WorldWideScience

Sample records for avocados

  1. The Avocado Hand

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rahmani, G

    2017-11-01

    Accidental self-inflicted knife injuries to digits are a common cause of tendon and nerve injury requiring hand surgery. There has been an apparent increase in avocado related hand injuries. Classically, the patients hold the avocado in their non-dominant hand while using a knife to cut\\/peel the fruit with their dominant hand. The mechanism of injury is usually a stabbing injury to the non-dominant hand as the knife slips past the stone, through the soft avocado fruit. Despite their apparent increased incidence, we could not find any cases in the literature which describe the “avocado hand”. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman who sustained a significant hand injury while preparing an avocado. She required exploration and repair of a digital nerve under regional anaesthesia and has since made a full recovery.

  2. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper address indirect global interactions that involve collaboration across continents involving different cultures, languages, technologies and nations. Specifically, we are concerned with analyzing international trade of avocados from trees in Africa to grocery store shelves in the European...

  3. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the case of shipments of containers with avocados from farmers in Africa to grocery store shelves in the European Union. We find 3 predominant challenges to containerized shipping that effectively become trade barriers: international trade cost, lead time uncertainty...

  4. AVOCADO SEEDLINGS MULTIPLE STEMS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCUS VINICIUS SANDOVAL PAIXÃO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the potential of multi-stems in avocado seeds according to their mass as well as the adventitious rooting of multi-stem budding with or without the use of auxin. The research was carried out at the Vegetation House of Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Campus Santa Teresa -ES, with seeds of different masses: 100 g, in which each experimental unit was made of five seeds, distributed within five repetitions, under a completely randomized design. The seeds were put to germinate and the percentage number of emergence and multiple stems were evaluated. After 150 days, the following evaluations were carried out: survival of rooted cuttings; number of leaves; stem diameter; root length; root volume; root and shoot fresh mass; root and shoot dry mass; shoot height; absolute growth and shoot growth rate; shoot dry weight/root dry mass ratio; shoot height/stem diameter ratio; shoot height/root length and Dickson's quality index ratio. Avocado seeds with mass over 100 g and between 81-100 g presented higher percentage of multiple stems. Rods over 20 cm that were not treated with IBA (indole-3-butyric acid resulted on avocado plants of better quality. The use of IBA (2000 mg L-1 does not affect the rooting and growth of avocado's multi-stem plants.

  5. 7 CFR 1219.13 - Hass Avocado Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.13 Hass Avocado Board. Hass Avocado Board or the Board means the administrative body established pursuant to...

  6. Avocado: characteristics, health benefits and uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fonseca Duarte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to present a literature review about the characteristics, applications, and potential of avocado (Persea americana. Avocado is considered one of the main tropical fruits, as it contains fat-soluble vitamins which are less common in other fruits, besides high levels of protein, potassium and unsaturated fatty acids. Avocado pulp contains variable oil content, and is widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, and in the production of commercial oils similar to olive oil. This fruit has been recognized for its health benefits, especially due to the compounds present in the lipidic fraction, such as omega fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. Studies have shown the benefits of avocado associated to a balanced diet, especially in reducing cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular diseases. The processed avocado pulp is an alternative to utilize fruits, which can be used in various value-added food products. Fluid extract of the avocado leaves is widely used in pharmaceutical products, mainly due to the diuretic characteristic of the present compounds in plant leaves. With the increasing research supporting the nutritional characteristics and benefits of avocado, the tendency is to increase the production and exploitation of this raw material in Brazil, as also observed in other countries.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT IN AVOCADO TREES

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, SIMONE RODRIGUES DA; CANTUARIAS-AVILÉS, TATIANA; BREMER NETO, HORST; MOURÃO FILHO, FRANCISCO DE ASSIS ALVES; MEDINA, RICARDO BORDIGNON

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands) is one of the most restrictive factors to avocado growing in main producing regions worldwide. In Brazil, scientific reports on the effectiveness of control methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of gypsum applications and dolomitic limestone to the soil and potassium phosphite sprays in controlling this disease in ‘Hass’ avocado, grown without irrigation. The application of dolomitic limestone or gypsum...

  8. Preservation of fresh avocados by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmelic, J.

    1985-01-01

    Avocado is the fifth most important fruit in Chile, which exports fruits to Europe. The production of avocado has increased from 14,000 metric tons in 1978 to a projected 70,000 metric tons in 1985. The main problem of shipping fresh Chilean avocado to Europe has been its short shelf life, being around 24 days with a maximum of 30 days. To market fresh Chilean avocados in Europe, adequate keeping quality must be assured for 40 or more days. A project on the preservation of fresh Chilean avocados supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) takes the approach of combining mild heat and low-dose gamma-radiation. Two varieties of avocados were studied (Hass and Fuerte) and two batches of each were treated: one at the beginning and the other at the end of the picking season. In each case a combination of heat treatment (46 0 C for 10 minutes) and irradiation was applied. Fruits were individually wrapped with flexible PVC and placed in cardboard boxes containing 20 each. Fruits treated with 25,50, and 100 Gy were compared with two controls: one with and another without individual wrapping

  9. 7 CFR 352.29 - Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. 352.29 Section 352.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND....29 Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. Avocados from Mexico may be moved through the...

  10. 75 FR 1 - Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    .... APHIS-2008-0126] RIN 0579-AC93 Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... to allow the importation of Hass avocados from Peru into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, Hass avocados from Peru will have to be produced in accordance with a systems approach...

  11. 78 FR 56129 - Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Sharwil avocados could stop in California first before making its way to Connecticut. APHIS agrees that... Agriculture reported that there were a total of 8,245 avocado farms in the United States, with about 76.... APHIS-2012-0008] RIN 0579-AD70 Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii AGENCY: Animal and...

  12. MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT IN AVOCADO TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE RODRIGUES DA SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is one of the most restrictive factors to avocado growing in main producing regions worldwide. In Brazil, scientific reports on the effectiveness of control methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of gypsum applications and dolomitic limestone to the soil and potassium phosphite sprays in controlling this disease in ‘Hass’ avocado, grown without irrigation. The application of dolomitic limestone or gypsum alone is not effective to recover plants affected by root rot. The application of potassium phosphite, combined or not with dolomitic lime or gypsum enables the partial recovery ‘Hass’ avocado plants affected by the disease.

  13. Pollination in avocado flowers (Persea Americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Malerbo-Souza, Darclet Teresinha; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de; UEM; Silva, Simone Rodrigues da; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Sousa, Francisco Fábio; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda

    2008-01-01

    The experiment aimed to study the frequency, nectar and/or pollen and hoarding time of bees in avocado flowers and verify the effect of their visits on fruit production. Six inflorescences (three covered and three uncovered) with two replications were marked to evaluate the effect of cross pollination on fruition percentage. The honey bees showed two peaks of hoarding (by 11 to 12 a.m. and 5 p.m.) following the flowers opening of different avocado groups (groups A and B), as much for nectar a...

  14. Physicochemical Properties of Avocado Pear (Persea americana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil from edible avocado pear (Persea americana) was extracted using the Soxhlet extraction method and characterized for specific gravity, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value, acid value and biofuel potential using standard methods. The percent oil content in the fruit pulp was determined.

  15. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AVOCADO OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara de Souza Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Avocado oil is rich in bioactive compounds, which can improve human health by acting as an antioxidant. It may be extracted from different varieties of avocado, such as Margarida and Hass varieties, each of them with particular characteristics. Aiming to evaluate the differences between them, avocado fruits and pulps from these were analyzed according to their physicochemical characteristics. After extracted, the oils had their bioactive characteristics studied and rheological behavior determined through a rotational rheometer. They were then compared to commercial avocado oil. The fruits of Margarida variety had greater size, higher weight (664.51 g, and higher pulp yield (72.19% than Hass variety, which showed higher lipid content (65.29 g/100 g dry basis. The commercial oil showed less primary oxidative degradation, whereas Margarida variety had a lower level of secondary degradation products as well as a higher content of bioactive compounds, such as phytosterols (999.60 mg/kg and tocopherols (36.73 mg/kg. The rheological behaviors of both oils were appropriately described through Newton model, with R2 > 0.999 for all temperatures. By an Arrhenius type equation, it was verified that Hass's rheological parameters are more influenced by temperature than Margarida and commercial oil, presenting activation energy of 33.6 kJ/mol.

  16. Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, Deepti; Shegog, Rachel M; Ziegler, Gregory R; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    The pulp of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae) has been reported to have beneficial cardiovascular health effects. Avocado oil is used for dermatological applications and its unsaponifiable portion is reported to have beneficial effects against osteoarthritis. Although the seed represents a considerable percentage of the total fruit, scientific research on the phytochemistry and biological effects of avocado seeds is in the nascent stages,. Currently, the seed represents an under-utilized resource and a waste issue for avocado processors. There is ethno-pharmacological information on the use of seeds for the treatment of health-related conditions, especially in South American countries where avocados are endemic and currently grown on a large scale. Current research has shown that avocado seeds may improve hypercholesterolemia, and be useful in the treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions and diabetes. Seeds have also been found to possess insecticidal, fungicidal, and anti-microbial activities. The avocado seeds and rich in phenolic compounds, and these may play a role in the putative health effects. Historically, extracts of avocado seeds were also used as ink for writing and research in our laboratory has explored the potential colorant properties of a polyphenol oxidase-produced colored avocado seed extract. Here, we review the currently-available data on the bioactivity and other functional properties of avocado seeds. We discuss the strength of the available data, the putative active compounds, and potential directions for future studies.

  17. An Economic Evaluation of the Hass Avocado Promotion Order’s First Five Years

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, Hoy F.; Li, Lan; Sexton, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. avocado industry has evolved from an emphasis on seasonal domestic production of a mix of avocado varieties to year-round availability of domestic and imported Hass avocados. California avocado producers, who account for approximately 90% of U.S. avocado production and essentially all U.S. Hass avocado production, have funded promotional programs for avocados since 1961. With few imports of avocados prior to the early 1990s, the benefits from these demand-enhancing programs flowed di...

  18. Pathogenicity of Nectriaceous Fungi on Avocado in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Louisamarie E; Shivas, Roger G; Dann, Elizabeth K

    2017-12-01

    Black root rot is a severe disease of young avocado trees in Australia causing black necrotic roots, tree stunting, and leaf drop prior to tree death. Nectriaceous fungi (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales), are commonly isolated from symptomatic roots. This research tested the pathogenicity of 19 isolates from Calonectria, Cylindrocladiella, Dactylonectria, Gliocladiopsis, and Ilyonectria, spp. collected from young avocado trees and other hosts. Glasshouse pathogenicity tests with 'Reed' avocado (Persea americana) seedlings confirmed that Calonectria ilicicola is a severe pathogen of avocado, causing stunting, wilting, and seedling death within 5 weeks of inoculation. Isolates of C. ilicicola from peanut, papaya, and custard apple were also shown to be aggressive pathogens of avocado, demonstrating a broad host range. An isolate of a Calonectria sp. from blueberry and avocado isolates of Dactylonectria macrodidyma, D. novozelandica, D. pauciseptata, and D. anthuriicola caused significant root rot but not stunting within 5 to 9 weeks of inoculation. An isolate of an Ilyonectria sp. from grapevine closely related to Ilyonectria liriodendri, and avocado isolates of Cylindrocladiella pseudoinfestans, Gliocladiopsis peggii, and an Ilyonectria sp. were not pathogenic to avocado.

  19. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  20. Genetic characterisation of avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a nutritious and economic tree crop with cultivations scattered all over Ghana. Although, there have been some genetic diversity research on this crop in some parts of the world, rather limited research has been done on avocado in Ghana. A study was therefore conducted to assess its ...

  1. Is there Avocado sunblotch Viroid in Ghana? | Acheampong | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Avocado sunblotch Viroid (ASBVd) among Ghanaian accessions was investigated. One hundred and eighty five (185) symptomatic and symptomless avocado trees were tested by DIGdot blot hybridization for the presence of ASBVd. One (0.01%) accession tested positive, 158 (85.8%) tested negative, ...

  2. Cholesterol vehicle in experimental atherosclerosis 24: avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritchevsky, David; Tepper, Shirley A; Wright, Scott; Czarnecki, Susanne K; Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2003-02-01

    To determine atherogenicity of avocado oil relative to saturated (coconut oil), monounsaturated (olive oil) and polyunsaturated (corn oil) fats. New Zealand White rabbits were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.2% cholesterol and 14% fat for 90 days. They were then necropsied and severity of atherosclerosis was determined visually. Coconut oil was the most atherogenic fat. Corn oil was only slightly less atherogenic than either olive or avocado oils. Percentage of serum HDL cholesterol was highest in the rabbits fed the two monounsaturated fats. Avocado oil is of the same order of atherogenicity as corn oil and olive oil.

  3. Optimization of controlled pollination in avocado (persea americana Mill., Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Arco, María Librada; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Avocado has a singular synchronous protogynous dichogamy breeding system that promotes outcrossing. In this work different steps have been optimized to improve controlled pollinations in avocado in order to perform basic studies of reproductive biology and directed crosses in breeding programs. The results show that, in order to achieve successful fruit set, male flowers should be collected when all the anthers have dehisced and the pollen transferred by direct contact of the anthers with the...

  4. Polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanini,Lucimara Salvat; Kwiatkowski,Angela; Clemente,Edmar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in avocado pulps, from the Northwest area of Paraná-Brazil, in order to compare the varieties on their enzymatic activity for both, minimum and industrial processing. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from avocado pulp of Choquete, Fortuna and Quintal varieties, in green and ripe maturation stage. Thermal treatment was applied with temperatures 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80 °C. The enzymatic...

  5. Analysis of sesquiterpene distributions in leaves, branches, and trunks of avocado (Persea americana Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado is a commercially valuable fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates throughout the world. Taxonomists recognize three horticultural races of avocado, consisting of Mexican (Persea americana var. drymifolia), Guatemalan (P. americana var. guatemalensis), and West Indian (P. ...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-30 - Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico. 319.56-30... § 319.56-30 Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico. Fresh Hass variety avocados (Persea americana) may be imported from Michoacan, Mexico, into the United States in accordance with the requirements of § 319.56-3...

  7. Citrus and avocado grown in nutrient solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, A.R.C.; Brusca, J.N.

    1961-02-01

    Studies show that extremely low concentrations of chromium benefit the growth of lemon, orange, and avocado trees. Tests were carried out in three-gallon-capacity sand or soil cultures. Plant nutrients were supplied by stock Hoagland's solutions A, B and C. Distilled water and chemically pure mineral salts were used in all the tests, and the drainage was excellent. A preliminary test was made in silica sand cultures planted to rooted cuttings of Prior Lisbon lemon. Potassium chromate was added to the nutrient solution at each application, to give chromium concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm - parts per million - for the experiments. The growth obtained at 0.1 ppm chromium was distinctly better than with no chromium, and at 0.5 ppm the growth was somewhat better than with no chromium, though less favorable than at 0.1 ppm. At 1.0 ppm the growth was poorer than that of the control, and at higher concentrations the rooted cuttings failed to survive.

  8. Assimilate partitioning in avocado, Persea americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finazzo, S.; Davenport, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Assimilate partitioning is being studied in avocado, Persea americana cv. Millborrow in relation to fruit set. Single leaves on girdled branches of 10 year old trees were radiolabeled for 1 hr with 13..mu..Ci of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. The source leaves were sampled during the experiment to measure translocation rates. At harvest the sink tissues were dissected and the incorporated radioactivity was measured. The translocation of /sup 14/C-labelled compounds to other leaves was minimal. Incorporation of label into fruitlets varied with the tissue and the stage of development. Sink (fruitlets) nearest to the labelled leaf and sharing the same phyllotaxy incorporated the most /sup 14/C. Source leaves for single non-abscising fruitlets retained 3X more /sup 14/C-labelled compounds than did source leaves for 2 or more fruitlets at 31 hrs. post-labelling. Export of label decreased appreciably when fruitlets abscised. If fruitlets abscised within 4 days of labeling then the translocation pattern was similar to the pattern for single fruitlets. If the fruitlet abscised later, the translocation pattern was intermediate between the single and double fruitlet pattern.

  9. Use of Avocado (Persea americana M. Paste in Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread is the staple food for most people around the world, it being consumed since ancient times. Because of it’s major importance in the diet, over the last years, the trend of enrich the nutritional quality was developed, by replacing the chemical fortification of foods with an intake of bioactive compounds from fruits, vegetables and cereals. The avocado is useful in human nutrition as a source of various nutrients and especially as source of energy and monounsaturated fatty acids. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aiming the evaluation of enriched bread for breakfast prepared with an addition of avocado paste (12% as a source of biologically active components in nutrition. Bread produced from 100% wheat flour served as the control. The seasoned bread for breakfast and the control samples were subjected to physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses. Addition of avocado paste (AP in bread has improved physicochemical and sensory attributes.

  10. Green Soap: An Extraction and Saponification of Avocado Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutheimer, Susan; Caster, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Simone H.

    2015-01-01

    An introductory level green chemistry experiment is described that places a new twist on soap-making in lab. In this experiment, oil is extracted from an avocado, after which the oil is saponified to produce bars of green craft soap. Commonly used extraction solvents, such as petroleum ether, methylene chloride, and hexane, are replaced with safer…

  11. Utility of avocado pear seed ( Persea Americana ), mango seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of three plant materials, Avocado pear seed (Persea americana), mango seed (Magifera indica) and bean seed coat (Phaseolus vulgaris) were determined. Crude protein varied from 2.0 ± 0.06% in Magifera indica to 3.73 ± 0.08% in Persea americana. Generally, the amino ...

  12. Microorganisms associated with the spoilage of avocado pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microorganisms associated with the spoilage of Avocado pear, Persea americana fruits, purchased fresh from various markets in Benin City were investigated. The pour plate method was used for the isolation. A total of nine species of microorganisms were isolated and identified in this study. They comprise of seven ...

  13. Mevastatin-induced inhibition of cell growth in avocado suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell suspension cultures were established using soft, friable callus derived from nucellar tissue of 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed from fruit harvested 190 days after full bloom. Cell cultures were maintained in liquid medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), isopentenyl adenine (iP) and ...

  14. Morphological and Molecular Identification of the Causal Agent of Anthracnose Disease of Avocado in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Kimaru; E. Monda; R. C. Cheruiyot; J. Mbaka; A. Alakonya

    2018-01-01

    Anthracnose disease of avocado contributes to a huge loss of avocado fruits due to postharvest rot in Kenya. The causal agent of this disease has not been clear but presumed to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as reported in other regions where avocado is grown. The fungus mainly infects fruits causing symptoms such as small blackish spots, “pepper spots,” and black spots with raised margin which coalesce as infection progresses. Due to economic losses associated with the disease and emergin...

  15. Electrical signaling, stomatal conductance, ABA and Ethylene content in avocado trees in response to root hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Pilar M; Gurovich, Luis; Schaffer, Bruce; García, Nicolás; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees are among the most sensitive of fruit tree species to root hypoxia as a result of flooded or poorly drained soil. Similar to drought stress, an early physiological response to root hypoxia in avocado is a reduction of stomatal conductance. It has been previously determined in avocado trees that an extracellular electrical signal between the base of stem and leaves is produced and related to reductions in stomatal conductance in response to drought stress...

  16. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Berasategi, I. (Izaskun); Barriuso, B. (Blanca); Ansorena, D. (Diana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0 h and after different times of heating process (180 °C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t = 0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t = 0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0 h (339.64; 228.27...

  17. Effects of ripening on rheological properties of avocado pulp (Persea americana mill. Cv. Hass)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, F.; Roman, A.; Ortiz, J.

    2015-04-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Hass variety is the most planted in Chile with a greater trade prospect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maturity on rheological properties of Chilean Avocado Hass pulp. Fresh unripe avocados were washed and peeled, cut and stored at 3 different times; a portion was treated at 5°C and the other was treated at 20°C until it reached 2 lb puncture pressure. During maturation changes would develop due to temperature and time, with internal cellular structure changes. Preliminary results of the rheological characteristics of avocado puree show a Bingham plastic behavior.

  18. Analyses of avocado (Persea americana) nectar properties and their perception by honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afik, O; Dag, A; Kerem, Z; Shafir, S

    2006-09-01

    Honey bees are important avocado pollinators. However, due to the low attractiveness of flowers, pollination is often inadequate. Previous work has revealed that avocado honey is relatively unattractive to honey bees when compared with honey from competing flowers. We characterized avocado honey and nectar with respect to their odor, color, and composition of sugars, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Furthermore, we tested how honey bees perceive these parameters, using the proboscis extension response bioassay and preference experiments with free-flying bees. Naïve bees were indifferent to odors of avocado and citrus flowers and honey. Experienced bees, which were collected in the field during the blooming season, responded preferentially to odor of citrus flowers. The unique sugar composition of avocado nectar, which contains almost exclusively sucrose and a low concentration of the rare carbohydrate perseitol, and the dark brown color of avocado honey, had no negative effects on its attractiveness to the bees. Phenolic compounds extracted from avocado honey were attractive to bees and adding them to a solution of sucrose increased its attractiveness. Compared with citrus nectar and nonavocado honey, avocado nectar and honey were rich in a wide range of minerals, including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, iron, and copper. Potassium and phosphorus, the two major minerals, both had a repellent effect on the bees. Possible explanations for the presence of repellent components in avocado nectar are discussed.

  19. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Alegre, María Luisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; García López, María Concepción

    2015-01-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The firs...

  20. In vitro propagation of avocado (Persea drymifolia Ness.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera-Guerra, J.L.; Ramirez-Malagon, R.; Martinez-Jaime, O.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the past 20 years, reports on micropropagation and rooting in vitro of avocado shoots, with diverse origins and treatments, have been published. However, none of them reached the level required for large scale propagation of the species. It is considered that, in the first place, the micropropagation of avocado requires an efficient system of rooting. Therefore, a system to induce the rooting in vitro of avocado shoots, based on indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) pulses and some treatments based on thidiazuron (TDZ) was tested, using 40 explants per treatment. The treatments with TDZ did not succeed in rooting shoots. Some treatments with pulses of IBA induced the following rooting results: without growth regulators, 16%; 4,000 mg L -1 of IBA for 5 seconds, 8.3% rooted; 100 mg L -1 for 72 hours, 20%; 50 mg L -1 for 72 hours, 15.4%; 150 mg L -1 for 24 hours, 5% rooted. It is considered possible to improve these results by adjusting the range of IBA concentrations as well as in the time range of pulse applications. Finally, it is easier to establish in vitro explants derived from mature seeds or embryos germinated in vitro. (author)

  1. Supply of avocado starch (Persea americana mill) as bioplastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, M. H. S.; Hasibuan, R.; Lubis, M.; Alanjani, F.; Winoto, F. A.; Siregar, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time precipitation of avocado slurry seed to yield of starch. Starch analysis included starch content, moisture content, amylose content, amylopectin content, ash content, protein content, fat content, Fourier transform infra red analysis and rapid visco analyzer. Supply of starch from avocado seeds was used by extraction method. Every one hundred grams of avocado slurry was precipitated by gravity with variations for 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 16 hours, 20 hours and 24 hours. The Starch yield was washed, and dried using oven at 70°C for 30 minutes. Starch yield was the highest as 24.20 gram at 24 hours. The result of starch characterization was 73.62%, water content 16.6%, amylose 0.07%, amylopectin 73.55%, ash content 0.23%, protein content 2.16%, fat content 1.09%. Rapid visco analyzer obtained at 91.33°C of gelatinization temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analyzes obtained 20 μm oval-shaped starch granules. Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis of starch obtained the peak spectrum of O-H group of alcohols, C-H alkanes and C-O ether.

  2. 75 FR 29680 - Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...-proof mesh, or by some other barrier that prevents insects from entering the boxes or bins. Those... Annual 2007, Global Agricultural Information Network Report Number MX7084. Because Mexico's Hass avocado..., insect-proof mesh, or other material to protect the avocados from fruit-fly infestation prior to leaving...

  3. 75 FR 66643 - Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs... 44 U.S.C. 1510. #0; #0;The Code of Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0... to allow avocados from multiple packinghouses that participate in the avocado export program to be...

  4. 78 FR 57099 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 Avocados Grown in South Florida... Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this proposed rule in conformance with Executive Order 12866. This proposed rule... avocados. They are familiar with the Committee's needs and with the costs of goods and services in their...

  5. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  6. Effect of Semisolid Formulation of Persea Americana Mill (Avocado Oil on Wound Healing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a semisolid formulation of avocado oil, SSFAO 50%, or avocado oil in natura, on incisional and excisional cutaneous wound models in Wistar rats. An additional objective was to quantify the fatty acids present in avocado oil. On the 14th day, a significant increase was observed in percentage wound contraction and reepithelialization in the groups treated with 50% SSFAO or avocado oil compared to the petroleum jelly control. Anti-inflammatory activity, increase in density of collagen, and tensile strength were observed inSSFAO 50% or avocado oil groups, when compared to control groups. The analysis of the components of avocado oil by gas chromatography detected the majority presence of oleic fatty acid (47.20%, followed by palmitic (23.66%, linoleic (13.46% docosadienoic (8.88%, palmitoleic (3.58%, linolenic (1.60%, eicosenoic (1.29%, and myristic acids (0.33%. Our results show that avocado oil is a rich source of oleic acid and contains essential fatty acids. When used in natura or in pharmaceutical formulations for topical use, avocado oil can promote increased collagen synthesis and decreased numbers of inflammatory cells during the wound-healing process and may thus be considered a new option for treating skin wounds.

  7. Recovery plan for laurel wilt of avocado, caused by Raffaelea lauricola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana), an important commercial fruit crop. The disease threatens commercial production in the US and other countries, and currently impacts the avocado industry in Florida. As laurel wilt spreads, the N...

  8. Effect of Semisolid Formulation of Persea Americana Mill (Avocado) Oil on Wound Healing in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Franco, Eryvelton de Souza; Rodrigues Barreto, Rafaella; Cordeiro, Daniele Pires; de Melo, Rebeca Gonçalves; de Aquino, Camila Maria Ferreira; e Silva, Antonio Alfredo Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; da Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Góes, Alexandre José da Silva; Maia, Maria Bernadete de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a semisolid formulation of avocado oil, SSFAO 50%, or avocado oil in natura, on incisional and excisional cutaneous wound models in Wistar rats. An additional objective was to quantify the fatty acids present in avocado oil. On the 14th day, a significant increase was observed in percentage wound contraction and reepithelialization in the groups treated with 50% SSFAO or avocado oil compared to the petroleum jelly control. Anti-inflammatory activity, increase in density of collagen, and tensile strength were observed inSSFAO 50% or avocado oil groups, when compared to control groups. The analysis of the components of avocado oil by gas chromatography detected the majority presence of oleic fatty acid (47.20%), followed by palmitic (23.66%), linoleic (13.46%) docosadienoic (8.88%), palmitoleic (3.58%), linolenic (1.60%), eicosenoic (1.29%), and myristic acids (0.33%). Our results show that avocado oil is a rich source of oleic acid and contains essential fatty acids. When used in natura or in pharmaceutical formulations for topical use, avocado oil can promote increased collagen synthesis and decreased numbers of inflammatory cells during the wound-healing process and may thus be considered a new option for treating skin wounds. PMID:23573130

  9. [Fatty acids profile and microstructure of avocado puree after microwave heating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Gerónimo, Rosa I; Dorantes, Lidia

    2008-09-01

    Changes in the fatty acid profile and the microstructure of avocado puree after microwave treatment were evaluated. The main components of the fatty acid profile were oleic, palmitic, linoleic and palmitoleic acids. Fatty acids profile of microwaved avocado puree did not show significant changes (p < 0.05). Trans fatty acids were not detected. Microwaved avocado puree showed significant changes in its microstructure. Samples treated with microwaves for less than 40 s preserved the cells shape, causing only a minimal modification. On the other hand, microwave treated avocado puree using more than 40 s, showed a disruption of idioblast oil cells, releasing the oil contained on them. The results might be explained based on the sensory evaluation that was performed on the microwaved avocado puree, where samples at 60 s showed oily texture and grassy flavor.

  10. Generation and application of SSR markers in avocado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, D.; Lavi, U.; Cregan, P.B.; Hillel, J.

    1998-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) DNA markers were generated and applied to avocado. An SSR marker is based on a pair of primers which are synthesized on the basis of DNA sequences flanking a micro satellite. These markers are PCR based, quite polymorphic and abundant in several species. These are the markers, of choice in the human genome. The number of SSR markers in the avocado genome was calculated to be about 45,000, with the A/T micro satellite being the most frequent (1 in 40 kb). SSR markers are quite expensive to generate due to the required multi-step procedure; Screening a genomic library, about 66% of the positive clones turned out after sequencing to be SSR containing clones. In only about 55% of these, was it possible to synthesize primers and, of this group, only about 50% of the markers were useful for typing a specific family. Typing of five avocado cultivars using 59 SSR markers results in one to eight alleles per locus, mean heterozygosity ranging between 0.51 and 0.66 and gene diversity ranging between 0.42 and 0.66. The SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationships between various Persea species. The number of alleles in these species ranged between five and twelve with heterozygosity levels between 0.11-0.78 and gene diversity between 0.69-0.89. A preliminary genetic map, based on these SSR markers together with some DNA fingerprints (DFP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, was drawn. The map consists of 12 linkage group having two to five markers each. Linkage analysis with several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was performed by genetic typing and phenotypic assessment of the progeny of a controlled cross. The results of the interval mapping suggest that the gene(s) coding for the existence of fibers in the flesh, are probably linked to linkage group 3. (author)

  11. Detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones as a marker of irradiated avocado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Damaris L. Moreno; Werner, Dalal

    2013-01-01

    The 2-alkylcyclobutanones are compound only formed in processed foods with ionizing radiations, which are used as markers to detect foods that have been irradiated and they have some content of fat. The samples were irradiated in a dose 7 kGy, the extraction was carried out for the Shoxlet method and the detection for the EN 1785 Standard. The results showed the utility of the 2- alkylcyclobutanone marker for the identification of irradiated foods. The obtained results showed that the avocado can be identification by the marked 2-TCB. (author)

  12. Detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones as a marker of irradiated avocado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Damaris L. Moreno, E-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrolo Nuclear (CEADEN), Habana (Cuba); Werner, Dalal [Technical Institute for Food Industry (AERIAL), Strasbourg (France). Technology Resource Centre; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The 2-alkylcyclobutanones are compound only formed in processed foods with ionizing radiations, which are used as markers to detect foods that have been irradiated and they have some content of fat. The samples were irradiated in a dose 7 kGy, the extraction was carried out for the Shoxlet method and the detection for the EN 1785 Standard. The results showed the utility of the 2- alkylcyclobutanone marker for the identification of irradiated foods. The obtained results showed that the avocado can be identification by the marked 2-TCB. (author)

  13. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding.

  14. 75 FR 61589 - Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... results of an Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) review of the Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and...: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS... 61589

  15. 76 FR 23537 - Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Importer Associations and Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...: Veronica Douglass, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Document Number AMS-FV-10-0063] Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Importer Associations and Assessment Computation...

  16. Development of antifungal films based on low-density polyethylene and thyme oil for avocado packaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Trilayer low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were prepared by incorporating varying concentrations of thyme oil, as the antifungal active additive for avocado packaging. A comprehensive thermal, structural, mechanical, and functional...

  17. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF AVOCADO SEED (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caecilia Desi Kristanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of infusion and methanolic extract from avocado seeds. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The analgesic activity was assessed using acetic acid stimuli to induce peripheral pain in mice. Results of this research showed that both all level doses of infusion and methanolic extract of avocado seeds have a significant reduction on the mice paw edema. All level doses of methanolic extract of avocado seeds have a significant reduction on the number of abdominal writhes induced by acetic acid, but only the lowest dose of infusion showed a significant reduction. Our findings suggest that avocado seeds contains potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds which support its traditional use. Further phytochemical studies are required to determine the active compounds are actually responsible for such properties.

  18. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS ON POSTHARVEST DISEASE CONTROL IN AVOCADOS

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Ivan Herman; Moraes, Matheus Froes de; Palharini, Maria Cecília de Arruda; Fileti, Mirian de Souza; Cruz, Juliana Cristina Sodário; Firmino, Ana Carolina

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Postharvest diseases constitute a serious problem for avocado commercialization. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of conventional and alternative products in controlling diseases affecting ‘Hass’ avocados in the field and in the postharvest by carrying out physicochemical characterization of fruits subjected to postharvest treatments. In the field, besides the management adopted by the farmer, seven products were sprayed three times during fruiting for evaluation...

  19. Molecular diagnosis of Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with root rot in avocado producing areas of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Elizabeth Toapanta-Gallegos; Luis Eduardo Morillo-Velastegui; William Fernando Viera-Arroyo

    2017-01-01

    One of the most damaging diseases in cultivation of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is root rot associated with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. This disease causes progressive wilt and even death of the tree. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of P. cinnamomi in two productive areas of avocado in Ecuador using the molecular technique PCR-RFLP. Tree root samples were obtained with root rot symptoms in the production areas,...

  20. Expression of defence-related genes against Phytophthora cinnamomi in five avocado rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Juanita Engelbrecht; Noalani van den Berg

    2013-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) – a major fruit crop worldwide – is threatened by root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. This pathogen is known to infect the plant via the feeder roots leading to branch dieback, and eventually tree mortality. While it is known that different avocado rootstocks have varying degrees of susceptibility to Phytophthora root rot, little research has been done on the avocado–Phytophthora interaction. In this study, transcript abundance levels of defence-related genes...

  1. Metabolites produced by antagonistic microbes inhibit the principal avocado pathogens in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ramírez R.; Julián David Arias M.; Juan Carlos Bedoya; Ever Antoni Rueda L.; Claudia Yaneth Sánchez; Sinar David Granada G.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for Hass avocado in the global market exceeds the supply by over 50%. Colombia has a remarkable advantage as a producer in the region due to its high yields. However, the productivity of this crop can be seriously affected by diseases such as root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, postharvest body rot and stem end rot, caused by Colletotrichum sp. and Phomopsis sp., respectively. The potential of 76 bacterial isolates obtained from avocado rhizosphere to produce inhibitory met...

  2. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food

    OpenAIRE

    G?mez, Francisco Segovia; S?nchez, Sara Peir?; Gallego Iradi, Maria Gabriela; Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Almajano, Mar?a Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance ...

  3. Analytical Method To Detect and Quantify Avocatin B in Hass Avocado Seed and Pulp Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nawaz; Smith, Richard W; Henao, Juan J Aristizabal; Stark, Ken D; Spagnuolo, Paul A

    2018-03-22

    Avocatin B, an avocado-derived compound mixture, was demonstrated recently to possess potent anticancer activity by selectively targeting and eliminating leukemia stem cells. Avocatin B is a mixture of avocadene and avocadyne, two 17-carbon polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols (PFAs), first discovered in avocado seeds; their quantities in avocado pulp are unknown. Analytical methods to detect avocado seed PFAs have utilized NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS; both of these lack quantitative capacity and accuracy. Herein, we report a sensitive LC-MS method for the quantitation of avocadene and avocadyne in avocado seed and pulp. The method has a reliable and linear response range of 0.1-50 μM (0.03-17.2 ng/μL) for both avocadene and avocadyne ( r 2 > 0.990) with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.1 μM. The intra- and interassay accuracy and precision of the quality control (QC) samples at LLOQ showed ≤18.2% percentage error and ≤14.4% coefficient of variation (CV). The intra- and interassay accuracy and precision for QC samples at low and high concentrations were well below 10% error and CV. This method was successfully applied to quantify avocadene and avocadyne in total lipid extracts of Hass avocado pulp and seed matter.

  4. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2012-05-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0h and after different times of heating process (180°C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t=0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t=0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0h (339.64; 228.27mg/100g) and at 9h (270.44; 210.30mg/100g) of heating. TBARs was higher in olive oil after 3h, reaching the maximum values in both oils at 6h of heating treatment. Vitamin E was higher in olive oil (35.52 vs. 24.5mg/100g) and it disappeared earlier in avocado oil (at 4 vs. 5h). The stability of avocado oil was similar to that of olive oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The potential of avocado paste (Persea americana) as fat substitute in non-dairy ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina; Surjawan, I.; Abdillah, E.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer preferences towards plant-based food have shifted significantly due to sustainable and healthy reasons. Dairy products consist of high Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) and overconsumption of SFA could lead to cardiovascular diseases. Avocado contains high levels of fat dominated by Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA) and phytosterol that have the potential as a plant-based fat source to substitute dairy-fat in ice cream. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical, rheological and sensorial properties of ice cream substituted with different concentrations of avocado paste ranging from 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively against dairy fat to produce non-dairy fat ice cream. The psychochemical properties and total fat were determined. Sensorial quality and hedonic attributes of ice cream were investigated using 60 semi-trained panelists. There were significant differences (pice cream substituted with avocado paste. The addition of avocado paste lead to the increase in viscosity and hardness of the ice cream significantly (p0.05). The addition of 50% avocado paste was the most preferred among the panelists. Avocado could provide a potential substitution for dairy-fat in ice cream.

  6. Protective Effect Of Avocado Oil Against Biochemical And Histological Changes In Whole Body Gamma Irradiation In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Abd El Azime, A.SH.; Sherif, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was

  7. Attraction of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, to avocado, lychee, and essential oil Lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Peña, Jorge E; Capinera, John L; Brar, Gurpreet; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2011-09-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae. High mortality has occurred in native Persea species in the southeastern U.S., and the vector-pathogen complex poses an imminent threat to the production of commercial avocado, P. americana, in south Florida. There is a critical need for effective attractants to detect, monitor, and control this invasive pest. This study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the response of female X. glabratus to host-based volatiles from wood of avocado (cultivars of West Indian, Guatemalan, and Mexican races); from wood of lychee (Litchi chinensis, a presumed non-host that is high in the sesquiterpene α-copaene, a putative attractant); and to commercial lures containing manuka and phoebe oils, two reported attractive baits. Volatile collections and GC-MS analyses were performed to quantify the sesquiterpene content of test substrates. In the field, traps baited with lychee wood captured more beetles than those with wood from avocado cultivars; traps baited with phoebe oil lures captured more beetles than those with manuka oil lures (the current monitoring tool). In field and laboratory tests, X. glabratus did not show a preference among avocado races in either attraction or host acceptance (initiation of boring). In choice tests, lychee was more attractive than avocado initially, but a higher percentage of beetles bored into avocado, suggesting that lychee emits more powerful olfactory/visual cues, but that avocado contains more of the secondary cues necessary for host recognition. Emissions of α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene were correlated with field captures, and lychee wood may be a source of additional semiochemicals for X. glabratus.

  8. Distribution, Pest Status and Fungal Associates of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in Florida Avocado Groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carrillo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of a complex of cryptic species, that correspond morphologically to the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, were recently found attacking avocado (Persea americana Mill. in Israel and California. In early 2016, an outbreak of another member of this species complex was detected infesting approximately 1500 avocado trees in an avocado orchard at Homestead, Florida. An area-wide survey was conducted in commercial avocado groves of Miami-Dade County, Florida to determine the distribution and abundance of E. nr. fornicatus, to identify different populations of E. nr. fornicatus and their fungal associates, and to assess the extent of damage to avocado trees. Ewallacea nr. fornicatus were captured in 31 of the 33 sampled sites. A sample of 35 beetles from six different locations was identified as E. nr. fornicatus sp. #2, which is genetically distinct from the species causing damage in California and Israel. Eleven fungal associates were identified: an unknown Fusarium sp., AF-8, AF-6, Graphium euwallaceae, Acremonium sp. Acremonium morum, Acremonium masseei, Elaphocordyceps sp. and three yeast species. The unknown Fusarium isolates were the most abundant and frequently found fungus species associated with adult beetles and lesions surrounding the beetle galleries. In addition to fungal associates, three bacteria species were found associated with adult E. nr. fornicatus. Visual inspections detected significant damage in only two orchards. A large number of beetles were captured in locations with no apparent damage on the avocado trees suggesting that E. nr. fornicatus are associated with other host(s outside the groves or with dead trees or branches inside the groves. More research is needed to determine the potential threat E. nr. fornicatus and its fungal associates pose to the avocado industry and agricultural and natural ecosystems in Florida.

  9. Sensory shelf-life limiting factor of high hydrostatic pressure processed avocado paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Velázquez, D A; Hernández-Brenes, C

    2011-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing pasteurizes avocado paste without a significant impact on flavor. Although HHP-treated avocado paste stored under refrigeration is safe for human consumption for months, sensory changes taking place during storage cause the rejection of the product by consumers within days. Although it is known that the shelf life of the product ends before its microbial counts are high, its sensory shelf life limiting factor remains unknown. The present study focused on the use of a trained panel and a consumer panel to determine the sensory shelf life limiting factor of HHP-treated avocado paste. The trained panel identified sour and rancid flavors as the main sensory descriptors (critical descriptors) that differentiated stored from freshly processed samples. Further data obtained from consumers identified sour flavor as the main cause for a significant decrease in the acceptability (shelf life limiting factor) of refrigerated HHP-treated avocado paste. The study allowed the elucidation of a proposed deterioration mechanism for HHP-treated avocado paste during its refrigerated shelf life. The information through this work enhances scientific knowledge of the product and proposes the sour flavor development during storage as a relevant sensory attribute that needs to be improved in order to enhance the product shelf life. At present, HHP is the most effective commercial nonthermal technology to process avocado paste when compared to thermal and chemical alternatives. HHP-treated avocado paste is a microbiologically stable food for a period of at least 45 d stored under refrigeration. However, previous published work indicated that consumers rejected the product after approximately 19 d of storage due to sensory changes. This manuscript presents a sensory study that permitted the identification of the critical sensory descriptor that is acting as the sensory shelf life limiting factor of the product. The data presented herein along with

  10. Update on the Susceptibility of Avocado to Invasive Alien Fruit Flies (Tephritidae) on the Island of Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Avocado Growers Association on the Island of Hawaii requested that the USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service reconsider the possibility of approving the export of untreated avocado to the continental United States of America. In response, as part of the Hawaii Area Wide Pest Management Pro...

  11. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... commented that Hass avocados attached to trees are not hosts for the guava fruit fly (A. striata), or the... respect to Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly; we did, however, acknowledge that guava... proposed restrictions related to the movement of Hass avocados from areas where the guava fruit fly is...

  12. Use of avocado peel (Persea americana in tea formulation: a functional product containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Mariane Rotta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peels of avocados, like other fruit peels, are commonly discarded, not knowing their potential use. In order to reuse avocado peel, the chemical and mineral compositions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant activities have been investigated by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and FRAP(ferric-reducing antioxidant power methods in in natura and dehydrated avocado peel. Dehydrated avocado-peel tea was manufactured and the antioxidant activity was evaluated, as well as their flavonoid and phenolic compound contents, and compared with other teas marketed. Avocado peel, especially dried avocado peel, contains major phenolic compounds (10,848.27 ± 162.34 mg GAE kg-1 and flavonoids (1,360.34 ± 188.65 mg EQ kg-1. The avocado-peel tea showed antioxidant activity by DPPH (1,954.24 ± 87.92 e 2518.27 ± 192.59 mg TE L-1 and phenolic and flavonoids contents highest than apple tea. The avocado-peel tea showed good antioxidant activity and had good acceptability by sensory analysis as a promising product.

  13. Vertical Distribution and Daily Flight Periodicity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Avocado Orchards Affected by Laurel Wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado (Persea americana Miller) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola, the causal agent of laurel wilt. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documentin...

  14. Non-destructive prediction of 'Hass' avocado dry matter via FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, Brett B; White, Ronald D; Grauf, Steve; Wright, Carole; Tilse, Bonnie; Hofman, Peter; Gadek, Paul A

    2011-01-30

    The inability to consistently guarantee internal quality of horticulture produce is of major importance to the primary producer, marketers and ultimately the consumer. Currently, commercial avocado maturity estimation is based on the destructive assessment of percentage dry matter (%DM), and sometimes percentage oil, both of which are highly correlated with maturity. In this study the utility of Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was investigated for the first time as a non-invasive technique for estimating %DM of whole intact 'Hass' avocado fruit. Partial least squares regression models were developed from the diffuse reflectance spectra to predict %DM, taking into account effects of intra-seasonal variation and orchard conditions. It was found that combining three harvests (early, mid and late) from a single farm in the major production district of central Queensland yielded a predictive model for %DM with a coefficient of determination for the validation set of 0.76 and a root mean square error of prediction of 1.53% for DM in the range 19.4-34.2%. The results of the study indicate the potential of FT-NIRS in diffuse reflectance mode to non-invasively predict %DM of whole 'Hass' avocado fruit. When the FT-NIRS system was assessed on whole avocados, the results compared favourably against data from other NIRS systems identified in the literature that have been used in research applications on avocados. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of the pulp of different varieties of avocado targeting oil extraction potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinéia Dotti Mooz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of avocado pulp of four different varieties (Avocado, Guatemala, Dickinson, and Butter pear and to identify which has the greatest potential for oil extraction. Fresh avocado pulp was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The carotenoids and chlorophyll contents were determined by the organic solvent extraction method. The results showed significant differences in the composition of the fruit when varieties are compared. However, the striking feature in all varieties is high lipid content; Avocado and Dickinson are the most suitable varieties for oil extraction, taking into account moisture content and the levels of lipids in the pulp. Moreover, it could be said that the variety Dickinson is the most affected by the parameters evaluated in terms of overall quality. Chlorophyll and carotenoids, fat-soluble pigments, showed a negative correlation with respect to lipids since it could be related to its function in the fruit. The varieties Avocado and Dickinson are an alternative to oil extraction having great commercial potential to be exploited thus avoiding waste and increasing farmers’ income.

  16. High levels of exotic armored scales on imported avocados raise concerns regarding USDA-APHIS' phytosanitary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J G; Rugman-Jones, P F; Watson, G W; Robinson, L J; Bi, J L; Stouthamer, R

    2009-06-01

    Between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected California avocado, Persea americana Mill., groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. Soon after Mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 February 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) not believed to be present in California were detected on 'Hass' avocados entering the state from Mexico. Initially, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) prevented avocados infested with these scales from entering the state or required that they be fumigated with an approved treatment such as methyl bromide. After a Science Advisory Panel meeting in May 2007, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) reaffirmed its position that armored scales on shipments of fruit for consumption (including avocados) pose a "low risk" for pest establishment. In compliance with APHIS protocols, as of 18 July 2007, CDFA altered its policy to allow shipments of scale-infested avocados into the state without treatment. Here, we report on sampling Mexican avocados over an 8-mo period, September 2007-April 2008. An estimated 67 million Mexican Hass avocados entered California over this period. Based on samples from 140 trucks containing approximately 15.6% of this volume of fruit, we estimate that approximately 47.6 million live, sessile armored scales and an additional 20.1 million live eggs and crawlers were imported. We found eight probable species of armored scales in the samples, seven of these are not believed to occur in California; 89.3% of the live scales were Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson and Miller, a recently described species. In contrast to the USDA-APHIS opinion, we believe the volume of shipments and levels of live scales they contain present a significant risk to California's US$300 million avocado industry and to other crops that might become infested by one or more of

  17. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  19. Morphological and Molecular Identification of the Causal Agent of Anthracnose Disease of Avocado in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kimaru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose disease of avocado contributes to a huge loss of avocado fruits due to postharvest rot in Kenya. The causal agent of this disease has not been clear but presumed to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as reported in other regions where avocado is grown. The fungus mainly infects fruits causing symptoms such as small blackish spots, “pepper spots,” and black spots with raised margin which coalesce as infection progresses. Due to economic losses associated with the disease and emerging information of other species of fungi as causal agents of the disease, this study was aimed at identifying causal agent(s of the disease. A total of 80 fungal isolates were collected from diseased avocado fruits in Murang’a County, the main avocado growing region in Kenya. Forty-six isolates were morphologically identified as Colletotrichum spp. based on their cultural characteristics, mainly whitish, greyish, and creamish colour and cottony/velvety mycelia on the top side of the culture and greyish cream with concentric zonation on the reverse side. Their spores were straight with rounded end and nonseptate. Thirty-four isolates were identified as Pestalotiopsis spp. based on their cultural characteristics: whitish grey mycelium with black fruiting structure on the upper side and greyish black one on the lower side and septate spores with 3-4 septa and 2 or 3 appendages at one end. Further molecular studies using ITS indicated Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum boninense, and Pestalotiopsis microspora as the causal agents of anthracnose disease in avocado. However, with this being the first report, there is a need to conduct further studies to establish whether there is coinfection or any interaction thereof.

  20. Comparison of cross inoculation potential of South African avocado and mango isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G M; Korsten, L

    2003-01-01

    Three hundred and eighteen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from stem-end rot and anthracnose infected avocados as well as from stem-end rot/anthracnose and soft brown rot on mango, were compared using fruit inoculations. Isolates could be categorised according to lesion size and both avocado and mango isolates produced larger lesions when inoculated on their own hosts. Cross-inoculation potential of these isolates was also compared on strawberries, peppers, guavas, papayas and citrus. All isolates produced lesions on all hosts except citrus. Factors such as area of origin and symptom type from which original isolations were made, could not be correlated with lesion development on these hosts.

  1. Comparative evaluation of untreated and radurized Chilean avocadoes shipped to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, L.A.; Uzcategui, E.; Farkas, J.; Langerak, D.Is.; Duren, M.D.A.; Rubio, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Avocados of Fuerte variety were picked mature green, treated with a hot water dip (10 min at 46 deg C) then individually wrapped in PVC foil, irradiated with a gamma radiation dose of 25 Gy, shipped by boat at 7 deg C from Chile to the Netherlands and stored there under different conditions. Similarly packed untreated fruits served as controls. The combination treatment and wrapping in PVC foil delayed and reduced the decay, and resulted in a better consumer quality. This small-scale trial shipment holds promise that a sea-transport of combined treated avocados from Chile to Western Europe whould be feasible. (author)

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a Double-Stranded RNA Virus from Avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Francisco; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Valverde, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of avocado (Persea americana) cultivars are known to contain high-molecular-weight double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules for which a viral nature has been suggested, although sequence data are not available. Here we report the cloning and complete sequencing of a 13.5-kbp dsRNA virus isolated from avocado and show that it corresponds to the genome of a new species of the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae), tentatively named Persea americana endornavirus (PaEV). PMID:22205720

  3. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle; therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  4. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

  5. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile compounds from avocado puree after microwave processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mercedes G; Guzmán, G R; Dorantes, A L

    2004-05-14

    Microwave processing offers an alternative to blanch fruits and vegetables, since the application of high temperature and short time often results in minimum damage. An experimental design was used to investigate the effect of microwave time, pH, and avocado leaves (independent variables) on avocado flavor (response) using solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-MS. Among the fully characterized flavor volatiles, 19 compounds were derived from lipid oxidation and only 4 from the avocado leaves. The main components derived from lipids were aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Terpenoids, estragole, and 2-hexenal [E] were volatiles derived from avocado leaves. When leaves were added to fresh and microwaved avocado terpenoids and 2-hexenal [E]/hexanal ratio increased, this behavior was considered to have a positive effect on the sensorial quality of the product. From the statistical analysis of the experimental design, it was possible to determinate that the most important factors influencing the abundance of flavor compounds derived from lipids were microwave time and pH. Maximum values of these compounds were detected at high levels of microwave time and low values of pH. On the other hand, response surface of terpenoids and estragole showed an increment when microwave time and avocado leaf was increased. The region of optimum response was 30 s microwave time, pH 5.5, and 1% of avocado leaf.

  6. Response of avocado genotypes to improvement through 60Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, E. De la; Rubi A, M.; Garcia A, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Ten avocado genotypes were subjected to gamma radiation from 0 to 45 Gy in 1993. Vegetative and reproductive data were analysed in a factorial design. Genotypes differed significative on height and fruit number. Radiation affected significative fruit number but not tree height. ''Hass'' showed strongest interaction between genotype and doses, for fruit number. (Author)

  7. Race, Interracial Admixture and Genetic Differentiation of Avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a major tropical fruit crop native to Mesoamerica and domesticated around 8000 to 7000 BC. It is a member of the Laureace family and currently classified into three subspecies or races: Guatemalan (G), Mexican (M) and West Indian (WI) according to their ecological...

  8. Molecular Characterization and Genetic Structure in Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is an economically important tropical fruit native to Mesoamerica. It belongs to the Lauraceae family and is subdivided in three horticultural races (Guatemalan, Mexican, and West Indian) based primarily on ecological adaptation, botanical and physiological traits. T...

  9. Greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, in California avocado orchards: biological control studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. McMurtry; Mohammad H. Badii

    1991-01-01

    Greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche), on avocado in California, is another case, like pear thrips, of a species being present for many decades but only recently increasing to major pest status. Damaging infestations, previously occurring only sporadically and mainly in areas within a few kilometers of the coast, now are common in...

  10. 77 FR 39150 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this rule in conformance with Executive Order 12866. This rule has been reviewed... program. The members of the Committee are producers and handlers of Florida avocados. They are familiar...

  11. Effect of replacing pork backfat with avocado oil on the quality of chicken sausages "Swiss type"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Moreno Vaca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/01/27 - Accepted: 2015/03/27A kind of chicken sausage “Swiss type” was developed with avocado oil content to replace all fat from pork back fat in its formulation. Analysis of lipid profile for pork back fat reported: SFA 35.45 %; MUFA 41.95 %; PUFA 20.71 %. For avocado oil: SFA 18.66 %; MUFA 68.37 %; PUFA 12.19 % . Treatments used which corresponding to the percentages of avocado oil content as a substitute for pork back fat in their formulation were: T1 = 50 %, T2 = 75 %, T3 = 100 %. Sensory acceptability of treatments was performed. There were no statistically significant differences. Treatment T3 with highest score was chosen as the best treatment. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization was performed for T3 treatment and for a treatment which didn’t have in its formulation avocado oil, T0 treatment. T0. Protein was 13.23% in T0 and 12.56% in T3. Total fat, SFA and PUFA in T3 were reduced in 3.7%, 5.24% and 2.53% respectively. MUFA showed an increase of 3.51% in T3. Trans acids was 0% for both treatments. The results obtained were located within the acceptable range established in the NTE (INEN 1338:12.

  12. Metabolites produced by antagonistic microbes inhibit the principal avocado pathogens in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ramírez R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for Hass avocado in the global market exceeds the supply by over 50%. Colombia has a remarkable advantage as a producer in the region due to its high yields. However, the productivity of this crop can be seriously affected by diseases such as root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, postharvest body rot and stem end rot, caused by Colletotrichum sp. and Phomopsis sp., respectively. The potential of 76 bacterial isolates obtained from avocado rhizosphere to produce inhibitory metabolites against avocado's pathogens was evaluated. The antagonistic effect of the rhizobacteria against P. cinnamomi, Colletotrichum sp. and Phomopsis sp. was tested through dual cultures. Thirty-six percent of the tested isolates presented inhibition halos against P. cinnamomi, 36% against Colletotrichum sp. and 67% against Phomopsis sp. Additionally, three isolates were selected for fermentation tests using different broth cultures. The extracts obtained from fermentations in the minimal medium of isolates ARP5.1 and AED06 showed inhibitory activity against the evaluated pathogens, but this effect was not observed with the AED26 extract. The media supplemented with copper chloride did not enhance activity of the extracts. These results suggest that using microbial metabolic extracts is a viable alternative for controlling avocado pathogens in vitro.

  13. 75 FR 7986 - Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders; Section 610 Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ....gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeanette Palmer, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1218 and 1219 [Document Numbers AMS-FV-10-0006; AMS-FV-10-0007] Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information...

  14. Effect of a novel oil extraction method on avocado (Persea americana Mill) pulp microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M Alicia; Dorantes, A Lidia; Gallndez, M Juvencio; Cardenas, S Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) is an oil-rich fruit, the pulp containing up to 33% of the oil. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, and has nutritional properties similar to olive oil. However, there is no widespread commercial method for oil recovery from avocado pulp. The aim of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge about the micro- and ultrastructure of avocado. It presents a micro- and ultrastructural study of avocado pulp before and after three different oil recovery methods, in order to relate the quality and yielding of the oil to the cellular changes in the pulp. This study was made using light, scanning electron, and electron transmission microscopy. The microwave-squeezing method yielded 67% of the oil, preserved the shape of the cell by causing only a slight modification, and gave the best quality oil. Hexane extraction yielded 59%, causing the idioblastic oil cells to become irregularly shaped and rough-surfaced. Acetone extraction yielded 12%, and deformed the cellular wall while the oil remained inside, giving a poor quality oil. On the basis of these results, the microwave-squeezing method is suggested as a new option for oil recovery from avocadopulp. This method could be adapted for industrial processing.

  15. Haiti Start-Up mission design cold chain mango-avocado

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostewechel, René; Régis, Yves-Laurent; Brouwers, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This report shares the findings of the first start-up mission to Haiti, exploring all relevant elements pertaining to the design of the mango and avocado cold chain for fruit export to the USA, with the possibility to extend logistics services to other fruits like pineapple. Findings of the mission

  16. Contractual arrangements and food quality certifications in the Mexican avocado industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana-Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of private quality certifications in agrifood supply chains often requires specific investments by producers which can be safeguarded by choosing specific contractual arrangements. Based on a survey data from avocado producers in Mexico, this paper aims to analyze the impact of

  17. Avocado Consumption Increases Macular Pigment Density in Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M. Scott

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is selectively incorporated into the macula and brain. Lutein levels in the macula (macular pigment; MP and the brain are related to better cognition. MP density (MPD is a biomarker of brain lutein. Avocados are a bioavailable source of lutein. This study tests the effects of the intake of avocado on cognition. This was a six-month, randomized, controlled trial. Healthy subjects consumed one avocado (n = 20, 0.5 mg/day lutein, AV vs. one potato or one cup of chickpeas (n = 20, 0 mg/day lutein, C. Serum lutein, MPD, and cognition were assessed at zero, three, and six months. Primary analyses were conducted according to intent-to-treat principles, with repeated-measures analysis. At six months, AV increased serum lutein levels by 25% from baseline (p = 0.001. C increased by 15% (p = 0.030. At six months, there was an increase in MPD from baseline in AV (p = 0.001 and no increase in C. For both groups, there was an improvement in memory and spatial working memory (p = 0.001; p = 0.032, respectively. For AV only there was improved sustained attention (p = 0.033, and the MPD increase was related to improved working memory and efficiency in approaching a problem (p = 0.036. Dietary recommendations including avocados may be an effective strategy for cognitive health.

  18. Metabolomics analysis of postharvest ripening heterogeneity of ‘Hass' avocadoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedreschi, R.; Munoz, P.; Robledo, P.; Becerra, C.; Defilippi, B.G.; Eekelen, van H.D.L.M.; Mumm, R.; Westra, E.H.; Vos, de R.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    The complex physiology of ‘Hass’ avocado renders its postharvest ripening heterogeneous and unpre-dictable. Several approaches have previously been undertaken to broaden our understanding of the causesof this postharvest ripening heterogeneity but without much success. In this study, a fruit biopsy

  19. Changes in the vascular tissue of fresh Hass avocados treated with cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo, Lourdes; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Saucedo, Cresenciano

    2002-03-01

    This research was based on fresh avocado fruit treated with gamma rays at quarantine doses and stored at room temperature. The effects of irradiation were analyzed and measured by three different types of studies: histological, biochemical and physiological. Histological studies were focused on the effect of Cobalt 60 gamma rays in the mesocarp of avocado irradiated at three different doses; 150, 250, and 350 Gy. Damage was observed principally in the parenchyma tissue where the cell membrane was plazmolized and a red color was observed due to the development of phenol compounds. Another important effect was an increase in the size of xylem and phloem cells in the vascular tissue even at the minimum dose of 150 Gy. The biochemical and the physiological studies were done on avocado fruit irradiated at 100 and 150 Gy. An increase in L-phenilalanine ammonialyase activity was observed and therefore, an increase in the concentration of phenol compounds. These changes were not perceived by panelists in a sensorial test. Irradiated fruits were accepted by panelists as well as control fruit as regards parameters of taste, internal color and external color. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using irradiation to disinfest avocado fruit using a minimum dose of 100 Gy.

  20. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

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    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  1. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  2. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana pollination in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Perez-Balam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although avocado is native to Mexico, there are no comparative measures in this country on the performance of its flower visitors as pollinators. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to the pollination of avocado from tropical Mexico was assessed by comparing abundance, speed of flower visitation, quantity of pollen carried per individual and pollen deposited on virgin flowers after single visits. The values of abundance and frequency of flower visitation with pollen deposition were combined to obtain a measure of pollinator performance (PP. The most abundant insects on avocado were flies (mean ± SE: 15. 2 ± 6.2, followed by honey bees (9.4 ± 6.3 and wasps (4.2 ± 3.1 (ANOVA F = 91.71, d.f. = 2,78; P P P = 0.001, the number of pollen grains deposited on a stigma after a single visit was similar for the three taxa (2-5. There was evidence for a significant and similarly positive PP of both honey bees and flies as avocado pollinators over wasps, given their abundance, potential for pollen transport and deposition of pollen on stigmas.

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis of Avocado Hass (Persea americana Mill) in the Interaction System Fruit-Chitosan-Colletotrichum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xoca-Orozco, Luis-Ángel; Cuellar-Torres, Esther Angélica; González-Morales, Sandra; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Porfirio; López-García, Ulises; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Chacón-López, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) is one of the most important crops in Mexico as it is the main producer, consumer, and exporter of avocado fruit in the world. However, successful avocado commercialization is often reduced by large postharvest losses due to Colletotrichum sp., the causal agent of anthracnose. Chitosan is known to have a direct antifungal effect and acts also as an elicitor capable of stimulating a defense response in plants. However, there is little information regarding the genes that are either activated or repressed in fruits treated with chitosan. The aim of this study was to identify by RNA-seq the genes differentially regulated by the action of low molecular weight chitosan in the avocado-chitosan-Colletotrichum interaction system. The samples for RNA-seq were obtained from fruits treated with chitosan, fruits inoculated with Colletotrichum and fruits both treated with chitosan and inoculated with the fungus. Non-treated and non-inoculated fruits were also analyzed. Expression profiles showed that in short times, the fruit-chitosan system presented a greater number of differentially expressed genes, compared to the fruit-pathogen system. Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes showed a large number of metabolic processes regulated by chitosan, including those preventing the spread of Colletotrichum. It was also found that there is a high correlation between the expression of genes in silico and qPCR of several genes involved in different metabolic pathways. PMID:28642771

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of Avocado Hass (Persea americana Mill in the Interaction System Fruit-Chitosan-Colletotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Ángel Xoca-Orozco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Avocado (Persea americana is one of the most important crops in Mexico as it is the main producer, consumer, and exporter of avocado fruit in the world. However, successful avocado commercialization is often reduced by large postharvest losses due to Colletotrichum sp., the causal agent of anthracnose. Chitosan is known to have a direct antifungal effect and acts also as an elicitor capable of stimulating a defense response in plants. However, there is little information regarding the genes that are either activated or repressed in fruits treated with chitosan. The aim of this study was to identify by RNA-seq the genes differentially regulated by the action of low molecular weight chitosan in the avocado-chitosan-Colletotrichum interaction system. The samples for RNA-seq were obtained from fruits treated with chitosan, fruits inoculated with Colletotrichum and fruits both treated with chitosan and inoculated with the fungus. Non-treated and non-inoculated fruits were also analyzed. Expression profiles showed that in short times, the fruit-chitosan system presented a greater number of differentially expressed genes, compared to the fruit-pathogen system. Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes showed a large number of metabolic processes regulated by chitosan, including those preventing the spread of Colletotrichum. It was also found that there is a high correlation between the expression of genes in silico and qPCR of several genes involved in different metabolic pathways.

  5. An EST-SSR based linkage map for Persea americana Mill. (avocado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent enhancement of the pool of known molecular markers for avocado has allowed the construction of the first moderate density genetic map for this species. Over 300 microsatellite markers have been characterized and 163 of these were used to construct a map from the cross of two Florida cultivar...

  6. APPLICATION OF PROPICONAZOLE IN MANAGEMENT OF LAUREL WILT DISEASE IN AVOCADO (Persea americana Mill.) TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt is a vascular disease of Lauraceous plants caused by a fungus (Raffaelea spp.) that is carried by a recently introduced, nonnative ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). The disease is devastating to Persea species including redbay (Persea borbonia) and avocado (Persea americana) trees i...

  7. Selection for biocontrol bacteria antagonistic toward Rosellinia necatrix by enrichment of competitive avocado root tip colonizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego, Clara; Cazorla, Francisco Manuel; González-Sánchez, María Angeles; Pérez-Jiménez, Rosa María; de Vicente, Antonio; Ramos, Cayo

    2007-06-01

    Biological control of soil-borne pathogens is frequently based on the application of antagonistic microorganisms selected solely for their ability to produce in vitro antifungal factors. The aim of this work was to select bacteria that efficiently colonize the roots of avocado plants and display antagonism towards Rosellinia necatrix, the causal agent of avocado white root rot. A high frequency of antagonistic strains (ten isolates, 24.4%) was obtained using a novel procedure based on the selection of competitive avocado root tip colonizers. Amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with biochemical characterization, showed that eight and two of the selected isolates belonged to the genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, respectively. Characterization of antifungal compounds produced by the antagonistic strains showed variable production of exoenzymes and HCN. Only one of these strains, Pseudomonas sp. AVO94, produced a compound that could be related to antifungal antibiotics. All of the ten selected strains showed twitching motility, a cell movement involved in competitive colonization of root tips. Production of N-acyl-homoserine lactones and indole-3-acetic acid was also reported for some of these isolates. Resistance to several bacterial antibiotics was tested, and three strains showing resistance to only one of them were selected for biocontrol assays. The three selected strains persisted in the rhizosphere of avocado plants at levels considered crucial for efficient biocontrol, 10(5)-10(6) colony forming units/g of root; two of them, Pseudomonas putida AVO102 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes AVO110, demonstrated significant protection of avocado plants against white root rot.

  8. RED ROSELLA TEA AND AVOCADO AS SIMVASTATIN THERAPY SUPPORT REDUCE TOTAL CHOLESTEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Artini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterized by high levels of total cholesterol in the blood. Many studies have proven that steeping tea rosella and flesh of an avocado can reduce total cholesterol levels. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of therapy companion rosella tea and  avocado in lowering total cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemia clients. Method: This type of research is a quasi-experimental study with pre-post test control group design. The population study was a client with hypercholesterolemia in the working area of menganti health centers. First sample group consisted of nine respondents received the drug Simvastatin 10 mg and rosella tea consumed as much as 2 g 1x / day. The second group consisted of nine respondents received the drug Simvastatin 10 mg and avocado meat weighing 330 grams were consumed 1x / day. The control group consisted of 11 respondents have a drug Simvastatin 10 mg oral 1x daily at night before bed. All groups examined total cholesterol levels before treatment and after treatment on day 15. Result: The results of one-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference between before and after treatment in the first group (p=0,001 and second group (p= 0,005, and there is no significant difference before and after treatment in the control group (p= 0,248. The difference between the three groups showed p= 0.025. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is giving rosella tea and avocado has the same effectiveness in lowering total cholesterol levels so that health workers can suggest the use of rosella tea and avocado as a companion therapy to reduce total cholesterol level.

  9. Armazenamento refrigerado de abacates 'Hass' Cold storage of 'Hass' avocado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rodrigues Donadon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar a ocorrência de injúria pelo frio em abacates 'Hass'. Na primeira Etapa, os abacates foram armazenados a 5ºC (77% UR, 10ºC (79% UR e 15ºC (79% UR por até 21 dias. Aos 7; 14 e 21dias de armazenamento, um lote com 36 frutos foi levado ao ambiente (22°C e 77% UR para amadurecimento. Testou-se também o armazenamento a 2°C (74% UR e 4°C (77% UR por até 45 dias, sendo que aos 15; 30 e 45 dias, um lote com a mesma quantidade de frutos foi levado ao ambiente, mantido a 22°C e 77% UR. Frutos armazenados ao ambiente, desde o início, foram considerados testemunha. Avalaram-se a aparência e a luminosidade da polpa. Os frutos armazenados a 10°C e 15°C não apresentaram sintomas de injúrias pelo frio, que foram observados nos frutos armazenados a 2°C, por períodos superiores a 15 dias, e nos mantidos a 4°C, por 30 dias. Quando levados ao ambiente, os frutos armazenados a 2°C conservaram aparência aceitável para o consumo (nota = 3 por até10 dias, e os armazenados a 4°C, por até 12 dias. Na segunda Etapa, analisaram-se a intensidade respiratória e a atividade das enzimas peroxidase (POD, polifenoloxidase (PPO, poligalacturonase (PG e pectinametilesterase (PME nos frutos armazenados a 2ºC, por 45 dias, em comparação com os testemunha. A atividade das enzimas associadas ao escurecimento, POD e PPO, assim como das associadas ao amaciamento da polpa, PME e PG, foi inibida pelo armazenamento a 2ºC, mas readquiriram atividade mais elevada que nos frutos-testemunha, quando foram transferidos ao ambiente, indicando estímulo devido aos danos pelo frio.This study aimed to determine the occurrence of chilling injury in 'Hass' avocado. In the first step, the avocados were stored at 5ºC (77% RH, 10°C (79% RH, and 15ºC (79% RH for up to 21 days. At 7, 14, and 21 days of storage, one lot with 36 fruits was taken to the environment (22°C and 77% RH for maturation. Storage of fruit at 2°C (74% RH and 4

  10. Antifungal activity of avocado rhizobacteria against Fusarium euwallaceae and Graphium spp., associated with Euwallacea spp. nr. fornicatus, and Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Avendaño, Edgar; Carrillo, Joseph D; Ndinga-Muniania, Cedric; Moreno, Kevin; Méndez-Bravo, Alfonso; Guerrero-Analco, José A; Eskalen, Akif; Reverchon, Frédérique

    2018-04-01

    Plant rhizobacteria have been successfully used as biocontrol agents against fungal phytopathogens. However, their potential to control two important avocado diseases, namely Fusarium dieback (FD) and Phytophthora root rot (PRR), has been poorly studied. FD is an emerging disease triggered by fungi associated with two ambrosia beetle species (Euwallacea fornicatus species complex), while PRR is caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soil-borne oomycete. In the present work, the antifungal activity of bacteria isolated from avocado rhizosphere was tested in dual culture assays against Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium euwallaceae and Graphium sp., causal agents of FD, and against P. cinnamomi. In 2015, rhizosphere soil samples of FD infested and non-infested avocado trees were collected from a commercial avocado orchard in Escondido, California. In an initial screening, 72 of the 168 assessed bacterial isolates reduced mycelial growth of F. euwallaceae by up to 46%. Eight bacterial isolates showing inhibition percentages larger than 40% were then selected for further antagonism assays against the other fungal pathogens. Five bacterial isolates, determined by 16S rDNA sequencing to belong to the Bacillus subtilis/Bacillus amyloliquefaciens species complex, successfully inhibited the mycelial growth of both Graphium species by up to 30%. The same isolates and an additional isolate identified as Bacillus mycoides, inhibited the growth of P. cinnamomi by up to 25%. This is the first report of avocado rhizobacteria with antifungal activity against pathogens responsible for FD and PRR in avocado.

  11. Detection of laurel wilt disease in avocado using low altitude aerial imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I de Castro

    Full Text Available Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana. This devastating disease has spread rapidly along the southeastern seaboard of the United States and has begun to affect commercial avocado production in Florida. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees using aerial images taken with a modified camera during helicopter surveys at low-altitude in the commercial avocado production area. The ability to distinguish laurel wilt-affected trees from other factors that produce similar external symptoms was also studied. RmodGB digital values of healthy trees and laurel wilt-affected trees, as well as fruit stress and vines covering trees were used to calculate several vegetation indices (VIs, band ratios, and VI combinations. These indices were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and an M-statistic was performed in order to quantify the separability of those classes. Significant differences in spectral values among laurel wilt affected and healthy trees were observed in all vegetation indices calculated, although the best results were achieved with Excess Red (ExR, (Red-Green and Combination 1 (COMB1 in all locations. B/G showed a very good potential for separate the other factors with symptoms similar to laurel wilt-affected trees, such as fruit stress and vines covering trees, from laurel wilt-affected trees. These consistent results prove the usefulness of using a modified camera (RmodGB to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees from healthy trees, as well as from other factors that cause the same symptoms and suggest performing the classification in further research. According to our results, ExR and B/G should be utilized to develop an algorithm or decision rules to classify aerial images, since they showed the highest capacity to discriminate laurel wilt-affected trees. This methodology may allow the

  12. Biochemical changes during the storage of high hydrostatic pressure processed avocado paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Velázquez, D A; Hernández-Brenes, C

    2010-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing improves the shelf life of avocado paste without a significant impact on flavor; however, scarce information is available on biochemical modifications during its extended storage period. The present study focused on the changes in oxidative enzyme activities of pressurized avocado paste (600 MPa for 3 min) during refrigerated storage (45 d at 4 degrees C). Aerobic plate counts (APC), lactic acid bacteria counts (LAB), pH, and instrumental color were also evaluated during storage. Processing with HHP caused a decrease in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, resulting in residual enzyme levels of 50.72% and 55.16%, respectively. Although instrumental color values didn't change significantly during the evaluated storage period, both enzymes (PPO and LOX) recuperated their activities at 10 to 15 d of storage, reached the original values observed in the fresh paste, and then started a declining phase until the end of the storage period. Pulp pH presented a consistent decline during the first 20 d of storage. LAB counts were very low during storage, discarding lactic acid production as responsible for the observed pH decline. Enzyme reactivation, cell disruption, and a gradual migration of intracellular components such as organic acids are herein proposed as the main mechanisms for the deterioration of HHP treated avocado paste during its refrigerated storage. Practical Application: At the present, HHP is the most effective commercial nonthermal technology to process avocado paste when compared to thermal and chemical alternatives. Although it has proven to be an excellent product-technology match, little information is known on the biochemical changes that take place in the product during its refrigerated shelf life. Biochemical reactions during storage are important, since they can influence avocado paste nutritional and flavor qualities at the time of product consumption. The present study reports for

  13. Detection of laurel wilt disease in avocado using low altitude aerial imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ana I; Ehsani, Reza; Ploetz, Randy C; Crane, Jonathan H; Buchanon, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). This devastating disease has spread rapidly along the southeastern seaboard of the United States and has begun to affect commercial avocado production in Florida. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees using aerial images taken with a modified camera during helicopter surveys at low-altitude in the commercial avocado production area. The ability to distinguish laurel wilt-affected trees from other factors that produce similar external symptoms was also studied. RmodGB digital values of healthy trees and laurel wilt-affected trees, as well as fruit stress and vines covering trees were used to calculate several vegetation indices (VIs), band ratios, and VI combinations. These indices were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an M-statistic was performed in order to quantify the separability of those classes. Significant differences in spectral values among laurel wilt affected and healthy trees were observed in all vegetation indices calculated, although the best results were achieved with Excess Red (ExR), (Red-Green) and Combination 1 (COMB1) in all locations. B/G showed a very good potential for separate the other factors with symptoms similar to laurel wilt-affected trees, such as fruit stress and vines covering trees, from laurel wilt-affected trees. These consistent results prove the usefulness of using a modified camera (RmodGB) to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees from healthy trees, as well as from other factors that cause the same symptoms and suggest performing the classification in further research. According to our results, ExR and B/G should be utilized to develop an algorithm or decision rules to classify aerial images, since they showed the highest capacity to discriminate laurel wilt-affected trees. This methodology may allow the rapid detection

  14. Molecular diagnosis of Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with root rot in avocado producing areas of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elizabeth Toapanta-Gallegos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most damaging diseases in cultivation of avocado (Persea americana Mill. is root rot associated with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. This disease causes progressive wilt and even death of the tree. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of P. cinnamomi in two productive areas of avocado in Ecuador using the molecular technique PCR-RFLP. Tree root samples were obtained with root rot symptoms in the production areas, from which 10 isolates were morphologically identified with Phytophthora spp. infection. To distinguish among the various Phytophthora species, a molecular analysis was performed using molecular markers in the ITSregion of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA. The ITSdigestion fragment obtained by PCR with the Ta qI enzyme confirmed the presence of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the isolated samples, and its association with root rot in the sampled production areas.

  15. Cellulase Occurs in Multiple Active Forms in Ripe Avocado Fruit Mesocarp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellis, Angelos K.; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    1992-01-01

    The existence of multiple forms of avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) cellulase in crude protein extracts of ripe avocado fruit is reported. Cellulase was separated into at least 11 multiple forms by native isoelectric focusing in the pH range between 4 and 7 and visualized by both activity staining using Congo red and immunostaining. The enzyme components were acidic proteins with isoelectric points in the range of pH 5.10 to 6.80, the predominant forms having isoelectric points of 5.60, 5.80, 5.95, and 6.20. All 11 forms were immunologically related with molecular masses of 54 kilodaltons. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668672

  16. Gamma rays induced variability in mature embryos of avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, J.L.; Ramirez, I. M; Santiago, L.; Valdes, Y.; Guerra, M; Prieto, E.; Rodriguez, N.; Velazquez, B.

    2001-01-01

    Induced mutation and biotechnology techniques are current approaches used in plant breeding. At present work, the induced mutation and embryo zygotic culture techniques were used in order to characterize the radiosensitivity of avocado commercial varieties, Hass and California. The induced diversity in plant material was also evaluated in morphological seedling descriptors as: height seedling, diameter seedling neck, leaves number, length of principal root and secondary root number. The obtained results showed high susceptibility of both varieties to gamma rays. California was the higher sensitivity variety. Percentage of entire shoot induction showed clear dependence of radiation dose in both varieties. Thus dose range for mutagenesis was determined. In general, variation of morphological seedling descriptors not was clearly agreed to increase of radiation dose. In addition, the results suggested that variation in morphological seedling descriptors also could be depending of genotypes. The useful of mature embryo culture of avocado for improvement of breeding approaches in this crop, was discussed

  17. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Nogeire

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  18. Expression of defence-related genes against Phytophthora cinnamomi in five avocado rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Engelbrecht

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Avocado (Persea americana – a major fruit crop worldwide – is threatened by root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. This pathogen is known to infect the plant via the feeder roots leading to branch dieback, and eventually tree mortality. While it is known that different avocado rootstocks have varying degrees of susceptibility to Phytophthora root rot, little research has been done on the avocado–Phytophthora interaction. In this study, transcript abundance levels of defence-related genes coding for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lipoxygenase, pathogenesis-related protein 5, endochitinase, gluthathionine S-transferase and metallothionein were characterised and compared among five rootstocks with varying susceptibility to root rot, after exposure to P. cinnamomi. Root samples were collected at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-infection and transcript abundance of the defence-related genes was determined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The results indicated the involvement of PR-5 and endochitinase in the defence response of all avocado rootstocks to P. cinnamomi but these genes could not be directly linked to the observed phenotypic resistance. PR-5 and endochitinase were highly upregulated at 72 h post-infection. Differences in transcript abundance of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and lipoxygenase genes were seen when comparing tolerant and less tolerant rootstocks, which may suggest that transcripts of these genes contribute to resistance. These data provide important insights into plant defence and into how different avocado rootstocks may exhibit increased resistance to infection by P. cinnamomi.

  19. Effects of Silicon Amendment on Soilborne and Fruit Diseases of Avocado

    OpenAIRE

    Dann, Elizabeth K.; Le, Duy P.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of silicon (Si) amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil®32, approximately 30% available Si), or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM) or Mineral Dust (MD), containing 5% available Si) were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yie...

  20. Raman characterization of Avocado Sunblotch viroid and its response to external perturbations and self-cleavage

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Bon-Hoa, Gaston; Kaddour, Hussein; Vergne, Jacques; Kruglik, Sergei G; Maurel, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. To date the structural and conformational details of the cleavage of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) and the catalytic role of Mg2+ ions in efficient self-cleavage are of crucial interest. RESULTS: We report the first Raman characterization of the structure and activity of ASBVd, for plus and minus viroid strands. Both strands exhibit a typical A-type RNA conformation with an ordered double-helical content and ...

  1. Contractual arrangements and food quality certifications in the Mexican avocado industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arana-Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of private quality certifications in agrifood supply chains often requires specific investments by producers which can be safeguarded by choosing specific contractual arrangements. Based on a survey data from avocado producers in Mexico, this paper aims to analyze the impact of transaction costs and relationship characteristics of the joint choice of contractual arrangements and quality certifications. Using a bivariate probit model, it shows that a producer’s decision to adopt p...

  2. Experimental study of convective coefficient of mass transfer of avocado (Persia americana Mill.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Suerda Bezerra; Luiz, Marcia Ramos; Amorim, Joselma Araujo de; Gusmao, Rennam Pereira de; Gurgel, Jose Mauricio [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (LES/UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar

    2010-07-01

    Most of all energy consumed worldwide comes from fossil fuels derived from petroleum. With the petroleum crisis in the 70 were sought new energy sources, among them renewable. One such source is biodiesel energy, organic matter originated from animal and/or vegetable. Among the various plant species is the avocado (Persia americana Mill.) showing great potential in the production of petroleum extracted from the pulp and the alcohol removed from the seed. The main obstacle for obtaining the petroleum is the high humidity found in the pulp, being necessary to the drying process, which involves the transfer of heat and mass. The aim of this study was to use the mathematical model represented by Newton's Law of Cooling to simulate the mass transfer on the surface of the avocado pulp during the drying process. The equation of the mathematical model was solved numerically and the method of least squares was identified convective coefficient of Mass Transfer. The dryer used in the experimental process was operated with air flow in the vertical, air flow average fixed 3m/s and temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 deg C. The scheme of the dryer used in the research is composed of the following equipment: centrifugal fan, which drives the air-drying; valve, which allows control of airflow; electrical resistance, used for heating air; the drying chamber, where enables measurement of temperature and relative humidity; support for smaller trays; trays smaller, where the samples of the pulp of the avocado are placed; exit of the air of drying for the environment. The result presented shows the ratio of moisture content as a function of temperature over time, where it is possible to also observe that how much bigger the temperature of drying, greater will be the convective coefficient of mass transfer of the avocado. (author)

  3. Sensitivity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Isolates from Diseased Avocado Fruits to Selected Fungicides in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Kirugo Kimaru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a serious postharvest pathogen of avocado fruits worldwide. Kenya lacks any registered fungicides for the management of the disease. Nevertheless, farmers commonly use commercially available fungicides such as Bayleton 25WP (Triadimefon 250 g/Kg, Milraz 76WP (Propineb 70% and Cymoxanil 6%, and Copper oxychloride 500WP for disease management. The efficacy of these fungicides against C. gloeosporioides is not known. The purpose of this study was therefore to test the inhibitory effect of these fungicides against 46 C. gloeosporioides isolates from avocado fruits collected from varieties grown at different agroecological zones in Murang’a County, a popular avocado-growing region in Kenya. Mycelial growth rate and sporulation for each isolate were measured in vitro on PDA plates amended with different concentrations of the fungicides. Plates were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications per treatment. All fungicides were effective in vitro but there were significant differences in sensitivity among isolates. Bayleton had the highest mycelial inhibition followed by Milraz, while copper oxychloride had the lowest mycelial inhibition rates, ranging from 81% to 88%. However, copper oxychloride was more effective in inhibiting sporulation. The inhibitory effect of each fungicide was concentration-dependent, where twice the recommended concentration had the highest inhibitory effect, followed by the recommended concentration. Our results show that the fungicides used by farmers against C. gloeosporioides, the causal agent for anthracnose, are effective. We, however, recommend further field tests in different avocado-growing areas so as to validate their efficacy against various isolates and under different environments.

  4. GFP sheds light on the infection process of avocado roots by Rosellinia necatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego, C; Kanematsu, S; Ruano-Rosa, D; de Vicente, A; López-Herrera, C; Cazorla, F M; Ramos, C

    2009-02-01

    In order to monitor Rosellinia necatrix infection of avocado roots, we generated a plasmid vector (pCPXHY1eGFP) constitutively expressing EGFP and developed a protoplast transformation protocol. Using this protocol, four R. necatrix isolates were efficiently transformed and were shown to stably express EGFP homogeneously while not having any observable effect on pathogenicity. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of avocado roots infected with the highly virulent isolate CH53-GFP demonstrated that fungal penetration of avocado roots occurs simultaneously at several random sites, but it occurs preferentially in the crown region as well as throughout the lenticels and in the junctions between epidermal cells. Not only were R. necatrix hyphae observed invading the epidermal and cortical root cells, but they were also able to penetrate the primary and secondary xylem. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images allowed detailed visualisation of the hyphal network generated by invasion of R. necatrix through the epidermal, cortical and vascular cells, including hyphal anastomosis and branching points. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the construction of GFP-tagged strains belonging to the genus Rosellinia for monitoring white root rot using CLSM and SEM.

  5. Utilization of modified starch from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed in cream soup production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelia, M.; Christianti, A.

    2018-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed was often seen as waste and underutilized resources, especially in the food industry. The aim of this research was to modify the structure of avocado seed starch using the cross-linking method, to improve the viscosity stability in the cream soup. In the preliminary research, starch was isolated from the seed and modified by STPP (sodium tripolyphosphate) with 2%, 4%, and 6% concentration and were reacted for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Starches were analyzed for moisture and ash content, paste clarity, gel strength, swelling power, solubility, yield, and degree of whiteness. Based on the analysis results, the best reaction time and STPP concentration was 6% at 1 hour reaction time. Native starch and the best-modified starch were applied in the cream soup and compared with commercial cream soup. Cream soups were analyzed for viscosity stability using viscometer in 0, 1, 3, and 5 hours after storage in room temperature. The result showed that cream soup using modified starch has better viscosity stability than native starch and commercial cream soup after 5 hours storage, which was 181.7 ± 4.85 cP. Sensory analysis showed that cream soup using modified starch was more acceptable than the others. Avocado seed modified starch has phosphate group that strengthen the starch chain to prevent viscosity breakdown.

  6. Immobilization of Tyrosinase from Avocado Crude Extract in Polypyrrole Films for Inhibitive Detection of Benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Brisolari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at different concentrations, was amperometrically detected by these biosensors. Benzoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of Try, was added to the catechol solutions at specific concentrations aimed at obtaining the inhibition constant, K’m, which ranged from 1.7 to 4.6 mmol∙L−1 for 0.0 and 60 µmol∙L−1 of benzoic acid, respectively. Studies on the inhibition caused by benzoic acid by using PPy/Try films, and catechol as a substrate, allowed us propose how to develop, under optimized conditions, simple and low-cost biosensors based on the use of avocado fruit.

  7. EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZAL INOCULANTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEXICAN LANDRACE AVOCADO ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Castro Alvarado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculants in the development of avocado rootstocks. Seeds of Mexican landrace avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. drymifolia were used, with two commercial inoculants: T1 containing Glomus fasciculatum, G. constrictum, G. tortuosum, G. geosporum,and Acaulospora scrobiculata, and T2, containing G. mosseae and G. cubense.  The plants inoculated with AMF showed more rapid growth than the no inoculant control as measured by plant height (50% and 54%, stem diameter (35% and 36%, leaf number (48% and 37% and length (31% and 40%, and root fresh weight (85% and 59%; however, no significant differences were observed between T1 and T2. The chlorophyll concentration in the leaves from T1 was 16.4% and T2 was 19% higher than the control suggesting a higher photosynthetic capacity in T1 and T2. Finally the shoot/root ratio, as indicator of the potential development of plantations, was 79% and 50% higher in mycorrhizal plants than in the control. In conclusion both T1 and T2 inoculants improved growth rate and vigor of avocado nursery rootstocks producing higher quality plants.

  8. Whitefly (Paraleyrodes sp. preference for avocado cultivars (Persea americana Mill. in Fresno, Tolima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vanessa Sierra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly is a major pest that affects avocado and there is not enough information about the biolog y and management of this insect in Colombia. In this paper the incidence of the whitefly Paraleyrodes sp. pos. bondarion four avocado cultivars was studied (Choquette, Hass, Lorena, Santana. The crop management carried out by farmers was characterized and its effect on the white fly presence on three cultivars was evaluated (Choquette, Hass, Lorena. Presence of secondary metabolites on leaves from Hass and Lorena was measured and the effect of their leaf extracts on the mortality and repellency index of whitefly adults was established. There were interactions between crop management and cultivar for the presence of the insect; moderately chemical management had the lowest infestation in all cultivars. The increase in soil fertilization and chemical insecticides increased insect population, and removal of the hemiparasite decreased it. Lorena cultivar had the highest fly preference, insect population increase when there was interaction between cultivar and mature leaves, neutral repellency index, and high percentage of total and non-reducing carbohydrates. The Hass cultivar showed higher amount of coumarins, terpenes and steroids, and high rate of repellency. Lorena attracting the insect is due to the presence of carbohydrates; and Hass repellency is due to the terpene and / or steroids. Research works should be done on whitefly in avocado crops toward cultivars Lorena

  9. The Spot Problem in Avocado (Persea americana Mill. Plantations of Northern Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Reina Noreña

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spot (common name is currently the main phytosanitary problem in avocado plantations of northern Tolima. In Colombia, information about its causal agent and the external factors that foster its development is scarse, which lead us to carry on a preliminary research. In three avocado farms of Fresno municipality, the severity of the spot in Lorena cultivar fruits was evaluated by using five types of barriers and a control, from the inflorescence phase to the developed fruit. The symptoms of the “avocado spot” in Lorena’ cultivar were characterized. Samples from different plant organs were sent to four diagnostic laboratories. Besides, in ten farms of Fresno municipality, the severity of the spot was measured on Lorena, Hass and Choquette cultivars by carrying out bi-weekly samplings. Simultaneously, in eleven farms in Fresno, the culture labors, pesticides, production costs and incomes were recorded. The treatment that was significantly different from the control was the fungicide application. The phytopathological diagnosis identified two pathogens, Glomerella sp. (Anamorphic: Colletotrichum sp. and Cercospora sp. related to the spot symptoms. The Lorena cultivar was the most affected by “the spot”, it caused an increase of 3.65 % of the production costs to growers and the crop incomes decreased 21.65 % due to fruits with “spot” symptoms. An environmental impact was perceived as a result of the grower lack of awareness about the problem.

  10. Effect of an avocado oil-enhanced diet (Persea americana on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Del Toro-Equihua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However, there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups. Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group: the control group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference was considered when p < 0.05. Rats that were given diets with 10% and 20% avocado oil showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively. Similar insulin resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p = 0.85. Addition of 5–30% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 5–20% avocado oil.

  11. Generation of composite Persea americana (Mill. (avocado plants: A proof-of-concept-study.

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    S Ashok Prabhu

    Full Text Available Avocado (Persea americana (Mill., an important commercial fruit, is severely affected by Phytophthora Root Rot in areas where the pathogen is prevalent. However, advances in molecular research are hindered by the lack of a high-throughput transient transformation system in this non-model plant. In this study, a proof-of-concept is demonstrated by the successful application of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated plant transformation to produce composite avocado plants. Two ex vitro strategies were assessed on two avocado genotypes (Itzamna and A0.74: In the first approach, 8-week-old etiolated seedlings were scarred with a sterile hacksaw blade at the base of the shoot, and in the second, inch-long incisions were made at the base of the shoot (20-week-old non-etiolated plants with a sterile blade to remove the cortical tissue. The scarred/wounded shoot surfaces were treated with A. rhizogenes strains (K599 or ARqua1 transformed with or without binary plant transformation vectors pRedRootII (DsRed1 marker, pBYR2e1-GFP (GFP- green fluorescence protein marker or pBINUbiGUSint (GUS- beta-glucuronidase marker with and without rooting hormone (Dip 'N' Grow application. The treated shoot regions were air-layered with sterile moist cocopeat to induce root formation. Results showed that hormone application significantly increased root induction, while Agrobacterium-only treatments resulted in very few roots. Combination treatments of hormone+Agrobacterium (-/+ plasmids showed no significant difference. Only the ARqua1(+plasmid:A0.74 combination resulted in root transformants, with hormone+ARqua1(+pBINUbiGUSint being the most effective treatment with ~17 and 25% composite plants resulting from strategy-1 and strategy-2, respectively. GUS- and GFP-expressing roots accounted for less than 4 and ~11%, respectively, of the total roots/treatment/avocado genotype. The average number of transgenic roots on the composite plants was less than one per plant in all

  12. Generation of composite Persea americana (Mill.) (avocado) plants: A proof-of-concept-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, S Ashok; Ndlovu, Buyani; Engelbrecht, Juanita; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2017-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana (Mill.)), an important commercial fruit, is severely affected by Phytophthora Root Rot in areas where the pathogen is prevalent. However, advances in molecular research are hindered by the lack of a high-throughput transient transformation system in this non-model plant. In this study, a proof-of-concept is demonstrated by the successful application of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated plant transformation to produce composite avocado plants. Two ex vitro strategies were assessed on two avocado genotypes (Itzamna and A0.74): In the first approach, 8-week-old etiolated seedlings were scarred with a sterile hacksaw blade at the base of the shoot, and in the second, inch-long incisions were made at the base of the shoot (20-week-old non-etiolated plants) with a sterile blade to remove the cortical tissue. The scarred/wounded shoot surfaces were treated with A. rhizogenes strains (K599 or ARqua1) transformed with or without binary plant transformation vectors pRedRootII (DsRed1 marker), pBYR2e1-GFP (GFP- green fluorescence protein marker) or pBINUbiGUSint (GUS- beta-glucuronidase marker) with and without rooting hormone (Dip 'N' Grow) application. The treated shoot regions were air-layered with sterile moist cocopeat to induce root formation. Results showed that hormone application significantly increased root induction, while Agrobacterium-only treatments resulted in very few roots. Combination treatments of hormone+Agrobacterium (-/+ plasmids) showed no significant difference. Only the ARqua1(+plasmid):A0.74 combination resulted in root transformants, with hormone+ARqua1(+pBINUbiGUSint) being the most effective treatment with ~17 and 25% composite plants resulting from strategy-1 and strategy-2, respectively. GUS- and GFP-expressing roots accounted for less than 4 and ~11%, respectively, of the total roots/treatment/avocado genotype. The average number of transgenic roots on the composite plants was less than one per plant in all treatments

  13. Generation of composite Persea americana (Mill.) (avocado) plants: A proof-of-concept-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, S. Ashok; Ndlovu, Buyani; Engelbrecht, Juanita

    2017-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana (Mill.)), an important commercial fruit, is severely affected by Phytophthora Root Rot in areas where the pathogen is prevalent. However, advances in molecular research are hindered by the lack of a high-throughput transient transformation system in this non-model plant. In this study, a proof-of-concept is demonstrated by the successful application of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated plant transformation to produce composite avocado plants. Two ex vitro strategies were assessed on two avocado genotypes (Itzamna and A0.74): In the first approach, 8-week-old etiolated seedlings were scarred with a sterile hacksaw blade at the base of the shoot, and in the second, inch-long incisions were made at the base of the shoot (20-week-old non-etiolated plants) with a sterile blade to remove the cortical tissue. The scarred/wounded shoot surfaces were treated with A. rhizogenes strains (K599 or ARqua1) transformed with or without binary plant transformation vectors pRedRootII (DsRed1 marker), pBYR2e1-GFP (GFP- green fluorescence protein marker) or pBINUbiGUSint (GUS- beta-glucuronidase marker) with and without rooting hormone (Dip 'N' Grow) application. The treated shoot regions were air-layered with sterile moist cocopeat to induce root formation. Results showed that hormone application significantly increased root induction, while Agrobacterium-only treatments resulted in very few roots. Combination treatments of hormone+Agrobacterium (-/+ plasmids) showed no significant difference. Only the ARqua1(+plasmid):A0.74 combination resulted in root transformants, with hormone+ARqua1(+pBINUbiGUSint) being the most effective treatment with ~17 and 25% composite plants resulting from strategy-1 and strategy-2, respectively. GUS- and GFP-expressing roots accounted for less than 4 and ~11%, respectively, of the total roots/treatment/avocado genotype. The average number of transgenic roots on the composite plants was less than one per plant in all treatments

  14. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina J; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis María; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Jimenez-Moraila, Beatriz; López-Meza, Joel E; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    Avocado is one of the most important fruits in the world. Avocado "native mexicano" (Persea americana var. drymifolia) seeds are widely used in the propagation of this plant and are the primary source of rootstocks globally for a variety of avocado cultivars, such as the Hass avocado. Here, we report the isolation of 5005 ESTs from the 5' ends of P. americana var. drymifolia seed cDNA clones representing 1584 possible unigenes. These avocado seed ESTs were compared with the avocado flower EST library, and we detected several genes that are expressed either in both tissues or only in the seed. The snakin gene, which encodes an element of the innate immune response in plants, was one of those most frequently found among the seed ESTs, and this suggests that it is abundantly expressed in the avocado seed. We expressed the snakin gene in a heterologous system, namely the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Conditioned media from transfected BVE-E6E7 cells showed antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first study of the function of the snakin gene in plant seed tissue, and our observations suggest that this gene might play a protective role in the avocado seed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of Poly-(R-hydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator ATCC 17699 Using Mexican Avocado (Persea americana Oil as a Carbon Source

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    Araceli Flores-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly-R-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are polymers produced by a vast number of bacterial species under stress conditions. PHAs exhibit different thermal and mechanical properties that depend on their molecular structure. In this work, PHAs were produced using avocado oil as the carbon source. Cupriavidus necator H16 was cultured in three-stage fermentation using fructose during the cell growth stages and avocado oil during the PHA synthesis stage. Different concentrations of avocado oil were used during the third stage to test the incorporation of various monomeric units into the PHAs. Biomass and PHA production were measured during the fermentation. DSC, FTIR, and gas chromatography analysis aided the PHA characterization. Different proportions of 3-hydroxyvalerate were present in the 3-hydroxybutyrate main chain depending on the concentration of avocado oil. The results suggest that avocado oil is a viable new substrate for PHA production.

  16. Transcriptome responses of an ungrafted Phytophthora root rot tolerant avocado (Persea americana) rootstock to flooding and Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeksting, B J; Olivier, N A; van den Berg, N

    2016-09-22

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a commercially important fruit crop worldwide. A major limitation to production is the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes root rot leading to branch-dieback and tree death. The decline of orchards infected with P. cinnamomi occurs much faster when exposed to flooding, even if flooding is only transient. Flooding is a multifactorial stress compromised of several individual stresses, making breeding and selection for tolerant varieties challenging. With more plantations occurring in marginal areas, with imperfect irrigation and drainage, understanding the response of avocado to these stresses will be important for the industry. Maintenance of energy production was found to be central in the response to flooding, as seen by up-regulation of transcripts related to glycolysis and induction of transcripts related to ethanolic fermentation. Energy-intensive processes were generally down-regulated, as evidenced by repression of transcripts related to processes such as secondary cell-wall biosynthesis as well as defence-related transcripts. Aquaporins were found to be down-regulated in avocado roots exposed to flooding, indicating reduced water-uptake under these conditions. The transcriptomic response of avocado to flooding and P. cinnamomi was investigated utilizing microarray analysis. Differences in the transcriptome caused by the presence of the pathogen were minor compared to transcriptomic perturbations caused by flooding. The transcriptomic response of avocado to flooding reveals a response to flooding that is conserved in several species. This data could provide key information that could be used to improve selection of stress tolerant rootstocks in the avocado industry.

  17. Expression profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene in alternate bearing 'Hass' avocado trees suggests a role for PaFT in avocado flower induction.

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    Dafna Ziv

    Full Text Available In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana. De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded and off (fruit-lacking trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed.

  18. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IDENTIFICATION IN AVOCADO TREES INFECTED WITH Phytophthora cinnamomi RANDS UNDER BIOCONTROL

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    Ma. Blanca Nieves Lara Chavez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi presences in the rhizosphere of avocado trees with symptoms of root rot sadness caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi were determined. The investigation was done in the avocado orchard "Ojo de agua" in the town of Tancitaro, Michoacan, Mexico, in 21 previously selected trees. For the control of P. cinnamomi were applied three strains of Trichoderma (T. erinaceum, T. aggressivum and T. arundinaceum before the application was made the first soil sampling, the second 6 months later, before the second application of Tricoderma strains and the last 12 months before the third application. To remove soil spores was used wet sieving and decantation protocol proposed by Gerdemann and Nicolson (1963, followed by centrifugation on sucrose (400 g L-1 at 2000 rpm. Taxonomic identification was based on the morphological characteristics of AMF spores, considering the shape, size and color, and thickness, ornamentations and number of the layers of the wall, coupling form and supporting hyphae, identifications were made by comparison with original descriptions available in the International Collection of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Glomeromycota species list. The first sampling were identified eleven species in seven genera: Glomus with two undetermined species, Glomus sp.1, Glomus sp.2, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus geosporum; genus Acaulospora, one undetermined species Acaulospora sp., A. spinosa, A. bireticulata and A. denticulate; genus Entrophospora, E. infrequens; genus Diversispora, D. aurantia; genus Scutellospora, S. pellucida; genus Racocetra, R. castanea and R. verrucosa and genus Gigaspora, Gi. decipiens. In the second and third sampling, the presence of new kinds of HMA there was not observed but the number of spores increased (average 38.09% and 30% respectively. The application of these species in the genus Trichoderma to control root pathogens of avocado encouraged the growth of HMA spores in the rhizosphere of the

  19. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantificatio...

  20. Haiti Start-Up mission design cold chain mango-avocado

    OpenAIRE

    Oostewechel, René; Régis, Yves-Laurent; Brouwers, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This report shares the findings of the first start-up mission to Haiti, exploring all relevant elements pertaining to the design of the mango and avocado cold chain for fruit export to the USA, with the possibility to extend logistics services to other fruits like pineapple. Findings of the mission will be used to produce a report on the technical design of the cold chain from tree harvest till arrival in Miami. The mission was exposed to the current realities and experiences of fruit product...

  1. Population genetic structure of Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with avocado in California and the discovery of a potentially recent introduction of a new clonal lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccia, D; Pond, E; McKee, B; Douhan, G W

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR) of avocado (Persea americana), caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is the most serious disease of avocado worldwide. Previous studies have determined that this pathogen exhibits a primarily clonal reproductive mode but no population level studies have been conducted in the avocado-growing regions of California. Therefore, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism based on 22 polymorphic loci and mating type to investigate pathogen diversity from 138 isolates collected in 2009 to 2010 from 15 groves from the Northern and Southern avocado-growing regions. Additional isolates collected from avocado from 1966 to 2007 as well as isolates from other countries and hosts were also used for comparative purposes. Two distinct clades of A2 mating-type isolates from avocado were found based on neighbor joining analysis; one clade contained both newer and older collections from Northern and Southern California, whereas the other clade only contained isolates collected in 2009 and 2010 from Southern California. A third clade was also found that only contained A1 isolates from various hosts. Within the California population, a total of 16 genotypes were found with only one to four genotypes identified from any one location. The results indicate significant population structure in the California avocado P. cinnamomi population, low genotypic diversity consistent with asexual reproduction, potential evidence for the movement of clonal genotypes between the two growing regions, and a potential introduction of a new clonal lineage into Southern California.

  2. Effects of Silicon Amendment on Soilborne and Fruit Diseases of Avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Elizabeth K; Le, Duy P

    2017-10-20

    The effects of silicon (Si) amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil ® 32, approximately 30% available Si), or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM) or Mineral Dust (MD), containing 5% available Si) were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yield and quality of fruit, but visual health of trees declining from Phytophthora root rot (PRR) was not affected. Orchard spray or trunk injection applications with potassium silicate were ineffective. Amendment of potting mix with MM and MD reduced root necrosis of avocado seedlings after inoculation with Calonectria ilicicola , an aggressive soilborne pathogen causing black root rot. Application of MM to mature orchard trees declining with PRR had a beneficial effect on visual tree health, and Si accumulation in leaves and fruit peel, after only 10 months. Products that deliver available Si consistently for uptake are likely to be most successful in perennial tree crops.

  3. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Iradi, Maria Gabriela Gallego; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-06-10

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R² of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%.

  4. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Gallego Iradi, Maria Gabriela; Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R2 of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%. PMID:26784880

  5. Effects of Silicon Amendment on Soilborne and Fruit Diseases of Avocado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Dann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of silicon (Si amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil®32, approximately 30% available Si, or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM or Mineral Dust (MD, containing 5% available Si were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yield and quality of fruit, but visual health of trees declining from Phytophthora root rot (PRR was not affected. Orchard spray or trunk injection applications with potassium silicate were ineffective. Amendment of potting mix with MM and MD reduced root necrosis of avocado seedlings after inoculation with Calonectria ilicicola, an aggressive soilborne pathogen causing black root rot. Application of MM to mature orchard trees declining with PRR had a beneficial effect on visual tree health, and Si accumulation in leaves and fruit peel, after only 10 months. Products that deliver available Si consistently for uptake are likely to be most successful in perennial tree crops.

  6. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Segovia Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM, the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC. In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, were analyzed. The RSM model has an R2 of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%.

  7. Evaluation of the oxidative stability of Chipotle chili (Capsicum annuum L. oleoresins in avocado oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cerecedo-Cruz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum L. (Chipotle chili is a natural source of bioactive metabolites with antioxidant properties. The objective of this research was to obtain and characterize the oxidative stability under storage of Chipotle chili oleoresins extracted with cold-pressed avocado oil. The most efficient conditions obtained to extract carotenoids and phenolic compounds were at 1:3 ratio (chipotle chili: avocado oil; w:v at room temperature in darkness during 48 h. At the end of the harshest conditions (45 °C, 30 days, the extracts were stable to lipid oxidation with a final Totox value of 27.34, a carotenoid preservation of 85.6%, antioxidant activity retention of 80.66% and a color change (ΔE of 1.783. The kinetic constants obtained were higher for peroxide formation than for carotenoid degradation. The oleoresins obtained could be considered an economic and sustainable alternative to extract carotenoids with good oxidation stability that could be used in foodstuffs.

  8. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS ON POSTHARVEST DISEASE CONTROL IN AVOCADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Postharvest diseases constitute a serious problem for avocado commercialization. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of conventional and alternative products in controlling diseases affecting ‘Hass’ avocados in the field and in the postharvest by carrying out physicochemical characterization of fruits subjected to postharvest treatments. In the field, besides the management adopted by the farmer, seven products were sprayed three times during fruiting for evaluation. Postharvest products were diluted in water or in oxidized polyethylene wax and shellac. Water treatments with potassium phosphite, Soil-Set®, chlorine dioxide, thyme essential oil, sodium bicarbonate, lemon grass essential oil and thiabendazole reduced the incidence of diseased fruits, and anthracnose, the main disease, was controlled with sodium bicarbonate, lemon grass essential oil and thiabendazole. Greater soluble solids content was found for control (water, chlorine dioxide, acibenzolar-S-methyl and thiabendazole. For the products that reduced anthracnose, there was no correlation between the disease and the physicochemical parameters, evidencing that the disease control is not associated with delayed ripening. For wax treatments, diseases were not controlled, and the fruits presented lower titratable acidity with thyme essential oil, sodium bicarbonate, control (wax, acibenzolar-S-methyl and lemon grass essential oil. Control and thyme essential oil were highlighted for maintaining the green coloration of the fruit skin for the shortest period. Under field conditions, azoxystrobin, thiabendazole, difenoconazole+azoxystrobin and acibenzolar-S-methyl+azoxystrobin reduced the occurrence of diseased fruits, while anthracnose control was only obtained with azoxystrobin.

  9. The effect of irradiation in the quality of the avocado frozen pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia, M.A. E-mail: mavald@servidor.unam.mx; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Ruiz, Javier; Ruiz, Luisa F

    2002-03-01

    The quality of frozen avocado pulp irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays at doses of: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 kGy, was studied. These are possible doses for reducing the content of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes by 1-4 log cycles. The study principally consisted of weekly evaluations of damages caused in lipids and chlorophyll pigment over a period of one year. No significant differences were found in either hydrolysis rancidity or in the oxidative rancidity for any of the doses. The concentrations of fatty acids and peroxides were below those established by Codex Alimentarius. This means that the quality of the oil in the frozen avocado pulp remains acceptable. The kinetic model for the oxidative rancidity is of first order and the shelf life of the product is of about 120 weeks. The concentrations of the fatty acids and of malondialdehyde were not high enough to produce off-flavors. It was also determined that the radiation doses did not influence the chemistry of the chlorophyll. The results were confirmed by the panelists, who accepted irradiated frozen pulp at the highest radiation dose.

  10. Postharvest and sensory evaluation of selected ‘Hass’-‘Bacon’ avocado hybrids grown in East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a high-value fruit that continues to increase in consumer demand. A population of ‘Hass’-‘Bacon’ hybrids was planted at USDA-ARS, Fort Pierce as part of a study to find selections with good horticultural and postharvest quality traits for Florida. Extensive pheno...

  11. 75 FR 27225 - Hass Avocados from Mexico; Importation into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits... Mexican national plant protection organization to use an approved designee to inspect avocados for export... provide additional flexibility in operating the export program while continuing to provide protection...

  12. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... amend our domestic regulations to provide for the interstate movement of Hass avocados from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is safeguarded...

  13. 75 FR 81372 - Hass Avocados From Mexico; Importation Into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... stressed the importance of reviewing the criteria that will be utilized by the Mexican NPPO to choose a... should establish a buffer zone with a radius of at least 1 square mile from the specific site where an... by this buffer zone should be suspended from the avocado export program until the pests of concern...

  14. The South Florida Avocado Breeding Program at USDA-Agricultural Research Service Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (USDA-ARS SHRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA-ARS SHRS is part of the USDA National Germplasm Repository system and houses collections of tropical and subtropical fruit trees such as mango, lychee, and avocado. In addition to maintaining the germplasm collections, our mission is to also identify genetic diversity in the collections, to ev...

  15. Highly effective removal of toxic Cr(VI) from wastewater using sulfuric acid-modified avocado seed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhaumik, M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid modified avocado seed (ASSA), as a low-cost carbonized adsorbent, was investigated for the removal of toxic Cr(VI) from water/wastewater in batch experiments. A low temperature (100 °C) chemical carbonization treatment was employed...

  16. A case study of the Mexican avocado industry based on transaction costs and supply chain management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is based on transaction cost economics and supply chain management to analyze how the adoption of supply chain management practices in the Mexican avocado industry reduces the transaction costs between producers and packers. Two sources of information are used: interviews from

  17. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Costagli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or solvent extraction units cannot be installed. These traditional processes yield a grade of oil that needs subsequent refining and is mainly used in the cosmetic industry. In the late 1990s, in New Zeland, a processing company with the collaboration of Alfa Laval began producing cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO to be sold as edible oil for salads and cooking. Over the last fifteen years, CPAO production has increased in many other countries and has led to an expansion of the market which is set to continue, given the growing interest in highquality and healthy food. Avocado oil like olive oil is extracted from the fruit pulp and in particular shares many principles of the extraction process with extra-vergin olive oil. We conducted a review of traditional and modern extraction methods with particular focus on extraction processes and technology for CPAO production.

  18. Radiomutagenesis and an in vitro conductimetric bioassay: it's application to avocado improvement for Phytophthora spp. resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, A.; Santiago, L.; Coto, O.; Machado, M.; Ramos, M.

    2009-01-01

    Avocado root-rot, caused by Phytophtora cinnamomi is among the main biotic stresses causing important economic losses to the crop. Therefore, development and identification of new genotypes resistant to the pathogen is important for an integrated disease management. However, limitations to avocado breeding and production are also related to the long juvenile period, large cultivation areas and extensive natural cross-pollination. In this sense, radiomutagenesis has proven to be a valuable tool to improve disease resistance in fruit trees. For this, the determination of mutagenic doses, combined with in vitro selection and conductimetric bioassays are necessary to accelerate the mutation breeding schemes. In avocado, the measurement of electrical conductivity, based on the release of microelectrolytes to the medium due to cell permeability damage, has been performed on inoculated roots and leaves. In the present work is showed a report of mutagenic doses against gamma rays (LD50 and LD20) determined for in vitro propagated zygotic embryos of three avocado cultivars. Additionally, electric conductivity was measured in leaf discs and root segments from zygotic embryos of Catalina cv. challenged with culture filtrates of isolates from different regions of the country. The results indicated a differential response of the genotype depending on the strain used. Also, differential response was observed, depending on tissue type

  19. USE OF THE MOBILE NYLON BAG TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING IN SITU DIGESTIBILITY OF SOME SUPPLIES FOOD AND AVOCADO IN PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ly Carmenatti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mobile nylon bag technique was used for measuring in situ digestibility of conventional feeds and avocado (Persea americana Mills products in three 70 kg pigs fitted with a simple cannula in duodenum. One 3x3 Latin square was used for determining in situ digestibility of soybean, maize and sorghum meal and another 3x3 Latin square for measuring in situ digestibility of seed, peel plus seed meal and the entire Nayaritean avocado fruit of Hass type, as well as of the commercial diet given ad libitum to animals. In a preliminary test conducted with only bags containing a commercial feedstuff, it was found that in situ digestibility of DM was on average 73.01%. In conventional feeds, soybean meal samples showed higher (P0.05 for N digestibility among avocado products, which was generally low (between 28.02 and 34.58%. In situ organic matter digestibility was linked to that of MS (r = 0.915; P<0.001, both in percent, in 42 examined samples, by the following found equation: y = 2.076 + 0.926 x. The herein described studies concerning the utilization of the mobile bag showed that it is possible to obtain a fast response in connection to the nutritive value of non conventional, tropical alimentary resources for pigs. On the other hand, the continuation of studies relative to the nutritive value of avocado products for pigs is highly recommended.

  20. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (p<0.05), respectively. On the other hand, at 30°C, κ values were 6.5±0.25log CFU/g and 6.5±0.05log CFU/g, respectively. Significantly higher κ were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in the pulp than in the peel of the fruits (p<0.05). For instance, the growth of S. enterica in the pulp of avocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (p<0.05). In general, growth kinetic parameters indicated that avocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model

  1. Determination of the minimum dry matter index for the optimum harvest of 'Hass' avocado fruits in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has become an important producer of 'Hass' avocado in the last three years; however, a minimum dry matter content has not been established as a maturity index for harvest. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between oil percentage and dry matter content in order to establish a minimum harvest index for 'Hass' avocado fruits grown in Colombia. Samples were collected for maturity determinations over three years of 'Hass' avocado fruit cultivation from fifteen different orchards in the department of Antioquia in order to determine the dry matter and oil percentage of fruits throughout the season. A simple linear relationship between oil content and dry matter was thus established. The equations for all of the studied orchards presented a good correlation coefficient, ranging between 0.70 on the Cartucho orchard in the municipality of Retiro and 0.99 on the Gacamayas and Paraiso orchards in the municipality of Entrerrios and Retiro. Using the minimal oil standard of 11.2% as a reference, the orchards that were found to have a high dry matter percentage at harvest were Cartucho in Retiro (26%, followed by Piedras Blancas and Santa Cruz in the municipality of Venecia (25%; while the 'Hass' avocado fruit from the Cebadero orchard in Retiro, Coconi in the municipality of La Ceja and Guacamayas in Entrerrios reached this oil standard at 22% dry matter, which could be a commercial advantage. Based on these oil content results, a minimal dry matter index of 23.5% was proposed as a harvest maturity indicator for 'Hass' avocado grown in Colombia. This harvesting index will need to be refined over time and with the addition of samples from more regions and climatic data profiles.

  2. The effect of thyme oil low-density polyethylene impregnated pellets in polylactic acid sachets on storage quality of ready-to-eat avocado

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bill, M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After earlier promising results for the control of anthracnose in avocado fruit by thyme vapours, our studies were extended to commercial use in tray packs. The effect of thyme oil low-density polyethylene impregnated pellets (TO...

  3. Outcrossing in Florida and California commercial avocado (Persea americana Mill) orchards estimated using microsatellite markers and the development of a genetic linkage map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado has an unusual flowering mechanism, diurnally synchronous protogynous dichogamy, which promotes cross pollination. Comemrcial groves usually contain pollinizer rows adjacent to the more desirable commercial cultivars. Conflicting results on the effect of pollinizer rows on out-crossing rates...

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Defensin PaDef from Avocado Fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) Expressed in Endothelial Cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C.; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (2...

  5. Datasets on abundance of common blossom thrips and weather variables in small-scale avocado orchards at Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Odanga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avocado, Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae, is an important fruit crop cultivated by small-holder farmers along Afrotropical highlands of Taita Hills in South-eastern Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro in Northern Tanzania. The small-holder farmers in these East African regions generate substantial food and cash from avocado fruits. However, the avocado crop is faced with challenges of infestation by insect pests such as the common blossom thrips (Frankliniella schultzei Trybom which feeds on pollen and floral tissue thereby reducing productivity of the trees. Moreover, there is no information describing distribution patterns of Frankliniella schultzei and associated weather in East African avocado orchards despite the fact that small-scale farming is dependent on rainfall. This article was, therefore, initiated to provide dataset on abundance of Frankliniella schultzei from the avocado plants that relates with monthly rainfall and air temperatures at Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro. Frankliniella schultzei was collected using white coloured beating tray and camel brush whereas air temperatures (°C and rainfall (mm was recorded daily using automatic data loggers and rain gauge, respectively. The survey at the two transects commenced during peak flowering season of avocado crop in August up to end of harvesting period in July of the following year. Temporal datasets were generated by Kruskal-Wallis Chi-square test. Current temporal datasets presents strong baseline information specifically for Kenya and Tanzania government agencies to develop further agricultural strategies aimed at improving avocado farming within Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro agro-ecosystems. Keywords: Frankliniella schultzei, Avocado, Weather variables, Taita Hills, Mount Kilimanjaro

  6. Contractual arrangements and food quality certifications in the Mexican avocado industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Arana-Coronado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of private quality certifications in agrifood supply chains often requires specific investments by producers which can be safeguarded by choosing specific contractual arrangements. Based on a survey data from avocado producers in Mexico, this paper aims to analyze the impact of transaction costs and relationship characteristics of the joint choice of contractual arrangements and quality certifications. Using a bivariate probit model, it shows that a producer’s decision to adopt private quality certifications is directly linked to high levels of asset specificity and price. In order to ensure the high level of specificity under the presence of low levels of price uncertainty, producers have relied on relational governance supported by the expectation of continuity in their bilateral relationships with buyers.

  7. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz T, E. De la; Ibanez P, J.; Mijares O, P.; Garcia A, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO 2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  8. Pistil Starch Reserves at Anthesis Correlate with Final Flower Fate in Avocado (Persea americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit. PMID:24167627

  9. Avocado fruit quality with applications of ANA, boron, nitrogen, saccharose and girdling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez Gil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of products for fruit set, production and quality of Hass avocado. This research was performed in a terrain that is located in a moderately cold weather, in Antioquia, Colombia. Factors for inducing flowering, types of inflorescence and production alternation were determined. In addition to the aforementioned, simple and combined foliar application of acid 1–naphthaleneacetic (ANA, boron, nitrogen, saccharose as source energy, and girding branches, was performed. For the experiment we used a complete block experimental design, with five replicates per treatment and a single tree as experimental unit, with three evaluations over time (2010, 2011 and 2012. The variables evaluated were initial and final fruit set, quantity, and quality of produced fruit. Results associated with this study indicate that floral induction in this variety occurs in periods of low rainfall and low temperatures, the inflorescences were mostly of an indeterminate type, and a slight alternation of production occurred. Initial fruit and final set increased with girdling branches and with the application of boron and girdling branches in 28% and 33% respectively, but this treatments did not improve the production, instead the production was favored by adding saccharose alone, and in combination with boron, nitrogen and ANA, it presented increments of 14,5, 15.9, 14.9 and 14.4% respectively. Results indicate that the addition of an individual external energy source combined with the foliar application of boron, nitrogen and ANA, improves the quality and quantity of fruit in the Hass avocado.

  10. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Librada Alcaraz

    Full Text Available A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  11. Quantifying the Severity of Phytophthora Root Rot Disease in Avocado Trees Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arachchige Surantha Ashan Salgadoe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root rot (PRR infects the roots of avocado trees, resulting in reduced uptake of water and nutrients, canopy decline, defoliation, and, eventually, tree mortality. Typically, the severity of PRR disease (proportion of canopy decline is assessed by visually comparing the canopy health of infected trees to a standardised set of photographs and a corresponding disease rating. Although this visual method provides some indication of the spatial variability of PRR disease across orchards, the accuracy and repeatability of the ranking is influenced by the experience of the assessor, the visibility of tree canopies, and the timing of the assessment. This study evaluates two image analysis methods that may serve as surrogates to the visual assessment of canopy decline in large avocado orchards. A smartphone camera was used to collect red, green, and blue (RGB colour images of individual trees with varying degrees of canopy decline, with the digital photographs then analysed to derive a canopy porosity percentage using a combination of ‘Canny edge detection’ and ‘Otsu’s’ methods. Coinciding with the on-ground measure of canopy porosity, the canopy reflectance characteristics of the sampled trees measured by high resolution Worldview-3 (WV-3 satellite imagery was also correlated against the observed disease severity rankings. Canopy porosity values (ranging from 20–70% derived from RGB images were found to be significantly different for most disease rankings (p < 0.05 and correlated well (R2 = 0.89 with the differentiation of three disease severity levels identified to be optimal. From the WV-3 imagery, a multivariate stepwise regression of 18 structural and pigment-based vegetation indices found the simplified ratio vegetation index (SRVI to be strongly correlated (R2 = 0.96 with the disease rankings of PRR disease severity, with the differentiation of four levels of severity found to be optimal.

  12. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Niogret

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae. The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees.

  13. Terpenoid Variations within and among Half-Sibling Avocado Trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niogret, Jerome; Epsky, Nancy D.; Schnell, Raymond J.; Boza, Edward J.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae). The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's) determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees. PMID:24039994

  14. AVOCADO PEAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    This study assesses litterfall and nutrient returns to the soil in isolated stands of Persea gratissima in the ... cleared for cultivation, this plant – soil relationship is ..... T-Test for Litter production between Persea gratissima and Adjoining. Rainforest. Sample. Sample site N Mean M.D S.D. S.E.D D/F F. T. Sig. Litter production.

  15. Reação de cultivares de abacateiro à podridão de raízes Reaction of avocado cultivars to avocado root rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Hideki Sumida

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de abacateiro (Persea americana Mill 'Margarida', 'Fortuna' e 'Hass' têm muita importância econômica no mercado nacional e internacional. Em função disso, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a reação dessas cultivares frente à Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands., agente causal da podridão das raízes. A inoculação do patógeno foi feita por meio de implantação de tecidos de raízes sintomáticas. Foram inoculadas quatro raízes em três árvores diferentes, uma de cada cultivar, em três pontos diferentes da raiz. Em cada cultivar, das quatro raízes, uma foi utilizada como testemunha, nas quais foram implantados tecidos sadios. A avaliação foi realizada aos 120 dias após a inoculação, observando-se as raízes externamente quanto à alteração da coloração e presença de estruturas de patógenos na região da superfície da casca nos pontos inoculados. Internamente, foram removidas as cascas para visualização das alterações a partir do ponto inoculado, sendo observadas alterações de coloração dos tecidos e realizada mensuração da extensão do escurecimento (lesão aparente. Nas extremidades das lesões foram retirados segmentos de raízes e implantados em meio de cultivo farinha de milho-ágar e incubados, para verificação da colonização na área sem escurecimento, ou seja, a colonização não- aparente. Das cultivares avaliadas, a 'Hass' foi a menos suscetível ao P. cinnamomi, quando comparada às cultivares 'Fortuna' e 'Margarida'. O patógeno P. cinnamomi pode apresentar desenvolvimento ou colonização nos tecidos radiculares além da área sintomática.Cultivars of the avocado (Persea americana Mill 'Margarida', 'Fortuna' and 'Geada' have importance in the national and international markets. The present paper had as objective to evaluate the reaction of such cultivars to Phytophthora cinanamomi Rands, the causal agent of avocado root rot. They were inoculated four roots in three different

  16. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration Mutants as Biocontrol Agents Against Anthracnose Disease in Avocado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoby, N; Zhou, R; Kobiler, I; Dinoor, A; Prusky, D

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT Reduced-pathogenicity mutants of the avocado fruit pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate Cg-14 (teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata) were generated by insertional mutagenesis by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. Following seven transformations, 3,500 hygromycin-resistant isolates were subjected to a virulence assay by inoculation on mesocarp and pericarp of cv. Fuerte avocado fruits. Fourteen isolates showed a reduced degree of virulence relative compared with wild-type Cg-14. Two isolates, Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150, were further characterized. Cg-M-142 produced appressoria on avocado pericarp similar to Cg-14, but caused reduced symptom development on the fruit's pericarp and mesocarp. Isolate Cg-M-1150 did not produce appressoria; it caused much reduced maceration on the mesocarp and no symptoms on the pericarp. Southern blot analysis of Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150 showed REMI at different XbaI sites of the fungal genome. Pre-inoculation of avocado fruit with Cg-M-142 delayed symptom development by the wild-type isolate. Induced resistance was accompanied by an increase in the levels of preformed antifungal diene, from 760 to 1,200 mug/g fresh weight 9 days after inoculation, whereas pre-inoculation with Cg-M-1150 did not affect the level of antifungal diene, nor did it delay the appearance of decay symptoms. The results presented here show that reduced-pathogenicity isolates can be used for the biological control of anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides attack.

  17. Quantifying runoff water quality characteristics from nurseries and avocado groves subjected to altered irrigation and fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, S. A.; Beighley, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    In agriculture, improper, excessive or poorly timed irrigation and fertilizer applications can result in increased pollutants in runoff and degraded water quality. Specifically, the cultivation of salt sensitive plants and nurseries require significant irrigation and fertilizer that leads to high nutrient leaching. In southern California, a large producer of Avocados and nursery plant, waterways are often subjected to elevated nutrient concentrations, which stress the aquatic ecosystem. In this research, the specific objectives are to determine optimal irrigation and fertilizer application rates for minimizing nutrient and sediment export from avocado groves and nurseries. Altered irrigation and fertilizer application experiments will be implemented and monitored at the San Diego State University's Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, which contains a 12 ha avocado grove and newly constructed 0.4 ha nursery. The study will last for twelve months, with runoff from natural rainfall or irrigation sampled and analyzed for nutrient concentrations on a monthly basis. The growth rate, leaf nutrient content and plant yield will also be monitored monthly. The nursery site is divided into eight plots (13.5-m x 13.5-m), with each plot containing 1200 plants consisting of four commonly used landscaping varieties in southern California. The avocado grove of the Hass variety is divided into four 1-ha plots. The experimental plots represent combinations of irrigation and fertilization practices with different methods and rates. In all cases, irrigation is fully automated based on soil moisture. To assess the effectiveness of the altered irrigation and fertilizer strategies, runoff water quality and plant yield will be compared to controlled treatments. This research is intended to provide a better understanding of how irrigation and fertilizer management can be used for the long-term reduction of nutrients in the Santa Margarita Watershed, which in turn will lead to improved

  18. Transcriptome responses of an ungrafted Phytophthora root rot tolerant avocado (Persea americana) rootstock to flooding and Phytophthora cinnamomi

    OpenAIRE

    Reeksting, B. J.; Olivier, N. A.; van den Berg, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a commercially important fruit crop worldwide. A major limitation to production is the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes root rot leading to branch-dieback and tree death. The decline of orchards infected with P. cinnamomi occurs much faster when exposed to flooding, even if flooding is only transient. Flooding is a multifactorial stress compromised of several individual stresses, making breeding and selection for tolerant varieties c...

  19. Comparison and Field Validation of Binomial Sampling Plans for Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Hass Avocado in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesus R; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker, & Abatiello is a foliar pest of 'Hass' avocados [Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae)]. The recommended action threshold is 50-100 motile mites per leaf, but this count range and other ecological factors associated with O. perseae infestations limit the application of enumerative sampling plans in the field. Consequently, a comprehensive modeling approach was implemented to compare the practical application of various binomial sampling models for decision-making of O. perseae in California. An initial set of sequential binomial sampling models were developed using three mean-proportion modeling techniques (i.e., Taylor's power law, maximum likelihood, and an empirical model) in combination with two-leaf infestation tally thresholds of either one or two mites. Model performance was evaluated using a robust mite count database consisting of >20,000 Hass avocado leaves infested with varying densities of O. perseae and collected from multiple locations. Operating characteristic and average sample number results for sequential binomial models were used as the basis to develop and validate a standardized fixed-size binomial sampling model with guidelines on sample tree and leaf selection within blocks of avocado trees. This final validated model requires a leaf sampling cost of 30 leaves and takes into account the spatial dynamics of O. perseae to make reliable mite density classifications for a 50-mite action threshold. Recommendations for implementing this fixed-size binomial sampling plan to assess densities of O. perseae in commercial California avocado orchards are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Biocontrol bacteria selected by a direct plant protection strategy against avocado white root rot show antagonism as a prevalent trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, M Á; Pérez-Jiménez, R M; Pliego, C; Ramos, C; de Vicente, A; Cazorla, F M

    2010-07-01

    This study was undertaken to study bacterial strains obtained directly for their efficient direct control of the avocado white root rot, thus avoiding prescreening by any other possible mechanism of biocontrol which could bias the selection. A collection of 330 bacterial isolates was obtained from the roots and soil of healthy avocado trees. One hundred and forty-three representative bacterial isolates were tested in an avocado/Rosellinia test system, resulting in 22 presumptive protective strains, all of them identified mainly as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species. These 22 candidate strains were screened in a more accurate biocontrol trial, confirming protection of some strains (4 out of the 22). Analyses of the potential bacterial traits involved in the biocontrol activity suggest that different traits could act jointly in the final biocontrol response, but any of these traits were neither sufficient nor generalized for all the active bacteria. All the protective strains selected were antagonistic against some fungal root pathogens. Diverse bacteria with biocontrol activity could be obtained by a direct plant protection strategy of selection. All the biocontrol strains finally selected in this work were antagonistic, showing that antagonism is a prevalent trait in the biocontrol bacteria selected by a direct plant protection strategy. This is the first report on the isolation of biocontrol bacterial strains using direct plant protection strategy in the system avocado/Rosellinia. Characterization of selected biocontrol bacterial strains obtained by a direct plant protection strategy showed that antagonism is a prevalent trait in the selected strains in this experimental system. This suggests that antagonism could be used as useful strategy to select biocontrol strains. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Potential of contact insecticides to control Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a vector of laurel wilt disease in avocados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Crane, Jonathan H; Peña, Jorge E

    2013-12-01

    Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is an invasive ambrosia beetle that vectors laurel wilt, a new disease that threatens avocado and other species in the Lauraceae Family. The lethal concentrations (LC50 & 90) of nine commercial insecticides to X. glabratus were determined by using a bolt-dip bioassay. Different formulations of bifenthrin, permethrin, fenpropathrin, z-cypermethrin + bifenthrin, 1-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, malathion, chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and methomyl were tested. Four concentrations of each insecticide were tested (0.5, 0.1, 0.03, and 0.01 of the label rate) and with water as a control. Beetles were exposed to treated bolts and mortality registered 48 h later. After 2 wk, bolts were destructively sampled to determine the number of beetles that constructed galleries and were alive inside the wood. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC50 & 90. Six pesticides were applied directly to the trunk and limbs of avocado trees in a commercial grove. Limbs of treated trees were cut weekly after the application and exposed to X. glabratus to determine the number of beetles boring into the logs. The toxicity of pesticides to X. glabratus was greatly reduced 2 wk after application. Among the tested pesticides, malathion and z-cypermethrin + bifenthrin provided the best suppression of X. glabratus. Among the insecticides registered for use in avocado, fenpropathrin and malathion were the most effective in protecting trees from attack by X. glabratus. Other pesticides that are currently not registered for use in avocados could be useful for managing this ambrosia beetle.

  2. Identification of avocado (Persea americana) root proteins induced by infection with the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi using a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Muñiz, Carlos H; Escobar-Tovar, Lina; Valdes-Rodríguez, Silvia; Fernández-Pavia, Silvia; Arias-Saucedo, Luis J; de la Cruz Espindola Barquera, Maria; Gómez Lim, Miguel Á

    2012-01-01

    Avocado root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is the most important disease that limits avocado production. A proteomic approach was employed to identify proteins that are upregulated by infection with P. cinnamomi. Different proteins were shown to be differentially expressed after challenge with the pathogen by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. A densitometric evaluation of protein expression indicated differential regulation during the time-course analyzed. Some proteins induced in response to the infection were identified by standard peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and sequencing by MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 400 protein spots detected on 2-D gels, 21 seemed to change in abundance by 3 hours after infection. Sixteen proteins were upregulated, 5 of these were only detected in infected roots and 11 showed an increased abundance. Among the differentially expressed proteins identified are homologs to isoflavone reductase, glutathione S-transferase, several abscisic acid stress-ripening proteins, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cysteine synthase and quinone reductase. A 17.3-kDa small heat-shock protein and a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein were identified as downregulated. Our group is the first to report on gene induction in response to oomycete infection in roots from avocado, using proteomic techniques. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation and vapor gard on keeping quality of fuerte avocado fruits stored at temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, S.M.; Hassan, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    'Fuerte'avocado fruits, at mature stage, were treated after harvest by gamma rays and Vapor-Gard either alone or in combination, and stored at room temperature. Irradiation with 0.025 or 0.05 kGy increased loss of weight and decay percentage. However, fruit firmness, total carotenoids content, total phenolic compounds and total carbohydrates content were not affected. In all Vapor-Gard treatments at 0.5 or 1.0% either alone or combined with irradiation decreased the weight loss, decay percentage and total carotenoids content, but increased significantly each of fruit firmness, total phenols content and total carbohydrates content during storage periods. Avocados treated by Vapor-Gard at 0.5 or 1.0% alone or combined with irradiation delayed the ripening and extended shelf by 4 and 8 days respectively compared with those of the control or irradiated fruits which reached the fair quality after 8 days of storage. Concerning the changes in oil properties, it is noticed that, refractive index at 25 degree C and iodine value of avocado oil were not affected by treatments or storage periods, while storage periods caused a noticeable decrease in the free fatty acid percentage in all treatments and this reduction was greater in all Vapor-Gard treatments compared with the control.8 tab

  4. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Dreher, Mark; Davenport, Adrienne J

    2013-01-02

    Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA's Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ≥ 19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001-2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (pmetabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.

  5. Comparing Avocado, Swamp Bay, and Camphortree as Hosts of Raffaelea lauricola Using a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Labeled Strain of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A S; Ploetz, R C; Rollins, J A

    2017-01-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the Lauraceae plant family. North American species in the family, such as avocado (Persea americana) and swamp bay (P. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the Asian camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. To determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of R. lauricola was generated and used to inoculate avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree. Trees were harvested 3, 10, and 30 days after inoculation (DAI), and disease severity was rated on a 1-to-10 scale. By 30 DAI, avocado and swamp bay developed significantly more severe disease than camphortree (mean severities of 6.8 and 5.5 versus 1.6, P avocado than camphortree (0.9% versus 0.1%, P avocado (r = 0.74), swamp bay (r = 0.82), and camphortree (r = 0.87), even severely affected trees of all species were scarcely colonized by the pathogen.

  6. Use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics for the authentication of avocado oil in ternary mixtures with sunflower and soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sotelo, Paola; Hernández-Martínez, Maylet; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Meza-Márquez, Ofelia Gabriela; García-Ochoa, Felipe; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí

    2016-07-01

    Avocado oil is a high-value and nutraceutical oil whose authentication is very important since the addition of low-cost oils could lower its beneficial properties. Mid-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to detect and quantify adulteration of avocado oil with sunflower and soybean oils in a ternary mixture. Thirty-seven laboratory-prepared adulterated samples and 20 pure avocado oil samples were evaluated. The adulterated oil amount ranged from 2% to 50% (w/w) in avocado oil. A soft independent modelling class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to discriminate between pure and adulterated samples. The model showed recognition and rejection rate of 100% and proper classification in external validation. A partial least square (PLS) algorithm was used to estimate the percentage of adulteration. The PLS model showed values of R(2) > 0.9961, standard errors of calibration (SEC) in the range of 0.3963-0.7881, standard errors of prediction (SEP estimated) between 0.6483 and 0.9707, and good prediction performances in external validation. The results showed that mid-FTIR spectroscopy could be an accurate and reliable technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of avocado oil in ternary mixtures.

  7. Development of an active biodegradable film containing tocopherol and avocado peel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Fidelis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic starch (TPS films and poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT (60/40 m/m containing TOCO-70 (tocopherol/soybean oil 70/30 m/m and avocado peel extract (ExA were produced using blown film extrusion. The formulations of the 5 films (FC/F1/F2/F3 and F4 were established through mixture design with constraints maintaining constant PBAT and TPS proportion, and varying the antioxidant concentrations. Adding antioxidants reduced the water vapour permeability (Kw of the films, with formulation F2 presenting higher decrease in relationto FC, 77.8%. The presence of ExA improved the mechanical properties of the films. The production of the films was determined to be viable after they presented good processability in a pilotextruder, as well as mechanical properties appropriate to production and utilization in industry.The presence of ExA and TOCO 70 provided the films with antioxidant activity; their application as active packaging requires further studies.

  8. Two similar enhanced root-colonizing Pseudomonas strains differ largely in their colonization strategies of avocado roots and Rosellinia necatrix hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego, Clara; de Weert, Sandra; Lamers, Gerda; de Vicente, Antonio; Bloemberg, Guido; Cazorla, Francisco Manuel; Ramos, Cayo

    2008-12-01

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes AVO73 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes AVO110 were selected previously as efficient avocado root tip colonizers, displaying in vitro antagonism towards Rosellinia necatrix, causal agent of avocado white root rot. Despite the higher number of antagonistic properties shown in vitro by AVO73, only AVO110 demonstrated significant protection against avocado white root rot. As both strains are enhanced root colonizers, and as colonization is crucial for the most likely biocontrol mechanisms used by these strains, namely production of non-antibiotic antifungal compounds and competition for nutrients and niches, we decided to compare the interactions of the bacterial strains with avocado roots as well as with R. necatrix hyphae. The results indicate that strain AVO110 is superior in biocontrol trait swimming motility and establishes on the root tip of avocado plants faster than AVO73. Visualization studies, using Gfp-labelled derivatives of these strains, showed that AVO110, in contrast to AVO73, colonizes intercellular crevices between neighbouring plant root epidermal cells, a microhabitat of enhanced exudation. Moreover, AVO110, but not AVO73, also colonizes root wounds, described to be preferential penetration sites for R. necatrix infection. This result strongly suggests that AVO110 meets, and can attack, the pathogen on the root. Finally, when co-inoculated with the pathogen, AVO110 utilizes hyphal exudates more efficiently for proliferation than AVO73 does, and colonizes the hyphae more abundantly than AVO73. We conclude that the differences between the strains in colonization levels and strategies are likely to contribute to, and even can explain, the difference in disease-controlling abilities between the strains. This is the first report that shows that two similar bacterial strains, selected by their ability to colonize avocado root, use strongly different root colonization strategies and suggests that in addition to the total bacterial

  9. Vertical Distribution and Daily Flight Periodicity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Avocado Orchards Affected by Laurel Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menocal, Octavio; Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Crane, Jonathan H; Carrillo, Daniel

    2018-03-08

    Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado ((Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae])) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the causal agent of the laurel wilt (LW) disease. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documenting their flight height and daily flight periodicity in Florida orchards with LW. Flight height was assessed passively in three avocado orchards by using ladder-like arrays of unbaited sticky traps arranged at three levels (low: 0-2 m; middle: 2-4 m; high: 4-6 m). In total, 1,306 individuals of 12 Scolytinae species were intercepted, but six accounted for ~95% of the captures: Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Euplatypus parallelus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The primary vector of R. lauricola, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was not detected. Females of X. volvulus showed a preference for flight at low levels and X. bispinatus for the low and middle levels; however, captures of all other species were comparable at all heights. At a fourth orchard, a baiting method was used to document flight periodicity. Females of X. saxesenii and Hypothenemus sp. were observed in flight 2-2.5 h prior to sunset; X. bispinatus, X. volvulus, and X. affinis initiated flight at ~1 h before sunset and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at 30 min prior to sunset. Results suggest that ambrosia beetles in South Florida fly near sunset (when light intensity and wind speed decrease) at much greater heights than previously assumed and have species-specific patterns in host

  10. [Efficiency of unsaponifiable compounds of soya beans and avocado in health care personnel with osteoarthrosis in Volgograd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborovskiĭ, A B; Akhverdian, Iu R; Sivordova, L E; Simakova, E S; Zavodovskiĭ, B V

    2013-01-01

    The authors used immunoenzyme method to assess level of oxydated low density lipoproteins (o-LDL) in 130 patients with osteoarthrosis. High serum level of o-LDL was seen in 60% of the patients with osteoarthrosis. 40 patients with osteoarthrosis were treated by unsaponifiable compounds of soya beans and avocado (Piaskledin, Expanscience, France)--dose of 300 mg daily, over 3 months. The treatment resulted in good effect in the patients with high level of o-LDL (over 168 ng/ml).

  11. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgoni Victor L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM. Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults  ≥ 19 years of age (49% female, including 347 avocado consumers (50% female, examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p  Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.

  12. Raman characterization of Avocado Sunblotch viroid and its response to external perturbations and self-cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Bon-Hoa, Gaston; Kaddour, Hussein; Vergne, Jacques; Kruglik, Sergei G; Maurel, Marie-Christine

    2014-03-21

    Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. To date the structural and conformational details of the cleavage of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) and the catalytic role of Mg2+ ions in efficient self-cleavage are of crucial interest. We report the first Raman characterization of the structure and activity of ASBVd, for plus and minus viroid strands. Both strands exhibit a typical A-type RNA conformation with an ordered double-helical content and a C3'-endo/anti sugar pucker configuration, although small but specific differences are found in the sugar puckering and base-stacking regions. The ASBVd(-) is shown to self-cleave 3.5 times more actively than ASBVd(+). Deuteration and temperature increase perturb differently the double-helical content and the phosphodiester conformation, as revealed by corresponding characteristic Raman spectral changes. Our data suggest that the structure rigidity and stability are higher and the D2O accessibility to H-bonding network is lower for ASBVd(+) than for ASBVd(-). Remarkably, the Mg2+-activated self-cleavage of the viroid does not induce any significant alterations of the secondary viroid structure, as evidenced from the absence of intensity changes of Raman marker bands that, however exhibit small but noticeable frequency downshifts suggesting several minor changes in phosphodioxy, internal loops and hairpins of the cleaved viroids. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in monitoring structural and conformational changes of the viroid and constitute the basis for further studies of its interactions with therapeutic agents and cell membranes.

  13. Subcellular Lipid Droplets in Vanilla Leaf Epidermis and Avocado Mesocarp Are Coated with Oleosins of Distinct Phylogenic Lineages1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular lipid droplets (LDs) in diverse plant cells and species are coated with stabilizing oleosins of at least five phylogenic lineages and perform different functions. We examined two types of inadequately studied LDs for coated oleosins and their characteristics. The epidermis but not mesophyll of leaves of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) and most other Asparagales species contained solitary and clustered LDs (vanilla leaves, transcripts of oleosins of the U lineage were present in both epidermis and mesophyll, but oleosin occurred only in epidermis. Immuno-confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the LDs were coated with oleosins. LDs in isolated fractions did not coalesce, and the fractions contained heterogeneous proteins including oleosins and diverse lipids. These findings reflect the in situ structure and possible functions of the LDs. Fruit mesocarp of avocado (Persea americana) and other Lauraceae species possessed large LDs, which likely function in attracting animals for seed dispersal. They contained transcripts of oleosin of a novel M phylogenic lineage. Each avocado mesocarp fatty cell possessed one to several large LDs (5 to 20 μm) and at their periphery, numerous small LDs (<0.5 μm). Immuno-confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that oleosin was present mostly on the small LDs. LDs in isolated fractions coalesced rapidly, and the fraction contained oleosin and several other proteins and triacylglycerols as the main lipids. These two new types of oleosin-LDs exemplify the evolutionary plasticity of oleosins-LDs in generating novel functions in diverse cell types and species. PMID:27208281

  14. Organic amendments to avocado crops induce suppressiveness and influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Nuria; Vida, Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Landa, Blanca B; Gaju, Nuria; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    2015-05-15

    One of the main avocado diseases in southern Spain is white root rot caused by the fungus Rosellinia necatrix Prill. The use of organic soil amendments to enhance the suppressiveness of natural soil is an inviting approach that has successfully controlled other soilborne pathogens. This study tested the suppressive capacity of different organic amendments against R. necatrix and analyzed their effects on soil microbial communities and enzymatic activities. Two-year-old avocado trees were grown in soil treated with composted organic amendments and then used for inoculation assays. All of the organic treatments reduced disease development in comparison to unamended control soil, especially yard waste (YW) and almond shells (AS). The YW had a strong effect on microbial communities in bulk soil and produced larger population levels and diversity, higher hydrolytic activity and strong changes in the bacterial community composition of bulk soil, suggesting a mechanism of general suppression. Amendment with AS induced more subtle changes in bacterial community composition and specific enzymatic activities, with the strongest effects observed in the rhizosphere. Even if the effect was not strong, the changes caused by AS in bulk soil microbiota were related to the direct inhibition of R. necatrix by this amendment, most likely being connected to specific populations able to recolonize conducive soil after pasteurization. All of the organic amendments assayed in this study were able to suppress white root rot, although their suppressiveness appears to be mediated differentially. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria associated with avocado display antagonistic activity against Phytophthora cinnamomi through volatile emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bravo, Alfonso; Cortazar-Murillo, Elvis Marian; Guevara-Avendaño, Edgar; Ceballos-Luna, Oscar; Rodríguez-Haas, Benjamín; Kiel-Martínez, Ana L; Hernández-Cristóbal, Orlando; Guerrero-Analco, José A; Reverchon, Frédérique

    2018-01-01

    Rhizobacteria associated with crops constitute an important source of potentially beneficial microorganisms with plant growth promoting activity or antagonistic effects against phytopathogens. In this study, we evaluated the plant growth promoting activity of 11 bacterial isolates that were obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy avocado trees and from that of avocado trees having survived root rot infestations. Seven bacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter, promoted in vitro growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. These isolates were then tested for antagonistic activity against Phytophthora cinnamomi, in direct dual culture assays. Two of those rhizobacterial isolates, obtained from symptomatic-declining trees, displayed antagonistic activity. Isolate A8a, which is closely related to Bacillus acidiceler, was also able to inhibit P. cinnamomi growth in vitro by 76% through the production of volatile compounds. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allowed to tentatively identify the main volatiles emitted by isolate A8a as 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, 6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one and 3-amino-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one. These volatile compounds have been reported to show antifungal activity when produced by other bacterial isolates. These results confirm the significance of rhizobacteria and suggest that these bacteria could be used for biocontrol of soil borne oomycetes through their volatiles emissions.

  16. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  17. Influence of temperature and time during malaxation on fatty acid profile and oxidation of centrifuged avocado oil

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    Jessica del Pilar RAMÍREZ-ANAYA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virgin oil from avocados (Persea americana Mill. is obtained by mechanical processes after pulp malaxation at temperatures that minimize oxidation and improve separation. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of time (0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 120 and 180 min and temperature (40 and 50 °C conditions during pulp malaxation on extraction yield, nutritional value (normalized fatty acid profile and specific extintion (K232 and K270 of virgin oil extracted under laboratory conditions from avocados cultivated in southern Jalisco, Mexico. When pulp was malaxated for 120 min at 40 and 50 °C, a larger proportion of oil was extracted (82.9 ± 0.3% and 80.2 ± 0.8%, respectively. We observed that the normalized percentage of the fatty acids linoleic (18 ± 2% and linolenic (1.2 ± 0.2% decreased with mixing time, while that of palmitoleic (9 ± 1%, oleic (51.6 ± 1.2% and stearic (0.5 ± 0.1% remained without change. The ω-6:ω-3 ratio (15 ± 1 was higher than the recommended values but similar to those reported as favorable for health. Specific extinction (K232, 2.2 ± 0.3 and K270, 0.20 ± 0.03 indicate that the oxidation level remained low. Malaxation at 40 or 50 °C did not significantly alter the characteristics of the oil, but time significantly affected yield.

  18. Self-assembled films containing crude extract of avocado as a source of tyrosinase for monophenol detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Nirton C.S., E-mail: nirtoncristi@gmail.com [Instituto de Física de São Carlos/Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Reginaldo A. [Centro de Estudos e Inovação em Materiais Biofuncionais Avançados/Universidade Federal de Itajubá, CP 50, 37500-903 Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Cruz Rodrigues, Valquiria da; Guimarães, Francisco E.G. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos/Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de [Centro de Estudos e Inovação em Materiais Biofuncionais Avançados/Universidade Federal de Itajubá, CP 50, 37500-903 Itajubá, MG (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports on the use of the crude extract of avocado (CEA) fruit (Persea americana) as a source of tyrosinase enzyme. CEA was immobilized via layer by layer (LbL) technique onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates and applied in the detection of monophenol using a potentiometric biosensor. Poly(propylene imine) dendrimer of generation 3 (PPI-G3) was used as a counter ion in the layer by layer process due to its highly porous structure and functional groups suitable for enzyme linkage. After the immobilization of the crude CEA as multilayered films, standard samples of monophenol were detected in the 0.25–4.00 mM linear range with approximately 28 mV mM{sup −1} of sensitivity. This sensitivity is 14 times higher than the values found in the literature for a similar system. The results show that it is possible to obtain efficient and low-cost biosensors for monophenol detection using potentiometric transducers and alternative sources of enzymes without purification. - Highlights: • ITO films were functionalized with multilayers of PPI dendrimer and crude extract of avocado. • The films were applied as potentiometric biosensor for the detection of monophenol. • The proposed system presented an excellent sensitivity to monophenol (27 mV mM{sup −1})

  19. MORPHOANATOMICAL LEAF ANALYSIS IN HORTICULTURAL GROUPS OF AVOCADO (Persea americana PLACED AT INIA-CENIAP’S COLLECTION, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ferrer Pereira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The avocado (Persea americana Mill. is the most important species of Lauraceae in America due to its exploitation as food for pre-Columbian and modern cultures. It is a very important seasonal crop in Venezuela based on a perennial fruit tree management. From a selection of 76 accessions (45 cultivars of avocados cultivated at the Germplasm Bank of INIA-CENIAP, a morphoanatomical analysis was performed to identify attributes of taxonomic resolution (diagnostic characters which allow to characterize sets and / or culta. Morphological study was carried out from each accession herborized sample. Information was obtained by freehand transverse leaf sections (epidermis, mesophyll and midvein as well as paradermic preparations, and observed data was recorded in DELTA System. New morphoanatomical characters and discriminating attributes between cultivars were identified and described, especially to discriminate the Mexican group, and a close relationship within West Indian and Guatemalan cultivars was observed due to the variability identified from the latter group. Indument- related attributes were highly informative to discriminate among cultivars, along with the outline, apical angle and projections at the base of the leaf blades, stem cross section and presence of anise odor, progress and joining of the secondary nerve branches, tertiary venation pattern, abaxial contour and thickness of the sclerenchymatous sheath and compaction of the phloem in the vascular bundle, adaxial contour of the median nerve, and thickness, outline and uniformity of the anticlinal walls of adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells.

  20. Identification of volatile compounds in cultivars barker, collinson, fortuna and geada of avocado (Persea americana, Mill. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercia de Sousa GALVAO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this paper was to determine the volatile profile of four cultivars - Barker, Collinson, Fortuna and Geada of avocado (Persea americana, Mill. fruit and to perform a detailed study on the effect of volatiles extraction conditions. The best conditions for extraction for Collinson and Fortuna cultivars were by using a mixture of pentane and ethyl ether (2:1 as solvent for 80 min, while for Barker and Geada cultivars, the solvents were hexane and pentane-ether (2:1, respectively but for a shorter extraction period of 60 min. A total number of 158 compounds were separated in all 4 avocado cultivars, among them eighty-four volatile compounds were identified. The principal volatile compounds viz. hexanal, ethyl acetate, methyl dodecanoate, 2,5-dimethyl furan, 1,3-butanediol, 2-ethylphenol, 2-butanol, α−bergamotene, β−caryophyllene, (E-2-decenal were common in all the 4 cultivars. (E-2-pentenal which possesses fruity aroma was found only in the cultivar Fortuna while ethyl acetate possessing fresh fruity flavor was present in higher content in Collinson cultivar. Benzaldehyde which possesses characteristic fruity and nutty odor note was present at a higher concentration (4.3% in only Geada cultivar and in traces in Barker cultivar but it was not detected in Collinson and Fortuna cultivars.

  1. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

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    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted, compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet, a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  2. Postharvest and sensory evaluation of selected ‘Hass’x‘Bacon’ and ‘Bacon’x ‘Hass’ avocado hybrids grown in East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a high-value fruit that continues to increase in consumer demand. A population of ‘Hass’-‘Bacon’ hybrids was planted at USDA-ARS, Fort Pierce as part of a study to find selections with good horticultural and postharvest quality traits for Florida. Extensive phenot...

  3. Impact of motility and chemotaxis features of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 on its biocontrol of avocado white root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonio, Álvaro; Vida, Carmen; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2017-06-01

    The biocontrol rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 has the ability to protect avocado plants against white root rot produced by the phytopathogenic fungus Rosellinia necatrix. Moreover, PCL1606 displayed direct interactions with avocado roots and the pathogenic fungus. Thus, nonmotile (flgK mutant) and non-chemotactic (cheA mutant) derivatives of PCL1606 were constructed to emphasize the importance of motility and chemotaxis in the biological behaviour of PCL1606 during the biocontrol interaction. Plate chemotaxis assay showed that PCL1606 was attracted to the single compounds tested, such as glucose, glutamate, succinate, aspartate and malate, but no chemotaxis was observed to avocado or R. necatrix exudates. Using the more sensitive capillary assay, it was reported that smaller concentrations (1 mM) of single compounds elicited high chemotactic responses, and strong attraction was confirmed to avocado and R. necatrix exudates. Finally, biocontrol experiments revealed that the cheA and fglK derivative mutants reduced root protection against R. necatrix, suggesting an important role for these biological traits in biocontrol by P. chlororaphis PCL1606. [Int Microbiol 20(2):94-104 (2017)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  4. Avocado roots treated with salicylic acid produce phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl), a compound with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Sánchez, Gerardo; Castro-Mercado, Elda; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2014-02-15

    We demonstrated the ability of salicylic acid (SA) to induce a compound in avocado roots that strengthens their defense against Phytophthora cinnamomi. The SA content of avocado roots, before and after the application of exogenous SA, was determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). After 4h of SA feeding, the endogenous level in the roots increased to 223 μg g(-1) FW, which was 15 times the amount found in control roots. The methanolic extract obtained from SA-treated avocado roots inhibited the radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A thin layer chromatographic bioassay with the methanolic extract and spores of Aspergillus showed a distinct inhibition zone. The compound responsible for the inhibition was identified as phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the substance reduced germinative tube length in Aspergillus and radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A commercial preparation of phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) caused the same effects on mycelium morphology and radial growth as our isolate, confirming the presence of this compound in the root extracts. This is the first report of the induction of this compound in plants by SA, and the results suggest that it plays an important role in the defense response of avocado. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of relative humidity in the preservation of irradiated avocados. Part of a coordinated programme on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmelic, V.J.

    1985-02-01

    Avocados were irradiated with gamma rays (Cs-137) and subjected to thermal treatment. Relative humidity (RH) is an important factor in this preservation; the higher the RH the longer the shelf-life. PVC was used to maintain the humidity of the fruits

  6. Infusum Daun Alpukat Sebagai Inhibitor Kristalisasi Kalsium Oksalat pada Ginjal (THE AVOCADO LEAVES INFUSUM AS INHIBITOR ON RENAL CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Madyastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine crystal is a crystal nucleus which tend to form urine stone. The case of urine stone seems to beincreased every year. Crystallization could induce acute tubular necrosis which impact on renal dysfunction.The signs of this condition are high level of urea, creatinine and decrease glomerulus filtration rate. Theobjective of this research was to evaluate the effects of infusum Persea americana Mill as an inhibitorcrystallization which induced by ethylene glycol on white male rats. 20 male rats were divided into 4groups; K1 as negative group received only distilled water ad libitum, K2 as positive group receiveddistilled water containing ethylene glycol, K3 (dose 5% and K4 (dose 10% as treatment groups receivedwater containing ethylene glycol and avocado leaves infusion. Phytochemsitry screening of infusion avocadoleaves consisted of flavonoid, saponin, tanine and quinone. Result of analysis showed that the level ofureum and creatinine on K2 was higher than K3 and K4 group. The increased level could be inhibited byinfusion avocado leaves. The measurement of glomerular filtration rate in treatment groups wassignificantly different (p<0.05. Descriptive histopathology observation showed that renal lesio in grouptreatment (K3 and K4 were declined. Large crystal calcium oxalate on K2 group was observed by usingpolarized microscope, whereas small crystal calcium oxalate were seen in the infusion of avocado leavesgroups. These result showed the ability of infusion of avocado leaves as an inhibitor on the growth ofcrystallization calcium oxalate

  7. Response of avocado genotypes to improvement through {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Respuesta de diversos genotipos de aguacate al mejoramiento por radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, E. De la; Rubi A, M.; Garcia A, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Ten avocado genotypes were subjected to gamma radiation from 0 to 45 Gy in 1993. Vegetative and reproductive data were analysed in a factorial design. Genotypes differed significative on height and fruit number. Radiation affected significative fruit number but not tree height. ''Hass'' showed strongest interaction between genotype and doses, for fruit number. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi to manage the redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of Laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  9. Role of 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 in the multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere during the biocontrol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Claudia E; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2014-07-01

    Different bacterial traits can contribute to the biocontrol of soilborne phytopathogenic fungus. Among others, (1) antagonism, (2) competition for nutrients and niches, (3) induction of systemic resistance of the plants and (4) predation and parasitism are the most studied. Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 is an antagonistic rhizobacterium that produces the antifungal metabolite 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR). This bacterium can biologically control the avocado white root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of the avocado rhizosphere revealed that this biocontrol bacterium and the fungal pathogen compete for the same niche and presumably also for root exudate nutrients. The use of derivative mutants in the geners related to HPR biosynthesis (dar genes) revealed that the lack of HPR production by P. chlororaphis PCL1606 negatively influences the bacterial colonisation of the avocado root surface. Microscopical analysis showed that P. chlororaphis PCL1606 closely interacts and colonises the fungal hyphae, which may represent a novel biocontrol mechanism in this pseudomonad. Additionally, the presence of HPR-producing biocontrol bacteria negatively affects the ability of the fungi to infect the avocado root. HPR production negatively affects hyphal growth, leading to alterations in the R. necatrix physiology visible under microscopy, including the curling, vacuolisation and branching of hyphae, which presumably affects the colonisation and infection abilities of the fungus. This study provides the first report of multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere, advancing our understanding of the role of HPR production in those interactions. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Worldview Satellite Imagery to Map Yield in Avocado (Persea americana: A Case Study in Bundaberg, Australia

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    Andrew Robson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate pre-harvest estimation of avocado (Persea americana cv. Haas yield offers a range of benefits to industry and growers. Currently there is no commercial yield monitor available for avocado tree crops and the manual count method used for yield forecasting can be highly inaccurate. Remote sensing using satellite imagery offers a potential means to achieve accurate pre-harvest yield forecasting. This study evaluated the accuracies of high resolution WorldView (WV 2 and 3 satellite imagery and targeted field sampling for the pre-harvest prediction of total fruit weight (kg·tree−1 and average fruit size (g and for mapping the spatial distribution of these yield parameters across the orchard block. WV 2 satellite imagery was acquired over two avocado orchards during 2014, and WV3 imagery was acquired in 2016 and 2017 over these same two orchards plus an additional three orchards. Sample trees representing high, medium and low vigour zones were selected from normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI derived from the WV images and sampled for total fruit weight (kg·tree−1 and average fruit size (g per tree. For each sample tree, spectral reflectance data was extracted from the eight band multispectral WV imagery and 18 vegetation indices (VIs derived. Principal component analysis (PCA and non-linear regression analysis was applied to each of the derived VIs to determine the index with the strongest relationship to the measured total fruit weight and average fruit size. For all trees measured over the three year period (2014, 2016, and 2017 a consistent positive relationship was identified between the VI using near infrared band one and the red edge band (RENDVI1 to both total fruit weight (kg·tree−1 (R2 = 0.45, 0.28, and 0.29 respectively and average fruit size (g (R2 = 0.56, 0.37, and 0.29 respectively across all orchard blocks. Separate analysis of each orchard block produced higher R2 values as well as identifying different

  11. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, Steven M. [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, Chunhua [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ding, Haiming, E-mail: ding.29@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). {yields} Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). {yields} Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. {yields} The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. {yields} Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not

  12. Subcellular Lipid Droplets in Vanilla Leaf Epidermis and Avocado Mesocarp Are Coated with Oleosins of Distinct Phylogenic Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H C

    2016-07-01

    Subcellular lipid droplets (LDs) in diverse plant cells and species are coated with stabilizing oleosins of at least five phylogenic lineages and perform different functions. We examined two types of inadequately studied LDs for coated oleosins and their characteristics. The epidermis but not mesophyll of leaves of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) and most other Asparagales species contained solitary and clustered LDs (vanilla leaves, transcripts of oleosins of the U lineage were present in both epidermis and mesophyll, but oleosin occurred only in epidermis. Immuno-confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the LDs were coated with oleosins. LDs in isolated fractions did not coalesce, and the fractions contained heterogeneous proteins including oleosins and diverse lipids. These findings reflect the in situ structure and possible functions of the LDs. Fruit mesocarp of avocado (Persea americana) and other Lauraceae species possessed large LDs, which likely function in attracting animals for seed dispersal. They contained transcripts of oleosin of a novel M phylogenic lineage. Each avocado mesocarp fatty cell possessed one to several large LDs (5 to 20 μm) and at their periphery, numerous small LDs (<0.5 μm). Immuno-confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that oleosin was present mostly on the small LDs. LDs in isolated fractions coalesced rapidly, and the fraction contained oleosin and several other proteins and triacylglycerols as the main lipids. These two new types of oleosin-LDs exemplify the evolutionary plasticity of oleosins-LDs in generating novel functions in diverse cell types and species. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Population Fluctuation and Altitudinal Distribution of Tetraleurodes perseae (Nakahara) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Avocado (Lauraceae) in Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Daniel; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Lagunes-Tejeda, Ángel; Carrillo-Sánchez, José Luis; Nieto-Ángel, Daniel; García-Gutiérrez, Cipriano

    2016-01-01

    Although whiteflies Tetraleurodes perseae (Nakahara) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are considered a secondary pest of avocado crops, their presence and the damages that they cause can decrease crop vigor and affect production. The objective of the present work was to determine the population fluctuation and altitudinal distribution of the T. perseae Nakahara whitefly in avocado trees, as well as to determine the number of possible generations in one year. The study was done in three orchards in Morelos state, located at different altitudes, from February 2014 to April 2015. Samplings were done every 21 days from 10 randomly chosen trees in each orchard. The samples were taken randomly from the middle stratus (1.6 m in height) of each tree; in buds or young leaves for the number of adults and leaves only for nymphs. Additionally, two yellow traps (7 × 14 cm) with glue were placed in each tree for adult samplings. Data were collected regarding vegetative budding, rainfall, relative humidity, and temperature. T. perseae was present in all three sampled orchards, with a greater presence in the lowest orchard, during the whole study period. In the orchard with the lowest altitudinal gradient (1,736 masl), 11 whitefly generations developed; 10 generations developed in the medium gradient orchard (1,934 masl); and 8 generations developed in the highest orchard (2,230 masl). The adults showed a positive relationship with regard to vegetative buds, while the nymphs had a negative relationship with regard to relative humidity. The rest of the parameters showed diverse effects on the species depending on the altitude of the orchard. PMID:27658809

  14. Characterization of the oils from the pulp and seeds of avocado (cultivar: Fuerte fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Paulo, Marçal

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Avocado (Persea americana Mill pulp and seeds of the cultivar Fuerte, cultivated in the Northeast region of Brazil, were analysed for their proximate composition. The lipid contents of the pulp and seeds were 15.39% and 1.87%, respectively. Hexane extracted oils from pulp and seeds presented similar refractive indices (1.4608 and 1.4592, specific gravity (0.9272 and 0.9300 and peroxide values (1.40 and 1.37, but different acid (2.45 and 4.12, iodine (77.6 and 69.4 and saponification values (178.3 and 231.6, respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of twenty two and twenty seven fatty acids in pulp and seed oils, respectively. Palmitic acid was the principal saturated acid, present in concentrations of 21.3% in pulp and 20.8% in seed oils. The major difference between these oils was in their mono-unsaturated (C18:1 - 64.3%, for pulp and 15.4% in seed oil and poly-unsaturated (C18:2 and C18:3 - 9.14% and 0.46%, respectively, in pulp oil and 34.39% and 5.81%, respectively, in seed oil fatty acids composition.La semilla y pulpa del aguacate (Persea americana Mill, cultivar Fuerte, cultivado en la región del nordeste de Brasil fueron analizados para determinar su composición centesimal. El contenido de lípidos en pulpa y semillas, en la base húmeda fueron 15.39% y 1.87%, respectivamente. Los aceites extraídos de la pulpa y de las semillas por hexano representan similares índices de refracción (1.4608 y 1.4592, densidad específica (0.9272 y 0.9300 e índice de peróxidos (1.40 y 1.37 pero diferentes índices de acidez (2.45 y 4.12, iodo (77.6 y 69.4 y saponificación (178.3 y 231.6, respectivamente. El análisis de cromatografía gaseosa revela la presencia de 22 y 27 ácidos grasos en aceite de pulpa y de semillas, respectivamente. El ácido palmítico fue el principal ácido saturado, presente en concentraciones de 21,3% en pulpa y 20,8% en aceites de semillas. La principal diferencia entre estos aceites fue su

  15. Development of a rapid method for the sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of fatty acids and sugars from avocado mesocarp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marjolaine D; Terry, Leon A

    2008-08-27

    Methods devised for oil extraction from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) mesocarp (e.g., Soxhlet) are usually lengthy and require operation at high temperature. Moreover, methods for extracting sugars from avocado tissue (e.g., 80% ethanol, v/v) do not allow for lipids to be easily measured from the same sample. This study describes a new simple method that enabled sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of both fatty acids and sugars from the same avocado mesocarp tissue sample. Freeze-dried mesocarp samples of avocado cv. Hass fruit of different ripening stages were extracted by homogenization with hexane and the oil extracts quantified for fatty acid composition by GC. The resulting filter residues were readily usable for sugar extraction with methanol (62.5%, v/v). For comparison, oil was also extracted using the standard Soxhlet technique and the resulting thimble residue extracted for sugars as before. An additional experiment was carried out whereby filter residues were also extracted using ethanol. Average oil yield using the Soxhlet technique was significantly (P oil extracts following both methods were very similar. Oil recovery improved with increasing ripeness of the fruit with minor differences observed in the fatty acid composition during postharvest ripening. After lipid removal, methanolic extraction was superior in recovering sucrose and perseitol as compared to 80% ethanol (v/v), whereas mannoheptulose recovery was not affected by solvent used. The method presented has the benefits of shorter extraction time, lower extraction temperature, and reduced amount of solvent and can be used for sequential extraction of fatty acids and sugars from the same sample.

  16. Effects of citrus and avocado irrigation and nitrogen-form soil amendment on host selection by adult Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, H; Seligmann, R; Johnson, M W; Hagler, J R; Stenger, D C; Groves, R L

    2008-06-01

    Host plant water status is thought to influence dispersal of the xylophagous leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis Germar, especially where plants are grown under high evaporative demand. Preference by adult H. vitripennis for plants grown under different water deficit and nitrogen form fertilization regimens was studied under laboratory conditions. Leafhopper abundance and ovipositional preference were studied on potted 'Washington navel' orange and 'Haas' avocado in cage choice tests, and feeding rate was estimated using excreta produced by insects confined on plants. A similar study compared responses to citrus treated with 1:1 and 26:1 ratios of fertigated nitrate-N to ammonium-N. The insects were more abundant, oviposited, and fed significantly more on surplus-irrigated plants than on plants under moderate continuous deficit irrigation except avocado feeding, which was nearly significant. Plants exposed to drought became less preferred after 3 and 7 d in avocado and citrus, respectively. Citrus xylem fluid tension at this point was estimated at 0.93 MPa. A corresponding pattern of decline in feeding rate was observed on citrus, but on avocado, feeding rate was low overall and not statistically different between treatments. No statistical differences in abundance, oviposition, or feeding were detected on citrus fertigated with 26:1 or 1:1 ratios of nitrate-N to ammonium-N. Feeding occurred diurnally on both plant species. Discussion is provided on the potential deployment of regulated deficit irrigation to manage H. vitripennis movement as part of a multitactic effort to minimize the risk of disease outbreaks from Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. in southern California agriculture.

  17. Métodos de proteção de mudas de abacate contra geada em diferentes cultivares Frost protection covers methods for avocado in different cultivars

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    Ubirajara Ribeiro Mindêllo Neto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na EMBRAPA Transferência de Tecnologia/SNT, localizado em Canoinhas-SC, Planalto Norte Catarinense. O objetivo foi avaliar a tolerância ao frio de oito cultivares de abacate (Choquette, Vitória, Herculano, Quintal, Linda, Tonnage, Fuerte e Ryan plantadas em maio de 2003, utilizando dois métodos de proteção da muda contra geadas (galhos de eucalipto e galhos de eucalipto + sombrite. Em setembro do mesmo ano, estes materiais que protegiam as mudas, foram retirados e foram atribuídas notas para avaliar o grau de dano nas plantas. Não houve diferença entre as cultivares de abacate em relação à tolerância ao frio, independentemente do tipo de proteção. Entretanto, comparados os dois métodos avaliados, a utilização de galhos de eucalipto associado ao uso de sombrite foi mais eficiente na proteção de plantas jovens de abacate quando comparado ao uso de galhos de eucalipto.The experiment was carried out at EMBRAPA Technology Transfer Office at Canoinhas, Santa Catarina State, Northern Highland area. The aim was to evaluate the tolerance for low temperature in eight varieties of avocado (Choquette, Vitória, Herculano, Quintal, Linda, Tonnage, Fuerte and Ryan planted in May of 2003 using two methods of covers for avocado maiden trees (eucalyptus branches and eucalyptus branches plus sombrite. In September, in the same year, the covers were removed and ranked by scores to evaluate the degree of frost injury on plants. There were no difference between avocado varieties in relation of covers methods. However, comparing the two covers methods, the use of eucalyptus branches plus sombrite was better than the use of eucalyptus branches, in young plants of avocado.

  18. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27-38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52-65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens.

  19. Identification and characterization of a new Bacillus atrophaeus strain B5 as biocontrol agent of postharvest anthracnose disease in soursop (Annona muricata) and avocado (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado-Valdivia, Lizeth; Tovar-Pérez, Erik; Chacón-López, Alejandra; López-García, Ulises; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Porfirio; Stoll, Alexandra; Aguilera, Selene

    2018-05-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous fruit, including soursop and avocado. The use of fungicides to maintain the high quality of fruit creates a potential health risk. One alternative to this problem is the biological control, which has been applied successfully during postharvest. The Bacillus species are one of the most studied biological agents against postharvest pathogens because accomplish their biocontrol performance by producing a variety of metabolites. In this study, we evaluated the activity of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant, obtained from Bacillus strain B5 culture, against micelial growth and spore germination of two virulent strains of C. gloeosporioides isolated from soursop and avocado. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Bacillus atrophaeus. A preventive treatment using cell free supernatant, reduced severity and incidence of anthracnose disease on harvested soursop and avocado fruit. B. atrophaeus strain B5 harbors genes involved in the production of antibiotics such as surfactin, bacillomycin and iturin, which could be contributing to the efficiency of the preventive treatment during postharvest. The antagonistic role of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant against anthracnose disease, provide a new approach by which to attack this problem and can help reduce the use of chemical pesticides, environmental pollution, leading to the safer fruit preservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Chlorella sp : Extraction of fatty acid by using avocado oil as solvent and its application as an anti-aging cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, T. W.; Raya, I.; Natsir, H.; Mayasari, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to analyze the fatty acid content of Chlorella sp crude extract by using avocado oil solvent and determining the effectiveness of fatty acids Chlorella sp as the anti-aging cream The extraction of fatty acids from Chlorella sp using avocado oil as a solvent with three ratios were 1:10, 1:20 and 1:25 w/V. The highest lipid content was obtained at 1:20 w/V (gram microalgae: mL avocado oil) yielding 52.73%. Crude extracted were analysis by GC-MS and FTIR, and skin condition was determined by skin analyzer. The effectiveness test of Chlorella sp cream was applicated on the face of the panelists aged 20-60 years. From 10 panelists, the applied of Chlorella sp cream was 90% increased on the facial skin yielded moisture and oil content, 70% repair the skin structure. The composition of fatty acids Chlorella sp extract was palmitic acid, linoleic, oleic and stearate. Fatty acids crude extract of Chlorella sp can improve the effectiveness of anti-aging cream. The cream from Chlorella sp was more effective than the cream without containing microalgae. This is very promising because it is alternative to organic solvents i.e. green chemistry.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Defensin PaDef from Avocado Fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia Expressed in Endothelial Cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquelina Julia Guzmán-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp encoding a protein (78 aa homologous with plant defensins (>80%. We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3 in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%. Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27–38% but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52–65%. This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%. Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens.

  2. Spore Acquisition and Survival of Ambrosia Beetles Associated with the Laurel Wilt Pathogen in Avocados after Exposure to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Pasco B; Bojorque, Verónica; Gámez, Cecilia; Duncan, Rita E; Carrillo, Daniel; Cave, Ronald D

    2018-04-25

    Laurel wilt is a disease threatening the avocado industry in Florida. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus vectored by ambrosia beetles that bore into the trees. Until recently, management strategies for the vectors of the laurel wilt fungus relied solely on chemical control and sanitation practices. Beneficial entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are the most common and prevalent natural enemies of pathogen vectors. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that commercial strains of EPF can increase the mortality of the primary vector, Xyleborus glabratus , and potential alternative vectors, Xylosandrus crassiusculus , Xyleborus volvulus and Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Our study provides baseline data for three formulated commercially-available entomopathogenic fungi used as potential biocontrol agents against X. crassiusculus , X. volvulus and X. bispinatus. The specific objectives were to determine: (1) the mean number of viable spores acquired per beetle species adult after being exposed to formulated fungal products containing different strains of EPF ( Isaria fumosorosea , Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana ); and (2) the median and mean survival times using paper disk bioassays. Prior to being used in experiments, all fungal suspensions were adjusted to 2.4 × 10⁶ viable spores/mL. The number of spores acquired by X. crassiusculus was significantly higher after exposure to B. bassiana , compared to the other fungal treatments. For X. volvulus , the numbers of spores acquired per beetle were significantly different amongst the different fungal treatments, and the sequence of spore acquisition rates on X. volvulus from highest to lowest was I. fumosorosea > M. brunneum > B. bassiana . After X. bispinatus beetles were exposed to the different suspensions, the rates of acquisition of spores per beetle amongst the different fungal treatments were similar. Survival estimates (data pooled across two tests) indicated an

  3. Spore Acquisition and Survival of Ambrosia Beetles Associated with the Laurel Wilt Pathogen in Avocados after Exposure to Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasco B. Avery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Laurel wilt is a disease threatening the avocado industry in Florida. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus vectored by ambrosia beetles that bore into the trees. Until recently, management strategies for the vectors of the laurel wilt fungus relied solely on chemical control and sanitation practices. Beneficial entomopathogenic fungi (EPF are the most common and prevalent natural enemies of pathogen vectors. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that commercial strains of EPF can increase the mortality of the primary vector, Xyleborus glabratus, and potential alternative vectors, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, Xyleborus volvulus and Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae. Our study provides baseline data for three formulated commercially-available entomopathogenic fungi used as potential biocontrol agents against X. crassiusculus, X. volvulus and X. bispinatus. The specific objectives were to determine: (1 the mean number of viable spores acquired per beetle species adult after being exposed to formulated fungal products containing different strains of EPF (Isaria fumosorosea, Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana; and (2 the median and mean survival times using paper disk bioassays. Prior to being used in experiments, all fungal suspensions were adjusted to 2.4 × 106 viable spores/mL. The number of spores acquired by X. crassiusculus was significantly higher after exposure to B. bassiana, compared to the other fungal treatments. For X. volvulus, the numbers of spores acquired per beetle were significantly different amongst the different fungal treatments, and the sequence of spore acquisition rates on X. volvulus from highest to lowest was I. fumosorosea > M. brunneum > B. bassiana. After X. bispinatus beetles were exposed to the different suspensions, the rates of acquisition of spores per beetle amongst the different fungal treatments were similar. Survival estimates (data pooled across two tests indicated an

  4. Polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill. Polifenoloxidase e peroxidase na polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill.

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    Lucimara Salvat Vanini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in avocado pulps, from the Northwest area of Paraná-Brazil, in order to compare the varieties on their enzymatic activity for both, minimum and industrial processing. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from avocado pulp of Choquete, Fortuna and Quintal varieties, in green and ripe maturation stage. Thermal treatment was applied with temperatures 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80 °C. The enzymatic activities were determined by using spectrophotometer. A decline of polyphenoloxidase activity was observed in all of the varieties when both, temperature and time increased. Total inactivation of enzymes was not observed in the largest temperature. Fortuna and Choquete variety showed the lowest polyphenoloxidase activity in the ripe stage. Soluble peroxidase showed activity in the green stage, whereas, ionically bound peroxidase activity increased with the change from green to ripe maturation stage in Choquete variety.O objetivo foi avaliar a atividade enzimática da polifenoloxidase (PPO e da peroxidase (POD em polpas de abacates, da região Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, visando comparar as variedades e suas atividades enzimáticas para processamento mínimo ou industrial. Extratos enzimáticos foram preparados da polpa de abacate das variedades Choquete, Fortuna e Quintal no estágio de maturação verde e maduro. Foi aplicado tratamento térmico com temperaturas de 60, 65, 70, 75 e 80 °C. As atividades enzimáticas foram determinadas por espectrofotometria. Observou-se declínio da atividade da PPO, à medida que aumentava a temperatura e o tempo em todas as variedades. Não foi observada inativação total das enzimas na maior temperatura. As variedades Fortuna e Choquete apresentaram menor atividade da PPO no estágio maduro. A POD solúvel apresentou menor atividade no estágio verde, e, atividade da POD ionicamente ligada aumentou com a mudan

  5. Self-assembled films containing crude extract of avocado as a source of tyrosinase for monophenol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Nirton C S; Ferreira, Reginaldo A; da Cruz Rodrigues, Valquiria; Guimarães, Francisco E G; de Queiroz, Alvaro A A

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports on the use of the crude extract of avocado (CEA) fruit (Persea americana) as a source of tyrosinase enzyme. CEA was immobilized via layer by layer (LbL) technique onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates and applied in the detection of monophenol using a potentiometric biosensor. Poly(propylene imine) dendrimer of generation 3 (PPI-G3) was used as a counter ion in the layer by layer process due to its highly porous structure and functional groups suitable for enzyme linkage. After the immobilization of the crude CEA as multilayered films, standard samples of monophenol were detected in the 0.25-4.00 mM linear range with approximately 28 mV mM(-1) of sensitivity. This sensitivity is 14 times higher than the values found in the literature for a similar system. The results show that it is possible to obtain efficient and low-cost biosensors for monophenol detection using potentiometric transducers and alternative sources of enzymes without purification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Laurel Wilt, Caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on Leaf Gas Exchange and Xylem Sap Flow in Avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Schaffer, Bruce; Vargas, Ana I; Konkol, Joshua L; Salvatierra, Juanpablo; Wideman, Ronney

    2015-04-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, is a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana). The susceptibility of different cultivars and races was examined previously but more information is needed on how this host responds to the disease. In the present study, net CO2 assimilation (A), stomatal conductance of H2O (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), and xylem sap flow rates were assessed in cultivars that differed in susceptibility. After artificial inoculation with R. lauricola, there was a close relationship between symptom development and reductions in A, gs, E, WUE, and mean daily sap flow in the most susceptible cultivar, 'Russell', and significantly greater disease and lower A, gs, E, WUE, and sap flow rates were usually detected after 15 days compared with the more tolerant 'Brogdon' and 'Marcus Pumpkin'. Significant differences in preinoculation A, gs, E, and WUE were generally not detected among the cultivars but preinoculation sap flow rates were greater in Russell than in Brogdon and Marcus Pumpkin. Preinoculation sap flow rates and symptom severity for individual trees were correlated at the end of an experiment (r=0.46), indicating that a plant's susceptibility to laurel wilt was related to its ability to conduct water. The potential management of this disease with clonal rootstocks that reduce sap flow rates is discussed.

  7. Structural Analyses of Avocado sunblotch viroid Reveal Differences in the Folding of Plus and Minus RNA Strands

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    Clémentine Delan-Forino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viroids are small pathogenic circular single-stranded RNAs, present in two complementary sequences, named plus and minus, in infected plant cells. A high degree of complementarities between different regions of the RNAs allows them to adopt complex structures. Since viroids are naked non-coding RNAs, interactions with host factors appear to be closely related to their structural and catalytic characteristics. Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd, a member of the family Avsunviroidae, replicates via a symmetric RNA-dependant rolling-circle process, involving self-cleavage via hammerhead ribozymes. Consequently, it is assumed that ASBVd plus and minus strands adopt similar structures. Moreover, by computer analyses, a quasi-rod-like secondary structure has been predicted. Nevertheless, secondary and tertiary structures of both polarities of ASBVd remain unsolved. In this study, we analyzed the characteristic of each strand of ASBVd through biophysical analyses. We report that ASBVd transcripts of plus and minus polarities exhibit differences in electrophoretic mobility under native conditions and in thermal denaturation profiles. Subsequently, the secondary structures of plus and minus polarities of ASBVd were probed using the RNA-selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE method. The models obtained show that both polarities fold into different structures. Moreover, our results suggest the existence of a kissing-loop interaction within the minus strand that may play a role in in vivo viroid life cycle.

  8. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae

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    Donald Davis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae. Phyllocnistis hyperpersea, new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L. Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea, new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia, new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.

  9. Expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in avocados fumigated with thyme oil vapours and control of anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Malick; Sivakumar, Dharini; Beukes, Mervyn; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Thyme oil (TO) fumigation (96μll(-1)) to cv. Hass and Ryan avocados significantly reduced anthracnose incidence compared to prochloraz and the untreated control. Also, enhanced activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase were noted in both cultivars. TO fumigation induced the expression of both β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase genes in naturally infected fruit of both cultivars, during storage at 7 or 7.5°C for up to 21d and during subsequent simulated market shelf conditions at 20°C for 5d. However, the impact of TO fumigation on the β-1,3-glucanase gene expression was higher in both cultivars. Higher gene regulation and β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase activities were observed in cv. Ryan compared to Hass. Although TO fumigation significantly reduced anthracnose incidence in both naturally infected cultivars, the inhibitory effect was slightly higher in cv. Ryan than Hass. Thus, postharvest TO fumigation had positive effects on enhancing anthracnose disease resistance during storage and also gave a residual effect during the simulated shelf life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeito do abacate (Persea americana Mill variedade hass na lipidemia de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos Effect of the hass avocado (American Persea Mill on hipercolesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fitonutrientes podem ser encontrados em muitas frutas, sendo o abacate o mais rico em beta-sitosterol (fitoesterol e glutationa. O fitoesterol é uma substância de origem vegetal cuja estrutura é muito similar a do colesterol e seu mecanismo de ação envolve a inibição intestinal de absorção do colesterol e diminuição da síntese de colesterol hepático. O efeito é exercido sobre os valores de colesterol plasmático total e LDL, sem afetar os níveis de HDL e triglicérides sanguíneos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a influência do consumo de farinha de abacate variedade Hass nos níveis séricos de colesterol total, HDL, LDL, triglicérides, colesterol hepático e excretado. Estes parâmetros foram investigados em ratos Wistar hipercolesterolêmicos durante 30 e 60 dias de experimento. Ao final de 30 dias, a dieta com 15% de abacate mostrou ser mais efetiva para reduzir os níveis de colesterol total e LDL e aumentar o HDL em comparação ao controle. Foi observado que para o teor de colesterol excretado a melhor dieta foi a de 25% de abacate, pois quanto maior a concentração de abacate, maior a excreção de colesterol. A dieta com 15% e 25% de abacate, foram as que mais influenciaram nos níveis de colesterol hepático.Phytonutrients can be found in fruits, and the avocado contains four times more beta-sitosterol (phytosterol and it is one of the best glutathione sources. The phytosterol is a vegetable substance whose structure is very similar to the cholesterol one and its action mechanism involves the intestinal inhibition of cholesterol absorption and the synthesis of hepatic cholesterol. The effect has an influence on the values of total plasmatic cholesterol and LDL without affecting the levels of HDL and triglycerides. The present work had the objective to analyze the influence of the consumption of the Hass avocado on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and hepatic and excreted

  11. Biocontrol of avocado dematophora root rot by antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1606 correlates with the production of 2-hexyl 5-propyl resorcinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Francisco M; Duckett, Simon B; Bergström, Ed T; Noreen, Sadaf; Odijk, Roeland; Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Thomas-Oates, Jane E; Bloemberg, Guido V

    2006-04-01

    A collection of 905 bacterial isolates from the rhizospheres of healthy avocado trees was obtained and screened for antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix, the cause of avocado Dematophora root rot (also called white root rot). A set of eight strains was selected on the basis of growth inhibitory activity against D. necatrix and several other important soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. After typing of these strains, they were classified as belonging to Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas putida. The eight antagonistic Pseudomonas spp. were analyzed for their secretion of hydrogen cyanide, hydrolytic enzymes, and antifungal metabolites. P. chlororaphis strains produced the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide. Upon testing the biocontrol ability of these strains in a newly developed avocado-D. necatrix test system and in a tomato-F oxysporum test system, it became apparent that P. fluorescens PCL1606 exhibited the highest biocontrol ability. The major antifungal activity produced by strain P. fluorescens PCL1606 did not correspond to any of the major classes of antifungal antibiotics produced by Pseudomonas biocontrol strains. This compound was purified and subsequently identified as 2-hexyl 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR). To study the role of HPR in biocontrol activity, two Tn5 mutants of P. fluorescens PCL1606 impaired in antagonistic activity were selected. These mutants were shown to impair HRP production and showed a decrease in biocontrol activity. As far as we know, this is the first report of a Pseudomonas biocontrol strain that produces HPR in which the production of this compound correlates with its biocontrol activity.

  12. Propagação vegetativa de abacateiro por estaquia Vegetative propagation of avocado, by stem cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Velho da Silveira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando a propagar vegetativamente o abacateiro (Persea sp. por meio de estacas, estiolaram-se ramos em mudas das cultivares Ouro Verde e Baronesa. Após a obtenção destas mudas por garfagem de fenda cheia, podou-se a parte aérea das mesmas 10 cm acima do ponto de enxertia. Metade das mudas foi colocada em câmara escura, coberta com polietileno preto, visando a forçar brotação estiolada, enquanto a outra metade foi posta a brotar em casa de vegetação, anelando-se a base de todos os ramos estiolados e não estiolados. Um mês após a poda das mudas, confeccionaram-se estacas, tanto de ramos estiolados quanto de não estiolados, com 20cm de comprimento e quatro folhas maduras, que foram tratadas com solução de 2000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, durante 10 segundos e colocadas, individualmente, em vasos plásticos pretos de 500 ml, contendo casca de arroz carbonizada como substrato. Após dois meses, estas foram repicadas para sacos de polietileno com capacidade para cinco litros. No momento do transplante, a taxa de enraizamento das estacas estioladas e não estioladas foi de 62,5% e 12,5%, respectivamente, para a cultivar Ouro Verde. A cultivar Baronesa não enraizou em nenhum caso. Após o transplante, as percentagens de enraizamento mantiveram-se as mesmas para a cultivar Ouro Verde, aumentando, contudo, o número de raízes por estaca. Já, para a cultivar Baronesa, as estacas não estioladas passaram a apresentar 12,5% de enraizamento, enquanto as estioladas continuaram com 0%.With the objetive to propagate avocados vegetatively by means of stem cuttings, branches of cultivars Ouro Verde and Baronesa were forced to etiolate. Grafted avocado plants were prunned 10 cm above of the grafting point. Half of those plants were covered with black polyethylene and placed in a darkroom. The other half of those plants were transfered to a greenhouse. The branches formed were girdled at the base. One month after the plants had been

  13. Effects of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on the treatment of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de; Paula, Luiz Guilherme Freitas de; Souza, João Antônio Chaves de; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2017-04-10

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on the treatment of induced periodontitis in rats. Periodontitis was induced in 84 rats via ligature placement around the second upper molar, which was removed after 7 days, and scaling and root planning (SRP) was performed at this time. Subsequently, the rats were randomly allocated to four groups with 21 animals each: One SRP group in which saline solution was administered (SS), and three groups in which ASU was administered (0.6 g/kg/day), beginning either 7 days before the induction of periodontitis (SRP/ASU-7), on the day of periodontitis induction (SRP/ASU0), or on the day of treatment (SRP/ASU+7). ASU and SS were administered daily by gavage until the sacrifice of the animals (7, 15, and 30 days after SRP). The % bone in the furcation area was evaluated by histomorphometry and micro-CT. The expression of proteins (TRAP, RANKL, and alkaline phosphatase) and mRNA (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, RANKL, and alkaline phosphatase) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The SRP/ASU+7 group presented a higher percentage of bone fill in the furcation area and higher expression of alkaline phosphatase than in the SRP group (at 7 and 30 days, respectively). The SRP/ASU0 and SRP/ASU+7 groups presented lower expression levels of RANKL mRNA than the SRP and SRP/ASU-7 groups at 15 days. ASU administration on the day of the SRP treatment of the ligature-induced periodontitis promoted subtle beneficial effects on periodontal repair following the treatment of induced periodontitis within the experimental period of 7 days.

  14. Comparison of piascledine (avocado and soybean oil) and hormone replacement therapy in menopausal-induced hot flashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Kashani, Nafise; Baharie Javan, Nika; Dadjo, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Different symptoms in Climacteric period, includes hot flash. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is common therapy for relief of menopausal symptoms but has possible contraindications and side effects. Recently Piascledine (combination of Avocado oil with Soybean oil) showed effects in reducing hot flash severity. Present study designed to compare the effects of HRT with Piascledine in treatment of hot flash. The cases of this study were sixty-six women at the age range of 40 to 70 years and complaints of menopause-induced hot flashing, whose last menstruation dated at least 6 months prior to the beginning of the study. The patients in this open label clinical trial, randomized to receive Piascledine capsule 1 mg or HRT (0.625 mg oral daily Conjugated Estrogen tablets, plus 2.5 mg continuous oral daily Medroxyprogesterone Acetate tablets) for 2 month. Hot flash property and severity was assessed via a daily check list and Visual analog scale. Climacteric symptom was measured before and after intervention using Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS) and Blatt-kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI). Thirty-three eligible patients were allocated in each group. From the Piascledine group, one patient and from the HRT group, 16 patients weren›t willing to attend the study; therefore, 32 and 17 woman received treatment in Piascledine and HRT groups. 4 patients were withdrawn for vaginal bleeding and one for breast tenderness from HTR group. Hot flash severity in both groups decreased during the time similarly. With regard to GCS (p = 0.571) and BMKI (p = 0.891), the outcome was similar among the two groups. Due to low HRT compliance and its possible risks in long period of time and considering the same activity of soybean supplement and HRT in relieving the hot flash as menopausal symptoms in women, it seems that soybean supplements can be an alternative therapy to hormone.

  15. Can climate change jeopardize predator control of invasive herbivore species? A case study in avocado agro-ecosystems in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, Marta; Sahún, Rosa María; Guzmán, Celeste

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is one of the most important factors affecting the phenology, distribution, composition and diversity of organisms. In agricultural systems many pests and natural enemies are arthropods. As poikilotherm organisms, their body temperature is highly dependent on environmental conditions. Because higher trophic levels typically have lower tolerance to high temperatures than lower trophic levels, trends towards increasing local or regional temperatures may affect the strength of predator/prey interactions and disrupt pest control. Furthermore, increasing temperatures may create climate corridors that could facilitate the invasion and establishment of invasive species originating from warmer areas. In this study we examined the effect of environmental conditions on the dynamics of an agro-ecosystem community located in southern Spain, using field data on predator/prey dynamics and climate gathered during four consecutive years. The study system was composed of an ever-green tree species (avocado), an exotic tetranychid mite, and two native species of phytoseiid mites found in association with this new pest. We also present a climatological analysis of the temperature trend in the area of study during the last 28 years, as evidence of temperature warming occurring in the area. We found that the range of temperatures with positive per capita growth rates was much wider in prey than in predators, and that relative humidity contributed to explain the growth rate variation in predators, but not in prey. Predator and prey differences in thermal performance curves could explain why natural enemies did not respond numerically to the pest when environmental conditions were harsh.

  16. Symptomatic efficacy of avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R; Bartels, E M; Astrup, A; Bliddal, H

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of preparations with avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASUs) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients using meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs from systematic searches were included if they explicitly stated that hip and/or knee OA patients were randomized to either ASU or placebo. The co-primary outcome was reduction in pain and Lequesne index, leading to effect size (ES), calculated as the standardized mean difference. As secondary analysis, the number of responders to therapy was analyzed as odds ratios (ORs). Restricted maximum likelihood methods were applied for the meta-analyses, using mixed effects models. Four trials--all supported by the manufacturer--were included, with 664 OA patients with either hip (41.4%) or knee (58.6%) OA allocated to either 300 mg ASU (336) or placebo (328). Average trial duration was 6 months (range: 3-12 months). Though based on heterogeneous results, the combined pain reduction favored ASU (I(2) = 83.5%, ES = 0.39 [95% confidence intervals: 0.01-0.76], P=0.04). Applying the Lequesne index also favored ASU (I(2) = 61.0%, ES = 0.45 [0.21-0.70], P = 0.0003). Secondarily, the number of responders following ASU compared to placebo (OR = 2.19, P = 0.007) corresponded to a number needed to treat of six (4-21) patients. Based on the available evidence, patients may be recommended to give ASU a chance for e.g., 3 months. Meta-analysis data support better chances of success in patients with knee OA than in those with hip OA.

  17. Validation and assessment of matrix effect and uncertainty of a gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method for pesticides in papaya and avocado samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pano-Farias, Norma Susana; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia Guillermina; Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto; Gonzalez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In this paper a method of using the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) was developed for the analysis of five frequently applied pesticides in papaya and avocado. The selected pesticides, ametryn, atrazine, carbaryl, carbofuran, and methyl parathion, represent the most commonly used classes (carbamates, organophosphorous, and triazines). Optimum separation achieved the analysis of all pesticides in 0.99. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) in papaya ranged from 0.03 mg/kg to 0.35 mg/kg and from 0.06 mg/kg to 0.75 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile for avocado, LOD values varied from 0.14 mg/kg to 0.28 mg/kg and LOQ values ranged from 0.22 mg/kg to 0.40 mg/kg. Recoveries obtained for each pesticide in both matrices ranged between 60.6% and 104.3%. The expanded uncertainty of the method was < 26% for all the pesticides in both fruits. Finally, the method was applied to other fruits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) PaDef induces apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cytotoxic to cancer cells; however, mainly the effects of AMPs from animals have been evaluated. In this work, we assessed the cytotoxicity of PaDef defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) on the MCF-7 cancer cell line (a breast cancer cell line) and evaluated its mechanism of action. PaDef inhibited the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50=141.62μg/ml. The viability of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was unaffected by this AMP. Additionally, PaDef induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner, but did not affect the membrane potential or calcium flow. In addition, PaDef IC50 induced the expression of cytochrome c, Apaf-1, and the caspase 7 and 9 genes. Likewise, this defensin induced the loss of mitochondrial Δψm and increased the phosphorylation of MAPK p38, which may lead to MCF-7 apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway. This is the first report of an avocado defensin inducing intrinsic apoptosis in cancer cells, which suggests that it could be a potential therapeutic molecule in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of Procion Red dye from colored effluents using H2SO4-/HNO3-treated avocado shells (Persea americana) as adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgin, Jordana; da Silva Marques, Bianca; da Silveira Salla, Julia; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Allasia, Daniel; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The treatment of colored effluents containing Procion Red dye (PR) was investigated using H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 modified avocado shells (Persea americana) as adsorbents. The adsorbent materials (AS-H 2 SO 4 and AS-HNO 3 ) were properly characterized. The adsorption study was carried out considering the effects of adsorbent dosage and pH. Kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic aspects were also evaluated. Finally, the adsorbents were tested to treat simulated dye house effluents. For both materials, the adsorption was favored using 0.300 g L -1 of adsorbent at pH 6.5, where, more than 90% of PR was removed from the solution. General order model was able to explain the adsorption kinetics for both adsorbents. The Sips model was adequate to represent the isotherm data, being the maximum adsorption capacities of 167.0 and 212.6 mg g -1 for AS-H 2 SO 4 and AS-HNO 3 , respectively. The adsorption processes were thermodynamically spontaneous, favorable (- 17.0 effluents, attaining color removal percentages of 82 and 75%. Avocado shells, after a simple acid treatment, can be a low-cost option to treat colored effluents.

  20. Effect of different extraction methods on fatty acids, volatile compounds, and physical and chemical properties of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alicia Ortiz; Dorantes, Lidia; Galíndez, Juvencio; Guzmán, Rosa I

    2003-04-09

    Because Mexico is the number one producer of avocados in the world, this fruit has potential as a source for oil extraction. It is appropriate to further investigate the detailed changes that the oil undergoes when different extraction methods are applied. This research paper presents the study of the physical and chemical changes, the fatty acids profile, the trans fatty acid content, and the identification of volatile compounds of the oils from avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill.), obtained by four different extraction methods. The method with the greatest extraction yield was the combined microwave-hexane method. The amount of trans fatty acids produced in the microwave-squeezing treatment was <0.5 g/100 g. On the other hand, the amounts of trans fatty acids produced with the hexane and acetone treatments were 0.52 and 0.87 g/100 g, respectively. The method that caused the slightest modification to the oil quality was a novel combined extraction method of microwave-squeezing proposed by the authors.

  1. Validation and assessment of matrix effect and uncertainty of a gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method for pesticides in papaya and avocado samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Susana Pano-Farias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method of using the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection (GC–MS was developed for the analysis of five frequently applied pesticides in papaya and avocado. The selected pesticides, ametryn, atrazine, carbaryl, carbofuran, and methyl parathion, represent the most commonly used classes (carbamates, organophosphorous, and triazines. Optimum separation achieved the analysis of all pesticides in 0.99. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ in papaya ranged from 0.03 mg/kg to 0.35 mg/kg and from 0.06 mg/kg to 0.75 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile for avocado, LOD values varied from 0.14 mg/kg to 0.28 mg/kg and LOQ values ranged from 0.22 mg/kg to 0.40 mg/kg. Recoveries obtained for each pesticide in both matrices ranged between 60.6% and 104.3%. The expanded uncertainty of the method was < 26% for all the pesticides in both fruits. Finally, the method was applied to other fruits.

  2. Aktivitas Ekstrak Etanol Daun Alpukat Terhadap Zat Nefrotoksik Ginjal Tikus (ACTIVITIES STUDY OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF AVOCADO LEAVES (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL TO NEPHROTOXIC COMPOUND OF RAT’S KIDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietje Wientarsih

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on WHO’s data, about 80% peoples in the word use plant’s extract as herbal medicine. Avocadoleaves has used as herbal medicine which is works as diuretikum, reduce stone in renal, and cure sprue.The purpose of this research is to study activities of ethanol extract of avocado leaves to ethylene glycolinduction on rat’s kidney by histopatologically. This experiment was continuing Adha’s research (2009with research design as follows: twenty male rats were divided into 4 groups, negative control group (KN,positive control group (KP, treated group I by ethanol extract of avocado leaves 100 mg/kg BW (E100, andtreated group 2 by 300 mg/kg BW (E300. Sampling kidney were fixed in BNF 10% for histopathologicalslide and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin. The kidney histopathological changes were edema of glomerulus,and protein deposit in the lumen, hyalin droplet and necrotic tubules. The results showed that ethanolextract of avocado leaves can’t significantly to reduce glomerulus edema with percentage cases 31.9% and33.5% for E100 and E300 and tend not to reduce the occurrence of protein deposits in the lumen of thetubule. Ethanol extract of avocado leaves tend to reduce the incidence of tubular necrosis and it wassignificantly different from the KP group (p <0.05. It is caused by flavonoid in etanol extract of avocadoleaves works as diuretikum and antioxidant.

  3. Description of morphologic characters in avocado trees (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, submitted to gamma radiation of 60 Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval R, L.

    2004-01-01

    It was carried out the characterization of 77 trees of avocado ''Hass'' subjected to gamma radiation of Co 60 , in doses of 0, 5, 10,15, 20 and 25 Gy based on previous studies of radiosensitivity with ends of improvement located in the experimental center ''La Labor'' belonging to the foundation Salvador Sanchez Colin. CICTAMEX. S C. in Temascaltepec, Mexico. It was carried out the morphological characterization of this variety according to the nomenclature settled down by the International Office of Genetic Resources (IBPGRI), registering 27 variables for the description of the tree, 33 for description of the fruit and 14 for the characterization of the seed. Regarding the architectural characterization 10 variables were evaluated. Using gamma radiation of Co 60 in the doses of 15 and 20 Gy it was detected a reduction of 22% in the portage of the tree, likewise had reduction the diameter of the trunk and of the foliage. It was found that the reduction in the behavior of the tree induces to a bigger variation of the form of the same one, in the distribution of the branches in the form of the fruit and in the form of the seed you Also detects a remarkable increment in the productivity of some hoist irradiated regarding the architecture of the tree one observes that the angle of inclination of the branches increase when being increased the radiation dose and that the longitude of the annual section of growth decreased significantly in the doses of 20 and 25 Gy. One observes a significant Increment in the I number of buds prolepticos in those hoist irradiated in the I finish mbdulo of rhythmic growth. Io that indicates a change substantial in the I inhabit of growth With the purpose of determining if the changes in morphology and architecture of the tree corresponded with the modification at level meristematico, they were carried out observations to the court microscope of having knitted apical vegetative meristematico in samples of you hoist of all the treatments

  4. Quality of fresh-cut avocado (Persea americana Mill. stored under different temperatures Qualidade de abacates (Persea americana Mill. minimally processados armazenados sob diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of different storage temperatures on the quality maintenance of fresh-cut 'Fortuna' avocado (Persea americana Mill.. The fruit was selected, washed and sanitized with sodium hypochlorite solution (190 ppm total residual chlorinee for 15 minutes. After that, the tip was cut and the fruit was also cut in halves, peeled and the pit removed, manually. Then the halves were immersed in 0.5% calcium chlorite + 0.5% cysteine solution for 2 minutes, to avoid darkening and packed in rigid plastic covered with 20 micrometer thick plastic wrap (PVC film with a permeability to O2, CO2 and water vapor of 15,000, 80,000 and 390 cm³/m²/day, respectively. The product was stored under 3 different temperatures 0, 5, 10ºC and evaluated at 5 different storege periods of 0, 2, 3, 5 and 6 days, in a randomized design in a 3x5 factorial. The storage of fresh-cut avocado at 5ºC is the best alternative because it determines better maintenance of quality of the avocado. These presented lower darkening of pulp, better scores for appearance and acceptability, lower softening and polyphenoloxidase activity, in comparison to those stored at 0 and 10ºC. The fresh-cut avocados stored at 5ºC presented a shelf life of 5 days, based, mainly on, appearance, score 7.3, sited between the concepts "like moderately" and "like very much" on a hedonic scale of 9 points and 86% of acceptability, at the end of 5 days of storage.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento na manutenção da qualidade de abacates 'Fortuna' (Persea americana Mill. minimally processados. Os frutos foram lavados e sanificados em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (190 ppm de cloro residual total por 15 minutos. Posteriormente, efetuou-se a retirada da extremidade onde se insere o pedúnculo, o corte em metades, retirada do caroço e casca, manualmente. Em seguida, as metades foram imersas em solução com cloreto de cálcio 0

  5. Changes in the n-alkane composition of avocado pulp oil ( Persea americana, Mill. during fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-alkane composition of Avocado pulp oil (cv. Hass was investigated during fruit ripening. Three samples of fruit were harvested on March 3, 2003, March 18, 2003 and April 2, 2003. Glass gravity column chromatography was employed to separate n-alkanes from other minor components contained in the unsaponifiable fraction. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the eluate. Fourteen compounds were detected ranging from n -C21 to n -C34; mainly n -C24, followed by n -C25 and then by n -C23. Quantities of n -C21, n -C22, n -C23, n -C27 and n -C28 progressively increased during ripening, whereas n -C24, n -C25, n -C26, n -C29, n -C30 and n -C34 decreased from the first harvest date to the third harvest date. While odd-numbered carbon n-alkanes increased (52.38 %, 52.85 % and 53.06 % for the three samples respectively, even-numbered carbon n-alkanes decreased as the fruit ripened (47.62 %, 47.15 % and 46.94 %. The total n-alkane content decreased during ripening, from 25.20 mg/Kg (first harvest date to 16.77 mg/Kg (third harvest date. In order to minimize.Se ha analizado la composición en hidrocarburos lineales saturados del aceite de la pulpa de aguacate (variedad Hass. Tres muestras fueron recolectadas: el 3 de marzo 2003, el 18 de marzo 2003 y el 2 de abril 2003. La separación de los hidrocarburos lineales saturados se realizó mediante fraccionamiento del insaponificable por cromatografía gravimétrica de adsorción en columna y la determinación de los mismos hidrocarburos por cromatografía gaseosa. 14 compuestos fueron detectados del n- C21 al n- C34. El n- C24 fue el mayoritario, seguido del n- C25 y el n- C23. El porcentaje de n- C21, n- C22, n- C23, n- C27 y n- C28, aumentó durante la maduración, mientras que el porcentaje de n- C24, n- C25, n- C26, n- C29, n- C30 y C34 disminuyó desde el 3 de marzo 2003 hasta el 2 de abril 2003. Los hidrocarburos lineales saturados con número impar de átomos de carbono aumentaron (52.38 %, 52

  6. Influência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sobre o desenvolvimento vegetativo de porta-enxertos de abacateiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on vegetative growth of avocado rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Velho da Silveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da inoculação de seis espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA (Glomus clarum, Scutellospora heterogama, Glomus etunicatum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Gigaspora margarita e Glomus manihotis no desenvolvimento vegetativo, nutrição mineral e conteúdo de substâncias de reserva em porta-enxertos de abacateiro (Persea sp., oriundos de caroços. Os porta-enxertos foram cultivados em casa de vegetação com cobertura de sombrite (70% e acondicionados em sacos de polietileno preto (5 L, contendo substrato constituído de solo + areia + resíduo decomposto de casca de acácia-negra (Acacia mearnii (2:2:1, v:v:v. Dois meses após a infecção das plântulas com FMA (30 g/plântula, observou-se que a dependência do abacateiro aos FMA variou com a espécie de fungo em estudo. Scutellospora heterogama, Acaulospora scrobiculata e Glomus etunicatum proporcionaram melhor nutrição, maior conteúdo em substâncias de reserva e maior desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas. Glomus clarum somente incrementou a altura das plantas. A infecção com Glomus manihotis não alterou o desenvolvimento vegetativo dos porta-enxertos, e Gigaspora margarita foi prejudicial.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of six arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species (Glomus clarum, Scutellospora heterogama, Glomus etunicatum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Gigaspora margarita and Glomus manihotis on vegetative growth, mineral nutrition and carbohydrate contents of avocado (Persea sp. rootstocks. These were cultivated in 5 L bags of black polyethylene containing substrate mixture of soil + silica sand + decomposed bark residue of acacia (Acacia mearnii (2:2:1, v:v:v. The rootstocks were kept in a sombrite (70% shading greenhouse. Two months after AMF inoculation, the results indicated that AMF influence on avocado rootstocks growth is variable depending on AMF species. S. heterogama, A

  7. Fitotoxicidade de três antibióticos na cultura in vitro de abacateiro Phytotoxicity of three antibiotics to avocado tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Biasi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos para verificar o efeito do ácido nalidíxico, do cloranfenicol e da estreptomicina sobre a cultura in vitro do abacateiro 'Ouro Verde'. No primeiro, testou-se a influência de diversas concentrações (0, 12,5, 25, 50, 100 e 200 mg/L desses antibióticos sobre a calogênese de discos foliares e, no segundo, o efeito sobre a brotação de gemas de segmentos nodais. Enquanto a formação de calos foi reduzida à metade com o uso de 50 mg/L de cloranfenicol, sua massa foi drasticamente reduzida já na concentração de 12,5 mg/L. Restringiu-se o comprimento das brotações, adicionando os antibióticos ao meio de cultura, concluindo-se que os três foram tóxicos para o abacateiro, sendo recomendados apenas em casos de extrema necessidade, dependendo da suscetibilidade do microorganismo contaminante e da concentração necessária para seu controle.Two experiments were carried out in order to verify the toxicity of nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and streptomycin to avocado 'Ouro Verde' in vitro culture. In the first experiment, it was tested the effect of the antibiotics to callus initiation on leave explants, using a concentration range of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L. In the second experiment, sprouting from nodal segments were tested. The callus formation was reduced by 50% with 50 mg/L of chloramphenicol and the highest reduction in callus weight was observed with 12.5 mg/L. The length of sprouts was reduced by incorporating antibiotics into plant growth medium. Results showed that the three antibiotics were toxic to avocado, and they must be used only in real necessity cases, depending on the bacterial susceptibility and the adequate concentration to control the contaminants.

  8. Effects of AV119, a natural sugar from avocado, on Malassezia furfur invasiveness and on the expression of HBD-2 and cytokines in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Giovanna; Buommino, Elisabetta; Baroni, Adone; Auricchio, Lucia; De Filippis, Anna; Cozza, Valentina; Msika, Philippe; Piccardi, Nathalie; Tufano, Maria Antonietta

    2007-11-01

    AV119 is a patented blend of two sugars from avocado that can induce human beta-defensin-2 production by normal human keratinocytes. In this study, we analysed the effect of AV119 on growth and invasiveness of Malassezia furfur, a dimorphic, lipid-dependent yeast that is part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora. The ability to modulate the expression of the proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines in normal human keratinocytes was also investigated. Microbiological assay demonstrated that this sugar induced the aggregation of yeast cells and inhibited the invasiveness of M. furfur, without affecting its growth. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that AV119 was able to modulate the HBD-2 response in treated keratinocytes, reaching a maximum after 48-h treatment, and to induce the recovery of a satisfactory proinflammatory response in human keratinocytes. As AV119 can induce aggregation of yeast cells, thus inhibiting their penetration into the keratinocytes, the sugar could be used in the preparation of cosmetics or pharmacological drugs to inhibit colonization of the skin by pathogenic strains of M. furfur.

  9. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Postharvest Variation in Cellulase, Polygalacturonase, and Pectinmethylesterase in Avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv. Fuerte) Fruits in Relation to Respiration and Ethylene Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Marcel; Young, Roy E.

    1979-01-01

    Cellulase, polygalacturonase (PG), pectinmethylesterase (PME), respiration, and ethylene production were determined in single “Fuerte” avocado fruits from the day of harvest through the start of fruit breakdown. PME declined from its maximum value at the time of picking to a low level early in the climacteric. PG activity was not detectable in the preclimacteric stage, increased during the climacteric, and continued to increase during the postclimacteric phase to a level three times greater than when the fruit reached the edible soft stage. Cellulase activity was low in the preclimacteric fruit, started to increase just as respiration increased, and reached a level two times greater than at the edible soft stage. Cellulase activity started to increase 3 days before PG activity could be detected. Increased production of ethylene followed the increase in respiration and cellulase activity by about 1.5 days. These results indicate that a close relation exists between the rapid increase in the cell wall-depolymerizing enzymes and the rise in respiration and ethylene production and refocused attention on the role of the cell wall and the associated plasma membrane in the early events of fruit ripening. PMID:16660954

  11. Thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lep.: Geometridae, in eggs of two alternative hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, with eggs of the alternative hosts Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use these natural enemies in biological control programs of this pest in avocado orchards. T. pretiosum needed 151.83 and 160.04 degree-days, above threshold of 10.70 and 10.75°C, while these values were 158.50 and 155.46 degree-days, above threshold of 10.67 and 10.46°C for T. acacioi when exposed to eggs of A. kuehniella and S. cerealella, respectively.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar as exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum e T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitóides de Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, em ovos dos hospedeiros alternativos Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae visando utilizar estes inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico desta praga em pomares de abacate. T. pretiosum apresentou temperaturas base (Tb de 10.70 e 10.75°C e constantes térmicas (K de 151.83 e 160.04 graus-dia, sendo estes valores de 10.67 e 10.46°C e 158.50 e 155.46 graus-dia para T. acacioi em ovos de A. kuehniella e S. cerealella, respectivamente.

  12. Development of a 9600-clone procedure for oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes: utilization to identify soil bacterial rRNA genes that correlate in abundance with the development of avocado root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Elizabeth; Yin, Bei; Figueroa, Andres; Ye, Jingxiao; Fu, Qi; Liu, Zheng; McDonald, Virginia; Jeske, Daniel; Jiang, Tao; Borneman, James

    2006-10-01

    Oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes (OFRG) is an array-based method that generates microbial community profiles through analysis of rRNA gene clone libraries. The original OFRG method allowed 1536 clones to be analyzed per experiment. This report describes a procedure for analyzing 9600 clones per experiment, including a new probe set for bacterial analysis, and improved data processing and statistical analysis tools. The software tools are available at the OFRG website (). Use of the 9600-clone procedure was demonstrated by examining the bacterial rRNA gene compositions of soils subjected to various temperature treatments. These treatments produced a series of soils with a range of abilities to suppress avocado root rot, enabling the identification of bacterial rRNA genes that correlate in abundance with root rot suppressiveness. OFRG analysis of these soils produced 8876 bacterial rRNA gene fingerprints grouped into 5123 clusters, or operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Eleven OTUs exhibited a positive correlation between the number of clones and the percentage of healthy roots. An in silico analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the number of rRNA genes analyzed and the number of correlates (rRNA gene-avocado root rot symptoms) identified. As the number of clones decreased, fewer correlates were identified. To further increase the throughput of the OFRG method, use of a glass slide-fluorescent probe microarray format was also explored.

  13. Short- and long-term modulation of the lutein epoxide and violaxanthin cycles in two species of the Lauraceae: sweet bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, R; Jiménez, M S; Morales, D; Jiménez, E T; Hormaetxe, K; Becerril, J M; Osmond, B; García-Plazaola, J I

    2008-05-01

    Short- and long-term responses of the violaxanthin (V) and lutein epoxide (Lx) cycles were studied in two species of Lauraceae: sweet bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and avocado (Persea americana L.). The Lx content exceeded the V content in shade leaves of both species. Both Lx and V were de-epoxidised on illumination, but only V was fully restored by epoxidation in low light. Violaxanthin was preferentially de-epoxidised in low light in L. nobilis. This suggests that Lx accumulates with leaf ageing, partly because its conversion to lutein is limited in shade. After exposure to strong light, shade leaves of avocado readjusted the total pools of alpha- and beta-xanthophyll cycles by de novo synthesis of antheraxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. This occurred in parallel with a sustained depression of F(v)/F(m). In Persea indica, a closely related but low Lx species, F(v)/F(m) recovered faster after a similar light treatment, suggesting the involvement of the Lx cycle in sustained energy dissipation. Furthermore, the seasonal correlation between non-reversible Lx and V photoconversions and pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) in sun leaves of sweet bay supported the conclusion that the Lx cycle is involved in a slowly reversible downregulation of photosynthesis analogous to the V cycle.

  14. O óleo de abacate (Persea americana Mill como matéria-prima para a indústria alimentícia The avocado oil (Persea americana Mill as a raw material for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hábitos de vida saudáveis e uma dieta balanceada aliados ao alto consumo de frutas e vegetais estão associados à redução do risco de doenças e à manutenção da saúde. O óleo de abacate possui em sua composição substâncias bioativas capazes de prevenir e controlar as dislipidemias. Como existem poucas pesquisas científicas avaliando o potencial deste óleo para o consumo humano, o presente trabalho estudou os processos de extração e refino do óleo de abacate. Para tanto, procedeu-se à separação da polpa das outras partes da fruta. A polpa fresca foi seca em estufa, e posteriormente moída para a obtenção de um farelo. O óleo obtido do farelo foi extraído e caracterizado. Os resultados mostraram que os processos de extração e refino do óleo a partir da variedade Margarida são tecnicamente viáveis, o que o torna excelente matéria-prima para a indústria alimentícia. Além disso, possui um perfil de ácidos graxos e esteróis muito semelhante ao perfil do azeite de oliva, podendo desta forma, substituir o óleo de soja e ser utilizado juntamente com o azeite de oliva nos óleos mistos, oferecendo ao consumidor brasileiro um produto de qualidade superior e com menor custo.Healthy life habits and an adequate diet, together with a high intake of fruits and vegetables, are associated with reducing the risk of diseases and maintaining health. The avocado oil has bioactive substances that can prevent and control the hyperlipidemia. Since there is little scientific research evaluating the oil potential for human consumption, the present work studied the extraction and refining process of the avocado oil. Firstly, the pulp was extracted from the fruit. The fresh pulp was dried in a stove and then grounded for obtaining the bran. The oil obtained from de bran was extracted and characterized. The results showed that the extraction and refining process of the Margarida avocado variety is technically feasible, and it is an

  15. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF AVOCADO / SOYBEAN UNSAPONIFIABLES AND THEIR COMBINATION WITH INTRA-ARTICULAR HYALURONIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH KNEE AND HIP OSTEOARTHROSIS

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    Ye. I. Shmidt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of avocado / soybean unsaponifiables (ASU and their combination with intra-articular hyaluronic acid in patients with knee and hip osteoarthrosis (OA.Subjects and methods. A randomized observational non-interventional non-placebo controlled trial was conducted. It included 18 patients who were randomized to 2 groups with 9 in each. One patient group took only ASU along with nonsteroidal anti-nflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; the other received ASU in combination with intra-articular hyaluronic acid. Their treatment was performed for 6 months, followed by a 6-month follow-up. The results were assessed by the WOMAC index. Account was taken of the opinions of a patient and his / her physician on therapeutic effectiveness, as well as altered needs for NSAIDs during treatment and after the follow-up.Results. There was a gradual reduction in joint pain, stiffness, and dysfunction (as shown by the visual analog scale in both groups just one month posttherapy. This trend remained for 3 months. After 6 months of therapy, there were slight increases in the values of joint pain, stiffness, and dysfunction in the combined therapy group whereas the values continued to decrease in the monotherapy group. Six months after termination of treatment, the examined values doubled in the ASU monotherapy group and remained at posttreatment visit levels in the combined therapy group. Just the same, six months after termination of 6-month therapy, both groups displayed the significantly lower values of pain, stiffness, and dysfunction than those prior to treatment. ASU used both alone and in combination with hyaluronic acid was noted to be well tolerated. The considerable reduction in the needs for NSAIDs in both groups and, in a number of cases, the possibility of reducing their intake proved the efficiency of ASU used alone and in combination with hyaluronic acid. The important result of this trial

  16. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with

  17. Reaction of avocado cultivars to avocado root rot

    OpenAIRE

    Sumida, Ciro Hideki; Homechin, Martin; Santiago, Débora Cristina

    2009-01-01

    As cultivares de abacateiro (Persea americana Mill) 'Margarida', 'Fortuna' e 'Hass' têm muita importância econômica no mercado nacional e internacional. Em função disso, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a reação dessas cultivares frente à Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands., agente causal da podridão das raízes. A inoculação do patógeno foi feita por meio de implantação de tecidos de raízes sintomáticas. Foram inoculadas quatro raízes em três árvores diferentes, uma de cada cultivar, em trê...

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of the pulp of different varieties of avocado targeting oil extraction potential Caracterização física e química da polpa de diferentes variedades de abacate visando o potencial para extração de óleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinéia Dotti Mooz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of avocado pulp of four different varieties (Avocado, Guatemala, Dickinson, and Butter pear and to identify which has the greatest potential for oil extraction. Fresh avocado pulp was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The carotenoids and chlorophyll contents were determined by the organic solvent extraction method. The results showed significant differences in the composition of the fruit when varieties are compared. However, the striking feature in all varieties is high lipid content; Avocado and Dickinson are the most suitable varieties for oil extraction, taking into account moisture content and the levels of lipids in the pulp. Moreover, it could be said that the variety Dickinson is the most affected by the parameters evaluated in terms of overall quality. Chlorophyll and carotenoids, fat-soluble pigments, showed a negative correlation with respect to lipids since it could be related to its function in the fruit. The varieties Avocado and Dickinson are an alternative to oil extraction having great commercial potential to be exploited thus avoiding waste and increasing farmers’ income.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as características físico-químicas da polpa de abacate de quatro diferentes variedades (Avocado, Guatemala, Dicson e Manteiga, visando identificar qual possui maior potencial para extração de óleo. A polpa de abacate fresca foi caracterizada através da determinação dos teores de umidade, proteína, lipídios, cinzas, carboidratos e valor energético. Os teores de carotenoides e clorofila foram determinados através do método de extração com solvente orgânico. Os resultados mostram diferenças significativas na composição dos frutos, quando se confrontam as variedades. No entanto, a característica marcante em todas as variedades é o alto teor de lipídios, sendo as variedades

  19. Fenologia e características físico-químicas de frutos de abacateiros visando à extração de óleo Phenology and physical and chemical characterization of avocado fruits for oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O abacateiro é uma frutífera altamente produtiva que possui diversas cultivares, as quais apresentam grande variação quanto à época de produção de frutos e quanto ao teor de óleo na polpa. Estudos têm indicado que o óleo de abacate assemelha-se ao azeite de oliva e pode ser empregado tanto na indústria de cosméticos como no setor alimentício. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características fenológicas, físico-químicas em cultivares de abacateiro nas condições das terras altas da serra Mantiqueira em São Bento do Sapucaí - SP, visando à extração de ��leo. As avaliações foram efetuadas nas cultivares 'Ouro Verde', 'Wagner', 'Campinas', 'Paulistinha', 'Fuerte', 'Pedroso', 'Margarida', 'Hass', 'Fortuna', 'Quintal' e 'Reis'. Foram avaliadas as características fenológicas nos ciclos 2008/09 e 2009/10, diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, percentagens de polpa, casca e caroço em relação à massa total, composição centesimal, além do perfil dos principais ácidos graxos presentes no óleo bruto extraído das cultivares ricas em lipídeos. Os resultados indicam que o período de florescimento variou de agosto a novembro e o de colheita de julho a novembro, sendo a cultivar 'Ouro Verde' a mais precoce e Fuerte, Campinas e Hass as mais tardias. Paulistinha e Reis apresentaram frutos de maior diâmetro longitudinal, sendo que Paulistinha se destacou com a maior porcentagem de polpa. Os maiores teores de lipídeos na polpa foram obtidos nas cultivares 'Fuerte' e 'Hass', com predomínio do ácido graxo oleico nas amostras analisadas.Avocado is a very productive plant. It has several cultivars that present great variation on time of fruit production and oil content in the pulp. Studies have indicated that the avocado oil is similar to olive oil, and can be used in cosmetics and also for human consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenological characteristics and fruit physico

  20. The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: egg and damage distribution and parasitism A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: distribuição de ovos e de danos e parasitismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (Wals. has been a limiting factor in growing avocados over the last years in many Brazilian states. This is a result of the lack of safe and feasible management practices to minimize the fruit borer damage. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the pest biology and ecology as well as on the role of natural enemies to define strategies to control the pest. Samples were taken biweekly and consisted of 20 fruits collected randomly (10 from the upper half and 10 from the lower half of the plant in ten plants, cv. Margarida, in a commercial avocado grove in Arapongas and Cambé regions, PR, from October/2001 to September/2002. Laboratory determinations of the percentage of damaged fruit per plant region, location and number of bored fruit sites, and the number and location of the fruit borer eggs, including parasitized ones, were performed. The results showed that S. catenifer preferred to oviposit and attack fruits located on the upper half of the trees. The majority of the eggs were laid on the fruit pedicel whereas the damage was mainly located on the lower half of the fruits. Trichogrammatids were the most constant and abundant parasitoids found in both localities throughout the study period.A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae, continua sendo fator limitante para o cultivo do abacate em vários estados do Brasil, nos últimos anos. Isso se deve a falta de métodos seguros e viáveis para reduzir os prejuízos causados pela praga. Com o intuito de obter informações sobre a sua bioecologia e ação de inimigos naturais, para auxiliar na elaboração de estratégias de controle, realizaram-se coletas quinzenais de 20 frutos ao acaso (10 da metade superior e 10 da metade inferior em 10 plantas, em pomar comercial, cv. Margarida, nos municípios de Arapongas e Cambé, PR, durante os meses de outubro/2001 a setembro/2002. Em laboratório determinaram-se a porcentagem

  1. Cinética de inativação da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Kinetic of inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase of avocado (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Caroline Luíz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos enzimáticos foram preparados a partir da polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill. dos cultivares Quintal, Fortuna e Choquete, em dois estádios de maturação (verde e maduro. A polpa de abacate (150,00g foi homogeneizada em liquidificador, com 300 mL de solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM em pH 7,4 para polifenoloxidase (PPO e pH 6,0 para peroxidase (POD. A peroxidase ionicamente ligada foi extraída usando solução de NaCl 1,0M, em tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM pH 6,0. Para o estudo da estabilidade térmica, os extratos foram submetidos a temperaturas de 60, 65, 70, 75 e 80ºC e por períodos que variaram de 1 à 10 minutos e a atividade enzimática foi determinada por espectrofotometria (lambda= 395nm para PPO e lambda= 460nm para POD. Pode-se observar que o declínio rápido da atividade das enzimas era maior nos primeiros quatro minutos e após esse período, com o aumento da temperatura e do tempo, a atividade continuou diminuindo, porém de forma mais lenta. A energia de ativação na faixa de temperatura estudada para as porções termolábil e termorresistente, apresentou valores dentro da faixa 12-100 kcal/mol.Enzymatic extracts were prepared from the avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill., using the cultivars Quintal, Fortuna and Choquete, in two different maturation stages (green and mature avocados. The avocado pulp (150,00g was homogenized in blender with 300 mL of sodium phosphate buffer 100mM at pH 7.4 for polyphenoloxidase (PPO and pH 6.0 for peroxidase (POD. The peroxidase ionically bound was extracted using NaCl solution 1.0M in sodium phosphate buffer 100mM pH 6.0. For the study of the thermal stability the extracts were submitted at temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80ºC for periods that had a variation from 1 to 10 minutes and the enzymatic activity was determined using a spectrophotometer (lambda= 395nm for PPO and lambda= 460nm for POD. It was possible to observe a fast decline of the enzyme activity in

  2. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado seed extracts Composição química, toxicidade, atividade larvicida e antifúngica de extratos de semente de Persea americana (abacate

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    João Jaime Giffoni Leite

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-¹, from 0.312 to 0.625mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively.O presente estudo teve como objetivo testar os extratos hexânico e metanólico das sementes do abacate, a fim de determinar sua toxicidade em Artemia salina, avaliar a atividade larvicida frente ao Aedes aegypti, bem como verificar o potencial antifúngico in vitro contra cepas de Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans e Malassezia pachydermatis, através da técnica de microdiluição. Os extratos hexânico e metanólico das sementes de abacate apresentaram no teste de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina, valores de LC50 2,37 e 24,13mg L-1, respectivamente; contra as larvas do Aedes aegypti os resultados obtidos foram LC50 16,7mg L-1 para o extrato hexânico e 8,87mg

  3. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Deuterollyta majuscula (Lep.: Pyralidae em abacateiro (Persea americana MILL. Biology, damage and fertility life table of Deuterollyta majuscula (Lep.: Pyralidae in avocado (Persea americana MILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dori Edson Nava

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available As lagartas de Deuterollyta majuscula (Herrich-Schaffer podem, ao se alimentar, causar danos às folhas e frutos do abacateiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia em condições de laboratório, mantido a 25±2ºC, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas e descrever os danos provocados pela praga. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 39,6 dias e a viabilidade total de 55%. Foram determinados 5 instares. O peso de pupas foi de 0,0966 mg para fêmeas e 0,0901 mg para os machos. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 201 ovos durante aproximadamente 7,6 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 15,3 e 13,9 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,56. Através da tabela de vida de fertilidade determinou-se uma capacidade de aumento de 64 vezes a cada geração, sendo a duração média de uma geração de 46 dias e a razão finita de aumento (ll de 1,095. Estes resultados fornecem subsídios que podem ser utilizados para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto.Deuterollyta majuscula (Herrich-Schaffer causes injuries to leaves and fruits of avocado. The aim of this work was study the biology under laboratory conditions, at 25±2ºC, 70±10% of RH, and 14-hour of photophase and to describe the damage caused by this pest. The biological cycle (egg-adult was 39.6 days and the total viability was 55%. Five instars were observed. The pupae weight was 0.0966 mg for females and 0.0901 mg for males. The females laid an average of 201 eggs in approximately 7.6 days. The mean longevity of males and females was 15.3 and 13.9 days, respectively, and sex ratio of 0.56. The fertility life table showed a 64-fold increase capacity in each generation, with one generation lasting an average of 46 days, with finite rate of increase (lambdal of 1.095. These results can provide background information to the establishment of strategies to manage this new avocado pest.

  4. Influência da proteção do enxerto na produção de mudas de abacate Protection of the graft in the production of avocado nut nursery trees

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    Ubirajara Ribeiro Mindêllo Neto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar dois tipos de proteção do enxerto na produção de mudas de abacateiro cv. Herculano. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos (T1: proteção do enxerto com saco de polietileno; T2: proteção do enxerto com parafilme e seis repetições. As avaliações foram feitas após cinco meses da enxertia, nas quais foram determinadas as seguintes características: pegamento do enxerto, comprimento e diâmetro das brotações. A utilização de parafilme como proteção do enxerto aumentou o pegamento na enxertia.The present work aimed to appraise two types of protection of the graft in the production of avocado nut nursery tree cv. Herculano. The experiment was led in a completely randomized design with two treatments (T1: polyethylene bag; T2: parafilm and six replicates. The evaluations were made after five months of the grafting where were observed the following characteristics: successfulness of the graft, length and diameter of the sprouting. The parafilm used as protection of the graft increased the success of the grafting.

  5. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Evaluacion de productividad y calidad de fruta en aguacate Hass sometido a radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co

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    Cruz T, E. De la; Ibanez P, J.; Mijares O, P.; Garcia A, J.M. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Biologia, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO{sub 2}/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  6. USE OF SOIL MICROORGANISMS AS A BIOTECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGY TO ENHANCE AVOCADO (Persea americana-PLANT PHOSPHATE UPTAKE AND GROWTH USO DE MICROORGANISMOS DEL SUELO COMO ESTRATEGIA BIOTECNOLÓGICA PARA MEJORAR LA ABSORCIÓN DE FÓSFORO Y EL CRECIMIENTO DE PLANTAS DE AGUACATE (Persea americana

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    Nelson Walter Osorio Vega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In recent years the area cultivated with avocado has increased significantly in Colombia and this trend is expected to continue in the coming years. However, most of the soils in the highlands of the Colombian Andean, that have been used to grow avocado, are strongly acidic and nutrient deficient, particularly phosphorus (P. To alleviate these problems, high rates of lime and P fertilizers are frequently applied, in many cases the applied dose are excessive. This increases production costs, produces plant nutrient imbalance in the plant, and increases the risk of polluting surface waters. A biotechnological alternative is the combined use of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM and arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF. This work describes a series of experiments carried out to isolate, characterize, and evaluate the effectiveness of AMF and PSM in increasing plant growth and P uptake of avocado plants. The results indicate that the mycorrhizal association is an effective alternative that can easily be established in the crops; however, the excessive use of P fertilizer in these soils may limit the benefits of these fungi on avocado plants. Currently, effective PSM of avocado rhizosphere have not been detected. In some cases, these microorganisms are absent in the avocado rhizosphere and in other cases their low capacity to solubilize P discourage their use in the crop.Resumen. En los últimos años el área cultivada con aguacate en Colombia ha crecido notoriamente y se espera que esta tendencia continúe en los próximos años. Sin embargo, muchos de los suelos de la zona andina utilizados para su siembra exhiben fuerte acidez y niveles deficientes de varios nutrientes, particularmente fósforo (P. Para corregir este problema se hacen aplicaciones de cales y fertilizantes fosfóricos solubles, en mucho casos las dosis aplicadas son altas. Esto eleva innecesariamente los costos de producción, crea desbalance nutricional en la planta

  7. Métodos para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera L. em cultura de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. to avocado tree (Persea americana Mill

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    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento teve como objetivo avaliar métodos de atração da abelha Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae em duas variedades de abacate (Persea americana Mill.. Os atrativos utilizados foram extratos de Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, folha de Citrus sp, folha de Eucaliptus sp. e o eugenol e o linalol (SIGMA. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: coberto; descoberto pulverizado (DP; descoberto com tubos e descoberto não pulverizado (DNP. Observou-se que a atratividade das substâncias testadas desapareceu minutos após a sua aplicação, utilizando ou não a glicerina, em ambas as variedades. A pulverização dos extratos de falsa melissa, folhas de eucalipto e folhas de laranja apresentaram um aumento no número de abelhas Apis mellifera, na variedade Quintal. Os dados mostraram que a freqüência das abelhas A. mellifera foi maior na variedade Quintal comparada à variedade Fortuna. Isto pode ter ocorrido devido à maior concentração de açúcares do néctar de suas flores. Observou-se que as abelhas A. mellifera preferiram visitar as flores do abacateiro da variedade Quintal, tanto para néctar quanto para coleta de pólen, comparada à variedade Fortuna. Com relação aos frutos, nenhuma das características apresentou diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, em ambas as variedades. Entretanto, observou-se que na variedade Quintal os frutos decorrentes dos tratamentos DP e DNP foram mais pesados, mais compridos e com maior espessura da polpa, comparados ao único fruto obtido do tratamento coberto. Os produtos testados em tubos não foram eficientes para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera, em ambas as variedades.The present experiment was carried out to evaluate some methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae to two avocado varieties (Persea americana Mill.. Extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, Citrus sp leaf, Eucalyptus sp leaf, the eugenol and linalol

  8. Ceras para conservação pós-colheita de frutos de abacateiro cultivar fuerte, armazenados em temperatura ambiente Waxes for enhanced shelflife of avocado cultivar fuerte, stored at room temperature

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    Marcelo Alvares de Oliveira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de abacateiro foram colhidos dia 20/03/97. Selecionou-se 100 frutos uniformes, sendo mantidos 25 frutos para grupo controle - análise de perda de peso e 75 frutos para análises destrutivas - textura, sólidos solúveis totais e pH realizadas a cada 4 dias. Os frutos receberam os tratamentos, com objetivo de aumentar a vida pós-colheita: Cera "Fruit Wax" 1:1 (FW1 e 1:3 (FW2; "Sparcitrus" 1 (SP1 e 1:1 (SP2; Testemunha. Até o 4º dia de armazenamento não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de perda de peso dos tratamentos, sendo que ao final do armazenamento (12º dia o tratamento SP1 foi superior aos demais, acarretando menor perda de peso dos frutos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de textura analisados dentro de cada dia de armazenamento, mas os valores decresceram durante o armazenamento. Para sólidos solúveis totais não observou-se aumento significativos dos teores durante o armazenamento, sendo que em relação aos tratamentos, apenas no 12º dia para o tratamento FW2 obtiveram-se valores mais elevados do que o SP1. Para o pH não houve diferença significativa entre os valores dentro dos dias de armazenamento, entretanto do ponto de colheita para o 4ºdia de armazenamento, houve diminuição significativa, com exceção do tratamento SP1.Avocado contains fat-soluble vitamins that in general other fruits do not contain. Avocado fruits were picked and 100 uniform specimens were selected, of which 25 were used as a control group to evaluate weight loss, and 75 were used for destructive analysis. Every 4 days 25 fruits were evaluated for texture, total soluble solids and pH. Five treatments were used to protect fruits: control; "Fruit wax"/wax 1:1 (FW1 and "Fruit wax"/wax 1:3 (FW2; "Sparcitrus/wax 1:1 (SP1 and "Sparcitrus/wax 1:3 (SP2. At the fourth storage day there was no statistical difference among the values of weight loss, however at the twelfth day, treatment SP1 was the best, with a smaller

  9. Symptom-modifying effects of oral avocado/soybean unsaponifiables in routine treatment of knee osteoarthritis in Poland. An open, prospective observational study of patients adherent to a 6-month treatment.

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    Głuszko, Piotr; Stasiek, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies provide insights into real-life situations. Therefore, we assessed the effects of oral avocado/soybean unsaponifiable (ASU) capsules on pain relief and functional ability in patients, while they were receiving a routine treatment for knee osteoarthritis (OA). An open, prospective, observational 6-month study was conducted in 99 centers in Poland in a group of 4822 patients with symptomatic knee OA receiving one 300 mg ASU capsule/day as a routine medication. The patients had no diagnoses of other rheumatic diseases and were not treated with other symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs). Data on OA symptoms and therapy were collected from the initiation of ASU treatment (visit 0) and during 3 consecutive control visits performed every 2 months (visits 1-3). Functional Lequesne index, severity of joint pain of one symptomatic knee (Laitinen index and VAS), use of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), adherence to treatment and adverse events were evaluated and recorded using electronic Case Report Forms. Four thousand one hundred and eighty-six patients (86.8%) attended all 4 visits. In 94.2% of patients (mean age 60.7 ±11.6 years SD, 73.4% female) at least one OA risk factor was identified. There was a significant improvement in functional ability between the last and baseline visits as evidenced by the median Lequesne index decreasing from 8 to 4 points ( p first observational study in Poland evaluating the effects of routine knee OA treatment with oral ASU. Only a small group of patients (13.2%) treated with ASU discontinued the study. The majority of patients adherent to the ASU treatment for 6 months showed gradual alleviation of joint pain, improvement in functional ability and a significant reduction in NSAIDs intake.

  10. Caracterización química foliar de los árboles de aguacate criollo (Persea americana var. drymifolia en los bancos de germoplasma de Michoacán, México Foliar chemical caracterization of the creole avocado trees (Persea americana var. drymifolia in the germplasm banks from Michoacán, Mexico

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    Cintia A. Rincón-Hernández

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Persea americana var. drymifolia (aguacate criollo mexicano se emplea como portainjerto en huertos de aguacate Hass y es fuente de genes de resistencia a plagas y patógenos para éste y otros cultivares. El aguacate criollo mexicano se está sustituyendo por cultivares comerciales o perdiendo por la destrucción de ecosistemas. Por eso, se estudiaron 250 árboles (52 accesiones de 14 estados de México; 247 de criollo mexicano y 3 híbridos de éste con P.shiedeana, P. americana var. americana y P. americana var. guatemalensis, plantados en los bancos de germoplasma en Michoacán. Se analizó la composición química mediante cromatografía de gases-masas. Hubo alta variabilidad química entre los árboles del banco de germoplasma con los 64 compuestos detectados. El análisis de cúmulos mostró 2 grandes grupos químicos con 100% disimilitud y 22 grupos a 10% de disimilitud. Los híbridos se agruparon de manera diferente a los árboles con características típicas de criollo y difieren en su altitud de origen. Corroboramos que los volátiles foliares sirven como marcadores para diferenciar los criollos típicos de sus híbridos y que mucha variación atribuida a la variedad criolla proviene de hibridaciones en zonas de contacto de esta variedad con otras variedades o especies de Persea.Persea americana var. drymifolia (mexican creole avocado is used as rootstock in Hass avocado orchards and it is a source of genes for resistance to pests and pathogens for this and other cultivars. The Mexican varieties are being replaced by commercial cultivars or lost by the destruction of ecosystems. Therefore, we studied 250 avocado trees of 52 accessions from 14 Mexican states; 247 mexican creole avocado and 3 hybrids of that tree with P. shiedeana, P. americana var. americana or P. americana var. guatemalensis, planted at germplasm banks, Michoacán. Foliar chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. High chemical variability among the trees was found

  11. LOS MACROINVERTEBRADOS COMO INDICADORES DE LA CALIDAD DEL SUELO EN CULTIVOS DE MORA, PASTO Y AGUACATE THE MACROINVERTEBRATES AS INDICATORS OF THE QUALITY OF SOIL IN BLACKBERRY, GRASS AND AVOCADO CROPS

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    Santiago Rendón Pareja

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El estado de las propiedades dinámicas del suelo, tales como el contenido de la materia orgánica, la diversidad de organismos, o los productos microbianos en un tiempo particular, permiten inferir sobre la calidad del suelo. Los indicadores disponibles para evaluarla, pueden variar entre localidades, dependiendo del tipo y uso del suelo, función y factores de formación del mismo. Los invertebrados se pueden constituir en indicadores de la calidad de un suelo, dado que juegan un papel vital en los procesos de ciclaje de nutrientes; además, su diversidad, número y funciones son sensibles al cambio ambiental en las condiciones del suelo, asociadas con actividades propias en los agroecosistemas. Con el propósito de cualificar la calidad del suelo en varios sistemas productivos, se evaluó la presencia de macroinvertebrados en cultivos de mora, pasto y aguacate, empleando para el muestreo la técnica del monolito propuesto por Instituto de Fertilidad y Biología de Suelos Tropicales (TSBF y luego se procedió a identificarlos a nivel de familia. La mayor cantidad de macroinvertebrados se encontró en los primeros 10 cm, siendo el cultivo de mora el que registró la mayor diversidad.The state of soil dynamic properties, such as organic matter content, diversity of organisms, or microbial products in a particular time, allow to infer about soil quality. The indicators available to evaluate, may vary among locations, depending on the type and land use, function and factors of formation. Invertebrates can be indicators of soil quality, as they play a vital role in nutrient cycling processes, furthermore, their diversity, number and functions are sensitive to environmental change in soil conditions associated with activities own in agroecosystems. In order to qualify the quality of soil in various production systems was evaluated the macroinvertebrates presence in mulberry, pasture and avocado crops, using the monolith sampling technique proposed

  12. Symptom-modifying effects of oral avocado/soybean unsaponifiables in routine treatment of knee osteoarthritis in Poland. An open, prospective observational study of patients adherent to a 6-month treatment

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    Piotr Głuszko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Observational studies provide insights into real-life situations. Therefore, we assessed the effects of oral avocado/soybean unsaponifiable (ASU capsules on pain relief and functional ability in patients, while they were receiving a routine treatment for knee osteoarthritis (OA. Material and methods : An open, prospective, observational 6-month study was conducted in 99 centers in Poland in a group of 4822 patients with symptomatic knee OA receiving one 300 mg ASU capsule/day as a routine medication. The patients had no diagnoses of other rheumatic diseases and were not treated with other symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs. Data on OA symptoms and therapy were collected from the initiation of ASU treatment (visit 0 and during 3 consecutive control visits performed every 2 months (visits 1–3. Functional Lequesne index, severity of joint pain of one symptomatic knee (Laitinen index and VAS, use of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, adherence to treatment and adverse events were evaluated and recorded using electronic Case Report Forms. Results : Four thousand one hundred and eighty-six patients (86.8% attended all 4 visits. In 94.2% of patients (mean age 60.7 ±11.6 years SD, 73.4% female at least one OA risk factor was identified. There was a significant improvement in functional ability between the last and baseline visits as evidenced by the median Lequesne index decreasing from 8 to 4 points (p < 0.001. Measures of pain intensity also fell significantly (p < 0.001 throughout the study: median Laitinen score decreased from 6 to 3 points, median pain at rest VAS – from 1.8 to 0 cm and median pain during walking VAS – from 5.6 to 1.9 cm. The significant differences were also noted between consecutive visits. The proportion of patients using analgesics and NSAIDs declined from 58.8% at the baseline visit to 24.9% at the last visit 3 (p < 0.001. Defined daily dose of NSAIDs

  13. POPULATIONAL FLUCTUATION OF Acanthodera jaspidea (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera-Cerambycidae IN AVOCADO ORCHARD (Persea americana Mill FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Acanthoderes jaspidea (Germar 1824 (Coleoptera-Cerambycidae EM POMAR DE ABACATEIRO (Persea americana Mill

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    Eliamar Aparecida Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out to determine the meteorological agents influence on the populational fluctuation of Acanthodera jaspidea (Germar, 1824 in avocado orchard of Wagner variety of about 15 years old. This variety composes the guatemalen strain, floral group A. The experimental area was composed by 2 ha in Piracicaba, São Paulo state. The collections were gathered weekly with traps made of plastic bottles. The traps were baited with sugar cane syrup at 20%. There were 10 traps per ha put out from June, 1983, to May, 1985. From October to January large populations with 51 of all adults collected were trapped at this time. The trap and the bait were quite efficient reducing by the number of (31% adults from one year to the next. There was no indication that any of the meteorological agents studied had any influence on the fluctuation of the species.

    No presente trabalho objetivou-se determinar a flutuação populacional de Acanthoderes jaspidea (Germar, 1824 em pomar de abacateiro Persea americana Mill, variedade Wagner, raça guatemalense, grupo floral A, com aproximadamente 15 anos, numa área de 2 hectares no município de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. O levantamento foi realizado semanalmente através de armadilhas confeccionadas com garrafas plásticas iscadas com melaço de cana a 20% diluído em água, num total de 10 armadilhas por hectare, no período de junho de 1983 a maio de 1985. Foi observada a possível influência dos fatores meteorológicos sobre a população da espécie. De outubro a janeiro foram observados os maiores picos populacionais com cerca de 84,9% dos espécimes coletados no período. Dezembro apresentou o maior pico populacional, com 51% dos adultos coletados. A armadilha e a isca mostraram-se bastante eficientes

  14. Métodos de proteção de enxerto na produção de mudas de mangueira, abacateiro e nogueira-macadâmia Methods of graft protection in the production of mango, avocado and macadamia nut nursery trees

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    ANGELO PEDRO JACOMINO

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes materiais de proteção do enxerto foram avaliados na produção de mudas de mangueira (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins, abacateiro (Persea americana L. cv. Fortuna e nogueira-macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche cv. Kau 344. Os materiais utilizados foram: saco de polietileno, parafina, parafina + vaselina, cera de abelha, parafilme e filme de PVC. Verificou-se que o parafilme promoveu melhor resultado de pegamento do enxerto em abacateiro (80,3% e nogueira-macadâmia (74,1%, seguido pelo filme de PVC (53,4% e 41,7%, respectivamente. Na enxertia de mangueira, o parafilme, filme de PVC e saco de polietileno não diferiram entre si estatisticamente (59,6%, 50,2% e 50,2%, respectivamente. Os porcentuais de pegamento observados nos tratamentos com parafina, parafina + vaselina e cera de abelha foram baixos, em comparação com o melhor tratamento (parafilme. Nas mudas de nogueira-macadâmia o parafilme promoveu melhor desenvolvimento das brotações, além de desprender-se naturalmente dos enxertos. Conclui-se que na enxertia de mangueira os garfos podem ser protegidos com parafilme, filme de PVC ou saco de polietileno; na enxertia de abacateiro, pode-se utilizar parafilme ou filme de PVC, e na enxertia de nogueira-macadâmia deve-se optar pelo parafilme.Different methods of graft protection were used in the production of nursery trees of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins, avocado (Persea americana L. cv. Fortuna and macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche cv. Kau 344. The materials used were polyethylene bag, paraffin, paraffin + vaseline, beeswax, parafilm and PVC film. It was verified that the parafilm promoted more successful grafts in avocados (80.3% and macadamia nut (74.1%, followed by PVC film (53.4% and 41.7%, respectively. On the grafting of mango plants the parafilm, PVC film or polyethylene bags did not promote statistic difference to each other (59.6%, 50.2% and 50.2%, respectively

  15. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae).; Uso da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60, para controlar a broca-do-abacate Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) e seus efeitos na qualidade do fruto de Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with

  16. Postharvest of ‘Fuerte’ and ‘Hass’ avocados: physical and chemical characteristics, damages and control of diseases/ Pós-colheita de abacates ‘Fuerte’ e ‘Hass’: características físicas e químicas, danos e controle de doenças

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    Maria Cecília Arruda

    Full Text Available Postharvest disease is considered an important cause of avocado depreciation during its commercialization. This work aimed to evaluate the postharvest damages and the physical chemical characteristics of avocados ‘Fuerte’ and ‘Hass’, processed at the packinghouse, and to evaluate the effect of products for postharvest disease control. The characteristics skin color, firmness, titratable acidity and soluble solids content and the incidence of the postharvest damages were evaluated periodically in avocados sampled in three different stages in a packinghouse (arrival, pallet and processed fruits after storage for 30 days at 5ºC. For diseases control, ‘Hass’ avocado were treated by immersion with the following products: azoxystrobin, benzalkonium chloride, chlorine dioxide, Ecolife®, sodium hypochlorite, imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole. In general, the highest physical chemical changes were observed in fruits collected at their arrival to the packinghouse and in processed fruits after stored for 30 days at 15 days of storage at 25°C. The rots incidence was 56,7% in ‘Fuerte’ and 75,7% in ‘Hass’. Lower incidence of rots was observed in fruits sampled at the pallet and a higher incidence in the processed fruits, after refrigerated storage. Anthracnose was the most important disease in both cultivars. The mechanical injuries increased with the processing stages; however, they did not influence the incidence of the rots. Procloraz and imazalil were the most efficient fungicides in reducing the incidence of rots. Doença pós-colheita é considerada uma importante causa de desvalorização do abacate por ocasião da comercialização. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os danos pós-colheita e as características físicas e químicas de abacates ‘Fuerte’ e ‘Hass’, beneficiados em packinghouse, e o efeito de produtos no controle pós-colheita das podridões. As características cor da casca, firmeza, acidez titulável e s

  17. Sensitivity and Variability of Two Plant Water Stress Indicators: Exploring Criteria for Choosing a plant Monitoring Method for Avocado Irrigation Management Sensibilidad y Variabilidad de Dos Indicadores de Estrés Hídrico en Plantas: Explorando Criterios para la Elección de Métodos de Fitomonitoreo para Manejo del Riego en Palto

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    José M Celedón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Avocado (Persea americana Mill. is a fruit-tree species highly susceptible to water deficit, which makes irrigation management a difficult task for growers. When irrigation is inadequate, trees suffer growth reduction, fruit losses, and roots damage. This study addressed the question of how to assess water stress in avocado trees and the considerations to choose an indicator to measure the plant water stress. In this work the sensitivity and variability of two water stress indicators in response to water deficit were analyzed: stem water potential (SWP and maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDTS. During a period of high water demand, avocado trees planted in a clay loam soil were subjected to water stress by withholding irrigation and compared to control trees irrigated according to the maximal crop evapotranspiration. During the study, avocado trees reached a minimum SWP of -0.9 MPa and a maximum MDTS of ~ 285 μm. To better understand avocado tree response to water deficit, leaf abscisic acid, stomatal conductance, soil moisture, and vapor pressure deficit were also measured. Interestingly, it was found that water stress indicators showed differences with control after 3 d of withholding irrigation. It was possible to observe that MDTS was more sensitive in detecting water stress than SWP, signal strength of 4.5 vs. 1.2 respectively; however, MDTS higher variability counteracted its performance as stress indicator, coefficient of variation of 32% vs. 9%, respectively. This study confirms that monitoring water stress is an important tool for avocado irrigation management and should consider both, the sensitivity and variability of the indicator.El palto (Persea americana Mill. es una especie frutal altamente sensible al estrés hídrico, haciendo el manejo del riego una tarea difícil para los productores. Cuando el riego es inadecuado, los árboles reducen el crecimiento, pierden fruta y sufren dano radical. Este estudio aborda el tema de c

  18. Evaluación de Insecticidas para el Manejo de Monalonion velezangeli, Carvalho & Costa (Hemiptera: Miridae en Aguacate Evaluation of Insecticides for Monalonion velezangeli, Carvalho & Costa (Hemiptera: Miridae management in Avocado

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    Jimena Montilla Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La chinche monalonion, coclicllo o chupanga(Monalonion velezangeli causa daños en brotes terminalesde aguacate, afectando el desarrollo del árbol; en frutos causa secamiento y, por lo tanto, rechazo en la comercialización. Aún no existen estrategias para el manejo de la plaga y los productores utilizan insecticidas sin previa evaluación de su efectividad. Se evaluaron insecticidas con un nuevo modo de acción sobre M. velezangeli bajo condiciones controladas. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con once tratamientos y cuatrorepeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron los insecticidas deltametrina, λ-cihalotrina, imidacloprid, thiametoxam, spinosad, spiromesifen, diflubenzurón, diafentiurón, una mezcla de thiametoxam + λ-cihalotrina; y además, un testigo relativo (agua y un testigo absoluto (sin aplicación. La unidad experimental consistió de un arbusto de guayaba común con diez insectos confinados en una jaula de tela tul. Los tratamientos se aplicaron una vez con los insectos confinados en la jaula. Se identificó que deltametrina,λ-cihalotrina, thiametoxam, imidacloprid y la mezcla dethiametoxam más λ-cihalotrina causan mortalidad entre 85 y100% sobre M. velezangeli, 24 horas después de ser aplicados y 3 días después la mortalidad alcanza el 100%. Estos productos pueden ser incluidos en un programa de manejo integrado para M. velezangeli. El diafentiurón causa mortalidades entre 51-81%. No se evidenció efecto de diafentiurón, diflubenzurón y spiromesifen sobre la progenie de adultos expuestos, pero ninfas tratadas quealcanzaron el estado adulto, dieron origen a un menor número de ninfas; sin embargo, este efecto debe dilucidarse mejor. / Abstract. The bug monalonion, coclicllo o chupanga (Monalonion velezangeli generates damage in avocado end buds, affecting the tree development. When the attack is located on the fruit it causes its drying and therefore its rejection. There are no

  19. RELATIONSHIP OF Monalonion velezangeli CARVALHO & COSTA (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE WITH THE PHENOLOGY OF AVOCADO (Persea americana MILL., CV. HASS RELACIÓN DE Monalonion velezangeli CARVALHO & COSTA (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE CON LA FENOLOGÍA DEL AGUACATE (Persea americana MILL., CV. HASS

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    Luisa Fernanda Torres Jaimes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Monalonion velezangeli is considered one of the most harmful pests of avocado cv. Hass, as far as it attacks vegetative buds, flowers and fruits during all the productive stages of the crop. This situation is aggravated by the lack of knowledge on insect preferences and their relationship with crop phenology. As a contribution to the management of this insect, we studied the relationship between plant phenology and the presence of M. velezangeli, as well as its preferences across tree strata and structures. Data were obtained from six orchards located in the Colombian departments of Antioquia, Caldas and Quindío. After randomly selecting 20 trees at each orchard, 12 branches were marked on each tree, covering the combinations of the four cardinal points with three plant strata (low, medium and high. During a period of 12 months, each branch was monitored by recording its phenological stage (vegetative, flowering and fruiting, the number of individuals of M. velezangeli and the presence of fresh damages on it. An analysis of variance determined that the presence of the insect and its damage were more abundant on the flowering and fruiting branches than on the vegetative ones, as well as in the medium and upper strata of the trees. The damage caused by M. velezangeli was observed to be significantly higher in the reproductive structures (flowers and fruits as compared to the vegetative structures.Resumen. Monalonion velezangeli es considerada una de las principales plagas del aguacate cv. Hass en Colombia, debido a que ataca brotes vegetativos, flores y frutos, durante todas las etapas productivas del cultivo. Esta situación se ve agravada por el desconocimiento de las preferencias del insecto, así como de su relación con la fenología de la planta. Como un aporte al manejo de este insecto, se estudió la relación entre la fenología de la planta y la presencia de Monalonion, así como sus preferencias por estructura y estrato. Las

  20. Rootstock Effect on the Tolerance of cv. Hass Avocado Plants to Nacl Stress Efecto del Portainjerto en la Tolerancia de Plantas de Palto cv. Hass al Estrés por NaCl

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    Mónica Castro V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The avocado tree (Persea americana Mill. is one of the species most sensitive to salinity. Since the root system of this species is particularly affected by this type of stress, it is crucial to find a rootstock that is tolerant to saline water irrigation. Plant material from the cv. Hass was grafted on five rootstocks to find possible candidates: the clonal ‘Duke 7’, ‘Nabal’, ‘Degania 117’,’Mexicola’, and ‘Zutano’ seedlings. One year-old plants were placed in 55 L pots; river sand was used as substrate, and the plants were fertilized with a modified Hoagland solution. Vegetative growth and internal nutrient content were compared with control plants with 30 mg L-1 of Cl-, and plants treated with 200 mg L-1 Cl- for 130 days using NaCl in the nutrient solution (5.64 mM. No interaction between NaCl and the rootstocks for the vegetative growth variables was detected neither in K+ internal foliar or root content nor Ca+2 root. With regard to the carbon assimilation rate, the Nabal rootstock showed the highest rates under the NaCl treatment by retaining the highest chloride concentration in the roots and greatly limiting the concentration found in the leaves of the cv. Hass cultivar. It is therefore a promising rootstock for salt tolerance.El palto (Persea americana Mill. es una de las especies más sensibles a la salinidad, debido a que su sistema radical es particularmente afectado por este estrés, es importante identificar un portainjerto tolerante al riego con agua salina. Para encontrar posibles candidatos se utilizó material vegetal del cv. Hass injertado sobre cinco portainjertos, el clonal Duke 7 y los provenientes de semilla, Nabal, Degania 117, Mexícola y Zutano. Plantas de 1 año de edad fueron colocadas en macetas de 55 L, con arena de río como sustrato y fertilizadas con una solución Hoagland modificada. Durante 130 días se comparó el crecimiento vegetativo y los contenidos internos de nutrientes en plantas

  1. Antinephrolithiatic activity of Persea americana (avocado) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nephrolithiasis is a severe health problem causing morbidity. Chemolisis, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), retrograde ureterorenoscopy (URS), and open and laparoscopic surgery are used for treatment with various success rates. Medical treatments with ...

  2. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, incl...

  3. Value Chain Development of Avocado in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Quaedackers, P.; Nguyen Trung Anh,; Wijk, van S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development, urbanisation and rising income levels, in Vietnam offer potential for pro-poor development, by creating new market opportunities for producers, traders and retailers. This article describes the process of value chain development, which involves all actors in the broad

  4. RECONOCIMIENTO E IDENTIFICACION DE TRIPS FITOFAGOS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE Y DEPREDADORES (THYSANOPTERA: PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE ASOCIADOS A CULTIVOS COMERCIALES DE AGUACATE Persea spp. EN LOS DEPARTAMENTOS DE CALDAS Y RISARALDA (COLOMBIA RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PHYTOPHAGOUS THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE AND PREDATORS (THYSANOPTERA: PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL CULTIVATIONS OF AVOCADO Persea spp. IN THE DEPARTMENTS OF CALDAS AND RISARALDA, COLOMBIA

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    Fernando Echeverri Florez

    2004-06-01

    , halos blanquecinos. En flores: Abundante caída y flores necrosadas. En hojas lamina foliar deforme y manchas rojizas y en ramas: Deformaciones, reducción de la longitud de entrenudos, hiperplasia y la llamada "rama látigo”. Con relación a la susceptibilidad de los diferentes materiales a la acción del daño, la variedad Santana fue en la que más se perciben los síntomas de afección atribuidos a los trips, y las variedades Choquette y Fucsia las que presentaron menores síntomas de afección.Three commercial avocado (Persea sp. cultivars were studied in the municipalities of Palestine (Caldas and Pereira and Marseilles (Risaralda, evaluating trees in production of ages of five to eight years, including for the three places the varieties Santana, Choquette, Booth 8, Trinidad and Trapp. Also, in the orchard of Pereira the variety Fuchsia was included. In all, the damage and distortions attributed to the action of thrips was verified. For the material considered, ten samples were made in each locality with a biweekly frequency, choosing in each sample one tree per variety. In each tree selected, 36 samples were taken as follows: three per stratum (high, intermediate and low, four per cardinal point (north, south, east and west, and from three structures of the plant (tender leaves, flowers, and developing fruits, for a total of 360 samples for each avocado variety in each of the three sampling localities. Thrips were extracted from each sample, separating the morphs according to a reference collection previously established; morphs were quantified and the identification process was undertaken. In total, four morphs associated with avocado cultivation were identified; including two phytophagous species: Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard and Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton, the latter a new report for a phytophagous species associated with avocado, according to Mound (1998, and the genera Leptothrips and Karnyothrips with predatory habits. A widespread prevalence of F

  5. Utilização da microscopia eletrônica de varredura como ferramenta de avaliação da estrutura do tecido de abacate 'quintal' após danos mecânicos Use of scanning electronic microscopy as tool of the tissue structure evaluation of quintal ' avocado tissue structure after mechanical injuries

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    Juliana Sanches

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de injúrias mecânicas, por impacto, compressão e corte nas estruturas celulares de abacates 'Quintal'. Na injúria por impacto, eles foram deixados cair, em queda livre, de uma altura de 2,00 m, sobre os lados opostos, de sua região equatorial; na compressão, foram colocados sob um peso de 117,6 N, por 24 horas, o que provocou duas lesões opostas, no sentido longitudinal; e os cortes foram aplicados em número de quatro, longitudinalmente, com 40 mm de comprimento e 4 mm de profundidade, nos lados opostos dos frutos. Após 5 dias de armazenamento, sob condições de ambiente (25ºC e 60% UR, procedeu-se à verificação das estruturas celulares através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura indicou que os abacates injuriados por compressão e impacto, embora sem lesões aparentemente visíveis, apresentavam desordem celular em suas estruturas.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of mechanical injuries, by impact, compression and cut in the cellular structures of 'Quintal' avocados. In the injury by impact, they were submitted, by free fall, to a height of 2.00 m, in opposed sides of their equatorial area; in the compression, they were submitted by a weight of 117.6 N for 24 hours, and it provoked two opposite lesions in the longitudinal area; and the cuts were longitudinally applied at number of four, with 40 mm of length and 4 mm of depth in the opposed sides of the fruits. After 5 days of storage, under the laboratory conditions (25ºC and 60% RH, the verification of the cellular structures was proceeded through scanning electron microscopy, which indicated that the injuried avocados by compression and impact, although without apparently visible lesions, presented cellular disorder in their structures.

  6. Sensorial, biochemical and microbiological evaluations of guacamole, an avocado based product, under cold storage and added with ascorbic acidAvaliações sensoriais, bioquímicas e microbiológicas do guacamole, um produto à base de abacate, sob armazenamento a frio e com adição de ácido ascórbico

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    Lídia Raquel de Carvalho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of avocado products for commercialization keeping their characteristics of fresh product has been limited. The cut avocado darkens quickly and their sensorial characteristics are modified with the storage. In the present research, the sensorial parameters, microbiological stability, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity were evaluated in guacamole added with ascorbic acid and conserved under low temperature, by using avocado variety Hass. Products were conditioned in polyethylene+nylon packages with and without vacuum application; then, they were subjected to the slow and fast freezing (-18ºC and stored in freezer (-18ºC. Evaluations were performed at the moment of elaboration of the product (t0 and at 3, 7 and 30 days post-storage. At t30, samples were kept under refrigeration (4 ±1oC and evaluated at 3, 5 and 7 days. After the 30 days of storage, –18 ºC under freezing, followed by thawing and keeping at 4±1ºC for 7 days, the notes for the sensorial parameters decreased. The peroxidase activity was totally inhibited in the elaborated product and the polifenol oxidase activity considerably decreased in the guacamole (20.07 mM catechol/g fresh matter relative to those in the fruit (58.31 mM catechol/g fresh matter, however with no significant variation during storage (at -18ºC. The samples were microbiologically stable under the conditions of the present study. The addition of ascorbic acid contributed to the conservation of the frozen avocado product by decreasing the enzymatic activity. However, the sensorial parameters are prejudiced under thawing and storage at 4 ±1oC.A elaboração de produtos de abacate para comercialização mantendo suas características de produto fresco é limitada, já que o fruto cortado escurece rapidamente e suas características sensoriais são modificadas com o armazenamento. Na presente pesquisa, avaliaram-se os parâmetros sensoriais, estabilidade microbiológica e atividade de

  7. Enraizamento de estacas herbáceas do abacateiro ‘Fuerte’ com diferentes períodos de imersão em solução de ácido indolbutírico = Rooting of herbaceous cuttings of ‘Fuerte’ avocado in solution of indol-butiric acid with different times of immersion

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    Ubirajara Ribeiro Mindêllo Neto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Embrapa, Canoinhas, Estado de Santa Catarina, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes tempos de imersão em solução de ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas herbáceas do abacateiro ‘Fuerte’. As estacas foram coletadas em 25/5/04 de plantas com um ano de idade e preparadas com diâmetroentre 4 a 6 mm e 10 cm de comprimento, permanecendo no terço superior duas folhas cortadas ao meio. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: 5 e 30 segundos; 5 minutos; 1, 4, 8 e 12 horas em solução de 1000 mg L-1 de AIB. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos, quatro repetições e doze estacas por parcela. Após aaplicação do AIB, as estacas foram colocadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 72 células, contendo turfa como substrato e levadas para enraizar em casa-de-vegetação com nebulização intermitente. Após 185 dias, foi realizada a avaliação do experimento. Os períodos de imersão rápida, por 5 e 30 segundos na solução de 1000 mg L-1 de AIB apresentaram-se mais favoráveis ao enraizamento das estacas, sendo superiores estatisticamente aos demais tempos de imersão. Os tempos de imersão superiores a uma hora apresentaram efeito fitotóxico. Recomenda-se para a estaquia herbácea de plantas juvenis do abacateiro ‘Fuerte’ a imersão por 30 segundos em solução de 1000 mg L-1 de AIB.This study was carried out at Embrapa, Canoinhas, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, aiming to verify the effect of different times of immersion in solution of indol-butiric acid (IBA in the rooting of herbaceous cuttings of ‘Fuerte’ avocado. The cuttings were collected on May 25th, 2004, from one-yearold plants and prepared with a 4-6mm diameter and 10cm long, with 2 remaining leaves cut in the middle, in the upper third part. The treatments were the following: 5 and 30seconds; 5 minutes; 1, 4, 8 and 12 hours in solution of 1000 mg L-1 of IBA. The

  8. Determinação enzimática de dopamina em formulações farmacêuticas utilizando sistema de análise por injeção em fluxo com extrato bruto de abacate (Persea americana Enzimatic determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulations using a flow injection analysis system with avocado (Persea americana crude extract

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    Karina Omuro Lupetti

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system using a crude extract of avocado (Persea americana as a source of polyphenol oxidase to dopamine determination was developed. The substrates and enzyme concentrations from 2.4x10-7 to 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 and 28 to 332 units mL-1 were evaluated, respectively. In addition, the FIA parameters such as sample loop (50 to 500 µL, flow rate (1.4 to 4.3 mL min-1 and reactor length (100 to 500 cm were also evaluated in a 0.1 mol L-1 phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0. Dopamine solution concentrations were determined using 277 units mL-1 enzyme solution, 400 mL enzyme loop, 375 µL sample loop, 2.2 mL min-1 flow rate and a reactor of 350 cm. The analytical curve showed a linearity from 5.3x10-5 to 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 dopamine with a detection limit of 1.3x10-5 mol L-1. The analytical frequency was 46 h-1 and the RSD lower than 0.5% for 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 dopamine solution (n=10. A paired t-test showed that all results obtained for dopamine in commercial formulations using the proposed flow injection procedure and a spectrophotometric procedure agree at the 95% confidence level.

  9. Life Table Parameters and Consumption Rate of Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt on Avocado Red Mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae Parámetros de Tabla de Vida y Tasa de Consumo de Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant y Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt, sobre la Arañita Roja del Palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae

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    Tommy Rioja S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The avocado red mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor is the major leaf pest in Chile’s avocado orchards. Itaffects leaf physiology and makes it necessary to seek new natural enemies to interact with low population densities of O. yothersi. The potentiality of three predator mites: Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt was evaluated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 1.93ºC, 87 ± 3.61% H.R. and 16:8 (L:D photoperiod on avocado leaf disks Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5 cm by separately feeding eggs, immature, and adult females of O. yothersi, and registering postembryonic development, consumption, as well as life table parameters. The postembryonic development of C. picanus was significantly lower (5.46 days compared to both A. graminis (7.33 days and G. occidentalis (8.69 days which were fed with immature O. yothersi. The life table parameters of C. picanus were net reproductive rate R0 = 25.41, finite rate of increase λ = 1.29, and Mean Generation Time T = 12.46. The Net Intrinsic Rate of Increase (r m was significantly higher for C. picanus (r m = 0.25 in contrast with G. occidentalis (r m = 0.19, while A. graminis showed r m = -0.06 indicating that its population didn’t have descendants. Under laboratory conditions, r m registered by C. picanus is an indicator of its predatory potential to control O. Yothersi. It can be assumed that the pest population reduction pattern could be maintained under field conditions.En Chile la arañita roja del palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor es la plaga más importante a nivel foliar en huertos comerciales afectando la fisiología de la hoja, siendo necesario la búsqueda de nuevos enemigos naturales que interactúen a bajas densidades poblacionales de O. yothersi. Se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio (27±1,93ºC, 87±3,61 % H.R. y un fotoperíodo de 16:8 (L:O sobre discos de hojas de palto Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5

  10. Description of morphologic characters in avocado trees (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, submitted to gamma radiation of {sup 60} Co; Descripcion de caracteres morfologicos en arboles de aguacate (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, sometidos a radiacion gama de {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval R, L

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the characterization of 77 trees of avocado ''Hass'' subjected to gamma radiation of Co{sup 60}, in doses of 0, 5, 10,15, 20 and 25 Gy based on previous studies of radiosensitivity with ends of improvement located in the experimental center ''La Labor'' belonging to the foundation Salvador Sanchez Colin. CICTAMEX. S C. in Temascaltepec, Mexico. It was carried out the morphological characterization of this variety according to the nomenclature settled down by the International Office of Genetic Resources (IBPGRI), registering 27 variables for the description of the tree, 33 for description of the fruit and 14 for the characterization of the seed. Regarding the architectural characterization 10 variables were evaluated. Using gamma radiation of Co{sup 60} in the doses of 15 and 20 Gy it was detected a reduction of 22% in the portage of the tree, likewise had reduction the diameter of the trunk and of the foliage. It was found that the reduction in the behavior of the tree induces to a bigger variation of the form of the same one, in the distribution of the branches in the form of the fruit and in the form of the seed you Also detects a remarkable increment in the productivity of some hoist irradiated regarding the architecture of the tree one observes that the angle of inclination of the branches increase when being increased the radiation dose and that the longitude of the annual section of growth decreased significantly in the doses of 20 and 25 Gy. One observes a significant Increment in the I number of buds prolepticos in those hoist irradiated in the I finish mbdulo of rhythmic growth. Io that indicates a change substantial in the I inhabit of growth With the purpose of determining if the changes in morphology and architecture of the tree corresponded with the modification at level meristematico, they were carried out observations to the court microscope of having knitted apical vegetative meristematico

  11. Caracterização física e química de frutos de abacate visando a seu potencial para extração de óleo Physical and chemical characterization of avocado fruits aiming its potencial for oil extraction

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    João Shojiro Tango

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e quatro variedades de abacate provenientes da coleção de abacateiros, situada no Núcleo Experimental de Campinas e pertencente ao Centro de Fruticultura do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC, foram analisadas quanto às proporções dos componentes dos frutos (polpa, casca e caroço e quanto aos teores de lipídeos e umidade da polpa fresca. Determinaram-se, na maioria das variedades, o perfil de ácidos graxos dos óleos extraídos da polpa e, em algumas das variedades, a composição química dos caroços dos frutos. As variedades mais indicadas para serem cultivadas, visando à utilização industrial dos frutos para a extração de óleo, baseando-se nos teores de lipídeos encontrados na polpa fresca e estabelecidos acima de 18%, foram: Anaheim, Carlsbad, Collinson, Fuerte, Glória, Hass, Itzamna, Mayapan, Ouro Verde e Wagner. O período de colheita dessas variedades estendeu-se por sete meses, iniciando em maio e terminando em novembro. Houve correlações lineares negativas, altamente significativas, entre as proporções de polpa com caroço e casca dos frutos, entre os teores de umidade e lipídeos nas polpas e entre os teores de umidade e amido nos caroços dos frutos. Ocorreram grandes variações na composição de ácidos graxos constituintes do óleo das polpas e na composição química das sementes.Twenty-four avocado varieties from the germplasm collection of the Fruit Center of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas, were evaluated as a possible raw material for oil extraction. The varieties were analyzed concerning the proportions of fruit components (pulp, peel and seed and the amounts of moisture and fatty substances found in the fresh pulp. The fatty acid profile of the oils extracted from the pulp was determined in most of the varieties, and in some varieties also the fruit seeds chemical composition. The Anaheim, Carlsbad, Collinson, Fuerte, Glória, Hass, Itzamna, Mayapan, Ouro Verde and Wagner fruit varieties

  12. Efficacy of extractives from parts of Ghanaian pawpaw, avocado and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    furniture makers who saw the efficacy of pawpaw extract at 0.72% and on triple treatment, showed a high sense of interest in preservative botanical extracts. Key words: Eco-friendly, termite, efficacy, standardization, percentage hardness loss, percentage mass loss, visual durability rating. INTRODUCTION. Over the years ...

  13. Eco-physiological assessment of crude oil pollution using avocado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the eco-physiological effects of soil contaminated with crude oil level (0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0% w/w) on some growth characters of Persea americana with a view to determining their contributions to yield biomass in 2006 in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. The experiment was arranged in a randomized ...

  14. 78 FR 6222 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... analyzed the potential economic effects of this action on small entities. The analysis is set forth below... producer, after Mexico and Chile; the United States accounted for about 7 percent of global production, while Mexico and Chile accounted for 32 percent and 9 percent, respectively. U.S. commercial production...

  15. 78 FR 8987 - Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... tomatoes from Spain, France, Morocco, Chile, and Central America (Sec. 319.56-28), citrus from Chile (Sec...: Tephritidae) oviposition. Journal of Economic Entomology. 102: 921- 926. \\5\\ Follett, P.A., Vargas, R.I., Jang... Flexibility Act, we have analyzed the potential economic effects of this action on small entities. This...

  16. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  17. Laurel wilt in avocado: Review of an emerging disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    aurel wilt, caused by the vascular fungus Raffaelea lauricola, is transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, and affects many plants in the family Lauraceae. It was introduced into the United States around 2002 through infested packing material arriving in Georgia. In Florida, t...

  18. 78 FR 79568 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...), auditing companies, integrated pest management associations, and field technicians and advisors, as defined... NPPO certifies that it is taking responsibility to ensure that these other involved parties act under... commenter noted that throughout harvest the NPPO, the Autonomous Communities, and the auditing companies...

  19. Is there Avocado sunblotch Viroid in Ghana? | Acheampong | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 20 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  20. Characterization of avocado pear ( Persea americana ) and African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dacryodes edulis) were extracted with chloroform. The oil were characterized for melting point, refractive index, relative viscosity, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value, acid value and percentage unsaponifable matter. The percent oil ...

  1. Reproductive Biology of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in Southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Arco, María Librada; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to determine the changes in the effective pollination period (EPP) due to environmental factors, mainly temperature and relative humidity. Thus, we analyzed the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization under the environmental conditions of Southern Spain: pollen reposition on the stigmas, pollen germination, pollen tube growth, and pollen tube penetration into the ovule.

  2. Effect of Injecting Hydrogen Peroxide into Heavy Clay Loam Soil on Plant Water Status, NET CO2 Assimilation, Biomass, and Vascular Anatomy of Avocado Trees Efecto de la Inyección de Peróxido de Hidrógeno en Suelo Franco Arcilloso Pesado, sobre el Estado Hídrico, Asimilación Neta de CO2, Biomasa y Anatomía Vascular de Paltos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar M Gil M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In Chile, avocado (Persea americana Mill. orchards are often located in poorly drained, low-oxygen soils, situation which limits fruit production and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of injecting soil with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a source of molecular oxygen, on plant water status, net CO2 assimilation, biomass and anatomy of avocado trees set in clay loam soil with water content maintained at field capacity. Three-year-old ‘Hass’ avocado trees were planted outdoors in containers filled with heavy loam clay soil with moisture content sustained at field capacity. Plants were divided into two treatments, (a H2O2 injected into the soil through subsurface drip irrigation and (b soil with no H2O2 added (control. Stem and root vascular anatomical characteristics were determined for plants in each treatment in addition to physical soil characteristics, net CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration (T, stomatal conductance (gs, stem water potential (SWP, shoot and root biomass, water use efficiency (plant biomass per water applied [WUEb]. Injecting H2O2 into the soil significantly increased the biomass of the aerial portions of the plant and WUEb, but had no significant effect on measured A, T, gs, or SWP. Xylem vessel diameter and xylem/phloem ratio tended to be greater for trees in soil injected with H2O2 than for controls. The increased biomass of the aerial portions of plants in treated soil indicates that injecting H2O2 into heavy loam clay soils may be a useful management tool in poorly aerated soil.En Chile, los huertos de palto (Persea americana Mill. se ubican comúnmente en suelos pobremente drenados con bajo contenido de oxígeno, lo que limita producción y calidad de fruta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la inyección de peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2 al suelo como fuente de O2, sobre el estado hídrico, asimilación de CO2, biomasa y anatomía de paltos en suelo franco arcilloso con

  3. 76 FR 7095 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ..., Marketing Specialist, or Christian D. Nissen, Regional Manager, Southeast Marketing Field Office, Marketing... / Wednesday, February 9, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of...

  4. Inter-firm coordination in the Mexican avocado (Persea americana) industry: the packer-buyer relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical coordination is an effective response to uncertainties in marketing environments. This article presents evidence relating the influence of transaction characteristics on interfirm coordination to respond what conditions determine the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and

  5. Supply chain practices, performance and organizational configuration in the Mexican avocado industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in agrifood supply chains, such as the need for quality improvement and control, enhanced information exchange, and increased customer responsiveness, have made the introduction of Supply Chain Practices (SCPs) essential. Adopting practices such as product standardization, supplier

  6. Impact of postharvest ripening strategies on 'Hass' avocado fatty acid profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedreschi Plasencia, Romina; Hollak, S.; Harkema, H.; Otma, E.; Robledo, P.; Westra, Eelke; Berg-Somhorst, van de Dianne; Ferreyra, R.; Defilippi, B.G.

    2016-01-01

    Persea americana Mill. cv 'Hass' is a subtropical fruit highly appreciated as a rich source of fatty acids mostly of the monounsaturated type. Commonly commercially applied postharvest ripening strategies for the ready to eat market based on high temperature (15 and 20 °C) and external ethylene

  7. Relationship characteristics and performance in fresh produce supply chains: the case of the Mexican avocado industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronado, J.J.A.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Inter-organisational relations research has shown that relationship characteristics can influence performance in seller-buyer transactions. Using a transaction cost economics approach, this research shows that relational elements such as expectation of continuity reduce the transaction

  8. Growth and abscission of avocado fruits (Persea americana Mill. cv. Fuerte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo B.Muñoz Perez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a commerical orchard of 18-year-old trees, 1250 fruits were chosen for observation. The majority of them abscised during the first weeks after anthesis. Afterwards, the abscission gradually descreased, however, in the meantime three additional waves of more intensive shedding occurred which were best visible when the Relative Abscission Rate (RAR was calculated. The peaks in the RAR curve were preceded by a decrease in the Relative Growth Rate (RGR of persistent fruits, which suggests that nutritional or other stresses occurred in the whole branch. In the period from May 15th to July 15th, predominantly the smaller fruits were abscised, later on, however, fruits of the same size as the persistent ones were shed. The formula for calculating RAR and RAR is shortly discussed.

  9. 75 FR 15603 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Program requirements... if you are unable to market due to quarantine, boycott, or refusal of any person to accept production...

  10. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation of plant chemical phenotypes in a population can be explained by a combination of genetic, developmental and environmental factors. The age structure, environmental heterogeneity, and the limits in gene flow in a natural population will determine the variability and the spatial structure o...

  11. Arrangement of vascular tissues in the peduncle of avocado (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amando Espinosa-Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In all three investigated cultivars, the thin part of the peduncle which originates from the inflorescence axes contained a continuous cylinder of vascular tissue interrupted only occasionally by the gaps accompanying the traces of already abscised ramifications of the inflorescence. In the cvs. Principe Negro and Fuerte, the most distal, "thick" part of the peduncle (where the tepal traces separate contained the vascular cylinder transformed into a group of concentric or semicircular bundles. These bundles joined anew at the point where the peduncle united with the fruit, forming once more a continuous cylinder of vascular tissues. Within the fruit, the vascular cylinder divided into numerous bundles penetrating the pulp. In cv. Hass the vascular cylinder was continuous in a11 parts of the peduncle, and was interrupted only occasionally by gaps.

  12. Invasive Asian Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cultivate Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) species in their galleries as a source of food. Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung...

  13. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... American fruit fly for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. \\2\\ Aluja, M., F. Diaz-Fleischer and J... of Agricultural and Resource Economics, in 2004 regarding how to offset price impacts from imported... Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  14. Detection and management of Xyleborus glabratus and other vectors of laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redabay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, carries a phytopathogenic symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of some Lauraceae species. Both X. glabratus and R. lauricola are natives of Asia that recently invaded much of the coastal plain of the sout...

  15. Rearing Xyleborus volvulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Media Containing Sawdust from Avocado or Silkbay, with or without Raffaelea lauricola (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like other ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus volvulus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with fungi that serve as food source. Until recently, X. volvulus was not considered a pest, and none of its symbionts were considered plant pathogens. However, recent ...

  16. Integrating socio-economic and biophysical data to support water allocations within river basins: an example from the Inkomati Water Management Area in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available - - - - maize Lydenburg - - maize potato maize Nelspruit citrus/ avocado sugarcane tobacco sweet potato maize Nkomazi citrus sugarcane maize N/A - Pilgrim's Rest banana - maize beans maize Waterval- Boven - - maize beans maize White River banana/ avocado...

  17. Registration of Plant Varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EARO). 2001. Strategy Document for. Fruits. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Registration of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Varieties Hass, Fuerte, Pinkerton,. Bacon, Ettinger, and Nabal. Avocado is evergreen, medium to large sized fruit tree with ...

  18. Fitotoxicidade de três antibióticos na cultura in vitro de abacateiro Phytotoxicity of three antibiotics to avocado tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antonio Biasi

    1995-01-01

    Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos para verificar o efeito do ácido nalidíxico, do cloranfenicol e da estreptomicina sobre a cultura in vitro do abacateiro 'Ouro Verde'. No primeiro, testou-se a influência de diversas concentrações (0, 12,5, 25, 50, 100 e 200 mg/L) desses antibióticos sobre a calogênese de discos foliares e, no segundo, o efeito sobre a brotação de gemas de segmentos nodais. Enquanto a formação de calos foi reduzida à metade com o uso de 50 mg/L de cloranfenicol, sua massa fo...

  19. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT OF PERSEA AMERICANA(AVOCADO PEAR ON PROTHROMBIN TIME AND ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty (20 adult albino mice were used in the study to determine the effect of methanolic seed extract of Persea Americana on prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test. The mice were obtained and kept for 2 weeks to acclimatize. They were weighed and divided into 5 groups. Group A served as control without the extract. Groups B to E were orally administered with graded doses of 200mg, 400 mg, 800 mg and 1600mg/kg body weight per mice daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected through the median canthus into ti-sodium citrate anticoagulant containers for the analysis of PT and APTT, using standard operative procedure. The analysis was carried out at the Haematology Laboratory of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Enugu. The results showed a prolonged APTT time at all the doses of the extract when compared with the control (P and lt;0.05. The prothrombin time at the dosage of 200mg/kg did not differ when compared with the control (P and gt;0.05. The increase in PT and APTT was dose dependent. This result pattern suggests that the extract causes prolonged prothrombin time and APTT at various concentrations possibly due to its high potassium content. The extract can be recommended in anticoagulant therapy since it prolongs PT and APTT.

  20. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 70% METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AVOCADO LEAF (Persea americana Mill IN DECREASING BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS IN MALE RATS (Rattus norvegicus WISTAR STRAIN INDUCED ALLOXAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sintowati

    2017-01-01

    Metode penelitian menggunakan eksperimental laboratorik dengan rancangan penelitian pretest – posttest with control group design. Hewan uji yang digunakan 25 ekor tikus jantan galur Wistar, umur 2-3 bulan, dan berat badan 150-200 gram yang dibagi dalam 5 kelompok. Kelompok I: kontrol negatif (aquades, kelompok II: kontrol positif (glibenklamid, kelompok III, IV, V : ekstrak metanol 70% daun alpukat dengan dosis berturut-turut adalah sebagbai berikut: 100 mg/ 200 grBB, 150 mg/ 200 grBB, 200 mg/ 200 grBB. Gula darah diukur dengan alat spektrofotometer. Berdasarkan hasil uji ANOVA, data penurunan kadar gula darah hari ke-7 pemberian ekstrak nilai probabilitas signifikan p = 0, 000 dengan demikian p < 0, 05 maka terdapat perbedaan penurunan kadar gula darah yang bermakna. Berdasarkan uji LSD dari semua kelompok didapatkan nilai p < 0,05 yang berarti terdapat perbedaan penurunan kadar gula darah yang signifikan antara2 kelompok. Kesimpulan: Ekstrak metanol 70% daun alpukat (Persea americana Mill dosis 200 mg/200; 100 mg/200 and 150 mg/ 200 gram/berat badan dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah pada mencit jantan galur wistar Kata Kunci : Ekstrak metanol 70%, Alpukat (Persea americana Mill, gula darah, diabetes mellitus.

  1. Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on artificial media using sawdust from avocado or silkbay in presence or absence of the laurel wilt pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was reported in Florida for the first time in 2013. Previously, it was unrecognized and not distinguished from the morphologically similar Xyleborus ferrugineus (F.). Like other members of the tribe Xyleborini, X. ferrugineus (and possibly X....

  2. ISOLATION OF GENOMIC DNAs FROM THE TROPICAL FRUIT TREES AVOCADO, COCONUT, GUAVA AND MANGO FOR PCR-BASED DNA MARKER APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Isis M. Ramírez; N. N. Rodríguez; Juliette Valdés-Infante; Maricela Capote; D. Becker; W. Rohde

    2004-01-01

    En frutales tropicales de porte arbóreo, el aisla- miento del ADN genómico con suficiente calidad para ser usa- do en tecnologías de marcadores moleculares basadas en PCR, posee en muchas ocasiones serios problemas por la presencia de inhibidores, tales como los polisacáridos que inhiben el procesamiento enzimático del ADN o los polifenoles que inhiben las reacciones de PCR. Se probaron diferentes proto- colos de extracción y purificación de ADN en cuatro frutales tropicales: guayabo ( Psidiu...

  3. Clonagem do abacateiro variedade "Duke 7" (Persea americana Mill. por alporquia Cloning of avocado cultivar "Duke 7" (Persea americana Mill. using air-layering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Vilar de Morais Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com a finalidade de determinar a possibilidade de clonagem da variedade de abacateiro "Duke 7", por alporquia e a influência do AIB (ácido indol-3-butírico no processo. Experimento 1 - Alporque em plantas - O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2L x 4N x 2E, correspondendo à manutenção ou não das plantas à ausência de luz (L, níveis de AIB (N e tipo de estrutura (E. Nos quatro dias antecedentes à realização da alporquia, 50% das plantas permaneceram na ausência total de luz (L1, e as demais, em condições normais de ripado, 50% de luminosidade (L2. No local anelado, foram aplicadas as concentrações (N de AIB (ácido indolbutírico: 0; 1.000, 3.000 e 5.000 mg kg-1. O experimento foi realizado em duas estruturas diferenciadas pelo tipo de cobertura: a estrutura um (E1 e a estrutura dois (E2, diferenciadas pela temperatura e intensidade luminosa. Experimento 2- Alporque em plantas adultas após poda drástica - Os alporques foram realizados cinco meses após a poda drástica, quando os ramos possuíam entre 1,5 e 2,0 cm de diâmetro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial, com 4 tratamentos, caracterizados pelas concentrações de AIB (0; 1.000; 3.000 e 5.000 mg kg-1, com quatro repetições, e cada parcela composta por 10 alporques. Em nenhum dos experimentos, houve enraizamento dos alporques, consequentemente há necessidade de maiores estudos, quanto à clonagem da variedade "Duke 7" para viabilizá-la como porta-enxerto.Two experiments were conducted aiming to determine the possibility of "Duke 7" cultivar cloning by air-layering and the influence of IBA (indol-butyric acid. Experiment 1 - air layering on seedlings - The experimental design used was entirely randomized, in factorial arrangement 2L x 4N x 2E, corresponding to submission or not of plants to light (L, levels of IBA (N and type of green house (E. During four days before the air-layering, 50% of the plants were kept under total absence of light (L1 and the others under normal conditions, 50% of luminosity. In the place where a strip of bark was removed the concentrations (L2 of IBA 0, 1000, 3000 e 5000 mg kg-1 were applied. The experiment was conducted in two different green houses: E1 and E2, the differences between them were temperature and luminosity. Experiment 2 - Air-layering in plant after drastic trim - The air layers were performed, five months after drastic trim, when the shoots were from 1,5 to 2,0 cm in diameter, when a strip of bark was removed. The experimental design used was entirely randomized in a factorial arrangement, with four treatments, characterized by IBA concentrations (0; 1.000; 3.000 e 5.000 mg kg-1, with four replications and each plot composed by ten air-layering, removing a strip of the bark of 2,0 cm in diameter. There was no rooting of air-layers, in both experiments, consequently, more studies related to "Duke 7" cultivar cloning are needed, aiming to use it as rootstock.

  4. 7 CFR 1219.52 - Control of administrative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Board shall implement a system of cost controls based on normally accepted business practices to: (1... AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order... shall use the resources, staffs, and facilities of existing avocado organizations as provided in § 1219...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.42 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from engaging in: (a) Any action that would be a conflict of interest. For the purposes of this subpart... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219...

  6. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) Vol. 12, No. 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    40p. Whiley, A.W.(1990) C02 assimilate of developing fruiting shoots of cv. Hass Avocado. (Persea americana Mill.) .S.A. Avocado Grower's Assn. Yrbk. 13:28-30. Whiley, A.W., .K.R. Chapman, and J.B. Saranah. (1988). Water loss by floral structures of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) during flowering. Austral. J. Agr. Res.

  7. Characteristics of the biocontrol rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606

    OpenAIRE

    Tienda, Sandra; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M.

    2017-01-01

    The major disease affecting avocado crops in the Mediterranean area is Rosellinia necatrix, causing the avocado white root rot. The biocontrol rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 has been isolated from rhizosphere of healthy avocado trees, growing in an area affected by white root rot. As a main characteristic, PCL1606 showed a strong in vitro antagonism against R. necatrix and other important soil borne pathogens, mainly due to the production of the antimicrobial compound 2- hexy...

  8. The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 doesn´t have PGPR activity as additional mechanism to biocontrol

    OpenAIRE

    Tienda, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 was isolated from rhizosphere of healthy avocado trees, growing in an area affected by white root rot (caused by Rosellinia necatrix), which is one of the most important diseases for avocado crops. PCL1606 revealed strong antagonist activity against R. necatrix, mainly due to the production of the antifungal compound 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR). HPR is crucial for the biocontrol activity, and is involved in bacterial colonisation of the avocado root sur...

  9. Biologi Perbungaan Tanaman Avokad (Persea Americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    SUKAMTO, L. AGUS

    1985-01-01

    L. AGUS SUKAMTO 1985.The flowering biology of avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Berita Biologi 3 (1) 8 - H.- A study on the flowering biology of avocado available at Bogor Botanic Garden was made.The observation was conducted in respects to the opening and closing of the flowers, the versality of the pollen grains which are then related to the fruit production.The climatic condition as well as pollination agents which may affect on the vertilization in avocado are also discussed.

  10. 75 FR 862 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... vegetable seedlings and as a foliar spray on asparagus, cole crops, bulb vegetables, berry crops, cucurbits... on artichoke, asparagus, avocado, beans, beets, berries, brassica crops, bulb vegetables, celery...

  11. 7 CFR 1219.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1219.1 Section 1219.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.1 Act. Act means the Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 2000, Public Law 106-387, 7 U.S.C. 7801-7813...

  12. 7 CFR 1219.64 - List of importers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Books, Records, and Reports § 1219.64 List of importers. The administrative staff of the Board shall periodically review the list of...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.65 - List of producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Books, Records, and Reports § 1219.65 List of producers. The administrative staff of the Board shall periodically review the list of...

  14. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  15. Host range expansion and increased damage potential of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea nr. fornicatus complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) vector Fusarium spp. fungi pathogenic to susceptible hosts, including avocado. The Florida avocado production area in Miami-Dade County was surveyed for E. nr. fornicatus upon observations of initial damage in 2016...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.62 - Books and records of the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Books and records of the Board. 1219.62 Section 1219... AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Books, Records, and Reports § 1219.62 Books and records of the Board. (a) The Board shall maintain such books and...

  17. JMBR VOLUME 16 Number 1 June 2017.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... Avocado pear, also called alligator pear or butter pear, is produced by avocado trees which originated from Mexico and. Central America, and it belongs to the. Lauraceae family and genus parseal. It is rich in protein, vitamins, and essential minerals required for maintaining good health. The fruits are used ...

  18. 7 CFR 1219.60 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Books, Records, and Reports § 1219.60 Reports. (a) Each first handler of domestic Hass avocados, producer, and importer subject to...) First handler reports shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following: (1) Number of pounds of...

  19. 7 CFR 51.3064 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 51.3064 Section 51.3064 Agriculture... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3064 Damage. Damage means any defect which materially... appearance of the avocados in the container. Any one of the following defects, or any combination of defects...

  20. Phytochemical, inorganic and proximate composition-guided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sterols, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all samples. The inorganic composition result showed relatively high concentration of potassium (very high for seed), calcium (for bark and leaf), magnesium and sulphur in Avocado samples. The Avocado seed contained relatively high content of moisture, carbohydrate ...

  1. JMBR VOLUME 16 Number 1 June 2017.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. Persea americana (avocado pear leaves, fruits, and seeds) is one of the medicinal herbs that has been widely utilized in treating/managing disease conditions. In this study, we investigated the changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of avocado seeds associated with ripening ...

  2. The nutritional intake of undergraduates at the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal foods consumed by males included sadza and cerevita; naartjies, bananas and avocado pears; tomatoes, onions, covo and spinach; beef; and condensed milk and powdered milk occupied the larger proportions. Females frequently ate a lot of bread, cerevita, sadza and cereal; lemons and avocado pears; onions, ...

  3. Changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of Persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana (avocado pear leaves, fruits, and seeds) is one of the medicinal herbs that has been widely utilized in treating/managing disease conditions. In this study, we investigated the changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of avocado seeds associated with ripening using standard methods.

  4. Khamir Antagonis untuk Pengendalian Penyakit Antraknosa pada Buah Avokad Selama Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Fitriati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an important disease in avocado fruit during storage. An effective, cheap, and safe control method is necessary as an alternative to subtitute the use of fungicides in postharvest disease control. This research aimed to identify yeast antagonist from avocados that are effective in controlling anthracnose disease on avocado fruit. Research was started with isolation of C. gloeosporioides and yeast from avocado fruit, followed by in vivo bioassay, antibiosis assay, and chitinolitic activity assay. In vivo bioassay was done by dipping avocado fruit on yeast cell suspension. As many as 23 yeasts isolates was obtained from avocado fruits. Eight yeast isolates (A28, A32, A33, A34, A35, A36, A37, A38 showed very effective for inhibiting anthracnose disease in avocado fruit at concentration of 106 mL-1 and 107 mL-1. However, only four isolates were chosen for further characterization based on morphological and molecular identification. Two species of yeast was identified as Pichia anomala, i.e. isolates A33 and A37 and Candida intermedia, i.e. isolates A35 and A36.

  5. De novo sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the root transcriptome of Persea americana (Mill.) in response to Phytophthora cinnamomi and flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeksting, Bianca J; Coetzer, Nanette; Mahomed, Waheed; Engelbrecht, Juanita; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2014-01-01

    Avocado is a diploid angiosperm containing 24 chromosomes with a genome estimated to be around 920 Mb. It is an important fruit crop worldwide but is susceptible to a root rot caused by the ubiquitous oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytophthora root rot (PRR) causes damage to the feeder roots of trees, causing necrosis. This leads to branch-dieback and eventual tree death, resulting in severe losses in production. Control strategies are limited and at present an integrated approach involving the use of phosphite, tolerant rootstocks, and proper nursery management has shown the best results. Disease progression of PRR is accelerated under high soil moisture or flooding conditions. In addition, avocado is highly susceptible to flooding, with even short periods of flooding causing significant losses. Despite the commercial importance of avocado, limited genomic resources are available. Next generation sequencing has provided the means to generate sequence data at a relatively low cost, making this an attractive option for non-model organisms such as avocado. The aims of this study were to generate sequence data for the avocado root transcriptome and identify stress-related genes. Tissue was isolated from avocado infected with P. cinnamomi, avocado exposed to flooding and avocado exposed to a combination of these two stresses. Three separate sequencing runs were performed on the Roche 454 platform and produced approximately 124 Mb of data. This was assembled into 7685 contigs, with 106 448 sequences remaining as singletons. Genes involved in defence pathways such as the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways as well as genes associated with the response to low oxygen caused by flooding, were identified. This is the most comprehensive study of transcripts derived from root tissue of avocado to date and will provide a useful resource for future studies.

  6. De novo sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the root transcriptome of Persea americana (Mill. in response to Phytophthora cinnamomi and flooding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca J Reeksting

    Full Text Available Avocado is a diploid angiosperm containing 24 chromosomes with a genome estimated to be around 920 Mb. It is an important fruit crop worldwide but is susceptible to a root rot caused by the ubiquitous oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytophthora root rot (PRR causes damage to the feeder roots of trees, causing necrosis. This leads to branch-dieback and eventual tree death, resulting in severe losses in production. Control strategies are limited and at present an integrated approach involving the use of phosphite, tolerant rootstocks, and proper nursery management has shown the best results. Disease progression of PRR is accelerated under high soil moisture or flooding conditions. In addition, avocado is highly susceptible to flooding, with even short periods of flooding causing significant losses. Despite the commercial importance of avocado, limited genomic resources are available. Next generation sequencing has provided the means to generate sequence data at a relatively low cost, making this an attractive option for non-model organisms such as avocado. The aims of this study were to generate sequence data for the avocado root transcriptome and identify stress-related genes. Tissue was isolated from avocado infected with P. cinnamomi, avocado exposed to flooding and avocado exposed to a combination of these two stresses. Three separate sequencing runs were performed on the Roche 454 platform and produced approximately 124 Mb of data. This was assembled into 7685 contigs, with 106 448 sequences remaining as singletons. Genes involved in defence pathways such as the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways as well as genes associated with the response to low oxygen caused by flooding, were identified. This is the most comprehensive study of transcripts derived from root tissue of avocado to date and will provide a useful resource for future studies.

  7. De Novo Sequencing, Assembly, and Analysis of the Root Transcriptome of Persea americana (Mill.) in Response to Phytophthora cinnamomi and Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeksting, Bianca J.; Coetzer, Nanette; Mahomed, Waheed; Engelbrecht, Juanita; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2014-01-01

    Avocado is a diploid angiosperm containing 24 chromosomes with a genome estimated to be around 920 Mb. It is an important fruit crop worldwide but is susceptible to a root rot caused by the ubiquitous oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytophthora root rot (PRR) causes damage to the feeder roots of trees, causing necrosis. This leads to branch-dieback and eventual tree death, resulting in severe losses in production. Control strategies are limited and at present an integrated approach involving the use of phosphite, tolerant rootstocks, and proper nursery management has shown the best results. Disease progression of PRR is accelerated under high soil moisture or flooding conditions. In addition, avocado is highly susceptible to flooding, with even short periods of flooding causing significant losses. Despite the commercial importance of avocado, limited genomic resources are available. Next generation sequencing has provided the means to generate sequence data at a relatively low cost, making this an attractive option for non-model organisms such as avocado. The aims of this study were to generate sequence data for the avocado root transcriptome and identify stress-related genes. Tissue was isolated from avocado infected with P. cinnamomi, avocado exposed to flooding and avocado exposed to a combination of these two stresses. Three separate sequencing runs were performed on the Roche 454 platform and produced approximately 124 Mb of data. This was assembled into 7685 contigs, with 106 448 sequences remaining as singletons. Genes involved in defence pathways such as the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways as well as genes associated with the response to low oxygen caused by flooding, were identified. This is the most comprehensive study of transcripts derived from root tissue of avocado to date and will provide a useful resource for future studies. PMID:24563685

  8. 75 FR 16113 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ..., potting, or transplanting non- bearing fruit and vegetable seedlings and as a foliar spray on asparagus... prevent or reduce several types of fungal and bacterial pests on artichoke, asparagus, avocado, beans...

  9. Managing migraines at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods that contain monosodium glutamate (MSG) Baked goods, chocolate, nuts, and dairy products Fruits (such as avocado, ... care Images Migraine cause CT scan of the brain Migraine headache References Garza I, Schwedt TJ, Robertson ...

  10. Linezolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... canned figs; avocados; soy sauce; turkey; yeast extracts; papaya products (including certain meat tenderizers); fava beans; and ... Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  11. Linezolid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... canned figs; avocados; soy sauce; turkey; yeast extracts; papaya products (including certain meat tenderizers); fava beans; and ... Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  12. Microbiological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Compost and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    holding capacity (Martin and Gershuny ... to intensive cultivation and climatic conditions. This makes the recycling of organic waste as soil ... cattle manure and food wastes (leaves of avocado, onion, orange, banana and mango) were added to the.

  13. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Some Selected Local Adsorbents. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... KEYWORDS Adsorption, chromium (VI), avocado kernel seed, papaya peel, Juniperus procera sawdust, local adsorbent, adsorption kinetic, Thermodynamic of adsorption.

  14. 75 FR 34343 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... able to express their views on this issue. Also, the World Trade Organization, the Chilean Technical..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 7 CFR Part 944 Avocados, Food grades and standards, Grapefruit...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.104 - Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH... publicity may include, but are not limited to, print and radio. (c) Develop the ballots and related material...

  16. Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Mistletoe Leaves from Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscum album) growing on three different trees: avocado pear (Persea Americana), African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and kola (Kola nitida) was undertaken. Fresh mistletoe leaves were obtained from the three different trees and thoroughly ...

  17. 7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...); dried apricots; avocados; blackberries; boysenberries; gooseberries; loganberries; black raspberries..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans, beets, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, green peas, spinach, and tomatoes. Other Commodities Beeswax; cottonseed...

  18. Production of vegetal oil for energetic purposes; Producao de oleo vegetal com fins energeticos a partir de oleoginosas perenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Pinto, R. de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PQ (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    The technology to obtain vegetable oil from trans esterification is already dominated. However, the oil grain`s cultures of annual cycle (soy-beans, peanuts, sunflowers) demand fertile and plain lands, which actually ought to be destined for food production, The utilization of slope wise areas, which are often destroyed by means of burning, for the reforestation with perennial oily trees which will be subject for further experimental researches, is studied. Particularly, the studies involves the cultivation of avocado`s varieties, which present pulps with a high oil concentration, in regions of temperate climates. It also involves an analysis of the high productivity and various difficulties to be surpassed, since the development of a simple procedure for thr oils and by-products extraction (in rural properties), until genetic developments of new avocado`s kinds, in order to achieve a better adaptation to the regions climate and to contain a higher oil concentration. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Effects of soil drenching of water-soluble potassium silicate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of soil drenching of water-soluble potassium silicate on commercial avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) orchard trees infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands on root density, canopy health, induction and concentration of phenolic com.

  20. Contribution à l'étude de l'écologie et de la biologie des homoptères ravageurs des arbres fruitiers et autres plantes I.- Comparaison de l'évolution des populations d'Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hom.: Aleyrodidae sur agrumes et avocatier en République du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyindou, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to the Knowledge of the Ecology and Biology of Homopterous Pests of Fruit Trees and other Plants I.- Comparaison of Evolution of Population of Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hom.: Aleyrodidae on Citrus and Avocado Trees in the Republic of the Congo. Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, a whitefly of neotropical origin, was introduced into Congo in the early '90. Since 1995, A. dispersus has developped the important populations on Citrus and avocado trees. The study of the population dynamic of this whitefly on Citrus and avocado trees indicates that the pest exhibits only four and three generation a year on Citrus and avocado trees respectively. Besides, an increase of the population of A. dispersus occurs in the dry season. However, rainfall reduces the insect population to a very low level. Its abundance indicates that during the rainy season, A. dispersus appears ealier underpinned for the first time and its significance assessed.

  1. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scholytinae), and Cubeb oil as an alternative attractant

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Hanula; Brian Sullivan; David Wakarchuk

    2013-01-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (...

  2. 4-Week Gluten-Free Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... berries, milk, and a sprinkle of brown sugar Scrambled eggs with a slice of GF toast on the ... the recipe) and Greek yogurt Monday Breakfast tacos: scrambled eggs in corn tortillas with salsa & avocado (optional) Lunch * ...

  3. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of monounsaturated fats include: Nuts Avocado Canola oil Olive oil Safflower oil (high oleic) Sunflower oil Peanut oil and butter Sesame oil To get the health benefits, you need to replace unhealthy fats with healthy ...

  4. Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fortified cereals, breads and pasta, and higher-fat plant foods including sunflower butter and avocados to help vegetarian children meet their energy and nutrient needs. Reviewed September 2017 Tags Food Nutrition Vegetarian and Special Diets Healthy Eating For Kids ...

  5. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research - Vol 16, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . (avocado pear) seeds associated with ripening · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Chidube A. Alagbaoso, Ome S. Osakwe, Iranlowo I. Tokunbo, 28-34 ...

  6. Identificação de espécies de Fusicoccum causadoras de podridão em frutos de abacate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Fusicoccum genus of fungi are known to cause stem-end rot in various fruit plants, such as mango, guava, peach and avocado. Several species of this fungus are reported attacking avocado (Persea americana in several countries. Based on this information, the present study aimed to identify species of Fusicoccum associated with rot in avocado fruits in the State of São Paulo. Samples were collected (fruits with rot symptoms from regions of Bauru, Bernadino de Campos and Piraju. All isolates obtained had its pathogenicity confirmed by inoculation of healthy avocado fruits. After confirming its pathogenicity, these isolates had their DNA extracted and the ITS-5.8S rDNA region was amplified. After editing, these sequences were used to search for similar sequences in the NCBI. Eleven samples were identified as Neofusicoccum parvumand others were identified as Botryosphaeria dothidea(F. aesculi. Both species were found in all regions of collection.

  7. Agribusiness: Industry Study Final Report, AY 2003-2004, Seminar 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    costs or move operations offshore in order to remain competitive. In Chile, farmers are expanding and planting avocados trees along steep...Clementines), Polpaico, Chile AgriCom Avocado Orchard, Hijuelas, Chile AgroSuper’s Pork Processing Plant, Rosario, Chile AUD Irrigation System, RS...innovations (i.e., cross- breeding and disease control), plant innovations (i.e., hybrid and GMO corn and insect control), land-use improvements (i.e., crop

  8. Comparación del aceite de aguacate variedad Hass cultivado en Colombia, obtenido por fluidos supercríticos y métodos convencionales: una perspectiva desde la calidad

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Duque, Ana María; Londoño Londoño, Julián; González Álvarez, Dubán; Benavides Paz, Yara Licceth; Cardona Salazar, Blanca Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Oil is the most important component of avocado, achieving levels up to 25% depending on the variety and the maturity. Such oil is known as a very beneficial product for health. Objective. Compare the avocado oil (Persea americana Mill), Hass variety, cultivated in Colombia and obtained by supercritical fluids, with those obtained by coldpressing and soxhlet, under quality terms. Materials and methods. The physical-chemical, bromatological and microbiologi...

  9. Evaluación del proceso de extracción de aceite de aguacate hass (Persea americana Mill) utilizando tratamiento enzimático

    OpenAIRE

    Buelvas Salgado, Gustavo Andrés; Patiño Gómez, J. H.; Cano Salazar, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Avocado oil is rich in vitamins A, B, C and E, and is mainly composed by monounsaturated fat acids, which effectively reduce cholesterol levels in blood, thus helping to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Objective. Evaluating the performance of Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill) oil extraction in E3-M (mature) from the East of Antioquia, by the use of commercial enzymatic complexes. Materials and methods. To develop this research work, a physical-chem...

  10. FRUITFUL: Integrated supply-chain information system for fruit produce between South Africa and the Netherlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Polderijk, JJ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available ) and stone fruit (apricots, peaches, nectarines and plums). Citrus is split into oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes and soft citrus (also known as easy peelers, such as naartjies, mandarins, etc.). Subtropicals are mangoes, litchis, melons, avocados... had a focus on transportation of mangoes and avocados in refrigerated containers (reefer containers) and was guided by A&F (ATO). Pilot 134 J.J. POLDERDIJK ET AL. chain 2 had a focus on shipping citrus and grapes with conventional reefer...

  11. Identifikasi Metabolit Sekunder Ekstrak Etil Asetat Biji Alpukat (Persea americana Mill. dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Larva Udang Artemia salina Leach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musyarrifah Musyarrifah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times the people of Indonesia have known, and using nutritious plant as one of the efforts in the prevention of health problems. Plants belonging to the family Lauraceae is one of a group of plants commonly used by communities as traditional medicine, one of which is Avocado (Persea americana Mill. Especially in the seeds, which contain secondary metabolites, namely polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, quinone, monoterpenoid and seskuiterpenoid and saponins. This study aims to identify the secondary metabolites contained in the seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill. And determine the toxicity of extracts and pure compounds using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Avocado seed solvent extracted using ethyl acetate and the extract obtained was tested group and toxicity testing. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of avocado seeds contain phytochemicals based on test results of  secondary metabolites, the flavonoids, alkaloids and steroids. Avocado seed solvent extracted using ethyl acetate and the extract obtained was tested group and toxicity testing. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of avocado seeds contain phytochemicals based on test results of secondary metabolites, the flavonoids, alkaloids and steroids.

  12. EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of defence-related genes from Persea americana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Waheed; Berg, Noëlani van den

    2011-11-23

    Avocado (Persea americana) belongs to the Lauraceae family and is an important commercial fruit crop in over 50 countries. The most serious pathogen affecting avocado production is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR). Root pathogens such as P. cinnamomi and their interactions with hosts are poorly understood and despite the importance of both the avocado crop and the effect Phytophthora has on its cultivation, there is a lack of molecular knowledge underpinning our understanding of defence strategies against the pathogen. In order to initiate a better understanding of host-specific defence we have generated EST data using 454 pyrosequencing and profiled nine defence-related genes from Pc-infected avocado roots. 2.0 Mb of data was generated consisting of ~10,000 reads on a single lane of the GS FLX platform. Using the Newbler assembler 371 contigs were assembled, of which 367 are novel for Persea americana. Genes were classified according to Gene Ontology terms. In addition to identifying root-specific ESTs we were also able to identify and quantify the expression of nine defence-related genes that were differentially regulated in response to P. cinnamomi. Genes such as metallothionein, thaumatin and the pathogenesis related PsemI, mlo and profilin were found to be differentially regulated. This is the first study in elucidating the avocado root transcriptome as well as identifying defence responses of avocado roots to the root pathogen P. cinnamomi. Our data is currently the only EST data that has been generated for avocado rootstocks, and the ESTs identified in this study have already been useful in identifying defence-related genes as well as providing gene information for other studies looking at processes such as ROS regulation as well as hypoxia in avocado roots. Our EST data will aid in the elucidation of the avocado transcriptome and identification of markers for improved rootstock breeding and screening. The characterization of

  13. EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of defence-related genes from Persea americana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahomed Waheed

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avocado (Persea americana belongs to the Lauraceae family and is an important commercial fruit crop in over 50 countries. The most serious pathogen affecting avocado production is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR. Root pathogens such as P. cinnamomi and their interactions with hosts are poorly understood and despite the importance of both the avocado crop and the effect Phytophthora has on its cultivation, there is a lack of molecular knowledge underpinning our understanding of defence strategies against the pathogen. In order to initiate a better understanding of host-specific defence we have generated EST data using 454 pyrosequencing and profiled nine defence-related genes from Pc-infected avocado roots. Results 2.0 Mb of data was generated consisting of ~10,000 reads on a single lane of the GS FLX platform. Using the Newbler assembler 371 contigs were assembled, of which 367 are novel for Persea americana. Genes were classified according to Gene Ontology terms. In addition to identifying root-specific ESTs we were also able to identify and quantify the expression of nine defence-related genes that were differentially regulated in response to P. cinnamomi. Genes such as metallothionein, thaumatin and the pathogenesis related PsemI, mlo and profilin were found to be differentially regulated. Conclusions This is the first study in elucidating the avocado root transcriptome as well as identifying defence responses of avocado roots to the root pathogen P. cinnamomi. Our data is currently the only EST data that has been generated for avocado rootstocks, and the ESTs identified in this study have already been useful in identifying defence-related genes as well as providing gene information for other studies looking at processes such as ROS regulation as well as hypoxia in avocado roots. Our EST data will aid in the elucidation of the avocado transcriptome and identification of markers for improved

  14. Evaluation of diets for the development and reproduction of Franklinothrips orizabensis (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, M S; Jones, J; Oishi, K; Morgan, D; Robinson, L

    2001-08-01

    The suitability of ten diets for the development and reproduction of Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen, the key natural enemy of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara, a pest of California grown avocados, was determined in the laboratory. The experimental diets evaluated were: (i) irradiated Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs; (ii) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and avocado pollen; (iii) Tetranychus pacificus McGregor eggs; (iv) T. pacificus eggs and avocado pollen; (v) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and T. pacificus eggs; (vi) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs, T. pacificus eggs and avocado pollen; (vii) Scirtothrips perseae; (viii) Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouchè); (ix) avocado pollen; and (x) a young avocado leaf. Franklinothrips orizabensis larvae were unable to develop to adulthood on diets 9 and 10. The remaining eight diets supported complete development of F. orizabensis, but only diets 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 produced fecund females. On diet 5, F. orizabensis exhibited high larval to adult survivorship (90%), mated females exhibited highest daily and lifetime fecundity, and the progeny of mated females were female biased (53%). Analysis of jackknife estimates of net reproduction (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase (lambda) were all significantly greater for F. orizabensis reared on irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and T. pacificus eggs (i.e. diet 5) than corresponding values for other diets on which female F. orizabensis were able to complete development and reproduce. Incorporation of avocado pollen into diets had an adverse effect on demographic statistics for F. orizabensis, and low quality diets resulted in male biased sex ratios for this predator.

  15. Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the NPR1-like gene family from Persea americana (Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Robert; Mahomed, Waheed; Reeksting, Bianca J; Engelbrecht, Juanita; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2015-01-01

    The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) forms an integral part of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway in plants and is involved in cross-talk between the SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. Therefore, NPR1 is essential to the effective response of plants to pathogens. Avocado (Persea americana) is a commercially important crop worldwide. Significant losses in production result from Phytophthora root rot, caused by the hemibiotroph, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete infects the feeder roots of avocado trees leading to an overall decline in health and eventual death. The interaction between avocado and P. cinnamomi is poorly understood and as such limited control strategies exist. Thus uncovering the role of NPR1 in avocado could provide novel insights into the avocado - P. cinnamomi interaction. A total of five NPR1-like sequences were identified. These sequences were annotated using FGENESH and a maximum-likelihood tree was constructed using 34 NPR1-like protein sequences from other plant species. The conserved protein domains and functional motifs of these sequences were predicted. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of the five NPR1-like sequences in the roots of avocado after treatment with salicylic and jasmonic acid, P. cinnamomi infection, across different tissues and in P. cinnamomi infected tolerant and susceptible rootstocks. Of the five NPR1-like sequences three have strong support for a defensive role while two are most likely involved in development. Significant differences in the expression profiles of these five NPR1-like genes were observed, assisting in functional classification. Understanding the interaction of avocado and P. cinnamomi is essential to developing new control strategies. This work enables further classification of these genes by means of functional annotation and is a crucial step in understanding the role of NPR1 during P. cinnamomi infection.

  16. Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the NPR1-like gene family from Persea americana (Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1 forms an integral part of the salicylic acid (SA pathway in plants and is involved in cross-talk between the SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET pathways. Therefore, NPR1 is essential to the effective response of plants to pathogens. Avocado (Persea americana is a commercially important crop worldwide. Significant losses in production result from Phytophthora root rot (PRR, caused by the hemibiotroph, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete infects the feeder roots of avocado trees leading to an overall decline in health and eventual death. The interaction between avocado and P. cinnamomi is poorly understood and as such limited control strategies exist. Thus uncovering the role of NPR1 in avocado could provide novel insights into the avocado - Phytophthora cinnamomi interaction. A total of five NPR1-like sequences were identified. These sequences were annotated using FGENESH and a maximum-likelihood tree was constructed using 34 NPR1-like protein sequences from other plant species. The conserved protein domains and functional motifs of these sequences were predicted. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyses the expression of the five NPR1-like sequences in the roots of avocado after treatment with salicylic and jasmonic acid, P. cinnamomi infection, across different tissues and in P. cinnamomi infected tolerant and susceptible rootstocks. Of the five NPR1-like sequences three have strong support for a defensive role while two are most likely involved in development. Significant differences in the expression profiles of these five NPR1-like genes were observed, assisting in functional classification. Understanding the interaction of avocado and P. cinnamomi is essential to developing new control strategies. This work enables further classification of these genes by means of functional annotation and is a crucial step in understanding the role of NPR1 during P. cinnamomi

  17. Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the NPR1-like gene family from Persea americana (Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Robert; Mahomed, Waheed; Reeksting, Bianca J.; Engelbrecht, Juanita; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2015-01-01

    The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) forms an integral part of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway in plants and is involved in cross-talk between the SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. Therefore, NPR1 is essential to the effective response of plants to pathogens. Avocado (Persea americana) is a commercially important crop worldwide. Significant losses in production result from Phytophthora root rot, caused by the hemibiotroph, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete infects the feeder roots of avocado trees leading to an overall decline in health and eventual death. The interaction between avocado and P. cinnamomi is poorly understood and as such limited control strategies exist. Thus uncovering the role of NPR1 in avocado could provide novel insights into the avocado – P. cinnamomi interaction. A total of five NPR1-like sequences were identified. These sequences were annotated using FGENESH and a maximum-likelihood tree was constructed using 34 NPR1-like protein sequences from other plant species. The conserved protein domains and functional motifs of these sequences were predicted. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of the five NPR1-like sequences in the roots of avocado after treatment with salicylic and jasmonic acid, P. cinnamomi infection, across different tissues and in P. cinnamomi infected tolerant and susceptible rootstocks. Of the five NPR1-like sequences three have strong support for a defensive role while two are most likely involved in development. Significant differences in the expression profiles of these five NPR1-like genes were observed, assisting in functional classification. Understanding the interaction of avocado and P. cinnamomi is essential to developing new control strategies. This work enables further classification of these genes by means of functional annotation and is a crucial step in understanding the role of NPR1 during P. cinnamomi infection. PMID:25972890

  18. Effect of medicinal plants on Moraxella cattarhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, M U; Thajuddin, N

    2011-02-01

    To determine the antimoraxella activity of Ethiopian medicinal plants extracts. Two clinical isolates of Moraxella cattarhalis (M. cattarhalis) with different antibiotic sensitivity pattern were tested to determine their susceptibility to garlic [Allium sativum (A. sativum)], bark of cinnamon [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum)], and leaves of avocado [Persea americana (P. americana)], rosemary [Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis)] and prickly poppy [Argemone mexicana (A. mexicana)]. Disk diffusion assay and broth dilution method were used to measure zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts against M. cattarhalis. Both the strains of M. cattarhalis exhibited similar sensitivities to the extracts of medicinal plants. Antimoraxella activity was exhibited only by garlic, avocado leaves and cinnamon. Garlic was found to be more antagonistic to M. cattarhalis than cinnamon and avocado. Garlic and avocado leaves have shown similar MIC (30 mg/mL) where as their zone of inhibition (15 and 11 mm, respectively) were different. Garlic, cinnamon and avocado leaves extracts represents alternative source of natural antimicrobial substances for use in clinical practice for the treatment of cases of M. cattarhalis. Further research on the effects of these extracts on M. cattarhalis can be rewarding to pursue in the search for new broad spectrum antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CICTAMEX Memory 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico.

    1991-01-01

    The avocado agriculture industry at National and International levels is confronted to low yields which are due among other aspects to the high costs of products originated by the height of the tree as well as its foliage which difficults the harvest, low cultural customs of the harvesters and to the overrating of the phyto sanitary control. This has been originated by the actual research trends over avocado at all world level since the research has been oriented to the obtention of dwarf tree varieties with the advantages that this offers. The Salvador Sanchez Colin CICTAMEX Foundation is developing a genetic improvement program with the support of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) by means of the pacific uses of nuclear energy on fruits principally the avocado

  20. CICTAMEX Memory 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Rubi Arriaga.

    1993-01-01

    The avocado agriculture industry at National and International levels is confronted to low yields which are due among other aspects to the high costs of products originated by the height of the tree as well as its foliage which difficults the harvest, low cultural customs of the harvesters and to the overrating of the phyto sanitary control. This has been originated by the actual research trends over avocado at all world level since the research has been oriented to the obtention of dwarf tree varieties with the advantages that this offers. The Salvador Sanchez Colin CICTAMEX Foundation is developing a genetic improvement program with the support of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) by means of the pacific uses of nuclear energy on fruits principally the avocado

  1. CICTAMEX Memory 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico.

    1992-01-01

    The avocado agriculture industry at National and International levels is confronted to low yields which are due among other aspects to the high costs of products originated by the height of the tree as well as its foliage which difficults the harvest, low cultural customs of the harvesters and to the overrating of the phyto sanitary control. This has been originated by the actual research trends over avocado at all world level since the research has been oriented to the obtention of dwarf tree varieties with the advantages that this offers. The Salvador Sanchez Colin CICTAMEX Foundation is developing a genetic improvement program with the support of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) by means of the pacific uses of nuclear energy on fruits principally the avocado

  2. CICTAMEX Memory 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eulogio de la Cruz Torres

    1990-01-01

    The avocado agriculture industry at National and International levels is confronted to low yields which are due among other aspects to the high costs of products originated by the height of the tree as well as its foliage which difficults the harvest, low cultural customs of the harvesters and to the overrating of the phyto sanitary control. This has been originated by the actual research trends over avocado at all world level since the research has been oriented to the obtention of dwarf tree varieties with the advantages that this offers. The Salvador Sanchez Colin CICTAMEX Foundation is developing a genetic improvement program with the support of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) by means of the pacific uses of nuclear energy on fruits principally the avocado

  3. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers

    OpenAIRE

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M.; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/...

  4. Fertility life table of Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma acacioi on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratissoli Dirceu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Trichogramma genus are among the most important ones for biological control. The objective of this research was to evaluate parasitism potential of two species of Trichogramma on eggs of Anagasta kuheniella through life fertility table, at temperatures between 15ºC and 35ºC. These species were collected in the State of Espírito Santo parasitising eggs of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea. Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi showed adequate reproductive potential between 15ºC and 35ºC which indicates possibilities of using them in biological control programs in avocado plantations.

  5. 7 CFR 915.155 - Delinquent assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delinquent assessments. 915.155 Section 915.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... charge is to apply to any unpaid assessments which become due the Avocado Administrative Committee after...

  6. Utilization of chitinolytic bacterial isolates to control anthracnose of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... leaf spots in plantation plant such as cacao (Rojas et al.,. 2010; Yee and Sariah, 1993) and para rubber tree. (Adekunle and Ogbebor, 2009), and also attacks other economic plants/fruits such as yellow passion fruit. (Anaruma et al., 2010), mango (Nelson, 2008), avocado, and almond (Freeman et al., ...

  7. 7 CFR 915.110 - Exemption certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption certificates. 915.110 Section 915.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... the Manager of the Avocado Administrative Committee on its behalf, of one or more exemption...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 651 - 700 of 2021 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2009), Eco-physiological assessment of crude oil pollution using avocado pear (Persea americana Miller). Abstract PDF ... Vol 8, No 4 (2014), Effect of diets containing cocoa bean shell and coconut oil cake on the growth of Oreochromis niloticus (LINNE, 1758) in pond, Abstract Untitled.

  9. 7 CFR 1219.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1219.3 Section 1219.3..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.3 Conflict of interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a Board member or employee has a direct...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 391 ... C Okrah, SK Danuor, S Dapaah-Siakwan. Vol 10, No 2 (2008):, Growing Rice Under Managed Water Table System: Abstract. JD Owusu-Sekyere. Vol 10, No 2 (2008):, Growth and Development of Scion in Response to Depth of Cut in the Cleft Method of Avocado (Persea americana MILL) Propagation ...

  11. potential antagonistic fungal species from ethiopia for biological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Thirteen isolates of Trichoderma produced 4 mm or more inhibition zone and reduced growth of pathogen colony, when grown in dual culture with it. .... times in sterilised distilled water. From decontaminated leaves 5-mm2 pieces ...... survival on avocado flowers and its mode of action on stem-end rot pathogens. Biological.

  12. Isozymetic Polymorphisms of Mango Cultivars in Bangladesh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... some exotic varieties under commercial cultivation. For the continuous improvement of mango .... phosphate, dibasic 11.36 g were mixed with 800 ml distilled water. Then, 50 mg of fast blue BB salt was added to ..... avocados, date palms, mango, cherimoyas (Annona cherimola). The specific co-dominant ...

  13. Citrus Production, Constraints and Management Practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... Citrus is economically important fruit crop in Ethiopia. However, its .... water. Sterilized leaves or fruit peels were cut, and four to six leaf discs or peel pieces were placed on each Petri dish containing potato dextrose agar (PDA) in five replicates ... banana, avocado and papaya), vegetable crops (primarily.

  14. Fate of Salmonella species and E. coli in Fresh-Prepared Orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Juices were prepared from fresh ripened papaya, pine apple, avocado and orange fruits in Addis Ababa between February and May, 1999. They were separately inoculated with young cultures of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella choleraesuis, and E. coli (strains 9637 and 25922). Counts of test strains were ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For cooking, use oils. For salads, some healthy additions are nuts, seeds, avocado and vinaigrettes. To complete your meal, add a low-calorie drink like water, unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® ...

  16. 75 FR 17031 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... not have facilities for weighing produce, such as convenience stores and fast food outlets. Some... able to express their views on this issue. Also, the World Trade Organization, the Chilean Technical... and orders, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 7 CFR Part 944 Avocados, Food grades and...

  17. 2-Alquil-4-Hidroxi-Tetrahidrofuranos de la Pulpa del Aguacate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rivas-Gil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available From a hexane extract of avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill., an 1:3 mixture of 2-(heptadec-16-enyl- and 2-(heptadec-16-ynyl-4-hydroxy -tetrahydrofurans was characterized by NMR techniques. These compounds have not been previously reported from natural sources.

  18. 7 CFR 1219.25 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State. 1219.25 Section 1219.25 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.25 State. State means any of the several 50 States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the...

  19. 76 FR 4542 - Mefenoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure...% Apple, 1% 5% Lemon, 5% Artichoke; 5% Lettuce, 10% Asparagus, 10% Onion, 30% Avocado, 2.5% Orange, 5... area. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in...

  20. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that make it difficult to eat. Address these issues, and also consider adding foods with healthy fats — nuts, nut butters and avocado — to your diet. Try bitter greens or spicy foods to stimulate your appetite. Exercise to increase hunger. PD symptoms such as tremor, stiffness or difficulties ...

  1. 7 CFR 1219.16 - Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing. 1219.16 Section 1219.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Marketing. Marketing means any activity related to the sale or other disposition of Hass avocados in any...

  2. Orchard establishment, precocity, and eco-physiological traits of several pomegranate cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    California faces many threats to food security, ranging from water limitations resulting from long-term drought to invasive pests and disease. Major tree crops, such as citrus and avocado, are threatened by Citrus Greening and Fusarium Dieback, respectively, posing significant economic threats to gr...

  3. Ghana Journal of Science - Vol 24, No 1 (1988)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the time of untying of grafts on take and survival of shield-budded avocado pear cv. Hawaii · EMAIL FULL ... Brown rot and die-back disease induced by a cucurlionid (Lixus camerunus Klobe) in amaranth (Amaranthus hyhridus L.) in Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  4. Aggressive root pathogen Phellinus noxius and implications for western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is an aggressive root rot pathogen affecting tropical and subtropical forests. Causing much damage in tropical Asia, Africa, Taiwan, Japan and the Pacific Islands, its wide host range encompasses more than 200 plant species representing 59 families (Ann et al. 2002). It can devastate agricultural plantations of tea, rubber, cocoa, avocados,...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ndakara, OE. Vol 4, No 3 (2011) - Articles Litterfall and Nutrient Returns in Isolated Stands of Persea gratissima (Avocado Pear) in the Rainforest Zone of Southern Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 5, No 1 (2012) - Articles Litterfall and Nutrient Returns in Isolated Stands of Terminalia catappa Trees in the Rainforest Area of ...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.53 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1219.53 Section 1219.53..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.53 Budget and expenses. (a) The Board is authorized to incur such expenses, including...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3057 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3057 Section 51.3057 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the avocados in any container are similar in shape...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the United States, including paid advertising, sales promotion, and publicity. Promotion... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1219.22 Section 1219.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  9. Attraction of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus to lures containing quercivorol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euwallacea nr. fornicatus is an exotic ambrosia beetle that vectors fungal Fusarium spp. to avocados. Two field trials testing potential attractants to trap Euwallacea spp. were conducted in south Florida. Quercivorol + Ultra High Release Ethanol (URH) was the more powerful attractant for E. nr. for...

  10. Behavioral assays for evaluating host preferences of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, the exotic ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was first discovered in Florida avocado groves. Introduction of its symbiotic Fusarium spp. fungi into galleries in the xylem tissue results in Fusarium-dieback disease. Unlike most ambros...

  11. 7 CFR 1219.61 - Books and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Books and records. 1219.61 Section 1219.61..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Books, Records, and Reports § 1219.61 Books and records. Each producer, first handler, and importer subject to this subpart shall...

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Implementation of the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for 45th Space Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    avocado (Persea americana), guava (Psidium guajava), strawberry guava (P. cattleianum), banana (Musa x paradisiaca), sour orange (Citrus...the installation. Periodically, drums, containers and other suspicious items are washed onto the CCAFS beach by normal tide fluctuation. The...have been analyzed, hazardous substances were identified. It is not possible to prevent items from washing ashore, however, periodic beach patrols

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Dactylonectria macrodidyma, a Plant-Pathogenic Fungus in the Nectriaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Demers, Jill; Veltri, Daniel; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dactylonectria macrodidyma is part of the Nectriaceae, a family containing important plant pathogens. This species possesses the ability to induce disease on grapevine, avocado, and olive. Here, we report the first draft genome of D.?macrodidyma isolate JAC15-245. The assembled genome was 58 Mbp and contained an estimated 16,454 genes.

  14. Evaluation of a new carbon/zirconia-based sorbent for the cleanup of food extracts in multiclass analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel carbon/zirconia based material, SupelTM QuE Verde (Verde), was evaluated in a filter-vial dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup of QuEChERS extracts of pork, salmon, kale, and avocado for residual analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants. Low pressure (LP) GC-MS/MS w...

  15. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChE...

  16. My Little Cookbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Norma; And Others

    Developed as part of the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and for other students whose native language is Spanish, this illustrated cookbook contains 12 Puerto Rican recipes with step-by-step instructions (fruit drink, limbers, pina colada, punch, banana shake, amarillos fritos, avocado salad, tortilla de huevos, sweet corn cereal, rice…

  17. Foods The Indians Gave Us. Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail, Raven

    This children's coloring book devotes a page to each of twenty of the most familiar American Indian plant foods: avocado, green beans, black walnuts, cocoa, corn, peanuts, pecans, chile peppers, pineapples, popcorn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash, strawberries, sugar maple, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, tapioca, tomatoes, and vanilla. Illustrating each…

  18. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District of...

  19. Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agents for the vector of the laurel wilt disease, the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  20. Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , is detected for the first time outside the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Ploetz; Y. Y. Thant; M. A. Hughes; T. J. Dreaden; J. L. Konkol; A. T. Kyaw; J. A. Smith; C. L. Harmon

    2016-01-01

    In October 2014, a survey for diseases and pests of an emerging fruit crop, avocado (Persea americana) (FAO 2000), was conducted in Southern Shan State of Myanmar (aka Burma). In the Tuanggyi District (1,400 m elevation, 20.5°N 97°E), monocultures of up to 20 ha were observed, whereas...

  1. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , on Sassafras ( Sassafras albidum ) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu Olatinwo; C. Barton; Stephen Fraedrich; W. Johnson; J. Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrin., Aghayeva & Fraedrich, is a lethal disease that affects members of the laurel family (Lauraceae) including avocado (Persea americana Mill), redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng., Nees), and sassafras (Sassafras albidum [Nutt.]). The fungus is a symbiont of an exotic ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus...

  2. 7 CFR 1219.10 - Fiscal period or marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period or marketing year. 1219.10 Section 1219.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass...

  3. 7 CFR 1219.6 - Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs. 1219.6 Section 1219.6 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.6 Customs. Customs means the United States Customs Service. ...

  4. Comparative study of some enzymes in different varieties of fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lime (Citrus aurantifolia), pawpaw (Carica papaya), banana (Musa acuminata), pineapple (Ananas comosus) and grape (Citrus paradisi). It was found that avocado pear has highest activity of arginase, rhodanese and thiaminase than the rest of the fruits investigated. The specific activity of rhodanese was however highest ...

  5. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which is...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osakwe, Ome S. Vol 16, No 1 (2017) - Articles Changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of Persea americana Mill. (avocado pear) seeds associated with ripening. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-6941. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  7. preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Balandrin et al., 1985). Persea americana (Lauraceae) is one of the. 150 varieties of avocado pear (Pacific Health, 2005). The tree is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical area, with a height of about 80 feet, leathery, evergreen leaves, the ...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.23 - Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... food science research, or research designed to advance the knowledge, image, desirability, usage, or... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research. 1219.23 Section 1219.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  9. Promotion of Testa Rupture during Garden Cress Germination Involves Seed Compartment-Specific Expression and Activity of Pectin Methylesterases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scheler, C.; Weitbrecht, K.; Pearce, S.; Hampstead, A.; Buettner-Mainik, A.; Lee, K.J.D.; Voegele, A.; Mueller, K.; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 1 (2015), s. 200-215 ISSN 0032-0889 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : AVOCADO PERSEA-AMERICANA * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * LEPIDIUM-SATIVUM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.280, year: 2015

  10. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    avocados on their journey from the trees in Africa, to the retail shelves in Europe, revealing the plethora of organizations, activities and documents involved. The implication being that containerized shipping becomes inefficiently; costly, unreliably, and risky. These are posited as the major impediments...

  11. OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlindon, T E; Bannuru, R R; Sullivan, M C

    2014-01-01

    ), balneotherapy, capsaicin, cane (walking stick), duloxetine, oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; COX-2 selective and non-selective), and topical NSAIDs. Treatments of uncertain appropriateness for specific clinical sub-phenotypes included acupuncture, avocado soybean unsaponfiables, chondroitin...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Titriku, JK. Vol 10, No 2 (2008): - Articles Growth and Development of Scion in Response to Depth of Cut in the Cleft Method of Avocado (Persea americana MILL) Propagation: Abstract. ISSN: 0855-3823. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  13. Anti-motility and reductions in the concentrations of gut electrolytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill) are used in traditional medicine to treat, allay or prevent some spasm-related disorders, for instance, diarrhoea. The chloroform and methanol fractions of the chloroform-methanol extract of the seeds of P. americana were investigated for their qualitative and quantitative ...

  14. Comparison Of Mineral Content Of Some Ripe And Unripe Fruits In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mineral contents of ripe and unripe banana (Musa sapientum), avocado pear (Pearsea americana), pineapple (Ananas cosmosus) and soursop (Anona muricata), were determined to ascertain the influence of ripening on the localization of minerals in these fruits. High levels of sodium and potassium were obtained in ...

  15. G Genetic c chara acteris Mill.) in sation on two r of avo region ocado

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Avocado (P over Ghana the world, conducted analyses re average of diversity an method wit diversity am through bre. Key words: TRODUCTION e conservatio the knowled rkers, such eal diversity damental to notyping. Avo ps in Ghana. d a good. Corresponding a uthor(s) agree t ternational Lice . 4620-4627, 17. AJB2014.

  16. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of linolenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... conventional oilseeds as sheabutter (6.9%), avocado. (15.5%), Dacroydes edulis (25.2%) and Canarium schweinfurthii (28.8%) (Chalon, 2001). The higher con- tent of total PUFA observed in the studied oilseeds may confer flexibility, fluidity and selective permeability to cellular membranes and may also ...

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2016-11-06

    Nov 6, 2016 ... raw fish, chilli ('awaze'), avocado and cooked potato were collected. Bacterial isolation, colony count and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were made following standard microbiological techniques. RESULTS: About 31% of the food samples showed total colony counts ranging from 1.7x105 to 6.7x106.

  18. root rot disease of five fruit tree seedlings in the nursery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAMALDEEN

    Soursop (Annona muricata) Wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis O'Rorke),. Avocado pear (Persea Americana Mill), Local pear (Dacryodes eaulis G. Don) and Star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don) are important fruit trees in Nigeria especially in the southern part of the country. The crops are widely cultivated in traditional.

  19. Descripción de la hembra de Copaxa ignescens (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, con anotaciones sobre sus primeros estadios inmaduros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarillo S. Angela R.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The female of Copaxa ignescens Lemaire, 1978 (Saturniidae is described and notes on the first three larval instars are presented. The caterpillars were reared on Avocado (Persea americana Miller.Se describe la hembra de Copaxa ignescens Lemaire, 1978 (Saturniidae y se hacen anotaciones sobre los tres primeros estadios larvales. Las orugas se criaron con Aguacate (Persaa americana Miller.

  20. The potential of postharvest silicon dips to regulate phenolics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACCI

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... (2007) that showed increased phenolic content on avocado fruit following Si application. Generally, fruit from. Ukulinga had no chilling in contrast to Ithala fruit that had high incidence of chilling injury. Furthermore, Ukulinga fruit had high flavonoid and phenolic content that played a role in mitigating chilling ...

  1. Imam, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of homogenates of avocado pear (Persea americana) seeds and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves coadministered with anti-tuberculosis drugs on liver enzymes of albino rats. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-6996. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  2. Nigerian Food Journal - Vol 31, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Mistletoe Leaves from Three Different Trees (Avocado, African Oil Bean and Kola) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CN Ishiwu, JE Obiegbuna, NM Aniagolu. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0189-7241(15)30070-9 ...

  3. Bee bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Joshua David

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have mastered feats of chemical engineering as various as they are alchemical. Their most well-known substances are of course honey, their concentrated, stable, hive-warming energy source, and wax, their pliable, moisture-proof structural material. Yet there are other s...... of raw nuts or avocado....

  4. effect of the liming materials and rates on plant growth and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Ify Greg Onwuka

    (Elaeis guineensis), raphia palm (Raphia spp), cocoyam (Colocasia esculentus), avocado tree (Persea. Americana), shrubs (mainly Sponelias munibin) and sparsely distributed grasses. The upland farm close to this stream was grown to cassava (Manihot esculenta), pepper (Capsicum spp), and yam (Dioscorea spp). The.

  5. Rao and Adinew Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    After the treatment with avocado fruit extract, the elevated levels of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood urea and serum creatinine seen in the hyperglycaemic rats, reverted back to near normal. Similarly, significantly decreased plasma insulin and haemoglobin levels went back to near normal after the treatment ...

  6. Cosmetics and herbal remedies with Compositae plant extracts - are they tolerated by Compositae-allergic patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    , and preservatives tested positive as well. Plant allergens were mainly derived from Compositae, but avocado oil, and Hamamelis virginiana tincture were unexpectedly detected as sensitizers too. Chemical analyses indicated that the Compositae allergens were both sesquiterpene lactones and other naturally occurring...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 1309 ... Vol 13, No 2 (2016), Antinephrolithiatic activity of Persea americana (avocado) and Viburnum opulus (guelder rose) against ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rats, Abstract PDF. Galip Erdem, Vural Kesik, Tevfik Honca, Ayhan Özcan, Sami Uğuz, Emin Özgür Akgϋl, Ömer Aykutlug, Bilal Fırat ...

  8. Pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity of the causal agent of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathogenicity of the fungus and its cross-infection potential were determined on mango, avocado, papaya and banana fruits. The sensitivity of the pathogen to fungicides was determined by assessing radial mycelial growth on potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with nine different fungicides (Bendazim, Funguran, ...

  9. 83-IJBCS-Article-Dr Agbogidi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RHUMSIKI

    Eco-physiological assessment of crude oil pollution using avocado pear (Persea americana Miller). O. M. AGBOGIDI *, N. U. UREIGHO and E. M. OKECHUKWU. Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of Agriculture, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Asaba,. Delta State, Nigeria. * Corresponding author, E-mail: ...

  10. Remnant B-cell-stimulative and anti-oxidant effects of Persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the treatment with avocado fruit extract, the elevated levels of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood urea and serum creatinine seen in the hyperglycaemic rats, reverted back to near normal. Similarly, significantly decreased plasma insulin and haemoglobin levels went back to near normal after the treatment ...

  11. Analysis of pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals using methanolic extraction and detection by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

    2004-01-01

    in Miniprep filter HPLC vials and detected by LC–MS–MS. To compensate for variations in the MS response [13C6]-carbaryl was used as internal standard and matrix-matched pesticide solutions were used as external standards for the quantification. The method has been validated for the matrices apple, avocado...

  12. South African seed oils are safe for human consumption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... PUFA,5 e.g. seed oil and nuts, and MUFA,6 e.g. olive oil and avocado oil, have consistently been associated with several health benefits. Essential fatty acids are also present in PUFA. Compared to animal fat, seed oils contain a higher percentage of total fatty acids than PUFAs and MUFAs, with a smaller ...

  13. mango (mangifera i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    21: 542-544. Joshi PR and Shiralkar ND 1977. Polyphenolases of a local variety of mango J. Food Sci. and Technol. 14: 77-. 79. Kahn V 1997 Some biochemical properties of polyphenoloxidase from two avocado varieties differing in their browning rates. J. Food Sci. 42: 38–43. Klein JD 1987 Relationship of harvest date,.

  14. Plants' responses to drought and shade environments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전병기

    growth of two avocado cultivars. Sci. Hortic. 95:39-50. Cheung CYM, Poolman MG, Fell DA, Ratcliffe RG, Sweetlove LJ (2014). A diel flux balance model captures interactions between light and dark metabolism during Day-Night cycles in C3 and Crassulacean acid metabolism leaves.Plant Physiol. 165:917-929. Dai Y ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honger, Joseph O. Vol 33, No 3 (2016) - Articles Identification and molecular characterisation of Colletotrichum species from avocado, citrus and pawpaw in Ghana Abstract. ISSN: 2167-034X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    The and competitive for α- inhibitory effects on α- finding of this study, ing glycaemic index of the claim that Persea such as biguanidsand inhibition of degradation glycosidases such as a-. Ranget al., 2003), ant mean of regulation mmonly called Avocado plants that have been traditional folk-medicine t belongs to the family.

  17. The effects of physical and chemical changes on the optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine physical and chemical changes during fruit development and their relationship with optimum harvest maturity for Bacon, Fuerte and Zutano avocado cultivars grown under Dörtyol ecological condition. Fruits cv. Bacon, Fuerte and Zutano were obtained trees grafted on seedlings and ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amadi, BA. Vol 1, No 4 (2007) - Articles Extraction and characterization of vegetable oil from avocado pear (Persea Americana) Abstract. ISSN: 1597-913X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  19. Effects of chlormequat chloride and different rates of prohexadione ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... avocado (Mandemaker et al., 2005) and also reducing effect on shoot length for apple (Ratiba and Blanco,. 2004) and pear (Smit et al., 2005), and on height for cucumber (Ergun et al., 2007), cabbage (Hamano et al.,. 2002), okra (Ilias et al., 2007), petunia and impatients. (Ilias and Rajapakse, 2005).

  20. Detection of mesocarp oleoyl-thioesterase gene of the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    consistently revealed thioesterase enzyme activity specific for oleic acid, the enzyme being oleoyl-ACP thioesterase, which is believed to be widely distributed in the plant kingdom (Voelker, 1996). However, some plants. *Corresponding author. E-Mail: efe_asemota@hotmail.com. (for example avocado, the oil and coconut ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addae-Kagyah, K A. Vol 24 (1991) - Articles The effect of the time of untying of grafts on take and survival of shield-budded avocado pear cv Hawaii Abstract · Vol 24 (1991) - Articles Survival and growth of potted mango budgrafts. Abstract. ISSN: 0855-0042. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. AFRREV STECH, Vol. 3(2) May, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2014-05-07

    May 7, 2014 ... Abstract. The microorganisms associated with the spoilage of Avocado pear,. Persea americana fruits, purchased fresh from various markets in. Benin City were investigated. The pour plate method was used for the isolation. A total of nine species of microorganisms were isolated and identified in this study.

  3. Nutrient elements distribution in cultivated and uncultivated soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Okai stream was surrounded by a three-year old fallow land dominated by oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), raphia palm (Raphia spp), cocoyam (Colocasia esculentus), avocado tree (Persea Americana), shrubs (mainly Sponelias munibin) and sparsely distributed grasses. The upland farm close to this stream was grown to ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nyaku, Seloame T. Vol 33, No 3 (2016) - Articles Identification and molecular characterisation of Colletotrichum species from avocado, citrus and pawpaw in Ghana Abstract. ISSN: 2167-034X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  5. A Review of the Bio-Activity Relationship of Mistletoes and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following six host trees and their mistletoes were investigated: Azadirachta indica (neem), Psidium guajava (guava), Pentaclethra macrophylla (oil-bean), Kola acuminata (cola nut), Persea americana (avocado), and Baphia nitida (cam wood). The work showed that of the six host trees and their mistletoes studied, four ...

  6. 253 some biochemical effects of a mainly fruit diet in man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean serum triglyceride levels of group Al had decreased significantly after J2 weeks on the diet (Pavocado intake to 100 g instead of.

  7. Growth and Development of Scion in Response to Depth of Cut in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avocado development has become important in view of the fact that the fruit is one of the richest, in terms of nutrients, from the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Earlier work carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, showed that the 'cleft' ...

  8. Phytochemical, Toxicological, Biochemical and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The avocado tree belongs to the family lauraceae and is classified as Persea americana. The analysis of the fruits extract revealed the presence of considerable amounts of vitamins A, B2, C, K, folic acid, lutein, zeaxanthin, coenzyme Q10 and beta-carotene. When administered to wistar rats for acute toxicity studies, the ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gimba, C. Vol 2, No 1 (2009) - Articles Preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of seed extracts of Persea americana (avocado pear) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-6996. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agomuo, EN. Vol 1, No 4 (2007) - Articles Extraction and characterization of vegetable oil from avocado pear (Persea Americana) Abstract. ISSN: 1597-913X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

  11. 40 CFR 180.516 - Fludioxonil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following commodities: Commodity Parts per million Animal feed, nongrass, group 18 0.01 Avocado 0... Vegetable, leafy, except brassica, group 4 0.01 Vegetable, leaves of root and tuber, crop group 2 30 Vegetable, legume, group 6 0.01 Vegetable, root and tuber, group 1 0.02 Vegetable, root, except sugar beet...

  12. a-Copaene and quercivorol lures: Chemical analysis and efficacy for detection of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea nr. fornicatus complex vector a fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium dieback, a disease that impacts avocado (Persea americana) and numerous native trees in the USA, Israel, and other countries. Currently, these pests are detected with quercivorol lure...

  13. Mycorrhizal status and AMF community structure of fruit crops from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) association of Mangifera indica (mango), Musa acuminate (banana), Carica papaya (papaya), Citrus limon (lemon), Persea americana (avocado), and Psidium guajava (guava) was investigated from a lowland area of Showa Robit. Percentage of root colonization, spore abundance, ...

  14. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  15. Características biológicas de Nipteria panacea Thierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, desfolhadora do abacateiro, na região serrana do Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological characteristics of Nipteria panacea Thierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, an avocado tree defoliator, in highlands areas of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate some biological characteristics of the avocado tree defoliator, Nipteria panacea Thiery-Mieg, in laboratory. This species showed the mean development cycle of 58.1 days, embryonic period of eight days and egg viability 56.3%. Pos-embryonic development lasted 36.5 days with viability of 48.2%, pupal period 11.6 days with viability of 76.0%, and mean longevity of females was 19.5 days with a production of 177 eggs per female. Other parameters were also observed and discussed.

  16. Photoacoustic Effect of Ethene: Sound Generation due to Plant Hormone Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Jung; Ide, David; University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Team

    2017-01-01

    Ethene, which is produced in plants as they mature, was used to study its photoacoustic properties using photoacoustic spectroscopy. Detection of trace amounts, with N2 gas, of the ethylene gas were also applied. The gas was tested in various conditions: temperature, concentration of the gas, gas cell length, and power of the laser, were varied to determine their effect on the photoacoustic signal, the ideal conditions to detect trace gas amounts, and concentration of ethylene produced by an avocado and banana. A detection limit of 10 ppm was determined for pure C2H4. A detection of 5% and 13% (by volume) concentration of ethylene were produced for a ripening avocado and banana, respectively, in closed space.

  17. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 4,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-30

    bring in a variety ergy to grow trees which can then be of engineering and materials special- burned to produce heat---because land ists and to gain...such were not useful in agriculture because as cotton, are more tolerant, while they supplied only descriptive infor- others, including avocados (a...easier for him to 1948 to 1960, died on 19 March at the identify changes in it, and to diagnose age of 85. the disease . PERSONAL Dr. John B. Harris, senior

  18. Food Safety and Quality: Five Countries’ Efforts to Meet U.S. Requirements on Imported Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    agricultural productivity and improve public health through control of disease -carrying pests, but they can adversely affect people, nontarget organisms...commodities covered by domestic marketing orders." As of March 1988 these commodities were avocados , dates (except dates for processing), filberts...Introduction watermelon in Mexico; Chinese vegetables, melons, and tomatoes in the Dominican Republic; and grapes and tree fruit in Chile. We obtained

  19. Emergency Food Delivery: A State-of-the-Art Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    live burning of a dense in urban neilhborhoods, loss of fcod stores, crops growth of trees or agricultural fields and livestock, food processors...28 million tons and is dominated by citrus, grapes, and apples, followed by peaches, pears, prunes, strawberries, cherries, and avocados . States AA...and others to develop disaster recovery plans. "* Control plant and liirestock diseases and insect infestaticns. I 3-11 "* Provide fire protection on

  20. Los Coches Creek, San Diego County, California Detailed Project Report for Flood Control and Environmental Assessment. Main Report and Environmental Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    known for its horses, chicken ranches, hay and dairy farming along the river bottom lands, and tree crops such as olives, citrus fruits, avocados ...hazard to life from the occurrence of devastating floods and the possible spread of infections disease caused by flood damage to sewer and water Systems...glutinosa). Open stands of mature cottonwood and sycamore trees and elderberry shrubs also occur along the banks and between the residences immediately

  1. JPRS Report, Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-11

    industry will suffer from the disease of a lack of competitiveness. The exception is, perhaps, soda—an input for the production of alumi- num... tree -lined streets and lawns. Above all, they are surrounded by a pastoral silence, broken only by the occasional hum of motors or by the chirping...taxes," but the items to which they will be applied include bananas, avocados , and toilet paper. Judging by the list that was leaked to the media

  2. Attraction and electroantennogram responses of male Mediterranean fruit fly to volatile chemicals from Persea, Litchi and Ficus wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niogret, Jerome; Montgomery, Wayne S; Kendra, Paul E; Heath, Robert R; Epsky, Nancy D

    2011-05-01

    Trimedlure is the most effective male-targeted lure for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). A similar response is elicited by plant substances that contain α-copaene, a naturally-occurring sesquiterpene. α-Copaene is a complex, highly-volatile, widely-distributed plant compound, and male C. capitata respond to material from both hosts (e.g., Litchi chinensis) and non-hosts (e.g., Ficus benjamina) that contain α-copaene. Avocado, Persea americana, recently was found to contain varying amounts of α-copaene in the bark and underlying cambial tissue. Short-range attraction bioassays and electroantennography (EAG) were used to quantify responses of sterile male C. capitata to samples of rasped wood from four avocado genotypes, L. chinensis, and F. benjamina. Gas chromatography-mass spectral (GC-MS) analysis was used to identify and quantify the major sesquiterpenes. Attraction and EAG amplitude were correlated, with L. chinensis eliciting the highest and F. benjamina the lowest responses. Responses to the avocado genotypes were intermediate, but varied among the four types. GC-MS identified 13 sesquiterpenes, including α-copaene, from all samples. Amounts of α-copaene in volatile collections from samples (3 g) ranged from 11.8 μg in L. chinensis to 0.09 μg in F. benjamina, which correlated with short-range attraction and EAG response. α-Copaene ranged from 8.0 to 0.8 μg in the avocado genotypes, but attraction and EAG responses were not correlated with the amount of α-copaene. Differences in enantiomeric structure of the α-copaene in the different genotypes and/or presence of additional sesquiterpenes may be responsible for the variation in male response. EAG responses were correlated with the amount of several other sesquiterpenes including α-humulene, and this compound elicited a strong antennal response when tested alone.

  3. Contribución ecoclimática para el desarrollo frutícola de Michoacán, un parámetro: heladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Reyna Trujillo

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, Michoacan has been ouststanding for the production and exportation of fruit, especially of avocado, Mexican lemmon, mango and melon. However, this situation can be limited by the presence of frost, which may diminish its production. In the present research, measures to avoid loss due to this climatic sinister are analized, quantified and suggested so that this important activity continues to develop.

  4. JPRS Report Soviet Union EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production No. 5, May 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-09

    no unity under the conditions of the utilization of natural resources. Thus a value is placed on trees on the root and a payment 47 by the stump is...chance to taste the exotic fruits: mangoes, avocados , fruit bombs and several others. All of these are a seasonal supplement to the Cubans’ ration, the...late in starting up a couple of little plants? Did your imported equipment start rotting ? Did you add 2 percent onto your report?... We have families

  5. Literature Survey on Causes of Spoilage of Fresh Produce - 1959 to 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Crater Spot Early Blight Freezing Injury Gray Mold Rot Late Blight Virus Diseases Pencil Stripe Phoma Root Rot Pithiness Watery Soft Rot Table...fruits or sulfur dioxide released from fumigated grapes may cause impart off odors to other crops. Chilling injury can occur in certain fruits as avocados ...with precise descriptions and illustrations of each. With the exception of bacterial soft rot , diseases caused by fungi and most bacteria are not

  6. Selección de aislados de trichoderma spp. antagonistas a rosellinia necatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano Rosa, David; Moral, Lidia del; López Herrera, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six bulk isolates of Trichoderma spp. from avocado (Persea americana Mill.), carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) crops located in southern Spain were evaluated for antagonism against one isolate of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. Isolates of both types of fungi were tested in dual and cellophane culture. The origin, cultural characteristics, overgrowth sporulation and staining of growth medium were rec...

  7. Callus formation of american Persea Mill. cultivar Catalina starting from segments of leaves of in vitro plants

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Freire Seijo; Alba Patricia Balsero Fiquitiva; Rafael Gómez Kosky; Yudith García Ramírez; Maite Chávez

    2004-01-01

    The importance of establishing protocols for the regeneration of fruit-trees through out the organogenesis and the somatic embryogenesis is based on the possibility to use them in the propagation of the species or in programs of genetic improvement. Specifically the Catalina cultivar is very coveted in Cuba, however it has not been introduced in vitro. The present work had the objective of forming callus starting from leaves of in vitro plants from avocado tree of the Catalina cultivar. The p...

  8. Accumulation and long-term behavior of radiocaesium in tropical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Anjos, R.M.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Macario, K.; Veiga, R.

    2006-01-01

    The accumulation and distribution of 40 K and 137 Cs in tropical plant species were studied through measurements of gamma-ray spectra from mango, avocado, guava, pomegranate, chili pepper, papaya and manioc trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients such as K + . (author)

  9. Latin America Report, No. 2687

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-06

    pp 16, 17, 18 [Text] Report on the Country’s Economic Situation: Actions and Results During the First Quarter of 1983 The government of the...the battle. At 4 we receive the first dispatch, reporting that Comrade Candelario Martinez was hit a half hour after the shooting began and died...its first phase with the planting of 220 acres of mangoes, avocadoes and grapefruit, all with export potential. A recently approved grant of $21.5

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Dactylonectria macrodidyma, a Plant-Pathogenic Fungus in the Nectriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Demers, Jill; Veltri, Daniel; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2015-04-16

    Dactylonectria macrodidyma is part of the Nectriaceae, a family containing important plant pathogens. This species possesses the ability to induce disease on grapevine, avocado, and olive. Here, we report the first draft genome of D. macrodidyma isolate JAC15-245. The assembled genome was 58 Mbp and contained an estimated 16,454 genes. Copyright © 2015 Malapi-Wight et al.

  11. Proceedings, Conference and Training Workshop on Wildlife Hazards to Aircraft Held at Charleston, South Carolina on 22-25 May 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-25

    the south was seen. Such movement would have carried birds over the adjacent J. E. Locklair Jr. Memorial Airport. In the evening gulls departed...on many occasions, birds present unique hazards that require a BASH Team visit. Since Air Force personnel rotate jobs frequently, corporate memory of...Avocados (non-pasture) for silage Broccoli Blackberries Stock feedlots Cotton Brussels Blueberries Piggeries Cottonseed sprouts Cherries (sweet) Landscape

  12. Enquête de consommation alimentaire en zone CEMAC : Cas de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second, the level of consumption, 15.1% of subjects surveyed in Congo consume almonds and / or Peke pasta, 95.7% consume palm nuts (or Mwambe), 96.4% use the seeds and / or peanut paste, 87.8% consume the seeds and / or squash pasta, 89.2% use safou and finally 2.9% use other oilseeds such as avocado or ...

  13. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A.; Davenport, Gary M.; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increased interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. A nutraceutical can broadly be considered a food (or a part of) that provides a health benefit. Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados, is being investigated as a nutraceutical for dogs. In this study, dogs fed a diet containing MH had increased concentrations of blood biomarkers related to energy intake. In addition, dogs fed MH were less physically active than dogs fed...

  14. The Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stability of Cold-Pressed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Prescha, Anna; Grajzer, Magdalena; Dedyk, Martyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2014-01-01

    In our study, we characterized the antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of cold-pressed macadamia, avocado, sesame, safflower, pumpkin, rose hip, Linola, flaxseed, walnut, hempseed, poppy, and milk thistle oils. The radical scavenging activity of the non-fractionated fresh oil, as well as the lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions of the oil was determined using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The fatty acid composition of the fresh and stored oils was analyzed by gas chro...

  15. 40 CFR 180.356 - Norflurazon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Apricot 0.1 Asparagus 0.05 Avocado 0.20 Blackberry 0.1 Blueberry 0.2 Cattle, fat 0.1 Cattle, liver 0.50 Cattle, meat 0.1 Cattle, meat byproducts, except liver 0.1 Cherry 0.1 Citrus, dried pulp 0.4 Citrus..., fat 0.1 Horse, liver 0.50 Horse, meat 0.1 Horse, meat byproducts, except liver 0.1 Milk 0.1 Nectarine...

  16. 4953 Volume 11 No. 4 July 2011 YOUNG CHILDREN FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Your User Name

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... DW in boiled sweet potato wheneaten with avocado and 2.30 ± 0.34 mg/100 g DW in maize paste (MP) with okra and fish. Zinc intakes estimated from quantities of food consumed comprised between 0.49 ± 0.04 mg/100 g DW in ripe banana to 2.91 ± 0.27 mg/100 g DW in Irish potato cooked with eggs and ...

  17. Extracción de aceite de aguacate: Un experimento industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Nieto, L.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of an industrial experiment to obtain avocado oil by continuous process similar to that for obtaining olive oil are analyzed. Possible ways of improving the method and thus the yield are pointed out.

    Se analizan los resultados obtenidos en un experimento industrial de obtención de aceite de aguacate por un proceso continuo similar al de obtención de aceite de oliva, indicando las posibles modificaciones para mejorar el rendimiento.

  18. The influence of oxidant and fuel on the powders characteristics of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    62

    Avocado Research Chemicals, 97%) were used as precursors for LiNbO3 powders prepared via a combustion method, whereas niobium oxide (Nb2O5, CBMM, 99.8%) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3, Carlo Erba, 99%) were used as precursors in the synthesis of LiNbO3 powders by solid-state reaction. All chemicals were ...

  19. Accumulation and long-term behavior of radiocaesium in tropical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Anjos, R.M.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Macario, K.; Veiga, R. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2006-12-15

    The accumulation and distribution of {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in tropical plant species were studied through measurements of gamma-ray spectra from mango, avocado, guava, pomegranate, chili pepper, papaya and manioc trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients such as K{sup +}. (author)

  20. 40 CFR 180.532 - Cyprodinil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities: Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.02 Almond, hulls 8.0 Apple, wet pomace 0.15 Avocado 1.2 Bean... Turnip, greens 10.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.70 Vegetable, leaves of root and tuber, group 2 10 Vegetable, root, except sugarbeet, subgroup 1B 0.75 Watercress 20 1 Import only (b) Section 18 emergency...