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  1. AVLIS industrial access program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures

  2. AVLIS industrial access program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

  3. Physics overview of AVLIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solarz, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) represents the largest-scale potential application of tunable lasers that has received serious attention within the chemical physics community. For over a decade the US Department of Energy has funded an aggressive program in AVLIS at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. After extensive research, the underlying physical principles have been identified and optimized, the major technology components have been developed, and the integrated enrichment performance of the process has been tested under realistic conditions. The central physical processes are outlined, progress to date on the technology elements is reviewed, and scaling laws that can be used to scope out new applications are fomulated. The two primary applications of major interest to the Department of Energy are the production of light-water reactor fuel and the conversion of fuel-grade plutonium to weapons-grade material. In FY 1984 the total AVLIS funding level for these two missions was approximately $150M. In addition to these primary missions, a variety of applications exist that all potentially use a common base of AVLIS technology. These include missions such as the enrichment of mercury isotopes to improve fluorescent lamp efficiency, the enrichment of iodine isotopes for medical isotope use, and the cleanup of strontium from defense waste for recovering strontium isotopes for radio-thermal mechanical generators. We will see that the ability to rapidly assess the economic and technical feasibility of each mission is derived from the general applicability of AVLIS physics and AVLIS technology.

  4. The AVLIS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Vapour Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology provides the potential for stable or declining nuclear fuel costs in the future. This process for uranium enrichment depends on the isotopically selective photoionisation of uranium atoms by lasers. This is illustrated and the three major elements in the required technology (the separator system, the laser system and uranium processing) are explained. The major facility enrichment experiment is the Mars facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the USA. A full-scale separator system is undergoing start-up trials at LLNL. The economic merit of the process is discussed. (UK)

  5. Resonance ionization spectroscopy for AVLIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopic study of three-step resonance photoionization was carried out for atomic gadolinium and uranium. Over 60 high-lying odd-parity states and about 30 autoionizing states were revealed for gadolinium. J-values and radiative lifetimes were determined by the method based on the electric-dipole transition selection rules and by the delayed coincidence method, respectively. Photo-absorption cross-sections were measured by three different methods, and efficient photoionization schemes for AVLIS were determined. (author)

  6. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables

  7. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables

  8. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables.

  9. AVLIS documentation overview and tables of contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three documents constitute the executive summary series in Data Package III: this document (Documentation Overview and Tables of Contents (E001)) plus the AVLIS Production Plant Executive Summary (E010) and the AVLIS Production Plant Overall Design Report (E020). They provide progressively greater detail on the key information and conclusions contained within the data package. The Executive Summary and Overall Design Report present summaries of each Data Package III document. They are intended to provide a global overview of AVLIS Production Plant deployment including program planning, project management, schedules, engineering design, production, operations, capital cost, and operating cost. The purpose of Overview and Tables of Contents is threefold: to briefly review AVLIS goals for Data Package III documentation, to present an overview of the contents of the data package, and to provide a useful guide to information contained in the numerous documents comprising the package

  10. AVLIS production plant project schedule and milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AVLIS Production Plant Deployment Schedule for the engineering, procurement, and construction for both the Initial Increment of Production and the fully Activated Plant, has been developed by the project team consisting of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. with architect-engineer support from Bechtel National, Inc., Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, and Westinghouse Corporation. The initial deployment phase consists of six separators modules and the three laser power amplifier modules consistent with the FY84 reference design with a name plate capacity of 5 million separative work units/yr followed by a full plant activation to approximately 13 million separative work units/yr. The AVLIS Production Plant project team's strategy for deployment schedule analysis focused on three schedule options: engineering limited schedule; authorization limited schedule; and funding limited project schedule. The three deployment schedule options developed by AVLIS project team have been classified in ranges such as an optimistic, rapid/moderate, or moderate/pessimistic based on the probability of meeting the individual schedule option's major milestones or program objectives of enriching uranium by the AVLIS process in an effective cost and schedule manner. 47 figures, 7 tables

  11. Wavefront compensation applied to AVLIS laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of an AVLIS system depends upon the power density and uniformity of the laser system. Because of wavefront aberrations the realized beam quality is not ideal. Wavefront compensation provides a means to improve beam quality and system efficiency. (author)

  12. AVLIS: a technical and economic forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AVLIS process has intrinsically large isotopic selectivity and hence high separative capacity per module. The critical components essential to achieving the high production rates represent a small fraction (approx.10%) of the total capital cost of a production facility, and the reference production designs are based on frequent replacement of these components. The specifications for replacement frequencies in a plant are conservative with respect to our expectations; it is reasonable to expect that, as the plant is operated, the specifications will be exceeded and production costs will continue to fall. Major improvements in separator production rates and laser system efficiencies (approx.power) are expected to occur as a natural evolution in component improvements. With respect to the reference design, such improvements have only marginal economic value, but given the exigencies of moving from engineering demonstration to production operations, we continue to pursue these improvements in order to offset any unforeseen cost increases. Thus, our technical and economic forecasts for the AVLIS process remain very positive. The near-term challenge is to obtain stable funding and a commitment to bring the process to full production conditions within the next five years. If the funding and commitment are not maintained, the team will disperse and the know-how will be lost before it can be translated into production operations. The motivation to preserve the option for low-cost AVLIS SWU production is integrally tied to the motivation to maintain a competitive nuclear option. The US industry can certainly survive without AVLIS, but our tradition as technology leader in the industry will certainly be lost

  13. AVLIS Programme powers ahead in the Unites States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and economic parameters of the technology of nuclear fuel laser enrichment developed according to the AVLIS program are analysed. The new technology is compared with the conventional one using the gas diffusion method and centrifuging

  14. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  15. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables

  16. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work performed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program from January through July, 1992. Each of the tasks assigned during this period is described, and results are presented. Section I details work on sensitivity matrices for the UDS relay telescope. These matrices show which combination of mirror motions may be performed in order to effect certain changes in beam parameters. In Section II, an analysis is given of transmission through a clipping aperture on the launch telescope deformable mirror. Observed large transmission losses could not be simulated in the analysis. An EXCEL spreadsheet program designed for in situ analysis of UDS optical systems is described in Section III. This spreadsheet permits analysis of changes in beam first-order characteristics due to changes in any optical system parameter, simple optimization to predict mirror motions needed to effect a combination of changes in beam parameters, and plotting of a variety of first-order data. Optical systems may be assembled directly from OSSD data. A CODE V nonsequential model of the UDS optical system is described in Section IV. This uses OSSD data to build the UDS model; mirror coordinates may thus be verified. Section V summarizes observations of relay telescope performance. Possible procedures which allow more accurate assessment of relay telescope performance are given

  17. AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

  18. AVLIS [Atomic Vapour Laser Isotope Separation] programme powers ahead in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accomplishments of the AVLIS programme during the past year are described and a development programme initiated by the U.S. designed to lead to a full-scale demonstration of AVLIS by 1992. A possible early deployment option involving the enrichment of reprocessed uranium (REPU) is also examined. (U.K.)

  19. Economic assessment model architecture for AGC/AVLIS selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic assessment model architecture described provides the flexibility and completeness in economic analysis that the selection between AGC and AVLIS demands. Process models which are technology-specific will provide the first-order responses of process performance and cost to variations in process parameters. The economics models can be used to test the impacts of alternative deployment scenarios for a technology. Enterprise models provide global figures of merit for evaluating the DOE perspective on the uranium enrichment enterprise, and business analysis models compute the financial parameters from the private investor's viewpoint

  20. Integration of the AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotopic separation) process into the nuclear fuel cycle. [Effect of AVLIS feed requirements on overall fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrove, R.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Eby, R.S.; Pashley, J.H.; Norman, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    AVLIS RD and D efforts are currently proceeding toward full-scale integrated enrichment demonstrations in the late 1980's and potential plant deployment in the mid 1990's. Since AVLIS requires a uranium metal feed and produces an enriched uranium metal product, some change in current uranium processing practices are necessitated. AVLIS could operate with a UF/sub 6/-in UF/sub 6/-out interface with little effect to the remainder of the fuel cycle. This path, however, does not allow electric utility customers to realize the full potential of low cost AVLIS enrichment. Several alternative processing methods have been identified and evaluated which appear to provide opportunities to make substantial cost savings in the overall fuel cycle. These alternatives involve varying levels of RD and D resources, calendar time, and technical risk to implement and provide these cost reduction opportunities. Both feed conversion contracts and fuel fabricator contracts are long-term entities. Because of these factors, it is not too early to start planning and making decisions on the most advantageous options so that AVLIS can be integrated cost effectively into the fuel cycle. This should offer economic opportunity to all parties involved including DOE, utilities, feed converters, and fuel fabricators. 10 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The application of laser two-way depletion model in AVLIS for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changjiang Yu [The Institution of Physics and Chemistry Engineering in Nuclear Industry, Tianjin (China); Min Yan; Dewu Wang; Chuntong Ying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1996-12-31

    We propose a two-way depletion model to be applied in AVLIS, and the problem of small isotope shifts is avoided. The higher selectivity and lower waste composition can be obtained disregarding the power broadening effect. This model makes the product and waste compositions ({sup C} p and {sup C} w) of AVLIS satisfy the requirements {sup c} p > 3.5%, {sup C} w < 0.25 easily. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Integration of the AVLIS [atomic vapor laser isotopic separation] process into the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AVLIS RD and D efforts are currently proceeding toward full-scale integrated enrichment demonstrations in the late 1980's and potential plant deployment in the mid 1990's. Since AVLIS requires a uranium metal feed and produces an enriched uranium metal product, some change in current uranium processing practices are necessitated. AVLIS could operate with a UF6-in UF6-out interface with little effect to the remainder of the fuel cycle. This path, however, does not allow electric utility customers to realize the full potential of low cost AVLIS enrichment. Several alternative processing methods have been identified and evaluated which appear to provide opportunities to make substantial cost savings in the overall fuel cycle. These alternatives involve varying levels of RD and D resources, calendar time, and technical risk to implement and provide these cost reduction opportunities. Both feed conversion contracts and fuel fabricator contracts are long-term entities. Because of these factors, it is not too early to start planning and making decisions on the most advantageous options so that AVLIS can be integrated cost effectively into the fuel cycle. This should offer economic opportunity to all parties involved including DOE, utilities, feed converters, and fuel fabricators. 10 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Appendix B, AVLIS Program: Statement of work May 1, 1994 through July 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is preparing decisions regarding it's future Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) deployment options, this interim three month plan (through July 31, 1994) is intended to maintain the USEC options for the ultimate deployment of AVLIS technology for enriching uranium, gadolinium (Gd) and possibly erbium (Er). This plan addresses the key activities leading to such commercial deployment while recognizing current, significant funding limitations. The goal of this three month plan is to provide support to the USEC business assessment; assure that facilities, equipment and other property remain functional and retain value; and achieve maximum progress on critical tasks required for future AVLIS deployment if the USEC decides to proceed. This proposed plan continues activities (through July 31, 1994) that could lead to an overall plan for deployment of a uranium and a Gd/Er enrichment facility. This Statement of Work (SOW) is directed toward preserving the technical capabilities and core staff of the AVLIS Program while minimizing program costs and maintaining options for the USEC pending a decision on the future course of direction for the AVLIS Program. The specific activities described in this SOW are: (1) maintenance and surveillance of those AVLIS facilities not required for near-term operations; (2) preparation for future photoionization; (3) long lead preparation for future operations; (4) provide support, as requested by the USEC, for development of strategies and market entry plans for enriched uranium, gadolinium, and possibly erbium; (5) provide support, as requested, for the USEC Advanced Technology Business Evaluation; and (6) continue uranium processing and fuel cycle integration activities

  4. Application of direct simulation Monte Carlo method for analysis of AVLIS evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computation code of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was developed in order to analyze the atomic vapor evaporation in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). The atomic excitation temperatures of gadolinium atom were calculated for the model with five low lying states. Calculation results were compared with the experiments obtained by laser absorption spectroscopy. Two types of DSMC simulations which were different in inelastic collision procedure were carried out. It was concluded that the energy transfer was forbidden unless the total energy of the colliding atoms exceeds a threshold value. (author)

  5. U-AVLIS feed conversion using continuous metallothermic reduction of UF4: System description and cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to present a system description and develop baseline capital and operating cost estimates for commercial facilities which produced U-Fe feedstock for AVLIS enrichment plants using the continuous fluoride reduction (CFR) process. These costs can then be used together with appropriate economic assumptions to calculate estimated unit costs to the AVLIS plant owner (or utility customer) for such conversion services. Six cases are being examined. All cases assume that the conversion services are performed by a private company at a commercial site which has an existing NRC license to possess source material and which has existing uranium processing operations. The cases differ in terms of annual production capacity and whether the new process system is installed in a new building or in an existing building on the site. The six cases are summarized here

  6. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF6. Milestone U361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF6 production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF6 Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF6 production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF4, (3) fluorination of UF4 to UF6, (4) cold trap collection of the UF6 product, (5) UF6 purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF6 in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF6 production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF6 production

  7. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs

  9. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  10. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs

  11. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3

  12. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  13. Development of AVLIS dye laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CVL pumped single mode dye laser was performed. It was found that pressure tuning has some excellent feature in comparison to mechanical tuning in dye laser frequency control. For evaluation of dye laser amplifier, two-dimensional rate equation was proposed. Calculated data by this equation agreed with experimental data in large diameter input dye laser beam condition. (author)

  14. Science, technology, and the industrialization of laser driven processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (U-AVLIS) process under joint development by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Martin Marietta Engineering Systems, Inc. is currently performing commercial scale tests of its enrichment technologies. The U-AVLIS process morphology, i.e., the relationship between the underlying physics and the process technologies that bear on engineering costs, is discussed

  15. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  16. Safeguards implications of laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to describe and emphasise the safeguards and relevant features of atomic vapour laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS), and to consider the issues that must be addressed before a safeguards approach at a commercial AVLIS or MLIS facility can be implemented. (Author)

  17. Laser separation of uranium chosen for scaleup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) has been selected by the Department of Energy to go into large-scale engineering development and demonstration over two other advanced technologies, molecular laser isotope separation and plasma separation. DOE will continue to support development of another uranium enrichment technology, gas centrifugation. By or around 1990, the most promising gas centrifuge technique will be compared to the further developed AVLIS process, and a selection will be made between the two to replace the current technology, gaseous diffusion. The AVLIS process, plasma separation, and molecular laser isotope separation use the elective absorption of radiation of a particular energy level by the 235U isotope. The plasma separation process selectively energizes 235U by ion cyclotron resonance. The AVLIS and molecular laser isotope separation processes both use a carefully tuned laser to excite 235U isotope selectively. In the AVLIS process, uranium metal feed material is melted and vaporized to form an atomic uranium vapor stream. When this vapor stream passes through the beam of copper vapor lasers, the 235U atoms absorb the light and become ionized. These ionized atoms are collected by electromagnetic fields while the neutral 238U atoms pass through the magnetic field and are collected as tailings. The AVLIS process has the potential for significantly reducing the cost of enriching uranium. The status of dvelopment, cost, advantages and drawbacks of the five processes, (gaseous diffusion, gas centrifugation, AVLIS, molecular laser separation, plasma separation) are discussed

  18. Laser separation of uranium chosen for scaleup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) has been selected by the Department of Energy to go into large-scale engineering development and demonstration over two other advanced technologies, molecular laser isotope separation and plasma separation. DOE will continue to support development of another uranium enrichment technology, gas centrifugation. By or around 1990, the most promising gas centrifuge technique will be compared to the further developed AVLIS process, and a selection will be made between the two to replace the current technology, gaseous diffusion. The AVLIS process, plasma separation, and molecular laser isotope separation use the selective absorption of radiation of a particular energy level by the 235U isotope. The plasma separation process selectively energizes 235U by ion cyclotron resonance. The AVLIS and molecular laser isotope separation processes both use a carefully tuned laser to excite 235U isotope selectively. In the AVLIS process, uranium metal feed material is melted and vaporized to from an atomic uranium vapor stream. When this vapor stream passes through the beam of copper vapor lasers, the 235U atoms absorb the light and become ionized. These ionized atoms are collected by electromagnetic fields while the neutral 238U atoms pass through the magnetic field and are collected as tailings. The AVLIS process has the potential for significantly reducing the cost of enriching uranium. The status of development, cost, advantages and drawbacks of the five processes (gaseous diffusion, gas centrifugation, AVLIS, molecular laser separation, plasma separation) are discussed

  19. Applications of Copper Vapour Lasers in science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific applications of tunable lasers pumped by Copper Vapour Lasers include AVLIS, RIMS, atmospheric OH detection and laser guide stars. Industrial applications include high speed photography and micromachining. (author)

  20. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation using resonance ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1985, the Department of Energy announced the selection of atomic vapor laser isotope separation [AVLIS] as the technology to meet the United States' future need for enriched uranium. Resonance photoionization is the heart of the AVLIS process. The authors discuss those fundamental atomic parameters that are necessary for describing isotope-selective resonant multistep photoionization along with the measurement techniques employed. The methodology adopted is illustrated with examples of other elements that are under study in the program. (author)

  1. Research on metal atom evaporation with 2-D steady flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the evaporation is one of crucial technology in AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotopic separation). The research work on physical parameters of atomic vapor in separation region such as the 2-D distributions of velocity, density and temperature provides some important scientific data for designing separator in AVLIS engineering. The distribution of density, velocity and temperature is presented and some related interpretations for them are also given on the basis of BGK equation, when many absorbing boards are considered

  2. Ukotvljena intramedularna osteosinteza prijeloma donjih ektremiteta u OB Karlovac

    OpenAIRE

    Korać, Želimir; Božić, Nenad - Božo; Bakota, Bore; Janković, Andrija; Grbačić, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Autori analiziraju primjenu ukotvljenih intramedularnih implantata (dugi i kratki Gamma II Stryker čavao, femoralni ukotvljeni S2 Stryker čavao i tibijalni ukotvljeni S2 Stryker čavao). U razdoblju analize od četiri i pol godine ugradili su 183 Gamma čavla, 42 femoralna čavla i 37 tibijalnih čavala. Gamma čavli ugrađeni su kod znatno starijih pacijenata (prosječno 68,2 godine) nego femoralni (38,8 godina) i tibijalni čavli (37,1 godina). Analizirana je dužina hospitalizacije, način primjene i...

  3. Laser Programs Highlights 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, H.; Cassady, C.

    1999-12-01

    This report covers the following topics: Commentary; Laser Programs; Inertial Confinement Fusion/National Ignition Facility (ICF/NIF); Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS); Laser Science and Technology (LS&T); Information Science and Technology Program (IS&T); Strategic Materials Applications Program (SMAP); Medical Technology Program (MTP) and Awards.

  4. THE SPECTROSCOPY OF URANIUM ATOM WITHIN THE "SILVA" PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Avril, R.; Ebrardt, J.; Petit, A.; Viala, F.; Vors, E.

    1987-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (SILVA) has been recognized as beeing an attractive powerful technique for the enrichment of uranium for light water reactor fuel. Since the heart of the AVLIS process is based on selective multistep photoionization of an uranium atomic vapor stream, the development of this process in France, has stimulated intensive studies in the field of uranium spectroscopy.

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation program: laser technology and demonstration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a large-scale process for photophysically enriching isotopes of several elements. The program now deploys plant prototypical hardware to demonstrate this enrichment process at full scale. The Laser Demonstration Facility, a fully integrated laser system has been constructed and when complete will produce more than 5000 W of tunable average power at a pulse repetition frequency >10 kHz. In AVLIS, an atomic vapor of mixed isotopes is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to photoionize only desired isotopes. The resulting electrically charged photoions are deflected in an electric field to collector (or extractor) plates where they condense as enriched products. The AVLIS laser system consists of a series of high-average-power dye lasers optically pumped by an array of copper lasers. The dye lasers are used to do the three-step photoionization process. These lasers are well suited for the AVLIS process for both technical and economic reasons. They provide the precise narrowband (<100-MHz), short-pulse (<100-nsec), high-average-power, high-repetition-frequency laser light required by the atomic spectroscopy and vapor flow properties. Equally important, the capital and operating costs of this laser system in its present state of development are consistent with a commercially viable process deployment

  6. Nondestructive evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H.E.

    1997-02-01

    Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

  7. Laser dye technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  8. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Griebenow, B.L.; Wade, M.A.

    1990-07-25

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples.

  9. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples

  10. Effect of magnetic field on selectivity of three-step photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of magnetic field on selectivity by linearly polarized lasers was analyzed by formulating the density matrix equations. To investigate the effect of magnetic field on the selectivity of AVLIS, we proposed a general Hamiltonian for multilevel atomic system in magnetic field. The population dynamics of magnetic sublevels have been observed by solving the Liouville equation. Mixing between magnetic sublevels was observed in each state during the laser excitations when the magnetic field perpendicular to the quantization axis was applied to the atomic system. The magnetic field dependence on ionization rate of even isotopes was also discussed. In the magnetic field dependence, two ionization peaks were appeared because of the interference between Rabi and Larmor frequency during the ionization process. The permissible intensities of magnetic field were predicted to obtain enough selectivity for the target isotopes of zirconium and gadolinium in the AVLIS process based on the polarization selection rule

  11. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized

  12. Closely spaced mirror pair for reshaping and homogenizing pump beams in laser amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channeling a laser beam by multiple reflections between two closely-spaced, parallel or nearly parallel mirrors, serves to reshape and homogenize the beam at the output gap between the mirrors. Application of this device to improve the spatial overlap of a copper laser pump beam with the signal beam in a dye laser amplifier is described. This technique has been applied to the AVLIS program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  13. Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handren, R. T.

    1993-03-01

    Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest was the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility was built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a greater than 90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities (approximately 3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory's safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

  14. Report of the Energy Research Advisory Board study group on advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panel reviewed Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) technology and Advanced Gas Centrifuge (AGC) programs in the context of potential needs and costs for uranium enrichment. The benefit of a successful AIS or AGC program would be a substantial reduction in enrichment costs below those of current centrifuge plants or below the power cost alone for gaseous diffusion plants. This report attempts to provide firm guidance for the next 2 to 3 years, at which time a further evaluation should guide decisions in regard to enrichment supply and development choices. On the basis of our perception of the long-term economic benefits of a successful AIS development, we support the continued pursuit of this option. In the interim, major requirements for enrichment must be satisfied. We assume that DOE will develop a firm funding plan for gaseous diffusion operations and power contracting to assure that the necessary supply of power will be available to meet the separative work commitments of the US enrichment enterprise. We recommend that the AIS program office further identify the key technical uncertainties of the various programs, thereby establishing the basis for near-term R and D leading to a decision whether and when to proceed with full-scale development. We believe that a stronger atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) program would result from a consolidation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Jersey Nuclear Avco Isotopes (JNAI) teams, leading to a more competitive AVLIS process. Hence, we recommend that DOE attempt to negotiate with JNAI to form a single, integrated, government-funded AVLIS program with appropriate elements of LLNL, JNAI and UCC-ND. We further recommend that JNAI be designated as lead laboratory in this program. We recommend that the DOE: continue with the first 2.2 million SWU increment of the gas centrifuge program, and continue the Advanced Gas Centrifuge development program, with high priority

  15. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  16. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  17. Mathematical model of isotope-selective laser excitation of long-lived levels of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method of laser isotope separation base on monophoton selective excitation of long-lived states of atoms could be classified as a new one. Taking zinc and rubidium as an example it is shown that long-lived excited states of atoms could effectively chemically react with a number of molecules, whereas basic states of atoms react weakly. In contrast to AVLIS the method is based on the use of one wavelength. This method does not require collimation of flow of atoms and electric extraction. The method uses Doppler contour property. This property resides in that frequency tuning increasing simultaneously from all the isotopes excitation selectivity rises

  18. Optical Design Capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, J K

    2002-12-30

    Optical design capabilities continue to play the same strong role at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that they have played in the past. From defense applications to the solid-state laser programs to the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), members of the optical design group played critical roles in producing effective system designs and are actively continuing this tradition. This talk will explain the role optical design plays at LLNL, outline current capabilities and summarize a few activities in which the optical design team has been recently participating.

  19. Some energy levels, which can be used in atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the bibliographical data concerning energy levels, isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting constants of the following elements were collected: Fe, Ca, Nd, Eu, Dy, La, Pb, Sm, Ba, Ti, Ta, Mg, V, Zr, Pu, Na, K, Li, Tc, Ni, Ag, Sn, Bk, Am, Np, Th. This Database is very useful for AVLIS and can help by choosing the equipment for atomic vapor laser isotope separation. Wavelength, waveform and bandwidth of the used laser are determined by this data. The properties of the vaporizer, separation chamber, and collection system are influenced by this data. This database is also necessary for calculations of the excitation selectivity. (author)

  20. Science, technology, and the industrialization of laser-driven processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Members of the laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) reviewed potential applications of lasers in industry, some of which are: isotope separation; cleanup of radioactive waste; trace impurity removal; selective chemical reactions; photochemical activation or dissociation of gases; control of combustion particulates; crystal and powder chemistry; and laser induced biochemistry. Many of these areas are currently under active study in the community. The investigation at LLNL focused on laser isotope separation of atomic uranium because of the large demand (> 1000 tonnes/year) and high product enrichment price (> $600/kg of product) for material used as fuel in commercial light-water nuclear power reactors. They also believed that once the technology was fully developed and deployed, it could be applied directly to separating many elements economically on an industrial scale. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program at LLNL has an extensive uranium and plutonium program of >$100 M in FY85 and a minor research program for other elements. This report describes the AVLIS program conducted covering the following topics; candidate elements; separative work units; spectroscopic selectivety; major systems; facilities; integrated process model;multivariable sensitivety studies; world market; and US enrichment enterprise. 23 figs. (AT)

  1. Resumption of surrogate testing in the Engineering Demonstration System at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineering Demonstration System (EDS) is an existing equipment system within the Plutonium Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) designed to test the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process for application to the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) program. The proposed action is to resume testing with members of the family of rare-earth metals in the EDS. The purpose of these tests is to train operators, verify operations procedures and obtain information on the engineering design, operational reliability, and separative performance capability of the integrated system hardware. The information to be provided by the EDS tests with the rare-earth metals is needed for engineering and operability evaluation of the prototype AVLIS separator hardware in an integrated system configuration. These evaluations are necessary to demonstrate the technology to the maximum extent possible, short of actual validation with plutonium. The EDS tests to be performed would use single and multiple separator units. Testing would be intermittent in nature, typically consisting of one to two tests per month, with durations ranging from approximately 10 to 200 h. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Special isotope separation project, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction and operation of a Special Isotope Separation (SIS) project using the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process technology at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho are proposed. The SIS project would process fuel-grade plutonium administered by the Department of Energy (DOE) into weapon-grade plutonium using AVLIS and supporting chemical processes. The SIS project would require construction and operation of a Laser Support Facility to house the laser system and a Plutonium Processing Facility. The SIS project would be integrated with existing support and waste management facilities at the selected site. The SIS project would provide DOE with the capability of segregating the isotopes of DOE-owned plutonium into specific isotopic concentrations. This capability would provide redundancy in production capacity, technological diversity, and flexibility in DOE's production of nuclear materials for national defense. Use of the INEL site would impact 151,350 square meters (37.4 acres) of land, of which more than 70% has been previously disturbed. During construction, plant and animal habitat associated with a sagebrush vegetation community would be lost. During operation of the SIS facilities, unavoidable radiation exposures would include occupational exposures and exposures to the public from normal atmospheric releases of radioactive materials that would be minimal compared to natural background radiation

  3. Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report, September 1, 1980-July 1, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobe, L.E.E. (ed.)

    1982-12-01

    Activities are reported by the Reactor Systems Section, Research Instrument Section, and the Measurement and Controls Engineering Section. Reactor system activities include dynamic analysis, survillanc and diagnostic methods, design and evaluation, detectors, facilities support, process instrumentation development, and special assignments. Activities in the Research Instrument Section include the Navy-ORNL RADIAC development program, advanced ..gamma.. and x ray detector systems, neutron detection and subcriticality measurements, circuit development, position-sensitive detectors, stand-alone computers, environmental monitoring-detectors and systems, plant security, engineering support for fusion energy division, engineering support for accelerator physics, and communications: radio, closed-circuit tv, and computer. Activities in the Measurement and Controls Engineering Section include the AVLIS program; gas centrifuge enrichment technology support; Advanced Instrumentation for Reflood Studies (AIDRS) program; instrumentation development support for fuel reprocessing; in-core experiments and reactor systems; energy, conservation, and electric power systems; computer systems; measurements research; and fossil energy studies Publications are listed. (WHK)

  4. Comments on proposed legislation to restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book focuses on H.R.145, H.R.788, and S.210. Each of the proposed bills would restructure DOE's enrichment program as a government corporation with private financing and would encourage the eventual sale of the corporation to the private sector. In doing so, the bills would, among other things, allow the corporation to set prices to maximize long-term returns; establish a fund to meet the costs of decontamination, decommissioning, and other environmental cleanup costs associated with uranium enrichment activities; transfer interest in DOE's new atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process to the new corporation; and, except for H.R. 145, require the government to pay its share of the costs to clean up mill tailings (mining wastes) generated under government contracts

  5. AEC determines uranium enrichment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advisory Committee on Uranium Enrichment of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has submitted a report to AEC chairman concerning the promotion of the introduction of advanced material, high performance centrifuges to replace conventional metallic drum centrifuges, and the development of next generation advanced centrifuges. The report also called for the postponement until around 1997 of the decision whether the development should be continued or not on atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) processes, as well as the virtual freezing of the construction of a chemical process demonstration plant. The report was approved by the AEC chairman in August. The uranium enrichment service market in the world will continue to be characterized by oversupply. The domestic situation of uranium enrichment supply-demand trend, progress of the expansion of Rokkasho enrichment plant, the trend in the development of gas centrifuge process and the basic philosophy of commercializing domestic uranium enrichment are reported. (K.I.)

  6. 6. All-Russian (international) scientific conference. Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules. Program of conference and summary of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The materials of the 6. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 1-5 October, 2001. The reports are discussed in the sections: 1)Isotopes in nuclear energetics and fundamental physics; 2)Selection in the field of centrifugal forces; 3)Laser systems for the AVLIS technology, isotope separation by ICR- and electromagnetic methods; 4)Production of radioisotopes, creation of radiopharmacological preparations and their application in medicine; 5)Laser separation of atoms and molecules; 6)Separation of molecules by rectification and chemical isotopic exchange methods. A broad spectrum of the points on the current status in selection of atoms and molecules, optimization and lowering the price of the production are discussed

  7. PSP Program close out documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andringa, K.; Hootman, H.E.; Ferrara, A.S.; Smith, P.K.; Congdon, J.W.; Randolph, H.W.; Young, R.H.; Driggers, F.E.; Topp, S.V.

    1985-12-31

    In December 1982 DOE-SR directed SRL to study the feasibility and impact of a program to lower the U-236 content of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) stockpile used as fuel for the SRP reactors. In response to this request SRL assessed four technologies, Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS), Gas Centrifuge, and the Plasma Separation Process (PSP) for this purpose with the assistance of the Engineering Department. In April 1983 cost/benefit analyses for these processes, high spot cost estimates for production facilities, and process uncertainties were submitted to DOE-SR with a recommendation to proceed with the conceptual design and supporting development programs for a facility based on the use of the PSP process. The current program status for the PSP development program at SRL and the design and documentation of a production facility at SRP, referred to as the Fuel Improvement Demonstration Facility (FIDF), is described in this report.

  8. Laser programs highlights 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Over the last two decades, the scope of our laser research has grown immensely. The small, low-power laser systems of our early days have given way to laser systems of record-breaking size and power. Now we are focusing our activities within the target physics and laser science programs to support the ignition and gain goals of the proposed glass-laser National Ignition Facility. In our laser isotope separation work, we completed the most important set of experiments in the history of the AVLIS Program in 1993, which culminated in a spectacularly successful run that met or exceeded all our objectives. We are also developing lasers and laser-related technologies for a variety of energy, commercial, and defense uses. On the horizon are transfers of important technologies for waste treatment, x-ray lithography, communications and security, optical imaging, and remote sensing, among others.

  9. Expansion by the introduction of new technology in a market characterized by overcapacity - the success of Urenco centrifuge technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urenco has successfully developed and deployed centrifuge technology for the enrichment of uranium in a period during which the market changed from a situation of 'threatened undersupply' in the 1970s to one of significant overcapacity. Five generations of centrifuges have been developed, introducing new materials as they became available. The sixth generation of centrifuge currently under development for deployment at the end of the century will be more than twice as fast and an order of magnitude longer than respectively the slowest and shortest pilot plant centrifuges, with an output approaching 50 times higher than that in the pilot plant. Plant operation has exceeded both design lifetimes and failure rates. Urenco has concluded that the economics of this sixth-generation centrifuge are better than any forseeable first generation AVLIS technology and thus, in Urenco's view the centrifuge represents the low risk, proven economic choice for the replacement of GDPs when this becomes necessary. (orig.)

  10. Results of calculations of isotope-selective laser excitation of long-lived levels of zinc atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of mathematical model of laser isotope-selective excitation of long-lived atoms numerical calculations were conducted for zinc atoms. These atoms are characterized by small shifts between lines of different isotopes (600700 MHz), while the method are particularly effective in the case of big shifts. In spite of that due to relative simplicity of the method in comparison with AVLIS it is used for zinc isotope separation. The method is effective in the case of excitation of atom long-lived level. In this case in the interval between radiation impulses at the account of chemical reaction with some molecules atoms in this state could be removed. Calculation results show efficiency of burning out of those isotopes, which lines are nearest to radiation line

  11. A utility perspective on new technologies and new suppliers in a new market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this point in time, the stalled growth in the U.S. nuclear industry is leading to contractions in the nuclear supply base. Uranium mines have closed down, or sold out to larger mining companies, or merged. U.S. fuel fabricators have teamed up with counterparts in Europe Service companies and reactor manufacturers are also merging, both in the U.S. and Europe. With the stalled growth in nuclear, the large, primary producers are no longer able to continuously expand the SWU price, as DOE did, with Congress' support up through the early eighties. Against this industry trend, it is gratifying to see the several examples of entrepreneurship in the enrichment industry. Several of these efforts are represented by my colleagues on this panel today. New technologies: CRISLA, AVLIS, and SILVA are being developed. New models of older technologies are being deployed: LES and the Japanese centrifuge projects

  12. Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report, September 1, 1980-July 1, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities are reported by the Reactor Systems Section, Research Instrument Section, and the Measurement and Controls Engineering Section. Reactor system activities include dynamic analysis, survillanc and diagnostic methods, design and evaluation, detectors, facilities support, process instrumentation development, and special assignments. Activities in the Research Instrument Section include the Navy-ORNL RADIAC development program, advanced #betta# and x ray detector systems, neutron detection and subcriticality measurements, circuit development, position-sensitive detectors, stand-alone computers, environmental monitoring-detectors and systems, plant security, engineering support for fusion energy division, engineering support for accelerator physics, and communications: radio, closed-circuit tv, and computer. Activities in the Measurement and Controls Engineering Section include the AVLIS program; gas centrifuge enrichment technology support; Advanced Instrumentation for Reflood Studies (AIDRS) program; instrumentation development support for fuel reprocessing; in-core experiments and reactor systems; energy, conservation, and electric power systems; computer systems; measurements research; and fossil energy studies Publications are listed

  13. A Privacy - Learning Objects Identity System for Smartphones Based on a Virtual Learning Environment Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeThanhHieu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are widely used today, with many features such as GPS map navigation, capturingphotos with camera equipment such as digital camera, internet connection via wifi or 3G devices thatfunction as computers. These devices are being used for various purposes including online learning, wherelearners can study from anywhere and anytime for example in the street, home, office and school. However,identifing a method by which teachers in these virtural environements can remember their learners “faces”in the classroom or manage "Identification Number Student" (ID student or user is not reliable when theteacher cannot see all of the learners in the class or know who is online from a particular account. In thispaper, we propose a system, Android Virtual Learner Identify (AVLI, which collects images captured bythe face of the learning object directly from the camera, the location of the learner by identifing where thelearner is studying and configuration of information including Time, Mac, IP addresses, IMEI number andlocation via GPS. The systen then saves learner profiles to help the teacher or education managers on theVirtual Learning Environment (VLE identify learning object. We used the VLE that we built onmobile.ona.vn domain. We implemented the AVLI prototype Android phone with solution passwordencryption and images taken directly from the camera to ensure that the information is transmitted andstored securely in the Virtual Learning Environment System Database (VLE Data of learning objects whilepreserving the ability to identify learning objects by a teacher or education manager.In addition, we solve the problem of image size on a smartphone device by compressing images.We demonstrate our solution which is secure enough to prevent fraud of the learner as well as thetransmission of data from the client device to the server with three layers of protection by taking imagesdirectly from the camera, converting images from string and encoding

  14. The copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program has developed a high-average-power, pulsed, tunable, visible laser system. Testing of this hardware is in progress at industrial scale. The LLNL copper-dye laser system is prototypical of a basic module of a uranium-AVLIS plant. The laser demonstration facility (LDF) system consists of copper vapor lasers arranged in oscillator-amplifier chains providing optical pump power to dye-laser master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains. This system is capable of thousands of watts (average) tunable between 550 and 650 mm. The copper laser system at LLNL consists of 12 chains operating continuously. The copper lasers operate at nominally 4.4 kHz, with 50 ns pulse widths and produce 20 W at near the diffraction limit from oscillators and >250 W from each amplifier. Chains consist of an oscillator and three amplifiers and produce >750 W average, with availabilities >95% (i.e., >8,300 h/y). The total copper laser system power averages ∼9,000 W and has operated at over 10,000 W for extended intervals. The 12 copper laser beams are multiplexed and delivered to the dye laser system where they pump multiple dye laser chains. Each dye chain consists of a master oscillator and three or four power amplifiers. The master oscillator operates at nominally 100 mW with a 50 MHz single mode bandwidth. Amplifiers are designed to efficiently amplify the dye beam with low ASE content and high optical quality. Sustained dye chain powers are up to 1,400 W with dye conversion efficiency >50%, ASE content <5%, and wavefront quality correctable to <λ/10 RMS, using deformable mirrors. Since the timing of the copper laser chains can be offset, the dye laser system is capable of repetition rates which are multiples of 4.4 kHz, up to 26 kHz, limited by the dye pumping system. Development of plant-scale copper and dye laser hardware is progressing in off-line facilities

  15. EDS operator and control software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to acquire, display and analyze large quantities of transient data for a real-time Advanced Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) experiment. Major topics discussed in this paper are the EDS operator interface (SHELL) program, the data acquisition and analysis scheduling software, and the graphics software. The workstation concept used in EDS, the software used to configure a user's workstation, and the ownership and management of a diagnostic are described. An EDS diagnostic is a combination of hardware and software designed to study specific aspects of the process. Overall system performance is discussed from the standpoint of scheduling techniques, evaluation tools, optimization techniques, and program-to-program communication methods. EDS is based on a data driven design which keeps the need to modify software to a minimum. This design requires a fast and reliable data base management system. A third party data base management product, Berkeley Software System Database, written explicitly for HP1000's, is used for all EDS data bases. All graphics is done with an in-house graphics product, Device Independent Graphics Library (DIGLIB). Examples of devices supported by DIGLIB are: Versatec printer/plotters, Raster Technologies Graphic Display Controllers, and HP terminals (HP264x and HP262x). The benefits derived by using HP hardware and software as well as obstacles imposed by the HP environment are presented in relation to EDS development and implementation

  16. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main effort in the field of Isotopic Separation Research and Development in France is devoted since 1985 to the 'SILVA' process. A structured organization has been set up, including the following elements: Specific Research and Development for all the functions and components of the process: this work is supported by numerous benches located in Saclay and Pierrelatte. Each bench is mainly devoted to one process function; regarding process and operating performances are optimized. Integrated Experiences in a Pilot facility. Qualified components are integrated in a pilot facility located in Saclay, the capacity of which is steadily increased. At each stage, complete separative experiments demonstrate the improvements attained. Focused Basic Research for each field, often linked with various and relatively original phenomenas. Models have been built up, supported by specific experiments and values attained for intrinsical parameters. An aggregated process performance computing code integrates all the models, possibly under simplified form. Technical, operating and economical data are gradually added. A general assessment will take place in the middle of the nineties with several technical demonstrations and a complete evaluation of the French AVLIS process

  17. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congress reconvened on January 23, but most of Washington's January new involves the Administration. DOE sent two letters to USEC customers, awarded a contract for the independent financial review of the enrichment program, and released a plan for demonstrating AVLIS by 1992. A General Accounting Office (GAO) report investigating the impact of imports of Soviet EUP into the US was made public. Both Congress and the administration are reportedly considering a full-scope US-Soviet Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation. Finally, published reports indicate Congress may consider ending the customs user fee which levies a charge of 0.17% on the value of all imported goods. The fee is felt to violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and is not based on recovering actual Customs costs for processing a good. The fee brings the Treasury over $700 million per year, but the business community plans to lobby hard for its outright elimination or a change in authority to collect the fee based on actual costs

  18. Analysis of thermal effects of high average power Nd:YAG laser as a pump laser of wavelength tunable laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For AVLIS (Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation), high average power frequency tunable laser is required to excite and ionize 235U. To realize such a tunable laser, a pump laser with high pulse repetition rate and high average power is inevitable. A copper vapor laser was thought to be a pump laser and had been developed. However, it is thought that all solid state Nd:YAG laser, pumped by laser diode array can reduce separation energy because of its high efficiency. And high average power Nd:YAG laser has been developing. In a laser crystal of such Nd:YAG laser, a part of pumping energy is converted to thermal energy, and thermal gradient is generated. As a result, thermal stress is caused and the effects of thermal lensing and depolarization of laser radiation are generated. These effects decrease output power and deteriorate laser beam quality. Therefore, analysis of thermal characteristics of laser crystal is carried out for laser crystals with the pulse repetition rate of around 2 kHz. As a result, a prospect of realizing high average power Nd:YAG is obtained. (author)

  19. Efficient mass-selective three-photon ionization of zirconium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an AVLIS process, 91Zr is selectively removed from natural zirconium by a three-step photoionization wherein Zr atoms are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength λ1, selectively raising 91Zr atoms to an odd-parity E1 energy level in the range of 16000-19000 cm-1, are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength λ2 to raise the atoms from an E1 level to an even-parity E2 energy level in the range of 35000-37000 cm-1, and are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength λ3 to cause a resonant transition of atoms from an E2 level to an autoionizing level above 53506 cm-1. λ3 wavelengths of 5607, 6511 or 5756 A will excite a zirconium atom from an E2 energy state of 36344 cm-1 to an autoionizing level; a λ3 wavelength of 5666 A will cause an autoionizing transition from an E2 level of 36068 cm-1; and a λ3 wavelength of 5662 A will cause an ionizing resonance of an atom at an E2 level of 35904 cm-1. (author)

  20. Uranium enrichment using laser and plasma separation - an analysis focussing on export control; Urananrikning med laser och plasmaseparation - en analys med fokus paa exportkontroll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Wilhelmsen, Katarina; Wirstam, Jens (Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, has under contract work financed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, performed a study on uranium enrichment by laser-based processes and plasma separation. None of these processes are at present used on an industrial scale for uranium enrichment. However, these are processes of high efficiency which implicates that plants employing any of these processes for production of fissile material for nuclear weapons can be small in size and easily hidden. This has also been the case for laser enrichment. Special emphasis has been put on the understanding of the governing physical principles of the different processes. In the report the AVLIS and MLIS processes are described in some detail while CRISLA and SILEX are treated in less detail. The plasma separation process is described in a separate section. Limiting physical parameters for the different processes are discussed and equipment relevant to the different technologies is described. Further, some indicators of the different processes are identified and listed. In the final chapter known research programs where these processes have been used are listed. Since none of the described technologies has been used on an industrial scale, information on plant design and running is scarce

  1. Laser Programs, the first 25 years, 1972-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.M.

    1998-03-04

    Welcome to Laser Programs. I am pleased that you can share in the excitement of 25 years of history since we began as a small program of 125 people to our current status as a world premier laser and applied science research team of over 1700 members. It is fitting that this program, which was founded on the dream of developing inertial confinement fusion technology, should celebrate this anniversary the same year that the ground is broken for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Also at the same time, we are feeling the excitement of moving forward the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology toward private sector use and developing many alternate scientific applications and technologies derived from our core programs. It is through the hard work of many dedicated scientists, engineers, technicians, and administrative team members that we have been able to accomplish the remarkable internationally recognized achievements highlighted here. I hope this brochure will help you enjoy the opportunity to share in the celebration and pride of our scientific accomplishments; state-of-the-art facilities; and diligent, dedicated people that together make our Laser Programs and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the best in the world.

  2. World enrichment services market 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth in world enrichment capacity, already in oversupply, will lead to a very competitive enrichment services market by the second half of the 1990s. Three of the four primary enrichment suppliers (USDOE, Eurodif, and Urenco) already have the capacity to produce 33 million SWU per year. Explorts from the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China (PRC) currently make available an additional six million SWU per year, and that figure could rise substantially. With additional supply capability expected from China, the Soviet Union, Louisiana Energy Services (LES) and Isotope Technologies (ITI), and the increased capacity of Urenco, and possibly even AVLIS from DOE, enrichment supply capability could exceed 46 million SWU per year by the year 2000. Yet annual enrichment requirements are only estimated to grow from 23.5 million SWU in 1990, to 28.9 million SWU by 2000. Total unfilled enrichment requirements will rise significantly in the second half of the 1990s, particularly from US utilities, creating sales opportunities for which suppliers will compete aggressively. These factors foretell a very competitive market in which sellers will offer low prices and flexible contracts. The anticipation of such strong competition also raises the question of which enrichment technology will succeed, and puts tremendous pressure on all suppliers to find cost-effective means of production as quickly as possible

  3. Separation phenomena in Liquids and Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings of the 1989 Workshop are presented in two volumes: volume 1 contains 4 papers on plasma processes and 7 papers on centrifugation. The papers on plasma processes deal with two main methods: ion cyclotron resonance and rotating plasmas. A survey lecture reviews extensively the physics of the two processes, the published experimental results and includes an abundant bibliography of about 200 references. The 3 other papers communicate original and recent experiments carried out by the authors. The plasma process remains as a possible technology to separate stable isotopes and isotopes of metals located in the middle of the Mendeleev Table. Regarding the stable isotopes, the ion cyclotron resonance might be an alternative to the Calutron process. The sessions on centrifugation include 2 review papers by URENCO authors and 5 specialized communications. The review papers take stock of the centrifuge research and gives the current status of the centrifuge technology in URENCO. The authors say that the centrifugation is presently an established industrial and commercial process ready to enter in competition for any new construction of enrichment capacity. Volume 2 contains the papers on 3 topics: basic studies (11 papers), chemical process (2 papers) and laser processes (7 papers). The papers on basic studies include investigations on rotating flows. A special attention is given to studies on convection flows, driven by acceleration field or (and) capillary forces. The interest of convection is obvious, as it has applications in important fields: the hydrodynamics of liquid uranium in the evaporation crucible of AVLIS Process, the crystal growth experiments on earth or under microgravity conditions (future experiments planned in space-labs) and the welding by electron or photon beams. Two papers are presented on the chemical process and both of them are by French authors. The French CEA has, in the past, developed with success the CHEMEX process. The

  4. Separation phenomena in Liquids and Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvet, P.; Dr Soubbaramayer [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Lasers et de la Physico-Chimie, DESICP/DLPC/SPP, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Noe, P

    1989-07-01

    The Proceedings of the 1989 Workshop are presented in two volumes: volume 1 contains 4 papers on plasma processes and 7 papers on centrifugation. The papers on plasma processes deal with two main methods: ion cyclotron resonance and rotating plasmas. A survey lecture reviews extensively the physics of the two processes, the published experimental results and includes an abundant bibliography of about 200 references. The 3 other papers communicate original and recent experiments carried out by the authors. The plasma process remains as a possible technology to separate stable isotopes and isotopes of metals located in the middle of the Mendeleev Table. Regarding the stable isotopes, the ion cyclotron resonance might be an alternative to the Calutron process. The sessions on centrifugation include 2 review papers by URENCO authors and 5 specialized communications. The review papers take stock of the centrifuge research and gives the current status of the centrifuge technology in URENCO. The authors say that the centrifugation is presently an established industrial and commercial process ready to enter in competition for any new construction of enrichment capacity. Volume 2 contains the papers on 3 topics: basic studies (11 papers), chemical process (2 papers) and laser processes (7 papers). The papers on basic studies include investigations on rotating flows. A special attention is given to studies on convection flows, driven by acceleration field or (and) capillary forces. The interest of convection is obvious, as it has applications in important fields: the hydrodynamics of liquid uranium in the evaporation crucible of AVLIS Process, the crystal growth experiments on earth or under microgravity conditions (future experiments planned in space-labs) and the welding by electron or photon beams. Two papers are presented on the chemical process and both of them are by French authors. The French CEA has, in the past, developed with success the CHEMEX process. The

  5. Laser Programs, the first 25 years, 1972-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welcome to Laser Programs. I am pleased that you can share in the excitement of 25 years of history since we began as a small program of 125 people to our current status as a world premier laser and applied science research team of over 1700 members. It is fitting that this program, which was founded on the dream of developing inertial confinement fusion technology, should celebrate this anniversary the same year that the ground is broken for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Also at the same time, we are feeling the excitement of moving forward the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology toward private sector use and developing many alternate scientific applications and technologies derived from our core programs. It is through the hard work of many dedicated scientists, engineers, technicians, and administrative team members that we have been able to accomplish the remarkable internationally recognized achievements highlighted here. I hope this brochure will help you enjoy the opportunity to share in the celebration and pride of our scientific accomplishments; state-of-the-art facilities; and diligent, dedicated people that together make our Laser Programs and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the best in the world

  6. Digitally programmable signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) includes a first memory from which data is written into a second memory formed of n banks. Each bank includes four memories and a multiplexer, the banks being read once during each time frame, the read-out bits being multiplexed and fed out serially in synchronism with a plurality of clock pulses occuring during a time frame. The resulting serial bit streams may be fed in parallel to a digital-to-analog converter. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material, optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range. (author)

  7. Uranium enrichment using laser and plasma separation - an analysis focussing on export control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, has under contract work financed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, performed a study on uranium enrichment by laser-based processes and plasma separation. None of these processes are at present used on an industrial scale for uranium enrichment. However, these are processes of high efficiency which implicates that plants employing any of these processes for production of fissile material for nuclear weapons can be small in size and easily hidden. This has also been the case for laser enrichment. Special emphasis has been put on the understanding of the governing physical principles of the different processes. In the report the AVLIS and MLIS processes are described in some detail while CRISLA and SILEX are treated in less detail. The plasma separation process is described in a separate section. Limiting physical parameters for the different processes are discussed and equipment relevant to the different technologies is described. Further, some indicators of the different processes are identified and listed. In the final chapter known research programs where these processes have been used are listed. Since none of the described technologies has been used on an industrial scale, information on plant design and running is scarce

  8. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees

  9. Efficient mass-selective three-photon ionization of zirconium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.

    1994-01-01

    In an AVLIS process, .sup.91 Zr is selectively removed from natural zirconium by a three-step photoionization wherein Zr atoms are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.1, selectively raising .sup.91 Zr atoms to an odd-parity E.sub.1 energy level in the range of 16000-19000 cm.sup.-1, are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 to raise the atoms from an E.sub.l level to an even-parity E.sub.2 energy level in the range of 35000-37000 cm.sup.-1 and are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.3 to cause a resonant transition of atoms from an E.sub.2 level to an autoionizing level above 53506 cm.sup.-1. .lambda..sub.3 wavelengths of 5607, 6511 or 5756 .ANG. will excite a zirconium atom from an E.sub.2 energy state of 36344 cm.sup.-1 to an autoionizing level; a .lambda..sub.3 wavelength of 5666 .ANG. will cause an autoionizing transition from an E.sub.2 level of 36068 cm.sup.-1 ; and a .lambda. .sub.3 wavelength of 5662 .ANG. will cause an ionizing resonance of an atom at an E.sub.2 level of 35904 cm.sup.-1.

  10. An externally heated copper vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed Copper Vapour Laser (CVL), with a nominal 6 kHz repetition rate, was designed, build, and commissioned at Chalk River laboratories. The laser was required for Resonant Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) experiments and for projects associated with Atomic Vapour laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) studies. For the laser to operate, copper coupons position along the length of a ceramic tube must be heated sufficiently to create an appropriate vapour pressure. The AECL CVL uses an external heater element with a unique design to raise the temperature of the tube. The Cylindrical graphite heating element is shaped to compensate for the large radiation end losses of the laser tube. The use of an external heater saves the expensive high-current-voltage switching device from heating the laser tube, as in most commercial lasers. This feature is especially important given the intermittent usage typical of experimental research. As well, the heater enables better parametric control of the laser output when studying the lasing of copper (or other) vapour. This report outlines the lasing process in copper vapour, describes in detail all three major laser sub-systems: the laser body; the laser tube heater; the high voltage pulsed discharge; and, reports parametric measurements of the individual sub-systems and the laser system as a whole. Also included are normal operating procedures to heat up, run and shut down the laser

  11. Study and discretization of kinetic models and fluid models at low Mach number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis summarizes our work between 1995 and 2010. It concerns the analysis and the discretization of Fokker-Planck or semi-classical Boltzmann kinetic models and of Euler or Navier-Stokes fluid models at low Mach number. The studied Fokker-Planck equation models the collisions between ions and electrons in a hot plasma, and is here applied to the inertial confinement fusion. The studied semi-classical Boltzmann equations are of two types. The first one models the thermonuclear reaction between a deuterium ion and a tritium ion producing an α particle and a neutron particle, and is also in our case used to describe inertial confinement fusion. The second one (known as the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations) models the transitions between electronic quantified energy levels of uranium and iron atoms in the AVLIS isotopic separation process. The basic properties of these two Boltzmann equations are studied, and, for the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations, a kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm is proposed. This kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm incited us to study the relaxation concept for gas and immiscible fluids mixtures, and to underline connections with classical kinetic theory. Then, a diphasic low Mach number model without acoustic waves is proposed to model the deformation of the interface between two immiscible fluids induced by high heat transfers at low Mach number. In order to increase the accuracy of the results without increasing computational cost, an AMR algorithm is studied on a simplified interface deformation model. These low Mach number studies also incited us to analyse on cartesian meshes the inaccuracy at low Mach number of Godunov schemes. Finally, the LBM algorithm applied to the heat equation is justified

  12. Innovative lasers for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper vapor lasers have important applications to uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). The authors have spent the first year of the project investigating two innovative methods of exciting/pumping copper vapor lasers which have the potential to improve the efficiency and scaling of large laser systems used in uranium isotope separation. Experimental research has focused on the laser discharge kinetics of (1) microwave and (2) electron beam excitation/pumping of large-volume copper vapor lasers. During the first year, the experiments have been designed and constructed and initial data has been taken. Highlights of some of the first year results as well as plans for the future include the following: Microwave resonant cavity produced copper vapor plasmas at 2.45 GHz, both pulsed (5 kW, 5kHz) and CW (0--500 Watts) have been investigated using heated copper chloride as the copper source. The visible emitted light has been observed and intense lines at 510.6 nm and 578.2 nm have been observed. Initial measurements of the electric field strengths have been taken with probes, the plasma volume has been measured with optical techniques, and the power has been measured with power meters. A self-consistent electromagnetic model of the cavity/plasma system which uses the above data as input shows that the copper plasma has skin depths around 100 cm, densities around 1012 number-sign/cc, collisional frequencies around 1011/sec., conductivities around 0.15 (Ohm-meter)-1. A simple model of the heat transfer predicts temperatures of ∼900 K. All of these parameters indicate that microwave discharges may be well suited as a pump source for copper lasers. These preliminary studies will be continued during the second year with additional diagnostics added to the system to verify the model results. Chemical kinetics of the system will also be added to the model

  13. Diagnosis of occlusion site in the left anterior descending coronary artery in patients with anterior myocardial infarction. Comparison of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead electrocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xinchun; Imai, Kamon; Saito, Satoshi; Ozawa, Yukio; Kan-matuse, Katuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    To evaluate whether the site of occlusion/stenosis in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) could be diagnosed by noninvasive techniques, thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy (TMS), 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG), and coronary arteriography were performed in 33 patients with anterior acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The subjects were divided into two groups according to the location of stenosis: ie, either proximal to the first diagonal branch (PRO, n=18), or beyond the first diagonal branch (NON-PRO, n=15). The location of the anterior interventricular groove was defined as 0 degrees. The extent of persistent perfusion defect was greater in the PRO group than in the NON-PRO group (0.43{+-}0.12 vs 0.31{+-}0.14, p<0.01). The left margin of the defect in the basal short-axis layer was at 75{+-}30deg in the PRO group and at -19{+-}43deg in the NON-PRO group (p<0.001). A defect with a left margin at >30deg in the basal layer was found in 94% (17/18) of the patients in the PRO group and in 6% (1/15) of the patients in the NON-PRO group (p<0.001). An abnormal Q wave in leads aVL/I was found in 78% (14/18) of the patients in the PRO group and in 20% (3/15) of the patients in the NON-PRO group (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and total predictive accuracy of detection of proximal lesions of the LAD were 94%, 93% and 94% by TMS, and 78%, 80% and 79% by ECG, respectively. A significant difference in accuracy existed between TMS and ECG (p<0.05). These data suggest that it is possible to diagnose the site of occlusion/stenosis of the LAD as either proximal or non-proximal in patients with anterior AMI by TMS and ECG. (author).

  14. Modelling of the laser beam propagation in the Silva project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text of publication follows. The AVLIS process is a general process for converting a feed stream into a product stream in which a selected set of isotopes has been enriched or depleted by a laser beam. At CEA (French atomic energy commission), the process has been applied to the enrichment of uranium for light water nuclear reactor fuel and designed as the SILVA Project. This process is based on the selective multistep photoionization of the uranium vapour stream. The uranium vapor is produced by an electron bombardment and expands upwards in vacuum. Tunable laser frequencies are generated in a dye laser system that is pumped by copper vapor lasers. The laser light illuminates the atomic vapor near the surface of an ion extractor. Ions of the resonant isotope (235) are then extracted and separated from neutrals (mainly composed of 238 isotope). For modelling a large scale situation, it is necessary to take into account the propagation of laser beams into a vapor composed of two isotopes: 238U (99,3%) and 235U (0,7%). This laser beam propagation takes place over a kilometer range in these conditions. The presence of the non resonant isotope (238 isotope) can induce some important change in the characteristics of the laser beam during the propagation. Spatial, temporal, and spectral effects are expected and can be observed. The resolution of Schroedinger and Maxwell equations with classical explicit numerical schemes leads to a prohibitive calculation time. An original code (PRODIGE) with optimized numerical schemes and parallelization technique has been developed in order to describe accurately the SILVA situation. This code is able to perform a propagation calculation over a kilometer range with a 60 h calculation time and 256 processors on the TERA computer. (authors)

  15. Nuclear Proliferation Using Laser Isotope Separation -- Verification Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, S A

    2001-10-15

    -related procedures will need to be adapted to keep up with them. In order to make 93+2 inspections more useful, a systematic way of finding clues to nuclear proliferation would be useful. Also, to cope with the possible use of newer technology for proliferation, the list of clues might need to be expanded. This paper discusses the development and recognition of such clues. It concentrates on laser isotope separation (LIS) as a new proliferation technology, and uses Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) as an example of LIS that is well known.

  16. Survey on isotope effects and separation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    technique by G.C. for kilogram production of germanium, chromium, zinc or tungsten isotopes. For the near future, repercussions of laser research may occur in stable isotope production. Laser multistep AVLIS is a selective process developed for the nuclear fuel. Besides enriching 235 U or depleting 242 Pu it may succeed as a powerful process for the separation of rare-earth absorbers, such as 157 Gd or 167 Er. G.C. could hardly be applied to the f-elements given that the volatility of the possible feed (diketonate) is very low. Ion Cyclotron Resonance could be a challenger if active research were resumed. Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) has shown high separation factor and yield capacity, for several light species like boron tribromine, halogenated hydrocarbons, or silicon halides. Infrared tuning flexibility with a free electron-laser is a prerequisite to industrial developments. Single photon dissociation with ultraviolet wavelength was proven to be an efficient way to produce 13 C from formaldehyde: enrichment factors higher than 35 have been reached at Saclay. (authors)

  17. Nuclear proliferation using laser isotope separation - Verification options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper discusses the use of laser isotope separation techniques for the purpose of nuclear proliferation by a Non-Nuclear Weapons State (NNWS) that is a signatory of the Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and is subject to inspections by the IAEA. It includes an analysis of the feasibility of the technique by a NNWS, what conditions are necessary for success, what would be required for either the use of the technique as a covert enrichment method or its use as a non-declared adjunct to a declared enrichment facility, and what signs might be available for the detection of such activity. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology, developed by LLNL from 1973 through 1999, is used as a concrete example to allow more determination of the questions of feasibility, requirements, and signatures, as this technology has been further developed than others, and has been documented extensively. The question of feasibility of the technique for the enrichment of significant quantities of uranium or plutonium to produce weapons-grade materials is investigated by decomposing the development necessary for the technique into steps that can be analyzed for requirements, both in expertise, equipment, and scientific knowledge. The paper concludes that the technique is usable for proliferation, although with difficulty, by some nations during the next two decades. The technique may be developed in a completely covert method, with no declarations and no public indication that it is under research and development, or alternatively, some admissions may be made to allow or promote exchange of information. The technique can be disclosed as a research and development technology for the separation of non-radioactive isotopes, for the separation of radioactive isotopes including those in commercial use for medical or industrial purposes, or as part of a nuclear fuel cycle. The ability to translate development work from the first two of these to a system usable for