thermally supported cats experienced a drop in body temperature during dental procedures, the drop was significantly greater in cats without thermal support. As cats are at risk of developing clinical hypothermia during dental procedures, steps should be taken to minimize the loss of body heat.

  1. Prognosis of coma after therapeutic hypothermia: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwes, A.; Binnekade, J.M.; Kuiper, M.A.; Bosch, F.H.; Zandstra, D.F.; Toornvliet, A.C.; Biemond, H.S.; Kors, B.M.; Koelman, J.H.; Verbeek, M.M.; Weinstein, H.C.; Hijdra, A.; Horn, J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to establish the reliability of neurologic examination, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and median nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) to predict poor outcome in patients treated with mild hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: This

  2. Therapeutic effect of mild hypothermia on severe traumatic head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘五四; 刘伟国; 沈宏; 王卫民; 章志量; 张瑛; 江素君; 杨小锋

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of mild hypothermia on severe traumatic brain injury.Methods: Eighty-six in-patients with severe traumatic brain injury treated ordinarily were consecutively randomized into two groups: a hypothermia group (n=43) and a normothermia group (the control group, n=43). In the hypothermia group, the core temperature (i.e., nasopharyngeal or brain temperature) of the patient was reduced to and maintained at 33-35℃ with a systemic cooling blanket. Natural rewarming began after 3-5 days (mean: 4.3 days) of hypothermia treatment. In the control group, the patient received no hypothermia treatment. The vital sign, extradural pressure and serum superoxide dismutase were observed and measured during treatment, and the complications as well as the Glasgow outcome scale were evaluated at 2 years after injury.Results: The mean extradural pressure in the hypothermia group (27.38 mm Hg±4.88 mm Hg at 24 hours, 29.40 mm Hg±4.50 mm Hg at 48 hours and 26.40 mm Hg±4.13 mm Hg at 72 hours after injury) was much lower than that in the control group (32.63 mm Hg±3.00 mm Hg, 34.80 mm Hg±6.00 mm Hg and 31.81 mm Hg±4.50 mm Hg respectively at 24, 48 and 72 hours, P<0.05). The mean serum superoxide dismutase levels in the hypothermia group on days 3 and 7 (583.7 μg/L±99.6 μg/L and 699.4 μg/L±217.3 μg/L, respectively) were much higher than those in the control group at the same time period (446.6 μg/L±79.5 μg/L and 497.1 μg/L±101.2 μg/L, respectively, P<0.01). The recovery rates at 2 years after injury were 65.1% in the hypothermia group and 37.2% in the control group (P<0.05). The mortality rates were 25.6% in the hypothermia group and 51.2% in the control group (P<0.05). The complications, including pulmonary infections, thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100×109/L), hemorrhage in the digestive tract, electrolyte disorders and renal malfunction, were managed without severe sequelae .Conclusions: Mild hypothermia is a safe and

  3. Clinical, electrophysiological, and prognostic study of postinjection sciatic nerve injury: An avoidable cause of loss of limb in the peripheral medical service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Maqbool

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post injection sciatic nerve injury is a common cause of sciatic nerve mononeuropathy in the developing world largely due to inadequate health care facilites in the rural regions. Objective: The study was conducted to analyse the pattern of this nerve lesion in clinical and electrophysiological parameters and also to study the outcome in a conservatively treated cohort. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six patients who underwent evaluation at our laboratory from 2000 to 2006 for post injection sciatic neuropathy formed the study population. Twenty two of these were followed up (mean 6.6 months for the outcome. Results: In the cases with full data, common peroneal division of the sciatic nerve was affected alone or predominantly. On follow up, 72% cases showed little or partial recovery. Thirty two percent patients had residual trophic changes and causalgia at their last visit. Conclusion: The majority of cases of postinjection sciatic nerve injury have poor prognosis on conservative treatment.

  4. Evaluation and prognosis of neonates with asphyxia treated by hypothermia

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    Abdollah Jannatdoust

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asphyxia is a perinatal accident with a high mortality rate, therapeutic hypothermia in both head or whole body was suggested as effective therapeutic methods. In this study, we compare these methods in neonates with asphyxia. Methods and Materials: 16 neonates with asphyxia in two hospitals including Alzahra(head hypothermia and Taleghani hospital (total body hypothermia went under the therapeutic hypothermia for 72 hours. Maintaining temperature controlled by several sensors precisely. Body cooling were performed on the trunk and limbs of the neonates. Temperature and vital signs controlled every 1 hour and biochemistry, and coagulation tests were performed regularly, early and late complications of patients including developmental disorders, were evaluated. Comparing two groups was performed using Chi square and Mann Whitney U test, on the software SPSS16 , p less than 0.05 was significant. Results: 16 cases with gestation age of 38 ± 2weeks were enrolled. Of 9 cases by head cooling 1 patient died and 2 patients got mild developmental disorders. Of the 7 newborns of whole body cooling trail, 3 died and 1 got minor developmental disorders and one case showed major.. Feeding time (head group 5±2 , body group 8±5 days and also discharge time (head group 15±8 days and body group 14±5 days had no significant differences . Conclusion: It seems head hypothermia method is associated with a lower mortality than the whole body method. In the above sample size, the differences were not statistically significant. Performing these procedures on larger samples could be approval.

  5. Prevention and management of neonatal hypothermia in rural Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Lunze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypothermia is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for newborn survival. The World Health Organization recommends maintaining a warm chain and skin-to-skin care for thermoprotection of newborn children. Since little is known about practices related to newborn hypothermia in rural Africa, this study's goal was to characterize relevant practices, attitudes, and beliefs in rural Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted 14 focus group discussions with mothers and grandmothers and 31 in-depth interviews with community leaders and health officers in Lufwanyama District, a rural area in the Copperbelt Province, Zambia, enrolling a total of 171 participants. We analyzed data using domain analysis. In rural Lufwanyama, community members were aware of the danger of neonatal hypothermia. Caregivers' and health workers' knowledge of thermoprotective practices included birthplace warming, drying and wrapping of the newborn, delayed bathing, and immediate and exclusive breastfeeding. However, this warm chain was not consistently maintained in the first hours postpartum, when newborns are at greatest risk. Skin-to-skin care was not practiced in the study area. Having to assume household and agricultural labor responsibilities in the immediate postnatal period was a challenge for mothers to provide continuous thermal care to their newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and addressing community-based practices on hypothermia prevention and management might help improve newborn survival in resource-limited settings. Possible interventions include the implementation of skin-to-skin care in rural areas and the use of appropriate, low-cost newborn warmers to prevent hypothermia and support families in their provision of newborn thermal protection. Training family members to support mothers in the provision of thermoprotection for their newborns could facilitate these practices.

  6. Early predictors of outcome in infants treated with hypothermia for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nazakat; Azzopardi, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a leading cause of acquired neonatal brain injury. Assessment of the severity of cerebral injury and likely neurological outcome in infants with HIE is important for determining management and prognosis, for counselling parents, and for selection for neuroprotective trials. The condition of the infant at birth, the severity of HIE, neurophysiological tests, including amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG), biochemical markers, and neuroimaging have been used to assess prognosis and predict long-term outcome. The predictive accuracy of these indicators in the early postnatal period is modest. Neurophysiological assessment seems to be most helpful during the first 24 to 48 hours after birth whilst magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seems most informative later. Several biochemical markers, including serum S100β and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), are also associated with HIE but their levels depend on the timing of sampling and their prognostic value is uncertain. Comprehensive neurophysiological assessment and neuroimaging may be limited to specialist centres. Therapeutic hypothermia is now standard care in infants with moderate to severe HIE so it is important to examine the influence of hypothermia on the assessment of prognosis in these infants.

  7. La mortalidad evitable: lista de consenso para la actualización del indicador en España Avoidable mortality: a consensus list of causes to update the indicator in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Gispert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Los indicadores de mortalidad podrían reflejar el efecto de las intervenciones sanitarias sobre la salud de la población, aunque no hay acuerdo sobre el más adecuado. El objetivo del trabajo fue obtener una lista de causas de mortalidad evitable que pueda ser de uso común en España. Métodos: Se ha realizado un proceso de consenso entre médicos asistenciales, elaboradores y usuarios de indicadores sanitarios, basado en las publicaciones sobre el tema y las aportaciones de los expertos participantes. Se ha valorado el grado de acuerdo obtenido en los distintos ítems. Resultados: Se han consensuado 34 causas de mortalidad evitable, así como el tipo de intervenciones que podrían evitar la muerte. El consenso fue medio o alto en la mayor parte de causas e intervenciones (sólo en 4 fue bajo, así como para el conjunto de la lista y sublistas (de servicios sanitarios y de políticas intersectoriales elaboradas. El consenso fue mayor en relación a la evitabilidad de las causas de muerte que al tipo de intervenciones que la pueden evitar. La discrepancia fue mayor en las intervenciones del ámbito asistencial que en las de políticas intersectoriales. Conclusiones: La reflexión y la discusión a que ha sido sometida esta lista de mortalidad evitable, así como la publicitación de los criterios y del procedimiento seguido, supone un valor añadido. La lista mejora la comparabilidad de los datos y de los resultados entre los distintos sistemas de salud del territorio, por lo cual se recomienda su utilización en el contexto español.Objective: Mortality indicators could reflect the effect of health services interventions on the population's health, although there is no agreement about which indicator would be the most appropriate. The objective of this study was to obtain a consensus list of causes of avoidable mortality that could be used as a reference in Spain. Methods: Based on existing publications and participants' knowledge

  8. Can induced hypothermia be assured during brain MRI in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintermark, Pia [Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Montreal Children' s Hospital, Division of Newborn Medicine, Montreal, QC (Canada); Labrecque, Michelle; Hansen, Anne [Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Warfield, Simon K.; DeHart, Stephanie [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Until now, brain MRIs in asphyxiated neonates who are receiving therapeutic hypothermia have been performed after treatment is complete. However, there is increasing interest in utilizing early brain MRI while hypothermia is still being provided to rapidly understand the degree of brain injury and possibly refine neuroprotective strategies. This study was designed to assess whether therapeutic hypothermia can be maintained while performing a brain MRI. Twenty MRI scans were obtained in 12 asphyxiated neonates while they were treated with hypothermia. The median difference between esophageal temperature on NICU departure and return was 0.1 C (range: -0.8 to 0.8 C). We found that therapeutic hypothermia can be safely and reproducibly maintained during a brain MRI. Hypothermia treatment should not prevent obtaining an early brain MRI if clinically indicated. (orig.)

  9. Nocturnal hypothermia impairs flight ability in birds: a cost of being cool

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Jennie M.; Lima, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Many birds use regulated drops in night-time body temperature (Tb) to conserve energy critical to winter survival. However, a significant degree of hypothermia may limit a bird's ability to respond to predatory attack. Despite this likely energy–predation trade-off, the behavioural costs of avian hypothermia have yet to be examined. We thus monitored the nocturnal hypothermia of mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in a laboratory setting in response to food deprivation. Nocturnal flight tests w...

  10. Effect of two polyethylene covers in prevention of hypothermia among premature neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Talakoub, Sedigheh; Shahbazifard, Zahra; Armanian, Amir Mohamad; Ghazavi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After the umbilical cord is cut, premature neonates face numerous problems including hypothermia. With regard to serious complications of hypothermia and incapability of conventional methods in preservation of neonates’ temperature after admission, the researcher decided to conduct a study on the effects of two polyethylene covers in prevention of hypothermia among premature neonates. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 96 neonates aged 28–32 weeks that ran...

  11. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Therapeutic Hypothermia in Animal Models of Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Batchelor, Peter E; Peta Skeers; Ana Antonic; Taryn E Wills; David W Howells; Macleod, Malcolm R; Sena, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Therapeutic hypothermia is a clinically useful neuroprotective therapy for cardiac arrest and neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and may potentially be useful for the treatment of other neurological conditions including traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). The pre-clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of hypothermia in acute SCI broadly utilise either systemic hypothermia or cooling regional to the site of injury. The literature has not been uniformly positive with con...

  12. Use of occlusive wrap to prevent hypothermia in premature infants immediately after birth

    OpenAIRE

    邱靜雯; Yau, Ching-man

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia at birth is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Unfortunately, infants are prone to hypothermia immediately after birth. A large proportion of preterm infants, especially those of gestational age at less than 30 weeks, experience different levels of hypothermia. A frequently used possible preventive measure is the application of an occlusive wrap immediately after birth. However, no systematic review on this preventive measure supports its translat...

  13. Hvdc causes corrosion avoided by simple means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, A.

    1966-02-01

    Method is given for employing hvdc transmission as a power source for cathodic protection against corrosion of nearby underground metallic structures such as pipelines; the method consists of connecting metallic structures with auxiliary electrodes buried in soil.

  14. Management of super refractory status epilepticus with isoflurane and hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Patrick Gilman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Super-refractory status epilepticus is status epilepticus that continues beyond 24 hours and includes those cases in which epilepsy is recurrent upon reduction or withdrawal of treatment. We describe the presentation and successful management of a male patient with super-refractory status epilepticus using the inhaled anesthetic, isoflurane, and mild hypothermia (HT. The potential utility of combined HT and volatile anesthesia is discussed.

  15. Management of super refractory status epilepticus with isoflurane and hypothermia

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Patrick Gilman

    2015-01-01

    Super-refractory status epilepticus is status epilepticus that continues beyond 24 hours and includes those cases in which epilepsy is recurrent upon reduction or withdrawal of treatment. We describe the presentation and successful management of a male patient with super-refractory status epilepticus using the inhaled anesthetic, isoflurane, and mild hypothermia (HT). The potential utility of combined HT and volatile anesthesia is discussed.

  16. Study on Control of Brain Temperature for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    The brain hypothermia treatment is an attractive therapy for the neurologist because of its neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients. The present paper deals with the possibility of controlling the brain and other viscera in different temperatures from the viewpoint of system control. It is theoretically attempted to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment to cool only the head but to warm the body by using the simple apparatus such as the cooling cap, muffler and warming blanket. For this purpose, a biothermal system concerning the temperature difference between the brain and the other thoracico-abdominal viscus is synthesized from the biothermal model of hypothermic patient. The output controllability and the asymptotic stability of the system are examined on the basis of its structure. Then, the maximum temperature difference to be realized is shown dependent on the temperature range of the apparatus and also on the maximum gain determined from the coefficient matrices A, B and C of the biothermal system. Its theoretical analysis shows the realization of difference of about 2.5°C, if there is absolutely no constraint of the temperatures of the cooling cap, muffler and blanket. It is, however, physically unavailable. Those are shown by simulation example of the optimal brain temperature regulation using a standard adult database. It is thus concluded that the surface cooling and warming apparatus do no make it possible to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment, because the brain temperature cannot be cooled lower than those of other viscera in an appropriate temperature environment. This study shows that the ever-proposed good method of clinical treatment is in principle impossible in the actual brain hypothermia treatment.

  17. Isolation Syndrome after Cardiac Arrest and Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgacs, Peter B; Fridman, Esteban A; Goldfine, Andrew M; Schiff, Nicholas D

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the first description of an isolation syndrome in a patient who suffered prolonged cardiac arrest and underwent a standard therapeutic hypothermia protocol. Two years after the arrest, the patient demonstrated no motor responses to commands, communication capabilities, or visual tracking at the bedside. However, resting neuronal metabolism and electrical activity across the entire anterior forebrain was found to be normal despite severe structural injuries to primary motor, parietal, and occipital cortices. In addition, using quantitative electroencephalography, the patient showed evidence for willful modulation of brain activity in response to auditory commands revealing covert conscious awareness. A possible explanation for this striking dissociation in this patient is that altered neuronal recovery patterns following therapeutic hypothermia may lead to a disproportionate preservation of anterior forebrain cortico-thalamic circuits even in the setting of severe hypoxic injury to other brain areas. Compared to recent reports of other severely brain-injured subjects with such dissociation of clinically observable (overt) and covert behaviors, we propose that this case represents a potentially generalizable mechanism producing an isolation syndrome of blindness, motor paralysis, and retained cognition as a sequela of cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Our findings further support that highly-preserved anterior cortico-thalamic integrity is associated with the presence of conscious awareness independent from the degree of injury to other brain areas. PMID:27375420

  18. The geography of hypothermia in the United States: An analysis of mortality, morbidity, thresholds, and messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jeremy M.

    Hypothermia within the United States has seldom been studied from a geographic perspective. This dissertation assessed the following aspects of hypothermia: 1) A cataloging of Internet web pages containing hypothermia-related guidance, with a summary of the information contained within. The summarized hypothermia information was assessed for scientific validity through an extensive assessment of the peer-reviewed medical literature; 2) the spatio-temporal distribution of hypothermia deaths in U.S. Combined Statistical areas for the years 1979-2004, and their association with National Weather Service windchill advisory and warning thresholds; 3) the spatio-temporal distribution of hypothermia morbidity in the State of New York from 1991-1992 to 2005-2006 and its association with Spatial Synoptic Classification weather types. The results indicate that web-based hypothermia information has generally poor content not supported by the scientific literature, and there are many prominent omissions of well-established hypothermia information. A total of 9,185 hypothermia fatalities attributable to cold exposure occurred in 89 metro areas from 1979 to 2004. The southeastern US had the greatest vulnerability to hypothermia, with high rates of deaths occurring at higher temperatures than northern states. Median windchill temperature associated with deaths was generally latitudinal, with southern deaths occurring at higher temperatures. For all regions, hypothermia deaths occurred at temperatures considerably higher than windchill advisory criteria. Hypothermia morbidity within New York State was associated with long-lasting polar weather types. There are a number of findings common to these three papers. Information about hypothermia tends to be under-communicated (no central location for wind chill alerts, unsupported statements on many websites). Hypothermia deaths and hospitalizations increase when locally cold and long-lasting weather types occur, which fits in with what

  19. Outcome after resuscitation beyond 30 minutes in drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia : Dutch nationwide retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieboom, J. K.; Verkade, H. J.; Burgerhof, J. G.; Bierens, J. J.; van Rheenen, P. F.; Kneyber, M. C.; Albers, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the outcome of drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia, and to determine distinct criteria for termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in drowned children with hypothermia and absence of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN Nationwide retrospective cohort study. S

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis of therapeutic hypothermia in animal models of spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E Batchelor

    Full Text Available Therapeutic hypothermia is a clinically useful neuroprotective therapy for cardiac arrest and neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and may potentially be useful for the treatment of other neurological conditions including traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. The pre-clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of hypothermia in acute SCI broadly utilise either systemic hypothermia or cooling regional to the site of injury. The literature has not been uniformly positive with conflicting studies of varying quality, some performed decades previously.In this study, we systematically review and meta-analyse the literature to determine the efficacy of systemic and regional hypothermia in traumatic SCI, the experimental conditions influencing this efficacy, and the influence of study quality on outcome. Three databases were utilised; PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Embase. Our inclusion criteria consisted of the (i reporting of efficacy of hypothermia on functional outcome (ii number of animals and (iii mean outcome and variance in each group.Systemic hypothermia improved behavioural outcomes by 24.5% (95% CI 10.2 to 38.8 and a similar magnitude of improvement was seen across a number of high quality studies. The overall behavioural improvement with regional hypothermia was 26.2%, but the variance was wide (95% CI -3.77 to 56.2. This result may reflect a preponderance of positive low quality data, although a preferential effect of hypothermia in ischaemic models of injury may explain some of the disparate data. Sufficient heterogeneity was present between studies of regional hypothermia to reveal a number of factors potentially influencing efficacy, including depth and duration of hypothermia, animal species, and neurobehavioural assessment. However, these factors could reflect the influence of earlier lower quality literature.Systemic hypothermia appears to be a promising potential method of treating acute SCI on the basis of meta-analysis of the

  1. MODEST HYPOTHERMIA PROVENTS APOPTOSIS IN A NEONATAL RAT MODEL OF HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC BRAINDAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Recent studies in neonatal animals have shown that even slightly decreasing in brain or core temperature could ameliorate the damage resulting from hypoxic-ischemia insults. But the influence of hypothermia which had been used after the end of hypoxia-ischemia of the model hypoxia-ischemia brain damage(HIBD)was unknown. This research wanted to investigate whether hypothermia of defferent begin time after HIBD still could protect the brain in neonatal rats. Methods Pericranial temperatures were adjusted to 31 C in neonatal rats immediately or 2h after the end of hypoxia-ischemia(HI),the number of apoptosis cells in HIBD rats' brain had been counted,rat pups' storing food ability had been observed. Results Apoptosis increased obviously when rat pups were 8 days old, while hypothermia reduced apoptosis ,and postponed apoptosis expression in group that 31 C hypothermia was used immediately or 1h after the end of HI,and hypothermia improved the rat pups' storing food ability. This effect was more obviously in the group that hypothermia was used immediately after the HI than in the group that hypothermia was used 1h after the HI. But the protective effect was not clear in the group that hypothermia was used 2 h after the HI. Conclusion Hypothermia which was used within 1h after the end of HI could protect the HIBD neonatal rat pups brain, this effect was more obviously in the hypothermia be used early after the end of HI group than in the hypothermia be used late after the end of HI group.

  2. Unexpected Fatal Hypernatremia after Successful Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation with Therapeutic Hypothermia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang-Sik; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Won; Lim, Kyung-Su

    2012-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (DI), characterized by unexpected fatal hypernatremia, is a rare complication after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation with therapeutic hypothermia, but may be potentially fatal if recognition is delayed. We describe here a patient who experienced cardiac arrest due to a pulmonary embolism, followed by successful resuscitation after induction of therapeutic hypothermia. The patient, however, suddenly developed unexpected hypernatremia with increased urine outp...

  3. The impact of therapeutic hypothermia on neurological function and quality of life after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Horsted, Tina I;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the impact of therapeutic hypothermia on cognitive function and quality of life in comatose survivors of out of Hospital Cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: We prospectively studied comatose survivors of OHCA consecutively admitted in a 4-year period. Therapeutic hypothermia was imple...

  4. Agenesis of the corpus callosum associated with paroxysmal hypothermia: Shapiro's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segeren, C M; Polderman, K H; Lips, P

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous recurrent hypothermia and hyperhidrosis associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum was first described by Shapiro and Plum in 1967. Since then, several cases with similar symptoms (now known as Shapiro's syndrome or spontaneous periodic hypothermia) have been described. We report another case of this syndrome in a 21-year-old-man, and discuss possible pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches. PMID:9038041

  5. Platelet Function During Hypothermia in Experimental Mock Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, Sven; Stevens, Kris; Kicken, Cécile; Simons, Antoine; Marcus, Abraham; Lancé, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Alterations in platelet function are a common finding in surgical procedures involving cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia. Although the combined impact of hypothermia and artificial circulation on platelets has been studied before, the ultimate strategy to safely minimize the risk for bleeding and thrombosis is yet unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mock circulation loop to study the impact of hypothermia for platelet-related hemostatic changes. Venous blood was collected from healthy adult humans (n = 3). Closed mock circulation loops were assembled, each consisting of a centrifugal pump, an oxygenator with integrated heat exchanger, and a hardshell venous reservoir. The experiment started with the mock circulation temperature set at 37°C (T0 [0 h]). Cooling was then initiated at T1 (+2 h), where temperature was adjusted from 37°C to 32°C. Hypothermia was maintained from T2 (+4 h) to T3 (+28 h). From that point in time, rewarming from 32°C to 37°C was initiated with similar speed as cooling. From time point T4 (+30 h), normothermia (37°C) was maintained until the experiment ended at T5 (+32 h). Blood samples were analyzed in standard hematological tests: light transmission aggregometry (LTA) (arachidonic acid [AA], adenosine diphosphate [ADP], collagen [COL], thrombin-receptor-activating-peptide-14 [TRAP]), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) (AA, ADP, COL, TRAP), and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) (EXTEM, FIBTEM, PLTEM). Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count decrease more substantially during temperature drop (37-32°C) than during hypothermia maintenance. Hb and Hct continue to follow this trend during active rewarming (32-37°C). PC increase from the moment active rewarming was initiated. None of the values return to the initial values. LTA values demonstrate a similar decrease in aggregation after stimulation with the platelet agonists between the start of the mock circulation and the start of cooling. Except

  6. Multicenter trial of early hypothermia in severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Guy L; Drever, Pamala; Valadka, Alex; Zygun, David; Okonkwo, David

    2009-03-01

    The North American Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia IIR (NABIS:H IIR) is a randomized clinical trial designed to enroll 240 patients with severe brain injury between the ages of 16 and 45 years. The primary outcome measure is the dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 6 months after injury. The study has the power to detect a 17.5% absolute difference in the percentage of patients with a good outcome with a power of 80%. All patients are randomized by waiver of consent unless family is immediately available. Enrollment is within 2.5 h of injury. Patients may be enrolled in the field by emergency medical services personnel affiliated with the study or by study personnel when the patient arrives at the emergency department. Patients who do not follow commands and have no exclusion criteria and who are enrolled in the hypothermia arm of the study are cooled to 35 degrees C as rapidly as possible by intravenous administration of up to 2 liters of chilled crystalloid. Those patients who meet the criteria for the second phase of the protocol (primarily a post-resuscitation GCS 3-8 without hypotension and without severe associated injuries) are cooled to 33 degrees C. Patients enrolled in the normothermia arm receive standard management at normothermia. As of December 2007, 74 patients had been randomized into phase II of the protocol. Patients in the hypothermia arm reached 35 degrees C in 2.7 +/- 1.1 (SD) h after injury and reached 33 degrees C at 4.4 +/- 1.5 h after injury.

  7. Duration of deep hypothermia during aortic surgery and the risk of perioperative blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mazzeffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep hypothermia, which is used during thoracic aortic surgery for neuroprotection, is associated with coagulation abnormalities in animal and in vitro models. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the impact of deep hypothermia duration on perioperative bleeding. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between the duration of deep hypothermia and perioperative bleeding. A retrospective review of 507 consecutive thoracic aortic surgery patients who had surgery with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was performed. The degree of bleeding and coagulopathy was estimated using perioperative transfusion. Log linear modeling with Poisson regression was used to analyze the relationship between deep hypothermia duration and perioperative bleeding, while controlling for other preselected variables. There was a significant association between deep hypothermia duration and RBC transfusion (P = 0.001. There was no significant association between deep hypothermia duration and FFP and platelet transfusion (P = 0.18 and P = 0.06. The association between deep hypothermia duration and the amount of bleeding (RBC transfusion was dependent on total CPB time. In general, for shorter CPB times (approximately 120 to 180 minutes there was an upward sloping line or positive relationship between deep hypothermia duration and bleeding. However, for cases with longer CPB times (300 to 360 minutes, there was no such relationship. The relationship between deep hypothermia duration and perioperative bleeding is dependent on CPB time. For surgeries with short CPB times (120 to 180 minutes, prolonged deep hypothermia is associated with increased post-operative bleeding, as estimated by RBC transfusion. For cases with longer CPB times (300 to 360 minutes, there appears to be no relationship.

  8. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia attenuates traumatic brain injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Espinera, Alyssa; Lee, Jin Hwan; Ji, Xiaoya; Wei, Ling; Dix, Thomas A; Yu, Shan Ping

    2015-05-01

    Neonatal brain trauma is linked to higher risks of mortality and neurological disability. The use of mild to moderate hypothermia has shown promising potential against brain injuries induced by stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in various experimental models and in clinical trials. Conventional methods of physical cooling, however, are difficult to use in acute treatments and in induction of regulated hypothermia. In addition, general anesthesia is usually required to mitigate the negative effects of shivering during physical cooling. Our recent investigations demonstrate the potential therapeutic benefits of pharmacologically induced hypothermia (PIH) using the neurotensin receptor (NTR) agonist HPI201 (formerly known as ABS201) in stroke and TBI models of adult rodents. The present investigation explored the brain protective effects of HPI201 in a P14 rat pediatric model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact. When administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, HPI201 induced dose-dependent reduction of body and brain temperature. A 6-h hypothermic treatment, providing an overall 2-3°C reduction of brain and body temperature, showed significant effect of attenuating the contusion volume versus TBI controls. Attenuation occurs whether hypothermia is initiated 15min or 2h after TBI. No shivering response was seen in HPI201-treated animals. HPI201 treatment also reduced TUNEL-positive and TUNEL/NeuN-colabeled cells in the contusion area and peri-injury regions. TBI-induced blood-brain barrier damage was attenuated by HPI201 treatment, evaluated using the Evans Blue assay. HPI201 significantly decreased MMP-9 levels and caspase-3 activation, both of which are pro-apototic, while it increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression in the peri-contusion region. In addition, HPI201 prevented the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. In sensorimotor activity assessments, rats in the HPI201

  9. Out-of-Hospital therapeutic hypothermia. A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nélida Conejo Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated therapeutic mild hypothermia improves neurological outcome of patients after suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.Other studies in animals suggest that the sooner hypothermia is started after return of spontaneous circulation, the lower neurological symptoms are suffered by patients.The aim of this work is to know the efficiency of the therapeutic moderated hipotermia after the cardiopulmonar resuscitation realized extra hospitable.Methods: We made a literature search in Medline (Pubmed, Cinahl, Cuiden, Cochrane Library and the Joanna Briggs Institute, combining mesh and free terms; and searched in the journals Circulation, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine Journal manually last year. We selected systematic reviews and randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials which had contrasted in-hospital and out-of-hospital TMH with over 18 years patients.Results: Only 5 articles met the inclusion criteria of the 35 selected: four randomized clinical trials and one nonrandomized. They were then subjected to a critical methodological evaluation (CASPe and statistic evaluation (IDIPaz.Conclusions: Pre hospital TMH is an effective and safe technique in comatose patients after being resuscitated from cardiac arrest, improving the neurological status at hospital discharge.

  10. The Effect of Moderate Hypothermia on Renin-Angiotensin – Aldosterone System in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kourosh Arami

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia in nature occurs in hibernating animals. It has applications in medicine in open heart surgery,organ and connective tissue preserving, altitude medicine and geriatrics. Despite the vastness of studies on hypothermia many of its biologic and physiologic effects including endocrine system alterations are still poorly recognized. In this study the effect of hypothermia on renin- angiotensin-aldosterone axis was explored. Ten male wistar albino rats (mean age 5 months were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of chloralhydrat (0.5 m1/100gr body weight. Then animals were placed in hypothermia apparatus . Their body temperature were reduced to 250 C. AngiotensinI(ANGI and aldosterone (ALD levels of serum were measured by radioimmunoassay before and after hypothermia induction and once every 24 hours for three days. Plasma renin activity (PRA was also measured by using the standard formula of angiotensin determinates at two temperatures of 40C and 370C . The results showed that PRA,ANGI and ALD increased significantly immedietly after hypothermia (p<0.03. Later changes were followed as these factors decreased to basal level, except in the case of aldosterone which maintained its increased level significantly for 24 hours (p<0.05. It seems that moderate hypothermia have stimulatory effect on PRA,ANGI and ALD that results of this study confirm it.

  11. Detrimental effect of hypothermia during acute normovolaemic haemodilution in anaesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, A.; Fahim, Mohammad

    Haemodynamic responses to hypothermia were studied at normal haematocrit and following the induction of acute normovolaemic haemodilution. Experiments were performed on 20 cats anaesthetized with a mixture of chloralose and urethane in two groups. In one group (n=10) the effects of hypothermia on various haemodynamic variables were studied at normal haematocrit (41.0+/-1.7%) and in the second group of cats (n=10) the effects of hypothermia on various haemodynamic variables were studied after the induction of acute normovolaemic haemodilution (14.0+/-1.0%). The haemodynamic variables left ventricular pressure, left ventricular contractility, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and right atrial pressure were recorded on a polygraph. Cardiac output was measured using a cardiac output computer. In both groups hypothermia was induced by surface cooling with the help of ice. Cardiovascular variables were recorded at each 1° C fall in body temperature. Hypothermia produced a significant (P<0.05) drop in heart rate, cardiac output, arterial blood pressure and left ventricular contractility in both groups. However, the percentage decrease in these variables in response to hypothermia was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cats with low haematocrit than in those with normal haematocrit. The severity of hypothermia - induced cardiovascular effects is evident from the drastic decrease in heart rate, cardiac output, arterial blood pressure and myocardial contractility in cats with low haematocrit, indicating a higher risk of circulatory failure under anaemic conditions at low temperatures.

  12. Neonatal hypothermia and associated risk factors among newborns of southern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeClerq Steven C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hypothermia is associated with an increased mortality risk for 28 days. There are few community-based data on specific risk factors for neonatal hypothermia. Estimates of association between neonatal hypothermia in the community and risk factors are needed to guide the design of interventions to reduce exposure. Methods A cohort of 23,240 babies in rural southern Nepal was visited at home by field workers who measured axillary temperatures for 28 days (213,316 temperature measurements. The cumulative incidence of hypothermia (defined as Results Ten percent of the babies (n = 2342 were observed with temperatures of 2500 g. Risk varied inversely along the entire weight spectrum: for every 100 g decrement hypothermia risk increased by 7.4%, 13.5% and 31.3%% for babies between 3000 g and 2500 g, 2500 g and 2000 g and Conclusions In addition to season in which the babies were born, weight is an important risk factor for hypothermia. Smaller babies are at higher relative risk of hypothermia during the warm period and do not receive the protective seasonal benefit apparent among larger babies. The need for year-round thermal care, early breastfeeding and maternal thermal care should be emphasized. Further work is needed to quantify the benefits of other simple neonatal thermal care practices.

  13. Prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest--from current concepts to a future standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Antti; Hoppu, Sanna; Silfvast, Tom; Virkkunen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome after prehospital cardiac arrest. Existing experimental and clinical evidence supports the notion that delayed cooling results in lesser benefit compared to early induction of mild hypothermia soon after return of spontaneous circulation. Therefore a practical approach would be to initiate cooling already in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this review was to evaluate current clinical studies on prehospital induction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Most reported studies present data on cooling rates, safety and feasibility of different methods, but are inconclusive as regarding to outcome effects. PMID:19821967

  14. Prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest - from current concepts to a future standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoppu Sanna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome after prehospital cardiac arrest. Existing experimental and clinical evidence supports the notion that delayed cooling results in lesser benefit compared to early induction of mild hypothermia soon after return of spontaneous circulation. Therefore a practical approach would be to initiate cooling already in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this review was to evaluate current clinical studies on prehospital induction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Most reported studies present data on cooling rates, safety and feasibility of different methods, but are inconclusive as regarding to outcome effects.

  15. Prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest - from current concepts to a future standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Antti; Hoppu, Sanna; Silfvast, Tom; Virkkunen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome after prehospital cardiac arrest. Existing experimental and clinical evidence supports the notion that delayed cooling results in lesser benefit compared to early induction of mild hypothermia soon after return of spontaneous circulation. Therefore a practical approach would be to initiate cooling already in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this review was to evaluate current clinical studies on prehospital induction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Most reported studies present data on cooling rates, safety and feasibility of different methods, but are inconclusive as regarding to outcome effects. PMID:19821967

  16. Drug-Induced Hypothermia as Beneficial Treatment before and after Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming F; Hasseldam, Henrik; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard;

    2014-01-01

    was continuously monitored. In preconditioning, hypothermia was terminated before either reversible occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 60 min or global ischemia for 10 min with 2-vessel occlusion and hypotension. In postconditioning, rats experienced 60 min of MCAO before hypothermia was induced...... either immediately or with 3 h delay. Rats survived ischemia for 2, 7 or 90 days. Infarct volumes were quantified by stereology. Additional experiments of methodological relevance were included in the study. Results: Talipexole induced mild hypothermia (35.1 ± 1.1 to 36.0 ± 0.5°C) for...

  17. Avoidant personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  18. Mortes evitáveis em menores de um ano, Brasil, 1997 a 2006: contribuições para a avaliação de desempenho do Sistema Único de Saúde Avoidable causes of infant mortality in Brazil, 1997-2006: contributions to performance evaluation of the Unified National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os óbitos de menores de um ano foram classificados em causas evitáveis, mal definidas e não evitáveis empregando a Lista Brasileira de Mortes Evitáveis, entre 1997-2006. Foram calculados tendências dos coeficientes de mortalidade infantil por causas de morte e se usou regressão não linear para avaliação de tendência. As causas evitáveis e as causas mal definidas apresentaram significativa redução (p Infant deaths were classified as avoidable, non-avoidable, and resulting from ill-defined conditions, from 1997 to 2006, using the Brazilian List of Avoidable Causes of Mortality. Non-linear regression was used to calculate trends in cause-specific infant mortality rates. There was a significant decline in both avoidable deaths and deaths from ill-defined causes (p < 0.001. Avoidable deaths decreased by 37% overall. Mortality avoidable through adequate intrapartum care and adequate neonatal care decreased by 27.7% and 42.5%, respectively, while mortality avoidable through adequate prenatal care increased by 28.3%. In conclusion, health services contributed to the reduction in infant mortality. The decrease in ill-defined causes of death indicates expanded access to health services. The increase in access to intrapartum and neonatal care contributed to the reduction in infant deaths. The increase in mortality avoidable through adequate prenatal care indicates the need for improvement in prenatal care.

  19. Hypothermia in VGKC antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S; Irani, S R; Rajabally, Y A; Grubneac, A; Walters, R J; Yazaki, M; Clover, L; Vincent, A

    2008-02-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody (VGKC-Ab)-associated limbic encephalitis (LE) is a recently described syndrome that broadens the spectrum of immunotherapy-responsive central nervous system disorders. Limbic encephalitis is typically characterised by a sub-acute onset of disorientation, amnesia and seizures, but the clinical spectrum is not yet fully defined and the syndrome could be under-diagnosed. We here describe the clinical profile of four patients with VGKC-Ab-associated LE who had intermittent, episodic hypothermia. One of the patients also described a prodrome of severe neuropathic pain preceding the development of limbic symptoms. Both of these novel symptoms responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, with concurrent amelioration of amnesia/seizures.

  20. Ultrasonography of the internal carotid artery during therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Sumio; Tanimura, Tomoshige; Iwaki, Toshihiko; Higuchi, Machiko; Suyama, Megumi; Goto, Tomoki; Koide, Wakato; Maki, Kanemasa; Ushijima, Katsumi; Ban, Kyoko

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of mean blood flow velocity (mean V) in the internal carotid artery (ICA) for prediction of outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) exposed to therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Five newborns with HIE who met the criteria for TH were enrolled. Ultrasonography of the right and left ICA was performed before, during, and after TH. Mean V of the sampling point in each ICA was measured. Mean V was suppressed during TH and increased after rewarming in four infants with normal neurological development. In one infant with neurological disability, however, mean V increased during TH and decreased after therapy. In conclusion, cervical ultrasonography for ICA in infants during TH may be useful for the prediction of neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:27460402

  1. Angiogenesis dysregulation in term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Shaikh

    Full Text Available Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns.This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns.Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns.Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns.These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery.

  2. Donor dopamine treatment limits pulmonary oedema and inflammation in lung allografts subjected to prolonged hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanusch, Christine; Nowak, Kai; Toerlitz, Patrizia; Gill, Ishar S.; Song, Hui; Rafat, Neysan; Brinkkoetter, Paul T.; Leuvenink, Henri G.; Van Ackern, Klaus C.; Yard, Benito A.; Beck, Grietje C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Endothelial barrier dysfunction severely compromises organ function after reperfusion. Because dopamine pretreatment improves hypothermia mediated barrier dysfunction, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine treatment of lung allografts positively affects tissue damage associated with hyp

  3. Mild hypothermia for refractory focal status epilepticus in an infant with hemimegalencephaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, Jan Willem; van der Naalt, Joukje; Fock, Johanna Maria

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia can reduce seizure frequency in animal models of status epilepticus, and its effectiveness in human status epilepticus has been reported occasionally. We report an infant with hemimegalencephaly who presented with generalized status epilepticus. After high dose intravenous drug therapy,

  4. Neonatal recurrent prolonged hypothermia associated with maternal mirtazapine treatment during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolover, Nir; Merlob, Paul; Klinger, Gil

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of recurrent hypothermia in concordant monozygotic twins born to a mirtazapine treated mother. The twins were born at 35 weeks gestation at birth weights of 2426 g and 2355 g. Both twins presented with recurrent hypothermia continuing until day 10 of life. Possible etiologies of hypothermia were excluded. The degree of prematurity and the weight of the twins were not consistent with prolonged thermal instability. The twins' mother was treated with mirtazapine during the entire pregnancy. Due to its serotonin and alpha 2 receptors antagonism mirtazapine is known to influence thermoregulation in adult humans and other mammals. We suggest that maternal mirtazapine treatment during pregnancy was associated with recurrent hypothermia in both identical twins.

  5. THE MUSCARINIC ANTAGONIST SCOPOLAMINE ATTENUATES CHLORPYRIFOS INDUCED HYPOTHERMIA IN THE DEVELOPING RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorpyrifos (CHP), an anticholinesterase organophosphate (OP) pesticide, induces acute hypothermia in adult and developing rats. Previously we demonstrated that thermoregulation in preweanling pups is markedly more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of CHP than in adults. The c...

  6. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  7. Hippocampal expression of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 following diffuse axonal injury under mild hypothermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yang; Limin Zhang; Yunhe Zhang; Xifeng Zou; Qunxi Li; Yun Li; Jun Zhu; Jianmin Li; Aijun Fu; Qingjun Liu; Tong Chen; Zelin Sun; Zhiyong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The influence of mild hypothermia on neural cell apoptosis remains poorly understood. Therefore, the present study established rat models of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) at 33 °C. Morris water maze results demonstrated significantly better learning and memory functions in DAI rats with hypothermia compared with DAI rats with normothermia. Expression of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 in the hippocampal CA1 region was significantly lower in the DAI hypothermia group compared with the DAI normothermia group. Expression of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 positively correlated with latency, but negatively correlated with platform location times and time of swimming in the quadrant area. Results suggested that post-traumatic mild hypothermia in a rat model of DAI could provide cerebral protection by attenuating expression of apoptotic protease activating factor-1.

  8. Equipment to prevent, diagnose, and treat hypothermia: a survey of Norwegian pre-hospital services

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Anders M; Thomassen, Øyvind; Vikenes, Bjarne H.; Brattebø, Guttorm

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hypothermia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in trauma patients and poses a challenge in pre-hospital treatment. The aim of this study was to identify equipment to prevent, diagnose, and treat hypothermia in Norwegian pre-hospital services. Method In the period of April-August 2011, we conducted a survey of 42 respondents representing a total of 543 pre-hospital units, which included all the national ground ambulance services, the fixed wing and helicopter air...

  9. Cerebral perfusion in cardiac surgery : with special reference to circulatory arrest during profound hypothermia

    OpenAIRE

    Astudillo Ley, Rafael

    1998-01-01

    Thirty-nine pediatric and 82 adult patients were studied during cardiac surgery with cardio pulmonary bypass (CPB) performed with moderate hypothermia or with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest (DHCA) with or-without retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was estimated from Doppler measurements of the blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv). Arterio-venous (jugular bulb) differences of blood lactate and oxygen were used to study cereb...

  10. Brain hypothermia therapy for childhood acute encephalopathy based on clinical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Imataka, George; Arisaka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have reported on the effectiveness of brain hypothermia therapy in childhood acute encephalopathy, additional studies in this field are necessary. In this review, we discussed brain hypothermia therapy methods for two clinical conditions for which sufficient evidences are currently available in the literature. The first condition is known as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and occurs in newborns and the second condition is acute encephalopathy which occurs in adults ...

  11. Prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest - from current concepts to a future standard

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppu Sanna; Kämäräinen Antti; Silfvast Tom; Virkkunen Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome after prehospital cardiac arrest. Existing experimental and clinical evidence supports the notion that delayed cooling results in lesser benefit compared to early induction of mild hypothermia soon after return of spontaneous circulation. Therefore a practical approach would be to initiate cooling already in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this review was to evaluate current clinical studies o...

  12. Case of Recurrent Ventricular Fibrillations with Osborn Wave Developed during Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yeon; Bae, Myung Hwan; Kim, Nam Kyun; Yang, Young Ae; Kim, Kyu Yeun; Lee, Jang Hoon; Eun, Jung Su; Cho, Yongkeun

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been used to protect neurological functions in cardiac arrest patient. Although Osborn wave is not pathognomonic of hypothermia, it is a well-known electrocardiogram finding of hypothermic patients. The cellular and ionic mechanisms of the Osborn wave have been suggested, and its relationship to tachyarrhythmias, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, is being explored. This case highlights the arrhythmogenic potential of Osborn wave and individual difference in response of TH. PMID:25653709

  13. Case of Recurrent Ventricular Fibrillations with Osborn Wave Developed during Therapeutic Hypothermia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang-Yeon; Bae, Myung Hwan; Kim, Nam Kyun; Yang, Young Ae; Kim, Kyu Yeun; Lee, Jang Hoon; Eun, Jung Su; Cho, Yongkeun

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been used to protect neurological functions in cardiac arrest patient. Although Osborn wave is not pathognomonic of hypothermia, it is a well-known electrocardiogram finding of hypothermic patients. The cellular and ionic mechanisms of the Osborn wave have been suggested, and its relationship to tachyarrhythmias, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, is being explored. This case highlights the arrhythmogenic potential of Osborn wave and...

  14. Cost-effective therapeutic hypothermia treatment device for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen RH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available John J Kim,1,2 Nathan Buchbinder,1,† Simon Ammanuel,1,4,5,† Robert Kim,1,† Erika Moore,1 Neil O'Donnell,1 Jennifer K Lee,3 Ewa Kulikowicz,3 Soumyadipta Acharya,1 Robert H Allen,1,9 Ryan W Lee,6,7 Michael V Johnston4–81Department of Biomedical Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 4Kennedy Krieger Institute, 5Hugo W Moser Research Institute, 6Department of Neurology, 7Department of Pediatrics, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; 9Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA†These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%–50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors

  15. Detrimental effect of hypothermia during acute normovolaemic haemodilution in anaesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, A.; Fahim, Mohammad

    Haemodynamic responses to hypothermia were studied at normal haematocrit and following the induction of acute normovolaemic haemodilution. Experiments were performed on 20 cats anaesthetized with a mixture of chloralose and urethane in two groups. In one group (n=10) the effects of hypothermia on various haemodynamic variables were studied at normal haematocrit (41.0+/-1.7%) and in the second group of cats (n=10) the effects of hypothermia on various haemodynamic variables were studied after the induction of acute normovolaemic haemodilution (14.0+/-1.0%). The haemodynamic variables left ventricular pressure, left ventricular contractility, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and right atrial pressure were recorded on a polygraph. Cardiac output was measured using a cardiac output computer. In both groups hypothermia was induced by surface cooling with the help of ice. Cardiovascular variables were recorded at each 1° C fall in body temperature. Hypothermia produced a significant (Pblood pressure and left ventricular contractility in both groups. However, the percentage decrease in these variables in response to hypothermia was significantly (Pblood pressure and myocardial contractility in cats with low haematocrit, indicating a higher risk of circulatory failure under anaemic conditions at low temperatures.

  16. Maintenance of whole-body therapeutic hypothermia during patient transport and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tai-Wei; McLean, Claire; Friedlich, Philippe; Seri, Istvan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Center for Fetal and Neonatal Medicine and the USC Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, LAC/USC Medical Center, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Grimm, John; Bluml, Stefan [University of Southern California, LAC/USC Medical Center, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Therapeutic hypothermia has become standard treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), with brain MRI commonly performed after the child has been rewarmed. However, early imaging during hypothermia might provide information important in designing clinical trials that refine and personalize therapeutic hypothermia. We tested a protocol to ensure safety and maintenance of hypothermia during in-hospital transport and MRI. MRI during therapeutic hypothermia was performed in 13 newborns on the 2nd-3rd postnatal days. Mean one-way transport time was 20.0 ± 3.3 min. Mean rectal temperatures ( C) leaving the unit, upon arrival at the MR suite, during MRI scan and upon return to the unit were 33.5 ± 0.3 C, 33.3 ± 0.3 C, 33.1 ± 0.4 C and 33.4 ± 0.3 C, respectively. Using our protocol therapeutic hypothermia was safely and effectively continued during in-hospital transport and MRI without adverse effects. (orig.)

  17. Activation of mitochondrial STAT-3 and reduced mitochondria damage during hypothermia treatment for post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hua; Tsai, Min-Shan; Chiang, Chih-Yen; Su, Yu-Jen; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Wen-Jone

    2015-11-01

    While therapeutic hypothermia improves the outcomes of individuals in cardiac arrest, the hemodynamic responses and mechanisms which underlie hypothermia-induced cardioprotection are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism by which induced hypothermia preserves cardiac function and protects against mitochondrial damage following cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced in adult male Wistar rats by asphyxiation for 8.5 min. Following resuscitation, the animals were randomly assigned to a hypothermia (32 °C) or normothermia (37 °C) group. Monitoring results showed that cardiac output at the fourth hour after resuscitation was significantly better in rats treated with hypothermia when compared to rats treated with normothermia (P mitochondrial permeability transition pores occurred less frequently in the hypothermic group. While complex I/III activity in the electron transport reaction was damaged after cardiac arrest and resuscitation, the degree of injury was ameliorated by hypothermia treatment (P mitochondrial integrity and electron transport activity.

  18. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  19. Multiscale Entropy Analysis of EEG for Assessment of Post-Cardiac Arrest Neurological Recovery Under Hypothermia in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Xiaoxu; Jia, Xiaofeng; Geocadin, Romergryko G.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Maybhate, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Neurological complications after cardiac arrest (CA) can be fatal. Although hypothermia has been shown to be beneficial, understanding the mechanism and establishing neurological outcomes remains challenging because effects of CA and hypothermia are not well characterized. This paper aims to analyze EEG (and the α-rhythms) using multiscale entropy (MSE) to demonstrate the ability of MSE in tracking changes due to hypothermia and compare MSE during early recovery with long-term neurological ex...

  20. ThermoSpots to detect hypothermia in children with severe acute malnutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B Mole

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypothermia is a risk factor for increased mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM. Yet frequent temperature measurement remains unfeasible in under-resourced units in developing countries. ThermoSpot is a continuous temperature monitoring sticker designed originally for neonates. When applied to skin, its liquid crystals are designed to turn black with hypothermia and remain green with normothermia. AIMS: To (i estimate the diagnostic accuracy of ThermoSpots for detecting WHO-defined hypothermia (core temperature <35.5°C or peripheral temperature <35.0°C in children with SAM and (ii determine their acceptability amongst mothers. METHODS: Children with SAM in a malnutrition unit in Malawi were enrolled during March-July 2010. The sensitivity and specificity of ThermoSpots were calculated by comparing the device colour against 'gold standard' rectal temperatures taken on admission and follow up peripheral temperatures taken until discharge. Guardians completed a questionnaire to assess acceptability. RESULTS: Hypothermia was uncommon amongst the 162 children enrolled. ThermoSpot successfully detected the one rectal temperature and two peripheral temperatures recorded that met the WHO definition of hypothermia. Overall, 3/846 (0.35% temperature measurements were in the WHO-defined hypothermia range. Interpreting the brown transition colour (between black and green as hypothermia improved sensitivities. For milder hypothermia definitions, sensitivities declined (<35.4°C, 50.0%; <35.9°C, 39.2%. Specificity was consistently above 94%. From questionnaires, 40/43 (93% mothers reported they were 90-100% happy with the device overall. Free-text answers revealed themes of "Skin Rashes", "User-satisfaction" and "Empowerment". CONCLUSION: Although hypothermia was uncommon in this study, ThermoSpots successfully detected these episodes in malnourished children and were acceptable to mothers. Research in settings where

  1. Therapeutic hypothermia protects against ischemia-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity following juvenile cardiac arrest in sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, R M; Deng, G; Orfila, J E; Hui, X; Traystman, R J; Herson, P S

    2016-06-14

    Pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) often leads to poor neurologic outcomes, including deficits in learning and memory. The only approved treatment for CA is therapeutic hypothermia, although its utility in the pediatric population remains unclear. This study analyzed the effect of mild therapeutic hypothermia after CA in juvenile mice on hippocampal neuronal injury and the cellular model of learning and memory, termed long-term potentiation (LTP). Juvenile mice were subjected to cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) followed by normothermia (37°C) and hypothermia (30°C, 32°C). Histological injury of hippocampal CA1 neurons was performed 3days after resuscitation using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded from acute hippocampal slices 7days after CA/CPR to determine LTP. Synaptic function was impaired 7days after CA/CPR. Mice exposed to hypothermia showed equivalent neuroprotection, but exhibited sexually dimorphic protection against ischemia-induced impairment of LTP. Hypothermia (32°C) protects synaptic plasticity more effectively in females, with males requiring a deeper level of hypothermia (30°C) for equivalent protection. In conclusion, male and female juvenile mice exhibit equivalent neuronal injury following CA/CPR and hypothermia protects both males and females. We made the surprising finding that juvenile mice have a sexually dimorphic response to mild therapeutic hypothermia protection of synaptic function, where males may need a deeper level of hypothermia for equivalent synaptic protection. PMID:27033251

  2. Incidence of Inadvertent Intraoperative Hypothermia and Its Risk Factors in Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia in Beijing: A Prospective Regional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yi

    Full Text Available Inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia (core temperature 2 h (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.90-6.22,, and intravenous un-warmed fluid (OR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.45-4.12 significantly increased the risk of hypothermia.The incidence of inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia in Beijing is high, and the rate of active warming of patients during operation is low. Concern for the development of intraoperative hypothermia should be especially high in patients undergoing major operations, requiring long periods of anesthesia, and receiving un-warmed intravenous fluids.

  3. Local hypothermia and optimal temperature for stroke therapy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; JIANG Li-dan; Karsten H.Wrede; JI Xun-ming; ZHAO Xi-qing; TIAN Xin; GAO Yu-fei; LING Feng

    2009-01-01

    Background Local hypothermia induced by intravascular infusion of cold saline solution effectively reduces brain damage in stroke. We further determined the optimal temperature of local hypothermia in our study. Methods Seventy-eight adult male Sprague Dawley rats (260-300 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A, ischemia/reperfusion without cold saline infusion (n=-26) (control group); group B, infusion with 20℃ saline before reperfusion (n=26); group C: infusion with 10~C saline before reperfusion (n=26). In each group, we chose 15 rats for monitoring physical indexes and the temperature of the brain (cortex and striatum) and body (anus), measurement of brain infarction volume, assessment of neurological deficits and the survival rate of reperfusion at 48 hours. Another 8 rats from each group was chosen for examining brain edema, another 3 from each group for histological observation by electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy (LM) at 48 hours after reperfusion. Results There was no significant difference among the 3 groups for physical indexes during the examination (F(2,45)=0.577, P=0.568; F(2, 45)= 0.42, P=0.78 for blood pressure and blood gas analysis, respectively). The brain temperature was significantly reduced in the group C compared to the other groups (F(2, 45)=37.074, P=0.000; F(2, 45)=32.983, P=0.000, for cortex and striatum temperature respectively), while the difference in rectal temperature between group A and B or C after reperfusion was not significant (F(2, 45)= 0.17115, P=0.637). And the brain infarct volume was significantly reduced in group C (from 40%±10% in group A, 26%±8% in group B, to 12%±6% in group C, F<(2,45)=43.465, P=0.000) with the neurological deficits improving in group C (X2=27.626, P=0.000). The survival rate at 48 hours after 10℃ and 20℃ saline reperfusion was increased by 132.5% and 150%, respectively, as compared to the control group (X2=10.489, P=0.005). The extent of the brain edema showed no

  4. Hypothermia as a predictor for mortality in trauma patients at admittance to the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Balvers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the impact of hypothermia upon admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU on early and late mortality and to develop a prediction model for late mortality in severely injured trauma patients. Materials and Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed in adult trauma patients admitted to the ICU of two Level-1 trauma centers between 2007 and 2012. Hypothermia was defined as a core body temperature of ≤35° Celsius. Logistic regression analyses were performed to quantify the effect of hypothermia on 24-hour and 28-day mortality and to develop a prediction model. Results: A total of 953 patients were included, of which 354 patients had hypothermia (37% upon ICU admission. Patients were divided into a normothermic or hypothermic group. Hypothermia was associated with a significantly increased mortality at 24 hours and 28 days (OR 2.72 (1.18-6.29 and OR 2.82 (1.83-4.35 resp.. The variables included in the final prediction model were hypothermia, age, APACHE II score (corrected for temperature, INR, platelet count, traumatic brain injury and Injury Severity Score. The final prediction model discriminated between survivors and non-survivors with high accuracy (AUC = 0.871, 95% CI 0.844-0.898. Conclusions: Hypothermia, defined as a temperature ≤35° Celsius, is common in critically ill trauma patients and is one of the most important physiological predictors for early and late mortality in trauma patients. Trauma patients admitted to the ICU may be at high risk for late mortality if the patient is hypothermic, coagulopathic, severely injured and has traumatic brain injury or an advanced age.

  5. Hypothermia as a predictor for mortality in trauma patients at admittance to the Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvers, Kirsten; Van der Horst, Marjolein; Graumans, Maarten; Boer, Christa; Binnekade, Jan M.; Goslings, J. Carel; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study the impact of hypothermia upon admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) on early and late mortality and to develop a prediction model for late mortality in severely injured trauma patients. Materials and Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed in adult trauma patients admitted to the ICU of two Level-1 trauma centers between 2007 and 2012. Hypothermia was defined as a core body temperature of ≤35° Celsius. Logistic regression analyses were performed to quantify the effect of hypothermia on 24-hour and 28-day mortality and to develop a prediction model. Results: A total of 953 patients were included, of which 354 patients had hypothermia (37%) upon ICU admission. Patients were divided into a normothermic or hypothermic group. Hypothermia was associated with a significantly increased mortality at 24 hours and 28 days (OR 2.72 (1.18-6.29 and OR 2.82 (1.83-4.35) resp.). The variables included in the final prediction model were hypothermia, age, APACHE II score (corrected for temperature), INR, platelet count, traumatic brain injury and Injury Severity Score. The final prediction model discriminated between survivors and non-survivors with high accuracy (AUC = 0.871, 95% CI 0.844-0.898). Conclusions: Hypothermia, defined as a temperature ≤35° Celsius, is common in critically ill trauma patients and is one of the most important physiological predictors for early and late mortality in trauma patients. Trauma patients admitted to the ICU may be at high risk for late mortality if the patient is hypothermic, coagulopathic, severely injured and has traumatic brain injury or an advanced age. PMID:27512330

  6. Changes of evoked potentials and evaluation of mild hypothermia for treatment of severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of evoked pote ntials after severe brain injury and the effect of mild hypothermia on acute sev ere brain injury.   Methods: A total of 44 patients with severe closed head injury (GCS 3-8, admitted within 10 hours from injury) admitted from May 1998 to March 1999 were selected for this study. All patients were admitted into the intensiv e care unit and divided into 2 groups, Group A (GCS 3-5) and Group B (GCS 6 -8). Patients were also randomly assigned to either normothermia or hypothermia subgroups. Patients in the hypothermia group were cooled to 32-34℃. Median nerve short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SLSEP) and brain stem aud itory evoked potentials (BAEP) were recorded before cooling and 4, 24, 48, 72, 9 6 and 120 hours, respectively after cooling and temperature resuming. SLSEP and BAEP were measured at the same time in the normothermia group (control group). T he changes of evoked potentials (EP) were analyzed by statistical methods.   Results: In the Group B, N20 amplitudes in SLSEP and I/V amplitudes in BAEP after mild hypothermia treatment in the hypothermia group dif fered significantly from those in the control group (P<0.05). However, in the Group A, no significant difference in all paramet ers was found.   Conclusions: These results demonstrate that mild hypothermia tr eatment (32-34℃) in the Group B has a significant neuroelectrophysiological effect on severe brain injury. Nevertheless, the effect of mild hypothermia in t he Group A is not apparent and needs further studying.

  7. The effect of hypothermia therapy on cortical laminar disruption following ischemic injury in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kida

    Full Text Available Hypothermia has been proposed as a treatment for reducing neuronal damage in the brain induced by hypoxic ischemia. In the developing brain, hypoxic ischemia-induced injury may give rise to cerebral palsy (CP. However, it is unknown whether hypothermia might affect the development of CP. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hypothermia would have a protective effect on the brains of immature, 3-day old (P3 mice after a challenge of cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced in P3 mice with a right common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia (6% O2, 37°C for 30 min. Immediately after hypoxic ischemia, mice were exposed to hypothermia (32°C or normothermia (37°C for 24 h. At 4 weeks of age, mouse motor development was tested in a behavioral test. Mice were sacrificed at P4, P7, and 5 weeks to examine brain morphology. The laminar structure of the cortex was examined with immunohistochemistry (Cux1/Ctip2; the number of neurons was counted; and the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP was determined. The hypothermia treatment was associated with improved neurological outcomes in the behavioral test. In the normothermia group, histological analyses indicated reduced numbers of neurons, reduced cortical laminar thickness in the deep, ischemic cortical layers, and significant reduction in MBP expression in the ischemic cortex compared to the contralateral cortex. In the hypothermia group, no reductions were noted in deep cortical layer thickness and in MBP expression in the ischemic cortex compared to the contralateral cortex. At 24 h after the hypothermia treatment prevented the neuronal cell death that had predominantly occurred in the ischemic cortical deep layers with normothermia treatment. Our findings may provide a preclinical basis for testing hypothermal therapies in patients with CP induced by hypoxic ischemia in the preterm period.

  8. Anaesthesia generates neuronal insulin resistance by inducing hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland Calum

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaesthesia is commonly employed prior to surgical investigations and to permit icv injections in rodents. Indeed it is standard practise in many studies examining the subsequent actions of hormones and growth factors on the brain. Recent evidence that the basal activity of specific intracellular signalling proteins can be affected by anaesthesia prompted us to examine the effect of anaesthesia not only on the basal activity but also the insulin sensitivity of the major insulin signalling pathways. Results We find that urethane- and ketamine-induced anaesthesia results in rapid activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PKB signalling pathway in the brain, increases tau phosphorylation while at the same time reducing basal activity of the Ras-ERK pathway. Subsequent injection of insulin does not alter the activity of either the PI 3-kinase or ERK signalling pathways, indicating a degree of neuronal molecular insulin resistance. However, if body temperature is maintained during anaesthesia then there is no alteration in the basal activity of these signalling molecules. Subsequent response of both pathways to insulin injection is restored. Conclusion The data is consistent with a hypothermia related alteration in neuronal signalling following anaesthesia, and emphasises the importance of maintaining the body temperature of rodents when monitoring insulin (or growth factor/neurotrophic agent action in the brain of anesthetised rodents.

  9. Myelin Avoids the JAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follis, Rose M; Carter, Bruce D

    2016-08-17

    In this issue of Neuron, Redmond et al. (2016) identify junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitor of somatodendritic myelination in spinal cord neurons, thereby elucidating how myelin forms on axons but avoids dendrites and cell bodies. PMID:27537479

  10. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  11. Improved Therapeutic Benefits by Combining Physical Cooling With Pharmacological Hypothermia After Severe Stroke in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hwan; Wei, Ling; Gu, Xiaohuan; Won, Soonmi; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Dix, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Therapeutic hypothermia is a promising strategy for treatment of acute stroke. Clinical translation of therapeutic hypothermia, however, has been hindered because of the lack of efficiency and adverse effects. We sought to enhance the clinical potential of therapeutic hypothermia by combining physical cooling (PC) with pharmacologically induced hypothermia after ischemic stroke. Methods— Wistar rats were subjected to 90-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion by insertion of an intraluminal filament. Mild-to-moderate hypothermia was induced 120 minutes after the onset of stroke by PC alone, a neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonist HPI-201 (formally ABS-201) alone or the combination of both. The outcomes of stroke were evaluated at 3 and 21 days after stroke. Results— PC or HPI-201 each showed hypothermic effect and neuroprotection in stroke rats. The combination of PC and HPI-201 exhibited synergistic effects in cooling process, reduced infarct formation, cell death, and blood-brain barrier damages and improved functional recovery after stroke. Importantly, coapplied HPI-201 completely inhibited PC-associated shivering and tachycardia. Conclusions— The centrally acting hypothermic drug HPI-201 greatly enhanced the efficiency and efficacy of conventional PC; this combined cooling therapy may facilitate clinical translation of hypothermic treatment for stroke. PMID:27301934

  12. Hypothermia and afterdrop following open water swimming: the Alcatraz/San Francisco Swim Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckton, T J; Claman, D M; Goldreich, D; Wendt, F C; Nuckton, J G

    2000-10-01

    To determine whether or not participants in open water swim events experience hypothermia and afterdrop, rectal temperature was measured for up to 45 minutes in 11 subjects following the New Year's Day Alcatraz Swim. This event was held in open water (11.7 degrees C [53.0 degrees F]) in the San Francisco Bay, and participants did not wear wetsuits or other protective clothing. Biophysical parameters, including surfacelvolume ratio, body mass index, and percent body fat were measured before the swim, and statistical analysis was done to determine predictors of temperature decrease and afterdrop duration. Applying the American Heart Association definition of hypothermia (less than 36.0 C [96.8 degrees F]), hypothermia was seen in 5 of the 11 subjects. Using a more rigorous and traditional definition (less than 35.0 degrees C [95.0 degrees F]), hypothermia was seen in only one subject. Afterdrop, defined as continued cooling following removal from cold stress, was seen in 10 of the 11 subjects. Surface/volume ratio (S/V) and body mass index (BMI) predicted the lowest recorded temperatures (P < .05; r(S/V) = -.71, r(BMI) = .72) and afterdrop duration (P < .05; r(SN) = -.75, r(BMI) = .69). These results suggest that hypothermia and afterdrop can occur commonly after recreational open water swimming, and that participants should be observed for signs of temperature decrease following removal from cold stress. PMID:11043627

  13. Batroxobin plus hypothermia for protection of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury models in gerbils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhang; Pixing Zhang; Yinming Zeng; Qun Chen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothermia plays a protective role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Dose combination with batroxobin, an active drug for treating cerebrovascular disease, will enhance its protection? OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of hypothermia, batroxobin, hypothermia combined with batroxobin on complete cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in gerbils.DESIGN: A randomized block comparison observation. SETTING: Jiangsu Key Lab of Anesthesiology. MATERIALS: Experimental animal: Sixty Mongolia gerbils weighing 50-80 g, male or female, were provided by the Animals Center of Xuzhou Medical College. Drugs and agents: Batroxobin was provided by Dongling Phar maceutical Industry Organization (Japan). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondiadehyde (MDA) kits were offered by Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute. Other reagents were all import or national analytical pure grade. HITACHI R22A refrigerated high-speed centrifuge, and HARRIS ultra-hypothermia refrigerator were used.METHODS: The experiments were completed in Jiangsu Key Lab of Anesthesiology from May 2004 to January 2005. ① The animals were divided into 6 groups by random member table method: sham-operated group (n =6), ischemia control group (n =6), normothermia group (n =12), hypothermia group (n =12), batroxobin group (n =12) and hypothermia+batroxobin group (n =12). Gerbil rats were abdominally anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. The neck skin was incised to separate bilateral common carotid arteries. Complete cerebral ischemia models were established by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries with artery clamp for 10 minutes, then the clamp was loosened to perfuse the arteries. Iso-electric level of brain electric wave showed the models were established successfully. The gerbils in the batroxobin group and hypothermia+batroxobin group were abdominally injected with batroxobin (8 BU/kg) while reperfusion, and isovolumetric saline was administered to the gerbils in the other groups

  14. AVOIDING MANUSCRIPT MISTAKES

    OpenAIRE

    Grindstaff, Terry L.; Saliba, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Writing a scientific manuscript can be a consuming, but rewarding task with a number of intrinsic and extrinsic benefits. The ability to write a scientific manuscript is typically not an emphasized component of most entry‐level professional programs. The purpose of this overview is to provide authors with suggestions to improve manuscript quality and to provide mechanisms to avoid common manuscript mistakes that are often identified by journal reviewers and editors.

  15. Indonesia : Avoiding the Trap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Within the next two decades Indonesia aspires to generate prosperity, avoid a middle-income trap and leave no one behind as it tries to catch up with high-income economies. These are ambitious goals. Realizing them requires sustained high growth and job creation, as well as reduced inequality. Can Indonesia achieve them? This report argues that the country has the potential to rise and bec...

  16. Shapiro's syndrome: Defining the clinical spectrum of the spontaneous paroxysmal hypothermia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambasco, Nicola; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Prontera, Paolo; Nigro, Pasquale; Donti, Emilio; Rossi, Aroldo; Calabresi, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Shapiro Syndrome (SS) is a rare condition of spontaneous periodic hypothermia, corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) and hyperhidrosis which can occur at any age. The variant form refers to the phenotypic SS without ACC. We reported the case of SS variant on a 4-year-old boy who presented from his first year frequent episodes of hypothermia lasting 2-3 h with core rectal temperatures Hyperhidrosis, another hallmark of SS, was present in only 42.3% of the cases and mainly in adult onset. The presence of SS in siblings of different genders suggests an autosomal recessive inheritance model, however a gonadic mosaicism responsible for an autosomal de novo mutation cannot be ruled out. From our review of well documented cases of SS, we conclude that only the episodic and spontaneous paroxysmal hypothermia should be considered the defining hallmark of typical and variant SS. This can be important to define the clinical manifestation of SS improving the early diagnosis. PMID:24594427

  17. Severe brain hypothermia as a factor underlying behavioral immobility during cold-water forced swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taltavull, J F; Chefer, V I; Shippenberg, T S; Kiyatkin, E A

    2003-06-13

    Behavioral immobility during forced swim is usually considered a consequence of inescapable stress, and is used to screen antidepressant drugs. However, immobility in this test may also result from inhibition of neural functions because of brain hypothermia due to body cooling. To explore this possibility, we measured brain temperature dynamics during a 10-min forced swim in cold (25 degrees C) and warm (37 degrees C) water and correlated brain temperatures with behavioral changes. Cold water forced swim resulted in significant brain hypothermia (-6-7 degrees C) and immobility, while no immobility was observed during warm water forced swim, when brain temperature transiently increased (0.5 degrees C) then decreased below baseline in the post-swim period. These data suggest that immobility, which rapidly develops during forced swim in cold water, may result from dramatic inhibition of neural functions because of severe brain hypothermia.

  18. Therapeutic Hypothermia and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in a Child with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Spurkeland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic outcomes following pediatric cardiac arrest are consistently poor. Early initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been shown to have positive effects on both survival to hospital discharge, and improved neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest. Additionally, the use of therapeutic hypothermia may improve survival in pediatric cardiac arrest patients admitted to the intensive care unit. We report a child with congenital hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, in whom the early initiation of effective prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation and subsequent administration of therapeutic hypothermia contributed to a positive outcome with no gross neurologic sequelae. Continuing efforts should be made to promote and employ high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which likely contributed to the positive outcome of this case. Further research will be necessary to develop and solidify national guidelines for the implementation of therapeutic hypothermia in selected subpopulations of children with OHCA.

  19. Effects of mild hypothermia on patients with lower intracranial pressure following severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维平; 任海军; 池京洋; 徐福林; 全勇

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of mild hypothermia therapy on severe brain-injured patients whose intracranial pressure (ICP) could be maintained below 25 mm Hg.Methods: Forty severe brain-injured patients with ICP below 25 mm Hg were divided randomly into one treatment group (n=20, mild hypothermia therapy) and one control group (n=20, normothermia therapy) to observe the changes of the concentration of excitatory amino acids (glutamate and glycine) and cytokines (interleukin-1β and interleukin-6). Results: There were no significant differences in the daily changes of the concentration of excitatory amino acid and cytokines between two groups. The outcome of two groups had no significant differences. Conclusions: Mild hypothermia has no additional beneficial effects on severe brain-injured patients compared with normothermia therapy if ICP can be maintained below 25 mm Hg by using conventional therapy.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein during mild hypothermia on traumatic brain injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Wang; Jian-ning Zhang; Jia-kui Guo; Ying Cai; Hong-sheng Sun; Kun Dong; Cheng-gang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), a key regulatory protein, could be facilitated by mild hypothermia in the brain, heart and liver. This study observed the effects of mild hypothermia at 31 ± 0.5°C on traumatic brain injury in rats. Results demonstrated that mild hypothermia suppressed apoptosis in the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus, facilitated CIRP mRNA and protein expression in these regions, especially in the hypothalamus. The anti-apoptotic effect of mild hypothermia disappeared after CIRP silencing. There was no correlation between mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and CIRP silencing. CIRP silencing inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 activation. These indicate that CIRP inhibits apoptosis by affecting extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 activation, and exerts a neuroprotective effect during mild hypothermia for traumatic brain injury.

  1. Electroencephalography during surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashein, G; Nessly, M L; Bledsoe, S W; Townes, B D; Davis, K B; Coppel, D B; Hornbein, T F

    1992-06-01

    After more than 30 yr of use, electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass has not gained wide clinical acceptance. To assess its utility to predict central nervous system injury, two-channel recordings were made from 78 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and anesthetized with fentanyl/diazepam/enflurane. The perfusion regimen included the use of high pump flow, a bubble oxygenator, and no arterial tubing filter. Target values were 28-32 degrees C for the minimum rectal temperature, 60-80 mmHg for mean arterial pressure, and 20-25% for hematocrit. Eight descriptors of the Fourier power spectra of the EEG were calculated off-line, and outcome comparisons were made with the results from neuropsychological tests. Among 58 patients yielding complete data of acceptable quality, a statistically significant reduction in total power was observed from prebypass to postbypass, accompanied by an increase in the fractional power in the theta and beta frequency bands and in the spectral edge frequency. The shifts in total and theta power were weakly associated with short-term but not with long-term changes in neuropsychological scores. Nearly 40% of the patients' EEGs were corrupted with electrical noise at some time during bypass. In 15 patients selected for having high-quality recordings and no neuropsychological deficit, an extensive statistical analysis failed to reveal any consistent variation in the EEG descriptors with hypothermia. Under the conditions studied, it appears that for other than gross signal dropout, the strong background variability in the EEG makes it have little value for detecting harbingers of brain injury.

  2. Modulation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced hypothermia by fluoxetine in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Daniel T; Taylor, David A

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that the dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) that induces hypothermia in the rat increases the release of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). In light of this, we investigated the hypothermia produced by Δ9-THC, and the effect the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine has on this response.A significant dose-dependent decrease in body temperature occurred after i.v. administration of 0.5 to 5 mg kg−1 Δ9-THC; maximum decreases being 0.8±0.2°C to 2.9±0.3°C. T...

  3. Drug-induced Hypothermia by 5HT1A Agonists Provide Neuroprotection in Experimental Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hasseldam, Henrik; Nybro Smith, Matthias;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced hypothermia reduces brain damage in animal stroke models and is an undiscovered potential in human stroke treatment. We studied hypothermia induced by the serotonergic agonists S14671 (1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]-4[1-(7- methoxynaphtyl)]piperazine) and ipsapirone in a rat...... of .06 mg/kg hour(-1) S14671 for 20 hours. Other MCAO rats (n = 7) had bolus of ipsapirone (.75 mg/kg) and continuous infusion of .25 mg/kg hour(-1) ipsapirone for 3 hours. Controls (n = 9; n = 5) received similar amounts of vehicle as bolus and continuous infusion for 20 hours/3 hours. Additional...

  4. Influence of moderate hypothermia on cerebral oxygenation in pigs with intracranial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghui Bao; Yumin Liang; Jiyao Jiang; Qizhong Luo; Yicheng Lu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate hypothermia is one of the effective therapeutic methods for head injury in recent years, there are many mechanisms of moderate hypothermia for brain protection, and its influence on cerebral oxygenation is also one of them.OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of moderate hypothermia on cerebral oxygenation of animals with acute intracranial hypertension, and further investigate the protective mechanism of moderate hypothermia. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, Renji Hospital affiliated to the Medical College of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.MATERIALS: Twenty healthy little pigs, either male or female, weighing 4.5 - 5.5 kg, were used. Neurotrend-typed multiparameter monitoring system (Diametrics Company, British); CMA/100micro-injection pump (Carnegie Company, Sweden).METHODS: The experiment was conducted in the Changzheng Hospital affiliated to the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA in November, 2001. The pigs were randomized into two groups: the normothermia group (control group, n =10) and moderate hypothermia group (n =10). ①Bilateral femoral arteries were separated, one was connected to pressometer for monitoring mean arterial pressure (MEP), and the other for analysis of blood gases [including peripheral blood Ph value, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCCh), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), HCO3-].②Rectal temperature was monitored with mercurial thermometer.③Intracranial pressure was monitored using Camino optic ICP probe placed in the subdural space. ④Neurotrend multiparameter monitoring sensor was inserted into the white matter for about 4 cm to determine cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, CPP=MAP(ICP), brain tissue partial oxygen pressure (PO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCCh), HCO3- and brain temperature. The rectal temperature of animals in the moderate hypothermia group was lowered to 34℃ using ice bags, and the body

  5. On partitions avoiding right crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Sherry H. F.; Xu, Yuexiao

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Chen et al. derived the generating function for partitions avoiding right nestings and posed the problem of finding the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings. In this paper, we derive the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings via an intermediate structure of partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossings and right nestings. We show that there is a bijection between partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossing and right nestings and partitions...

  6. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose-induced hypothermia in anesthetized rats: Lack of forebrain contribution and critical involvement of the rostral raphe/parapyramidal regions of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2015-07-01

    Systemic or central administration of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG), a competitive inhibitor of glucose utilization, induces hypothermia in awake animals and humans. This response is mediated by the central nervous system, though the neural mechanism involved is largely unknown. In this study, I examined possible involvement of the forebrain, which contains the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center, and the medullary rostral raphe/parapyramidal regions (rRPa/PPy), which mediate hypoxia-induced heat-loss responses, in 2DG-induced hypothermia in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. The intravenous injection of 2DG (250mgkg(-1)) elicited an increase in tail skin temperature and decreases in body core temperature and the respiratory exchange ratio, though it did not induce any significant change in the metabolic rate. These results indicate that the hypothermic response was caused by an increase in heat loss, but not by a decrease in heat production and that it was accompanied by a decrease in carbohydrate utilization and/or an increase in lipid utilization as energy substrates. Complete surgical transection of the brainstem between the hypothalamus and the midbrain had no effect on the 2DG-induced hypothermic responses, suggesting that the hindbrain, but not the forebrain, was sufficient for the responses. However, pretreatment of the rRPa/PPy with the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline methiodide, but not with vehicle saline, greatly attenuated the 2DG-induced responses, suggesting that the 2DG-induced hypothermia was mediated, at least in part, by GABAergic neurons in the hindbrain and activation of GABAA receptors on cutaneous sympathetic premotor neurons in the rRPa/PPy. PMID:26146232

  7. Factors analysis of hypothermia in infants undergoing abdominal surgery under comprehensive heat preservation measures%保温措施下腹部手术婴幼儿术中低体温发生的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓丹; 李美清; 谢曼英; 马育璇; 谢文

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨保温措施下腹部手术婴幼儿术中低体温发生的影响因素.方法 对98例行腹部手术的婴幼儿术中实施保温措施,观察并记录婴幼儿的体温变化情况.分析腹部手术婴幼儿术中低体温发生的影响因素.结果 98例婴幼儿发生术中低体温42例,发生率为42.86%.体表面积、手术时间和术中输血是影响手术低体温发生的影响因素.结论 腹部手术婴幼儿术中低体温发生率较高.在保温措施的基础上做好术前保温工作有利于降低婴幼儿腹部手术中低体温的发生.%Objective To explore the factors leading to hypothermia during the abdominal surgery process in infants under comprehensive heat preservation measure. Methods Ninety eight infants undergoing abdominal surgery in our hospital from April 2009 to March 2011 were under comprehensive heat preservation measures. The core temprature were recorded continually. The factors causing hypothermia during the abdominal surgery for infants were analyzed. Results Among all the 98 infants, 42 cases experienced intraoperative hypothermia and the incidence was 42.86%. The factors leading to hypothermia were body size, duration of operation and blood transfusion. Conclusions The infants are prone to suffer from hypothermia intraoperative abdominal surgery. Effective preoperative intervention is helpful to prevent hypothermia during the infant abdominal surgery under comprehensive heat preservation measures intraoperative heat preservation.

  8. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  9. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  10. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  11. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required. PMID:24785995

  12. The ability of different thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Malmkvist, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether hypothermia in newborn piglets could be reduced by applying different thermal aids. The experiment was performed on 150 newborn piglets from 24 sows. Right after birth, the piglets were moved to a wire mesh cage for the first 2 h of life where they experienced 1 of 7...

  13. Daily torpor in mice : high foraging costs trigger energy-saving hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, Kristin A.; Boerema, Ate S.; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Daan, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Many animal species employ natural hypothermia in seasonal (hibernation) and daily (torpor) strategies to save energy. Facultative daily torpor is a typical response to fluctuations in food availability, but the relationship between environmental quality, foraging behaviour and torpor responses is p

  14. Sinus bradycardia during hypothermia in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bradycardia is a common finding in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), presumably as a normal physiological response to low body temperature. We hypothesized that a normal physiological response with sinus bradycardia (SB) ...

  15. Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy - where to from here?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne O. Davidson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia before or around the time of birth occurs in approximately 2/1000 live births and is associated with a high risk of death or lifelong disability. Therapeutic hypothermia is now well established as standard treatment for infants with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy but is only partially effective. There is compelling preclinical and clinical evidence that hypothermia is most protective when it is started as early as possible after hypoxia-ischemia. Further improvements in outcome from therapeutic hypothermia are very likely to arise from strategies to reduce the delay before starting treatment of affected infants. In this review we examine evidence that current protocols are reasonably close to the optimal depth and duration of cooling, but that the optimal rate of rewarming after hypothermia is unclear. The potential for combination treatments to augment hypothermic neuroprotection has considerable promise, particularly with endogenous targets such as melatonin and erythropoietin and noble gases such as xenon. We dissect the critical importance of preclinical studies using realistic delays in treatment and clinically relevant cooling protocols when examining combination treatment, and that for many strategies overlapping mechanisms of action can substantially attenuate any effects.

  16. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy - Where to from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Joanne O; Wassink, Guido; van den Heuij, Lotte G; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia before or around the time of birth occurs in approximately 2/1000 live births and is associated with a high risk of death or lifelong disability. Therapeutic hypothermia is now well established as standard treatment for infants with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy but is only partially effective. There is compelling preclinical and clinical evidence that hypothermia is most protective when it is started as early as possible after hypoxia-ischemia. Further improvements in outcome from therapeutic hypothermia are very likely to arise from strategies to reduce the delay before starting treatment of affected infants. In this review, we examine evidence that current protocols are reasonably close to the optimal depth and duration of cooling, but that the optimal rate of rewarming after hypothermia is unclear. The potential for combination treatments to augment hypothermic neuroprotection has considerable promise, particularly with endogenous targets such as melatonin and erythropoietin, and noble gases such as xenon. We dissect the critical importance of preclinical studies using realistic delays in treatment and clinically relevant cooling protocols when examining combination treatment, and that for many strategies overlapping mechanisms of action can substantially attenuate any effects. PMID:26441818

  17. Hypothermia ameliorates gastrointestinal ischemic injury sustained in a porcine cardiac arrest model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi; WANG Shuo; LI Chun-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background During cardiac arrest,the gastrointestinal tract is sensitive to ischemia.Protection of the gastrointestinal tract is a critical factor in determining prognosis following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).This study seeks to determine the extent of gastrointestinal tract injury and the potential protective effect of inducing hypothermia following a porcine cardiac arrest model and CPR.Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced by programmed electrical stimulation in 16 male domestic pigs (n=8 per group).Four minutes after ventricular fibrillation,CPR was performed.Pigs that successfully restored spontaneous circulation then received intravenous infusions of saline at either 4C or room temperature to produce hypothermic and control conditions respectively.Serum diamine oxidase and gastrointestinal adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity were determined and histopathology of the gastrointestinal tract was performed by light microscopy and electron microscopy.Results Significant injury of the gastrointestinal tract after CPR was found.Na+-K+ and Ca2+ adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity in the gastric tissue were significantly high in animals receiving hypothermia treatment compared to controls.Hypothermia also significantly reduced serum diamine oxidase after CPR compared to the control group.Moreover,severe injury sustained by the gastrointestinal tissue was significantly ameliorated under hypothermic conditions compared to controls.Conclusions Gastrointestinal injury and abnormal energy metabolism are strikingly evident following CPR.Hypothermia,which is induced by an infusion of 4C saline,can rapidly reduce internal body temperature,improve energy metabolism,and ameliorate injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa after CPR.

  18. Effects of immediate and delayed mild hypothermia on endogenous antioxidant enzymes and energy metabolites following global cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; ZHANG Jun-jian; MEI Yuan-wu; SUN Sheng-gang; TONG E-tang

    2011-01-01

    Background The optimal time window for the administration of hypothermia following cerebral ischemia has been studied for decades,with disparity outcomes.In this study,the efficacy of mild brain hypothermia beginning at different time intervals on brain endogenous antioxidant enzyme and energy metabolites was investigated in a model of global cerebral ischemia.Methods Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a sham-operated group,a normothermia (37℃-38℃) ischemic group and a mild hypothermic (31℃-32℃) ischemia groups.Rats in the last group were subdivided into four groups:240 minutes of hypothermia,30 minutes of normothermia plus 210 minutes of hypothermia,60 minutes of normothermia plus 180 minutes of hypothermia and 90 minutes of normothermia plus 150 minutes of hypothermia (n=8).Global cerebral ischemia was established using the Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion model for 20minutes and mild hypothermia was applied after 20 minutes of ischemia.Brain.tissue was collected following 20 minutes of cerebral ischemia and 240 minutes of reperfusion,and used to measure the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),reduced glutathione (GSH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).Results Mild hypothermia that was started within 0 to 60 minutes delayed the consumption of SOD,GSH-Px,GSH,and ATP (P <0.05 or P <0.01) in ischemic tissue,as compared to a normothermic ischemia group.In contrast,mild hypothermia beginning at 90 minutes had little effect on the levels of SOD,GSH-Px,GSH,and ATP (P>0.05).Conclusions Postischemic mild brain hypothermia can significantly delay the consumption of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and energy metabolites,which are critical to the process of cerebral protection by mild hypothermia.These results show that mild hypothermia limits ischemic injury if started within 60 minutes,but loses its protective effects when delayed until 90 minutes following cerebral ischemia.

  19. Hypothermia augments neuroprotective activity of mesenchymal stem cells for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Soon Park

    Full Text Available Though hypothermia is the only clinically available treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE, it is not completely effective in severe cases. We hypothesized that combined treatment with hypothermia and transplantation of human umbilical cord blood (UCB-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs would synergistically attenuate severe HIE compared to stand-alone therapy. To induce hypoxia-ischemia (HI, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 8% oxygen for 120 min after unilateral carotid artery ligation on postnatal day (P 7. After confirmation of severe HIE involving >50% of the ipsilateral hemisphere volume as determined by diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI within 2 h after HI, intraventricular MSC transplantation (1 × 105 cells and/or hypothermia with target temperature at 32°C for 24 h were administered 6 h after induction of HI. Follow-up brain MRI at P12 and P42, sensorimotor function tests at P40-42, evaluation of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF at P42, and histologic analysis of peri-infarct tissues at P42 were performed. Severe HI resulted in progressively increased brain infarction over time as assessed by serial MRI, increased number of cells positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling, microgliosis and astrocytosis, increased CSF cytokine levels, and impaired function in behavioral tests such as rotarod and cylinder tests. All of the abnormalities observed in severe HIE showed greater improvement after combined treatment with hypothermia and MSC transplantation than with either therapy alone. Overall, these findings suggest that combined treatment with hypothermia and human UCB-derived MSC transplantation might be a novel therapeutic modality to improve the prognosis of severe HIE, an intractable disease that currently has no effective treatment.

  20. Hypothermia augments neuroprotective activity of mesenchymal stem cells for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won Soon; Sung, Se In; Ahn, So Yoon; Yoo, Hye Soo; Sung, Dong Kyung; Im, Geun Ho; Choi, Soo Jin; Chang, Yun Sil

    2015-01-01

    Though hypothermia is the only clinically available treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), it is not completely effective in severe cases. We hypothesized that combined treatment with hypothermia and transplantation of human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would synergistically attenuate severe HIE compared to stand-alone therapy. To induce hypoxia-ischemia (HI), male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 8% oxygen for 120 min after unilateral carotid artery ligation on postnatal day (P) 7. After confirmation of severe HIE involving >50% of the ipsilateral hemisphere volume as determined by diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2 h after HI, intraventricular MSC transplantation (1 × 105 cells) and/or hypothermia with target temperature at 32°C for 24 h were administered 6 h after induction of HI. Follow-up brain MRI at P12 and P42, sensorimotor function tests at P40-42, evaluation of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at P42, and histologic analysis of peri-infarct tissues at P42 were performed. Severe HI resulted in progressively increased brain infarction over time as assessed by serial MRI, increased number of cells positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling, microgliosis and astrocytosis, increased CSF cytokine levels, and impaired function in behavioral tests such as rotarod and cylinder tests. All of the abnormalities observed in severe HIE showed greater improvement after combined treatment with hypothermia and MSC transplantation than with either therapy alone. Overall, these findings suggest that combined treatment with hypothermia and human UCB-derived MSC transplantation might be a novel therapeutic modality to improve the prognosis of severe HIE, an intractable disease that currently has no effective treatment. PMID:25816095

  1. Setting Up an Efficient Therapeutic Hypothermia Team in Conscious ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A UK Heart Attack Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shahed; Hampton-Till, James; MohdNazri, Shah; Watson, Noel; Gudde, Ellie; Gudde, Tom; Kelly, Paul A; Tang, Kare H; Davies, John R; Keeble, Thomas R

    2015-12-01

    Patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are routinely treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to restore blood flow in the occluded artery to reduce infarct size (IS). However, there is evidence to suggest that the restoration of blood flow can cause further damage to the myocardium through reperfusion injury (RI). Recent research in this area has focused on minimizing damage to the myocardium caused by RI. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to be beneficial in animal models of coronary artery occlusion in reducing IS caused by RI if instituted early in an ischemic myocardium. Data in humans are less convincing to date, although exploratory analyses suggest that there is significant clinical benefit in reducing IS if TH can be administered at the earliest recognition of ischemia in anterior myocardial infarction. The Essex Cardiothoracic Centre is the first UK center to have participated in administering TH in conscious patients presenting with STEMI as part of the COOL-AMI case series study. In this article, we outline our experience of efficiently integrating conscious TH into our primary percutaneous intervention program to achieve 18 minutes of cooling duration before reperfusion, with no significant increase in door-to-balloon times, in the setting of the clinical trial.

  2. The Next Generation of Cold Immersion Dry Suit Design Evolution for Hypothermia Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This new utility patent is an active design that relies on the lung's role as an organic heat exchanger for providing deep body core heating of air. It is based on the fact that the greatest heat loss mechanism for an insulated human body immersed in a cold water environment is due to heat loss through respiration. This innovation successfully merges two existing technologies (cold immersion suit and existing valve technologies) to produce a new product that helps prevent against the onset of hypothermia at sea. During normal operations, a human maintains an approximate body temperature of [98.6 F (37 C)]. A mechanism was developed to recover the warm temperature from the body and reticulate it in a survival suit. The primary intention is to develop an encompassing systems design that can both easily and cost effectively be integrated in all existing currently manufactured cold water survival suits, and as such, it should be noted that the cold water immersion suit is only used as a framework or tool for laying out the required design elements. At the heart of the suit is the Warm Air Recovery (WAR) system, which relies on a single, large Main Purge Valve (MPV) and secondary Purge Valves (PV) to operate. The main purge valve has a thin membrane, which is normally closed, and acts as a one-way check valve. When warm air is expelled from the lungs, it causes the main purge valve to open. Air forced from the MPV is dumped directly into the suit, thereby providing warmth to the torso, legs, and arms. A slight positive over-pressure in the suit causes warm waste air (or water if the suit is punctured) to be safely vented into the sea through large PVs located at the bottom of each arm and leg. The secondary purge valves act to prevent the buildup of large concentrations of CO2 gas and help guard against asphyxia. It is noted that the MPV causes the inhalation and exhalation cycles to be completely isolated from one another in the current suit design.

  3. 治疗性亚低温对儿童心脏停搏后脑功能保护的作用%Neurologic protection of therapeutic hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许巍; 刘春峰

    2012-01-01

    Brain injury is the leading cause of death after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Clinical care for brain injury remains necessary.Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to be effective in improving neurological outcome of children with cardiac arrest.We routinely induced hypothermia in children with coma after cardiac arrest,targeting 32 ~ 34 ℃,using cooling blankets and intravenous ice cap as primary methods for induction,for 24 ~ 72 h or much more duration,and vigilant re-warming.The objective of this article was to share our hypothermia protocol for cooling children with acute brain injury after cardiac arrest.%脑损伤是心脏停搏心肺复苏术后患儿的主要致死原因,脑功能保护措施十分必要.治疗性亚低温对改善脑功能预后效果明显.对于心肺复苏术后仍然昏迷的患儿实行亚低温治疗,应用降温毯和冰帽,目标温度32~ 34℃,治疗时间24~72 h或者适当延长,然后逐渐复温.本文就心脏停搏心肺复苏后的患儿实施亚低温脑功能保护措施作一介绍.

  4. Electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging comparison as a predicting factor for neurodevelopmental outcome in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy infant treated with hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Del Balzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is an important cause of acute neurological damage in newborns at (or near term. Several trials in recent years have shown that moderate hypothermia by total body cooling or selective head is an effective intervention to reduce mortality and major disability in infants survived a perinatal hypoxic-ischemic attack. Follow-up in these patients is very important to establish neurodevelopmental outcome, and specific markers can lead us to detect predicting sign for good or poor outcome. We reported a few cases of newborn with HIE treated with hypothermia, in whom the comparison between electroencephalogram (EEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI represents the first marker for neurodevelopment outcome prediction. The continuous EEG monitoring showed a depressed EEG activity with diffuse burst depression in 7 patients. No epileptic abnormalities were registered. In 10 out of 20 patients no abnormalities of the background activity and no epileptic abnormalities were observed. We found that a depressed EEG activity during the first 72 h of life and a diffused alteration of basal ganglia at MRI were correlated with a poor neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months of follow-up.

  5. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  6. Mild hypothermia for treatment of diffuse axonal injur y:a quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojie Jing; Baoxin Ma; Xiaoteng Yao; Yiyi Li; Yituan Xie; Wangan Li; Kejun Liu; Yingchao Jing; Baisheng Li; Yifan Lv

    2014-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy values in diffusion tensor imaging can quantitatively relfect the consistency of nerve ifbers after brain damage, where higher values generally indicate less damage to nerve ifbers. Therefore, we hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging could be used to evaluate the effect of mild hypothermia on diffuse axonal injury. A total of 102 patients with diffuse axonal injury were randomly divided into two groups:normothermic and mild hypothermic treatment groups. Patient’s modiifed Rankin scale scores 2 months after mild hypothermia were signiifcant-ly lower than those for the normothermia group. The difference in average fractional anisotropy value for each region of interest before and after mild hypothermia was 1.32-1.36 times higher than the value in the normothermia group. Quantitative assessment of diffusion tensor imaging indicates that mild hypothermia therapy may be beneifcial for patients with diffuse axonal injury.

  7. An evidence-based guideline in preventing hypothermia for adult trauma patients in accident and emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Lai-hung; 黃麗虹

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia is commonly found in injured victims who suffer from central nervous system injury, hypovolemic shock, exposure to environment, administration of anesthetic drugs and cold intravenous fluid. All these factors decrease the abilities of trauma victims to maintain normothermia and conserve body heat. Hypothermia in injured victim is a significant contributor to a well known cycle—triad of death and associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay. Hypothermi...

  8. Causes and Solutions of Vocational Students' Adverse Psychological of Avoiding Employment%浅谈中职生逃避就业不良心理的成因与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周景坚

    2012-01-01

    Graduates of vocational students are in the face of increasingly severe employment situation,social environment in the face of reality induced by other factors,a large number of vocational school students are at a loss,anxiety,irritability.Often expressed as not to take the initiative,saying that the "other,rely on,to" dependency,passive evasion jobs,in order to better help students better understand this problem,the analysis of its causes and influencing factors at the same time,with staff the actual characteristics of students that the corresponding psychological adjustment measures.%中职生毕业生面对日趋严峻的就业形势,面对现实社会环境中诱发等多种因素,为数不少的职校生感到无所适从、忧心忡忡、烦躁不安。往往表现为不主动出击,抱着"等、靠、要"的依赖思想,消极逃避就业岗位。为了更好帮助毕业生更好地认识这问题,在分析其成因及影响因素的同时,结合职校学生实际特点指出相应的心理调适对策。

  9. Therapeutic hypothermia modifies perinatal asphyxia-induced changes of the corpus callosum and outcome in neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alderliesten

    Full Text Available WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT?: Diffusion-weighted MRI has demonstrated changes in the corpus callosum of term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. The severity of cerebral changes demonstrated using diffusion-weighted MRI is difficult to assess without measuring values of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC. WHAT IS NEW?: ADC values of the anterior part of the corpus callosum are slightly higher than of the posterior part in full term infants with perinatal asphyxia. Low ADC values of the corpus callosum were associated with an adverse outcome in infants with perinatal asphyxia. In infants treated with hypothermia lower ADC values than with normothermia were associated with a poor outcome, supporting neuroprotective effects of hypothermia.Using MRI, changes can be detected in the corpus callosum (CC following perinatal asphyxia which are associated with later neurodevelopmental outcome.To study the association between the apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC in the CC on MRI in neonates with perinatal asphyxia and neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months of age.Of 121 infants 32 (26% died and 13 (11% survived with an adverse neurological outcome. Sixty-five (54% received therapeutic hypothermia. MRI was performed within 7 days after birth using a 1.5 T or 3.0 T system, and ADC values were measured in the anterior and posterior CC. The association between ADC and composite outcome (death or abnormal neurodevelopment was analyzed for both normothermia and hypothermia cases using receiver operating characteristics.ADC values of the posterior CC were lower than of the anterior part (mean difference 0.050 x 10-3 mm2/s, p<0.001. Field strength did not affect ADC values. ADC values of the posterior part of the CC were significantly lower in infants with basal ganglia/thalamus or near total brain injury (p<0.001. Lower ADC values were associated with an adverse outcome, but cut-off levels were lower after hypothermia (1.024 x 10-3 mm2/s vs 0

  10. Inhibiting effect of moderate hypothermia on cell apoptosis after diffuse brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the variant processes of c ell apoptosis and the inhibiting effect of moderate hypothermia on cell apoptosi s after diffuse brain injury.   Methods: Models of diffuse brain injury were induced by the tra uma device reported by Marmarou.1 A total of 128 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: the uninjured group (Group A, n=8), the severely i njured group (Group B, n=60), the mildly injured group (Gr oup C, n=30) and the mild hypothermia group (Group D, n=30). In Group D, the severely injured rats were treated with moderate hypothermia to keep the rectal temperature at 32℃ (standard deviation for 0.1℃) for 6 hours. Then the morphosis, the characteristics and the qua ntity of apoptotic cells in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus regions a fter different severities of craniocerebral injuries were observed and compared under an electronic microscope, with terminal deoxynucleotidyl nick end labeling (TUNEL) in DNA fragmentation and with agarose gel electrophoresis.   Results: TUNEL showed apoptotic cells increased according to t he injury severity, and they peaked at 48 hours after injury and then declined. In Group C, apoptosis was located in the CA2 and CA3 areas of the hippocampu s. And in Group B, apoptosis increased evidently, and located in the whole hippo campus and in the frontal and parietal cortex regions. The hypothermia-treated rats had some apoptotic cells, too. However, even at 24, 48 and 72 hours after i njury there were significantly fewer apoptotic cells in the cortex and in the hi ppocampus in Group D than that in the non-treated groups. Electron microscopy s howed that the apoptotic cells were round and shrunken in morphology and the nuc lei were round and condensed at 24 and 48 hours after injury. And the apoptosis at 48 hours was more severe than that at 24 hours. The hypothermia-treated rats had no apoptotic cells. Gel electrophoresis showed that characteristic DNA “la dders” were observed in the

  11. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L;

    1997-01-01

    cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly......Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all...

  12. Communication Avoiding ILU0 Preconditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Grigori, Laura; Moufawad, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a communication avoiding ILU0 preconditioner for solving large linear systems of equations by using iterative Krylov subspace methods. Recent research has focused on communication avoiding Krylov subspace methods based on so called s-step methods. However there is no communication avoiding preconditioner yet, and this represents a serious limitation of these methods. Our preconditioner allows to perform s iterations of the iterative method with no communication, throu...

  13. Effect of hypothermia on the thalamocortical function in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybhate, Anil; Chen, Cheng; Thakor, Nitish V; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprotective effects of hypothermia are well documented in many injuries of the central nervous system in animal models as well as clinical studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. An important yet unexplored background issue is the effect of hypothermic cooling on the regional functionality of the healthy CNS. In a pilot study with the rat model, we seek to characterize the effect of moderate bodily cooling on the thalamo-cortical (T-C) function. Multiunit activity (MUA) and local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the thalamus (VPL nucleus) and the somatosensory cortex (S1) for normothermic, mild hypothermic and mild hyperthermic conditions in healthy rats and the thalamo-cortical dynamics was characterized with Granger Causal Interaction (GCI). The GCI indicated that the thalamic driving of the cortical activity significantly increases in strength with bodily cooling and weakens with mild heating. These results could have important implications towards understanding of hypothermia.

  14. Septicemia in a Neonate following Therapeutic Hypothermia: The Literature Review of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a term neonate with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy who underwent a 72-hour therapeutic hypothermia. He developed unstable body temperature associated with coagulase negative staphylococcus septicemia 2 weeks later which was promptly treated with intravenous antibiotics and made a good recovery. PubMed (a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine was searched for the terms “therapeutic hypothermia” and “septicemia,” with limits activated (humans, English, age 0–18 years. There were only 6 randomized controlled trials, 1 non-randomized controlled trial, 1 retrospective cohort, and 1 case-control trial, which showed no definite evidence of increased risk of septicemia or neutrophil dysfunction in infants following hypothermia therapy.

  15. Effect of sub-hypothermia therapy on coagulopathy after severe head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; XU Ru-xiang; KE Yi-quan; JIANG Xiao-dan; ZHANG Shu-fen; DENG Bi-lan; YU Xing

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sub-hypothermia therapy is one of the treatments for patients with severe head injury.The objective of the therapy is to treat traumatic brain injury (TBI) by alleviating brain edema,protecting blood brain barrier (BBB),and preventing subsequent damage to neurons.It can protect brain function by depressing metabolism,reducing the release of excitatory amino acids and free radicals,reducing the level of lactic acid,and lowering the damage of cytoskeletal structure.1 However,sub-hypothemia may-affect patients' coagulatory function including amendment to hypercoagulation state or hyperfibrinolysis and platelet (PLT) functional disturbance.2,3 This study aimed to observe how sub-hypothermia therapy exerts effects on coagulopathy of patients after head injury.

  16. Assessment of brain tissue injury after moderate hypothermia in neonates with hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy: a nested substudy of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Mary; Ramenghi, Luca A; Edwards, A. David; Brocklehurst, Peter; Halliday, Henry; Levene, Malcolm; Strohm, Brenda; Thoresen, Marianne; Whitelaw, Andrew; Azzopardi, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Moderate hypothermia in neonates with hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy might improve survival and neurological outcomes at up to 18 months of age, although complete neurological assessment at this age is difficult. To ascertain more precisely the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on neonatal cerebral injury, we assessed cerebral lesions on MRI scans of infants who participated in the Total Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy (TOBY) trial. Methods In the TOBY trial ...

  17. Long-Term Effects of Induced Hypothermia on Local and Systemic Inflammation - Results from a Porcine Long-Term Trauma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, K.; Eschbach, D.; Pfeifer, R.; Relja, B; Sassen, M.; T. Steinfeldt; Wulf, H; N Vogt; Frink, M.; Ruchholtz, S.; Pape, H. C.; F. Hildebrand

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypothermia has been discussed as playing a role in improving the early phase of systemic inflammation. However, information on the impact of hypothermia on the local inflammatory response is sparse. We therefore investigated the kinetics of local and systemic inflammation in the late posttraumatic phase after induction of hypothermia in an established porcine long-term model of combined trauma. Materials & Methods Male pigs (35 ± 5kg) were mechanically ventilated and monitored ove...

  18. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  19. Effects of topical hypothermia on postoperative inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kadan, Murat; Erol, Gokhan; Savas Oz, Bilgehan; Arslan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background We aimed to examine the effects of topical hypothermia on inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods Fifty patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were included the study. They were randomised to two groups. Mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (28–32°C) was performed on both groups using standardised anaesthesiology and surgical techniques. Furthermore, topical cooling with 4°C saline was performed on patients...

  20. Management of Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus with Isoflurane and Hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumadilov, Agzam; Gilman, Charles P.; Viderman, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is defined as status epilepticus that continues 24 h or more after the onset of anesthesia, and includes those cases in which epilepsy is recurrent upon treatment reduction. We describe the presentation and successful management of a male patient with SRSE using the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane, and mild hypothermia (HT). The potential utility of combined HT and volatile anesthesia is discussed. PMID:25674075

  1. Management of Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus with Isoflurane and Hypothermia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhumadilov, Agzam; Gilman, Charles P.; Viderman, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is defined as status epilepticus that continues 24 h or more after the onset of anesthesia, and includes those cases in which epilepsy is recurrent upon treatment reduction. We describe the presentation and successful management of a male patient with SRSE using the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane, and mild hypothermia (HT). The potential utility of combined HT and volatile anesthesia is discussed.

  2. Efficacy of Mild Hypothermia for the Treatment of Patients with Cardiac Arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Gao; Kang-Li Hui; Yu-Jie Wang; Lin Wu; Man-Lin Duan; Jian-Guo Xu; De-Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended for the treatment of cardiac arrest patients who remain comatose after the return of spontaneous circulation.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of mild hypothermia on patients with cardiac arrest by conducting a meta-analysis.Methods:The relevant trials were searched in Cochrane Library,PubMed,Web of Science,Embase,CNKI and Wan Fang Data from the date of their establishment to October 2014.Thereafter,the studies retrieved were screened based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria.Data were extracted,and the quality of the included studies was evaluated.A meta-analysis was conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager 5.2 software.Results:Six randomized controlled trials involving 531 cases were included,among which 273 cases were assigned to the treatment group and the other 258 cases to the control group.The meta-analysis indicated that mild hypothermia therapy after cardiac arrest produced significant differences in survival rate (relative risk [RR] =1.23,95% confidence interval [CI]:1.02-1.48,P =0.03) and neurological function (RR =1.33,95% CI:1.08-1.65,P =0.007) after 6 months compared with normothermia therapy.However,no significant differences were observed in the survival to the hospital discharge (RR =1.35,95% CI:0.87-2.10,P =0.18),favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge (RR =1.53,95% CI:0.95-2.45,P =0.08) and adverse events.Conclusions:The meta-analysis demonstrated that mild hypothermia can improve the survival rate and neurological function of patients with cardiac arrest after 6 months.On the other hand,regarding the survival to hospital discharge,favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge,and adverse events,our meta-analysis produced nonsignificant results.

  3. Subdural haemorrhage and severe coagulopathy resulting in transtentorial uncal herniation in a neonate undergoing therapeutic hypothermia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dianna; McMillan, Hugh; Bariciak, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to be efficacious for improving long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes following perinatal asphyxia. Thus, cooling protocols have been adopted at most tertiary neonatal centres. We present a case of a term neonate who underwent therapeutic whole-body cooling for hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy following a difficult forceps delivery. She abruptly deteriorated, exhibiting signs of transtentorial uncal herniation and severe disseminated intravascular coagul...

  4. Effect of mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy on recovery of patients with craniocerebral trauma after decompressive craniectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Du

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy on recovery of patients with craniocerebral trauma after decompressive craniectomy.Methods: 110 cases of patients with craniocerebral trauma who received decompressive craniectomy in our hospital from November 2012 to November 2014 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group according to different treatment methods, each group with 55 cases. Control group received decompressive craniectomy alone, observation group received decompressive craniectomy combined with mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy, and then differences in neural function, serum NSE, SOD, NO and ET levels, cerebral blood flow level as well as serum ADH, BNP and ACTH levels of two groups were compared.Results:CPC grading of observation group 1 week after mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy was lower than that of control group and scores of GOC and ESS were higher than those of control group (P<0.05); serum NSE, NO and ET levels of observation group 1 week after treatment were lower than those of control group and SOD level was higher than that of control group (P<0.05); Vs and Vm levels of observation group 1 week after treatment were higher than those of control group and PI level was lower than that of control group (P<0.05); serum ADH and ACTH levels of observation group 1 week after treatment were lower than those of control group and BNP level was higher than that of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Decompressive craniectomy combined with mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy for patients with craniocerebral trauma can effectively improve patients’ neural function, promote cerebral blood flow and optimize humoral-associated factor levels, and it has positive clinical significance.

  5. Mild hypothermia for treatment of diffuse axonal injury: a quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Guojie; Yao, Xiaoteng; Li, Yiyi; Xie, Yituan; Li, Wang#x2019;an; LIU, Kejun; Jing, Yingchao; Li, Baisheng; Lv, Yifan; Ma, Baoxin

    2014-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy values in diffusion tensor imaging can quantitatively reflect the consistency of nerve fibers after brain damage, where higher values generally indicate less damage to nerve fibers. Therefore, we hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging could be used to evaluate the effect of mild hypothermia on diffuse axonal injury. A total of 102 patients with diffuse axonal injury were randomly divided into two groups: normothermic and mild hypothermic treatment groups. Patient's m...

  6. Respiration during hypothermia: effect of rewarming intermediate areas of ventral medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, J P; Eldridge, F L; Millhorn, D E

    1985-11-01

    We studied respiration (phrenic nerve activity) during progressive hypothermia to as low as 30.5 degrees C in five anesthetized, paralyzed, glomectomized, and vagotomized cats. PCO2 was maintained at a constant level throughout the experiments. We confirmed the results of a previous study (J. P. Kiley, F. L. Eldridge, and D. E. Millhorn, J. Appl. Physiol. 58: 295-312, 1985) in which respiratory minute output decreased progressively with cooling and respiratory frequency decreased markedly. In addition we show that focal rewarming to normal temperature (37.5 degrees C) of the structures in the intermediate areas on the ventral surface of the medulla resulted in a significant reversal of the depressed respiratory minute activity observed with hypothermia. Respiratory frequency, however, was unaffected by intermediate area rewarming. We conclude that the decreased respiratory activity during hypothermia is due to a generalized interference with neural function. A major portion of these effects is due to cooling of the intermediate areas, but the slowing of respiratory frequency appears to be an independent effect. PMID:4066572

  7. Prevention and correction of hypocalaemia during systematic hypothermia in patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudukina S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hypothermia as a method of neuroprotection in brain damage has been proved in many studies, but a large number of complications requires development of further protocols of its management. The article presents experience of treatment of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage under conditions of preventive hypothermia. 84 patients were examined. In 56 of them the efficacy of developed method on prevention and correction of hypocalaemia developed as a result of cold diuresis has been proposed. It has been found that decrease in plasma potassium occurs in parallel with decrease in body temperature regardless the technique of potassium chloride injection. Introduction of potassium chloride solution in physiological dose of 0.2 mmol/kg prevents hypocalaemia development during preventive hypothermia. Injection of potassium chloride in the physiological dose of 0.2 mmol/kg/h and after beginning of patient’s rewarming – 0.8 mmol/kg within the period of one postsurgery day prevents the development of postoperative hypocalaemia in the postoperative period; and after patient’s rewarming– 0.8. mmol/kg within the period of one postoperative day prevents development of postoperative cardiac complications in the perioperative period by 20%.

  8. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. PMID:26970365

  9. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  10. Multiobjective Optimization Based Vessel Collision Avoidance Strategy Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyang Xu; Chuang Zhang; Ning Wang

    2014-01-01

    The vessel collision accidents cause a great loss of lives and property. In order to reduce the human fault and greatly improve the safety of marine traffic, collision avoidance strategy optimization is proposed to achieve this. In the paper, a multiobjective optimization algorithm NSGA-II is adopted to search for the optimal collision avoidance strategy considering the safety as well as economy elements of collision avoidance. Ship domain and Arena are used to evaluate the collision risk in ...

  11. Acquaintance Rape: Effective Avoidance Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-MacCombie, Joyce; Koss, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Determined that acknowledged and unacknowledged acquaintance rape victims and rape avoiders could be discriminated by situational variables and response strategies. Avoiders were less likely to have experienced passive or internalizing emotions at the time of the assault, perceived the assault as less violent, and were more likely to have utilized…

  12. Inhibited Sexual Desire and Sexual Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, William I.

    1985-01-01

    Inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions, especially in women. Family physicians have an opportunity to recognize ISD before the associated problems become entrenched, and to guide couples toward satisfactory resolution. A summary is presented of current thinking on ISD and its causes. Case reports and observations about frequency of and treatment for ISD are included. Much less has been written about sexual avoidance in the presence of desire. A definition ...

  13. Research on Double Collision Avoidance Mechanism of Ships at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiuYing Bi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When power driven vessels encounter at sea, they need to avoid collision. The definition of right vessel may mislead ships officers think his or her direct navigating has absolute power with this special ship. This paper will define DCPA symbols; give the cause and the method of double collision avoidance mechanism of ships at sea.

  14. Severe brain injung patients treated with mild hypothermia shivering during control and nursing%重型颅脑损伤患者亚低温治疗期间寒战的控制与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔君霞

    2012-01-01

    对重型颅脑损伤患者亚低温治疗期间寒战的原因、控制和护理进展进行阐述.虽然目前尚缺乏亚低温治疗期间寒战控制的最佳方案,但可指出寒战的控制及预防是涉及多环节的综合性治疗技术,只有将正确的防治方法与密切的观察护理紧密结合才可有效地防止亚低温期间寒战发生,使低温治疗顺利进行,确保亚低温治疗效果,提高患者生存率.%It expatiated the reason, treatment and nursing care of chill during the process of therapeutic hypothermia on traumatic brain injury patient. The control of shivering is a comprehensive treatment. Although there is not the best method to avoid shivering, the closed combination of the correct control methods and the close nursing can effectively prevent the shivering during hypothermia and promote patients recovery.

  15. Pathogen evolution under host avoidance plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David V; Day, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Host resistance consists of defences that limit pathogen burden, and can be classified as either adaptations targeting recovery from infection or those focused upon infection avoidance. Conventional theory treats avoidance as a fixed strategy which does not vary from one interaction to the next. However, there is increasing empirical evidence that many avoidance strategies are triggered by external stimuli, and thus should be treated as phenotypically plastic responses. Here, we consider the implications of avoidance plasticity for host-pathogen coevolution. We uncover a number of predictions challenging current theory. First, in the absence of pathogen trade-offs, plasticity can restrain pathogen evolution; moreover, the pathogen exploits conditions in which the host would otherwise invest less in resistance, causing resistance escalation. Second, when transmission trades off with pathogen-induced mortality, plasticity encourages avirulence, resulting in a superior fitness outcome for both host and pathogen. Third, plasticity ensures the sterilizing effect of pathogens has consequences for pathogen evolution. When pathogens castrate hosts, selection forces them to minimize mortality virulence; moreover, when transmission trades off with sterility alone, resistance plasticity is sufficient to prevent pathogens from evolving to fully castrate. PMID:26336170

  16. Multiscale entropy analysis of EEG for assessment of post-cardiac arrest neurological recovery under hypothermia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoxu; Jia, Xiaofeng; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Thakor, Nitish V; Maybhate, Anil

    2009-04-01

    Neurological complications after cardiac arrest (CA) can be fatal. Although hypothermia has been shown to be beneficial, understanding the mechanism and establishing neurological outcomes remains challenging because effects of CA and hypothermia are not well characterized. This paper aims to analyze EEG (and the alpha-rhythms) using multiscale entropy (MSE) to demonstrate the ability of MSE in tracking changes due to hypothermia and compare MSE during early recovery with long-term neurological examinations. Ten Wistar rats, upon post-CA resuscitation, were randomly subjected to hypothermia (32 degrees C-34 degrees C, N = 5) or normothermia (36.5 degrees C-37.5 degrees C, N = 5). EEG was recorded and analyzed using MSE during seven recovery phases for each experiment: baseline, CA, and five early recovery phases (R1-R5). Postresuscitation neurological examination was performed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h to obtain neurological deficit scores (NDSs). Results showed MSE to be a sensitive marker of changes in alpha-rhythms. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the MSE for two groups during recovery, suggesting that MSE can successfully reflect temperature modulation. A comparison of short-term MSE and long-term NDS suggested that MSE could be used for predicting favorability of long-term outcome. These experiments point to the role of cortical rhythms in reporting early neurological response to ischemia and therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:19174339

  17. White matter apoptosis is increased by delayed hypothermia and rewarming in a neonatal piglet model of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Armstrong, J S; Reyes, M; Kulikowicz, E; Lee, J-H; Spicer, D; Bhalala, U; Yang, Z-J; Koehler, R C; Martin, L J; Lee, J K

    2016-03-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is widely used to treat neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injuries. However, potentially deleterious effects of delaying the induction of hypothermia and of rewarming on white matter injury remain unclear. We used a piglet model of HI to assess the effects of delayed hypothermia and rewarming on white matter apoptosis. Piglets underwent HI injury or sham surgery followed by normothermic or hypothermic recovery at 2h. Hypothermic groups were divided into those with no rewarming, slow rewarming at 0.5°C/h, or rapid rewarming at 4°C/h. Apoptotic cells in the subcortical white matter of the motor gyrus, corpus callosum, lateral olfactory tract, and internal capsule at 29h were identified morphologically and counted by hematoxylin & eosin staining. Cell death was verified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. White matter neurons were also counted, and apoptotic cells were immunophenotyped with the oligodendrocyte marker 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). Hypothermia, slow rewarming, and rapid rewarming increased apoptosis in the subcortical white matter relative to normothermia (ppiglets had more apoptosis in the lateral olfactory tract than those that were rewarmed (ppiglets had more apoptosis than shams after normothermia, slow rewarming, and rapid rewarming (ppiglet model of HI; in some regions these temperature effects are independent of HI. Vulnerable cells include myelinating oligodendrocytes. This study identifies a deleterious effect of therapeutic hypothermia in the developing brain.

  18. Short term outcome of therapeutic hypothermia in term infants with moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy; the Sungai Buloh experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, K C; Jamal, S J Syed; Chiam, M L

    2012-06-01

    This analysis is a case-series to document the outcome of term newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), enrolled into total body hypothermia therapy, in a tertiary neonatal unit in Malaysia. The method used to achieve total body hypothermia is a novel method using just environmental temperature, without the need of expensive equipment. A total of 17 babies were eligible to be included in this study, from the 1st of January 2010 to the 31st of December 2010. 14 out of 15 babies who had Stage 2 HIE had no neurological deficit at follow-up. All Stage 3 HIE babies passed away. Allowing for the small sample size, we can conclude that total body hypothermia therapy is feasible and is a safe treatment modality for HIE Stage 2 babies in a Malaysian setting, by manipulating environmental temperature to achieve therapeutic hypothermia. Further work is needed to determine the long-term outcome of passive cooling total body hypothermia in Stage 2 HIE babies in Malaysia.

  19. Panic disorder and exercise avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo W. Muotri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To identify whether patients with panic disorder in general and those with the respiratory subtype in particular actively avoid exercise; 2 to investigate physiological differences in cardiopulmonary function parameters in patients with panic disorder in general, patients with the respiratory subtype of panic disorder, and healthy controls upon exercise challenge. Methods: Patients with panic disorder were classified as having either the respiratory or the non-respiratory subtype. Both groups were compared to controls in terms of exercise avoidance patterns and performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: Patients with panic disorder exhibited higher exercise avoidance scores and worse performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing as compared with controls. No differences were found between patients with the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes. Conclusions: Exercise avoidance is present in panic disorder and is associated with poorer performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. These findings are not limited to patients with the respiratory subtype of the disorder.

  20. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using biologically-inspired neuromorphic optic flow algorithms is a novel approach in collision avoidance for UAS. Traditional computer vision algorithms rely on...

  1. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  2. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Plath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre, we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1 that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2 that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of bloodletting at Jing points combined with mild induced hypothermia in acute severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yue; Miao, Xiao-mei; Yi, Tai-long; Chen, Xu-yi; Sun, Hong-tao; Cheng, Shi-xiang; Zhang, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Bloodletting at Jing points has been used to treat coma in traditional Chinese medicine. Mild induced hypothermia has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of bloodletting at Jing points and mild induced hypothermia alone are limited. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment might have clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. Using a rat model of traumatic brain injury, combined treatment substantially alleviated cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, neurological function was ameliorated, and cellular necrosis and the inflammatory response were lessened. These findings suggest that the combined effects of bloodletting at Jing points (20 μL, twice a day, for 2 days) and mild induced hypothermia (6 hours) are better than their individual effects alone. Their combined application may have marked neuroprotective effects in the clinical treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of bloodletting atJing points combined with mild induced hypothermia in acute severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Tu; Xiao-mei Miao; Tai-long Yi; Xu-yi Chen; Hong-tao Sun; Shi-xiang Cheng; Sai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Bloodletting atJing points has been used to treat coma in traditional Chinese medicine. Mild induced hypothermia has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of bloodletting atJing points and mild induced hypothermia alone are limited. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment might have clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute severe trau-matic brain injury. Using a rat model of traumatic brain injury, combined treatment substantially alleviated cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, neurological function was ameliorated, and cellular necrosis and the inlfammatory response were lessened. These ifndings suggest that the combined effects of bloodletting atJing points (20 µL, twice a day, for 2 days) and mild induced hypothermia (6 hours) are better than their individual effects alone. Their combined application may have marked neuroprotective effects in the clinical treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury.

  5. The effects of therapeutic hypothermia on cerebral metabolism in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: An in vivo 1H-MR spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L; Wu, Tai-Wei; Reitman, Aaron J; McLean, Claire; Friedlich, Philippe; Vanderbilt, Douglas; Ho, Eugenia; Nelson, Marvin D; Panigrahy, Ashok; Blüml, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as the first empirically supported therapy for neuroprotection in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to characterize the effects of hypothermia on energy metabolites, neurotransmitters, and antioxidants. Thirty-one neonates with HIE were studied during hypothermia and after rewarming. Metabolite concentrations (mmol/kg) were determined from the thalamus, basal ganglia, cortical grey matter, and cerebral white matter. In the thalamus, phosphocreatine concentrations were increased by 20% during hypothermia when compared to after rewarming (3.49 ± 0.88 vs. 2.90 ± 0.65, p hypothermia improves energy homeostasis by decreasing the availability of excitatory neurotransmitters, and thereby, cellular energy demand. PMID:26661180

  6. Controle ácido-básico na hipotermia The acid-base management in hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Gomes

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available O emprego da hipotermia profunda tem se constituído, atualmente, numa Importante estratégia para melhoria da qualidade técnica e resultados em cirurgia cardiovascular. A hipotermia reduz os danos teciduais induzidos pela isquemia por diminuir o metabolismo e preservar os fosfatos energéticos. A regulação do pH tecidual durante a hipotermia é fundamental para a manutenção da homeostasia celular, já que a hipotermia induz alterações desse pH pela mudança provocada na constante de dissociação da água. A questão do melhor manuseio dos gases sangüíneos durante a hipotermia induzida tem sido objeto de controvérsia. Duas abordagens têm sido preconizadas para o manejo das alterações iónicas durante a hipotermia. A regulção pH-stat envolve a manutenção do pH constante de 7,40 em todas as temperaturas com ajustes da PaCO2 e a regulação α-stat permite a variação do pH sangüíneo, que aumenta conforme a diminuição da temperatura e o conteúdo total corpóreo de CO2 é mantido constante. Nesta presente revisão a relação entre pH sangüíneo e intracelular e as alterações iónicas induzidas pela hipotermia são discutidas.Deep hypothermia is a usefull tool to improve technical results in cardiovascular surgery and is nowadays the major strategy used to reduce ischemic injury. Hypothermia reduces metabolism and preserves cellular stores of high-energy phosphates. The regulation of tissue pH during hypothermia is important for cellular homeostasis. Furthermore, hypothermia has important effects on pH by altering the dissociation constant of water and various metabolics intermediates and the question of optimal blood gas management during deliberate hypothermia has been subject of much controversy. Two approaches have been advocated for pH management during hypothermia, the first termed pH strategy, where blood pH is maintained constant at 7,40 at all temperatures with PaCO2 adjustment, and in the second type of

  7. Risk of hypothermia in a new olympic event: the 10-km marathon swim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata R. T. Castro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are no available data addressing the potential clinical risks of open-water swimming competitions. OBJECTIVE: Address the risks of hypothermia and hypoglycemia during a 10-km open-water swimming competition in order to alert physicians to the potential dangers of this recently-introduced Olympic event. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study, conducted during a 10-km open-water event (water temperature 21ºC. The highest ranked elite open-water swimmers in Brazil (7 men, 5 women; ages 21±7 years old were submitted to anthropometrical measurements on the day before competition. All but one athlete took maltodextrine ad libitum during the competition. Core temperature and capillary glycemia data were obtained before and immediately after the race. RESULTS: Most athletes (83% finished the race with mild to moderate hypothermia (core temperature <35ºC. The body temperature drop was more pronounced in female athletes (4.2±0.7ºC vs. male: 2.7±0.8ºC; p=0.040. When data from the athlete who did not take maltodextrine was excluded, capillary glycemia increased among athletes (pre 86.6±8.9 mg/dL; post 105.5±26.9 mg/dL; p=0.014. Time to complete the race was inversely related to pre- competition body temperature in men (r=-0.802; p=0.030, while it was inversely correlated with the change in capillary glycemia in women (r=-0.898; p=0.038. CONCLUSION: Hypothermia may occur during open-water swimming events even in elite athletes competing in relatively warm water. Thus, core temperature must be a chief concern of any physician during an open-water swim event. Capillary glycemia may have positive effects on performance. Further studies that include more athletes in a controlled setting are warranted.

  8. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by GABA in the rostral parapyramidal area of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, T

    2014-05-16

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature (Tc) in a variety of animals. The neuronal mechanisms of this response include, at least in part, glutamatergic activation in the lateral preoptic area (LPO) of the hypothalamus. As the sympathetic premotor neurons in the medulla oblongata constitute a cardinal relay station in the descending neuronal pathway from the hypothalamus for thermoregulation, their inhibition can also be critically involved in the mechanisms of the hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Here, I examined the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced hypothermia is mediated by glutamate-responsive neurons in the LPO that activate GABAergic transmission in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) and neighboring parapyramidal region (PPy) of the medulla oblongata in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. Unilateral microinjection of GABA (15nmol) into the rRPa and PPy regions elicited a prompt increase in tail skin temperature (Ts) and decreases in Tc, oxygen consumption rate (VO2), and heart rate. Next, when the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline methiodide (bicuculline methiodide (BMI), 10pmol) alone was microinjected into the rRPa, it elicited unexpected contradictory responses: simultaneous increases in Ts, VO2 and heart rate and a decrease in Tc. Then, when BMI was microinjected bilaterally into the PPy, no direct effect on Ts was seen; and thermogenic and tachycardic responses were slight. However, pretreatment of the PPy with BMI, but not vehicle saline, greatly attenuated the hypothermic responses evoked by hypoxic (10%O2-90%N2, 5min) ventilation or bilateral microinjections of glutamate (5nmol, each side) into the LPO. The results suggest that hypoxia-induced hypothermia was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of GABAA receptors in the PPy. PMID:24607346

  9. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 Hours after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Anne Murtha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental Middle Cerebral Artery occlusion (MCAo - 3 hour occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19-20 months. At one hour after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 hours hypothermia-treatment (32.5 °C or normothermia (37 °C. ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 hours post-occlusion, and at 24 hours post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03. Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 hours post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients.

  10. Mild hypothermia effects on matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the perihematomal region of rats following experimental intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minzhong Wang; Xiaoyan Lin; Xueping Liu; Qingxi Fu; Suming Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9)expression increases with intracerebral hemorrhage,and participates in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of mild hypothermia on MMP-9 expression and brain edema in the perihematomal region of experimental intracerebral hemorrhage rats.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:The randomized,controlled experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory of Shandong Provincial Hospital between May and September 2007.MATERIALS:Seventy-two,Wistar,male rats,12-weeks old,were used for this study.Rabbit anti-MMP-9 primary antibody was purchased from Boster,China.METHODS:Wistar rats were equally and randomly divided into normothermia and mild hypothermia groups.The two groups each comprised control,6-hour intracerebral hemorrhage,24-hour intracerebral hemorrhage,48-hour intracerebral hemorrhage,72-hour intracerebral hemorrhage,and 1-week intracerebral hemorrhage subgroups,with six rats in each subgroup.Rat models of intracerebral hemorrhage were established by irtjecting 100 μL of autologous blood into the rat caudate nucleus.Rats in the mild hypothermia group received four hours of local mild hypothermia immediately following the injection.Intracerebral temperature was maintained at(33±0.5)℃.Subsequently,intracerebral temperature was spontaneously recovered at 25℃.Rats in the control subgroup were not injected with autologous blood and received only with intracerebral hemorrhage.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Brain water content and MMP-9 expression surrounding the hematoma region.RESULTS:MMP-9 expression increased at 6 hours,and brain edema reached a peak at 48 hours after intracerebral hemorrhage.MMP-9 expression was significantly decreased in the mild hypothermia group compared with the normothermia group at each time point (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:Mild hypothermia can significantly inhibit MMP-9 overexpression and relieve brain edema following intracerebral

  11. Scandinavian clinical practice guidelines for therapeutic hypothermia and post-resuscitation care after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrén, M; Silfvast, T; Rubertsson, S;

    2009-01-01

    of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI). METHODS: Relevant studies were identified after two consensus meetings of the SSAI Task Force on Therapeutic Hypothermia (SSAITFTH) and via literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Medline. Evidence was assessed and consensus...... fibrillation (GOR A), the SSAITFTH also recommend MTH after restored spontaneous circulation, if active treatment is chosen, in patients with initial pulseless electrical activity and asystole (GOR D). Normal ethical considerations, premorbid status, total anoxia time and general condition should decide...

  12. Efficacy of external warming in attenuation of hypothermia in surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeba Snježana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hypothermia in surgical patients can be the consequence of long duration of surgical intervention, general anaesthesia and low temperature in operating room. Postoperative hypothermia contributes to a number of postoperative complications such as arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, hypertension, bleeding, wound infection, coagulopathy, and prolonged effect of muscle relaxants. External heating procedures are used to prevent this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of external warming system in alleviation of cold stress and hypothermia in patients who underwent major surgical procedures. Methods. The study was conducted in the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade. A total of 30 patients of both genders underwent abdominal surgical procedures, randomly divided into two equal groups: the one was externally warmed using warm air mattress (W, while in the control group (C surgical procedure was performed in regular conditions, without additional warming. Oesophageal temperature (Te was used as indicator of changes in core temperature, during surgery and awakening postoperative period, and temperature of control sites on the right hand (Th and the right foot (Tf reflected the changes in skin temperatures during surgery. Te and skin temperatures were monitored during the intraoperative period, with continuous measurement of Te during the following 90 minutes of the postoperative period. Heart rates and blood pressures were monitored continuously during the intraoperative and awakening period. Results. In the W group, the average Te, Tf and Th did not change significantly during the intraoperative as well as the postoperative period. In the controls, the average Te significantly decreased during the intraoperative period (from 35.61 ± 0.35ºC at 0 minute to 33.86 ± 0.51ºC at 120th minute. Compared to the W group, Te in the C group was significantly lower in all the observed periods. Average values of Tf and

  13. Survival after cardiopulmonary arrest with extreme hyperkalaemia and hypothermia in a patient with metformin-associated lactic acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tay, Stan; Lee, I-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Potassium levels are regularly used as a prognostic factor to cease resuscitation in significant hypothermia. In this case report, we highlight how survival is still possible with extreme hyperkalaemia in severe hypothermia. We present a case of a 65-year-old Caucasian man who presented with metformin associated lactic acidosis. On presentation he had potassium of 9.1 mmol/l and a temperature of 31.5°C. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was commenced when he went into asystolic arrest. This prese...

  14. Mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: neuroprotective effects of combined therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lin WANG; Jiang, Feng; Li, Qifeng; He, Xiaoguang; Ma, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cell transplantation is a useful treatment for ischemic stroke, but apoptosis often occurs in the hypoxic-ischemic environment of the brain after cell transplantation. In this study, we determined if mild hypothermia (27–28°C) can increase the survival rate of neural stem cells (1.0 × 105/μL) transplanted into neonatal mice with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Long-term effects on neurological functioning of the mice were also examined. After mild hypothermia combined with neural...

  15. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  16. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  17. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  18. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    The concept of avoidable deaths suggests that certain deaths ought not occur in a given society because it is possible to prevent or treat the disease or condition. A list of avoidable deaths is time and community specific as it reflects the socioeconomic conditions, professional medical capacity...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...

  19. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  20. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author′s experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.

  1. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance. PMID:19186631

  2. Plagiarism Avoidance in Academic Submissions

    OpenAIRE

    Cully, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide undergraduate students with an introductory resource focusing on plagiarism avoidance. It sets out to identify often confusing associated nuances. From the perspective of paraphrasing, the requirements attaching to the necessary provision of proper citations are explored. The paper concludes by pondering the topic of reliability of sources.

  3. Promotion of Viral IRES-Mediated Translation Initiation under Mild Hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licursi, Maria; Carmona-Martinez, Ricardo A.; Razavi, Seyd; Hirasawa, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation is an essential replication step for certain viruses. As IRES-mediated translation is regulated differently from cap-dependent translation under various cellular conditions, we sought to investigate whether temperature influences efficiency of viral IRES-mediated translation initiation by using bicistronic reporter constructs containing an IRES element of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human rhinovirus (HRV) or poliovirus (PV). Under mild hypothermic conditions (30 and 35°C), we observed increases in the efficiency of translation initiation by HCV and HRV IRES elements compared to translation initiation at 37°C. The promotion of HRV IRES activity was observed as early as 2 hours after exposure to mild hypothermia. We also confirmed the promotion of translation initiation by HRV IRES under mild hypothermia in multiple cell lines. The expression levels and locations of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and upstream of N-Ras (unr), the IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) of HCV and HRV IRES elements, were not modulated by the temperature shift from 37°C to 30°C. Taken together, this study demonstrates that efficiency of translation initiation by some viral IRES elements is temperature dependent. PMID:25951166

  4. Promotion of Viral IRES-Mediated Translation Initiation under Mild Hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licursi

    Full Text Available Internal ribosome entry site (IRES-mediated translation is an essential replication step for certain viruses. As IRES-mediated translation is regulated differently from cap-dependent translation under various cellular conditions, we sought to investigate whether temperature influences efficiency of viral IRES-mediated translation initiation by using bicistronic reporter constructs containing an IRES element of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, human rhinovirus (HRV or poliovirus (PV. Under mild hypothermic conditions (30 and 35°C, we observed increases in the efficiency of translation initiation by HCV and HRV IRES elements compared to translation initiation at 37°C. The promotion of HRV IRES activity was observed as early as 2 hours after exposure to mild hypothermia. We also confirmed the promotion of translation initiation by HRV IRES under mild hypothermia in multiple cell lines. The expression levels and locations of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB and upstream of N-Ras (unr, the IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs of HCV and HRV IRES elements, were not modulated by the temperature shift from 37°C to 30°C. Taken together, this study demonstrates that efficiency of translation initiation by some viral IRES elements is temperature dependent.

  5. Mild Hypothermia Protects Pigs’ Gastric Mucosa After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation via Inhibiting Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Song, Jian; Liu, Yuhong; Li, Yaqiang; Liu, Zhengxin

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mild hypothermia therapy on gastric mucosa after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced in pigs. After CPR, the surviving pigs were divided into mild hypothermia-treated and control groups. The changes in vital signs and hemodynamic parameters were monitored before cardiac arrest and at intervals of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after restoration of spontaneous circulation. Serum IL-6 was determined at the same time, and gastroscopy was performed. The pathologic changes were noted, and the expression of IL-6 was determined by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry under light. Results The heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output in both groups did not differ significantly. The gastric mucosa ulcer index evaluated by gastroscopy 2 h and 24 h after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the mild hypothermic group was lower than that the control group (Pgastric mucosa in the mild hypothermic group 6–24 h after ROSC was lower than that in the control group (Pgastric mucosa IL-6 expression 0.5–4 h and 6, 12, and 24 h after ROSC was lower in the mild hypothermic group than in the control group (Pgastric mucosa after ROSC via inhibiting IL-6 production and relieving the inflammatory reaction. PMID:27694796

  6. Automated analysis of background EEG and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Lehembre, Rémy; Lugo, Zulay Del Rosario; Lesenfants, Damien; Luxen, André; Laureys, Steven; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2014-01-01

    Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between reviewers. Automated EEG analysis may help quantify the brain damage. Forty-six comatose patients in therapeutic hypothermia, after cardiac arrest, were included in the study. EEG background was quantified with burst-suppression ratio (BSR) and approximate entropy, both used to monitor anesthesia. Reactivity was detected through change in the power spectrum of signal before and after stimulation. Automatic results obtained almost perfect agreement (discontinuity) to substantial agreement (background reactivity) with a visual score from EEG-certified neurologists. Burst-suppression ratio was more suited to distinguish continuous EEG background from burst-suppression than approximate entropy in this specific population. Automatic EEG background and reactivity measures were significantly related to good and poor outcome. We conclude that quantitative EEG measurements can provide promising information regarding current state of the patient and clinical outcome, but further work is needed before routine application in a clinical setting.

  7. Nitric oxide in the nucleus raphe magnus modulates cutaneous blood flow in rats during hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kourosh Arami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM that is involved in the regulation of body temperature contains nitric oxide (NO synthase. Considering the effect of NO on skin blood flow control, in this study, we assessed its thermoregulatory role within the raphe magnus. Materials and Methods: To this end, tail blood flow of male Wistar rats was measured by laser doppler following the induction of hypothermia. Results: Intra-NRM injection of SNP (exogenous NO donor, 0.1- 0.2 μl, 0.2 nM increased the blood flow. Similarly, unilateral microinjection of glutamate (0.1- 0.2 μl, 2.3 nM into the nucleus increased the blood flow. This effectof L-glutamate was reduced by prior intra NRM administrationof NO synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine or NG-nitro-L-argininemethyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 µl, 100 nM. Conclusion: It is concluded that NO modulates the thermoregulatory response of NRM to hypothermia and may interactwith excitatory amino acids in central skin blood flow regulation.

  8. Multiobjective Optimization Based Vessel Collision Avoidance Strategy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vessel collision accidents cause a great loss of lives and property. In order to reduce the human fault and greatly improve the safety of marine traffic, collision avoidance strategy optimization is proposed to achieve this. In the paper, a multiobjective optimization algorithm NSGA-II is adopted to search for the optimal collision avoidance strategy considering the safety as well as economy elements of collision avoidance. Ship domain and Arena are used to evaluate the collision risk in the simulation. Based on the optimization, an optimal rudder angle is recommended to navigator for collision avoidance. In the simulation example, a crossing encounter situation is simulated, and the NSGA-II searches for the optimal collision avoidance operation under the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS. The simulation studies exhibit the validity of the method.

  9. Mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy:neuroprotective effects of combined therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Wang; Feng Jiang; Qifeng Li; Xiaoguang He; Jie Ma

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cell transplantation is a useful treatment for ischemic stroke, but apoptosis often occurs in the hypoxic-ischemic environment of the brain after cell transplantation. In this study, we determined if mild hypothermia (27-28°C) can increase the survival rate of neural stem cells (1.0 × 105 /μL) transplanted into neonatal mice with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Long-term effects on neurological functioning of the mice were also examined. After mild hy-pothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation, we observed decreased expression levels of inflammatory factor nuclear factor-kappa B and apoptotic factor caspase-3, reduced cerebral infarct volumes, increased survival rate of transplanted cells, and marked improvements in neurological function. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation are superior to those of monotherapy. Moreover, our ifndings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are achieved by anti-inlfammatory and an-ti-apoptotic mechanisms.

  10. Mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: neuroprotective effects of combined therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Jiang, Feng; Li, Qifeng; He, Xiaoguang; Ma, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Neural stem cell transplantation is a useful treatment for ischemic stroke, but apoptosis often occurs in the hypoxic-ischemic environment of the brain after cell transplantation. In this study, we determined if mild hypothermia (27-28°C) can increase the survival rate of neural stem cells (1.0 × 10(5)/μL) transplanted into neonatal mice with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Long-term effects on neurological functioning of the mice were also examined. After mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation, we observed decreased expression levels of inflammatory factor nuclear factor-kappa B and apoptotic factor caspase-3, reduced cerebral infarct volumes, increased survival rate of transplanted cells, and marked improvements in neurological function. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation are superior to those of monotherapy. Moreover, our findings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are achieved by anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:25422635

  11. Fos-like immunoreactivity in Siberian hamster brain during initiation of torpor-like hypothermia induced by 2DG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Ho; Dark, John

    2007-08-01

    Systemic 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) produces pronounced torpor-like hypothermia (notSiberian hamster. Siberian hamsters are heterothermic, naturally undergoing photoperiod-dependent torpor during winter-like photoperiods. Fos was used to identify neural structures activated during the initiation of torpor-like hypothermia induced by 2DG treatment. The Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-li) in the area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract that predominantly characterizes other 2DG-induced responses was absent during 2DG-induced torpor in the present experiment. Fos-li was seen in a number of forebrain and hindbrain sites during entry into hypothermia, but the densest Fos-li was found in the parvocellular portion of the paraventricular nucleus. Fos-li in the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the dorsal lateral septum also distinguished 2DG-induced torpor from other 2DG-induced behaviors. The possible involvement of neuropeptide Y pathways during 2DG-induced expression of reversible hypothermia is discussed.

  12. Combination treatment of hypothermia and mesenchymal stromal cells amplifies neuroprotection in primary rat neurons exposed to hypoxic-ischemic-like injury in vitro: role of the opioid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kaneko

    Full Text Available This study was designed to reveal the therapeutic regimen and mechanism of action underlying hypothermia treatment in combination with stem cell transplantation for ameliorating neonatal hypoxic-ischemic-like injury. Primary rat neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, which produced hypoxic-ischemic-like injury in vitro, then incubated at 25°C (severe hypothermia, 34°C (moderate hypothermia, and 37°C (normothermia with or without subsequent co-culture with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. Combination treatment of moderate hypothermia and MSCs significantly improved cell survival and mitochondrial activity after OGD exposure. The exposure of delta opioid human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293 to moderate hypothermia attenuated OGD-mediated cell alterations, which were much more pronounced in HEK293 cells overexpressing the delta opioid receptor. Further, the addition of delta opioid peptide to 34°C hypothermia and stem cell treatment in primary rat neurons showed synergistic neuroprotective effects against OGD which were significantly more robust than the dual combination of moderate hypothermia and MSCs, and were significantly reduced, but not completely abolished, by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone altogether implicating a ligand-receptor mechanism of neuroprotection. Further investigations into non-opioid therapeutic signaling pathways revealed growth factor mediation and anti-apoptotic function accompanying the observed therapeutic benefits. These results support combination therapy of hypothermia and stem cells for hypoxic-ischemic-like injury in vitro, which may have a direct impact on current clinical trials using stand-alone hypothermia or stem cells for treating neonatal encephalopathy.

  13. PREVENTION OF PERIOPERATIVE HYPOTHERMIA USING POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC BAGS IN PATIENTS WITH SURGERY UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA (IN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reales-Osorio Ronald José1

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: perioperative hypothermia is a common finding in the rooms of surgery and it simultaneously is underestimated. The biggest heat loss in patients under general anesthesia is presented importatit factor for the development of postoperative complications for what, preserve the body temperature improves the quality of anesthesia and it is cost-effective. Objetive: to quantify the efficiency and safety of low density polyethylene (LDPE plastic bags to prevent hypothermia in adult patients submitted surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: it is a randomized, prospective, single blind, controlled clinical trial camed out in the Hospital Universitario del Caribe of Cartagena (since june 2012 to may, 2013. 107 patients, scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia, were divided in two groups: [A] Intervention grupo with coverage of 75% of the body surface with low density polyethylene plastic bags, in surgeries that were allowing this coverage. [B] Control group, with conventional management without coverage. In both grups, contirwous measurement of the temperature was done, the proportions of outcome variables between the two groups were compared by means of chi2 and the Mann- Whitney U test. In adittion, the relative risk (RR9 with their confidence intervals of 95% for the use of the intervention in the reduction of the hypothermia was estimated. A p valve <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: the temperature at the end of the surgery was lower in the control group than in the intervention group (p<0.0001. The use of plastic bags had RR=0.48 (CI 0.33- 0.69 for reduction of hypothermia and RR=0.079 (CI 95% 0.011-0.58 for reduction of chills. In the group with plastic bags the appearance of chills and hypothermia was less frequent (p=0.0002. None of the groups presented adverse effects. Conclusion: the adequate coverage of minimum 75% of the body surface with plastic bags, in patients submitted to surgery under

  14. Identity brand avoidance: How is it manifested in social media?

    OpenAIRE

    CHAN KAO CHUNG, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    Existing research on brand symbolic consumption mainly focuses on brand approach; the phenomenon being explained by the theory of self congruity, i.e. consumers would approach brands whose image is congruent to their actual or ideal self. On the other hand, identity brand avoidance, has been object of less attention. The scarce research dedicated to this field essentially revolves around the causes of identity brand avoidance, i.e. when consumers have a positive image of themselves and a nega...

  15. Obstacle Avoidance Through Visual Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Keerio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel controlling approach forHumanoid Robot to work safely in critical situations like badlight environment using Visual Teleoperation. In this regardmodeling environments for Humanoid Teleoperation Systemis developed. Here virtual reality modeling environmentincludes development of virtual Humanoid BHR-2, andvirtual objects like table etc. The main goal of this work is toenhance our visual teleoperation system for BHR-2 in orderto avoid any collision during real time operation. SoftwareMaya is used for modeling and simulations. Maya plug-insin VC++ provides efficient modeling rule, real timeinteraction, and time saving rendering approach in a virtualenvironment. In this paper the validity of proposed scheme isshown by conducting experiments using offline step overtrajectory to avoid obstacle in bad light environment.

  16. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tordeux, Antoine; Lassarre, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed...

  17. Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Il-Horn Hann; Kai-Lung Hui; Sang-Yong Tom Lee; Ivan Png

    2005-01-01

    We introduce consumer avoidance into analytical marketing research. We show that consumer efforts to conceal themselves and to deflect marketing have a crucial impact on sellers¡¯ marketing strategy. Under reasonable conditions, seller marketing is a strategic complement with consumer concealment. Hence, consumer measures to conceal themselves from marketing will increase its cost-effectiveness and lead sellers to market more. Policies that encourage consumers to conceal their identities woul...

  18. Still cooling after all these years: Meta-analysis of pre-clinical trials of therapeutic hypothermia for acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, Oana M; Lamb, Jessica; Lyden, Patrick D

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the most potent neuroprotectant for experimental cerebral ischemia, illustrated in a 2007 meta-analysis published in this journal. To address recent therapeutic nihilism, we systematically reviewed recent experimental literature. Quality scoring showed considerable improvement in study design. Using several outcome measures in a variety of models and species, therapeutic hypothermia was protective compared with normothermia, with powerful and statistically significant normalized treatment effect sizes, in 60 papers comprising 216 comparisons. In the past 5 years, preclinical studies of ischemic stroke re-emphasize that therapeutic hypothermia is potently effective, justifying further development in larger human clinical trials. PMID:27089911

  19. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  20. Influence of hypothermia, barbiturate therapy, and intracranial pressure monitoring on morbidity and mortality after near-drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D J; Biggar, W D; Smith, C R; Conn, A W; Barker, G A

    1986-06-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and pathologic effects of hypothermia and high-dose barbiturate therapy on hypoxic/ischemic cerebral injury after near-drowning in children. Of 40 near-drowned patients admitted to the ICU, 13 died, seven had permanent cerebral damage, and 20 survived. Twenty-four patients (group 1) were treated with a regime of hyperventilation, hypothermia, and high-dose phenobarbitone while intracranial pressure (ICP) was continuously monitored. Of ten who died in this group, three were diagnosed as having cerebral death shortly after admission; autopsy revealed severe cerebral edema with herniation. The remaining seven nonsurvivors had severe cerebral hypoxia without raised ICP and had the features of severe adult respiratory distress syndrome and hypoxic/ischemic damage to other organs. Six of these seven patients developed septicemia which was invariably associated with a profound neutropenia. Sixteen patients (group 2) were treated with a similar protocol but without hypothermia. Three of these patients died but only one developed septicemia. Neutropenia after resuscitation from near-drowning seemed to indicate a poor prognosis; the mean polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in nonsurvivors (1.9 +/- 0.5 X 10(9) cell/L) was significantly (p less than .01) lower than that in survivors (6.4 +/- 1.1 X 10(9) cell/L). Hypothermia was associated with a decreased number of circulating PMNs but did not increase the number of neurologically intact survivors. Similarly, although barbiturates may control ICP, their use did not improve outcome. Because severe cerebral edema and herniation after near-drowning is usually associated with irreversible brain damage, measures to control brain swelling such as hypothermia and barbiturates will be of little benefit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Hypothermia postpones DNA damage repair in irradiated cells and protects against cell killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Brandon J.; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Nakamura, Asako J.; Redon, Christophe E.; Parekh, Palak [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, CCR, NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Griko, Yuri V. [Radiation and Space Biotechnology Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Aziz, Khaled; Georgakilas, Alexandros G. [Biology Department, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Bonner, William M. [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, CCR, NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Martin, Olga A., E-mail: sedelnio@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, CCR, NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-06-03

    Hibernation is an established strategy used by some homeothermic organisms to survive cold environments. In true hibernation, the core body temperature of an animal may drop to below 0 {sup o}C and metabolic activity almost cease. The phenomenon of hibernation in humans is receiving renewed interest since several cases of victims exhibiting core body temperatures as low as 13.7 {sup o}C have been revived with minimal lasting deficits. In addition, local cooling during radiotherapy has resulted in normal tissue protection. The experiments described in this paper were prompted by the results of a very limited pilot study, which showed a suppressed DNA repair response of mouse lymphocytes collected from animals subjected to 7-Gy total body irradiation under hypothermic (13 {sup o}C) conditions, compared to normothermic controls. Here we report that human BJ-hTERT cells exhibited a pronounced radioprotective effect on clonogenic survival when cooled to 13 {sup o}C during and 12 h after irradiation. Mild hypothermia at 20 and 30 {sup o}C also resulted in some radioprotection. The neutral comet assay revealed an apparent lack on double strand break (DSB) rejoining at 13 {sup o}C. Extension of the mouse lymphocyte study to ex vivo-irradiated human lymphocytes confirmed lower levels of induced phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) and persistence of the lesions at hypothermia compared to the normal temperature. Parallel studies of radiation-induced oxidatively clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs) revealed partial repair at 13 {sup o}C compared to the rapid repair at 37 {sup o}C. For both {gamma}-H2AX foci and OCDLs, the return of lymphocytes to 37 {sup o}C resulted in the resumption of normal repair kinetics. These results, as well as observations made by others and reviewed in this study, have implications for understanding the radiobiology and protective mechanisms underlying hypothermia and potential opportunities for exploitation in terms of protecting normal tissues against

  2. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  3. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Khanna; George Filobbos

    2013-01-01

    The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suc...

  4. Mild to moderate hypothermia: the hope for improving outcome of severe head injured patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem throughout the worl d. More than 400000 patients with TBI in the United States of America and more than a million patients with TBI in China are admitted to hospital every ye ar. Head trauma is also No.1 killer of young people in the developed countries as well a s in some developing countries. Unfortunately, the outcome of patients with seve re TBI is still poor all over the world. The mortality of severe TBI patients (G CS 3-8) in majority of hospitals is over 30% and very severe TBI patients (GCS 3-5) is over 80% with only 15% functional recovery.1,2 However, recent ad vance in cerebral protection by mild (35-33℃) to moderate hypothermia (32-30 ℃) is certainly encouraging, which brings neurosurgeons the hope to improve the outcome of severe head injured patients.

  5. Effects of anesthesia-induced modest hypothermia on cellular radiation sensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG; Yingsong(项莺松); TANG; Gusheng(唐古生); XU; Xiongfei(许熊飞); YANG; Rujun(杨如俊); CAI; Jianming(蔡建明); ZHANG; Minghui(张明辉); CAO; Xuetao(曹雪涛)

    2002-01-01

    To assess the mechanisms of modest hypothermia(MH) and its effects on cellular radiation response, a model of anesthesia-induced modest hypothermia(AIMH) in the adult mice and a model of pure MH in the newborn mice were established. The survival rate of lethally irradiated mice was increased to 72% through AIMH before irradiation. Both apoptosis and necrosis of human fetal bone marrow CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells cultured under MH were significantly decreased as detected by MTT and flow cytometry, with three-color labeled by PE-CD34+/ FITC-AnnexinV /7AAD. The survival and proliferation of mouse bone marrow MNC treated with MH after irradiation were also increased. The MH exerted similar protective effects on the leukemia cell lines A20, HL60, K562 to the normal bone marrow cells, but it enhanced the radiation sensitivity of leukemia cell line FBL3 and mouse melanoma B16F10. No effects have been found on the radiation sensitivity of those cells treated with MH before irradiation. The results also showed that MH mediated the effects on radiation sensitivity, in addition to increasing the oxygen tension. These results show different effects of MH on different cells:(i) AIMH exerts a protective effect on the normal hematopoietic stem cells, some leukemia cell lines A20, HL60, K562, and some neoplasma 3LL, LOVO. And MH exhibits a synthetic effect with anesthetic.(ii) MH enhances the radiation sensitivity of another leukemia and neoplasma cell lines FBL3, B16F10 and CT26. Therefore, AIMH has a potential to enhance the effects of radiation-therapy and decrease side effects on some tumors.

  6. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram; Levine, Simon P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  7. Adaptive avoidance of reef noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Simpson

    Full Text Available Auditory information is widely used throughout the animal kingdom in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some marine species are dependent on reefs for adult survival and reproduction, and are known to use reef noise to guide orientation towards suitable habitat. Many others that forage in food-rich inshore waters would, however, benefit from avoiding the high density of predators resident on reefs, but nothing is known about whether acoustic cues are used in this context. By analysing a sample of nearly 700,000 crustaceans, caught during experimental playbacks in light traps in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, we demonstrate an auditory capability in a broad suite of previously neglected taxa, and provide the first evidence in any marine organisms that reef noise can act as a deterrent. In contrast to the larvae of species that require reef habitat for future success, which showed an attraction to broadcasted reef noise, taxa with a pelagic or nocturnally emergent lifestyle actively avoided it. Our results suggest that a far greater range of invertebrate taxa than previously thought can respond to acoustic cues, emphasising yet further the potential negative impact of globally increasing levels of underwater anthropogenic noise.

  8. 急性乙醇中毒时猝死原因及防范%The Causes and Prevention Measures for the Sudden Death in Acute Alcoholic Intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静; 孟庆义

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the causes and prevention measures for the sudden death in acute alcoholic intoxication. The main causes included the mis - aspiration, acute pancreatitis, cardiac emergencies, cerebral hemorrhage, disulfiram - like reaction, hypothermia, rhabdomyolysis, and hypotonic state after gastric lavage. That was instructive for the clinician to diagnosis and treatment for acute alcoholic intoxication and to avoid the medical malpractice in the clinical work.%本文对急性乙醇中毒时猝死的原因及防范措施进行了分析阐述,主要猝死原因有误吸、急性胰腺炎、心脏急症、脑出血、双硫仑样反应、低体温、横纹肌溶解和洗胃后低渗.希望能为临床医生正确地诊断与治疗急性乙醇中毒及避免医疗失误提供借鉴.

  9. Mild hypothermia attenuates post-resuscitation brain injury through a V-ATPase mechanism in a rat model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J C; Lu, W; Xie, X M; Pan, H; Wu, Z Q; Yang, G T

    2016-01-01

    Although therapeutic hypothermia is an effective treatment for post-resuscitation brain injury after cardiac arrest (CA), the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) plays a key role in cellular adaption to a hypoxic environment. This study sought to evaluate the effect of mild hypothermia on V-ATPase and its involvement in neuroprotection after CA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a 6-min CA, resuscitated successfully, and then assigned to either the normothermia (NT) group or the hypothermia (HT) group. Rats were further divided into 2 subgroups based on the time of euthanasia, either 3 or 24 h after CA (NT-3 h, HT-3 h; NT-24 h, HT-24 h). Mild hypothermia was induced following CA and maintained at 33°C for 2 h. Neurologic deficit scores were used to determine the status of neurological function. Brain specimens were analyzed by TUNEL assay, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. V-ATPase activity was estimated by subtracting total ATP hydrolysis from the bafilomycin-sensitive activity. Mild hypothermia improved the neurological outcome (HT-24 h: 34.3 ± 16.4 vs NT-24 h: 50.3 ± 17.4) and significantly decreased neurocyte apoptosis 24 h after resuscitation. Mild hypothermia significantly increased V0a1 compared to NT-3 h; V0a1 expression was associated with a decrease in the cleaved caspase 3 expression. These findings suggested that mild hypothermia inhibits CA-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus, which may be associated with reduced V-ATPase impairment. These data provide new insights into the protective effects of hypothermia in vivo. PMID:27323115

  10. Evaluation of mild hypothermia therapy for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy on brain energy metabolism using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Mei; Li, Qingping; DONG, WENBIN; Zhai, Xuesong; Kang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    It remains unclear whether mild hypothermia affects energy metabolism in the brain tissue of newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). The current study aimed to investigate the effect of mild hypothermia on energy metabolism in neonatal HIE and assess brain energy metabolism using position emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning. The mean standardised uptake values of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) were used to determine the glucose metabolic rate in various b...

  11. Safety and efficacy of topiramate in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia (NeoNATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippi Luca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite progresses in neonatal care, the mortality and the incidence of neuro-motor disability after perinatal asphyxia have failed to show substantial improvements. In countries with a high level of perinatal care, the incidence of asphyxia responsible for moderate or severe encephalopathy is still 2–3 per 1000 term newborns. Recent trials have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia, started within 6 hours after birth and protracted for 72 hours, can significantly improve survival and reduce neurologic impairment in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is not currently known whether neuroprotective drugs can further improve the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Topiramate has been proven to reduce brain injury in animal models of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, the association of mild hypothermia and topiramate treatment has never been studied in human newborns. The objective of this research project is to evaluate, through a multicenter randomized controlled trial, whether the efficacy of moderate hypothermia can be increased by concomitant topiramate treatment. Methods/Design Term newborns (gestational age ≥ 36 weeks and birth weight ≥ 1800 g with precocious metabolic, clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy will be randomized, according to their EEG pattern, to receive topiramate added to standard treatment with moderate hypothermia or standard treatment alone. Topiramate will be administered at 10 mg/kg once a day for the first 3 days of life. Topiramate concentrations will be measured on serial dried blood spots. 64 participants will be recruited in the study. To evaluate the safety of topiramate administration, cardiac and respiratory parameters will be continuously monitored. Blood samplings will be performed to check renal, liver and metabolic balance. To evaluate the efficacy of topiramate, the neurologic outcome of enrolled newborns

  12. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA IN NEONATES WITH HYPOXIC ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY--QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. PART I. PROVIDING NEWBORN CARE BEFORE AND DURING TRANSFER TO THE REFERENCE CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulczyńska, Ewa; Gadzinowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The first decade of the 21st century saw the worldwide spread of therapeutic hypothermia as a beneficial therapeutic procedure in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. New guidelines for the resuscitation of newborns confirm that therapeutic hypothermia should be the standard method of treatment offered to neonates with acute perinatal hypoxia. The quality of care which an asphyxiated newborn receives during and immediately after resuscitation, as well as the mode of preparation for transport, can have a significant impact on improving the outcome, but it can also result in the deterioration of neonates treated with hypothermia. Since to a considerable degree the therapeutic effect depends on the time of beginning the cooling procedure, there is no reason to unnecessarily delay treatment. For this purpose, neonatologists or pediatricians from referring hospitals who do not have the equipment for hypothermia can and even should begin the cooling process while waiting for the arrival of the neonatal transport team. In that short period a number of concerns arise regarding the optimal methods of child care and preparation for transport to the hypothermia center. The authors discuss the possibility of initiating cooling before transportation using simple, so called low-tech cooling methods, the possible risks associated with the incidence of hyperthermia, difficulties in the interpretation of the eligibility criteria, supportive therapy, and the problems connected with the communication process between the medical team and the parents. The aspects that have been analyzed should be helpful for professionals in neonatal wards, outside hypothermia centers. PMID:26958686

  13. Collision Avoidance of Trains Using Arm7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. R. R. Mohan Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Railways are the popular mode of Transport in almost all major cities of the World. Railways are the most widely used and comfortable modes of transportation system. The major cause for railway accidents is collision of trains on the same track. The main aim of this anti collision system is to identify collision points and to report these error cases to main control room nearer to the station as well as grid control station. Majority of accidents occurred due to improper communication among the network between drivers and control room, due to wrong signaling, worst atmospheric condition, immediate change of route. The train driver doesn’t get proper information in time leading to hazardous situations. So this system by using zigbee protocol provides communication in between trains, which provide information or track id of one train to another train to avoid collision.

  14. Aggressive re-warming at 38.5 °C following deep hypothermia at 21 °C increases neutrophil membrane bound elastase activity and pro-inflammatory factor release

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Min; Zhao, Xiao-gang; He, Yi; Gu, John Yan; Mei, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is often performed under hypothermic condition. The effects of hypothermia and re-warming on neutrophil activity are unclear. This study aimed to compare the effects of different hypothermia and re-warming regimens on neutrophil membrane bound elastase (MBE) activity and the release of pro-inflammatory factors from neutrophils. Methods Human neutrophils were exposed to different hypothermia and re-warming regimens. MBE activity and the release of interl...

  15. Hypothermia induced by baclofen, a possible index of GABAB receptor function in mice, is enhanced by antidepressant drugs and ECS.

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, J. A.; Goodwin, G. M.; Heal, D. J.; Green, A R

    1987-01-01

    1 Intraperitoneal injection to mice of the gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) receptor agonist (+/-)-baclofen induces a dose-dependent decrease in rectal temperature. 2 Injection of (-)-baclofen intracerebroventricularly at doses that had no effect when given peripherally induced a marked hypothermia. (+)-Baclofen was without effect. 3 The decrease in rectal temperature induced by (-)-baclofen when injected intraperitoneally was highly correlated with an increase in sedation. 4 Repeated adminis...

  16. Critical temperature ranges of hypothermia-induced platelet activation: possible implications for cooling patients in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Andreas; Breuer, Melanie; Wendel, Hans P; Peter, Karlheinz; Dietz, Klaus; Ziemer, Gerhard

    2007-04-01

    Cooling of the patient is routinely applied in cardiac surgery to protect organs against ischemia. Hypothermia induces activation of platelets, but the effects of temperatures such as used during cardiac surgery are not well described. To investigate this in an in-vitro study heparinized whole blood was incubated at different temperatures (37 degrees C, 34.5 degrees C, 32 degrees C, 29.5 degrees C, 27 degrees C, 24.5 degrees C, 22 degrees C, 19.5 degrees C and 17 degrees C). The effect of these temperatures on aggregation, P-selectin expression, GP IIb/IIIa activation and platelet microparticle (PMP) formation of unstimulated and ADP-stimulated platelets of 36 subjects was evaluated in flow cytometry. A four-parametric logistic model was fitted to depict the temperature effect on platelet parameters. Lower temperatures increased aggregates, P-selectin expression, and GP IIb/IIIa activation. The number of PMPs decreases with hypothermia. Additional experiments revealed a slight influence of heparin on platelet P-selectin expression but excluded an effect of this anticoagulant on the other evaluated parameters. Threshold temperatures, which mark 5% changes of platelet parameters compared to values at 37 degrees C, were calculated. On ADP-stimulated platelets the thresholds for P-selectin expression and GP IIb/IIa activation are 34.0 degrees C and 36.4 degrees C, respectively, and lie in the temperature range routinely applied in cardiac surgery. Hypothermia-induced platelet activation may develop in most patients undergoing cardiac surgery, possibly resulting in thromboembolic events, coagulation defects, and proinflammatory leukocyte bridging by P-selectin bearing platelets and PMPs. These findings suggest that pharmacological protection of platelets against hypothermia-induced damage may be beneficial during cardiac surgery.

  17. All About PID - Testing and Avoidance in the Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter; Johnston, Steve

    2016-09-01

    Potential-induced degradation can cause significant power loss in modules if the appropriate precautions are not taken. In the first part of a new series in PV Tech Power on module failure, Peter Hacke and Steve Johnston assess the current state-of-the-art in detecting, avoiding and mitigating the worst effects of PID.

  18. Characterization of white mold disease avoidance in common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Physiological resistance and disease avoidance conferred by plant architecture-related traits contribute to white mold field resistance. Our objective was to further exam...

  19. The Effectiveness of Local Hypothermia and Peritoneal Lavage-Dialysis in the Treatment of Patients with Acute Destructive Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniamin I. Shaposhnikov, PhD, ScD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the principles of the pathogenetic therapy of acute pancreatitis and assess the effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas, as well as peritoneal lavage-dialysis in the treatment of acute destructive pancreatitis. A total of 5889 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP were examined. The leading role played by the lesions of the pancreatic lymphatic system in the development of destructive processes was noted. In experiments done on eight dogs, the first day of experimental acute pancreatitis showed necrosis of the lumbar retroperitoneal lymph nodes with a violation of lymph drainage from the pancreas before the retroperitoneal fat necrosis was initiated. The effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas was experimentally demonstrated. In 32 patients with AP, the perioperative local hypothermia of the pancreas for 20-25 minutes was followed by the reduction of the alpha-amylase activity in the peripheral blood and in the portal system, as well as a significant reduction in the edema of the pancreas, that delayed the progression of the destructive lesions. An effective method of performing lavage-dialysis of the omental bursa, by using a transversely perforated tube with a pollution control device in the lumen, was developed.

  20. Effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong; LI Ai-lin; ZHI Da-shi; HUANG Hui-ling

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) using clinical microdialysis.Methods: Thirty-one patients with STBI ( GCS ≤8) were randomly divided into hypothermic group (Group A) and control group (Group B). Microdialysis catheters were inserted into the cerebral cortex of perilesional and normal brain tissue. All samples were analyzed using CMA microdialysis analyzer.Results: In comparison with the control group, lactate/glucose ratio ( L/G) , lactate/pyruvate ratio ( L/P) and glycerol (Gly) in perilensional tissue were significantly decreased; L/P in normal brain tissue was significantly decreased. In control group, L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue were higher than that in normal brain tissue. In the hypothermic group, L/P in perilensional tissue was higher than that in relative normal brain.Conclusions: Mild hypothermia protects brain tissues by decreasing L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue and L/P in "normal brain" tissues. The energy crisis and membrane phospholipid degradation in perilensional tissue are easier to happen after traumatic brain injury, and mild hypothermia protects brain better in perilensional tissue than in normal brain tissue.

  1. Serotonin and dopamine protect from hypothermia/rewarming damage through the CBS/H2S pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Talaei

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines have been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptotic cell death. Herein we show for the first time that serotonin and dopamine increase H(2S production by the endogenous enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS and protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and apoptosis. Treatment with both compounds doubled CBS expression through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and increased H(2S production in cultured rat smooth muscle cells. In addition, serotonin and dopamine treatment significantly reduced ROS formation. The beneficial effect of both compounds was minimized by inhibition of their re-uptake and by pharmacological inhibition of CBS or its down-regulation by siRNA. Exogenous administration of H(2S and activation of CBS by Prydoxal 5'-phosphate also protected cells from hypothermic damage. Finally, serotonin and dopamine pretreatment of rat lung, kidney, liver and heart prior to 24 h of hypothermia at 3°C followed by 30 min of rewarming at 37°C upregulated the expression of CBS, strongly reduced caspase activity and maintained the physiological pH compared to untreated tissues. Thus, dopamine and serotonin protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced damage by increasing H(2S production mediated through CBS. Our data identify a novel molecular link between biogenic amines and the H(2S pathway, which may profoundly affect our understanding of the biological effects of monoamine neurotransmitters.

  2. Clinical study on acute craniocerebral injury treated with mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhang; Jian-Ming Li; De-Zhang Dou; Jun-Lin Hu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the rest energy expenditure, intracranial pressure, brain function parameters and serum indexes of acute craniocerebral injury after treated with mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy. Methods: Clinical data of 58 patients received emergency treatment for craniocerebral injury in our hospital from October 2009 to December 2014 were analyzed retrospec-tively. Among them, 27 cases treated with mild hypothermia therapy were included in the experiment group, while 31 cases without the therapy were considered as the control group. Their rest energy expenditure, intracranial pressure, brain function parameters and serum TNF-a, nitric oxide and myelin basic protein contents were determined. Results: The intracranial pressure [(20.3 ± 2.9) vs. (25.8 ± 3.3) mmHg], [(17.8 ± 2.7) vs. (23.1 ± 3.6) mmHg], [(14.2 ± 2.4) vs. (20.6 ± 3.1) mmHg], [(11.3 ± 1.8) vs. (16.3 ± 2.6) mmHg] and rest energy expenditure [(6 861 ± 994) vs. (14 074 ± 2 016) kJ/d], [(5 946 ± 768) vs. (15 525 ± 1 936) kJ/d], [(5 512 ± 873) vs. (5 512 ± 873) kJ/d], [(6 248 ± 906) vs. (14 413 ± 2 166) kJ/d] in patients of experiment group on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th days after treatment were all significantly lower than those of patients in the control group. After treated for 24 h, PbtO2 [(23.59 ± 4.97) vs. (15.68 ± 3.14) mmHg] and SjvO2 [(61.39 ± 9.79) vs. (46.76 ± 7.28) %] of the experiment group were distinctly higher than those of the control group, while its contents of TNF-a [(1.96 ± 0.29) vs. (3.39 ± 0.72)μg/L] and nitric oxide [(10.39 ± 2.16) vs. (24.42 ± 3.51) mg/L] and myelin basic protein [(2.19 ± 0.52) vs. (4.34 ± 0.78) μg/L] were all lower than those of the control group. Conclusions: After treated with mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy, the metabolic rate and intracranial pressure of patients with craniocerebral injury decreased obviously, their cerebral blood flow perfusion were improved evidently and the release of adverse metabolic

  3. Electrocardiographic changes during induced therapeutic hypothermia in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo; Salinas; Esteban; Lopez-de-Sa; Laura; Pena-Conde; Ana; Viana-Tejedor; Juan; Ramon; Rey-Blas; Eduardo; Armada; Jose; Luis; Lopez-Sendon

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety of therapeutic hypothermia(TH) concerning arrhythmias we analyzed serial electrocardiograms(ECG) during TH.METHODS: All patients recovered from a cardiac arrest with Glasgow < 9 at admission were treated with induced mild TH to 32-34℃. TH was obtained with cool fluid infusion or a specific intravascular device. Twelvelead ECG before,during,and after TH,as well as ECG telemetry data was recorded in all patients. From a total of 54 patients admitted with cardiac arrest during the study period,47 patients had the 3 ECG and telemetry data available. ECG analysis was blinded and performed with manual caliper by two independent cardiologists from blinded copies of original ECG,recorded at 25 mm/s and 10 mm/m V. Coronary care unit staff analyzed ECG telemetry for rhythm disturbances. Variables measured in ECG were rhythm,RR,PR,QT and corrected QT(QTc by Bazett formula,measured in lead v2) intervals,QRS duration,presence of Osborn’s J wave and U wave,as well as ST segment displacement and T wave amplitude in leads Ⅱ,v2 and v5.RESULTS: Heart rate went down an average of 19 bpm during hypothermia and increased again 16 bpm with rewarming(P < 0.0005,both). There was a nonsignificant prolongation of the PR interval during TH and a significant decrease with rewarming(P = 0.041). QRS duration significantly prolonged(P = 0.041) with TH and shortened back(P < 0.005) with rewarming. QTc interval presented a mean prolongation of 58 ms(P < 0.005) during TH and a significant shortening with rewarming of 22.2 ms(P = 0.017). Osborn or J wave was found in 21.3% of the patients. New arrhythmias occurred in 38.3% of the patients. Most frequent arrhythmia was non-sustained ventricular tachycardia(19.1%),followed by severe bradycardia or paced rhythm(10.6%),accelerated nodal rhythm(8.5%) and atrial fibrillation(6.4%). No life threatening arrhythmias(sustained ventricular tachycardia,polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation) occurred

  4. Long-Term Effects of Induced Hypothermia on Local and Systemic Inflammation - Results from a Porcine Long-Term Trauma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, K.; Eschbach, D.; Pfeifer, R.; Relja, B.; Sassen, M.; Steinfeldt, T.; Wulf, H.; Vogt, N.; Frink, M.; Ruchholtz, S.; Pape, H. C.; Hildebrand, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypothermia has been discussed as playing a role in improving the early phase of systemic inflammation. However, information on the impact of hypothermia on the local inflammatory response is sparse. We therefore investigated the kinetics of local and systemic inflammation in the late posttraumatic phase after induction of hypothermia in an established porcine long-term model of combined trauma. Materials & Methods Male pigs (35 ± 5kg) were mechanically ventilated and monitored over the study period of 48 h. Combined trauma included tibia fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration and pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock (MAP < 30 ± 5 mmHg for 90 min). After resuscitation, hypothermia (33°C) was induced for a period of 12 h (HT-T group) with subsequent re-warming over a period of 10 h. The NT-T group was kept normothermic. Systemic and local (fracture hematoma) cytokine levels (IL-6, -8, -10) and alarmins (HMGB1, HSP70) were measured via ELISA. Results Severe signs of shock as well as systemic and local increases of pro-inflammatory mediators were observed in both trauma groups. In general the local increase of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediator levels was significantly higher and prolonged compared to systemic concentrations. Induction of hypothermia resulted in a significantly prolonged elevation of both systemic and local HMGB1 levels at 48 h compared to the NT-T group. Correspondingly, local IL-6 levels demonstrated a significantly prolonged increase in the HT-T group at 48 h. Conclusion A prolonged inflammatory response might reduce the well-described protective effects on organ and immune function observed in the early phase after hypothermia induction. Furthermore, local immune response also seems to be affected. Future studies should aim to investigate the use of therapeutic hypothermia at different degrees and duration of application. PMID:27144532

  5. Long-Term Effects of Induced Hypothermia on Local and Systemic Inflammation - Results from a Porcine Long-Term Trauma Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Horst

    Full Text Available Hypothermia has been discussed as playing a role in improving the early phase of systemic inflammation. However, information on the impact of hypothermia on the local inflammatory response is sparse. We therefore investigated the kinetics of local and systemic inflammation in the late posttraumatic phase after induction of hypothermia in an established porcine long-term model of combined trauma.Male pigs (35 ± 5kg were mechanically ventilated and monitored over the study period of 48 h. Combined trauma included tibia fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration and pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock (MAP < 30 ± 5 mmHg for 90 min. After resuscitation, hypothermia (33°C was induced for a period of 12 h (HT-T group with subsequent re-warming over a period of 10 h. The NT-T group was kept normothermic. Systemic and local (fracture hematoma cytokine levels (IL-6, -8, -10 and alarmins (HMGB1, HSP70 were measured via ELISA.Severe signs of shock as well as systemic and local increases of pro-inflammatory mediators were observed in both trauma groups. In general the local increase of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediator levels was significantly higher and prolonged compared to systemic concentrations. Induction of hypothermia resulted in a significantly prolonged elevation of both systemic and local HMGB1 levels at 48 h compared to the NT-T group. Correspondingly, local IL-6 levels demonstrated a significantly prolonged increase in the HT-T group at 48 h.A prolonged inflammatory response might reduce the well-described protective effects on organ and immune function observed in the early phase after hypothermia induction. Furthermore, local immune response also seems to be affected. Future studies should aim to investigate the use of therapeutic hypothermia at different degrees and duration of application.

  6. Mild hypothermia effects on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and serum interleukin-6 expression in brain tissues of a rat focal ischemia model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengqi Fu; Lei Yang; Shuling Zhang; Shilong Sun; Xingai Mao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have confirmed the neuroprotective effect of mild hypothermia on ischemic brain injury.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of mild hypothermia on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and serum interleukin-6 levels in ischemic brain tissues of focal brain ischemia rats, and to explore the neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia on ischemic brain injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, neurobiological experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, Xinxiang Medical College, China from February to July 2006.MATERIALS: Thirty healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were used to establish middle cerebral artery occlusion models using the suture method. The immunohistochemistry (streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method) kit was purchased from Boster, China. Interleukin-6 radioimmunoassay was supplied by Institute of Radioimmunity, Technology Development Center, General Hospital of Chinese PLA. METHODS: The rats were equally and randomly assigned into mild hypothermia and control groups, and middle cerebral artery occlusion models were established. The rectal temperature was maintained at (37 ± 0.5)℃ in the control group. In the mild hypothermia group, the rectal temperature was maintained at (33±1)℃.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 12 hours after model establishment, the ischemic brain hemispheres were coronally sliced at the level of the optic chiasm. The number of intercellular adhesion molecule- 1 -positive vessels per high-power field was observed with an optical microscope. Serum interleukin-6 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, intercellular adhesion molecule-I and serum interleukin-6 expressions were significantly decreased in ischemic brain tissues of the mild hypothermia group (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Mild hypothermia exhibits a neuroprotective effect by reducing serum interleukin-6 and intercellular adhesion molecule- 1

  7. Influence of mild hypothermia on vascular endothelial growth factor and infarct volume in brain tissues after cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Ye; Gangming Xi; Biyong Qin; Shifeng Wang; Chengyan Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that mild hypothermia has obvious protective effect on both whole and local cerebral ischemia. However, the definite mechanism is still unclear for the brain protection of mild hypothermia on cerebral edema, inhibiting inflammatory reaction, stabilizing blood brain barrier, etc.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of mild hypothermia on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the infarct volume after cerebral ischemia in rats, and analyze the brain protective mechanism of mild hypothermia.DESIGN: A randomized grouping and controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Yunyang Medical College.MATERIALS: Twenty adult male SD rats of clean degree, weighing (250±30) g, were provided by the animal experimental center, School of Medicine, Wuhan University. The kits for SP immunohistochemistry were purchased from Beijing Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology Co., Ltd.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the laboratory of Department of Neurology, Renmen Hospital of Wuhan University from May to July 2005. ① The 20 rats were divided randomly into normal temperature group (n =10) and mild hypothermia group (n =10). Models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were established with modified nylon suture embolization. The rats were assessed with the Longa standards: O point for without nerve dysfunction; 1 for mild neurological deficit (fore claws could no extend completely); 2 for moderate neurological deficit (circling towards the affected side); 3 for severe neurological deficit (tilting towards the affected side); 4 for coma and unconscious; 1 -3 points represented that models were successfully established. The rats of the normal temperature group were fed at room temperature, and those in the mild hypothermia group were induced by hypothermia from 2 hours postoperatively, and the rectal temperature was kept at 34-35 ℃ for 72 hours. ② Measurement of infarct volume

  8. Cold Tolerance and Sex-Dependent Hypothermia May Explain Winter Sexual Segregation in a Farmland Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Dupoué, Andréaz; Lourdais, Olivier; Eraud, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Migration is an important event in the life cycle of many organisms, but considerable intraspecific variation may occur in its timing and/or destination, resulting in sexual segregation during wintering periods. In this study, we tested the body size hypothesis, or cold tolerance hypothesis, which predicts that body size dimorphism modulates metabolic costs associated with cold climate. Using the Eurasian skylark, we first investigated whether this species showed sexual differential migration. Then we explored the body size hypothesis by experimentally testing the effect of low ambient temperature (Ta) on both metabolic rate (MR) and body temperature (Tb). We tested for sex-related differences in metabolism and in energy-saving mechanism (hypothermia). We found clear differential migration by sex in skylark wintering populations, with a male-biased sex ratio decreasing toward southern latitudes. Measurements on captive birds at 20°, 6°, and -5°C demonstrated a significant increase in MR when Ta decreased, but there is no difference between sexes. While both males and females reduced their Tb overnight, Tb reduction was more pronounced in females exposed to the coldest temperature treatment. In addition, we found that individuals with the most reduced Tb lost less body weight during the night, suggesting that Tb reduction may help minimize energy expenditure when conditions become constraining. Our study suggests that functional mechanisms may be involved in latitudinal segregation between sexes and supports the hypothesis that sex-specific physiological strategies and thermal tolerance may explain segregation between sexes. PMID:27082725

  9. Effect of hypothermia on the insulin-receptor interaction in skeletal muscle plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of hypothermia on (125-I)-insulin binding to rat skeletal muscle membranes and to determine whether the decrease in blood insulin concentration could be related to changes in the number or in the affinity of insulin receptor sites according to the down-regulation theory. Rat skeletal muscle membranes were prepared from control, normothermic rats (Tr = 35.6 ± 0.3 degree C) and hypothermic rats (Tr = 26.0 ± 0.5 deg C) and purified according to Havrankowa. In order to determine the kinetic parameters of the hormone-receptor interaction the data from the competition binding studies were analysed by the method of Scatchard using the LIGAND Pc.v.3.1. computer program of Munson and Rodbard. We have shown that under hypothermic conditions insulin receptors number is significantly increased in specific hindlimb skeletal muscles but the changes take place mainly in the low affinity receptors class. The phenomenon probably results from the lack of spare high affinity insulin receptors in skeletal muscle as shown recently by Camps et al. (author). 36 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Pavlovian inhibitory conditioning and tolerance to pentobarbital-induced hypothermia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, R E; Siegel, S

    1986-10-01

    In this experiment we investigated inhibitory Pavlovian conditioning in the development of tolerance to pentobarbital-induced hypothermia. During an initial phase, one group of rats (discrimination group) received training in which, on alternate days, one conditional stimulus (CS+) was associated with administration of 30 mg/kg pentobarbital, and a different conditional stimulus (CS-) was associated with administration of physiological saline. During the phase, control groups received either exposure to both CSs but not the drug or to the drug but no CSs or to neither the CSs nor the drug. Subsequently, half the rats in each group received injections of pentobarbital in the presence of one of the CSs and the remaining half in the presence of the other CS. Rats from the discrimination group injected with pentobarbital in the presence of CS+ displayed the most tolerance (i.e., smallest drug effect), whereas rats from the discrimination group injected with pentobarbital in the presence of CS- displayed the least tolerance (i.e., greatest drug effect). The attenuation of tolerance seen in rats of the discrimination group injected in the presence of CS- provides evidence of inhibitory Pavlovian conditioning. Additional evidence of inhibitory conditioning was provided by the fact that CS2 enhanced the hypothermic effects of pentobarbital in the discrimination group, whereas CS1 attenuated these effects. Implications of the results for the nature of inhibitory conditioning are discussed.

  11. The relationship between ethanol-induced hyperglycemia and hypothermia: evidence of genetic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, F O; Cunningham, C L

    1991-08-01

    The hyperglycemic and hypothermic responses to acute ethanol exposure (0, 2, 4, 6 g/kg, intraperitoneally) were examined in non-fasted mice selectively bred for sensitivity (COLD line) or insensitivity (HOT line) to ethanol-induced hypothermia. Blood samples and rectal temperatures were obtained immediately before injection and hourly for 4 hr after injection. As expected, COLD mice demonstrated greater and more prolonged reductions in body temperature than HOT mice, especially at the 4 g/kg dose (HOT: -2.58 degrees C, COLD: -5.08 degrees C). Ethanol produced significant dose-dependent elevations in blood glucose levels over the 4-hr sampling period in both lines. The greatest elevations in blood glucose levels were seen at 4 g/kg, with COLD mice (mean = 225.1 mg/dl) showing significantly greater elevations in blood glucose levels compared to HOT mice (mean = 177.0 mg/dl). These results support the hypothesis that the thermic and glycemic effects produced by ethanol are due to related neural processes that share a common genetic component. PMID:1928651

  12. Establishing a hypothermia service for infants with suspected hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Elie; Fakhri, Nadine; Debillon, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    The translation of new treatments based upon established evidence into clinical practice is often difficult. The establishment of a therapeutic hypothermia (TH) service and a related cooling register would provide the opportunity to examine how a new therapy becomes implemented in a country or region. The objectives of a TH program should be: to provide guidance to clinicians who are considering the introduction of this new therapy; to ensure standardized clinical practices; to audit the implementation and conduct of TH; to provide surveillance for cooling-related adverse effects; and to evaluate the subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome. Prior to the use of TH, the most important practices to prioritize during its implementation should be identified and include the following: ensure timely identification of infants with neonatal encephalopathy; develop a coordinated system with the local or regional referral cooling center; develop a transport team capable of performing cooling during transport; ensure that each participating unit has access to a national encephalopathy register, and have developmental follow-up arrangements in place that are appropriate and uniform for the region/country. PMID:25683599

  13. FORCED-AIR WARMING AND FLUID WARMING MINIMIZE CORE HYPOTHERMIA DURING ABDOMINAL SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhao; Ai-lun Luo; Li Xu; Yu-guang Huang

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of intraoperative combined forced-air warming and fluid warming system on patient's core temperature, blood loss, transfusion demand, extubation time, and incidence of postoperative shivering.Methods Forty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ and Ⅱ, aged 18-70 years, scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to receive intraoperative warming from a forced-air blanket and fluid warming system or conventional cotton blanket, 20 in each group. The core temperature was recorded every 20 minutes during the operation, as well as the blood loss, blood transfusion, extubation time, and incidence of postoperative shivering.Results The core temperature at the end of the surgery in the wanning group was significantly different from that in the control group (36.4±0.4C vs. 35.3±0.5°C, P<0.001). Application of intraoperative warming significantly shortened the time between the end of the surgery and extubation (P<0.01). Postoperative shivering occurred in 30% of the patients in the control group compared to no patient in the warming group (P <0.01).Conclusion Active warming with air-forced blanket and fluid warming system provides sufficient heat to prevent hypothermia during abdominal surgery.

  14. A Survey of Accidental Hypothermia Knowledge among Navy Members in China and the Implications for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Accidental hypothermia (AH is a potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to significant morbidity and life-long effects. Navy personnel are always at a greater risk of AH due to frequent outdoor work, wilderness exposure, prolonged immobility and exhaustion. The purpose of the survey was to assess Chinese Navy members’ awareness of AH and to make recommendations with regard to better measures for improving it. Methods: 111 Navy members completed a written questionnaire that was subsequently analyzed. Results: 30.6% of the respondents have experienced AH and 64.9% rated their knowledge of AH as “low” or “none”. Over half of them identified the initial symptom of AH as obvious shivering (69.4% and apathy (45.0%. As for the aggravate symptoms, 60.9% chose the wrong answer of more obvious shivering instead of the right one—absence of shivering (5.4%. In the case of the treatment of mild AH, more than half of the respondents chose the wrong answers. Conclusions: This study suggests that the basic skills of recognition and treatment of AH are inadequate in the Chinese Navy. Further work is required to develop a systematical, comprehensive and corresponding education method that would promote correct actions during AH.

  15. Main Complications of Mild Induced Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimanpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to assess the complications of mild induced hypothermia (MIH in patients with cardiac arrest. Presently, based on the guidelines of the American heart Association, MIH following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in unconscious adult patients due to ventricular fibrillation (VF with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA is essential and required. However, MIH could be associated with complications in Patients with cardiac arrest. Studies conducted on the precautions and care following cardiac arrest and MIH were included. Valid scientific data bases were used for data collection. The obtained results from different studies revealed that mild MIH could be associated with numerous complications and the knowledge and awareness of the medical staff from the complications is required to guarantee successful therapeutic approaches in MIH following cardiac arrest which is a novel medical facility with different styles and complications. Overall, further future studies are required to improve the quality of MIH, to increase survival and to decrease complications rates.

  16. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  17. EDITORIAL AVOIDABLE MORTALITY OF SCIENTIFIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Palacios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia Médica publishes 64% of the original research articles submitted to editorial process, which highlights the rigor of the editorial review system; while at the same time, generating a reflection on the causes for rejecting material submitted for publication as an input for the Journal’s collaborators.The review of the file of articles rejected by the Journal leads us to arbitrarily discriminating the causes for rejecting scientific documents into two groups: A first group we will call «lost causes», which centers on the lack of ethical evaluation, research design flaws, and plagiarism. And the second group, «manuscripts with avoidable rejection», which includes deficiencies in following the editorial guidelines for authors, inadequate writing, and delays by authors in submitting answers to observations raised during an initial evaluation. Documents classifying in the latter group could have had an opportunity with a bit of joint effort between the authors and the editorial board; and in all cases, by correcting errors and seeking support from, among others, expert consultants, these could, potentially, be revived by submitting them to a journal with a lower impact than that in which they were rejected.Among the reasons for the lost causes, we find that faults in the structure of institutional research take up considerable space. Institutions considering scientific production as one of their assets, must invest on the conformation and growth of an ethics committee on research that reasonably provides researchers with social, environmental, and ethical reflection elements to enrich research proposals. With bioethics foundations, Colombian and international norms do not consider other forms of ethical evaluation of the projects, and; consequently, neither does the Editorial Committee. Furthermore, anyone seeking to conduct clinical trials must register the entity in any of the international data bases that permit inputting the

  18. EDITORIAL AVOIDABLE MORTALITY OF SCIENTIFIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Palacios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia Médica publishes 64% of the original research articles submitted to editorial process, which highlights the rigor of the editorial review system; while at the same time, generating a reflection on the causes for rejecting material submitted for publication as an input for the Journal’s collaborators. The review of the file of articles rejected by the Journal leads us to arbitrarily discriminating the causes for rejecting scientific documents into two groups: A first group we will call «lost causes», which centers on the lack of ethical evaluation, research design flaws, and plagiarism. And the second group, «manuscripts with avoidable rejection», which includes deficiencies in following the editorial guidelines for authors, inadequate writing, and delays by authors in submitting answers to observations raised during an initial evaluation. Documents classifying in the latter group could have had an opportunity with a bit of joint effort between the authors and the editorial board; and in all cases, by correcting errors and seeking support from, among others, expert consultants, these could, potentially, be revived by submitting them to a journal with a lower impact than that in which they were rejected. Among the reasons for the lost causes, we find that faults in the structure of institutional research take up considerable space. Institutions considering scientific production as one of their assets, must invest on the conformation and growth of an ethics committee on research that reasonably provides researchers with social, environmental, and ethical reflection elements to enrich research proposals. With bioethics foundations, Colombian and international norms do not consider other forms of ethical evaluation of the projects, and; consequently, neither does the Editorial Committee. Furthermore, anyone seeking to conduct clinical trials must register the entity in any of the international data bases that permit inputting the

  19. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  20. Evolution of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Fractional Anisotropy in the Cerebrum of Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia over the First Month of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the evolution of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI over the first month of life in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia and to compare it with that of healthy newborns. Asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were enrolled prospectively; and the presence and extent of brain injury were scored on each MRI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA values were measured in the basal ganglia, in the white matter and in the cortical grey matter. Sixty-one asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia had a total of 126 ADC and FA maps. Asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury eventually had significantly decreased ADC values on days 2-3 of life and decreased FA values around day 10 and 1 month of life compared with those not developing brain injury. Despite hypothermia treatment, asphyxiated newborns may develop brain injury that still can be detected with advanced neuroimaging techniques such as DWI and DTI as early as days 2-3 of life. A study of ADC and FA values over time may aid in the understanding of how brain injury develops in these newborns despite hypothermia treatment.

  1. Study of the effects of mild hypothermia on cerebral PO2, PCO2 and pH and body temperature in patients with acute severe head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jun; LIN Yuan-quan; LIU Wen-feng; ZHONG Tian-an; ZHANG Jun; YE Yu; XU Yi-qun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of mild hypothermia on cerebral oxygen partial pressure, carbon dioxide partial pressure, pH and body temperature (PbrO2, PbrCO2, pHbr and BT) in patients with acute severe head injury.Methods: Thirty-eight patients with acute severe head injury were treated with mild hypothermia, meantime PbrO2, PbrCO2, pHbr and BT were monitored in order to study the changes of PbrO2, PbrCO2, pHbr and BT.Results: In patients with acute head injury, mild hypothermia obviously increased PbrO2, decreased PbrCO2 and CO2 accumulation and acidosis in brain tissue. BT was 1℃-1.5℃ higher than rectal temperature(RT) after injury. The BT and RT were decreased when the patients were treated with mild hypothermia, but at the same time the difference between BT and RT was increased.Conclusions: In patients with acute severe head injury the direct monitoring of PbrO2, PbrCO2, pHbr and BT was safe and reliable, and is helpful in estimating prognosis and mild hypothermia therapy.

  2. YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are required for Arabidopsis shade avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Nozue, Kazunari; Pytlak, Melissa L.; Palmer, Christine M.; Covington, Michael F.; Wallace, Andreah D.; Harmer, Stacey L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to neighbor shade by increasing stem and petiole elongation. Shade, sensed by phytochrome photoreceptors, causes stabilization of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR proteins and subsequent induction of YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes. To investigate the role of YUCCA genes in phytochrome-mediated elongation, we examined auxin signaling kinetics after an end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) light treatment, and found that an auxin responsive reporter is rapidly induced within 2 hours of far-red exposure. YUCCA2, 5, 8, and 9 are all induced with similar kinetics suggesting that they could act redundantly to control shade-mediated elongation. To test this hypothesis we constructed a yucca2, 5, 8, 9 quadruple mutant and found that the hypocotyl and petiole EOD-FR and shade avoidance responses are completely disrupted. This work shows that YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are essential for detectable shade avoidance and that YUCCA genes are important for petiole shade avoidance. PMID:27761349

  3. Can low metallicity binaries avoid merging?

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Pols, O R

    2007-01-01

    Rapid mass transfer in a binary system can drive the accreting star out of thermal equilibrium, causing it to expand. This can lead to a contact system, strong mass loss from the system and possibly merging of the two stars. In low metallicity stars the timescale for heat transport is shorter due to the lower opacity. The accreting star can therefore restore thermal equilibrium more quickly and possibly avoid contact. We investigate the effect of accretion onto main sequence stars with radiative envelopes with different metallicities. We find that a low metallicity (Z<0.001), 4 solar mass star can endure a 10 to 30 times higher accretion rate before it reaches a certain radius than a star at solar metallicity. This could imply that up to two times fewer systems come into contact during rapid mass transfer when we compare low metallicity. This factor is uncertain due to the unknown distribution of binary parameters and the dependence of the mass transfer timescale on metallicity. In a forthcoming paper we w...

  4. Who Avoids Cancer Information? Examining a Psychological Process Leading to Cancer Information Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jiyoung

    2016-07-01

    Although cancer information avoidance (CIA) is detrimental to public health, predictors of CIA have not been fully investigated. Based on uncertainty management theory, this study viewed CIA as a response to uncertainty related to the distress associated with cancer information and illustrated the psychological process leading to CIA. Given the current information context, it was hypothesized that cancer information overload (CIO), accompanied by confusion and stress about cancer information, causes CIA. As trait anxiety is a strong predictor of CIO, it was also hypothesized that trait anxiety has an indirect effect on CIA through CIO. Study 1 tested this relationship in a U.S. sample (N = 384); the results showed that CIO was positively associated with CIA and that trait anxiety indirectly influenced CIA through CIO. Whereas Study 1 tested the relationship with cross-sectional data in the general cancer context, Study 2 replicated Study 1 with 3-wave longitudinal data in the context of a specific cancer (i.e., stomach cancer) in South Korea (N = 1,130 at Wave 1, 813 at Wave 2, and 582 at Wave 3). Trait anxiety at Wave 1 predicted CIO at Wave 2, which in turn increased CIA at Wave 3, suggesting that some people are inherently inclined to avoid cancer information due to their trait anxiety, which results in confusion about cancer information. PMID:27337343

  5. Electrophysiological functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury following bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation under hypothermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Jianjun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Following successful establishment of a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury by resecting right spinal cord tissues, bone marrow stem cells were transplanted into the spinal cord lesions via the caudal vein while maintaining rectal temperature at 34 ± 0.5°C for 6 hours (mild hypothermia). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that astrocytes gathered around the injury site and formed scars at 4 weeks post-transplantation. Compared with rats transplanted with bone marrow stem cells under normal temperature, rats transplanted with bone marrow stem cells under hypothermia showed increased numbers of proliferating cells (bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells), better recovery of somatosensory-evoked and motor-evoked potentials, greater Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scores, and an increased degree of angle in the incline plate test. These findings suggested that hypothermia combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation effectively promoted electrical conduction and nerve functional repair in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury.

  6. Influence of social factors on avoidable mortality: a hospital-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Daniel; Alfonso, José Luis; Corella, Dolores; Saiz, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of socioeconomic factors on avoidable mortality at an individual level is not well known, since most studies showing this association are based on aggregate data. The purpose of this study was to determine socioeconomic differences between those patients who die of avoidable causes and those who do not die. METHODS: A matched case-control study was carried out regarding in-hospital avoidable mortality (Holland's medical care indicators) that occurred in a university hosp...

  7. Aesthetic rhinoplasty: Avoiding unfavourable results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulwant S Bhangoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in plastic surgery. It is not surprising that a significant number of patients end up with unfavourable outcomes. Many of these unfavourable outcomes could be the result of poor judgment and wrong decision making. Most frequently, the unfavourable outcome is the result of errors in surgical technique. In this paper, unfavourable outcomes resulting from errors in surgical technique are discussed under the heading of each operative step. Poor placement of intra-nasal incision can result in internal valve obstruction. Bad columellar scars can result from errors during open rhinoplasty. Unfavourable results associated with skeletonisation are mentioned. Tip plasty, being the most difficult part of rhinoplasty, can result in lack of tip projection, asymmetry and deformities associated with placement of tip grafts. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilages during tip plasty can also result in pinched nose, alar collapse causing external valve obstruction and other alar rim deformities. Humpectomy can result in open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and over-resection resulting in saddle nose. The so-called poly beak deformity is also a preventable unfavourable outcome when dealing with a large dorsal hump. Complications resulting from osteotomies include narrowing of nasal airway, open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and asymmetry of the bony wall resulting from incomplete or green stick fractures. Judicious use of grafts can be very rewarding. By the same token, grafts also carry with them the risk of complications. Allografts can result in recurrent infection, atrophy of the overlying skin and extrusion resulting in crippling deformities. Autografts are recommended by the author. Unfavourable results from autografts include displacement of graft, visibility of the graft edges, asymmetry, warping, and resorption.

  8. Mild hypothermia combined with a scaffold of NgR-silenced neural stem cells/Schwann cells to treat spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Jinhua Liang; Jianjun Zhang; Shuhong Liu; Wenwen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Because the inhibition of Nogo proteins can promote neurite growth and nerve cell differenti-ation, a cell-scaffold complex seeded with Nogo receptor (NgR)-silenced neural stem cells and Schwann cells may be able to improve the microenvironment for spinal cord injury repair. Previ-ous studies have found that mild hypothermia helps to attenuate secondary damage in the spinal cord and exerts a neuroprotective effect. Here, we constructed a cell-scaffold complex consisting of a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold seeded with NgR-silenced neural stem cells and Schwann cells, and determined the effects of mild hypothermia combined with the cell-scaffold complexes on the spinal cord hemi-transection injury in the T9 segment in rats. Compared with the PLGA group and the NgR-silencing cells+PLGA group, hindlimb motor function and nerve electrophysiological function were clearly improved, pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were attenuated, and the number of surviving cells and nerve ifbers were increased in the group treated with the NgR-silenced cell scaffold+mild hypothermia at 34°C for 6 hours. Furthermore, fewer pathological changes to the injured spinal cord and more surviv-ing cells and nerve ifbers were found after mild hypothermia therapy than in injuries not treated with mild hypothermia. These experimental results indicate that mild hypothermia combined with NgR gene-silenced cells in a PLGA scaffold may be an effective therapy for treating spinal cord injury.

  9. Study on changes of partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen and brain temperature in acute phase of severe head injury during mild hypothermia therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱岩湘; 姚杰; 卢尚坤; 章更生; 周关仁

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2) and brain temperature in acute phase of severe head injury during mild hypothermia therapy and the clinical significance.Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients with severe head injury were selected and divided into a mild hypothermia group (n=58), and a control group (n=58) according to odd and even numbers of hospitalization. While mild hypothermia therapy was performed PbtO2 and brain temperature were monitored for 1-7 days (mean=86 hours), simultaneously, the intracranial pressure, rectum temperature, cerebral perfusion pressure, PaO2 and PaCO2 were also monitored. The patients were followed up for 6 months and the prognosis was evaluated with GOS (Glasgow outcome scale).Results: The mean value of PbtO2 within 24 hour monitoring in the 116 patients was 13.7 mm Hg±4.94 mm Hg, lower than the normal value (16 mm Hg±40 mm Hg) The time of PbtO2 recovering to the normal value in the mild hypothermia group was shortened by 10±4.15 hours compared with the control group (P<0.05). The survival rate of the mild hypothermia group was 60.43%, higher than that of the control group (46.55%). After the recovery of the brain temperature, PbtO2 increased with the rise of the brain temperature. Conclusions: Mild hypothermia can improve the survival rate of severe head injury. The technique of monitoring PbtO2 and the brain temperature is safe and reliable, and has important clinical significance in judging disease condition and instructing clinical therapy.

  10. Immediate prehospital hypothermia protocol in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Laure; Vitrat, François; Savary, Dominique; Debaty, Guillaume; Santre, Charles; Durand, Michel; Dessertaine, Geraldine; Timsit, Jean-François

    2009-06-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves the outcomes of cardiac arrest (CA) survivors. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the efficacy and safety of an immediate prehospital cooling procedure implemented just after the return of spontaneous circulation with a prehospital setting. During 30 months, the case records of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital CA presumably due to a cardiac disease were studied. A routine protocol of immediate postresuscitation cooling had been tested by an emergency team, which consisted of an infusion of large-volume, ice-cold intravenous saline. We decided to assess the efficacy and tolerance of this procedure. A total of 99 patients were studied; 22 were treated with prehospital TH, and 77 consecutive patients treated with prehospital standard resuscitation served as controls. For all patients, TH was maintained for 12 to 24 hours. The demographic, clinical, and biological characteristics of the patients were similar in the 2 groups. The rate of patients with a body temperature of less than 35 degrees C upon admission was 41% in the cooling group and 18% in the control group. Rapid infusion of fluid was not associated with pulmonary edema. After 1 year of follow-up, 6 (27%) of 22 patients in the cooling group and 30 (39%) of 77 patients in the control group had a good outcome. Our preliminary observation suggests that in comatose survivors of CA, prehospital TH with infusion of large-volume, ice-cold intravenous saline is feasible and can be used safely by mobile emergency and intensive care units. PMID:19497463

  11. Feasibility Study Evaluating Therapeutic Hypothermia for Refractory Status Epilepticus in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Sandra D W; Au, Alicia K; Koch, Joshua; Lidsky, Karen; McBain, Kristin; O'Brien, Nicole; Zielinski, Brandon A; Bell, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a neurological emergency with significant morbidity and mortality, which lacks consensus regarding diagnosis and treatment(s). Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is an effective treatment for RSE in preclinical models and small series. In addition, TH is a standard care for adults after cardiac arrest and neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The purpose of this study was to identify the feasibility of a study of pediatric RSE within a research group (Pediatric Neurocritical Care Research Group [PNCRG]). Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions at seven centers were prospectively screened from October 2012 to July 2013 for RSE. Experts within the PNCRG estimated that clinicians would be unwilling to enroll a child, unless the child required at least two different antiepileptic medications and a continuous infusion of another antiepileptic medication with ongoing electrographic seizure activity for ≥2 hours after continuous infusion initiation. Data for children meeting the above inclusion criteria were collected, including the etiology of RSE, history of epilepsy, and maximum dose of continuous antiepileptic infusions. There were 8113 PICU admissions over a cumulative 52 months (October 2012-July 2013) at seven centers. Of these, 69 (0.85%) children met inclusion criteria. Twenty children were excluded due to acute diagnoses affected by TH, contraindications to TH, or lack of commitment to aggressive therapies. Sixteen patients had seizure cessation within 2 hours, resulting in 33 patients who had inadequate seizure control after 2 hours and a continuous antiepileptic infusion. Midazolam (21/33, 64%) and pentobarbital (5/33, 15%) were the most common infusions with a wide maximum dose range. More than one infusion was required for seizure control in four patients. There are substantial numbers of subjects at clinical sites within the PNCRG with RSE that would meet the proposed inclusion criteria for a

  12. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) (b) Where two or more licensees are assigned a common...

  13. Brain hypothermia therapy for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with a severely elevated serum creatine kinase level

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Hidetoshi; Imamura, Takashi; Maeda, Hajime; Shibukawa, Yasuko; FUKUDA, Yutaka; Kin, Shogo; Ariga, Hiromichi; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that brain hypothermia therapy (BHT) after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, there have been no reports of the neurodevelopmental outcomes for the infant with a serum creatine kinase (CK) level above 20,000 IU/L in association with neonatal HIE. We report a female infant with a very high serum CK level (26,428 IU/L) associated with neonatal asphyxia. We diagnosed this infant with moderate HIE, and BHT wa...

  14. A new method to avoid PPP in data evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhen-Peng; Sun Ye-Ying

    2004-01-01

    The Peelle Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) has been studied systematically. The results obtained by using several proposed methods to deal with a sample of 6Li(n, t) are compared with each other. The cause of PPP occurrence has been found.error according to the relative extent of discrepancy'. The method is able to produce the best result and should be used to avoid the PPP at first.

  15. Avoiding Confusion between Predictors and Inhibitors in Value Function Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Patrick C.; Trappenberg, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    In reinforcement learning, the goal is to seek rewards and avoid punishments. A simple scalar captures the value of a state or of taking an action, where expected future rewards increase and punishments decrease this quantity. Naturally an agent should learn to predict this quantity to take beneficial actions, and many value function approximators exist for this purpose. In the present work, however, we show how value function approximators can cause confusion between predictors of an outcome...

  16. Apoplastic sugars and cell-wall invertase are involved in formation of the tolerance of cold-resistant potato plants to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryabin, A N; Burakhanova, E A; Trunova, T I

    2015-01-01

    We studied the involvement of apoplastic sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) and the cell-wall invertase (CWI) in the formation of the tolerance of cold-resistant potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L., cv Désirée) to hypothermia. The activity of CW1 and the content in the cell and the apoplast substrate (sucrose) and the reaction products of this enzyme (glucose and fructose) have a significant influence on the formation of the tolerance of cold-resistant potato plants to hypothermia. PMID:26728726

  17. Early Recognition of Foreign Body Aspiration as the Cause of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration (FBA is uncommon in the adult population but can be a life-threatening condition. Clinical manifestations vary according to the degree of airway obstruction, and, in some cases, making the correct diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion combined with a detailed history and exam. Sudden cardiac arrest after FBA may occur secondary to asphyxiation. We present a 48-year-old male with no history of cardiac disease brought to the emergency department after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. The patient was resuscitated after 15 minutes of cardiac arrest. He was initially managed with therapeutic hypothermia (TH. Subsequent history suggested FBA as a possible etiology of the cardiac arrest, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a piece of meat and bone lodged in the left main stem bronchus. The foreign body was removed with the bronchoscope and the patient clinically improved with full neurological recovery. Therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest due to asphyxia has been reported to have high mortality and poor neurological outcomes. This case highlights the importance of early identification of FBA causing cardiac arrest, and we report a positive neurological outcome for postresuscitation therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest due to asphyxia.

  18. Neuroprotective effect of preoperatively induced mild hypothermia as determined by biomarkers and histopathological estimation in a rat subdural hematoma decompression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokobori, Shoji; Gajavelli, Shyam; Mondello, Stefania; Mo-Seaney, Jixiang; Hayes, Ronald L; Bramlett, Helen M.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Bullock, M. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Object In traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, hypothermia therapy has not shown efficacy in multicenter clinical trials. With the post-hoc data from the latest clinical trial (NABIS:H II), we hypothesized that hypothermia may be beneficial in the rat acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) model by blunting the effects of ischemic/ reperfusional (I/R) injury. The major aim of our study was to test the efficacy of temperature management in reducing brain damage after ASDH. Methods Rats were induced with ASDH and placed into (1) Normothermia group (37°C) (2) Early hypothermia group; head and body temperature reduced to 33°C at 30 minutes prior to craniotomy (3) Late hypothermia group; temperature was lowered to 33°C at 30 minutes after decompression (4) Sham group; no ASDH and underwent only craniotomy with normothermia. To assess of neuronal and glial cell damage, we analyzed microdialysate (MD ; using 100kD probe) concentrations of: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1). Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) positive neurons and injury volume with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining were also measured. Results In the early phase of reperfusion (30min- 2.5 hrs after decompression), extracellular UCH-L1 in the early hypothermia group was significantly lower than in the normothermia. (Early; 4.9±1.0 ng/dl, Late; 35.2±12.1 ng/dl, Normo; 50.20± 28.3 ng/dl, Sham; 3.1±1.3 ng/dl, Early vs Normo; p 2.5hrs after decompression), extracellular GFAP in the early hypothermia group was also lower than in the normothermia and late hypothermia groups (Early; 5.5±2.9 ng/dl, Late; 7.4±3.4 ng/dl, Normo; 15.3±8.4 ng/dl, Sham; 3.3±1.0 ng/dl, Normo vs Sham; p group was significantly smaller than in normothermia group (Normo vs Early: 774,588 ± 162,173 vs 180,903 ± 42,212, pgroup in which hypothermia was induced before craniotomy and cerebral reperfusion (115.2±15.4 mm3 in early hypothermia group, 344.7±29.1 mm3 in late

  19. The clinical efficacy and prognosis of hemisphere skull bone flap decompression and mild hypothermia treatment for severe craniocerebral trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Hua-tang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 1626 patients with severe craniocerebral trauma were assessed by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, 886 patients of 3-5 score and 740 of 6-8 score. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Ninety hundred and eleven patients (496 of 3-5 score and 415 of 6-8 score underwent hemisphere calvarial bone flap decompression with auxiliary mild hypothermia (experiment group, and 715 patients (390 of 3-5 score and 325 of 6-8 score underwent traditional frontal, temporal, parietal large traumatic craniotomy (control group. After operation the treatment of 2 groups was basically the same. Compared with control group, the intracranial pressure of experiment group on the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th days after surgery decreased significantly (P < 0.05, for all; the consciousness recovery time was significantly shorter (P < 0.05, for all; the prognosis after 3 months was better (P < 0.05, for all. Hemisphere calvarial bone flap decompression with auxiliary mild hypothermia treatment could significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality, and improve the quality of life and prognosis of patients with severe craniocerebral trauma.

  20. Submersion, accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest, mechanical chest compressions as a bridge to final treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundgren Malin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three young men were trapped in a car at the bottom of a canal at two meters depth, after losing control of their vehicle. They were brought up by rescue divers and found in cardiac arrest. One of three patients had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, at 47 min after the accident. This sole survivor had the longest submersion time of the three and he received continued mechanical chest compressions during transportation to the hospital. His temperature at admission was 26.9°C, he was rewarmed to 33°C and kept there for 24 h, followed by continued rewarming to normothermia. On day three, he woke up from coma and was discharged from the intensive care unit after one week. At follow-up six months later, he had a complete cerebral recovery but still had myoclonic twitches in the lower extremities. A mechanical device facilitates chest compressions during transportation and may be beneficial as a bridge to final treatment in the hospital. We recommend that comatose patients after submersion, accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest are treated with mild hypothermia for 12–24 h.

  1. Induction of therapeutic hypothermia by pharmacological modulation of temperature-sensitive TRP channels: theoretical framework and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feketa, Viktor V; Marrelli, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as a remarkably effective method of neuroprotection from ischemia and is being increasingly used in clinics. Accordingly, it is also a subject of considerable attention from a basic scientific research perspective. One of the fundamental problems, with which current studies are concerned, is the optimal method of inducing hypothermia. This review seeks to provide a broad theoretical framework for approaching this problem, and to discuss how a novel promising strategy of pharmacological modulation of the thermosensitive ion channels fits into this framework. Various physical, anatomical, physiological and molecular aspects of thermoregulation, which provide the foundation for this text, have been comprehensively reviewed and will not be discussed exhaustively here. Instead, the first part of the current review, which may be helpful for a broader readership outside of thermoregulation research, will build on this existing knowledge to outline possible opportunities and research directions aimed at controlling body temperature. The second part, aimed at a more specialist audience, will highlight the conceptual advantages and practical limitations of novel molecular agents targeting thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in achieving this goal. Two particularly promising members of this channel family, namely TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), will be discussed in greater detail.

  2. First Use of a New Device for Administration of Buspirone and Acetaminophen to Suppress Shivering During Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honasoge, Akilesh; Parker, Braden; Wesselhoff, Kelly; Lyons, Neal; Kulstad, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia or targeted temperature management has been used after cardiac arrest to improve neurological outcomes and mortality. However, a side effect of temperature modulation is a centrally mediated shivering response. The Columbia Anti-Shivering Protocol sets up a systematic method of intravenous (IV) and oral medication escalation to suppress this response and preserve the benefits of this therapy. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who began shivering after therapeutic hypothermia for cardiac arrest, leading to a persistent rise in core temperature despite adequate sedation. He was also found to have gastric contents similar to coffee grounds through nasogastric tube suction. The shivering was effectively suppressed and the rising core temperature plateaued using rectal acetaminophen and buspirone administered by means of a novel device, the Macy Catheter. Also, when used in conjunction with other protocol-driven medications, the patient was able to achieve a core temperature of 33°C. The Macy Catheter appears to be a useful approach to rectally administer buspirone and acetaminophen, using an easy-to-place, nonsterile atraumatic device that requires no radiographic confirmation of placement. PMID:26807775

  3. Hypothermia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Increases Need for Inotropic Support but Does Not Impact Inflammation in Children Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katharina Rose Luise; Fedarava, Katsiaryna; Justus, Georgia; Redlin, Mathias; Böttcher, Wolfgang; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland; Berger, Felix; Miera, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Minimizing the systemic inflammatory response caused by cardiopulmonary bypass is a major concern. It has been suggested that the perfusion temperature affects the inflammatory response. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of moderate hypothermia (32°C) and normothermia (36°C) during cardiopulmonary bypass on markers of the inflammatory response and clinical outcomes (time on ventilator) after surgical closure of ventricular septal defects. During surgical closure of ventricular septal defects under cardiopulmonary bypass, 20 children (median age 4.9 months, range 2.3-38 months; median weight 7.2 kg, range 5.2-11.7 kg) were randomized to a perfusion temperature of either 32°C (Group 1, n = 10) or 36°C (Group 2, n = 10). The clinical data and blood samples were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, directly after aortic cross-clamp release, and 4 and 24 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Time on ventilation as primary outcome did not differ between the two groups. Other clinical outcome parameters like fluid balance or length of stay in the intensive care were also similar in the two groups. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 needed significantly higher and longer inotropic support (P Perfusion temperature did not influence cytokine release, organ injury, or coagulation. Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature does not influence time on ventilation or inflammatory marker release. However, in the present study, with a small patient cohort, patients operated under hypothermic bypass needed higher and longer inotropic support. The use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children should be approached with care. PMID:26581834

  4. Hypothermia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Increases Need for Inotropic Support but Does Not Impact Inflammation in Children Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katharina Rose Luise; Fedarava, Katsiaryna; Justus, Georgia; Redlin, Mathias; Böttcher, Wolfgang; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland; Berger, Felix; Miera, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Minimizing the systemic inflammatory response caused by cardiopulmonary bypass is a major concern. It has been suggested that the perfusion temperature affects the inflammatory response. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of moderate hypothermia (32°C) and normothermia (36°C) during cardiopulmonary bypass on markers of the inflammatory response and clinical outcomes (time on ventilator) after surgical closure of ventricular septal defects. During surgical closure of ventricular septal defects under cardiopulmonary bypass, 20 children (median age 4.9 months, range 2.3-38 months; median weight 7.2 kg, range 5.2-11.7 kg) were randomized to a perfusion temperature of either 32°C (Group 1, n = 10) or 36°C (Group 2, n = 10). The clinical data and blood samples were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, directly after aortic cross-clamp release, and 4 and 24 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Time on ventilation as primary outcome did not differ between the two groups. Other clinical outcome parameters like fluid balance or length of stay in the intensive care were also similar in the two groups. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 needed significantly higher and longer inotropic support (P bypass temperature does not influence time on ventilation or inflammatory marker release. However, in the present study, with a small patient cohort, patients operated under hypothermic bypass needed higher and longer inotropic support. The use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children should be approached with care.

  5. Conjecture on Avoidance of Big Crunch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Yi; ZHANG De-Hai

    2006-01-01

    By conjecturing the physics at the Planck scale, we modify the definition of the Hawking temperature and modify the Friedmann equation. It is found that we can avoid the singularity of the big crunch and obtain a bouncing cosmological model.

  6. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: ...

  7. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  8. Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159681.html Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity Good relationship with parents, especially between fathers and ... develop healthy habits that may protect them against obesity, a new study suggests. The researchers also found ...

  9. GSA IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — GSA IT provides data related to Agency IT initiatives that save or avoid expenditures. This data is provided as a requirement of OMB's Integrated Data Collection...

  10. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  11. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  12. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in radar technology have resulted in commercial, automotive collision avoidance radars. These radar systems typically use 37GHz or 77GHz interferometry...

  13. How to avoid overheating during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000865.htm How to avoid overheating during exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... condition can get heat illness. Stay Cool During Exercise Try these tips to help prevent heat-related ...

  14. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....

  15. İşçilerin Haklarını Kullanmaktan Kaçınmaları: Nedenleri ve Çözüm Yaklaşımları (Workers Avoidance of Using Their Rights: The Causes and Solution Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış SEÇER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the legislation which regulates the working life, workers have a lot of statutory rights. But it doesn’t mean that the workers exercises this rights certainly. In spite of the legal sanctions, workers can avoid to exercise their rights. Because rights have a dimension which shaped by the worker’s subjective consideration. Workers make an cost/benefit assessment about exercising rights. These assessments affected by some factors such as personality characteristics, job and employer related factors, unemployment and job insecurity. The main aim of this study is explaining the process of exercising rights of workers and the factors which affects these process. In this study, trade unions and workplace committees which can provide the exercising these rights are discussed. On the other hand, discrimination and employment security regulations, and social responsibility practices are also addressed.

  16. Mobile Robot Collision Avoidance in Human Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingqi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance is a fundamental requirement for mobile robots. Avoiding moving obstacles (also termed dynamic obstacles with unpredictable direction changes, such as humans, is more challenging than avoiding moving obstacles whose motion can be predicted. Precise information on the future moving directions of humans is unobtainable for use in navigation algorithms. Furthermore, humans should be able to pursue their activities unhindered and without worrying about the robots around them. In this paper, both active and critical regions are used to deal with the uncertainty of human motion. A procedure is introduced to calculate the region sizes based on worst‐case avoidance conditions. Next, a novel virtual force field‐based mobile robot navigation algorithm (termed QVFF is presented. This algorithm may be used with both holonomic and nonholonomic robots. It incorporates improved virtual force functions for avoiding moving obstacles and its stability is proven using a piecewise continuous Lyapunov function. Simulation and experimental results are provided for a human walking towards the robot and blocking the path to a goal location. Next, the proposed algorithm is compared with five state‐of‐the‐art navigation algorithms for an environment with one human walking with an unpredictable change in direction. Finally, avoidance results are presented for an environment containing three walking humans. The QVFF algorithm consistently generated collision‐free paths to the goal.

  17. 消毒供应中心常用低温灭菌技术%Common Hypothermia Sterilization Techniques in Central Sterile Supply Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓滨; 徐习

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the application status of hypothermia sterilization technique in central sterile supply department. A comparison was made among the three sterile techniques: ethylene oxide sterile technique, hydrogen peroxide hypothermia plasma sterile technique, and hypothermia steam formaldehyde sterile technique. The paper analyzed the sterilization principle, sterilization time, temperature, humidity control, sterilization effect, influential factors, and pros and cons of the three common hypothermia sterilization techniques.%本文分析了当前消毒供应中心常用低温灭菌技术的应用现状,对比了环氧乙烷低温灭菌技术、过氧化氢低温等离子灭菌技术、低温蒸汽甲醛灭菌技术3种低温灭菌技术的灭菌原理、时间、温度、湿度控制、灭菌效果、影响因素以及优点与局限性。

  18. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord

  19. Therapeutic hypothermia for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction-combined analysis of the RAPID MI-ICE and the CHILL-MI trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Noc, Marko; Lang, Irene; Holzer, Michael; Clemmensen, Peter; Jensen, Ulf; Metzler, Bernhard; James, Stefan; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Omerovic, Elmir; Koul, Sasha; Engblom, Henrik; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Östlund, Ollie; Wallentin, Lars; Klos, Bradley; Harnek, Jan; Olivecrona, Göran K

    2015-06-01

    In the randomized rapid intravascular cooling in myocardial infarction as adjunctive to percutaneous coronary intervention (RAPID MI-ICE) and rapid endovascular catheter core cooling combined with cold saline as an adjunct to percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction CHILL-MI studies, hypothermia was rapidly induced in conscious patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by a combination of cold saline and endovascular cooling. Twenty patients in RAPID MI-ICE and 120 in CHILL-MI with large STEMIs, scheduled for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within myocardial infarct size (IS) as a percentage of myocardium at risk (IS/MaR) assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 4±2 days. Patients randomized to hypothermia treatment achieved a mean core body temperature of 34.7°C before reperfusion. Although significance was not achieved in CHILL-MI, in the pooled analysis IS/MaR was reduced in the hypothermia group, relative reduction (RR) 15% (40.5, 28.0-57.6 vs. 46.6, 36.8-63.8, p=0.046, median, interquartile range [IQR]). IS/MaR was predominantly reduced in early anterior STEMI (0-4h) in the hypothermia group, RR=31% (40.5, 28.8-51.9 vs. 59.0, 45.0-67.8, p=0.01, median, IQR). There was no mortality in either group. The incidence of heart failure was reduced in the hypothermia group (2 vs. 11, p=0.009). Patients with large MaR (>30% of the left ventricle) exhibited significantly reduced IS/MaR in the hypothermia group (40.5, 27.0-57.6 vs. 55.1, 41.1-64.4, median, IQR; hypothermia n=42 vs. control n=37, p=0.03), while patients with MaRmyocardial IS and reduction in heart failure by 1-3 hours with endovascular cooling in association with primary PCI of acute STEMI predominantly in patients with large area of myocardium at risk. (ClinicalTrials.gov id NCT00417638 and NCT01379261).

  20. Effect of wet-cold weather transportation conditions on thermoregulation and the development of accidental hypothermia in pullets under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, Ndazo S; Ayo, Joseph O

    2016-03-01

    The present study examines onboard thermal microclimatic conditions and thermoregulation of pullets exposed to accidental hypothermia during wet-cold weather transportation conditions, and the effect of rewarming on colonic temperature (CT) of the birds immediately after transportation. A total of 2200 pullets were transportation for 5 h in two separate vehicles during the nighttime. The last 3 h of the transportation period was characterized by heavy rainfall. During the precipitation period, each vehicle was covered one fourth way from the top-roof with a tarpaulin. The onboard thermal conditions inside the vehicles during transportation, which comprised ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded, while humidity ratio and specific enthalpy were calculated. The CT of the birds was recorded before and after transportation. During transportation, onboard thermal heterogeneity was observed inside the vehicles with higher (p < 0.05) values in the front and center, and lower values recorded at the air inlets at the sides and rear planes. The CT values recorded in birds at the front and center planes were between 42.2 and 42.5 °C, indicative of mild hypothermia; while lower CT values between 28 and 38 °C were recorded at the sides and rear planes, indicative of mild to severe hypothermia. Several hours of gradual rewarming returned the CT to normal range. The result, for the first time, demonstrated the occurrence of accidental hypothermia in transported pullets under tropical conditions and a successful rewarming outcome. In conclusion, transportation of pullets during wet weather at onboard temperature of 18-20 °C induced hypothermia on birds located at the air inlets, which recovered fully after several hours of gradual rewarming.

  1. Neuroprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia versus standard care alone after convulsive status epilepticus: protocol of the multicentre randomised controlled trial HYBERNATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legriel, Stephane; Pico, Fernando; Tran-Dinh, Yves-Roger; Lemiale, Virginie; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Cariou, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a major medical emergency associated with a 50 % morbidity rate. CSE guidelines have recommended prompt management for many years, but there is no evidence to date that they have significantly improved practices or outcomes. Developing neuroprotective strategies for use after CSE holds promise for diminishing morbidity and mortality rates. Hypothermia has been shown to afford neuroprotection in various health conditions. We therefore designed a trial to determine whether 90-day outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients with CSE requiring management in the intensive care unit (ICU) are improved by early therapeutic hypothermia (32-34 °C) for 24 h with propofol sedation. We are conducting a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial (HYBERNATUS) of potential neuroprotective effects of therapeutic hypothermia and routine propofol sedation started within 8 h after CSE onset in ICU patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Included patients are allocated to receive therapeutic hypothermia (32-34 °C) plus standard care or standard care alone. We plan to enrol 270 patients in 11 ICUs. An interim analysis is scheduled after the inclusion of 135 patients. The main study objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia (32-34 °C) for 24 h in diminishing 90-day morbidity and mortality (defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score <5). The HYBERNATUS trial is expected to a decreased proportion of patients with a Glasgow Outcome Scale score lower than 5 after CSE requiring ICU admission and mechanical ventilation. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01359332 (registered on 23 May 2011). PMID:27325409

  2. Ultrastructural observation of effect of moderate hypothermia on axonal damage in an animal model of diffuse axonal injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓川; 唐文渊; 郑履平

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of moderate hypothermia on responses of axonal cytoskeleton to axonal injury in the acute stage of injury. Methods: Of fifteen adult guinea pigs, twelve animals were subjected to stretch injury to the right optic nerves and divided into the normothermic group (n=6) in which the animal's core temperature was maintained at 36.0-37.5℃ and the hypothermia group (n=6) in which the core temperature was reduced to 32.0-32.5℃ after stretch injury. Remaining three animals sustained no injury to the right optic nerves and served as control group. Half of injured animals (n=3) of either normothermic group or hypothermic group were killed at either 2 hours or 4 hours after injury. The ultrastructural changes of axonal cytoskeleton of the right optic nerve fibers from the animals were examined under a transmission electron microscope and analyzed by quantitative analysis with a computer image analysis system. Results: At 2 hours after stretch injury, there was a significant reduction in the mean number of microtubules (P<0.001), and a significant increase in the mean intermicrotubule spacing (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in axons of all sizes in normothermic animals. The mean number of neurofilaments also decreased statistically (P<0.01) in large and medium subgroups of axons in the same experimental group at 2 hours. By 4 hours, the large subgroup of axons in normothermic animals still demonstrated a significant decline in the mean number of microtubules (P<0.01) and an increase in the mean intermicrotubule spacing (P<0.05), while the medium and small subgroups of axons displayed a significant increase in the mean number of neurofilaments (P<0.05) and reduction in the mean interneurofilament spacing (P<0.05). On the contrary, either the mean number of microtubules and the mean intermicrotubule spacing, or the mean number of neurofilaments and interneurofilament spacing in axons of all sizes in hypothermic stretch-injured animals was not

  3. The effect of hypothermia on influx of leukocytes in the digital lamellae of horses with oligofructose-induced laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godman, Jennifer D; Burns, Teresa A; Kelly, Carlin S; Watts, Mauria R; Leise, Britta S; Schroeder, Eric L; van Eps, Andrew W; Belknap, James K

    2016-10-01

    Sepsis-related laminitis (SRL) is a common complication in the septic/endotoxemic critically-ill equine patient, in which lamellar injury and failure commonly lead to crippling distal displacement of the distal phalanx. Similar to organ injury in human sepsis, lamellar injury in SRL has been associated with inflammatory events, including the influx of leukocytes into the lamellar tissue and markedly increased expression of a wide array of inflammatory mediators at the onset of Obel grade 1 (OG1) laminitis. The only treatment reported both clinically and experimentally to protect the lamellae in SRL, local hypothermia ("cryotherapy"), has been demonstrated to effectively inhibit lamellar expression of multiple inflammatory mediators when initiated at the time of administration of a carbohydrate overload in experimental models of SRL. However, the effect of hypothermia on leukocyte influx into affected tissue has not been assessed. We hypothesized that cryotherapy inhibits leukocyte emigration into the digital lamellae in SRL. Immunohistochemical staining using leukocyte markers MAC387 (marker of neutrophils, activated monocytes) and CD163 (monocyte/macrophage-specific marker) was performed on archived lamellar tissue samples from an experimental model of SRL in which one forelimb was maintained at ambient temperature (AMB) and one forelimb was immersed in ice water (ICE) immediately following enteral oligofructose administration (10g/kg, n=14 horses). Lamellae were harvested at 24h post-oligofructose administration (DEV, n=7) or at the onset of OG1 laminitis (OG1, n=7). Both MAC387-positive and CD163-positive cells were counted by a single blinded investigator on images [n=10 (40× fields/digit for MAC387 and 20x fields/digit for CD163)] obtained using Aperio microscopy imaging analysis software. Data were assessed for normality and analyzed with a paired t-test and one-way ANOVA with significance set at pmodel. This study demonstrated that hypothermia of the distal

  4. Veno-venous extracorporeal blood shunt cooling to induce mild hypothermia in dog experiments and review of cooling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Wilhelm; Safar, Peter; Wu, Xianren; Nozari, Ala; Abdullah, Ali; Stezoski, S William; Tisherman, Samuel A

    2002-07-01

    Mild hypothermia (33-36 degrees C) might be beneficial when induced during or after insults to the brain (cardiac arrest, brain trauma, stroke), spinal cord (trauma), heart (acute myocardial infarction), or viscera (hemorrhagic shock). Reaching the target temperature rapidly in patients inside and outside hospitals remains a challenge. This study was to test the feasibility of veno-venous extracorporeal blood cooling for the rapid induction of mild hypothermia in dogs, using a simple pumping-cooling device. Ten custom-bred hunting dogs (21-28 kg) were lightly anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. In five dogs, two catheters were inserted through femoral veins, one peripheral and the other into the inferior vena cava. The catheters were connected via a coiled plastic tube as heat exchanger (15 m long, 3 mm inside diameter, 120 ml priming volume), which was immersed in an ice-water bath. A small roller-pump produced a veno-venous flow of 200 ml/min (about 10% of cardiac output). In five additional dogs (control group), a clinically practiced external cooling method was employed, using alcohol over the skin of the trunk and fanning plus ice-bags. During spontaneous normotension, veno-venous cooling delivered blood into the vena cava at 6.2 degrees C standard deviation (SD 1.4) and decreased tympanic membrane (Tty) temperature from 37.5 to 34.0 degrees C at 5.2 min (SD 0.7), and to 32.0 degrees C at 7.9 min (SD 1.3). Skin surface cooling decreased tympanic temperature from 37.5 to 34.0 degrees C at 19.9 min (SD 3.7), and to 32.0 degrees C at 29.9 (SD 5.1) (P=0.001). Heart rates at Tty 34 and 32 degrees C were significantly lower than at baseline in both groups, but within physiological range, without difference between groups. There were no arrhythmias. We conclude that in large dogs the induction of mild systemic hypothermia with extracorporeal veno-venous blood shunt cooling is simple and four times more rapid than skin surface cooling. PMID:12104113

  5. Avoiding barriers in control of mowing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Bai-jing; QIAN Guo-hong; XIANG Zhong-ping; LI Zuo-peng

    2006-01-01

    Due to complicated barriers,it is difficult to track the path of the mowing robot and to avoid barriers.In order to solve the problem,a method based on distance-measuring sensors and fuzzy control inputs was proposed.Its track was composed of beelines and was easy to tail.The fuzzy control inputs were based on the front barrier distance and the difference between the left and right barrier distance measured by ultrasonic sensors;the output was the direction angle.The infrared sensors around the robot improved its safety in avoiding barriers.The result of the method was feasible,agile,and stable.The distance between the robot and the barriers could be changed by altering the inputs and outputs of fuzzy control and the length of the beelines.The disposed sensors can fulfill the need of the robot in avoiding barriers.

  6. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Latiolais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.

  7. Is avoiding an aversive outcome rewarding? Neural substrates of avoidance learning in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackjin Kim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance learning poses a challenge for reinforcement-based theories of instrumental conditioning, because once an aversive outcome is successfully avoided an individual may no longer experience extrinsic reinforcement for their behavior. One possible account for this is to propose that avoiding an aversive outcome is in itself a reward, and thus avoidance behavior is positively reinforced on each trial when the aversive outcome is successfully avoided. In the present study we aimed to test this possibility by determining whether avoidance of an aversive outcome recruits the same neural circuitry as that elicited by a reward itself. We scanned 16 human participants with functional MRI while they performed an instrumental choice task, in which on each trial they chose from one of two actions in order to either win money or else avoid losing money. Neural activity in a region previously implicated in encoding stimulus reward value, the medial orbitofrontal cortex, was found to increase, not only following receipt of reward, but also following successful avoidance of an aversive outcome. This neural signal may itself act as an intrinsic reward, thereby serving to reinforce actions during instrumental avoidance.

  8. A collision avoidance system for workpiece protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Novak, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maslakowski, J.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes an application of Sandia`s non-contact capacitive sensing technology for collision avoidance during the manufacturing of rocket engine thrust chambers. The collision avoidance system consists of an octagon shaped collar with a capacitive proximity sensor mounted on each face. The sensors produced electric fields which extend several inches from the face of the collar and detect potential collisions between the robot and the workpiece. A signal conditioning system processes the sensor output and provides varying voltage signals to the robot controller for stopping the robot.

  9. The use of pre-hospital mild hypothermia after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Francis; Olsufka, Michele; Nichol, Graham; Copass, Michael K; Cobb, Leonard A

    2009-03-01

    Hypothermia has emerged as a potent neuroprotective modality following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Although delayed hospital cooling has been demonstrated to improve outcome after cardiac arrest, in-field cooling begun immediately following the return of spontaneous circulation may be more beneficial. Cooling in the field following resuscitation, however, presents new challenges, in that the cooling method has to be portable, safe, and effective. Rapid infusion of intravenous fluid at 4 degrees C, the use of a cooling helmet, and cooling plates have all been proposed as methods for field cooling, and are all in various stages of clinical and animal testing. Whether field cooling will improve survival and neurologic outcome remains an important unanswered clinical question. PMID:19072587

  10. Retraction: Selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion under mild hypothermia during primary repair for aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The following article from Artificial Organs, "Selective Cerebro-Myocardial Perfusion Under Mild Hypothermia During Primary Repair for Aortic Coarctation With Ventricular Septal Defect" by Huiwen Chen, Haifa Hong, Zhongqun Zhu and Jinfen Liu, published online on 2 November 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Paul S. Malchesky, the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to simultaneous publication of a substantially similar article, "Continuous Cerebral and Myocardial Perfusion During One-Stage Repair for Aortic Coarctation With Ventricular Septal Defect", by Huiwen Chen, Haifa Hong, Zhongqun Zhu and Jinfen Liu, in Pediatric Cardiology 7 November 2012 [Epub ahead of print].

  11. Induction of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest in prehospital patients using ice-cold Ringer's solution: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkunen, Ilkka; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-09-01

    The cooling and haemodynamic effects of prehospital infusion of ice-cold Ringer's solution were studied in 13 adult patients after successful resuscitation from non-traumatic cardiac arrest. After haemodynamics stabilisation, 30 ml/kg of Ringer's solution was infused at a rate of 100ml/min into the antecubital vein. Arterial blood pressure and blood gases, pulse rate, end-tidal CO(2) and oesophageal temperature were monitored closely. The mean core temperature decreased from 35.8 +/- 0.9 degrees C at the start of infusion to 34.0 +/- 1.2 degrees C on arrival at hospital (P < 0.0001). No serious adverse haemodynamic effects occurred. It is concluded that the induction of therapeutic hypothermia using this technique in the prehospital setting is feasible. PMID:15325449

  12. BRAIN HYPOTHERMIA THERAPY FOR NEONATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH A SEVERELY ELEVATED SERUM CREATINE KINASE LEVEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hidetoshi; Imamura, Takashi; Maeda, Hajime; Shibukawa, Yasuko; Fukuda, Yutaka; Kin, Shogo; Ariga, Hiromichi; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that brain hypothermia therapy (BHT) after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, there have been no reports of the neurodevelopmental outcomes for the infant with a serum creatine kinase (CK) level above 20,000 IU/L in association with neonatal HIE. We report a female infant with a very high serum CK level (26,428 IU/L) associated with neonatal asphyxia. We diagnosed this infant with moderate HIE, and BHT was achieved by head cooling within 6 hours after birth to an esophageal temperature of 34.5°C. There were no significant adverse events during BHT, and the CK level spontaneously decreased. Although we report only the short-term outcomes for this case, she presents neurodevelopmental delays at the age of 18 months. It may be correlated between high serum CK level and long-term neurodevelopmental delays. PMID:25946908

  13. The application of hypothermia therapy on cardiogenic shock%亚低温在心源性休克中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小刚; 罗来邦; 洪华章

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨亚低温对于心源性休克患者血流动力学及生存率影响。方法选择心源性休克病人90例,分成亚低温组和对照组。亚低温组给予亚低温治疗:用冰毯或经血液净化管路输入冷置换液把目标温度设置为33℃左右。同时经股动脉置入脉搏指示持续心排监测(Pulse indicator Continuous Cardiac Output,PICCO)导管,接仪器监测血流动力学参数。分别记录患者降温前血压(0h)、降温后8、16、24h心指数(cardiac output index,CI),心率(heart rate,HR),血管外周阻力等变化(system vascular resistance index,SVRI);观察病人2个月内存活率。对照组给予目前常规治疗,其他治疗同亚低温组。结果两组均通过调整血管活性药物控制血压,血压无明显差异。病人心率在亚低温组稍显降低,但统计学无差异。心脏指数亚低温组增高, P<0.05,有统计学差异。两温组外周阻力没有明显差异。亚低温组应用去甲肾上腺素量较低,P<0.05有统计学差异。结论亚低温对于心源性休克患者能增加心输出量,减少血管活性药物的使用。%Objective To evaluate the effect of hypothermia therapy on cardiac hemodynamics and survival rate of patients with cardiogenic shock. Methods 90 patients with cardiogenic shock were divided into hypothermia group and the control group. Hypothermia group was treated with hypothermia therapy:Set the temperature to 33°C with ice-cold blanket or injecting displace-ment fluid through blood purification line,place PICCO via femoral artery catheter,connect the monitoring instrument to observe hemodynamic parameters,record the cardiac output index,heart rate,system vascular resistance index(SVRI) before cooling,8,16, 24 hours after cooling blood pressure respectively,observe the patient survival rate after two month. Control group were given con-ventional treatments,other are equivalent to hypothermia group

  14. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongtao Sun,1,* Maohua Zheng,2,* Yanmin Wang,1 Yunfeng Diao,1 Wanyong Zhao,1 Zhengjun Wei1 1Sixth Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2 in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI. Methods: There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP, jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Results: Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Conclusion: Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome. Keywords: severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia, brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, therapy

  15. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ming-Huan [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Neuroscience, National Changchi University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Shiang-Sheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Yuli Veterans Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Chen, Hwei-Hsien, E-mail: hwei@nhri.org.tw [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  16. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  17. Low-Cost Avoidance Behaviors Are Resistant To Fear Extinction In Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVervliet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of fear and avoidance are core symptoms across the anxiety disorders. It has long been known that fear serves to motivate avoidance. Consequently, fear extinction has been the primary focus in pre-clinical anxiety research for decades, under the implicit assumption that removing the motivator of avoidance (fear would automatically mitigate the avoidance behaviors as well. Although this assumption has intuitive appeal, it has received little scientific scrutiny. The scarce evidence from animal studies is mixed, while the assumption remains untested in humans. The current study applied an avoidance conditioning protocol in humans to investigate the effects of fear extinction on the persistence of low-cost avoidance. Online danger-safety ratings and skin conductance responses documented the dynamics of conditioned fear across avoidance and extinction phases. Anxiety- and avoidance-related questionnaires explored individual differences in rates of avoidance. Participants first learned to click a button during a predictive danger signal, in order to cancel an upcoming aversive electrical shock (avoidance conditioning. Next, fear extinction was induced by presenting the signal in the absence of shocks while button-clicks were prevented (by removing the button in Experiment 1, or by instructing not to click the button in Experiment 2. Most importantly, post-extinction availaibility of the button caused a significant return of avoidant button-clicks. In addition, trait-anxiety levels correlated positively with rates of avoidance during a predictive safety signal, and with the rate of pre- to post-extinction decrease during this signal. Fear measures gradually decreased during avoidance conditioning, as participants learned that button-clicks effectively canceled the shock. Preventing button-clicks elicited a sharp increase in fear, which subsequently extinguished. Fear remained low during avoidance testing, but danger-safety ratings

  18. Low-Cost Avoidance Behaviors are Resistant to Fear Extinction in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervliet, Bram; Indekeu, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of fear and avoidance are core symptoms across the anxiety disorders. It has long been known that fear serves to motivate avoidance. Consequently, fear extinction has been the primary focus in pre-clinical anxiety research for decades, under the implicit assumption that removing the motivator of avoidance (fear) would automatically mitigate the avoidance behaviors as well. Although this assumption has intuitive appeal, it has received little scientific scrutiny. The scarce evidence from animal studies is mixed, while the assumption remains untested in humans. The current study applied an avoidance conditioning protocol in humans to investigate the effects of fear extinction on the persistence of low-cost avoidance. Online danger-safety ratings and skin conductance responses documented the dynamics of conditioned fear across avoidance and extinction phases. Anxiety- and avoidance-related questionnaires explored individual differences in rates of avoidance. Participants first learned to click a button during a predictive danger signal, in order to cancel an upcoming aversive electrical shock (avoidance conditioning). Next, fear extinction was induced by presenting the signal in the absence of shocks while button-clicks were prevented (by removing the button in Experiment 1, or by instructing not to click the button in Experiment 2). Most importantly, post-extinction availability of the button caused a significant return of avoidant button-clicks. In addition, trait-anxiety levels correlated positively with rates of avoidance during a predictive safety signal, and with the rate of pre- to post-extinction decrease during this signal. Fear measures gradually decreased during avoidance conditioning, as participants learned that button-clicks effectively canceled the shock. Preventing button-clicks elicited a sharp increase in fear, which subsequently extinguished. Fear remained low during avoidance testing, but danger-safety ratings increased again when

  19. Low-Cost Avoidance Behaviors are Resistant to Fear Extinction in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervliet, Bram; Indekeu, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of fear and avoidance are core symptoms across the anxiety disorders. It has long been known that fear serves to motivate avoidance. Consequently, fear extinction has been the primary focus in pre-clinical anxiety research for decades, under the implicit assumption that removing the motivator of avoidance (fear) would automatically mitigate the avoidance behaviors as well. Although this assumption has intuitive appeal, it has received little scientific scrutiny. The scarce evidence from animal studies is mixed, while the assumption remains untested in humans. The current study applied an avoidance conditioning protocol in humans to investigate the effects of fear extinction on the persistence of low-cost avoidance. Online danger-safety ratings and skin conductance responses documented the dynamics of conditioned fear across avoidance and extinction phases. Anxiety- and avoidance-related questionnaires explored individual differences in rates of avoidance. Participants first learned to click a button during a predictive danger signal, in order to cancel an upcoming aversive electrical shock (avoidance conditioning). Next, fear extinction was induced by presenting the signal in the absence of shocks while button-clicks were prevented (by removing the button in Experiment 1, or by instructing not to click the button in Experiment 2). Most importantly, post-extinction availability of the button caused a significant return of avoidant button-clicks. In addition, trait-anxiety levels correlated positively with rates of avoidance during a predictive safety signal, and with the rate of pre- to post-extinction decrease during this signal. Fear measures gradually decreased during avoidance conditioning, as participants learned that button-clicks effectively canceled the shock. Preventing button-clicks elicited a sharp increase in fear, which subsequently extinguished. Fear remained low during avoidance testing, but danger-safety ratings increased again when

  20. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  1. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2010-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM. M

  2. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  3. Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2012-01-01

    In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about ...

  4. Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem manifests in school avoidance, the initial goal will be to get the youngster back to school as soon as possible. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy In many cases, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy techniques are effective in addressing adolescent anxiety disorders. ...

  5. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Arnaudova

    2015-01-01

    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both side

  6. Oscillations in two-person avoidance control

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Social interaction dynamics are a special type of group interactions that play a large part in our everyday lives. They dictate how and with whom a certain individual will interact. One of such interactions can be termed "avoidance control". This everyday situation occurs when two fast-walking persons suddenly realize that they are on a frontal collision course and begin maneuvering to avoid collision. If the two walkers' initial maneuverings are in the same direction that can lead to oscillations that lengthen time required to reach a stable avoidance trajectory. We introduce a dynamical model with a feedback loop to understand the origin and properties of this oscillation. For the emergence of the oscillatory behavior, two conditions must be satisfied: i) the persons must initiate the avoidance maneuver in the same direction; ii) the time delays in the feedback loop must reverse the phase of the players' positions at the oscillation frequency. The oscillation can be terminated at any time if one of the walk...

  7. The Advocacy or Avoidance of Only Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    A brief review of the psychological literature on the characteristics of only children is presented in order to determine if the one-child family should be avoided or advocated. The relevant literature is found to be limited in quantity and conceptualization of the only child. Previous literature is divided into three types of study: those with…

  8. Obsessive compulsive disorder with pervasive avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Parul; Sharma Ravi; Kumar Ramesh; Sharma Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common disorder, but some of its atypical presentations are uncommon and difficult to diagnose. We report one such case which on initial presentation appeared to be psychotic protocol but after detailed workup was diagnosed as OCD with marked avoidance symptoms.

  9. Obesity and Healthcare Avoidance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D McGuigan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the issue of health care avoidance and obesity. English language journal articles published between 1990 and 2012 that addressed the review question|“is being overweight or obese an unrecognized factor in healthcare avoidance?” were located using major databases. A modified JADAD scoring system was then used to assess papers. Ten papers were identified which directly addressed the review question. A positive relationship exists between obesity and healthcare avoidance. The major contributory factors were being female, have a diagnosed mental health problem and perceived or actual bias and discrimination by health professionals. The review also highlights the importance of the relationship between healthcare professionals and their patients, and the physical environment in which interactions occur as these may contribute to avoidance behaviors. Concern about obesity is rising and while there has been much discussion about strategies to reduce obesity this review highlights the need for thinking more broadly about the way in which overweight and obese individuals interact with preventative health strategies.

  10. HOW TO AVOID SEXIST LANGUAGE IN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuZhiqing

    2004-01-01

    Use of Sexist language is one of the serious yet often-neglected mistakes in the English writing and speaking of Chineselearners of English. Sexist language in English can be classifiedinto two categories : ambiguity of referent and stereotyping. Thispaper focuses on some common sexist language in the Englishwriting and speaking of Chinese learners of English and givessome suggestions about how to avoid them.

  11. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  12. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  13. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication. PMID:16736662

  14. Simple Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Rehabilitation Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, F.H.A.; Römer, G.R.B.; Stuyt, H.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm fo

  15. Specific Language Impairment at Adolescence: Avoiding Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuller, Laurice; Henry, Celia; Sizaret, Eva; Barthez, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study explores complex language in adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) with the aim of finding out how aspects of language characteristic of typical syntactic development after childhood fare and, in particular, whether there is evidence that individuals with SLI avoid using structures whose syntactic derivation involves…

  16. Working with Avoidant Children: A Clinical Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Nancy; Meisburger, Diana

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies for interviewing and assisting highly avoidant children who may be victims of maltreatment. Discusses factors inhibiting their self-disclosure, the importance of managing child safety, and establishing and maintaining rapport. Describes strategies including pacing the interview, empowering the child, and using distancing…

  17. Avoided by association: acquisition, extinction, and renewal of avoidance tendencies toward conditioned fear stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Krypotos; M. Effting; I. Arnaudova; M. Kindt; T. Beckers

    2013-01-01

    Traditional theoretical models hold that avoidance reflects the interplay of Pavlovian and instrumental learning. Here we suggest that avoidance tendencies to intrinsically neutral cues may be established by mere Pavlovian association. Following fear conditioning, in which pictures of one object wer

  18. Exposure to creosote bush phenolic resin causes avoidance in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lobicornis (Formicidae: Attini La exposición a la resina fenólica de jarilla causa deterrencia en la hormiga cortadora de hojas Acromyrmex lobicornis (Formicidae: Attini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I MEDINA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We focused our study on the effects of Larrea cuneifolia phenolic resin on leaf-cutting ants from two populations (Sierra de las Quijadas National Park and San Roque of Acromyrmex lobicornis in San Luis, Argentina. We conducted two bioassays of food choice (field and laboratory to compare the effects of phenolic resin on ant workers from these two populations. Results of the field experiment indicated that there were no differences in preference for either leaves treated with resin or untreated leaves among colonies from both localities. However, results of the laboratory experiments with individual ants indicated a significant effect of population and treatment on the time spent in different treatments. While leaf-cutting individual workers from Quijadas preferred the phenolic resin, workers from San Roque avoided it. These results evidence that ants respond according to time of exposure to chemicals from plants (presence or absence and that the effects of resin among a population can be observed and measured on individual ant workers, even in the absence of fungus garden influences in the nest.Este estudio se ha centrado en los efectos que produce la resina fenólica de Larrea cuneifolia sobre dos poblaciones distintas (Parque Nacional de Sierra de las Quijadas y la localidad de San Roque de Acromyrmex lobicornis en San Luis, Argentina. Se disenaron dos tipos de bioensayos (a campo y en laboratorio para comparar los efectos de la resina fenólica sobre las hormigas obreras de estas dos poblaciones. Los resultados de los experimentos de elección de la oferta alimentaria en el campo, indicaron que no hubo ninguna diferencia de preferencia entre las colonias, ni por las hojas tratadas con resina ni por las hojas sin tratar para ambas localidades. Sin embargo, los resultados de los experimentos de laboratorio con las hormigas obreras individualmente indicaron efectos significativos entre las poblaciones y entre los tratamientos. Mientras que las

  19. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes - bursts - that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing - the auditory receptor - already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2's sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  20. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  1. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  2. Vehicle routing under time-dependant travel times: The impact of congestion avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, E.W.; Schutten, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Daily traffic congestion forms a major problem for businesses such as logistic service providers and distribution firms. It causes late arrivals at customers and additional costs for hiring the truck drivers. Such costs caused by traffic congestion can be reduced by taking into account and avoiding

  3. BUCKLE: A Model of Unobserved Cause Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Dealing with alternative causes is necessary to avoid making inaccurate causal inferences from covariation data. However, information about alternative causes is frequently unavailable, rendering them unobserved. The current article reviews the way in which current learning models deal, or could deal, with unobserved causes. A new model of causal…

  4. Investigation of Global Performance Affected by Congestion Avoiding Behavior in Theme Park Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hidenori; Kataoka, Takashi; Kurumatani, Koichi; Ohuchi, Azuma

    We focus on the simple theme park problem, where there are two attractions and visitor agents which select their destination attraction based on congestion disregarding behavior and congestion avoiding behavior. According to the computer simulation, the result shows that the growth of individual congestion avoiding behavior is not always effective for improving global performance, and this phenomenon is caused by the oscillation of successive selection switching of the same destination by many congestion avoiding agents. Although the model and setting of this paper is simpler than other related works, we consider each phenomenon in those works has the same characteristic based on the ineffectiveness caused by the homogeneity of congestion avoiding behavior and information sharing.

  5. Signaled avoidance in the eye withdrawal reflex of the green crab

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, Charles I.; ARMSTRONG, PHILIP M.; Feinman, Robin A.; Feinman, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    Learning in a signaled avoidance procedure was studied in the eye withdrawal reflex of the green crab, Carcinus maenas. A puff of air to the eye, which causes eye retraction, was used as the unconditioned stimulus (US). A mild vibration on the carapace, which has no effect on untrained animals, was used as a warning (conditioned) stimulus (CS). Eye withdrawal during the CS led to the omission of the otherwise scheduled US. Acquisition was rapid, reaching about 75% avoidance after 30 trials. E...

  6. Converging evidence of social avoidant behavior in schizophrenia from two approach-avoidance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-10-01

    Many people with schizophrenia suffer from social impairments characterized by active social avoidance, which is related to social phobia common in schizophrenia, while motivational impairments can also result in passive social withdrawal. Although social avoidance is frequently reported in this population, this is the first study to directly compare approach-avoidance tendencies in schizophrenia patients (N = 37) and healthy controls (N = 29). Participants performed two tasks: a computerized approach-avoidance task (AAT) to assess response tendencies toward images of happy and angry faces with direct or averted gaze and a one-to-one personal space test (PST) to gauge more naturalistic approach-avoidance behaviors toward a real person bearing a neutral expression. The AAT results showed that both groups showed faster avoidance responses to angry faces and faster approach responses to happy faces with a direct gaze. Happy faces with averted gaze, however, resulted in faster avoidance responses in the patient group only. On the PST, the patients approached the experimenter less than healthy controls did. This measure of interpersonal distance was positively related to positive symptom severity. Delusions of reference and increased sensitivity to social rejection may explain the patients' avoidance tendencies in response to pictures of happy faces with averted gaze and in the presence of an actual person. The current findings demonstrate the importance of others adopting positive and unambiguous attitudes when interacting with schizophrenia patients to minimize behavioral avoidance patterns, which is particularly relevant for relatives and clinicians whose interactions with the patients are crucial to facilitating treatment and promoting healthy social relationships.

  7. The Feasibility of Avoiding Future Climate Impacts: Results from the AVOID Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J. A.; Warren, R.; Arnell, N.; Buckle, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AVOID programme and its successor, AVOID2, have focused on answering three core questions: how do we characterise potentially dangerous climate change and impacts, which emissions pathways can avoid at least some of these impacts, and how feasible are the future reductions needed to significantly deviate from a business-as-usual future emissions pathway. The first AVOID project succeeded in providing the UK Government with evidence to inform its position on climate change. A key part of the work involved developing a range of global emissions pathways and estimating and understanding the corresponding global impacts. This made use of a combination of complex general circulation models, simple climate models, pattern-scaling and state-of-the art impacts models. The results characterise the range of avoidable impacts across the globe in several key sectors including river and coastal flooding, cooling and heating energy demand, crop productivity and aspects of biodiversity. The avoided impacts between a scenario compatible with a 4ºC global warming and one with a 2ºC global warming were found to be highly sector dependent and avoided fractions typically ranged between 20% and 70%. A further key aspect was characterising the magnitude of the uncertainty involved, which is found to be very large in some impact sectors although the avoided fraction appears a more robust metric. The AVOID2 programme began in 2014 and will provide results in the run up to the Paris CoP in 2015. This includes new post-IPCC 5th assessment evidence to inform the long-term climate goal, a more comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty ranges of feasible emission pathways compatible with the long-term goal and enhanced estimates of global impacts using the latest generation of impact models and scenarios.

  8. Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  9. Construction dispute research conceptualisation, avoidance and resolution

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    There are three specific purposes of Construction Dispute Research. First, this volume aims to summarise studies on construction dispute. Second, apart from the theoretical constructs, where appropriate empirical tests are also included. This approach serves to go beyond the commonly used anecdotal approach for the subject matters. Third, it is the sincere hope of the authors that this book will help shaping research agenda of construction dispute.  The studies are mostly framed from a management perspective drawing on methods and concepts in contract law, economics, psychology and management science.   The book has twenty chapters that are arranged in four parts covering conceptualisation, avoidance, negotiation and mediation. Part 1 is devoted for dispute conceptualisation. A building is only as strong as its foundation. Thus it is no better start to study construction dispute by conceptualisation. The theme of Part 2 is dispute avoidance. The conventional wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ se...

  10. Anorexia nervosa and food avoidance emotional disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, J F; Goodyer, I M; Birch, J.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective and longitudinal study was carried out on all children and adolescents who presented to a child psychiatry service over a period of 26 years to identify the nature, course, and outcome of cases meeting criteria for anorexia nervosa (n = 27). Two groups of the same age were identified for comparison, firstly those with food avoidance and emotional disorders (n = 23), and secondly those with emotional disorders but no symptoms associated with eating (n = 22). The results confirm...

  11. Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claire; Duca, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/

  12. Can subjectivity be avoided in translation evaluation?

    OpenAIRE

    Segers, Winibert; Kockaert, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    The didactics of translation and interpreting Testing and assessment criteria and methods Can subjectivity be avoided in translation evaluation? Winibert Segers & Hendrik J Kockaert, KU Leuven Camiel Paulusstraat 8, 2630 Aartselaar, België Is translation evaluation a subjective, personal matter? Is evaluating translations the same as beer tasting or listening to a piece of music? Is the judgment determined by personal taste? We will try to answe...

  13. Normal coronary arteriogram. An avoidable test?

    OpenAIRE

    Ilsley, C; Stockley, A; Clitsakis, D; Layton, C

    1982-01-01

    Between 10 and 20% of coronary arteriograms in patients with chest pain show normal vessels, often in association with a history of "atypical" angina. Conventional non-invasive tests are inaccurate in this group of patients compared with those with classical angina. This study prospectively evaluates combined 12 lead exercise electrocardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy as a screening test in patients with atypical angina in order to determine whether normal arteriograms are avoidable in...

  14. Therapeutic hypothermia for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction-combined analysis of the RAPID MI-ICE and the CHILL-MI trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Noc, Marko;

    2015-01-01

    In the randomized rapid intravascular cooling in myocardial infarction as adjunctive to percutaneous coronary intervention (RAPID MI-ICE) and rapid endovascular catheter core cooling combined with cold saline as an adjunct to percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of acute myocardial...... intervention (PCI) within care. Hypothermia was initiated before PCI and continued for 1-3 hours after reperfusion aiming at a target temperature...... of 33°C. The primary endpoint was myocardial infarct size (IS) as a percentage of myocardium at risk (IS/MaR) assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 4±2 days. Patients randomized to hypothermia treatment achieved a mean core body temperature of 34.7°C before reperfusion. Although significance...

  15. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  16. Granting silence to avoid wireless collisions

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il

    2010-10-01

    We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.

  17. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  18. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M

    2014-09-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.

  19. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  20. A knowledge translation collaborative to improve the use of therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest patients: protocol for a stepped wedge randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wax Randy; Rubenfeld Gordon; Ferguson Niall; Dorian Paul; Needham Dale M; Brooks Steve C; Scales Damon C; Dainty Katie N; Zwarenstein Merrick; Thorpe Kevin; Morrison Laurie J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Advances in resuscitation science have dramatically improved survival rates following cardiac arrest. However, about 60% of adults that regain spontaneous circulation die before leaving the hospital. Recently it has been shown that inducing hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors immediately following their arrival in hospital can dramatically improve both overall survival and neurological outcomes. Despite the strong evidence for its efficacy and the apparent simplicity o...

  1. Contribution of hypothermia and CB1 receptor activation to protective effects of TAK-937, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, in rat transient MCAO model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid (CB receptor agonists are expected to alleviate ischemic brain damage by modulating neurotransmission and neuroinflammatory responses via CB(1 and CB(2 receptors, respectively. In a previous study, TAK-937, a novel potent and selective CB(1 and CB(2 receptor agonist, was shown to exert significant cerebroprotective effects accompanied by hypothermia after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in rats. Sustained hypothermia itself induces significant neuroprotective effects. In the present studies, we examined the relative contribution of hypothermia and CB(1 receptor activation to the cerebroprotective effects of TAK-937. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multichannel brain temperature controlling system we developed, the brain temperature of freely moving rats was telemetrically monitored and maintained between 37 and 38°C during intravenous infusion of TAK-937 (100 µg/kg/h or vehicle for 24 h after 2 h MCAO. AM251, a selective CB(1 receptor antagonist, was administered intraperitoneally at 30 mg/kg 30 min before starting intravenous infusion of TAK-937 (100 µg/kg/h for 24 h. Rats were sacrificed and their brains were isolated 26 h after MCAO in both experiments. When the hypothermic effect of TAK-937 was completely reversed by a brain temperature controlling system, the infarct-reducing effect of TAK-937 was attenuated in part, but remained significant. On the other hand, concomitant AM251 treatment with TAK-937 completely abolished the hypothermic and infarct-reducing effects of TAK-937. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the cerebroprotective effects of TAK-937 were at least in part mediated by induction of hypothermia, and mainly mediated by CB(1 receptor activation.

  2. Increased Brain Perfusion Persists over the First Month of Life in Term Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia: Does it Reflect Activated Angiogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Henna; Lechpammer, Mirna; Jensen, Frances E; Warfield, Simon K; Hansen, Anne H; Kosaras, Bela; Shevell, Michael; Wintermark, Pia

    2015-06-01

    Many asphyxiated newborns still develop brain injury despite hypothermia therapy. The development of brain injury in these newborns has been related partly to brain perfusion abnormalities. The purposes of this study were to assess brain hyperperfusion over the first month of life in term asphyxiated newborns and to search for some histopathological clues indicating whether this hyperperfusion may be related to activated angiogenesis following asphyxia. In this prospective cohort study, regional cerebral blood flow was measured in term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia around day 10 of life and around 1 month of life using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arterial spin labeling. A total of 32 MRI scans were obtained from 24 term newborns. Asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia displayed an increased cerebral blood flow in the injured brain areas around day 10 of life and up to 1 month of life. In addition, we looked at the histopathological clues in a human asphyxiated newborn and in a rat model of neonatal encephalopathy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was expressed in the injured brain of an asphyxiated newborn treated with hypothermia in the first days of life and of rat pups 24-48 h after the hypoxic-ischemic event, and the endothelial cell count increased in the injured cortex of the pups 7 and 11 days after hypoxia-ischemia. Our data showed that the hyperperfusion measured by imaging persisted in the injured areas up to 1 month of life and that angiogenesis was activated in the injured brain of asphyxiated newborns. PMID:25620793

  3. The adverse pial arteriolar and axonal consequences of traumatic brain injury complicated by hypoxia and their therapeutic modulation with hypothermia in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Guoyi; Oda, Yasutaka; Wei, Enoch P.; Povlishock, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of posttraumatic hypoxia on cerebral vascular responsivity and axonal damage, while also exploring hypothermia's potential to attenuate these responses. Rats were subjected to impact acceleration injury (IAI) and equipped with cranial windows to assess vascular reactivity to topical acetylcholine, with postmortem analyses using antibodies to amyloid precursor protein to assess axonal damage. Animals were subjected to hypoxia alone, IAI and hypoxia, IAI and hypox...

  4. 亚低温下温敏型骨髓间充质干细胞移植治疗大鼠颅脑创伤%Mild hypothermia-mediated temperature-sensitive bone marrow mesenchymal stern cells for traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楚彦; 董璨瑾; 张涛; 张赛

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察在亚低温条件下,向颅脑创伤(TBI)大鼠颅内移植温度敏感型骨髓间充质干细胞(tsSV40LTag-BMSCs)对受损神经功能恢复的影响.方法 将54只成年雄性SD大鼠随机分为对照组、亚低温组、亚低温移植组,每组18只.使用溴脱氧尿嘧啶核苷(Brdu)标记tsSV40LTag-BMSCs.使用液压冲击脑损伤仪制备大鼠TBI模型,将对照组大鼠进行常规处理,对亚低温组、亚低温移植组进行亚低温治疗;采用立体定向引导,向亚低温移植组大鼠颅内进行多点移植标记后的tsSV40LTag-BMSCs;分别于伤后第1、7、14、21、28天,对实验组大鼠进行神经运动功能评分.结果 ①制备TBI模型后,各实验组大鼠死亡率比较,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.477,P=0.788);TBI后第1天进行评分,3组大鼠神经运动功能评分比较,差异无统计学意义(F=0.435,P>0.05).②在TBI后第7、14、21、28天,亚低温组、亚低温移植组的神经运动功能评分高于对照组;亚低温移植组的神经运动功能评分高于亚低温组,差异均有统计学意义(P 0.05). ?At day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after TBI, the neuromotor function scores in the mild hypothermia group and mild hypothermia transplantation group were higher than those in the control group. The neuromotor function scores in the mild hypothermia transplantation group were higher than those in the mild hypothermia group. There was significant difference (P <0.05). ?The neuromotor function scores of the 3 groups increased with time. There were significant differences (P<0.05). Conclusion Mediated under the mild hypothermia, the transplanted tsSV40LTag-BMSCs may significantly improve TBI caused neuromotor dysfunction in rats.

  5. See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative collision avoidance radar and communication technology to detect and track both cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The system...

  6. Predictive value of the amplitude integrated EEG in infants with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: data from a randomised trial of therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) is reputed to be one of the best predictors of neurological outcome following hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy in term newborns and was used to select infants into trials of neuroprotection with hypothermia, but its predictive value and the effect of moderate hypothermia on the aEEG have not previously been examined in a randomised study. The positive predictive value (PPV) of the aEEG recorded within 6 h of birth for death or disability at 18 months of age was determined in 314 infants born after 35 weeks gestation who were randomised to receive standard care with or without cooling for 72 h. The aEEG was classified according to voltage and by pattern. The PPV of a severely abnormal aEEG assessed by the voltage and pattern methods was 0.63 and 0.59 respectively in non-cooled infants and 0.55 and 0.51 in cooled infants (p>0.05). Although the differences in PPV between cooled and non-cooled groups were not significant, they are consistent with observational studies showing a lower PPV in infants treated with hypothermia, probably due to a neuroprotective effect of cooling.

  7. Plasma levels of liver-specific miR-122 is massively increased in a porcine cardiogenic shock model and attenuated by hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patrik; Gidlöf, Olof; Braun, Oscar O; Götberg, Matthias; van der Pals, Jesper; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David

    2012-02-01

    Tissue-specific circulating micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are released into the blood after organ injury. In an ischemic porcine cardiogenic shock model, we investigated the release pattern of cardiac-specific miR-208b and liver-specific miR-122 and assessed the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on their respective plasma levels. Pigs were anesthetized, and cardiogenic shock was induced by inflation of a percutaneous coronary intervention balloon in the proximal left anterior descending artery for 40 min followed by reperfusion. After fulfillment of the predefined shock criteria, the pigs were randomized to hypothermia (33°C, n = 6) or normothermia (38°C, n = 6). Circulating miRNAs were extracted from plasma and measured with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tissue specificity was assessed by miRNA extraction from porcine tissues followed by quantitative real-time PCR. In vitro, the release of miR-122 from a cultured hepatocyte cell line exposed to either hypoxia or acidosis was assessed by real-time PCR. miR-122 was found to be highly liver specific, whereas miR-208b was expressed exclusively in the heart. In the control group, ischemic cardiogenic shock induced a 460,000-fold and a 63,000-fold increase in plasma levels of miR-122 (P cardiogenic shock and that therapeutic hypothermia significantly reduces the levels of miR-122.

  8. Analysis of infantile subdural hematoma caused by abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report infantile subdural hematoma caused by abuse. Between January 2006 and December 2009, 10 cases of definite and highly suspicious abusive subdural hematoma in infants were treated at Nara Medical University Hospital. The mean age was 5.4 months. On CT examination, severe cerebral swelling was seen in 8 (80%) and wide spreading cerebral ischemia and atrophy in 9 (90%). Retinal hemorrhage was commonly seen in this series (90%). Subdural drainage and/or subdural-peritoneal shunt surgeries were performed in 6 cases, and intensive combined therapy of mild hypothermia and barbiturate was adapted in 7 cases. Favorable outcome was achieved in only 3 cases. In spite of aggressive treatment, clinical outcome are still bad. In our series, assailants were predominantly not father but mother. There were various and complex factors for child abuse. Cautious insight and suspicion are necessary to detect abusive injuries in infants. It is very important to endeavor to prevent recurrences of abusive injuries. (author)

  9. Differences in avoidable mortality between migrants and the native Dutch in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bos V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the healthcare system and its role in influencing mortality of migrant groups can be explored by examining ethnic variations in 'avoidable' mortality. This study investigates the association between the level of mortality from 'avoidable' causes and ethnic origin in the Netherlands and identifies social factors that contribute to this association. Methods Data were obtained from cause of death and population registries in the period 1995–2000. We compared mortality rates for selected 'avoidable' conditions for Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban groups to native Dutch. Results We found slightly elevated risk in total 'avoidable' mortality for migrant populations (RR = 1.13. Higher risks of death among migrants were observed from almost all infectious diseases (most RR > 3.00 and several chronic conditions including asthma, diabetes and cerebro-vascular disorders (most RR > 1.70. Migrant women experienced a higher risk of death from maternity-related conditions (RR = 3.37. Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban population had a higher mortality risk (RR = 1.65 and 1.31 respectively, while Turkish and Moroccans experienced a lower risk of death (RR = 0.93 and 0.77 respectively from all 'avoidable' conditions compared to native Dutch. Control for demographic and socioeconomic factors explained a substantial part of ethnic differences in 'avoidable' mortality. Conclusion Compared to the native Dutch population, total 'avoidable' mortality was slightly elevated for all migrants combined. Mortality risks varied greatly by cause of death and ethnic origin. The substantial differences in mortality for a few 'avoidable' conditions suggest opportunities for quality improvement within specific areas of the healthcare system targeted to disadvantaged groups.

  10. 亚低温治疗新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病研究进展%Research progress in mild hypothermia treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴倩(综述); 吴起武(审校)

    2014-01-01

    围产期窒息引起的新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病(HIE)是一种复杂且严重的疾病,对新生儿的健康和生命构成很大的威胁。亚低温是治疗HIE最有前途的措施,本文就新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病亚低温治疗的神经保护机制及临床实施中的相关问题、不良反应等进行综述。%Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) caused by perinatal asphyxia is a complex and serious disease, resulting in great threat to the health and life of newborns. Hypothermia is the most promising measures for the treatment of HIE. This essay tries to summarize the neuroprotective mechanism, the key points in practice, and the adverse reactions of the therapy.

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  12. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  13. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  14. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  15. How to avoid unnatural hierarchical thermal leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    A one-flavour naturalness argument suggests that the Type I seesaw model cannot naturally explain neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via hierarchical thermal leptogenesis. We prove that there is no way to avoid this conclusion in a minimal three-flavour setup. We then comment on the simplest ways out. In particular, we focus on a resolution utilising a second Higgs doublet. Such models predict an automatically SM-like Higgs boson, (maximally) TeV-scale scalar states, and low- to intermediate-scale hierarchical leptogenesis with $10^3\\text{ GeV}\\lesssim M_{N_1}\\lesssim 10^7\\text{ GeV}$.

  16. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  17. Understanding, Avoiding, and Managing Severe Filler Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzany, Berthold; DeLorenzi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Any injectable filler may elicit moderate-to-severe adverse events, ranging from nodules to abscesses to vascular occlusion. Fortunately, severe adverse events are uncommon for the majority of fillers currently on the market. Because these are rare events, it is difficult to identify the relevant risk factors and to design the most efficacious treatment strategies. Poor aesthetic outcomes are far more common than severe adverse events. These in contrast should be easily avoidable by ensuring that colleagues receive proper training and follow best practices. PMID:26441099

  18. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission. PMID:24568425

  19. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY VERSUS TAX AVOIDANCE PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Ciprian-Dumitru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide crisis has made multinational companies that are engaged in corporate social responsibility actions to manage their businesses through the lens of various tax avoidance practices. The content of this paper is important due to the fact that tries to identify the impact in case of companies active in corporate social responsibility actions versus their tax structures orientation. Corporate social responsibility literature did not paid enough attention on the impact of the tax avoidance practices of companies. Tax, as a concept, brings in itself an important corporate financial impact with subsequent effects for the life of multiple citizens in countries where private entities are operating. Even though companies are usually expressing their ethical and responsible conduct in respect of the social environment, there are many cases when the business practices were not aligned with the declared corporate behavior. This paper seeks firstly to examine whether companies engaged in tax avoidance practices (ex. offshore tax havens consider that continue to act socially responsible. Secondly, the paper examines the influence on attending the stakeholders’ goals for those companies practicing tax avoidance and its implications on corporate social responsibility actions. Moreover, the paper focuses also on the aspects described before from the perspective of the corporate entities operating in Romania. This paper’s intention is to use and to develop the results of previous research carried out by Lutz Preus (University of London and, subsequently, by Senators Levin, Coleman and Obama in their “Stop Tax Haven Abuse Bill”. The implications and the objectives of this material are to highlight, to identify and to spot clearly the relations and the influences of the tax haven practices of corporations versus their undertaken social responsibility actions. Moreover, this paper brings a fresh perspective of this topic from the

  20. A knowledge translation collaborative to improve the use of therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest patients: protocol for a stepped wedge randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wax Randy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in resuscitation science have dramatically improved survival rates following cardiac arrest. However, about 60% of adults that regain spontaneous circulation die before leaving the hospital. Recently it has been shown that inducing hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors immediately following their arrival in hospital can dramatically improve both overall survival and neurological outcomes. Despite the strong evidence for its efficacy and the apparent simplicity of this intervention, recent surveys show that therapeutic hypothermia is delivered inconsistently, incompletely, and often with delay. Methods and design This study will evaluate a multi-faceted knowledge translation strategy designed to increase the utilization rate of induced hypothermia in survivors of cardiac arrest across a network of 37 hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The study is designed as a stepped wedge randomized trial lasting two years. Individual hospitals will be randomly assigned to four different wedges that will receive the active knowledge translation strategy according to a sequential rollout over a number of time periods. By the end of the study, all hospitals will have received the intervention. The primary aim is to measure the effectiveness of a multifaceted knowledge translation plan involving education, reminders, and audit-feedback for improving the use of induced hypothermia in survivors of cardiac arrest presenting to the emergency department. The primary outcome is the proportion of eligible OHCA patients that are cooled to a body temperature of 32 to 34°C within six hours of arrival in the hospital. Secondary outcomes will include process of care measures and clinical outcomes. Discussion Inducing hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors immediately following their arrival to hospital has been shown to dramatically improve both overall survival and neurological outcomes. However, this lifesaving treatment is

  1. Effect of mild hypothermia on partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue and brain temperature in patients with severe head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赛; 只达石; 林欣; 尚彦国; 牛玉德

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue (PbtO2) and brain temperature (BT) in patients in acute phase of severe head injury, and to study the effect of mild hypothermia on PbtO2 and BT.   Methods: The PbtO2 and the BT of 18 patients with severe head injury were monitored, and the patients were treated with mild hypothermia within 20 hours after injury. The rectal temperature (RT) of the patients was kept on 31.5-34.9℃ for 1-7 days (57.7 hours±28.4 hours averagely), simultaneously, the indexes of PbtO2 and BT were monitored for 1-5 days (with an average of 54.8 hours±27.0 hours). According to Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), the prognosis of the patients was evaluated at 6 months after injury.   Results: Within 24 hours after severe head injury, the PbtO2 was significantly lower (9.6 mm Hg±6.8 mm Hg, 1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) than the normal value (16-40 mm Hg). After treatment of mild hypothermia, the mean PbtO2 increased to 28.7 mm Hg±8.8 mm Hg during the first 24 hours, and the PbtO2 was still maintained within the range of normal value at 3 days after injury. The BT was higher than the RT in the patients in acute phase of severe head injury, and the difference between the BT and the RT significantly increased after treatment of mild hypothermia. Hyperventilation (the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2)≈25 mm Hg) decreased the high intracranial pressure (ICP) and significantly decreased the PbtO2.   Conclusions: This study demonstrates that PptO2 and BT monitoring is a safe, reliable and sensitive diagnostic method to follow cerebral oxygenation. It might become an important tool in our treatment regime for patients in the acute phase of severe head injury requiring hypothermia and hyperventilation.

  2. Cerebral protective effect of mild hypothermia on patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicated with intracranial hypertension and brain hernia:a preliminary study%亚低温对静脉窦血栓形成合并脑病患者脑保护作用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐跃峤; 许平; 陈文劲; 程玮涛; 王宁

    2011-01-01

    目的 初步探讨亚低温辅助治疗对静脉窦血栓形成导致颅内高压合并脑病患者的脑保护效果.方法 回顾性分析14例静脉窦血栓形成颅内高压合并脑病患者的临床资料.所有患者均接受了静脉窦内接触性溶栓结合机械碎栓治疗,同时采用脱水、降颅压等多种药物治疗.对发生脑庙后的6例患者,行开颅清除血肿和(或)单纯去骨瓣减压术.对7例患者(亚低温组)采用亚低温辅助治疗的方法,控制目标肛温在35℃,平均持续(4 ±2)d;对另外7例(非亚低温组)常规控制目标肛温< 38℃.比较两组患者短期和长期神经系统功能的情况、疾病转归和预后.结果 ①降温24 h时,亚低温组的肛温平均为(35.2±0.9)℃,非亚低温组为(37.1±0.5)℃.②亚低温组3例患者存活且恢复良好,3个月格拉斯哥预后评分(GOS)为(27±2.1)分,死亡4例;非亚低温组死亡6例,存活1例,GOS为4分.亚低温组死亡比例为4/7,非亚低温组为6/7,P=0.559.结论 重症静脉窦血栓形成导致颅内高压合并脑病患者的病死率高,亚低温辅助治疗可能具有一定的脑保护作用,从而降低患者的病死率.%Objective To preliminarily investigate the cerebral protective effect of mild hypothermia on patients with intracranial hypertension caused by cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicated brain hernia caused by cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Methods The clinical data of 14 patients with intracranial hypertension caused by cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicated brain hernia were analyzed retrospectively. All patients received contact thrombolytic therapy in cerebral venous sinus and mechanical thrombectomy. At the same time, they were treated with drugs such as dehydrant for reducing intracranial pressure. Six patients received craniotomy for hematotna removal and/or simple decompressive craniecto-my. Using mild hypothermia keep the body temperature at 35% for a mean duration of 4 ±2 days in 7

  3. The relationship between 'theory of mind' and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between 'theory of mind' and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not avoidance with mother was associated with less accurate mindreading, and this effect was stronger in younger than in older adolescents. Results might be explained in terms of the inconsistency of caregiver behavior that is supposed to cause anxious strategies, and thus illustrate the need to consider not only the effects, but also the causes of different types of insecure strategies.

  4. Human-inspired lighting the intention control in robot systems with of glare avoidance%Human-inspired lighting the intention control in robot systems with of glare avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shengyong; Guan Qiu; Liu Sheng; Bi Dexue

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some human-inspired strategies for lighting control in a robot system for best scene interpretation, where the main intention is to avoid possible glares or highlights occurring in images. It firstly compares the characteristics of human eyes and robot eyes. Then some evaluation criteria are addressed to assess the lighting conditions. A bio-inspired method is adopted to avoid the visual glare which is caused by either direct illumination from large light sources or indirect illumination reflected by smooth surfaces. Appropriate methods are proposed to optimize the pose and optical parameters of the light source and the vision camera.

  5. Avoidance of strobe lights by zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Martin J.; Richards, Nathan S.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Underwater strobe lights can influence the behavior and distribution of fishes and are increasingly used as a technique to divert fish away from water intake structures on dams. However, few studies examine how strobe lights may affect organisms other than targeted species. To gain insight on strobe lighting effects on nontarget invertebrates, we investigated whether underwater strobe lights influence zooplankton distributions and abundance in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Zooplankton were collected using vertical tows at 3 discrete distances from an underwater strobe light to quantify the influence of light intensity on zooplankton density. Samples were collected from 3 different depth ranges (0–10 m, 10–20 m and 20–30 m) at zooplankton sampled from 17 August to 15 September 2004. Night time zooplankton densities significantly decreased in surface waters when strobe lights were activated. Copepods exhibited the greatest avoidance patterns, while Daphnia avoidance varied throughout sampling depths. These results indicate that zooplankton display negative phototaxic behavior to strobe lights and that researchers must be cognizant of potential effects to the ecosystem such as altering predator–prey interactions or affecting zooplankton distribution and growth.

  6. Shape optimization of self-avoiding curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shawn W.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a softened notion of proximity (or self-avoidance) for curves. We then derive a sensitivity result, based on shape differential calculus, for the proximity. This is combined with a gradient-based optimization approach to compute three-dimensional, parameterized curves that minimize the sum of an elastic (bending) energy and a proximity energy that maintains self-avoidance by a penalization technique. Minimizers are computed by a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) method where the bending energy and proximity energy are approximated by a finite element method. We then apply this method to two problems. First, we simulate adsorbed polymer strands that are constrained to be bound to a surface and be (locally) inextensible. This is a basic model of semi-flexible polymers adsorbed onto a surface (a current topic in material science). Several examples of minimizing curve shapes on a variety of surfaces are shown. An advantage of the method is that it can be much faster than using molecular dynamics for simulating polymer strands on surfaces. Second, we apply our proximity penalization to the computation of ideal knots. We present a heuristic scheme, utilizing the SQP method above, for minimizing rope-length and apply it in the case of the trefoil knot. Applications of this method could be for generating good initial guesses to a more accurate (but expensive) knot-tightening algorithm.

  7. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    Cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) operations near Space Station Freedom will require positive collision avoidance maneuver (CAM) capability to preclude any change of collision, even in the event of CTV failures. The requirements for CAM are discussed, and the CAM design approach and design of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed; this design met requirements for OMV operation near the Space Station, provided a redundant collision avoidance maneuver capability. Significant portions of the OMV CAM design should be applicable to CTV. The key features of the OMV design are summarized and related to the CTV mission design to that of OMV's. CAM is a defined sequence of events executed by the CTV to place the vehicle in a safe position relative to a target such as the Space Station. CAM can be performed through software commands to the propulsion system, or through commands pre-stored in hardware. Various techniques for triggering CAM are considered, and the risks associated with CAM enable and execution in phases are considered. OMV CAM design features both hardware and software CAM capability, with analyses conducted to assess the ability to meet the collision-free requirement during all phases of the mission.

  8. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

  9. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  10. Tolerance and phenological avoidance of herbivory in tarweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmel, Billy; Pearse, Ian S

    2016-05-01

    Avoidance and tolerance of herbivory are important components of plant interactions with herbivores. Their relationship to each other and to plant defense is important in understanding how plants maximize fitness in the face of herbivore pressure. Various tarweed species have populations comprised of both early-season and late-season flowering individuals. Late-season flowering individuals employ a recently described indirect defense against herbivores in which the accumulation of dead insects on their sticky surfaces attracts predatory insects that eat herbivores. In two tarweed species (Hemizonia congesta and Madia elegans), we observed that key herbivores rarely interact with early-season individuals in the field, and early-season individuals did not invest in dense glandular trichomes that cause indirect defense. We conducted field and greenhouse bud-removal experiments to assess tolerance of M elegans to herbivore damage. We found that late-season individuals were more tolerant of simulated herbivory than early-season individuals in both the field and the greenhouse. Late-season individuals that were forced into an earlier phenology with a 24-h light cue lost their tolerance to simulated herbivory. One possible mechanism linking phenological avoidance of herbivores with decreased tolerance is that early-season individuals invested less in below-ground biomass than late-season individuals, which may accumulate belowground resources for regrowth at the expense of early flowering.

  11. Tolerance and phenological avoidance of herbivory in tarweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmel, Billy; Pearse, Ian S

    2016-05-01

    Avoidance and tolerance of herbivory are important components of plant interactions with herbivores. Their relationship to each other and to plant defense is important in understanding how plants maximize fitness in the face of herbivore pressure. Various tarweed species have populations comprised of both early-season and late-season flowering individuals. Late-season flowering individuals employ a recently described indirect defense against herbivores in which the accumulation of dead insects on their sticky surfaces attracts predatory insects that eat herbivores. In two tarweed species (Hemizonia congesta and Madia elegans), we observed that key herbivores rarely interact with early-season individuals in the field, and early-season individuals did not invest in dense glandular trichomes that cause indirect defense. We conducted field and greenhouse bud-removal experiments to assess tolerance of M elegans to herbivore damage. We found that late-season individuals were more tolerant of simulated herbivory than early-season individuals in both the field and the greenhouse. Late-season individuals that were forced into an earlier phenology with a 24-h light cue lost their tolerance to simulated herbivory. One possible mechanism linking phenological avoidance of herbivores with decreased tolerance is that early-season individuals invested less in below-ground biomass than late-season individuals, which may accumulate belowground resources for regrowth at the expense of early flowering. PMID:27349109

  12. Inbreeding avoidance in spiders: evidence for rescue effect in fecundity of female spiders with outbreeding opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Maklakov, A.A.; Schilling, Nadia

    2007-01-01

    Selection by inbreeding depression should favour mating biases that reduce the risk of fertilization by related mates. However, equivocal evidence for inbreeding avoidance questions the strength of inbreeding depression as a selective force in the evolution of mating biases. Lack of inbreeding...... allocation of resources. The natural history of O. apicatus suggests that the costs of outbreeding may be low which combined with high costs of inbreeding should select for avoidance mechanisms. Direct benefits of post-mating inbreeding avoidance and possibly low costs of female multiple mating can favour...... male nonsibs; one male sib and one male nonsib. We assessed the effect of mating treatment on fecundity and hatching success of eggs after one and three generations of inbreeding. Inbreeding depression in F1 was not sufficient to detect inbreeding avoidance. In F3, inbreeding depression caused a major...

  13. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Andersen, A;

    1997-01-01

    if alcohol drinking were eliminated. This corresponds to about 29% of all alcohol-related cancers, i.e. in the oesophagus (37%), oral cavity and pharynx (33%), larynx (29%) and liver (15%). About 2% of all cancers in men and 1% in women in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 will be caused......Alcohol intake is causally associated with cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and liver. In all five Nordic countries, alcohol consumption increased substantially between 1965 (6.5 litres per adult per year) and 1975 (10 litres), but remained at about 10 litres between 1975...... and 1985. The daily consumption of men during the period was substantially higher than that of women, and that of both men and women was higher in Denmark than in the other Nordic countries. In about 2000, an annual total of almost 1,300 cancer cases (1,000 in men and 300 in women) would be avoided...

  14. A Constrained Multibody System Dynamics Avoiding Kinematic Singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Fang; Yan, Chang-Dau; Jeng, Shyr-Long; Cheing, Wei-Hua

    In the analysis of constrained multibody systems, the constraint reaction forces are normally expressed in terms of the constraint equations and a vector of Lagrange multipliers. Because it fails to incorporate conservation of momentum, the Lagrange multiplier method is deficient when the constraint Jacobian matrix is singular. This paper presents an improved dynamic formulation for the constrained multibody system. In our formulation, the kinematic constraints are still formulated in terms of the joint constraint reaction forces and moments; however, the formulations are based on a second-order Taylor expansion so as to incorporate the rigid body velocities. Conservation of momentum is included explicitly in this method; hence the problems caused by kinematic singularities can be avoided. In addition, the dynamic formulation is general and applicable to most dynamic analyses. Finally the 3-leg Stewart platform is used for the example of analysis.

  15. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  16. Mars Rover Local Navigation And Hazard Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Gennery, D. B.; Mishkin, A. H.

    1989-03-01

    A Mars rover sample return mission has been proposed for the late 1990's. Due to the long speed-of-light delays between Earth and Mars, some autonomy on the rover is highly desirable. JPL has been conducting research in two possible modes of rover operation, Computer-Aided Remote Driving and Semiautonomous Navigation. A recently-completed research program used a half-scale testbed vehicle to explore several of the concepts in semiautonomous navigation. A new, full-scale vehicle with all computational and power resources on-board will be used in the coming year to demonstrate relatively fast semiautonomous navigation. The computational and power requirements for Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance are discussed.

  17. Avoiding Quantum Chaos in Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, G P; Izrailev, F M; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2001-01-01

    We study a one-dimensional chain of nuclear $1/2-$spins in an external time-dependent magnetic field. This model is considered as a possible candidate for experimental realization of quantum computation. According to the general theory of interacting particles, one of the most dangerous effects is quantum chaos which can destroy the stability of quantum operations. According to the standard viewpoint, the threshold for the onset of quantum chaos due to an interaction between spins (qubits) strongly decreases with an increase of the number of qubits. Contrary to this opinion, we show that the presence of a magnetic field gradient helps to avoid quantum chaos which turns out to disappear with an increase of the number of qubits. We give analytical estimates which explain this effect, together with numerical data supporting

  18. Avoiding Braess' Paradox Through Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert , David H.; Tumer, Kagan

    1999-01-01

    In an Ideal Shortest Path Algorithm (ISPA), at each moment each router in a network sends all of its traffic down the path that will incur the lowest cost to that traffic. In the limit of an infinitesimally small amount of traffic for a particular router, its routing that traffic via an ISPA is optimal, as far as cost incurred by that traffic is concerned. We demonstrate though that in many cases, due to the side-effects of one router's actions on another routers performance, having routers use ISPA's is suboptimal as far as global aggregate cost is concerned, even when only used to route infinitesimally small amounts of traffic. As a particular example of this we present an instance of Braess' paradox for ISPA'S, in which adding new links to a network decreases overall throughput. We also demonstrate that load-balancing, in which the routing decisions are made to optimize the global cost incurred by all traffic currently being routed, is suboptimal as far as global cost averaged across time is concerned. This is also due to "side-effects", in this case of current routing decision on future traffic. The theory of COllective INtelligence (COIN) is concerned precisely with the issue of avoiding such deleterious side-effects. We present key concepts from that theory and use them to derive an idealized algorithm whose performance is better than that of the ISPA, even in the infinitesimal limit. We present experiments verifying this, and also showing that a machine-learning-based version of this COIN algorithm in which costs are only imprecisely estimated (a version potentially applicable in the real world) also outperforms the ISPA, despite having access to less information than does the ISPA. In particular, this COIN algorithm avoids Braess' paradox.

  19. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  20. Self medication: a potentially avoidable cause of antibiotic misuse and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Anant D Patil

    2013-01-01

    I read the article by Chawla S et al on buying patterns of drugs from pharmacies in Northern India with interest. Overall self medication was reported by close to one third (35.7%) study population. The results prompted me to write about burden of antibiotic self medication and measures to tackle this serious issue. Self medication with antibiotics is concern not only in India; several studies from different parts of world have shown antibiotics being misused and commonly consumed without pre...

  1. 'Crashing' the rugby scrum -- an avoidable cause of cervical spinal injury. Case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, A T

    1982-06-12

    Deliberate crashing of the opposing packs prior to a rugby scrum is an illegal but commonly practised manoeuvre which can lead to abnormal flexion forces being applied to players in the front row, with resultant cervical spine and spinal cord injury. Two cases of cervical spinal cord injury sustained in this manner are presented. The mechanism of injury, the forces involved and preventive measures are discussed. PMID:7089756

  2. Optimizing Sampling Design to Deal with Mist-Net Avoidance in Amazonian Birds and Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J.; Marques, Tiago A.; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas. PMID:24058579

  3. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Marques

    Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  4. Brief Report: Avoidance Extinction as Treatment for Compulsive and Ritual Behavior in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J.; Hupp, Susan C.; Symons, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for maladaptive repetitive behaviors associated with autism are limited. This is particularly so for ritual and compulsive forms of repetitive behavior, which commonly interfere with adaptive activities and may cause distress to individuals with autism and their families. The present study assessed an avoidance extinction…

  5. The Relation between Youth Fear and Avoidance of Crime in School and Academic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kimberly L.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Lynch, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of research analyzing fear of crime among adults, little is known about youth fear of crime in general and youth fear of crime in school, specifically. Moreover, among existing studies most emphasize causes of fear, with little discussion of avoidance or the academic consequences of these feelings and behaviors in school. This…

  6. Avoidance orientation moderates the effect of threatening messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Vries, de H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people's dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after wh

  7. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut. PMID:16828543

  8. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data...

  9. Conjunctions and Collision Avoidance with Electrodynamic Tethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E.

    2013-09-01

    Electrodynamic propulsion technology is currently in development by NASA, ESA, and JAXA for the purpose of affordable removal of large debris objects from LEO. At the same time, the Naval Research Laboratory is preparing a 3U CubeSat with a 1-km electrodynamic tether for a flight demonstration of electrodynamic propulsion. This type of propulsion does not require fuel. The electrodynamic thrust is the Lorentz force acting on the electric current in a long conductor (tether) in the geomagnetic field. Electrons are collected from the ambient plasma on one end and emitted back into the plasma from the other end. The electric current loop is closed through the ionosphere, as demonstrated in two previous flights. The vehicle is solar powered. To support safe navigation of electrodynamic tethers, proper conjunction analysis and collision avoidance strategies are needed. The typical lengths of electrodynamic tethers for near-term applications are measured in kilometers, and the conjunction geometry is very different from the geometry of conjunctions between compact objects. It is commonly thought that the collision cross-section in a conjunction between a tether and a compact object is represented by the product of the tether length and the size of the object. However, rigorous analysis shows that this is not the case, and that the above assumption leads to grossly overestimated collision probabilities. The paper will present the results of a detailed mathematical analysis of the conjunction geometry and collision probabilities in close approaches between electrodynamic tethers and compact objects, such as satellites, rocket bodies, and debris fragments. Electrodynamic spacecraft will not require fuel, and therefore, can thrust constantly. Their orbit transfers can take many days, but can result in major orbit changes, including large rotations of the orbital plane, both in the inclination and the node. During these orbit transfers, the electrodynamic spacecraft will

  10. Unobserved Tax Avoidance and the Tax Elasticity of FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Merlo, Valeria; Wamser, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the tax responsiveness of multinational firms’ investment decisions in foreign countries, distinguishing firms that are able to avoid taxes (avoiders) from those that are not (non-avoiders). From a theoretical point of view, the tax responsiveness of firms crucially depends on this distinction. Empirically, however, a firm’s ability to avoid profit taxes is inherently unobservable to the researcher. To address this problem, we use a finite mixture modeling approach whi...

  11. Effects of vasopressin on active and passive avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Ader, R.; Wied, D. de

    1972-01-01

    Male rats were trained in an active avoidance and/or a “step-through” type of passive avoidance situation. Lysine vasopressin administration resulted in resistance to extinction of active avoidance behavior if it was injected 1 hr prior to the third and final acquisition session; peptide treatment 6

  12. Social anxiety predicts avoidance behaviour in virtual encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinck, M.; Rörtgen, T.; Lange, W.G.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Avoidant behaviour is critical in social anxiety and social phobia, being a major factor in the maintenance of anxiety. However, almost all previous studies of social avoidance were restricted to using self-reports for the study of intentional aspects of avoidance. In contrast, the current study use

  13. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 121.356 Section... Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision Avoidance Systems If you operate...

  14. Effects of optimism on creativity under approach and avoidance motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Icekson, Tamar; Roskes, Marieke; Moran, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on avoiding failure or negative outcomes (avoidance motivation) can undermine creativity, due to cognitive (e.g., threat appraisals), affective (e.g., anxiety), and volitional processes (e.g., low intrinsic motivation). This can be problematic for people who are avoidance motivated by natur

  15. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 129.18 Section... § 129.18 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you, as a foreign air... Avoidance Systems If you operate in the United States any . . . Then you must operate that airplane with:...

  16. 14 CFR 437.65 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.65 Collision avoidance... permittee must obtain a collision avoidance analysis from United States Strategic Command. (b) The...

  17. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 417.231..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis...

  18. 20 CFR 606.23 - Avoidance of tax credit reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Avoidance of tax credit reduction. 606.23... Tax Credit Reduction § 606.23 Avoidance of tax credit reduction. (a) Applicability. Subsection (g) of... receipts and benefit outlays under the law in effect for the year for which avoidance is requested, as...

  19. Avoidance learning : a review of theoretical models and recent developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance is a key characteristic of adaptive and maladaptive fear. Here, we review past and contemporary theories of avoidance learning. Based on the theories, experimental findings and clinical observations reviewed, we distill key principles of how adaptive and maladaptive avoidance behavior is a

  20. 20 CFR 606.24 - Application for avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for avoidance. 606.24 Section 606... Credit Reduction § 606.24 Application for avoidance. (a) Application. (1) The Governor of the State shall... respect to which a State requests avoidance of tax credit reduction. The Governor is required to...

  1. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510 Section 600.510 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds...

  2. 78 FR 35262 - Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts AGENCY... and the private sector regarding the electronic parts detection and avoidance coverage proposed to be... about the requirements for detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts in DoD contracts....

  3. Deforestation, leakage and avoided deforestation policies: a spatial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DELACOTE, Philippe; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Roussel, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that deforestation choices in one area influence deforestation decisions in nearby patches. We explore the interplay between forest landscapes comprising heterogeneous patches, localised spatial displacement, and avoided deforestation policies. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payments for Environmental Services (PES) policie...

  4. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  5. Avoiding sexual harassment liability in veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F

    1996-05-15

    Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure. PMID:8641947

  6. The amygdala: securing pleasure and avoiding pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushka B P Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food or aversive (e.g. electric shock. We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala’s mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes.

  7. Monosodium glutamate-induced arcuate nucleus damage affects both natural torpor and 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Kimberly M; Routman, David; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Dark, John

    2008-01-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) have the ability to express daily torpor and decrease their body temperature to approximately 15 degrees C, providing a significant savings in energy expenditure. Daily torpor in hamsters is cued by winterlike photoperiods and occurs coincident with the annual nadirs in body fat reserves and chronic leptin concentrations. To better understand the neural mechanisms underlying torpor, Siberian hamster pups were postnatally treated with saline or MSG to ablate arcuate nucleus neurons that likely possess leptin receptors. Body temperature was studied telemetrically in cold-acclimated (10 degrees C) male and female hamsters moved to a winterlike photoperiod (10:14-h light-dark cycle) (experiments 1 and 2) or that remained in a summerlike photoperiod (14:10-h light-dark cycle) (experiment 3). In experiment 1, even though other photoperiodic responses persisted, MSG-induced arcuate nucleus ablations prevented the photoperiod-dependent torpor observed in saline-treated Siberian hamsters. MSG-treated hamsters tended to possess greater fat reserves. To determine whether reductions in body fat would increase frequency of photoperiod-induced torpor after MSG treatment, hamsters underwent 2 wk of food restriction (70% of ad libitum) in experiment 2. Although food restriction did increase the frequency of torpor in both MSG- and saline-treated hamsters, it failed to normalize the proportion of MSG-treated hamsters undergoing photoperiod-dependent torpor. In experiment 3, postnatal MSG treatments reduced the proportion of hamsters entering 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia by approximately 50% compared with saline-treated hamsters (38 vs. 72%). In those MSG-treated hamsters that did become hypothermic, their minimum temperature during hypothermia was significantly greater than comparable saline-treated hamsters. We conclude that 1) arcuate nucleus mechanisms mediate photoperiod-induced torpor, 2) food-restriction-induced torpor may also be

  8. Facilitation and disruption by mescaline and 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine of shock avoidance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, D A; Bridger, W H

    1977-04-29

    The effects of mescaline hydrochloride (4.95-79.2 mg/kg i.p.) and its non-hallucinogenic analogue 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine hydrochloride (DMPEA) (12.5-100 mg/kg i.p.) on shock avoidance in a shuttlebox were studied in male Long-Evans rats trained to high (above 88%, good performers) or low (below 6%, poor performers) stable base-line avoidance rates. In good performers, mescaline and DMPEA caused a dose-dependent decrease in avoidance rate (ED 50's 44.6 and 39.2 mg/kg, respectively) without affecting presession (5-min adaptation period) or intertrial shuttlebox crossings. In poor performers, mescaline caused a dose-dependent increase in avoidance rate (ED 50 = 24.8 mg/kg) and intertrial crossings, without affecting presession crossings. The results suggest that mescaline, but not DMPEA, has dual facilitative and disruptive effects on avoidance behavior at similar dose ranges. The facilitative, but not the disruptive, effect may be related to changes in motor activity.

  9. Evidence that conditioned avoidance responses are reinforced by positive prediction errors signaled by tonic striatal dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Patricia A; Maia, Tiago V; Boschen, Suelen L; Bortolanza, Mariza; Wendler, Etieli; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Brandão, Marcus Lira; Winn, Philip; Blaha, Charles D; Da Cunha, Claudio

    2013-03-15

    We conducted an experiment in which hedonia, salience and prediction error hypotheses predicted different patterns of dopamine (DA) release in the striatum during learning of conditioned avoidance responses (CARs). The data strongly favor the latter hypothesis. It predicts that during learning of the 2-way active avoidance CAR task, positive prediction errors generated when rats do not receive an anticipated footshock (which is better than expected) cause DA release that reinforces the instrumental avoidance action. In vivo microdialysis in the rat striatum showed that extracellular DA concentration increased during early CAR learning and decreased throughout training returning to baseline once the response was well learned. In addition, avoidance learning was proportional to the degree of DA release. Critically, exposure of rats to the same stimuli but in an unpredictable, unavoidable, and inescapable manner, did not produce alterations from baseline DA levels as predicted by the prediction error but not hedonic or salience hypotheses. In addition, rats with a partial lesion of substantia nigra DA neurons, which did not show increased DA levels during learning, failed to learn this task. These data represent clear and unambiguous evidence that it was the factor positive prediction error, and not hedonia or salience, which caused increase in the tonic level of striatal DA and which reinforced learning of the instrumental avoidance response. PMID:22771418

  10. Development of Tactical Lightning Avoidance Product for Terminal Weather Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Adachi, T.; Kusunoki, K.; Ushio, T.

    2015-12-01

    Aircraft initiated or intercepted lightning is one of significant issues for civilian flight operation in Japan. It is much less possible than the past that lightning strikes cause fatal aircraft accidents thanks to both of certifications of aircraft design for lightning strikes and many of weather supports for aircraft operation. However, hundreds of lightning strikes to aircrafts have still been reported in each recent year in Japan, and airlines have been forced to delay or cancel most of those flights and to cost several hundred millions of yen for repair. Especially, lightning discharges during winter in the coastal area of the Sea of Japan frequently cause heavy damages on aircrafts due to their large charge transfer. It is important in actual aircraft operation that observed meteorological parameters are converted to decision-making information. Otherwise, pilots, controllers, or operators need to learn meteorology as much as weather experts, and to owe hard work load to interpret observed meteorological data to their risk. Ideally, it is desired to automatically provide them with predicted operation risk, for example, delay time, possibility of flight cancellation, and repair cost caused by lightning.Our research group has just started development of tactical lightning avoidance product, where a risk index of an aircraft operation due to lightning is calculated mainly from three novel observation devices: The phased array weather radar has potential to detect thunderstorms in their early stage due to the high volume scan rate of 10 - 30 sec. A lightning mapping system, such as Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorm, indicates electrical structure inside clouds in concert with a co-located radar data. Aircraft sounding and real-time data downlink, especially high-frequency data provided by Secondary Surveillance Radar mode S, gives in-situ measurements of wind and temperature. Especially the in-situ temperature data can indicate

  11. Toxic effects of the easily avoidable phthalates and parabens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-09-01

    Some environmental toxins like DDT and other chlorinated compounds accumulate in the body because of their fat-soluble nature. Other compounds do not stay long in the body, but still cause toxic effects during the time they are present. For serious health problems to arise, exposure to these rapidly-clearing compounds must occur on a daily basis. Two such classes of compounds are the phthalate plasticizers and parabens, both of which are used in many personal care products, some medications, and even foods and food preservation. The phthalates are commonly found in foods and household dust. Even though they have relatively short half-lives in humans, phthalates have been associated with a number of serious health problems, including infertility, testicular dysgenesis, obesity, asthma, and allergies, as well as leiomyomas and breast cancer. Parabens, which can be dermally absorbed, are present in many cosmetic products, including antiperspirants. Their estrogenicity and tissue presence are a cause for concern regarding breast cancer. Fortunately, these compounds are relatively easy to avoid and such steps can result in dramatic reductions of urinary levels of these compounds.

  12. The role of NTS2 in the development of tolerance to NT69L in mouse models for hypothermia and thermal analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kristin E.; Boules, Mona; Williams, Katrina; Fauq, Abdul H.; Richelson, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    NT69L is a neurotensin (NT)(8–13) analog that binds the two major NT receptors, NTS1 and NTS2, and elicits similar behavioral effects as endogenous NT. Tolerance develops rapidly to some, but not to all of NT69L's effects, and to date, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for this tolerance. The development of tolerance appears to be more prevalent in behavioral effects mediated by NTS1 than by those mediated by NTS2, including hypothermia and thermal analgesia. However, we hypoth...

  13. Why Do Consumers Avoid Certain Brands? : A Study of Brand Avoidance Within the Swedish Cosmetics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vong, Amy; Hellberg, Anna; Melander, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background - As of today, the positive forms of consumer-brand relationships have been intensively researched, whereas its counterpart has attained far less attention. Whilst current literature is focused on increasing positive brand equity, the knowledge of negative brand equity is sparse. When the brand-consumer relationship is negatively affected and the brand equity is unfavourable, rejection of a specific brand, namely brand avoidance might occur. This may affect companies negatively if ...

  14. Avoidance learning, Pavlovian conditioning, and the development of phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, D A; Bond, N W

    1988-10-01

    This paper examines the role of Pavlovian conditioning in the acquisition, maintenance and elimination of human phobias. Because many conceptualizations of human fears and phobias are based on data from studies of avoidance learning in animals, we first review theories of avoidance. Our conclusion is that none of the extant theories provides an adequate account of avoidance learning, and we propose a model of avoidance that involves Pavlovian, but not instrumental learning. We then analyse critically arguments that Pavlovian conditioning plays only a small role in the aetiology of fears. Finally, the paper examines the implications of a conditioning model of avoidance for the study of human fears and phobias.

  15. Effect of Silver nanoparticles on Passive Avoidance learning in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parvin khodarahmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs have been widely used in many technologies to produce medical devices, food technology and textiles. Silver nanoparticles may be absorbed through the lungs and intestine into circulation and thus may reach such organs as the liver, kidney, spleen, heart and testes and brain. It has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may have toxic effects on mammalian cells. There are some alarming reports on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on reproduction of experimental animals. Exposure to silver nanoparticles may exert a neurotoxic effect and affect cognitive functions, causing the impairment of short-term and working memory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of Ag NP on the learning and memory of rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on forty male Wistar rats weighing 200 to 250 g which were divided into five groups of eight as follows: control group and 4 groups of treatment. Control group rats received saline and treatment group’s rats received Ag NP at doses of 50, 250,500 and 1000 mg/ kg/ day using Intra Peritoneal injection (IP for 14 days. One day after the last injection, the learning and memory function in the rats was examined by the passive avoidance task. Measure of memory and learning were assessed using One-Way ANOVA by SPSS using the  Tukey s' test. Results: The results showed that Ag NP at dose of 50, 250, 500 mg/kg made no significant change in the STL (step-through latency and TDC (Time in Dark Compartment, compared to the control group in the passive avoidance task. Despite, Ag NP at dose of 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced the STL (p<0.01 and increased TDC (p0.05 compared to the control group. Conclusion: These data suggest that ip microinjection of Ag NP could impair learning and memory at high doses.

  16. Effects of the cardiopulmonary of selective profound hypothermia and antegrade cerebral perfusion on ischemic brain%选择性深低温断血流对心肺等重要器官的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛小群; 范耀东; 高永军; 付国平; 方绍龙; 曹毅; 徐蔚; 蒲军

    2012-01-01

    temperature maintained 32.5±0.58. Cerebral blood recovered after 70 minutes of cerebral ischemia. Other three monkeys had cerebral perfusion of 37℃ lingers liquid with similar methods. The brains and cardiopul-monary were examined by microscopy.EEG was examined before and after operation, the temperature, heart, breath, blood pressure were monitored during the operation, the scales of central nervous system were done every day. RESULTS In selective profound hypothermia group, heart and blood pressure were steady during the operation, and all of them survived forever after filled 70 minutes. The functions of neurological were normal after experiment. The EEG was normal after operation.There were no histology abnormities in brain, cardiopulmonary. The others of normothermia group did not recovery after filled 60 minutes and died, and there were different histology abnormities in brain, cardiopulmonary. CONCLUSION Selective profound hypothem-nia and antegrade cerebral perfusion of brain can inhibit ischemic injury and avoid severer cardiopulmonary complications.

  17. Towards better patient care: drugs to avoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Common sense dictates that one should choose tried and tested drugs with proven, concrete benefits that outweigh their adverse effects. Many new drugs are approved each year, often despite a lack of solid evidence that they are any better than existing treatments. Worse, some are approved despite being less effective or more harmful than current options. Massive promotion is used to ensure that such drugs achieve a positive image in the eyes of healthcare professionals and patients. Renowned "opinion leaders" intervene in their favour at conferences and in specialist media, and their opinions are further propagated by specialists in the field. Finally, campaigns in the lay media are used to highlight the target illness, encouraging patients to request a prescription. New data sometimes show that older, initially promising drugs are less effective or more harmful than first thought. For all these reasons, many drugs that are now present on the market are more harmful than beneficial and should be avoided. Unfortunately, negative assessment data and warnings are often drowned in the flood of promotion and advertising. Front-line healthcare professionals who are determined to act in their patients' best interests can find themselves swimming against a tide of specialist opinion, marketing authorisation, and reimbursement decisions. By leaving drugs that are more harmful than beneficial on the market and contenting themselves with simple half-measures, healthcare authorities are failing in their duty to protect patients. Prescrire, a journal funded solely by its subscribers, does not seek to do the work of health authorities, and does not have the means to do so. Prescrire's goal is simply to help healthcare professionals provide better care. The following text lists the principal drugs that we consider more harmful than beneficial, based on our reviews published between 2010 and 2012 in our French edition. These drugs should not be used. Patients and healthcare

  18. Towards better patient care: drugs to avoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Common sense dictates that one should choose tried and tested drugs with proven, concrete benefits that outweigh their adverse effects. Many new drugs are approved each year, often despite a lack of solid evidence that they are any better than existing treatments. Worse, some are approved despite being less effective or more harmful than current options. Massive promotion is used to ensure that such drugs achieve a positive image in the eyes of healthcare professionals and patients. Renowned "opinion leaders" intervene in their favour at conferences and in specialist media, and their opinions are further propagated by specialists in the field. Finally, campaigns in the lay media are used to highlight the target illness, encouraging patients to request a prescription. New data sometimes show that older, initially promising drugs are less effective or more harmful than first thought. For all these reasons, many drugs that are now present on the market are more harmful than beneficial and should be avoided. Unfortunately, negative assessment data and warnings are often drowned in the flood of promotion and advertising. Front-line healthcare professionals who are determined to act in their patients' best interests can find themselves swimming against a tide of specialist opinion, marketing authorisation, and reimbursement decisions. By leaving drugs that are more harmful than beneficial on the market and contenting themselves with simple half-measures, healthcare authorities are failing in their duty to protect patients. Prescrire, a journal funded solely by its subscribers, does not seek to do the work of health authorities, and does not have the means to do so. Prescrire's goal is simply to help healthcare professionals provide better care. The following text lists the principal drugs that we consider more harmful than beneficial, based on our reviews published between 2010 and 2012 in our French edition. These drugs should not be used. Patients and healthcare

  19. Avoid Workplace Injury through Ergonomics | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergonomics is “the scientific study of people at work,” with the goal of reducing stress and eliminating injuries associated with overused muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) states that working ergonomically reduces muscle fatigue, increases productivity, and decreases the number and severity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). MSDs affect the muscles, nerves, and tendons, and are a leading cause of lost workdays due to injury or illness.

  20. [Phosphate nephropathy: how to avoid it?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, Vincent; Ponte, Belén; Zellweger, Michael; Levy, Marc; Hadengue, Antoine; Moll, Solange

    2011-11-16

    Colonoscopy is a commonly used procedure for colon cancer screening. The ideal bowel preparation for a good visualization of the colonic mucosa would be effective and well tolerated. Sodium phosphate (NaP) and polyethylen glycol (PEG) are the two most frequently used solutions in this indication. However, although NaP has been described as more effective and better tolerated, it can cause severe acute electrolytes disturbances and, in rare cases, lead to irreversible renal failure, called phosphate nephropathy. NaP should therefore be prescribed with caution and be formally banned for patients with risk factors. PMID:22400350