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Sample records for avlis

  1. AVLIS industrial access program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures

  2. AVLIS industrial access program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

  3. Physics overview of AVLIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) represents the largest-scale potential application of tunable lasers that has received serious attention within the chemical physics community. For over a decade the US Department of Energy has funded an aggressive program in AVLIS at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. After extensive research, the underlying physical principles have been identified and optimized, the major technology components have been developed, and the integrated enrichment performance of the process has been tested under realistic conditions. The central physical processes are outlined, progress to date on the technology elements is reviewed, and scaling laws that can be used to scope out new applications are fomulated. The two primary applications of major interest to the Department of Energy are the production of light-water reactor fuel and the conversion of fuel-grade plutonium to weapons-grade material. In FY 1984 the total AVLIS funding level for these two missions was approximately $150M. In addition to these primary missions, a variety of applications exist that all potentially use a common base of AVLIS technology. These include missions such as the enrichment of mercury isotopes to improve fluorescent lamp efficiency, the enrichment of iodine isotopes for medical isotope use, and the cleanup of strontium from defense waste for recovering strontium isotopes for radio-thermal mechanical generators. We will see that the ability to rapidly assess the economic and technical feasibility of each mission is derived from the general applicability of AVLIS physics and AVLIS technology

  4. Feed and product for AVLIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    Today, fuel cycle organizations around the world, including British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) are undertaking the development of a new and demanding enrichment technology, customarily referred to by its American Acronym AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotope separation). Successful commercialization of the technology will threaten established fuel cycle activities and is likely to send shock waves throughout the world industry. The stakes are high for all involved in the civil nuclear industry: do the potential rewards match up? US Department of Energy (US DOE) is regarded as the organization most committed to the early commercialization of AVLIS technology and is aiming to deploy an initial commercial plant within 6 years. However, the timescale is of course subject to a satisfactory technical progress and, no less importantly, continued funding of the necessary development and construction activities. Coupled with the changes that will be needed at the enrichment plant interfaces, the implications for feed supply and product usage, it can be seen that the 1997 target deployment date is an ambitious one. Other organizations are also developing atomic laser enrichment routes, but for the post-2000 timeframe. US DOE's desire to push ahead with early AVLIS deployment has to be seen in this global context. The different feed and product material interface requirements could generate resistance to the use of AVLIS by customers and other fuel cycle companies. The BNFL/URENCO atomic vapor laser enrichment development program is able to profit from USDOE's experience by ensuring very early that it encompasses all fuel cycle aspects. A process is being developed that is optimized from yellowcake to ceramic UO 2 , rather than just the difficult enrichment process. This is far more likely, if it becomes economically competitive, to produce a good match with customer requirements and so reduce the commercial risks of such a decision

  5. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables

  6. New Japanese AVLIS R and D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.

    1995-01-01

    In LASER-J, the second phase of AVLIS R and D program has started since April 1993. At the first phase, we developed AVLIS plant components such as CVL, DL, and electron beam guns for a facility having about a one-ton SWU per year capacity and obtained engineering data related to this facility. During the second phase, the next five years or so, we will develop full scale AVLIS hardware. In this session, the R and D results of the first phase and the outline of the R and D program for the second phase will be presented. (author)

  7. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables

  8. AVLIS documentation overview and tables of contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Three documents constitute the executive summary series in Data Package III: this document (Documentation Overview and Tables of Contents (E001)) plus the AVLIS Production Plant Executive Summary (E010) and the AVLIS Production Plant Overall Design Report (E020). They provide progressively greater detail on the key information and conclusions contained within the data package. The Executive Summary and Overall Design Report present summaries of each Data Package III document. They are intended to provide a global overview of AVLIS Production Plant deployment including program planning, project management, schedules, engineering design, production, operations, capital cost, and operating cost. The purpose of Overview and Tables of Contents is threefold: to briefly review AVLIS goals for Data Package III documentation, to present an overview of the contents of the data package, and to provide a useful guide to information contained in the numerous documents comprising the package

  9. Uranium recovery from AVLIS slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, A.E.; Mycroft, J.R.; Oliver, A.J.; Schneider, P.G.; Richardson, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Uranium metal for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) project was to have been produced by the magnesiothermic reduction of uranium tetrafluoride. The other product from this reaction is a magnesium fluoride slag, which contains fine and entrained natural uranium as metal and oxide. Recovery of the uranium through conventional mill leaching would not give a magnesium residue free of uranium but to achieve more complete uranium recovery requires the destruction of the magnesium fluoride matrix and liberation of the entrapped uranium. Alternate methods of carrying out such treatments and the potential for recovery of other valuable byproducts were examined. Based on the process flowsheets, a number of economic assessments were performed, conclusions were drawn and the preferred processing alternatives were identified. (author)

  10. Wavefront compensation applied to AVLIS laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsiorowski, T.; Wirth, A.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of an AVLIS system depends upon the power density and uniformity of the laser system. Because of wavefront aberrations the realized beam quality is not ideal. Wavefront compensation provides a means to improve beam quality and system efficiency. (author)

  11. AVLIS: a technical and economic forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.; Spaeth, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    The AVLIS process has intrinsically large isotopic selectivity and hence high separative capacity per module. The critical components essential to achieving the high production rates represent a small fraction (approx.10%) of the total capital cost of a production facility, and the reference production designs are based on frequent replacement of these components. The specifications for replacement frequencies in a plant are conservative with respect to our expectations; it is reasonable to expect that, as the plant is operated, the specifications will be exceeded and production costs will continue to fall. Major improvements in separator production rates and laser system efficiencies (approx.power) are expected to occur as a natural evolution in component improvements. With respect to the reference design, such improvements have only marginal economic value, but given the exigencies of moving from engineering demonstration to production operations, we continue to pursue these improvements in order to offset any unforeseen cost increases. Thus, our technical and economic forecasts for the AVLIS process remain very positive. The near-term challenge is to obtain stable funding and a commitment to bring the process to full production conditions within the next five years. If the funding and commitment are not maintained, the team will disperse and the know-how will be lost before it can be translated into production operations. The motivation to preserve the option for low-cost AVLIS SWU production is integrally tied to the motivation to maintain a competitive nuclear option. The US industry can certainly survive without AVLIS, but our tradition as technology leader in the industry will certainly be lost

  12. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables

  13. A database for AVLIS-U method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, Gheorghe

    2000-01-01

    Uranium enrichment is a critical step in transforming natural uranium in nuclear fuel to produce energy. Enrichment accounts for approximately one third of the cost of nuclear fuel and about 10% of the total cost of the electricity generated. Atomic vapor processes work on principle of photo-ionization whereby a powerful laser is used to ionize particular atoms present in a vapor of uranium metal. The positively-charged 235 U ions are then attracted to a negatively-charged plate and collected. The main molecular processes which have been studied work on the principle of photo-dissociation of UF 6 to solid UF 5 , using tuned laser radiation as above. Any process using UF 6 fits that atomic process more readily within the conventional fuel cycle. These two new methods have been the focus of interest for some time. They promise lower energy inputs, lower capital costs and lower tails assays, hence significant economic advantages. The program of work included: - theoretical studies of photon-atom interaction, including the effects of hyperfine structure, magnetic field and cross section; - experimental work to find theoretically favorable transition between the levels in the atom and to measure relevant transition parameters using, initially, low density uranium vapor; - development of techniques for the precision tuning and stabilization of suitable lasers, obtaining the required band width, and amplifying the light to required power; - materials and technology related to high density vapor production; - theoretical and experimental work on the efficient separation of selectively generated ions from a vapor stream. A number of technique (sputtering, electron beam heating, etc.) have been used to produced suitable streams of uranium vapor. For AVLIS-U development, the following five areas of activity were focused on: - vapor production electron guns; - production of laser beams; - selective ionization of 235 U; - separation and collection of tails and product

  14. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program from January through July, 1992. Each of the tasks assigned during this period is described, and results are presented. Section I details work on sensitivity matrices for the UDS relay telescope. These matrices show which combination of mirror motions may be performed in order to effect certain changes in beam parameters. In Section II, an analysis is given of transmission through a clipping aperture on the launch telescope deformable mirror. Observed large transmission losses could not be simulated in the analysis. An EXCEL spreadsheet program designed for in situ analysis of UDS optical systems is described in Section III. This spreadsheet permits analysis of changes in beam first-order characteristics due to changes in any optical system parameter, simple optimization to predict mirror motions needed to effect a combination of changes in beam parameters, and plotting of a variety of first-order data. Optical systems may be assembled directly from OSSD data. A CODE V nonsequential model of the UDS optical system is described in Section IV. This uses OSSD data to build the UDS model; mirror coordinates may thus be verified. Section V summarizes observations of relay telescope performance. Possible procedures which allow more accurate assessment of relay telescope performance are given

  15. AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

  16. AVLIS [Atomic Vapour Laser Isotope Separation] programme powers ahead in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, P.G.; Haberman, N.

    1988-01-01

    The accomplishments of the AVLIS programme during the past year are described and a development programme initiated by the U.S. designed to lead to a full-scale demonstration of AVLIS by 1992. A possible early deployment option involving the enrichment of reprocessed uranium (REPU) is also examined. (U.K.)

  17. Economic assessment model architecture for AGC/AVLIS selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoglund, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The economic assessment model architecture described provides the flexibility and completeness in economic analysis that the selection between AGC and AVLIS demands. Process models which are technology-specific will provide the first-order responses of process performance and cost to variations in process parameters. The economics models can be used to test the impacts of alternative deployment scenarios for a technology. Enterprise models provide global figures of merit for evaluating the DOE perspective on the uranium enrichment enterprise, and business analysis models compute the financial parameters from the private investor's viewpoint

  18. Integration of the AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotopic separation) process into the nuclear fuel cycle. [Effect of AVLIS feed requirements on overall fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrove, R.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Eby, R.S.; Pashley, J.H.; Norman, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    AVLIS RD and D efforts are currently proceeding toward full-scale integrated enrichment demonstrations in the late 1980's and potential plant deployment in the mid 1990's. Since AVLIS requires a uranium metal feed and produces an enriched uranium metal product, some change in current uranium processing practices are necessitated. AVLIS could operate with a UF/sub 6/-in UF/sub 6/-out interface with little effect to the remainder of the fuel cycle. This path, however, does not allow electric utility customers to realize the full potential of low cost AVLIS enrichment. Several alternative processing methods have been identified and evaluated which appear to provide opportunities to make substantial cost savings in the overall fuel cycle. These alternatives involve varying levels of RD and D resources, calendar time, and technical risk to implement and provide these cost reduction opportunities. Both feed conversion contracts and fuel fabricator contracts are long-term entities. Because of these factors, it is not too early to start planning and making decisions on the most advantageous options so that AVLIS can be integrated cost effectively into the fuel cycle. This should offer economic opportunity to all parties involved including DOE, utilities, feed converters, and fuel fabricators. 10 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Integration of the AVLIS [atomic vapor laser isotopic separation] process into the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, R.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Eby, R.S.; Pashley, J.H.; Norman, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    AVLIS RD and D efforts are currently proceeding toward full-scale integrated enrichment demonstrations in the late 1980's and potential plant deployment in the mid 1990's. Since AVLIS requires a uranium metal feed and produces an enriched uranium metal product, some change in current uranium processing practices are necessitated. AVLIS could operate with a UF 6 -in UF 6 -out interface with little effect to the remainder of the fuel cycle. This path, however, does not allow electric utility customers to realize the full potential of low cost AVLIS enrichment. Several alternative processing methods have been identified and evaluated which appear to provide opportunities to make substantial cost savings in the overall fuel cycle. These alternatives involve varying levels of RD and D resources, calendar time, and technical risk to implement and provide these cost reduction opportunities. Both feed conversion contracts and fuel fabricator contracts are long-term entities. Because of these factors, it is not too early to start planning and making decisions on the most advantageous options so that AVLIS can be integrated cost effectively into the fuel cycle. This should offer economic opportunity to all parties involved including DOE, utilities, feed converters, and fuel fabricators. 10 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Appendix B, AVLIS Program: Statement of work May 1, 1994 through July 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    While the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is preparing decisions regarding it's future Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) deployment options, this interim three month plan (through July 31, 1994) is intended to maintain the USEC options for the ultimate deployment of AVLIS technology for enriching uranium, gadolinium (Gd) and possibly erbium (Er). This plan addresses the key activities leading to such commercial deployment while recognizing current, significant funding limitations. The goal of this three month plan is to provide support to the USEC business assessment; assure that facilities, equipment and other property remain functional and retain value; and achieve maximum progress on critical tasks required for future AVLIS deployment if the USEC decides to proceed. This proposed plan continues activities (through July 31, 1994) that could lead to an overall plan for deployment of a uranium and a Gd/Er enrichment facility. This Statement of Work (SOW) is directed toward preserving the technical capabilities and core staff of the AVLIS Program while minimizing program costs and maintaining options for the USEC pending a decision on the future course of direction for the AVLIS Program. The specific activities described in this SOW are: (1) maintenance and surveillance of those AVLIS facilities not required for near-term operations; (2) preparation for future photoionization; (3) long lead preparation for future operations; (4) provide support, as requested by the USEC, for development of strategies and market entry plans for enriched uranium, gadolinium, and possibly erbium; (5) provide support, as requested, for the USEC Advanced Technology Business Evaluation; and (6) continue uranium processing and fuel cycle integration activities

  1. Application of direct simulation Monte Carlo method for analysis of AVLIS evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Akihiko

    1995-01-01

    The computation code of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was developed in order to analyze the atomic vapor evaporation in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). The atomic excitation temperatures of gadolinium atom were calculated for the model with five low lying states. Calculation results were compared with the experiments obtained by laser absorption spectroscopy. Two types of DSMC simulations which were different in inelastic collision procedure were carried out. It was concluded that the energy transfer was forbidden unless the total energy of the colliding atoms exceeds a threshold value. (author)

  2. U-AVLIS feed conversion using continuous metallothermic reduction of UF4: System description and cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a system description and develop baseline capital and operating cost estimates for commercial facilities which produced U-Fe feedstock for AVLIS enrichment plants using the continuous fluoride reduction (CFR) process. These costs can then be used together with appropriate economic assumptions to calculate estimated unit costs to the AVLIS plant owner (or utility customer) for such conversion services. Six cases are being examined. All cases assume that the conversion services are performed by a private company at a commercial site which has an existing NRC license to possess source material and which has existing uranium processing operations. The cases differ in terms of annual production capacity and whether the new process system is installed in a new building or in an existing building on the site. The six cases are summarized here

  3. U-AVLIS feed conversion using continuous metallothermic reduction of UF{sub 4}: System description and cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a system description and develop baseline capital and operating cost estimates for commercial facilities which produced U-Fe feedstock for AVLIS enrichment plants using the continuous fluoride reduction (CFR) process. These costs can then be used together with appropriate economic assumptions to calculate estimated unit costs to the AVLIS plant owner (or utility customer) for such conversion services. Six cases are being examined. All cases assume that the conversion services are performed by a private company at a commercial site which has an existing NRC license to possess source material and which has existing uranium processing operations. The cases differ in terms of annual production capacity and whether the new process system is installed in a new building or in an existing building on the site. The six cases are summarized here.

  4. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

  5. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF6. Milestone U361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF 6 production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF 6 Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF 6 production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF 4 , (3) fluorination of UF 4 to UF 6 , (4) cold trap collection of the UF 6 product, (5) UF 6 purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF 6 in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF 6 production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF 6 production

  6. TRIO-EF a general thermal hydraulics computer code applied to the Avlis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaud, J.P.; Claveau, M.; Coulon, N.; Yala, P.; Guilbaud, D.; Mejane, A.

    1993-01-01

    TRIO(EF is a general purpose Fluid Mechanics 3D Finite Element Code. The system capabilities cover areas such as steady state or transient, laminar or turbulent, isothermal or temperature dependent fluid flows; it is applicable to the study of coupled thermo-fluid problems involving heat conduction and possibly radiative heat transfer. It has been used to study the thermal behaviour of the AVLIS process separation module. In this process, a linear electron beam impinges the free surface of a uranium ingot, generating a two dimensional curtain emission of vapour from a water-cooled crucible. The energy transferred to the metal causes its partial melting, forming a pool where strong convective motion increases heat transfer towards the crucible. In the upper part of the Separation Module, the internal structures are devoted to two main functions: vapor containment and reflux, irradiation and physical separation. They are subjected to very high temperature levels and heat transfer occurs mainly by radiation. Moreover, special attention has to be paid to electron backscattering. These two major points have been simulated numerically with TRIO-EF and the paper presents and comments the results of such a computation, for each of them. After a brief overview of the computer code, two examples of the TRIO-EF capabilities are given: a crucible thermal hydraulics model, a thermal analysis of the internal structures

  7. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program]. Final report, [January--July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-04

    This report summarizes work performed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program from January through July, 1992. Each of the tasks assigned during this period is described, and results are presented. Section I details work on sensitivity matrices for the UDS relay telescope. These matrices show which combination of mirror motions may be performed in order to effect certain changes in beam parameters. In Section II, an analysis is given of transmission through a clipping aperture on the launch telescope deformable mirror. Observed large transmission losses could not be simulated in the analysis. An EXCEL spreadsheet program designed for in situ analysis of UDS optical systems is described in Section III. This spreadsheet permits analysis of changes in beam first-order characteristics due to changes in any optical system parameter, simple optimization to predict mirror motions needed to effect a combination of changes in beam parameters, and plotting of a variety of first-order data. Optical systems may be assembled directly from OSSD data. A CODE V nonsequential model of the UDS optical system is described in Section IV. This uses OSSD data to build the UDS model; mirror coordinates may thus be verified. Section V summarizes observations of relay telescope performance. Possible procedures which allow more accurate assessment of relay telescope performance are given.

  8. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs

  10. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  11. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs

  12. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3

  13. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  14. Development of AVLIS dye laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    CVL pumped single mode dye laser was performed. It was found that pressure tuning has some excellent feature in comparison to mechanical tuning in dye laser frequency control. For evaluation of dye laser amplifier, two-dimensional rate equation was proposed. Calculated data by this equation agreed with experimental data in large diameter input dye laser beam condition. (author)

  15. Review of AVLIS technology for production-scale LIS systems and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.; Moses, E.I.

    1983-12-01

    The use of lasers for uranium and/or plutonium isotope separation is expected to be the first application of lasers utilizing specific atomic processes for large-scale materials processing. Specific accomplishments toward the development of production-scale technology for LIS systems will be presented, along with the status of major construction projects. 24 figures

  16. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management's position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted

  17. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  18. Safeguards implications of laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, T.F.; Taylor, K.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and emphasise the safeguards and relevant features of atomic vapour laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS), and to consider the issues that must be addressed before a safeguards approach at a commercial AVLIS or MLIS facility can be implemented. (Author)

  19. Status of Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao-Lin; Feinberg, R.M.

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses demonstrations of plant-scale hardware embodying AVLIS technology which were completed in 1992. These demonstrations, designed to provide key economic and technical bases for plant deployment, produced significant quantities of low enriched uranium which could be used for civilian power reactor fuel. We are working with industry to address the integration of AVLIS into the fuel cycle. To prepare for deployment, a conceptual design and cost estimate for a uranium enrichment plant were also completed. The U-AVLIS technology is ready for commercialization

  20. Laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y. W.; Yamanaka, C.; Nomaru, K.; Kou, K.; Niki, H.; Izawa, Y.; Nakai, S.

    1994-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a process which uses intense pulsed lasers to selectively photoionize one isotopic species of a chemical element, after which these ions are extracted electromagnetically. The AVLIS has several advantages over the traditional methods based on the mass difference, such as high selectivity, low energy consumption, short starting time and versatility to any atoms. The efforts for atomic vapor laser isotope separation at ILT and ILE, Osaka University have been concentrated into the following items: 1) studies on laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium, 2) studies on interaction processes including coherent dynamics, propagation effects and atom-ion collision in AVLIS system, 3) development of laser systems for AVLIS. In this paper, we present experimental results on the laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium.

  1. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements

  2. Pilot-scale demonstration of the modified direct denitration process to prepare uranium oxide for fuel fabrication evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitts, F.G.

    1994-04-01

    The Uranium-Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program has the objective of developing a cost-competitive enrichment process that will ultimately replace the gaseous diffusion process used in the United States. Current nuclear fuel fabricators are set up to process only the UF 6 product from gaseous diffusion enrichment. Enriched uranium-iron alloy from the U-AVLIS separator system must be chemically converted into an oxide form acceptable to these fabricators to make fuel pellets that meet American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and utility company specifications. A critical step in this conversion is the modified direct denitration (MDD) that has been selected and presented in the AVLIS Conceptual Design for converting purified uranyl nitrate to UO 3 to be shipped to fabricators for making UO 2 pellets for power reactor fuel. This report describes the MDD process, the equipment used, and the experimental work done to demonstrate the conversion of AVLIS product to ceramic-grade UO 3 suitable for making reactor-grade fuel pellets

  3. Effect of magnetic field on selectivity of three-step photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Hwan; Rho, Si Pyo; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Chul Joong; Izawa, Yasukazu

    2001-01-01

    Effect of magnetic field on selectivity by linearly polarized lasers was analyzed by formulating the density matrix equations. To investigate the effect of magnetic field on the selectivity of AVLIS, we proposed a general Hamiltonian for multilevel atomic system in magnetic field. The population dynamics of magnetic sublevels have been observed by solving the Liouville equation. Mixing between magnetic sublevels was observed in each state during the laser excitations when the magnetic field perpendicular to the quantization axis was applied to the atomic system. The magnetic field dependence on ionization rate of even isotopes was also discussed. In the magnetic field dependence, two ionization peaks were appeared because of the interference between Rabi and Larmor frequency during the ionization process. The permissible intensities of magnetic field were predicted to obtain enough selectivity for the target isotopes of zirconium and gadolinium in the AVLIS process based on the polarization selection rule

  4. Using laser absorption spectroscopy to monitor composition and physical properties of metal vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzins, L.V.

    1993-01-01

    The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program has been using laser absorption spectroscopy to monitor vapor densities for over 15 years. Laser absorption spectroscopy has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method to monitor both density and composition. During this time the diagnostic has moved from a research tool toward a robust component of a process control system. The hardware used for this diagnostic is discussed elsewhere at this symposium. This paper describes how the laser absorption spectroscopy diagnostic is used as a component of a process control system as well as supplying detailed measurements on vapor densities, composition, flow velocity, internal and kinetic temperatures, and constituent distributions. Examples will be drawn from the uranium AVLIS program. In addition potential applications such as composition control in the production of metal matrix composites or aircraft alloys will be discussed

  5. Uranium metal production by molten salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasawa, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a promising uranium enrichment technology in the next generation. Electrolytic reduction of uranium oxides into uranium metal is proposed for the preparation of uranium metal as a feed material for AVLIS plant. Considering economical performance, continuos process concept and minimizing the amount of radioactive waste, an electrolytic process for producing uranium metal directly from uranium oxides will offer potential advantages over the existing commercial process. Studies of uranium metal by electrolysis in fluoride salts (BaF 2 -LiF-UF 4 (74-11-15 w/o) at 1150-1200degC, using both a laboratory scale apparatus and an engineering scale one, and continuous casting of uranium metal were carried out in order to decide the optimum operating conditions and the design of the industrial electrolytic cells. (author)

  6. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Griebenow, B.L.; Wade, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples

  7. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manges, W.W.

    1984-03-01

    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized

  8. Closely spaced mirror pair for reshaping and homogenizing pump beams in laser amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, I.L.

    1992-12-01

    Channeling a laser beam by multiple reflections between two closely-spaced, parallel or nearly parallel mirrors, serves to reshape and homogenize the beam at the output gap between the mirrors. Application of this device to improve the spatial overlap of a copper laser pump beam with the signal beam in a dye laser amplifier is described. This technique has been applied to the AVLIS program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  9. Laser isotope separation: the physics of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapierre, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The physics of the AVLIS process is analysed. The intricacy of physics considerations, technology and economic forecast is developed. The scaling of a production unit is a complicated optimization which takes into account the limitations imposed by physics laws (spectroscopy, plasma physics,...), technology (vapor production, laser industry,...), and economy. But the only philosophy which prevails for such R and D programs is to be cheaper than competitive processes and to reach the goal first to get the market

  10. Uranium enrichment: investment options for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The US government supplies a major portion of the enriched uranium used to fuel most of the nuclear power plants that furnish electricity in the free world. As manager of the US uranium enrichment concern, the Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating a number of technological choices to improve enrichment service and remain a significant world supplier. The Congress will ultimately select a strategy for federal investment in the uranium enrichment enterprise. A fundamental policy choice between possible future roles - that of the free world's main supplier of enrichment services, and that of a mainly domestic supplier - will underlie any investment decision the Congress makes. The technological choices are gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge, and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). A base plan and four alternatives were examined by DOE and the Congressional Budget Office. In terms of total enterprise costs, Option IV, ultimately relying on advanced gas centrifuges for enrichment services, would offer the most economic approach, with costs over the full projection period totaling $123.5 billion. Option III, ultimately relying on AVLIS without gas centrifuge enrichment or gaseous diffusion, falls next in the sequence, with costs of $128.2 billion. Options I and II, involving combinations of the gas centrifuge and AVLIS technologies, follow closely with costs of $128.7 and $129.6 billion. The base plan has costs of $136.8 billion over the projection period. 1 figure, 22 tables

  11. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  12. Report of the Energy Research Advisory Board study group on advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Panel reviewed Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) technology and Advanced Gas Centrifuge (AGC) programs in the context of potential needs and costs for uranium enrichment. The benefit of a successful AIS or AGC program would be a substantial reduction in enrichment costs below those of current centrifuge plants or below the power cost alone for gaseous diffusion plants. This report attempts to provide firm guidance for the next 2 to 3 years, at which time a further evaluation should guide decisions in regard to enrichment supply and development choices. On the basis of our perception of the long-term economic benefits of a successful AIS development, we support the continued pursuit of this option. In the interim, major requirements for enrichment must be satisfied. We assume that DOE will develop a firm funding plan for gaseous diffusion operations and power contracting to assure that the necessary supply of power will be available to meet the separative work commitments of the US enrichment enterprise. We recommend that the AIS program office further identify the key technical uncertainties of the various programs, thereby establishing the basis for near-term R and D leading to a decision whether and when to proceed with full-scale development. We believe that a stronger atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) program would result from a consolidation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Jersey Nuclear Avco Isotopes (JNAI) teams, leading to a more competitive AVLIS process. Hence, we recommend that DOE attempt to negotiate with JNAI to form a single, integrated, government-funded AVLIS program with appropriate elements of LLNL, JNAI and UCC-ND. We further recommend that JNAI be designated as lead laboratory in this program. We recommend that the DOE: continue with the first 2.2 million SWU increment of the gas centrifuge program, and continue the Advanced Gas Centrifuge development program, with high priority

  13. RTAP evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupps, K.; Elko, S.; Folta, P. [and others

    1995-01-23

    An in-depth analysis of the RTAP product was undertaken within the CNC associate program to determine the feasibility of utilizing it to replace the current Supervisory Control System that supports the AVLIS program. This document contains the results of that evaluation. With some fundamental redesign the current Supervisory Control system could meet the needs described above. The redesign would require a large amount of software rewriting and would be very time consuming. The higher level functionality (alarming, automation, etc.) would have to wait until its completion. Our current understanding and preliminary testing indicate that using commercial software is the best way to get these new features at the minimum cost to the program. Additional savings will be obtained by moving the maintenance costs of the basic control system from in-house to commercial industry and allowing our developers to concentrate on the unique control areas that require customization. Our current operating system, VMS, has become a hindrance. The UNIX operating system has become the choice for most scientific and engineering systems and we should follow suit. As a result of the commercial system survey referenced above we selected RTAP, a SCADA product developed by Hewlett Packard (HP), as the most favorable product to replace the current supervisory system in AVLIS. It is an extremely open system, with a large, well defined Application Programming Interface (API). This will allow the seamless integration of unique front end devices in the laser area (e.g. Optical Device Controller). RTAP also possesses various functionality that is lacking in our current system: integrated alarming, real-time configurable database, system scalability, and a Sequence Control Language (SQL developed by CPU, an RTAP Channel Partner) that will facilitate the automation necessary to bring the AVLIS process to plant-line operation. It runs on HP-9000, DEC-Alpha, IBM-RS6000 and Sun Workstations.

  14. Alternative applications of atomic vapor laser isotope separation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Secretary of Energy. It summarizes the main features of atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) technology and subsystems; evaluates applications, beyond those of uranium enrichment, suggested by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and a wide range of US industries and individuals; recommends further work on several applications; recommends the provision of facilities for evaluating potential new applications; and recommends the full involvement of end users from the very beginning in the development of any application. Specifically excluded from this report is an evaluation of the main AVLIS missions, uranium enrichment and purification of plutonium for weapons. In evaluating many of the alternative applications, it became clear that industry should play a greater and earlier role in the definition and development of technologies with the Department of Energy (DOE) if the nation is to derive significant commercial benefit. Applications of AVLIS to the separation of alternate (nonuranium) isotopes were considered. The use of 157 Gd as burnable poison in the nuclear fuel cycle, the use 12 C for isotopically pure diamond, and the use of plutonium isotopes for several nonweapons applications are examples of commercially useful products that might be produced at a cost less than the product value. Separations of other isotopes such as the elemental constituents of semiconductors were suggested; it is recommended that proposed applications be tested by using existing supplies to establish their value before more efficient enrichment processes are developed. Some applications are clear, but their production costs are too high, the window of opportunity in the market has passed, or societal constraints (e.g., on reprocessing of reactor fuel) discourage implementation

  15. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  16. France makes steady progress with lasers [enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, J.-H.; Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1988-01-01

    With the CHEMEX process now a commercially available technology, the French Commissariat a l'Energie (CEA) is focussing its R and D activity on two enrichment processes: gaseous diffusion, and atomic vapour laser isotope separation (AVLIS or SILVA). The SILVA process is being developed, with particular attention being paid to test campaigns undertaken on the pilot unit installed at Saclay. A core of technical know-how is being maintained in gaseous diffusion in order to study the behaviour of, and possible improvements to, the newly named George Besse plant at the Tricastin site. (U.K.)

  17. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  18. The effect of atoms excited by electron beam on metal evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Guo Feng; Ying Chun Tong

    2002-01-01

    In atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), the metal is heated to melt by electron beams. The vapor atoms may be excited by electrons when flying through the electron beam. The excited atoms may be deexcited by inelastic collision during expansion. The electronic energy transfers translational energy. In order to analyse the effect of reaction between atoms and electron beams on vapor physical parameters, such as density, velocity and temperature, direct-simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) is used to simulate the 2-D gadolinium evaporation from long and narrow crucible. The simulation results show that the velocity and temperature of vapor increase, and the density decreases

  19. A 2000-2010 years outlook of isotopic uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, G.

    1998-01-01

    The increase of the installed power in nuclear plants implies the following steps to be achieved: - developing a parallel industry for the nuclear fuel cycle able to ensure a rhythmic supply of natural uranium, possibly an isotopic enrichment of 235 U of around 1.2 - 3.2%, depending on the reactor system; - manufacturing the fuel elements and the operation of cycle back-end, which may, possibly, include a temporary storage of the irradiated fuel; - reprocessing the spend fuel; - radioactive waste processing in view of final disposal, as well as the recovery of un-spent uranium and of plutonium formed. The heavy water reactors of CANDU-PHW does not imply any isotopic enrichment but provides a lower burnup of only 7,000 MW day/tone. An enrichment to 1.2% in 235 U for this type of reactors could increase the burnup up to 20,000 MW day/tone. An advanced method of enriching 235 U is based on the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotop Separation (AVLIS). This procedure called AVLIS has several advantages which are pointed out in this paper, among which: a very high selectivity; high separation factors; a low energy consumption due to the fact that in the conditions of a selective photo ionization, the energy necessary to the process is only 6.2 eV for the separated 235 U atom vs 0.3 MeV in case of inertial separators or 3 MeV in case of gaseous diffusion procedure. With the current laser yields an energy consumption of 100 kWh/SWU is estimated for AVLIS procedures as compared with 2,400 kWh/SWU in case of gaseous diffusion; an almost entire extraction of 235 U, what ensures a more efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel. Due to its modular character and to potential improvement in the equipment which could be achieved, this procedure will ensure a reduction in the investment costs in the construction stage what will make AVLIS a substitute of the classical separation procedures

  20. Uranium enrichment: heading for a cliff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.

    1987-01-01

    Thanks to drastic cost cutting in the past 2 years, US enrichment plants now have the lowest cost production in the world, but US prices are still higher than those of overseas competitors because the business is paying for past mistakes. The most serious difficulty is that the Department of Energy (DOE), which owns and operates the US enrichment enterprise, is paying more than $500 million a year to the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for electricity it once thought it would need but no longer requires. Another is that billions of dollars were spent in the 1970s and early 1980s to build new capacity that is now not needed. As a result, the enrichment enterprise has accumulated a debt to the US Treasury that the General Accounting Office (GAO) estimates at $8.8 billion. This paper presents the background and current debate in Congress about the difficulties facing the enrichment industry. In the midst of this debate over the future of the enterprise, the development of the next generation of enrichment technology is being placed in jeopardy. Known as atomic vapor laser isotope separation, or AVLIS, the process was viewed as the key to the long-term competitiveness of US enrichment. As the federal deficit mounted, however, funding for the AVLIS program was cut back and the timetable was stretched out. The US enrichment program has reached the point at which Congress will be forced to make some politically difficult decisions

  1. Laser isotope purification of lead for use in semiconductor chip interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibner, K.; Haynam, C.; Worden, E.; Esser, B.

    1996-01-01

    Lead, used throughout the electronics industries, typically contains small amounts of radioactive 210 Pb (a daughter product of the planets ubiquitous 238 U) whose 210 Po daughter emits an α-particle that is known to cause soft errors in electronic circuits. The 210 Pb is not separable by chemical means. This paper describes the generic Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) over the last 20 years, with particular emphasis on recent efforts to develop the process physics and component technologies required to remove the offending 210 Pb using lasers. We have constructed a developmental facility that includes a process laser development area and a test bed for the vaporizer and ion and product collectors. We will be testing much of the equipment and demonstrating pilot scale AVLIS on a surrogate material later this year. Detection of the very low alpha emission even from commercially available low-alpha lead is challenging. LLNL's detection capabilities will be described. The goal of the development of lead purification technology is to demonstrate the capability in FY97, and to deploy a production machine capable of up to several MT/y of isotopically purified material, possible beginning in FY98

  2. Resumption of surrogate testing in the Engineering Demonstration System at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Engineering Demonstration System (EDS) is an existing equipment system within the Plutonium Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) designed to test the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process for application to the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) program. The proposed action is to resume testing with members of the family of rare-earth metals in the EDS. The purpose of these tests is to train operators, verify operations procedures and obtain information on the engineering design, operational reliability, and separative performance capability of the integrated system hardware. The information to be provided by the EDS tests with the rare-earth metals is needed for engineering and operability evaluation of the prototype AVLIS separator hardware in an integrated system configuration. These evaluations are necessary to demonstrate the technology to the maximum extent possible, short of actual validation with plutonium. The EDS tests to be performed would use single and multiple separator units. Testing would be intermittent in nature, typically consisting of one to two tests per month, with durations ranging from approximately 10 to 200 h. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Science, technology, and the industrialization of laser-driven processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Members of the laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) reviewed potential applications of lasers in industry, some of which are: isotope separation; cleanup of radioactive waste; trace impurity removal; selective chemical reactions; photochemical activation or dissociation of gases; control of combustion particulates; crystal and powder chemistry; and laser induced biochemistry. Many of these areas are currently under active study in the community. The investigation at LLNL focused on laser isotope separation of atomic uranium because of the large demand (> 1000 tonnes/year) and high product enrichment price (> $600/kg of product) for material used as fuel in commercial light-water nuclear power reactors. They also believed that once the technology was fully developed and deployed, it could be applied directly to separating many elements economically on an industrial scale. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program at LLNL has an extensive uranium and plutonium program of >$100 M in FY85 and a minor research program for other elements. This report describes the AVLIS program conducted covering the following topics; candidate elements; separative work units; spectroscopic selectivety; major systems; facilities; integrated process model;multivariable sensitivety studies; world market; and US enrichment enterprise. 23 figs. (AT)

  4. The use of laser diodes for control of uranium vaporization rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagans, K.; Galkowski, J.

    1993-09-01

    Within the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program we have successfully used the laser absorption spectroscopy technique (LAS) to diagnose process physics performance and control vaporization rate. In the LAS technique, a narrow line-width laser is tuned to an absorption line of the species to be measured. The laser light that is propagated through the sample is and, from this data, the density of the species can be calculated. These laser systems have exclusively consisted of expensive, cumbersome, and difficult to maintain argon-ion-pumped ring dye lasers. While the wavelength flexibility of dye lasers is very useful in a laboratory environment, these laser systems are not well suited for the industrial process control system under development for an AVLIS plant. Diode-lasers offer lower system costs, reduced man power requirements, reduced space requirements, higher system availability, and improved operator safety. We report the. successful deployment and test of a prototype laser diode based uranium vapor rate control system. Diode-laser generated LAS data was used to control the uranium vaporization rate in a hands-off mode for greater than 50 hours. With one minor adjustment the system successfully controlled the vaporization rate for greater than 147 hours. We report excellent agreement with ring dye laser diagnostics and uranium weigh-back measurements

  5. Study on improvement of laser system performance for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the cost of Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), I developed the following laser technologies. (1) I developed a solid-state pulse power supply, of which output power was the almost highest value achieved for a copper vapor laser in 1989, using a GTO as a switching device and a magnetic pulse compression circuit. (2) I developed a new technique of tuning the laser wavelength to an atomic absorption band using high-speed wavelength shift of a laser diode by direct modulation. (3) I developed a new technique of stabilizing the laser wavelength at an absorption band of a target atom, by locking the sideband generated by phase modulation of a laser beam to a Fabry-Perot interferometer. (4) I proposed the Cr 4+ -doped forsterite laser system as an all solid-state laser system for the AVLIS. I obtained the slope efficiency of 25%, which was the highest value achieved in the case of pulse operation of the Cr 4+ -doped forsterite laser in 1995, using the forsterite with high Cr 4+ -ion concentration. (author)

  6. Special isotope separation project, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    Construction and operation of a Special Isotope Separation (SIS) project using the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process technology at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho are proposed. The SIS project would process fuel-grade plutonium administered by the Department of Energy (DOE) into weapon-grade plutonium using AVLIS and supporting chemical processes. The SIS project would require construction and operation of a Laser Support Facility to house the laser system and a Plutonium Processing Facility. The SIS project would be integrated with existing support and waste management facilities at the selected site. The SIS project would provide DOE with the capability of segregating the isotopes of DOE-owned plutonium into specific isotopic concentrations. This capability would provide redundancy in production capacity, technological diversity, and flexibility in DOE's production of nuclear materials for national defense. Use of the INEL site would impact 151,350 square meters (37.4 acres) of land, of which more than 70% has been previously disturbed. During construction, plant and animal habitat associated with a sagebrush vegetation community would be lost. During operation of the SIS facilities, unavoidable radiation exposures would include occupational exposures and exposures to the public from normal atmospheric releases of radioactive materials that would be minimal compared to natural background radiation

  7. Some characteristics of isotopic separation laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochon, E.

    1988-01-01

    The principle of Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) is simple and based on either selective electronic photoexcitation and photoionization of atomic vapor, or selective vibrational photoexcitation and photodissociation of molecules in the gas phase. These processes, respectively called SILVA (AVLIS) and SILMO (MLIS) in France, both use specific laser systems with wavelengths spanning from infrared to ultraviolet. This article describes briefly some of the characteristics of a SILVA laser system. Following a three-step process, a SILVA laser system is based on dye copper vapor lasers. The pulse dye lasers provide the tunable laser light and are optically pumped by copper vapor laser operating at high repetition rates. In order to meet plant laser system requirements, the main improvements under way relate to copper vapor laser devices the power capability, efficiency, reliability and lifetime of which have to be increased. 1 fig

  8. Efficiencies of laser dyes for atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuo; Oki, Yuji; Uchiumi, Michihiro; Takao, Takayuki; Igarashi, Kaoru; Shimamoto, Kojiro.

    1995-01-01

    Efficiencies of 30 laser dyes for the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) are experimentally evaluated with a dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. On the other hand, a simulation code is developed to describe the laser action of Rhodamine 6G, and the dependence of the laser efficiency on the pump wavelength is calculated. Following conclusions are obtained by these considerations:space: 1) Pyrromethene 567 showed 16% higher laser efficiency than Rhodamine 6G by 532 nm pumping, and Pyrromethene 556 has an ability to provide better efficiency by green light pumping with a Cu vapor laser; 2) Kiton red 620 and Rhodamine 640, whose efficiencies were almost the same as Rhodamine 6G by 532 nm pumping, will show better efficiencies by two-wavelength pumping with a Cu vapor laser. (author)

  9. Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report, September 1, 1980-July 1, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobe, L.E.E. (ed.)

    1982-12-01

    Activities are reported by the Reactor Systems Section, Research Instrument Section, and the Measurement and Controls Engineering Section. Reactor system activities include dynamic analysis, survillanc and diagnostic methods, design and evaluation, detectors, facilities support, process instrumentation development, and special assignments. Activities in the Research Instrument Section include the Navy-ORNL RADIAC development program, advanced ..gamma.. and x ray detector systems, neutron detection and subcriticality measurements, circuit development, position-sensitive detectors, stand-alone computers, environmental monitoring-detectors and systems, plant security, engineering support for fusion energy division, engineering support for accelerator physics, and communications: radio, closed-circuit tv, and computer. Activities in the Measurement and Controls Engineering Section include the AVLIS program; gas centrifuge enrichment technology support; Advanced Instrumentation for Reflood Studies (AIDRS) program; instrumentation development support for fuel reprocessing; in-core experiments and reactor systems; energy, conservation, and electric power systems; computer systems; measurements research; and fossil energy studies Publications are listed. (WHK)

  10. AEC determines uranium enrichment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Uranium Enrichment of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has submitted a report to AEC chairman concerning the promotion of the introduction of advanced material, high performance centrifuges to replace conventional metallic drum centrifuges, and the development of next generation advanced centrifuges. The report also called for the postponement until around 1997 of the decision whether the development should be continued or not on atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) processes, as well as the virtual freezing of the construction of a chemical process demonstration plant. The report was approved by the AEC chairman in August. The uranium enrichment service market in the world will continue to be characterized by oversupply. The domestic situation of uranium enrichment supply-demand trend, progress of the expansion of Rokkasho enrichment plant, the trend in the development of gas centrifuge process and the basic philosophy of commercializing domestic uranium enrichment are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Comments on proposed legislation to restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This book focuses on H.R.145, H.R.788, and S.210. Each of the proposed bills would restructure DOE's enrichment program as a government corporation with private financing and would encourage the eventual sale of the corporation to the private sector. In doing so, the bills would, among other things, allow the corporation to set prices to maximize long-term returns; establish a fund to meet the costs of decontamination, decommissioning, and other environmental cleanup costs associated with uranium enrichment activities; transfer interest in DOE's new atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process to the new corporation; and, except for H.R. 145, require the government to pay its share of the costs to clean up mill tailings (mining wastes) generated under government contracts

  12. Fiscal year 1986 Department of Energy Authorization (uranium enrichment and electric energy systems, energy storage and small-scale hydropower programs). Volume VI. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, February 28; March 5, 7, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Volume VI of the hearing record covers three days of testimony on the future of US uranium enrichment and on programs involving electric power and energy storage. There were four areas of concern about uranium enrichment: the choice between atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and the advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) technologies, cost-effective operation of gaseous diffusion plants, plans for a gas centrifuge enrichment plant, and how the DOE will make its decision. The witnesses represented major government contractors, research laboratories, and energy suppliers. The discussion on the third day focused on the impact of reductions in funding for electric energy systems and energy storage and a small budget increase to encourage small hydropower technology transfer to the private sector. Two appendices with additional statements and correspondence follow the testimony of 17 witnesses

  13. Atomic collisions related to atomic laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Takemasa

    1995-01-01

    Atomic collisions are important in various places in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). At a vaporization zone, many atomic collisions due to high density have influence on the atomic beam characteristics such as velocity distribution and metastable states' populations at a separation zone. In the separation zone, a symmetric charge transfer between the produced ions and the neutral atoms may degrade selectivity. We have measured atomic excitation temperatures of atomic beams and symmetric charge transfer cross sections for gadolinium and neodymium. Gadolinium and neodymium are both lanthanides. Nevertheless, results for gadolinium and neodymium are very different. The gadolinium atom has one 5d electron and neodymium atom has no 5d electron. It is considered that the differences are due to existence of 5d electron. (author)

  14. Optical Design Capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Optical design capabilities continue to play the same strong role at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that they have played in the past. From defense applications to the solid-state laser programs to the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), members of the optical design group played critical roles in producing effective system designs and are actively continuing this tradition. This talk will explain the role optical design plays at LLNL, outline current capabilities and summarize a few activities in which the optical design team has been recently participating. Among the many optical engineers working at LLNL, a distinct group exists which specializes in optical design issues. The optical design group collectively has a wide range of fields of expertise as well as a diversity of background histories including LLNL, university, industry and aerospace experience. This unique resource has resulted many effective and productive designs for customers at LLNL and outside the lab.

  15. A utility perspective on new technologies and new suppliers in a new market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaros, A.F.; Thompson, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    At this point in time, the stalled growth in the U.S. nuclear industry is leading to contractions in the nuclear supply base. Uranium mines have closed down, or sold out to larger mining companies, or merged. U.S. fuel fabricators have teamed up with counterparts in Europe Service companies and reactor manufacturers are also merging, both in the U.S. and Europe. With the stalled growth in nuclear, the large, primary producers are no longer able to continuously expand the SWU price, as DOE did, with Congress' support up through the early eighties. Against this industry trend, it is gratifying to see the several examples of entrepreneurship in the enrichment industry. Several of these efforts are represented by my colleagues on this panel today. New technologies: CRISLA, AVLIS, and SILVA are being developed. New models of older technologies are being deployed: LES and the Japanese centrifuge projects

  16. Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report, September 1, 1980-July 1, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klobe, L.E.E.

    1982-12-01

    Activities are reported by the Reactor Systems Section, Research Instrument Section, and the Measurement and Controls Engineering Section. Reactor system activities include dynamic analysis, survillanc and diagnostic methods, design and evaluation, detectors, facilities support, process instrumentation development, and special assignments. Activities in the Research Instrument Section include the Navy-ORNL RADIAC development program, advanced #betta# and x ray detector systems, neutron detection and subcriticality measurements, circuit development, position-sensitive detectors, stand-alone computers, environmental monitoring-detectors and systems, plant security, engineering support for fusion energy division, engineering support for accelerator physics, and communications: radio, closed-circuit tv, and computer. Activities in the Measurement and Controls Engineering Section include the AVLIS program; gas centrifuge enrichment technology support; Advanced Instrumentation for Reflood Studies (AIDRS) program; instrumentation development support for fuel reprocessing; in-core experiments and reactor systems; energy, conservation, and electric power systems; computer systems; measurements research; and fossil energy studies Publications are listed

  17. PSP Program close out documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andringa, K.; Hootman, H.E.; Ferrara, A.S.; Smith, P.K.; Congdon, J.W.; Randolph, H.W.; Young, R.H.; Driggers, F.E.; Topp, S.V.

    1985-12-31

    In December 1982 DOE-SR directed SRL to study the feasibility and impact of a program to lower the U-236 content of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) stockpile used as fuel for the SRP reactors. In response to this request SRL assessed four technologies, Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS), Gas Centrifuge, and the Plasma Separation Process (PSP) for this purpose with the assistance of the Engineering Department. In April 1983 cost/benefit analyses for these processes, high spot cost estimates for production facilities, and process uncertainties were submitted to DOE-SR with a recommendation to proceed with the conceptual design and supporting development programs for a facility based on the use of the PSP process. The current program status for the PSP development program at SRL and the design and documentation of a production facility at SRP, referred to as the Fuel Improvement Demonstration Facility (FIDF), is described in this report.

  18. Scientific feasibility of incineration in SCNES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsuka, H.; Ohsaki, T.; Obara, T.; Igashira, M.; Suzuki, M.; Fujii-e, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We confirm the simultaneous realization of burning or transmutation of radioactive nuclides and of net energy generation. An investigation of the neutron balance in a reactor core is carried out. It is numerically shown that the neutrons can burn all the transuranium elements (TRUs) produced in the core as fuel in the SCNES reactor. It is numerically found that the fission products (FPs) whose half-lives are longer than one year can be contained and transmuted into harmless nuclides in the core without losing the neutron balance. It is shown that isotope separation of the FPs is required to realize the SCNES. As an example, we investigate the required energy for a scheme of the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) of FPs. It is shown that, in principle, the energy required for the isotope separation is much lower than the generated fission energy. The SCNES is scientifically realized in principle. (Author)

  19. Experimental and theoretical studies of buoyant-thermo capillary flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Blumenfeld, L.; Soubbaramayer

    1996-01-01

    In the AVLIS process, uranium metal is evaporated using a high power electron gun. We have prior discussed the power balance equation in the electron beam evaporation process and pointed out, among the loss terms, the importance of the power loss due to the convective flow in the molten pool driven by buoyancy and thermo capillarity. An empirical formula has been derived from model experiments with cerium, to estimate the latter power loss and that formula can be used practically in engineering calculations. In order to complete the empirical approach, a more fundamental research program of theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out in Cea-France, with the objective of understanding the basic phenomena (heat transport, flow instabilities, turbulence, etc.) occurring in a convective flow in a liquid layer locally heated on its free surface

  20. The copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, R.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program has developed a high-average-power, pulsed, tunable, visible laser system. Testing of this hardware is in progress at industrial scale. The LLNL copper-dye laser system is prototypical of a basic module of a uranium-AVLIS plant. The laser demonstration facility (LDF) system consists of copper vapor lasers arranged in oscillator-amplifier chains providing optical pump power to dye-laser master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains. This system is capable of thousands of watts (average) tunable between 550 and 650 mm. The copper laser system at LLNL consists of 12 chains operating continuously. The copper lasers operate at nominally 4.4 kHz, with 50 ns pulse widths and produce 20 W at near the diffraction limit from oscillators and >250 W from each amplifier. Chains consist of an oscillator and three amplifiers and produce >750 W average, with availabilities >95% (i.e., >8,300 h/y). The total copper laser system power averages ∼9,000 W and has operated at over 10,000 W for extended intervals. The 12 copper laser beams are multiplexed and delivered to the dye laser system where they pump multiple dye laser chains. Each dye chain consists of a master oscillator and three or four power amplifiers. The master oscillator operates at nominally 100 mW with a 50 MHz single mode bandwidth. Amplifiers are designed to efficiently amplify the dye beam with low ASE content and high optical quality. Sustained dye chain powers are up to 1,400 W with dye conversion efficiency >50%, ASE content <5%, and wavefront quality correctable to <λ/10 RMS, using deformable mirrors. Since the timing of the copper laser chains can be offset, the dye laser system is capable of repetition rates which are multiples of 4.4 kHz, up to 26 kHz, limited by the dye pumping system. Development of plant-scale copper and dye laser hardware is progressing in off-line facilities

  1. Real time analysis under EDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs

  2. Recent developments in the United States uranium enrichment enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the near term, DOE is reducing production costs at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs), and we've made significant progress already. GDP production costs are expected to decline even further in the near future. DOE is also negotiating new power contracts for the GDPs. The new power contracts, capital improvements, and the use of more unfirm power should reduce our GDP average cost of production to about $60/SWU in the 1990s. Significant technical progress on the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) advanced enrichment technology has been made recently. The highlight has been a series of half-scale integrated enrichment experiments using the Laser Demonstration Facility and the Mars separator. We are also ready to initiate testing in the full-scale Separator Demonstration Facility, including a 100 hour run that will vaporize over 5 tons of uranium. DOE is developing plans to restructure the enterprise into a more businesslike entity. The key objective in 1987 is to work with Congress to advance the restructuring of the U.S. uranium enrichment enterprise, to assure its long term competitiveness. We hope to establish in law the charter, objectives, and goals for the restructured enterprise. DOE expects that the world price for enrichment services will continue to decrease in the future. There should be sufficient excess enrichment capacity in the future to assure that competition will be keen. Such a healthy, competitive, world enrichment market will be beneficial to both suppliers and consumers of uranium enrichment services. (J.P.N.)

  3. A Compilation of Static Stability and Fin Loads Data for Slender Body Missile Models with and without Tail Fins and Wings. Volume 4. Appendix G. Test Number 7, Parts 2 through 105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    0.2367 -3.2*S7_ -0.23*3 -Q----1 •0.»fi31 ■0.*66S •0.»7*9 -0.2*15 .-0.2930- -0.2996 N»W»L Snlf HtSt »4CH «M> OEVtLOfNtM CtfcttltftSKDCI T...0.293T, 0.2956 ._ 0.2984- 0.2985 _ft.2981- 0.2968 0.300* 0.2939 _0*29»ft_ 0.292» __Q..Z921_ fctVAL SHlf HtSt »<.C" «Mb ülVtLO...1.810* -l.aoit. -1.77*9 -i.mt_ •.avli. SHIP HtSt »*CM «NO DEvtLOP»E*lT CExTERtlSKOCt 7 87 10 FOOT THA1SON1C -INO TUNNEL

  4. Efficient mass-selective three-photon ionization of zirconium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.

    1994-01-01

    In an AVLIS process, .sup.91 Zr is selectively removed from natural zirconium by a three-step photoionization wherein Zr atoms are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.1, selectively raising .sup.91 Zr atoms to an odd-parity E.sub.1 energy level in the range of 16000-19000 cm.sup.-1, are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 to raise the atoms from an E.sub.l level to an even-parity E.sub.2 energy level in the range of 35000-37000 cm.sup.-1 and are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.3 to cause a resonant transition of atoms from an E.sub.2 level to an autoionizing level above 53506 cm.sup.-1. .lambda..sub.3 wavelengths of 5607, 6511 or 5756 .ANG. will excite a zirconium atom from an E.sub.2 energy state of 36344 cm.sup.-1 to an autoionizing level; a .lambda..sub.3 wavelength of 5666 .ANG. will cause an autoionizing transition from an E.sub.2 level of 36068 cm.sup.-1 ; and a .lambda. .sub.3 wavelength of 5662 .ANG. will cause an ionizing resonance of an atom at an E.sub.2 level of 35904 cm.sup.-1.

  5. Transient data acquisition techniques under EDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, S.

    1985-06-01

    This paper is the first of a series which describes the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the MARS project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although EDS was developed for use on AVLIS, the functional requirements, overall design, and specific techniques are applicable to any experimental data acquisition system involving large quantities of transient data. In particular this paper will discuss the techniques and equipment used to do the data acquisition. Included are what types of hardware are used and how that hardware (CAMAC, digital oscilloscopes) is interfaced to the HP computers. In this discussion the author will address the problems encountered and the solutions used, as well as the performance of the instrument/computer interfaces. The second topic the author will discuss is how the acquired data is associated to graphics and analysis portions of EDS through efficient real time data bases. This discussion will include how the acquired data is folded into the overall structure of EDS providing the user immediate access to raw and analyzed data. By example you will see how easily a new diagnostic can be added to the EDS structure without modifying the other parts of the system. 8 figs

  6. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, N.; Lafon, A.; Perves, J.P.; Rosengard, A.

    1992-01-01

    The main effort in the field of Isotopic Separation Research and Development in France is devoted since 1985 to the 'SILVA' process. A structured organization has been set up, including the following elements: Specific Research and Development for all the functions and components of the process: this work is supported by numerous benches located in Saclay and Pierrelatte. Each bench is mainly devoted to one process function; regarding process and operating performances are optimized. Integrated Experiences in a Pilot facility. Qualified components are integrated in a pilot facility located in Saclay, the capacity of which is steadily increased. At each stage, complete separative experiments demonstrate the improvements attained. Focused Basic Research for each field, often linked with various and relatively original phenomenas. Models have been built up, supported by specific experiments and values attained for intrinsical parameters. An aggregated process performance computing code integrates all the models, possibly under simplified form. Technical, operating and economical data are gradually added. A general assessment will take place in the middle of the nineties with several technical demonstrations and a complete evaluation of the French AVLIS process

  7. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J. [JAYCOR, Environmental Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees.

  8. Design of a formaldehyde photodissociation process for carbon and oxygen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Scheibner, K.F.

    1993-01-01

    The current shortage of 18 O has revived interest in using one step UV photodissociation of formaldehyde to enrich 13 C, 17 O and 18 O. The frequency doubled output of the copper laser pumped dye laser system currently in operation at LLNL can be used to drive this dissociation. The authors use a simple kinetics model and their experience with Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process design to examine the relative merits of different designs for a formaldehyde photodissociation process. Given values for the molecular photoabsorption cross section, partition function, spectroscopic selectivity, collisional exchange and quenching cross sections (all as parameters), they perform a partial optimization in the space of illuminated area, formaldehyde pressure in each stage, and formaldehyde residence time in each stage. They examine the effect of cascade design (heads and tails staging) on molecule and photon utilization for each of the three isotope separation missions, and look in one case at the system's response to different ratios of laser to formaldehyde costs. Finally, they examine the relative cost of enrichment as a function of isotope and product assay. Emphasis is as much on the process design methodology, which is general, as on the specific application to formaldehyde

  9. EDS operator and control software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.L.

    1985-04-01

    The Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to acquire, display and analyze large quantities of transient data for a real-time Advanced Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) experiment. Major topics discussed in this paper are the EDS operator interface (SHELL) program, the data acquisition and analysis scheduling software, and the graphics software. The workstation concept used in EDS, the software used to configure a user's workstation, and the ownership and management of a diagnostic are described. An EDS diagnostic is a combination of hardware and software designed to study specific aspects of the process. Overall system performance is discussed from the standpoint of scheduling techniques, evaluation tools, optimization techniques, and program-to-program communication methods. EDS is based on a data driven design which keeps the need to modify software to a minimum. This design requires a fast and reliable data base management system. A third party data base management product, Berkeley Software System Database, written explicitly for HP1000's, is used for all EDS data bases. All graphics is done with an in-house graphics product, Device Independent Graphics Library (DIGLIB). Examples of devices supported by DIGLIB are: Versatec printer/plotters, Raster Technologies Graphic Display Controllers, and HP terminals (HP264x and HP262x). The benefits derived by using HP hardware and software as well as obstacles imposed by the HP environment are presented in relation to EDS development and implementation

  10. IAEA inspection team conducting investigation in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: On 23 August 2004, during discussions about the initial declarations of the Republic of Korea (ROK) under the Additional Protocol to its Safeguards Agreement, the ROK informed the IAEA that it had enriched nuclear material in the course of atomic vapour laser isotope separation (AVLIS) experiments that had not been declared to the IAEA. The ROK informed the IAEA that these experiments had been on a laboratory scale and involved the production of only milligram quantities of enriched uranium. According to the ROK, these activities were carried out without the Government's knowledge at a nuclear site in Korea in 2000, and that the activities had been terminated. Following receipt of this information, the IAEA dispatched a team of inspectors, headed by the Director of the Safeguards Operations Division responsible for the ROK, to investigate further all relevant aspects of this matter. The inspectors will report to the Director General upon their return to Vienna early next week. The Director General will be informing the Board of Governors of the IAEA's initial findings at the next meeting of the Board of Governors beginning on 13 September 2004. (IAEA)

  11. Uranium enrichment using laser and plasma separation - an analysis focussing on export control; Urananrikning med laser och plasmaseparation - en analys med fokus paa exportkontroll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Wilhelmsen, Katarina; Wirstam, Jens (Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, has under contract work financed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, performed a study on uranium enrichment by laser-based processes and plasma separation. None of these processes are at present used on an industrial scale for uranium enrichment. However, these are processes of high efficiency which implicates that plants employing any of these processes for production of fissile material for nuclear weapons can be small in size and easily hidden. This has also been the case for laser enrichment. Special emphasis has been put on the understanding of the governing physical principles of the different processes. In the report the AVLIS and MLIS processes are described in some detail while CRISLA and SILEX are treated in less detail. The plasma separation process is described in a separate section. Limiting physical parameters for the different processes are discussed and equipment relevant to the different technologies is described. Further, some indicators of the different processes are identified and listed. In the final chapter known research programs where these processes have been used are listed. Since none of the described technologies has been used on an industrial scale, information on plant design and running is scarce

  12. Separation phenomena in Liquids and Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvet, P; Soubbaramayer, [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Lasers et de la Physico-Chimie, DESICP/DLPC/SPP, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Noe, P

    1989-07-01

    The Proceedings of the 1989 Workshop are presented in two volumes: volume 1 contains 4 papers on plasma processes and 7 papers on centrifugation. The papers on plasma processes deal with two main methods: ion cyclotron resonance and rotating plasmas. A survey lecture reviews extensively the physics of the two processes, the published experimental results and includes an abundant bibliography of about 200 references. The 3 other papers communicate original and recent experiments carried out by the authors. The plasma process remains as a possible technology to separate stable isotopes and isotopes of metals located in the middle of the Mendeleev Table. Regarding the stable isotopes, the ion cyclotron resonance might be an alternative to the Calutron process. The sessions on centrifugation include 2 review papers by URENCO authors and 5 specialized communications. The review papers take stock of the centrifuge research and gives the current status of the centrifuge technology in URENCO. The authors say that the centrifugation is presently an established industrial and commercial process ready to enter in competition for any new construction of enrichment capacity. Volume 2 contains the papers on 3 topics: basic studies (11 papers), chemical process (2 papers) and laser processes (7 papers). The papers on basic studies include investigations on rotating flows. A special attention is given to studies on convection flows, driven by acceleration field or (and) capillary forces. The interest of convection is obvious, as it has applications in important fields: the hydrodynamics of liquid uranium in the evaporation crucible of AVLIS Process, the crystal growth experiments on earth or under microgravity conditions (future experiments planned in space-labs) and the welding by electron or photon beams. Two papers are presented on the chemical process and both of them are by French authors. The French CEA has, in the past, developed with success the CHEMEX process. The

  13. An externally heated copper vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, P.A.; Sopchyshyn, F.C.; Selkirk, E.B.; Green, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    A pulsed Copper Vapour Laser (CVL), with a nominal 6 kHz repetition rate, was designed, build, and commissioned at Chalk River laboratories. The laser was required for Resonant Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) experiments and for projects associated with Atomic Vapour laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) studies. For the laser to operate, copper coupons position along the length of a ceramic tube must be heated sufficiently to create an appropriate vapour pressure. The AECL CVL uses an external heater element with a unique design to raise the temperature of the tube. The Cylindrical graphite heating element is shaped to compensate for the large radiation end losses of the laser tube. The use of an external heater saves the expensive high-current-voltage switching device from heating the laser tube, as in most commercial lasers. This feature is especially important given the intermittent usage typical of experimental research. As well, the heater enables better parametric control of the laser output when studying the lasing of copper (or other) vapour. This report outlines the lasing process in copper vapour, describes in detail all three major laser sub-systems: the laser body; the laser tube heater; the high voltage pulsed discharge; and, reports parametric measurements of the individual sub-systems and the laser system as a whole. Also included are normal operating procedures to heat up, run and shut down the laser

  14. Laser Programs, the first 25 years, 1972-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Welcome to Laser Programs. I am pleased that you can share in the excitement of 25 years of history since we began as a small program of 125 people to our current status as a world premier laser and applied science research team of over 1700 members. It is fitting that this program, which was founded on the dream of developing inertial confinement fusion technology, should celebrate this anniversary the same year that the ground is broken for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Also at the same time, we are feeling the excitement of moving forward the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology toward private sector use and developing many alternate scientific applications and technologies derived from our core programs. It is through the hard work of many dedicated scientists, engineers, technicians, and administrative team members that we have been able to accomplish the remarkable internationally recognized achievements highlighted here. I hope this brochure will help you enjoy the opportunity to share in the celebration and pride of our scientific accomplishments; state-of-the-art facilities; and diligent, dedicated people that together make our Laser Programs and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the best in the world

  15. Small cell experiments for electrolytic reduction of uranium oxides to uranium metal using fluoride salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Adcock, P.W.; Coroneos, A.C.; Hendrix, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide was proposed for the preparation of uranium metal feed for the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. A laboratory cell of 25-cm ID was operated to obtain additional information in areas important to design and operation of a pilot plant cell. Reproducible test results and useful operating and control procedures were demonstrated. About 20 kg of uranium metal of acceptable purity were prepared. A good supply of dissolved UO 2 feed at the anode is the most important controlling requirement for efficient cell operation. A large fraction of the cell current is nonproductive in that it does not produce a metal product nor consume carbon anodes. All useful test conditions gave some reduction of UF 4 to produce CF 4 in addition to the reduction of UO 2 , but the fraction of metal from the reduction of UF 4 can be decreased by increasing the concentration of dissolved UO 2 . Operation of large continuous cells would probably be limited to current efficiencies of less than 60 pct, and more than 20 pct of the metal would result from the reduction of UF 4

  16. Digitally programmable signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) includes a first memory from which data is written into a second memory formed of n banks. Each bank includes four memories and a multiplexer, the banks being read once during each time frame, the read-out bits being multiplexed and fed out serially in synchronism with a plurality of clock pulses occuring during a time frame. The resulting serial bit streams may be fed in parallel to a digital-to-analog converter. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material, optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range. (author)

  17. R and D on laser uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    An AEC Advisory Committee on Uranium Enrichment has completed investigations into the actual condition of laser isotope separation. The working group set up for the purpose has issued a report on the series of investigations made on its development and measures for promoting it. The report says that the development of the process in Japan is at a fundamental stage. Noting that further efforts are needed before its future can be predicted, the report proposes a cource of research and development for the immediate future. For the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), government organizations are engaged in data base buildup and conducting basis engineering tests, and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute will consider the re-enrichment of uranium recovered from reprocessing. Non-governmental unions of researchers will promote the combination of copper-vapor laser and dye laser. For the molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research will take up studies with the cooperation of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. In chapters covering the philosophy of laser uranium enrichment technology development, the report deals with its significance, actual conditions and tasks, and goals and measures for its promotion. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Two-dimensional PIC-MCC simulation of ion extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jiagui; Wang Dewu

    2000-01-01

    To explore more simple and efficient ion extraction methods used in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), two-dimensional (2D) PIC-MCC simulation code is used to simulate and compare several methods: parallel electrode method, II type electrode method, improved M type electrode method, and radio frequency (RF) resonance method. The simulations show that, the RF resonance method without magnetic field is the best among others, then the improved M type electrode method. The result of simulation of II type electrode method is quite different from that calculated by 2D electron equilibrium model. The RF resonance method with or without magnetic field has guide different results. Strong resonance occurs in the simulation without magnetic field, whereas no significant resonance occurs under weak magnetic field. And that is quite different from the strong resonance phenomena occurring in the 1D PIC simulation with weak magnetic field. As for practical applications, the RF resonance method without magnetic field has pros and cons, compared with the M type electrode method

  19. Separation phenomena in Liquids and Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, P.; Dr Soubbaramayer; Noe, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 1989 Workshop are presented in two volumes: volume 1 contains 4 papers on plasma processes and 7 papers on centrifugation. The papers on plasma processes deal with two main methods: ion cyclotron resonance and rotating plasmas. A survey lecture reviews extensively the physics of the two processes, the published experimental results and includes an abundant bibliography of about 200 references. The 3 other papers communicate original and recent experiments carried out by the authors. The plasma process remains as a possible technology to separate stable isotopes and isotopes of metals located in the middle of the Mendeleev Table. Regarding the stable isotopes, the ion cyclotron resonance might be an alternative to the Calutron process. The sessions on centrifugation include 2 review papers by URENCO authors and 5 specialized communications. The review papers take stock of the centrifuge research and gives the current status of the centrifuge technology in URENCO. The authors say that the centrifugation is presently an established industrial and commercial process ready to enter in competition for any new construction of enrichment capacity. Volume 2 contains the papers on 3 topics: basic studies (11 papers), chemical process (2 papers) and laser processes (7 papers). The papers on basic studies include investigations on rotating flows. A special attention is given to studies on convection flows, driven by acceleration field or (and) capillary forces. The interest of convection is obvious, as it has applications in important fields: the hydrodynamics of liquid uranium in the evaporation crucible of AVLIS Process, the crystal growth experiments on earth or under microgravity conditions (future experiments planned in space-labs) and the welding by electron or photon beams. Two papers are presented on the chemical process and both of them are by French authors. The French CEA has, in the past, developed with success the CHEMEX process. The

  20. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees

  1. AVRAM user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrady, P.W.

    1988-02-01

    This document details the use of the reliability code for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) project. This code was designed by Tom Anklam and John Harris. In late 1984 Patrick McGrady and Elena Koontz of C and TD/TA were assigned the task of improving the code and converting it for use on the DEC-10 system. In early 1986, Patric McGrady converted it to the CRAY. The AVRAM code is divided into distinct parts (often referred to as programs in this document). There is a COSMOS file that controls the execution of the FORTRAN code and controls the naming of output datasets and the deletion of temporary datasets created by the code. The FORTRAN code consists of a main program as a driver and of three main subroutines: EDIT, PARAM, and AVRAM. The EDIT program allows the user to create a new user defined system or add to an existing system or to change certain parameters. The PARAM program allows the user to alter system parameters and to select options such as economics run, criticality analysis or sensitivity studies. The AVRAM program does a reliability analysis of the system

  2. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Congress reconvened on January 23, but most of Washington's January new involves the Administration. DOE sent two letters to USEC customers, awarded a contract for the independent financial review of the enrichment program, and released a plan for demonstrating AVLIS by 1992. A General Accounting Office (GAO) report investigating the impact of imports of Soviet EUP into the US was made public. Both Congress and the administration are reportedly considering a full-scope US-Soviet Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation. Finally, published reports indicate Congress may consider ending the customs user fee which levies a charge of 0.17% on the value of all imported goods. The fee is felt to violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and is not based on recovering actual Customs costs for processing a good. The fee brings the Treasury over $700 million per year, but the business community plans to lobby hard for its outright elimination or a change in authority to collect the fee based on actual costs

  3. Study and discretization of kinetic models and fluid models at low Mach number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellacherie, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    This thesis summarizes our work between 1995 and 2010. It concerns the analysis and the discretization of Fokker-Planck or semi-classical Boltzmann kinetic models and of Euler or Navier-Stokes fluid models at low Mach number. The studied Fokker-Planck equation models the collisions between ions and electrons in a hot plasma, and is here applied to the inertial confinement fusion. The studied semi-classical Boltzmann equations are of two types. The first one models the thermonuclear reaction between a deuterium ion and a tritium ion producing an α particle and a neutron particle, and is also in our case used to describe inertial confinement fusion. The second one (known as the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations) models the transitions between electronic quantified energy levels of uranium and iron atoms in the AVLIS isotopic separation process. The basic properties of these two Boltzmann equations are studied, and, for the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations, a kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm is proposed. This kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm incited us to study the relaxation concept for gas and immiscible fluids mixtures, and to underline connections with classical kinetic theory. Then, a diphasic low Mach number model without acoustic waves is proposed to model the deformation of the interface between two immiscible fluids induced by high heat transfers at low Mach number. In order to increase the accuracy of the results without increasing computational cost, an AMR algorithm is studied on a simplified interface deformation model. These low Mach number studies also incited us to analyse on cartesian meshes the inaccuracy at low Mach number of Godunov schemes. Finally, the LBM algorithm applied to the heat equation is justified

  4. Wavefront correction system based on an equilateral triangular arrangement of actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bergum, J.W.; Kartz, M.W.; Presta, R.W.; Swift, C.D.

    1993-02-01

    Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) requires the copropagation of multiple beams at different wavelengths and at average powers exceeding 1 kW. Although mirror coatings are used that absorb less than one part in 10 5 , the beams still suffer from thermally induced phase distortions, both in the dye amplifiers and in transmissive optics, such as beam combiners and vacuum windows. These aberrations are 2nd-order and 3rd-order and can reach 5 waves peak-to-valley (p-v), which causes the beam to distort and break up when propagated over large distances. The magnitude of the aberrations scales with power, with time constants on the order of 30 seconds. Previous adaptive systems that have been developed corrected these thermally induced phase distortions of both 2nd-order and 3rd-order; however, these systems had limited spatial resolution and in some cases marginal stability. The authors have developed a new adaptive optics system where both the actuators of the deformable mirror and the lenslets of the Hartmann sensor are arranged with centers at the vertices of equilateral triangles. The wavefront sensor is a video Hartmann sensor that also uses an equilateral array of lenslets. The controller hardware uses a VME bus. The design minimizes the generation of reflected wavefronts higher than first order across each lenslet for large excursions of actuators from positions where the mirror is flat and, thus maximizes the precision of the slopes measured by the Hartmann sensor. The design is also immune to the waffle mode that is present in the reconstructors of adaptive optics systems where actuators are arranged in a square array

  5. Innovative lasers for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brake, M.L.; Gilgenbach, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Copper vapor laser have important applications to uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). We have investigated two innovative methods of exciting/pumping copper vapor lasers which have the potential to improve the efficiency and scaling of large laser systems used in uranium isotope separation. Experimental research has focused on the laser discharge kinetics of (1) microwave, and (2) electron beam excitation/pumping of large-volume copper vapor lasers. Microwave resonant cavity produced copper vapor plasmas at 2.45 GHz, have been investigated in three separate experimental configurations. The first examined the application of CW (0-500W) power and was found to be an excellent method for producing an atomic copper vapor from copper chloride. The second used a pulsed (5kW, 0.5--5 kHz) signal superimposed on the CW signal to attempt to produce vaporization, dissociation and excitation to the laser states. Enhanced emission of the optical radiation was observed but power densities were found to be too low to achieve lasing. In a third experiment we attempted to increase the applied power by using a high power magnetron to produce 100 kW of pulsed power. Unfortunately, difficulties with the magnetron power supply were encountered leaving inconclusive results. Detailed modeling of the electromagnetics of the system were found to match the diagnostics results well. An electron beam pumped copper vapor system (350 kV, 1.0 kA, 300 ns) was investigated in three separate copper chloride heating systems, external chamber, externally heated chamber and an internally heated chamber. Since atomic copper spectral lines were not observed, it is assumed that a single pulse accelerator is not capable of both dissociating the copper chloride and exciting atomic copper and a repetitively pulsed electron beam generator is needed

  6. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Innovative lasers for uranium isotope separation. [Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, M.L.; Gilgenbach, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    Copper vapor lasers have important applications to uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). The authors have spent the first two years of their project investigating two innovative methods of exciting/pumping copper vapor lasers which have the potential to improve the efficiency and scaling of large laser systems used in uranium isotope separation. Experimental research has focused on the laser discharge kinetics of (1) microwave, and (2) electron beam excitation/pumping of large-volume copper vapor lasers. During the first year, the experiments have been designed and constructed and initial data has been taken. During the second year these experiments have been diagnosed. Highlights of some of the second year results as well as plans for the future include the following: Microwave resonant cavity produced copper vapor plasmas at 2.45 GHz, have been investigated. A CW (0--500 W) signal heats and vaporizes the copper chloride to provide the atomic copper vapor. A pulsed (5 kW, 0.5--5kHz) signal is added to the incoming CW signal via a hybrid mixer to excite the copper states to the laser levels. An enhancement of the visible radiation has been observed during the pulsed pardon of the signal. Electrical probe measurements have been implemented on the system to verify the results of the electromagnetic model formulated last year. Laser gain measurements have been initiated with the use of a commercial copper vapor laser. Measurements of the spatial profile of the emission are also currently being made. The authors plan to increase the amount of pulsed microwave power to the system by implementing a high power magnetron. A laser cavity will be designed and added to this system.

  8. Development of the physical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zunqi; Morsy, Samir

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Physical Model was developed during Program 93+2 as a technical tool to aid enhanced information analysis and now is an integrated part of the Department's on-going State evaluation process. This paper will describe the concept of the Physical Model, including its objectives, overall structure and the development of indicators with designated strengths, followed by a brief description of using the Physical Model in implementing the enhanced information analysis. The work plan for expansion and update of the Physical Model is also presented at the end of the paper. The development of the Physical Model is an attempt to identify, describe and characterize every known process for carrying out each step necessary for the acquisition of weapons-usable material, i.e., all plausible acquisition paths for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium (Pu). The overall structure of the Physical Model has a multilevel arrangement. It includes at the top level all the main steps (technologies) that may be involved in the nuclear fuel cycle from the source material production up to the acquisition of weapons-usable material, and then beyond the civilian fuel cycle to the development of nuclear explosive devices (weaponization). Each step is logically interconnected with the preceding and/or succeeding steps by nuclear material flows. It contains at its lower levels every known process that is associated with the fuel cycle activities presented at the top level. For example, uranium enrichment is broken down into three branches at the second level, i.e., enrichment of UF 6 , UCl 4 and U-metal respectively; and then further broken down at the third level into nine processes: gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge, aerodynamic, electromagnetic, molecular laser (MLIS), atomic vapor laser (AVLIS), chemical exchange, ion exchange and plasma. Narratives are presented at each level, beginning with a general process description then proceeding with detailed

  9. Nuclear proliferation using laser isotope separation - Verification options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Stanley A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This paper discusses the use of laser isotope separation techniques for the purpose of nuclear proliferation by a Non-Nuclear Weapons State (NNWS) that is a signatory of the Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and is subject to inspections by the IAEA. It includes an analysis of the feasibility of the technique by a NNWS, what conditions are necessary for success, what would be required for either the use of the technique as a covert enrichment method or its use as a non-declared adjunct to a declared enrichment facility, and what signs might be available for the detection of such activity. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology, developed by LLNL from 1973 through 1999, is used as a concrete example to allow more determination of the questions of feasibility, requirements, and signatures, as this technology has been further developed than others, and has been documented extensively. The question of feasibility of the technique for the enrichment of significant quantities of uranium or plutonium to produce weapons-grade materials is investigated by decomposing the development necessary for the technique into steps that can be analyzed for requirements, both in expertise, equipment, and scientific knowledge. The paper concludes that the technique is usable for proliferation, although with difficulty, by some nations during the next two decades. The technique may be developed in a completely covert method, with no declarations and no public indication that it is under research and development, or alternatively, some admissions may be made to allow or promote exchange of information. The technique can be disclosed as a research and development technology for the separation of non-radioactive isotopes, for the separation of radioactive isotopes including those in commercial use for medical or industrial purposes, or as part of a nuclear fuel cycle. The ability to translate development work from the first two of these to a system usable for