WorldWideScience

Sample records for avium subespecie avium

  1. Lama glama con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis causadas por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium Lama glama with signology and lesion compatible with paratuberculosis and injuries caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los camélidos sudamericanos (CS incluyen cuatro especies, guanaco, vicuña, alpaca y llama (Lama glama. En Argentina las llamas eran consideradas fauna y actualmente ganado, revalorizando su carne, fibra, cueros y pieles, también son un medio de subsistencia. Los CS son susceptibles a las enfermedades ocasionadas por micobacterias. El diagnóstico presuntivo se realiza por los signos clínicos y los hallazgos de necropsia y se confirma por técnicas bacteriológicas, moleculares e histopatología. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un caso clínico con signos compatibles de paratuberculosis y el diagnóstico de laboratorio en una llama en cautiverio perteneciente a un zoológico de Olavarría, Provincia de Buenos Aires. En la necropsia se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en yeyuno, íleon y linfonodos mesentéricos compatibles con paratuberculosis, en los frotis directos y en la histopatología se observaron bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en cluster. Se confirmó la presencia de Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium por bacteriología y por PCR fue detectada la IS1245 característica de este agente, no detectando la IS900 correspondiente a Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico, combinando técnicas, de un caso de enteritis granulomatosa en llamas causado por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis.Guanaco, vicuña, alpaca and llama (Lama glama are also known as Sudamerican camelids (SC. In Argentina llama was considered non profitable wildlife specie but now it is considered a mean for surviving because their meat, wool, leather and skin is valuable. SC are susceptible hosts of mycobacterial infections. A presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical and necropsy findings and is confirmed with bacterial isolation, molecular identification and histopathology. The objective of this publication is to describe a clinical

  2. Evasión molecular de la activación del macrófago bovino por Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    René Ramírez G.; Juan Maldonado E.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENEl Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis (MAP) es el agente causal de una enfermedad granulomatosica crónica, que afecta el tracto gastrointestinal de rumiantes domesticos y salvajes, conocida como la enfermedad de Johne o paratuberculosis. MAP es un microorganismo de crecimiento lento en cultivo, no obstante sobrevive in vivo en células fagocíticas mononucleares de los rumiantes, bajo condiciones de susceptibilidad individual, virulencia de la cepa infectante y estado inmune...

  3. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO I KNOW ... THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused by common ...

  4. Disinfectant Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Robert Henry

    1998-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium, an opportunistic human pathogen, infects between 25 and 50% of advanced-stage acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in the United States. M. avium has been isolated from many environmental sources including: natural waters, soils, and aerosols. M. avium has also been recovered from within municipal and hospital drinking water systems. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected with the simian HIV analog, SIV, have been shown to acquire M. avium infections...

  5. Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa) is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC). Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of...

  6. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and subsp. hominissuis give different cytokine responses after in vitro stimulation of human blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Thegerström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium is the principal etiologic agent of non-tuberculous lymphadenitis in children. It is also a known pathogen for birds and other animals. Genetic typing of M. avium isolates has led to a proposal to expand the set of subspecies to include M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Isolates associated with disease in humans belong to this subspecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six healthy blood donors were stimulated in vitro with ten isolates of M. avium avium and 11 isolates of M. avium hominissuis followed by multiplex bead array quantification of cytokines in supernatants. M. avium hominissuis isolates induced significantly more IL-10 and significantly less IL-12p70, TNF, IFN-γ and IL-17 when compared to M. avium avium isolates. All strains induced high levels of IL-17, but had very low levels of IL-12p70. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The strong association between M. avium subsp. hominissuis and disease in humans and the clear differences in the human immune response to M. avium subsp. hominissuis compared to M. avium subsp. avium isolates, as demonstrated in this study, suggest that genetic differences between M. avium isolates play an important role in the pathogenicity in humans.

  7. Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Goepfert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC. Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves.

  8. Genome-wide sequence variations among Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AdelMTalaat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap, the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD, infects many farmed ruminants, wildlife animals and humans. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we analyzed the whole genome sequences of several M. ap and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium strains isolated from various hosts and environments. Using Next-generation sequencing technology, all 6 M. ap isolates showed a high percentage of homology (98% to the reference genome sequence of M. ap K-10 isolated from cattle. However, 2 M. avium isolates (DT 78 and Env 77 showed significant sequence diversity from the reference strain M. avium 104. The genomes of M. avium isolates DT 78 and Env 77 exhibited only 87% and 40% homology, respectively, to the M. avium 104 reference genome. Within the M. ap isolates, genomic rearrangements (insertions/deletions, Indels were not detected, and only unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were observed among the 6 M. ap strains. While most of the SNPs (~100 in M. ap genomes were non-synonymous, a total of ~ 6000 SNPs were detected among M. avium genomes, most of them were synonymous suggesting a differential selective pressure between M. ap and M. avium isolates. In addition, SNPs-based phylo-genomic analysis showed that isolates from goat and Oryx are closely related to the cattle (K-10 strain while the human isolate (M. ap 4B is closely related to the environmental strains, indicating environmental source to human infections. Overall, SNPs were the most common variations among M. ap isolates while SNPs in addition to Indels were prevalent among M. avium isolates. Genomic variations will be useful in designing host-specific markers for the analysis of mycobacterial evolution and for developing novel diagnostics directed against Johne’s disease in animals.

  9. Mycobacterium avium infection improved by microbial substitution of fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in β-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium.

  10. Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.

  11. Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivangi Verma; Prashant Dabral; Vinod Rana; Kumud Upadhaya; Bhardwaj

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.

  12. A Subinhibitory Concentration of Clarithromycin Inhibits Mycobacterium avium Biofilm Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, George; Young, Lowell S.; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium causes disseminated infection in immunosuppressed individuals and lung infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. M. avium forms biofilm in the environment and possibly in human airways. Antibiotics with activity against the bacterium could inhibit biofilm formation. Clarithromycin inhibits biofilm formation but has no activity against established biofilm.

  13. Avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in four ornamental birds and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin. PMID:26904899

  14. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Robert H.; Joseph O. Falkinham; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains wer...

  15. Bordetella avium Antibiotic Resistance, Novel Enrichment Culture, and Antigenic Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Nathan M; Thompson, Seth; Mutnick, Rachel; Brown, Lisa; Kettig, Gina; Puffenbarger, Robyn; Miyamoto, David; Temple, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Bordetella avium continues to be an economic issue in the turkey industry as the causative agent of bordetellosis, which often leads to serious secondary infections. This study presents a broad characterization of the antibiotic resistance patterns in this diverse collection of B. avium strains collected over the past thirty years. In addition, the plasmid basis for the antibiotic resistance was characterized. The antibiotic resistance pattern allowed the development of a novel enrichment cul...

  16. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.

  17. Hemolysin as a Virulence Factor for Systemic Infection with Isolates of Mycobacterium avium Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Maslow, Joel N.; Dawson, David; Carlin, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    Isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex were examined for hemolysin expression. Only invasive isolates of M. avium were observed to be hemolytic (P < 0.001), with activity the greatest for isolates of serovars 4 and 8. Thus, M. avium hemolysin appears to represent a virulence factor necessary for invasive disease.

  18. Hemolysin as a Virulence Factor for Systemic Infection with Isolates of Mycobacterium avium Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N.; Dawson, David; Carlin, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    Isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex were examined for hemolysin expression. Only invasive isolates of M. avium were observed to be hemolytic (P < 0.001), with activity the greatest for isolates of serovars 4 and 8. Thus, M. avium hemolysin appears to represent a virulence factor necessary for invasive disease. PMID:9889239

  19. Bordetella avium antibiotic resistance, novel enrichment culture, and antigenic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Nathan M; Thompson, Seth; Mutnick, Rachel; Brown, Lisa; Kettig, Gina; Puffenbarger, Robyn; Stockwell, Stephanie B; Miyamoto, David; Temple, Louise

    2012-11-01

    Bordetella avium continues to be an economic issue in the turkey industry as the causative agent of bordetellosis, which often leads to serious secondary infections. This study presents a broad characterization of the antibiotic resistance patterns in this diverse collection of B. avium strains collected over the past thirty years. In addition, the plasmid basis for the antibiotic resistance was characterized. The antibiotic resistance pattern allowed the development of a novel enrichment culture method that was subsequently employed to gather new isolates from diseased turkeys and a healthy sawhet owl. While a healthy turkey flock was shown to seroconvert by four weeks-of-age, attempts to culture B. avium from healthy turkey poults were unsuccessful. Western blot of B. avium strains using pooled serum from diseased and healthy commercial turkey flocks revealed both antigenic similarities and differences between strains. In sum, the work documents the continued exposure of commercial turkey flocks to B. avium and the need for development of an effective, inexpensive vaccine to control spread of the disease. PMID:22721730

  20. Molecular characterization of Spanish Prunus avium plus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernandez-Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The Breeding Program of wild cherry (Prunus avium developed by Lourizán Forest Research Center (NW Spain, aims for the creation of the Main Breeding Population, that is formed by a large number of plus trees and for obtaining an Elite Population generated from controlled crosses of a number of plus trees selected by, at least, one trait of economic importance. The aim of this study was to genotype 131 accessions of Prunus avium plus trees, included in the breeding program.Area of study: The Prunus avium plus trees are located in the North, Northwest and Central Spain.Material and Methods: The Prunus avium plus trees were genotyped with nine microsatellites. Several genetic parameters were calculated. Genetic data were analyzed with STRUCTURE and the genetic distance between the plus trees were calculated.Main results: A total of 122 multilocus genotypes were detected. Several accessions with the same genotype were identified, which could be due to clonality or to labelling errors. The nine microsatellites are useful for identifying individuals because the combined probability of identity was low (PI = 5.19X10-9. Bayesian methods detected two genetic clusters in the sampled plus trees.Research highlights: The unique genotypes identified in this work are suitable for being included in the elite breeding population for economic traits.Keywords: Prunus avium; breeding program; microsatellite; genetic distance.

  1. Genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from naturally infected lofts of domestic pigeons in Ahvaz by IS901 RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Parvandar Asadollahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds.Mycobacterium avium can not only infect all species of birds, but also infect some domesticated mammals.The most crucial aspect of control and eradication scheme is identification of infection sources and transmission routs. Mo- lecular techniques such as restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulse field gel electrophoresis have been shown to be much more discriminatory and suitable for use in the epidemiological study.Materials and Methods: Eighty suspected pigeons to avian tuberculosis based on their clinical signs, were subjected to the study. Forty Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates out of a total of 51 identified isolates were subjected to the test.Results: IS901-RFLP using Pvu II was successfully conducted and produced 7 patterns. The majority of isolates (60% were RFLP type PI.1. This type was the most similar type to standard strain. However, all the patterns obtained in this study were different from the standard strain.Conclusion: The result of this study indicate that these isolates probably are limited to Khuzestan region. We recommend DNA fingerprinting differentiation of non tuberculous Mycobacteria particularly Mycobacterium avium complex isolated from infected birds and human to possibly find source of infections. Keywords: Mycobacterium avium, RFLP, polymorphism, avian tuberculosis

  2. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides, is provided for prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis....

  3. Molecular characterization of Spanish Prunus avium plus trees

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Fernandez-Cruz; Josefa Fernandez-Lopez; Maria Eugenia Miranda-Fontaiña; Raquel Diaz; Gabriel Toval

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study: The Breeding Program of wild cherry (Prunus avium) developed by Lourizán Forest Research Center (NW Spain), aims for the creation of the Main Breeding Population, that is formed by a large number of plus trees and for obtaining an Elite Population generated from controlled crosses of a number of plus trees selected by, at least, one trait of economic importance. The aim of this study was to genotype 131 accessions of Prunus avium plus trees, included in the breeding program....

  4. Molecular analysis and MIRU-VNTR typing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, 'hominissuis' and silvaticum strains of veterinary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Csivincsik, Ágnes; Dán, Ádám; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-06-01

    Besides Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), M. avium subsp. avium (MAA), M. avium subsp. silvaticum (MAS), and 'M. avium subsp. hominissuis' (MAH) are equally important members of M. avium complex, with worldwide distribution and zoonotic potential. Genotypic discrimination is a prerequisite to epidemiological studies which can facilitate disease prevention through revealing infection sources and transmission routes. The primary aim of this study was to identify the genetic diversity within 135 MAA, 62 MAS, and 84 MAH strains isolated from wild and domestic mammals, reptiles and birds. Strains were tested for the presence of large sequence polymorphism LSP(A)17 and were submitted to Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis at 8 loci, including MIRU1, 2, 3, and 4, VNTR25, 32, and 259, and MATR9. In 12 strains hsp65 sequence code type was also determined. LSP(A)17 was present only in 19.9% of the strains. All LSP(A)17 positive strains belonged to subspecies MAH. The discriminatory power of the MIRU-VNTR loci set used reached 0.9228. Altogether 54 different genotypes were detected. Within MAH, MAA, and MAS strains 33, 16, and 5 different genotypes were observed. The described genotypes were not restricted to geographic regions or host species, but proved to be subspecies specific. Our knowledge about MAS is limited due to isolation and identification difficulties. This is the first study including a large number of MAS field strains. Our results demonstrate the high diversity of MAH and MAA strains and the relative uniformity of MAS strains. PMID:26964909

  5. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, immunology and pathology of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...

  6. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium distribution studied in a naturally infected hen flock and in the environment by culture, serotyping and IS901 RFLP methods

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium distribution studied in a naturally infected hen flock and in the environment by culture, serotyping and IS901 RFLP methods CZECH REPUBLIC (Shitaye, J.E.) CZECH REPUBLIC Received: 2006-11-01 Revised: 2007-07-25 Accepted: 2007-07-27

  7. Polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infections in patients with AIDS: variations in antimicrobial susceptibilities of different strains of M. avium isolated from the same patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reyn, C F; Jacobs, N J; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J N; Niemczyk, S

    1995-01-01

    Broth microdilution MICs were determined for pairs of strains isolated from five AIDS patients with polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infection. Four (80%) of the five patients were infected simultaneously with strains having different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. These findings have implications for the interpretation of susceptibility data in M. avium prophylaxis and treatment trials. PMID:7790424

  8. Polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infections in patients with AIDS: variations in antimicrobial susceptibilities of different strains of M. avium isolated from the same patient.

    OpenAIRE

    von Reyn, C F; Jacobs, N J; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J.N.; Niemczyk, S

    1995-01-01

    Broth microdilution MICs were determined for pairs of strains isolated from five AIDS patients with polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infection. Four (80%) of the five patients were infected simultaneously with strains having different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. These findings have implications for the interpretation of susceptibility data in M. avium prophylaxis and treatment trials.

  9. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Against the Outer Membrane Protein of Bordetella avium

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guanhua; Liang, Manfei; Zuo, Xuemei; Zhao, Xue; Guo, Fanxia; Yang, Shifa; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella avium is the etiologic agent of coryza and rhinotracheitis in poultry. This respiratory disease is responsible for substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B. avium isolated from diseased chickens. BALB/c mice were immunized with the extracted B. avium OMPs. Then the splenocytes from immunized mice and SP2/0 myeloma cells were fused using PEG 4000. Three stable hybridoma clones (des...

  10. Mycobacterium Avium Arthritis with Extra-articular Abscess in a Patient with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Choong Won; Sung, Han Dong; Choi, Byong Moon; Kim, Chun Wook; Jun, Su Jin; Min, Sang Jo

    2003-01-01

    A case of Mycobacterium avium arthritis in a 39-year-old female patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) was reported. An extra-articular abscess had formed outside the knee joint and extended down the calf. A culture was taken of the abscess and synovial fluid disclosed Mycobacteriun avium. This was resistant to most anti-tuberculosis agents. A combination of anti-tuberculosis drugs followed a total resection of the abscess. We concluded that M avium septic arthritis could insidio...

  11. Putative in vitro expressed gene fragments unique to Mycobacterium avium subspecies para tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard; Ahrens, Peter

    2002-01-01

    By a suppression subtractive hybridization based method, nine novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. para tuberculosis (M. para tuberculosis) fragments of between 318 and 596 bp have been identified and characterized. Database search revealed little or no similarity with other mycobacteria. The...... uniqueness and diagnostic potential of seven of these fragments in relation to M. paratuberculosis closest relative Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (M. avium) was confirmed by species-specific PCR and Southern blot. Furthermore, RT-PCR indicated that eight of the nine fragments originate from areas of the...

  12. Cloning and Characterization of CYP51 from Mycobacterium avium

    OpenAIRE

    Pietila, Michael P.; Vohra, Pawan K.; Sanyal, Bharati; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Thomas, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) causes chronic lung disease in immunocompetent people and disseminated infection in patients with AIDS. MAC is intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimycobacterial agents, it develops drug resistance rapidly to macrolide antibiotics, and patients with MAC infection experience frequent relapses or the inability to completely eradicate the infection with current treatment. Treatment regimens are prolonged and complicated by drug toxicity or intoleranc...

  13. Mycobacterium avium complex enteritis in HIV-infected patient

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Ishikane; Junko Tanuma

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The ...

  14. Characterization of IS1245 for Strain Typing of Mycobacterium avium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel-Caron, Martine; Arbeit, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    IS1245 is an insertion element widely prevalent among isolates of Mycobacterium avium. We used PvuII Southern blots to analyze IS1245 polymorphisms among 159 M. avium isolates (141 clinical isolates from 40 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients plus 18 epidemiologically related environmental isolates) that represented 40 distinct M. avium strains, as resolved by previous studies by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All 40 strains carried DNA homologous to IS1245 and thus were typeable. Twenty-five (63%) strains had ≥10 copies of the element, 6 (15%) had 4 to 9 copies, and 9 (23%) had only 1 to 3 copies. Among the last group of nine strains (each of which was distinct by PFGE analysis), IS1245 typing resolved only four patterns and thus provided poor discriminatory power. To evaluate the in vivo stability of IS1245, we analyzed 32 strains for which sets of 2 to 19 epidemiologically related isolates were available. For 19 (59%) of these sets, all isolates representing the same strain had indistinguishable IS1245 patterns. Within eight (25%) sets, one or more isolates had IS1245 patterns that differed by one or two fragments from the modal pattern for the isolates of that strain. Five (16%) sets included isolates whose patterns differed by three or more fragments; on the basis of IS1245 typing those isolates would have been designated distinct strains. IS1245 was stable during in vitro passage, suggesting that the variations observed represented natural translocations of the element. IS1245 provides a useful tool for molecular strain typing of M. avium but may have limitations for analyzing strains with low copy numbers or for resolving extended epidemiologic relationships. PMID:9650925

  15. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies and Aptamers Against Major Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific antibodies, available in unlimited quantities, have not been produced against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the bacterium that causes Johne’s disease (JD). To fill this gap in JD research, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were produced fr...

  16. Roles for Cell Wall Glycopeptidolipid in Surface Adherence and Planktonic Dispersal of Mycobacterium avium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium is a significant inhabitant of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems. M. avium expresses on its cell surface serovar-specific glycopeptidolipids (ssGPLs). Studies have implicated the core GPL in biofilm formation by M. aviu...

  17. Comparative Serological and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Typing for Bordetella avium Isolates in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ping Yang, Rong-De Ma1, Xue Zhao and Rui-Liang Zhu*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the similarity among Bordetella avium isolates in China, antigens and diagnostic antiserum of 22 B. avium isolates were prepared for serotyping, and a set of 20 commercially available primers was screened out to identify suitable primers for random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting (RAPD analysis in this study. Twenty-two B. avium isolates were divided into two serovars (A and B based on their reaction in the plate-agglutination test. Four primers R1, R2, R4 and R10 resulted in informative fingerprints and were used to evaluate the B. avium isolates. Based on their RAPD patterns, a dendrogram allowed the separation of the B. avium isolates into six genetic similarity clusters. However, no direct correlation was observed between serotypes and RAPD typing among the isolates.

  18. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare cellulitis occurring with septic arthritis after joint injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch David M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulitis caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has rarely been described. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is a rare cause of septic arthritis after intra-articular injection, though the causative role of injection is difficult to ascertain in such cases. Case presentation A 57-year-old with rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisone and azathioprine developed bilateral painful degenerative shoulder arthritis. After corticosteroid injections into both acromioclavicular joints, he developed bilateral cellulitis centered over the injection sites. Skin biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas, and culture grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Joint aspiration also revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. Conclusion Although rare, skin and joint infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare should be considered in any immunocompromised host, particularly after intra-articular injection. Stains for acid-fast bacilli may be negative in pathologic samples even in the presence of infection; cultures of tissue specimens should always be obtained.

  19. Assessing the inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during composting of livestock carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Victoria L; Krause, Denis O; McAllister, Tim A; Buckley, Katherine E; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve; Ominski, Kim H

    2013-05-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle

  20. Comparison of four different culture media for growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected lofts of domestic pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mayahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of avian tuberculosis by conventional culture method is still considered as the "gold standard" technique. The main objective of this study was to compare growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium on four specific Mycobacterial cultures such as glycerinated Lowenstein-Jensen medium, pyruvate-enriched Lowenstein-Jensen medium, mycobactin J-supplemented Herrold-egg yolk medium and plain Herrold-egg yolk medium.Eighty out of more than 600 pigeons were selected based on their clinical signs and poor health conditions. The birds were numbered and their clinical signs were registered in the working sheets, and under standard condi-tion, euthanized, subjecting to necropsy examinations, followed by bacterial culture on four specific media for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, including glycerinated Lowenstein-Jensen (LJG medium, pyruvate-enriched Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJP, mycobactin J-supplemented Herrold-egg yolk medium and plain Herrold-egg yolk medium.Fifty one Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium were isolated from pigeons. Mycobactin J-supplemented Herrold-egg yolk media yielded greater number of colonies in shorter incubation time in compare with other media.It was concluded that most of the isolates need mycobactin as a growth factor.

  1. Serovars of Mycobacterium avium Complex isolated from patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, D. S.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Thybo, S.; Lerche, A.; Bennedsen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Danish isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex were serotyped by the use of seroagglutination. The most prevalent serovars among patients with AIDS (n = 89) were 4 and 6, while among non-AIDS patients the most prevalent serovars were 1, 6, and 4, with no major differences between those in patients...... with pulmonary disease (n = 65) and those in patients with lymph node infection (n = 58). The results suggest a Scandinavian distribution of serovars with a predominance of serovar 6 and fail to demonstrate any selective protection against different serovars by Mycobacterium bovis ECG vaccination....

  2. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Jungersen, Gregers; Ussery, David

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  3. Surviving within the amoebal exocyst: the Mycobacterium avium complex paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drancourt Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Results Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Conclusions Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.

  4. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  5. Early Antibody Response Against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Antigens in Subclinical Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Background Our laboratories have previously reported on the experimental infection of cattle with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) using an intratonsillar infection model. In addition, we have recently developed a partial protein array representing 92 M. par...

  6. Formulation and efficacy of liposome-encapsulated antibiotics for therapy of intracellular Mycobacterium avium infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Y. K.; Nix, D E; Straubinger, R M

    1995-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is an intracellular pathogen that can invade and multiply within macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Current therapy is not highly effective. Particulate drug carriers that are targeted to the reticuloendothelial system may provide a means to deliver antibiotics more efficiently to M. avium-infected cells. We investigated the formulation of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and azithromycin in liposomes and tested their antibacterial activities in vitro against M. a...

  7. Effect of growth in biofilms upon antibiotic and chlorine susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare

    OpenAIRE

    Steed, Keesha

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare are environmental opportunistic pathogens whose source for human infection is water and soil. M. avium and M. intracellulare cause pulmonary infections (tuberculosis) in immunocompetent individuals and bacteremia in immunodeficient individuals (e.g. AIDS). One factor likely influencing the lack of success of antibiotic therapy in patients would be their ability to form biofilms. Growth in biofilms might result in antimicrob...

  8. Culture Phenotypes of Genomically and Geographically Diverse Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates from Different Hosts▿

    OpenAIRE

    Whittington, Richard J.; Marsh, Ian B; Saunders, Vanessa; Grant, Irene R.; Juste, Ramon; Sevilla, Iker A; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Whitlock, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants in most countries. Historical data suggest substantial differences in culturability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants and cattle; however, a systematic comparison of culture media and isolates from different countries and hosts has not been undertaken. Here, 35 field isolates from the United States, Spain, Northern Ireland, and Australia were propagated in Bactec ...

  9. A new insight in desiccation tolerance and cryopreservation of mazzard cherry (Prunus avium L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak Marcin; Plitta-Michalak Beata P.; Chmielarz Paweł

    2015-01-01

    A variable response of Prunus avium L. seeds to desiccation and storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) has been reported in the literature. The majority of these experiments were conducted on initially dried seeds. The desiccation and LN exposure tolerance of fresh P. avium seeds is unknown. In the present study, fresh seeds were used to determine seed response to desiccation and cryopreservation. Desiccation of seeds from a moisture content (MC) of 19.7-20.2% to 10.1-10.9% o...

  10. De novo assembly of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) transcriptome from 454 sequencing data

    OpenAIRE

    Le Dantec, Loick; Quero-Garcia, José; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Very few genomic resources are actually available for sweet cherry. Emergence and generalization of next‐generation DNA sequencing technologies that reduce cost, labor, and time, provide the opportunity to conduct large‐scale genomic projects at lower cost even for non‐model organisms like prunus avium. In order to obtain a panel of prunus avium expressed genes for functional studies and candidate gene strategy, a normalized complementary DNA library has been sequenced using high throughput 4...

  11. Molecular Analysis of Mycobacterium avium Isolates by Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Pestel-Caron, Martine; Graff, Gabriel; Berthelot, Gilles; Pons, Jean-Louis; Lemeland, Jean-François

    1999-01-01

    Genetic relationships among 46 isolates of Mycobacterium avium recovered from 37 patients in a 2,500-bed hospital from 1993 to 1998 were assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR amplification of genomic sequences located between the repetitive elements IS1245 and IS1311. Each technique enabled the identification of 27 to 32 different patterns among the 46 isolates, confirming that the genetic heterogeneity of M. avium strains is high in a given community. Furthermore, this ...

  12. Assessing the Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Composting of Livestock Carcasses

    OpenAIRE

    Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Denis O Krause; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve; Ominski, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 20...

  13. Characterization of the Fucosylation Pathway in the Biosynthesis of Glycopeptidolipids from Mycobacterium avium Complex▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Tetsu; Maeda, Yumi; Nakata, Noboru; Kai, Masanori; Naka, Takashi; Yano, Ikuya; Makino, Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    The cell envelopes of several species of nontuberculous mycobacteria, including the Mycobacterium avium complex, contain glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) as major glycolipid components. GPLs are highly antigenic surface molecules, and their variant oligosaccharides define each serotype of the M. avium complex. In the oligosaccharide portion of GPLs, the fucose residue is one of the major sugar moieties, but its biosynthesis remains unclear. To elucidate it, we focused on the 5.0-kb chromosomal regio...

  14. Rapid Expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins for Antigen Discovery▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lingling; Munir, Shirin; Bannantine, John P.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Kanjilal, Sagarika; Kapur, Vivek

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants and other species. Detection of infection in animals is hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. We describe here an approach that utilizes translationally active PCR fragments for the rapid in vitro transcription and translation of recombinant proteins for antigen discovery in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The investigations showed...

  15. Mycobacterium avium serovars 2 and 8 infections elicit unique activation of the host macrophage immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, B R; Rocco, J M; Maslow, J N; Irani, V R

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium is an opportunistic pathogen whose pathogenesis is attributed to its serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid (ssGPL), which varies among its 31 serovars. To determine if the presence and type of ssGPLs contribute to M. avium pathogenesis, we infected murine macrophages (mφs) with two M. avium wild type (wt) serovars (2 and 8) and their serovar-null strains. We examined the influence of ssGPL (presence and type) on cytokine production in non-activated (-IFN-γ) and activated (+IFN-γ) mφs, and the bacterial intra-mφ survival over a 6-day infection process. Serovar-2 infections activated TNF-α production that increased over the 6 day period and was capable of controlling the intra-mφ serovar-2 null strain. In contrast, the serovar-8 infection stimulated a strong pro-inflammatory response, but was incapable of removing the invading pathogen, maybe through IL-10 production. It was clear that the intracellular growth of serovar-null in contrast to the wt M. avium strains was easily controlled. Based on our findings and the undisputed fact that M. avium ssGPL is key to its pathogenesis, we conclude that it is not appropriate to dissect the pathogenesis of one M. avium serovar and apply those findings to other serovars. PMID:22991047

  16. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Belisle John T; Inamine Julia M; Eckstein Torsten M; Lee Sun-Hwa; Irani Vida R; Maslow Joel N

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system,...

  17. [Isolation of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare from a hepatic biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Aroldo; Mederos, Lilian; Capó, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    A 64 years-old patient, who was a farmer suffering from chronic fever for two years, loss of weight and acute asthenia, was studied. He was admitted to "Pedro Kourí" Tropical Medicine Institute where the studies were conducted and revealed a globular sedimentation rate of 116 mm in 2 hours, and anemia of 9,8g% hemoglobin. The laparoscopic study indicated hepatic granulomatosis that was confirmed by hepatic biopsy in which a sample was taken from the liver to be microbiologically and cytologically examined. By microbiological methods, a non-pigmented slowly-growing strain was isolated, which was classified by conventional diagnostic techniques for the non-tuberculous mycobacteria classification and the alternative diagnosing technique known as bidimensional thin layer chromatography to confirm the previous classification and set the mycolic acid patterns. The isolated strain belonged to group III of Rynyon and was identified as Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. PMID:15849945

  18. Mycobacterium avium complex enteritis in HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ishikane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The gastrointestinal (GI tract appears to be a common port of entry for MAC infection in patients with AIDS. Early recognition of GI MAC infection by endoscopy in HIV-infected patients and initiation of anti-MAC therapy and ART may reduce morbidity and mortality.

  19. Emphysematous pyometra secondary to Enterococcus avium infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, An-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Sheng

    2016-06-16

    A 5-year-old female intact Mastiff dog was presented with a history of vaginal discharge for 1 day. Physical examination revealed a sanguineo-purulent vaginal discharge and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Abdominal radiographs showed several dilated and gas- filled tubular loops. The differential diagnoses included emphysematous pyometra or small intestinal mechanical ileus. Surgical exploration of the abdomen demonstrated a severely dilated and gas-filled uterus, and emphysematous pyometra was confirmed. The patient's clinical signs resolved after ovariohysterectomy. Histopathology revealed mild endometrial cystic hyperplasia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the superficial endometrial epithelia. Enterococcus avium, an α-hemolytic gram-positive coccus, was isolated from the uterus. This paper highlights the radiographic features of emphysematous pyometra and a pathogen that has never been reported to be associated with canine pyometra previously. PMID:27111397

  20. Characterization of the fibronectin-attachment protein of Mycobacterium avium reveals a fibronectin-binding motif conserved among mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorey, J S; Holsti, M A; Ratliff, T L; Allen, P M; Brown, E J

    1996-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium is an intracellular pathogen and a major opportunistic infectious agent observed in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Evidence suggests that the initial portal of infection by M. avium is often the gastrointestinal tract. However, the mechanism by which the M. avium crosses the epithelial barrier is unclear. A possible mechanism is suggested by the ability of M. avium to bind fibronectin, an extracellular matrix protein that is a virulence factor for several extracellular pathogenic bacteria which bind to mucosal surfaces. To further characterize fibronectin binding by M. avium, we have cloned the M. avium fibronectin-attachment protein (FAP). The M. avium FAP (FAP-A) has an unusually large number of Pro and Ala residues (40% overall) and is 50% identical to FAP of both Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using recombinant FAP-A and FAP-A peptides, we show that two non-continuous regions in FAP-A bind fibronectin. Peptides from these regions and homologous sequences from M. leprae FAP inhibit fibronectin binding by both M. avium and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). These regions have no homology to eukaryotic fibronectin-binding proteins and are only distantly related to fibronectin-binding peptides of Gram-positive bacteria. Nevertheless, these fibronectin-binding regions are highly conserved among the mycobacterial FAPs, suggesting an essential function for this interaction in mycobacteria infection of their metazoan hosts. PMID:8858587

  1. Concomitant Mycobacterium avium infection and Hodgkin's disease in a lymph node from an HIV-negative child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Yaxsier; Capó, Virginia; González, Ida; Mederos, Lilian; Díaz, Raúl; de Waard, Jacobus H; Rodríguez, Alberto; García, Yarmila; Cabanas, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of an immunocompetent child with simultaneously an infection with Mycobacterium avium and Hodgkin's disease in a cervical lymph node. A positive PCR result for M. avium on a biopsy of the lymph node directed the definitive diagnosis for both etiologies and avoided a possible dissemination of this infection after chemotherapy was started. PMID:20467849

  2. ISOLATION OF THE GENOME SEQUENCE STRAIN MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM 104 FROM MULTIPLE PATIENTS OVER A 17-YEAR PERIOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome sequence strain 104 of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium was isolated form an adult AIDS patient in Southern California in 1983. Isolates of non-paratuberculosis M. avium from 207 other patients in Southern California and elsewhere were examined for genoty...

  3. Adhesion of Campylobacter jejuni and Mycobacterium avium onto polyethylene terephtalate (PET) used for bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchou-Nyamsi-König, Josiane-Aurore; Dague, Etienne; Mullet, Martine; Duval, Jérôme F L; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Block, Jean-Claude

    2008-12-01

    Adhesion of the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and Mycobacterium avium onto polyethylene terephtalate (PET), a polymer widely used within the bottled water industry was measured in two different groundwater solutions. From this, it was found that whilst the percentage cell adhesion for a given strain did not change between groundwater types, substantial variation was obtained between the two bacterial species tested: M. avium (10-30% adhered cells) and C. jejuni (1-2%) and no major variations were measured as a function of groundwater composition for a given strain. To explain this, the interfacial electro-hydrodynamic properties of the bacteria were investigated by microelectrophoresis, with the resultant data analysed on the basis of electrokinetic theory for soft biocolloidal particles. The results obtained showed that M. avium carries a significant volume charge density and that its peripheral layer exhibits limited hydrodynamic flow permeation compared to that of C. jejuni. It was also demonstrated that steric hindrance to flow penetration and the degree of hydrophobicity within/of the outer bacterial interface are larger for M. avium cells. In line with this, the larger amount of M. avium cells deposited onto PET substrates as compared to that of C. jejuni can be explained by hydrophobic attraction and chemical binding between hydrophobic PET and outer soft surface layer of the bacteria. Hydrophobicity of PET was addressed by combining contact angle analyses and force spectroscopy using CH(3)-terminated AFM tip. PMID:18929388

  4. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed

  5. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare brain abscess in HIV-positive patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karne, Sampada S.; Sangle, Shashikala A.; Kiyawat, Dilip S.; Dharmashale, Sujata N.; Kadam, Dilip B.; Bhardwaj, Renu S.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterial opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is one of the leading causes of opportunistic infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome i.e., with CD4 count less than 50/cu.mm. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is among the most common opportunistic bacterial infections in those patients with advanced immunodeficiency apart from cryptococcal meningitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, etc. Common presentations of mycobacterium avium complex are fever, lymphadenitis and respiratory disease. Immune reconstitution disease is also known to manifest with MAC infections in PLHIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Very few cases of central nervous system involvement due to NTM infection have been described. We are reporting a case of advanced acquired immunodeficiency who presented with brain abscess due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare. PMID:22412276

  6. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare brain abscess in HIV-positive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampada S Karne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV (PLHIV worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM infection is one of the leading causes of opportunistic infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome i.e., with CD4 count less than 50/cu.mm. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC is among the most common opportunistic bacterial infections in those patients with advanced immunodeficiency apart from cryptococcal meningitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, etc. Common presentations of mycobacterium avium complex are fever, lymphadenitis and respiratory disease. Immune reconstitution disease is also known to manifest with MAC infections in PLHIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Very few cases of central nervous system involvement due to NTM infection have been described. We are reporting a case of advanced acquired immunodeficiency who presented with brain abscess due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare.

  7. The effect of Cerasus avium stalk extract on albumin glycation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Abdoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins is the major cause of diabetic complications. The inhibition of glycation process can reduce complications of diabetes. In the Iranian traditional medicine, the decoction (boiled extraction of Cerasus avium stalk is used as a hypoglycemic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of decoction and ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Cerasus avium stalk on albumin glycation reaction. Methods: In this experimental study, first, the ethanolic, aqueous and decoction extracts of Cerasus avium stalk were prepared. Then, different concentrations of these extracts were prepared and added to albumin and glucose solutions. Finally, compared to control group that was not treated with any extracts, the albumin glycation rate in the groups treated with various concentrations of extracts was evaluated using TBA (thio-barbituric acid method. Results: The results showed that compared to control group, decoction of Cerasus avium stalk in the concentrations of 20, 10 and 2 mg/dl could reduce albumin glycation to 85.10±1.55, 72.35±1.75 and 51.25±1.22 %, respectively (P>0.001. Moreover, in the concentration of 20 mg/dl, the inhibitory effect of decoction of Cerasus avium stalk on the albumin glycation reaction was higher than those of aqueous (P=0.021 and ethanolic (P=0.009 extracts. Conclusion: The findings showed that the extracs of Cerasus avium stalk, in particular in the decoction form, could significantly reduce the rate of albumin glycation; therefore, it can be used for decreasing diabetes mellitus complications.

  8. Mycobacterium avium in pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis): 28 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Finnegan, Mitchell V; Woodford, Nina L; Mansfield, Kristin G; Waters, W Ray; Bannantine, John P; Paustian, Michael L; Garner, Michael M; Bakke, Antony C; Peloquin, Charles A; Phillips, Terry M

    2006-12-01

    The Columbia basin subpopulation of pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis was listed as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in November 2001, and no pygmy rabbits have been seen in the wild since spring 2002. Captive propagation efforts have attempted to increase population size in preparation for reintroduction of animals into central Washington. Disseminated mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium avium has been the most common cause of death of adult captive pygmy rabbits. Between June 2002 and September 2004, mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in 28 captive adult pygmy rabbits (representing 29% of the captive population), in contrast to 18 adult pygmy rabbits dying of all other causes in the same time period. Antemortem and postmortem medical records were evaluated retrospectively to describe the clinical course of mycobacteriosis in pygmy rabbits, physical examination findings, and diagnostic test results in the diagnosis of mycobacteriosis in pygmy rabbits. Various treatment protocols, possible risk factors for mortality, and recommendations for prevention of mycobacteriosis were evaluated also. Compromised cell-mediated immunity appears to be the best explanation at this time for the observed high morbidity and mortality from mycobacterial infections in pygmy rabbits. PMID:17315435

  9. Analytical Verification of a PCR Assay for Identification of Bordetella avium

    OpenAIRE

    Register, Karen B.; Yersin, Andrew G.

    2005-01-01

    Bordetella avium is the etiologic agent of turkey coryza or bordetellosis, a respiratory disease responsible for substantial economic losses to the turkey industry. At present, identification of this bacterium relies on isolation and biochemical testing. Although a PCR for the detection of B. avium was proposed a number of years ago (P. H. Savelkoul, L. E. de Groot, C. Boersma, I. Livey, C. J. Duggleby, B. A. van der Zeijst, and W. Gaastra, Microb. Pathog. 15:207-215, 1993), lack of analytica...

  10. Divergent immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection correlate with kinome responses at the site of intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Pekka; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects the gastrointestinal tract of calves, localizing and persisting primarily in the distal ileum. A high percentage of cattle exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis do not develop JD, but the mechanisms by which they resist infection are not understood. Here, we merge an established in vivo bovine intestinal segment model for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays as a first step to understanding how infection influences host kinomic responses at the site of infection. Application of peptide arrays to in vivo tissue samples represents a critical and ambitious step in using this technology to understand host-pathogen interactions. Kinome analysis was performed on intestinal samples from 4 ileal segments subdivided into 10 separate compartments (6 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected compartments and 4 intra-animal controls) using bovine-specific peptide arrays. Kinome data sets clustered into two groups, suggesting unique binary responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Similarly, two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immune responses, characterized by different antibody, T cell proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses, were also observed. Interestingly, the kinomic groupings segregated with the immune response groupings. Pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that differences in innate immune and interleukin signaling and particular differences in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway distinguished the kinomic groupings. Collectively, kinome analysis of tissue samples offers insight into the complex cellular responses induced by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the ileum and provides a novel method to understand mechanisms that alter the balance between cell-mediated and antibody responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID

  11. Beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulation inhibits nitric oxide generation by Mycobacterium avium infected macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomershine, C S; Lafuse, W P; Zwilling, B S

    1999-11-01

    Catecholamine regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production by IFNgamma-primed macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium was investigated. Epinephrine treatment of IFNgamma-primed macrophages at the time of M. avium infection inhibited the anti-mycobacterial activity of the cells. The anti-mycobacterial activity of macrophages correlated with NO production. Using specific adrenergic receptor agonists, the abrogation of mycobacterial killing and decreased NO production by catecholamines was shown to be mediated via the beta2-adrenergic receptor. Elevation of intracellular cAMP levels mimicked the catecholamine-mediated inhibition of NO in both M. avium infected and LPS stimulated macrophages. Specific inhibitors of both adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A prevented the beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide production. Beta2-adrenoreceptor stimulation at the time of M. avium infection of IFNgamma-primed macrophages also inhibited expression of iNOS mRNA. These observations show that catecholamine hormones can affect the outcome of macrophage-pathogen interactions and suggest that one result of sympathetic nervous system activation is the suppression of the capacity of macrophages to produce anti-microbial effector molecules. PMID:10580815

  12. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. This bacterium is a slow growing, gram-positive, acid-fast organism which can be difficult to culture from the environment. For ...

  13. Activity of Picolinic Acid in Combination with the Antiprotozoal Drug Quinacrine against Mycobacterium avium Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Toshiaki; Tomioka, Haruaki

    2006-01-01

    We studied the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of picolinic acid (PA) in combination with the antiprotozoal drug quinacrine against intramacrophage Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Quinacrine significantly potentiated the anti-MAC activity of PA, suggesting the usefulness of this combination in the clinical control of MAC infection.

  14. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Major Membrane Protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 35-kDa major membrane protein (MMP) encoded by MAP2121c has been shown to play a role in invasion of epithelial cells and is an important membrane antigen recognized by cattle with Johne’s disease. In this study, purified recombinant MMP was used to p...

  15. Characteristics of an Extensive Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Recombinant Protein Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the first step of a comprehensive large-scale antigen discovery project, 651 Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins were produced in Escherichia coli. All of these were purified by affinity chromatography, dialyzed in phosphate buffered saline, and analyzed on SDS-PAGE gels. C...

  16. Different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MIRU-VNTR patterns coexist within cattle herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Nielen, M.; Hoeboer, J.; Santema, W.J.; Koets, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of the biodiversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) offers more insight in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis and therefore may contribute to the control of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity in bovine MAP isolate

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a Longitudinal Study of Three Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cows that were low shedders of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were passive shedding animals or whether they were truly infected with MAP. We also evaluated whether these MAP-infected animals could have been infected as adults by ...

  18. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk from Clinically Affected Cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11...

  20. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...

  1. Analysis of wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) germplasm diversity in south-east Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Mratinić Evica; Fotirić-Akšić Milica; Jovković Radmila

    2012-01-01

    Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed ade...

  2. Protection of mice from Mycobacterium avium infection by recombinant interleukin-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, K; Kasama, T.; Yamazaki, J.; Hosaka, M; Katsura, T.; Mochizuki, T; Soejima, K; Nakamura, R M

    1995-01-01

    Treatment with interleukin-12 (IL-12) significantly reduced the number of viable bacteria in mice infected with Mycobacterium avium. IL-12 itself, however, could not inhibit directly mycobacterial growth in vitro. IL-12 exerts antimycobacterial activity in vivo with a low level of toxicity, possibly by enhancing the host defense against the infection.

  3. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. Cows infected with Johne’s disease shed large quantities of MAP into soil. Further, MAP has been isolated from surface water, is resi...

  4. From mouth to macrophage: mechanisms of innate immune subversion by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts...

  5. Optimization of hexadecylpyridinium chloride decontamination for culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows in advanced stages of Johne’s disease shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into both their milk and feces, allowing for transmission of the bacteria between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of MAP from milk and colos...

  6. Molecular Analysis of Mycobacterium avium Isolates by Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel-Caron, Martine; Graff, Gabriel; Berthelot, Gilles; Pons, Jean-Louis; Lemeland, Jean-François

    1999-01-01

    Genetic relationships among 46 isolates of Mycobacterium avium recovered from 37 patients in a 2,500-bed hospital from 1993 to 1998 were assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR amplification of genomic sequences located between the repetitive elements IS1245 and IS1311. Each technique enabled the identification of 27 to 32 different patterns among the 46 isolates, confirming that the genetic heterogeneity of M. avium strains is high in a given community. Furthermore, this retrospective analysis of sporadic isolates allowed us (i) to suggest the existence of two remanent strains in our region, (ii) to raise the question of the possibility of nosocomial acquisition of M. avium strains, and (iii) to document laboratory contamination. The methods applied in the present study were found to be useful for the typing of M. avium isolates. In general, both methods yielded similar results for both related and unrelated isolates. However, the isolates in five of the six PCR clusters were distributed among two to three PFGE patterns, suggesting that this PCR-based method may have limitations for the analysis of strains with low insertion sequence copy numbers or for resolution of extended epidemiologic relationships. PMID:10405383

  7. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection during HIV disease. Persisting problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Manfredi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Still in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy, late recognition of HIV disease or lack of sufficient immune recovery pose HIV-infected patients at risk to develop opportunistic infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM, which are environmental organisms commonly retrieved in soil and superficial waters.Among these microorganisms, the most frequent is represented by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC. Health care professionals who face HIV-infected patients should suspect disseminated mycobacterial disease when a deep immunodeficiency is present, (a CD4+ lymphocyte count below 50 cells/μL often associated with constitutional signs and symptoms, and non-specific laboratory abnormalities. Mycobacterial culture of peripheral blood is a reliable technique for diagnosing disseminated disease. Among drugs active against NTM, as well as some anti-tubercular compounds, the rifampin derivative rifabutin, and some novel fluoroquinolones, the availability of macrolides, has greatly contributed to improve both prophylaxis and treatment outcome of disseminated MAC infections. Although multiple questions remain about which regimens may be regarded as optimal, general recommendations can be expressed on the ground of existing evidences.Treatment should begin with associated clarithromycin (or azithromycin, plus ethambutol and rifabutin (with the rifabutin dose depending on other concomitant medications that might result in drug-drug interactions.A combined three-drug regimen is preferred for patients who cannot be prescribed an effective antiretroviral regimen immediately. Patients with a CD4+ lymphocyte count below 50 cells/μL, who do not have clinical evidence of active mycobacterial disease, should receive a primary prophylaxis with either clarithromycin or azithromycin, with or without rifabutin.

  8. Optical mapping of the Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz David C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection of cattle with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap causes severe economic losses to the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. In an effort to better examine diversity among M. ap strains, we used optical mapping to profile genomic variations between strains of M. ap K-10 (sequenced strain and M. ap ATCC 19698 (type strain. Results The assembled physical restriction map of M. ap ATCC 19698 showed a genome size of 4,839 kb compared to the sequenced K-10 genome of 4,830 kb. Interestingly, alignment of the optical map of the M. ap ATCC 19698 genome to the complete M. ap K-10 genome sequence revealed a 648-kb inversion around the origin of replication. However, Southern blotting, PCR amplification and sequencing analyses of the inverted region revealed that the genome of M. ap K-10 differs from the published sequence in the region starting from 4,197,080 bp to 11,150 bp, spanning the origin of replication. Additionally, two new copies of the coding sequences > 99.8% were identified, identical to the MAP0849c and MAP0850c genes located immediately downstream of the MAP3758c gene. Conclusion The optical map of M. ap ATCC 19698 clearly indicated the miss-assembly of the sequenced genome of M. ap K-10. Moreover, it identified 2 new genes in M. ap K-10 genome. This analysis strongly advocates for the utility of physical mapping protocols to complement genome sequencing projects.

  9. Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Michael T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698, which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25°C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25°C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1–1.5 log10 increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 μg/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log10 reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log10 reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p Conclusion This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters.

  10. Characterization of a novel plasmid, pMAH135, from Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei-ichi Uchiya

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC causes mainly two types of disease. The first is disseminated disease in immunocompromised hosts, such as individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The second is pulmonary disease in individuals without systemic immunosuppression, and the incidence of this type is increasing worldwide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis, a component of MAC, causes infection in pigs as well as in humans. Many aspects of the different modes of M. avium infection and its host specificity remain unclear. Here, we report the characteristics and complete sequence of a novel plasmid, designated pMAH135, derived from M. avium strain TH135 in an HIV-negative patient with pulmonary MAC disease. The pMAH135 plasmid consists of 194,711 nucleotides with an average G + C content of 66.5% and encodes 164 coding sequences (CDSs. This plasmid was unique in terms of its homology to other mycobacterial plasmids. Interestingly, it contains CDSs with sequence homology to mycobactin biosynthesis proteins and type VII secretion system-related proteins, which are involved in the pathogenicity of mycobacteria. It also contains putative conserved domains of the multidrug efflux transporter. Screening of isolates from humans and pigs for genes located on pMAH135 revealed that the detection rate of these genes was higher in clinical isolates from pulmonary MAC disease patients than in those from HIV-positive patients, whereas the genes were almost entirely absent in isolates from pigs. Moreover, variable number tandem repeats typing analysis showed that isolates carrying pMAH135 genes are grouped in a specific cluster. Collectively, the pMAH135 plasmid contains genes associated with M. avium's pathogenicity and resistance to antimicrobial agents. The results of this study suggest that pMAH135 influence not only the pathological manifestations of MAC disease, but also the host specificity of MAC infection.

  11. Typing of clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured during a 2-year period in Denmark by using IS1245

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett; Andersen, Åse B.; Askgaard, Dorthe;

    1999-01-01

    In the present study restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses with the recently described insertion sequence IS1245 as a probe was performed with clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured in Denmark during a 2-year period. The overall aim of the study was to disclose potentia...... as potting soil) and veterinary samples were found to contain viable M avium isolates belonging to genotypes also found in humans....

  12. Evidence for a Novel Gene Expression Program in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Infected Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Coussens, Paul M.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Guilherme J. M. Rosa; Perez Laspiur, Juliana; Elftman, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    A bovine-specific cDNA microarray system was used to compare gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from control uninfected (n = 4) and Johne's disease-positive (n = 6) Holstein cows. Microarray experiments were designed so that for each animal, a direct comparison was made between PBMCs stimulated in vitro with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and PBMCs stimulated with phosphate-buffered saline (nil-stimulated PBMCs). As expected, M. avium subsp. pa...

  13. Palatal Actinomycosis and Kaposi Sarcoma in an HIV-Infected Subject with Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomyces and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare are facultative intracellular organisms, members of the bacterial order actinomycetales. Although Actinomyces can behave as copathogen when anatomic barriers are compromised, its coinfection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has not previously been reported. We present the first reported case of palatal actinomycosis co-infection with disseminated MAC, in an HIV-infected subject with Kaposi sarcoma and diabetes. We discuss the pathogenesis of the complex condition of this subject.

  14. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Fibronectin Attachment Protein Facilitates M-Cell Targeting and Invasion through a Fibronectin Bridge with Host Integrins

    OpenAIRE

    Secott, T. E.; Lin, T. L.; Wu, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient attachment and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultured epithelial cells requires the expression of a fibronectin (FN) attachment protein homologue (FAP-P) which mediates FN binding by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Invasion of Peyer's patches by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis occurs through M cells, which, unlike other intestinal epithelial cells, express integrins on their luminal faces. We sought to determine if the interaction between FAP-P of M....

  15. Development of an F57 Sequence-Based Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Tasara, T; Stephan, R.

    2005-01-01

    A light cycler-based real-time PCR (LC-PCR) assay that amplifies the F57 sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was developed. This assay also includes an internal amplification control template to monitor the amplification conditions in each reaction. The targeted F57 sequence element is unique for M.avium subsp. paratuberculosis and is not known to exist in any other bacterial species. The assay specificity was demonstrated by evaluation of 10 known M. avium subsp. paratube...

  16. Determination of genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies from human and animal origins by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat and IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Nicolas; Thibault, Virginie C; Karoui, Claudine; de Cruz, Krystel; Cochard, Thierry; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Supply, Philip; Biet, Frank; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2010-04-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are ubiquitous bacteria that can be found in water, food, and other environmental samples and are considered opportunistic pathogens for numerous animal species, mainly birds and pigs, as well as for humans. We have recently demonstrated the usefulness of a PCR-based mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing for the molecular characterization of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium strains exclusively isolated from AIDS patients. In the present study we extended our analysis, based on eight MIRU-VNTR markers, to a strain collection comprehensively comprising the other M. avium subspecies, including M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, and M. avium subsp. silvaticum, isolated from numerous animal species, HIV-positive and HIV-negative humans, and environmental sources. All strains were fully typeable, with the discriminatory index being 0.885, which is almost equal to that obtained by IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing as a reference. In contrast to IS1311 RFLP typing, MIRU-VNTR typing was able to further discriminate M. avium subsp. avium strains. MIRU-VNTR alleles strongly associated with or specific for M. avium subspecies were detected in several markers. Moreover, the MIRU-VNTR typing-based results were consistent with a scenario of the independent evolution of M. avium subsp. avium/M. avium subsp. silvaticum and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from M. avium subsp. hominissuis, previously proposed on the basis of multilocus sequence analysis. MIRU-VNTR typing therefore appears to be a convenient typing method capable of distinguishing the three main subspecies and strains of the complex and providing new epidemiological knowledge on MAC. PMID:20107094

  17. Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Alters Resistance to Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bala, Shukal; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Kazempour, Kazem; Inglis, Shelly; Dempsey, Walla L.

    1998-01-01

    Increased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) appears to play an important role in the progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease. One treatment strategy being explored is the use of TNF-α inhibitors. TNF-α also appears to be important in conferring resistance to infections, and the inhibition of this cytokine may exacerbate the emergence of opportunistic pathogens, such as Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The present study examines the possibility that inhibition of ...

  18. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare brain abscess in HIV-positive patient

    OpenAIRE

    Sampada S Karne; Shashikala A Sangle; Dilip S Kiyawat; Dharmashale, Sujata N.; Kadam, Dilip B.; Bhardwaj, Renu S.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterial opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is one of the leading causes of opportunistic infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome i.e., with CD4 count less than 50/cu.mm. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is among the most common opportunistic bacterial infections in those patients with advanced immunodeficiency apart from crypto...

  19. No Holes Barred: Invasion of the Intestinal Mucosa by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bannantine, John P; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2013-01-01

    The infection biology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has recently crystallized, with added details surrounding intestinal invasion. The involvement of pathogen-derived effector proteins such as the major membrane protein, oxidoreductase, and fibronectin attachment proteins have been uncovered. Mutations constructed in this pathogen have also shed light on genes needed for invasion. The host cell types that are susceptible to invasion have been defined, along with their transcr...

  20. Survey of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis serological status in beef herds on community pastures in Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    Waldner, Cheryl L.; Cunningham, Gail L.; Janzen, Eugene D.; Campbell, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Johne's disease is a well recognized problem in dairy herds. Relatively little information is available on either the prevalence or the control of Johne's disease in commercial cow-calf operations. In the fall of 1999, blood samples were collected during pregnancy testing from cows on community pastures in Saskatchewan. Sera from these cows were analyzed using a commercial ELISA for antibodies to Mycoplasma avium subspecies paratuberculosis. All cows from each herd examined at the community p...

  1. Genome sequencing of ovine isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis offers insights into host association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannantine John P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is remarkably homogeneous among the genomes of bovine, human and wildlife isolates. However, previous work in our laboratories with the bovine K-10 strain has revealed substantial differences compared to sheep isolates. To systematically characterize all genomic differences that may be associated with the specific hosts, we sequenced the genomes of three U.S. sheep isolates and also obtained an optical map. Results Our analysis of one of the isolates, MAP S397, revealed a genome 4.8 Mb in size with 4,700 open reading frames (ORFs. Comparative analysis of the MAP S397 isolate showed it acquired approximately 10 large sequence regions that are shared with the human M. avium subsp. hominissuis strain 104 and lost 2 large regions that are present in the bovine strain. In addition, optical mapping defined the presence of 7 large inversions between the bovine and ovine genomes (~ 2.36 Mb. Whole-genome sequencing of 2 additional sheep strains of MAP (JTC1074 and JTC7565 further confirmed genomic homogeneity of the sheep isolates despite the presence of polymorphisms on the nucleotide level. Conclusions Comparative sequence analysis employed here provided a better understanding of the host association, evolution of members of the M. avium complex and could help in deciphering the phenotypic differences observed among sheep and cattle strains of MAP. A similar approach based on whole-genome sequencing combined with optical mapping could be employed to examine closely related pathogens. We propose an evolutionary scenario for M. avium complex strains based on these genome sequences.

  2. In vitro and in vivo activities of clarithromycin against Mycobacterium avium.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, P B; Hardy, D J; McDaniel, D; Hanson, C W; Swanson, R N

    1989-01-01

    There is no effective therapy to treat Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Clarithromycin (A-56268; TE-031) is a new macrolide which is twofold more active than erythromycin against most aerobic bacteria. In addition, higher levels in serum and tissue are achieved with clarithromycin than with erythromycin. In this study, clarithromycin, erythromycin, difloxacin, temafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, amikacin, and ethambutol were tested...

  3. Granuloma necrosis during Mycobacterium avium infection does not require tumor necrosis factor

    OpenAIRE

    Florido, M; Appelberg, R.

    2004-01-01

    The infection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-deficient mice with low doses of the virulent Mycobacterium avium strain 25291 led to the appearance of necrotic granulomas at 93 days of infection, i.e., sooner than necrotic granulomas appeared in C57BL/6 animals. Additionally, TNF-deficient mice exhibited higher mycobacterial loads in the infected organs, had extremely exacerbated gamma interferon responses as evaluated in the sera of infected animals, and showed reduced survival. Thus, TNF is n...

  4. Cathepsin L maturation and activity is impaired in macrophages harboring M. avium and M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Rajeev M; Mampe, Stephanie; Shaffer, Brian; Erickson, Ann H; Bryant, Paula

    2006-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages demonstrate diminished capacity to present antigens via class II MHC molecules. Since successful class II MHC-restricted antigen presentation relies on the actions of endocytic proteases, we asked whether the activities of cathepsins (Cat) B, S and L-three major lysosomal cysteine proteases-are modulated in macrophages infected with pathogenic Mycobacterium spp. Infection of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with either Mycobacterium avium or M. tuberculosis had no obvious effect on Cat B or Cat S activity. In contrast, the activity of Cat L was altered in infected cells. Specifically, whereas the 24-kDa two-chain mature form of active Cat L predominated in uninfected cells, we observed an increase in the steady-state activity of the precursor single-chain (30 kDa) and 25-kDa two-chain forms of the enzyme in cells infected with either M. avium or M. tuberculosis. Pulse-chase analyses revealed that maturation of nascent, single-chain Cat L into the 25-kDa two-chain form was impaired in infected macrophages, and that maturation into the 24-kDa two-chain form did not occur. Consistent with these data, M. avium infection inhibited the IFNgamma-induced secretion of active two-chain Cat L by macrophages. Viable bacilli were not required to disrupt Cat L maturation, suggesting that a constitutively expressed mycobacterial component was responsible. The absence of the major active form of lysosomal Cat L in M. avium- and M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages may influence the types of T cell epitopes generated in these antigen-presenting cells, and/or the rate of class II MHC peptide loading. PMID:16636015

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhiza technology applied to micropropagated Prunus avium and to protection against Phytophthora cinnamomi

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Christelle; Trouvelot, A; GIANINAZZI, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    1996-01-01

    Deux champignons endomycorhizogenes a arbuscules (Glomus intraradices, Glomus caledonium), introduits pendant la periode d'acclimatation, ont ete testes pour leur pouvoir infectieux et leur effet sur la croissance de plants micropropages de merisiers (Prunus avium L) transplantes dans deux differents sols neutres, prealablement desinfectes ou non. Les vitroplants endomycorhizes presentent une meilleure croissance que les plantes temoins sur les deux sols desinfectes. L'importance de l'augment...

  6. Host Responses to the Pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Beneficial Microbes Exhibit Host Sex Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Karunasena, Enusha; McMahon, K Wyatt; Chang, David; Brashears, Mindy M.

    2014-01-01

    Differences between microbial pathogenesis in male and female hosts are well characterized in disease conditions connected to sexual transmission. However, limited biological insight is available on variances attributed to sex specificity in host-microbe interactions, and it is most often a minimized variable outside these transmission events. In this work, we studied two gut microbes—a pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and a probiotic, Lactobacillus animalis NP-51—and th...

  7. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from water in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    von Reyn, C F; Waddell, R D; Eaton, T.; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J.N.; Barber, T W; Brindle, R. J.; Gilks, C F; Lumio, J; Lähdevirta, J

    1993-01-01

    Disseminated infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a common complication of AIDS in the United States and other developing countries, but it is rare or absent in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the comparative likelihood of exposure to MAC in these geographic areas, we used a standard protocol to culture 91 water samples from environmental sites and piped water supply systems in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya. MAC was isolated from all geographic are...

  8. Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) as a modifying factor in Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sibartie, Shomik

    2010-02-01

    Crohn\\'s disease (CD) is a multifactorial syndrome with genetic and environmental contributions. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been frequently isolated from mucosal tissues of patients with CD but the cellular immune response to this bacterium has been poorly described. Our aim was to examine the influence of MAP on T-cell proliferation and cytokine responses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium avium, Isolated from Commercial Domestic Pekin Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica), Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Heng; Chen, Hong-Xi; Zhou, Wang-Shu; Wang, Jiang-Bo; Liu, Ma-Feng; Wang, Ming-Shu; Cheng, An-Chun; Jia, Ren-Yong; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kun-Feng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yue; Zhu, De-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is an important pathogenic bacterium in birds and has never, to our knowledge, reported to be isolated from domestic ducks. We present here the complete genome sequence of a virulent strain of Mycobacterium avium, isolated from domestic Pekin ducks for the first time, which was determined by PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. PMID:27587804

  10. Immuno-enhancement of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides on recombinant Bordetella avium ompA expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Yu, Cuilian; Wang, Chuanwen; Shao, Mingxu; Yan, Zhengui; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chi, Shanshan; Wang, Zhen; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2016-06-01

    Bordetellosis, caused by Bordetella avium, continues to be an economic problem in the poultry industry of China. Vaccines with good protective ability are lacking. Thus, developing a novel vaccine against the B. avium infection is crucial. Here, we constructed a recombinant Pichia pastoris transformant capable of expressing the outer membrane protein A (ompA) of B. avium to prepare the recombinant ompA subunit vaccine and then evaluated its immune effects. To further investigate the immunomodulation effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS) on this subunit vaccine, three concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mg/mL) of TPPPS were used as the adjuvants of the ompA subunit vaccine respectively. The conventional Freund's incomplete adjuvant served as the control of TPPPS. Chickens in different groups were separately vaccinated with these vaccines thrice. During the monitoring period, serum antibody titers, concentrations of serum IL-4, percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, lymphocyte transformation rate, and protection rate were detected. Results showed that the pure ompA vaccine induced the production of anti-ompA antibody, the secretion of IL-4, the increase of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes counts and lymphocyte transformation rate in the peripheral blood. Moreover, the pure ompA vaccine provided a protection rate of 71.67% after the B. avium challenge. Notably, TPPPS adjuvant vaccines induced higher levels of immune responses than the pure ompA vaccine, and 60 mg/mL TPPPS adjuvant vaccine showed optimal immune effects and had a 91.67% protection rate. Our findings indicated that this recombinant B. avium ompA subunit vaccine combined with TPPPS had high immunostimulatory potential. Results provided a new perspective for B. avium subunit vaccine research. PMID:26975477

  11. Enfermedad pulmonar por especies del complejo Mycobacterium avium intracellulare y correspondencia terapéutica Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex pulmonary disease species and therapeutic match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayvin Pérez Cruz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la preocupación mundial ante las enfermedades causadas por micobacterias ambientales es creciente, debido a las dificultades diagnósticas y de tratamiento. Objetivos: determinar el comportamiento de la enfermedad pulmonar por especies del complejo Mycobacterium avium intracellulare y la correspondencia con la terapéutica recibida en el Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico de La Habana, durante el período 2000-2010. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, que abarcó 55 pacientes con el diagnóstico de la enfermedad, los cuales cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión-exclusión predefinidos; la tendencia en el registro de diagnósticos se basó en el coeficiente de correlación lineal; en las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas discretas se usaron distribuciones de frecuencia con el cálculo del porcentaje y su respectivo intervalo de confianza de 95 %. Resultados: se obtuvo una tendencia decreciente en el diagnóstico de enfermedad pulmonar por especies del complejo Mycobacterium avium intracellulare, el 47,3 % de los pacientes estudiados se encontraba entre los 50 y 69 años de edad. La mayor parte del grupo no tenía ocupación de riesgo epidemiológico y la comorbilidad pulmonar se detectó en 97,9 %, sobresaliendo la tuberculosis pulmonar. Se comprobó la no correspondencia entre la terapéutica recibida y el régimen recomendado por la American Thoracic Society, en 100 % de los pacientes. Conclusión: la instauración de un programa ajustado a las normativas de tratamiento internacionalmente aceptadas, constituye en el Hospital Benéfico Jurídico, una necesidad para la atención a este grupo de enfermos.Introduction: the global concern about diseases caused by environmental mycobacteria is growing since their diagnosis and treatment are difficult. Objectives: to determine the behavior of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex pulmonary disease, and the therapeutic match with the

  12. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises. PMID:27010259

  13. Investigación de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis en leche ultrapasteurizada para consumo humano Research of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ultrapasteurized milk for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G Magnano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se vincula al Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis como potencial agente etiológico implicado en la enfermedad de Crohn en humanos. Una de las vías de ingreso sería a través de la ingestión de leche contaminada. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de Map en leche comercial homogeneizada y ultrapasteurizada para consumo humano en supermercados de la ciudad de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Se muestrearon 98 envases de 1 litro de leche entera homogeneizada y ultrapasteurizada de seis marcas comerciales. Previa descontaminación con el método de Cornell modificado, se sembraron en medio de cultivo Herrold con y sin micobactina. Todas las muestras fueron negativas. Como posibles causas de estos resultados se discuten: el origen de la leche y su probable muy baja carga de micobacterias, la eficacia de la pasteurización, el proceso en el laboratorio, entre otras.Currently, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is linked to Crohn's disease in humans as a potential etiologic agent. One route of infection to be considered is by the ingestion of contaminated milk. The objective of the present work was to evaluate Map's presence in commercial homogenized and ultrapasteurized milk for human consumption in supermarkets in the city of Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Ninety eight packages of 1 liter of entire, homogenized and ultrapasteurized milk of six commercial brands were sampled. After decontamination by the modified Cornell's method, the samples were cultured in Herrold's medium with and without micobactin. All samples were negative. Possible causes of this result such as the origin of the milk and its probable very low amount of micobacterias, the efficiency of the pasteurization, the processing in the laboratory, among others are here discussed.

  14. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit in......The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...

  15. Mycobacterium avium complex-associated peritonitis with CAPD after unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Emiko; Yoshida, Hisao; Mori, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Natsuki; Miyamura, Takako; Ohta, Hideaki; Seki, Masafumi; Tomono, Kazunori; Hashii, Yoshiko; Ozono, Keiichi

    2014-12-01

    Peritonitis remains an important complication of peritoneal dialysis and is mostly caused by aerobic enteric bacteria. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-associated peritonitis is an unusual but serious infection, requiring special culture techniques to avoid delay in diagnosis. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with aplastic anemia on ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who had Mycobacterium avium complex-associated peritonitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This case emphasizes that we should be constantly cautious about NTM infection in allo-HSCT recipients, especially when standard cultures are negative and the infection is refractory to empirical antibiotic therapy. PMID:25521993

  16. Mean effective sensitivity for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    control, in order to assist the decision-makers in planning and optimizing these programs economically. We compared six different groups of cattle (three dairy and three non-dairy) in Denmark by calculating the MES for each herd in each group.Results: The distribution of MES showed a large variation...... for MAP, given that the data used are unbiased.......Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility is...

  17. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk from clinically affected cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Milk and faeces samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. paratuberculosis was cultivated in variable numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in eight of 11...... animals. In milk from five cows (all faeces culture positive), we cultivated a few colonies of M. paratuberculosis (<100 CFU per ml). Milk samples from two cows were PCR positive (both animals were faeces culture positive, and one cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture negative on intestinal...

  18. Cutaneous gallium uptake in patients with AIDS with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare septicemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1988-07-01

    Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection.

  19. La cryoconservation des semences dormantes orthodoxes des arbres forestiers : le merisier (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielarz, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    International audience * The sensitivity of dormant seeds of mazzard cherry (Prunus avium L.) of Polish provenances to extreme desiccation and/or the ultra-low temperature of liquid nitrogen, LN (− 196 °C), was investigated to identify the optimum seed water content (w.c.) at this temperature.* Germination and seedling emergence tests in this study showed that there is no critical seed w.c. for deeply desiccated seeds (stone w.c. 1.6%), although such desiccated seeds were sensitive to the ...

  20. MIKRORAZMNOŽAVANJE DIVLJE TREŠNJE (Prunus avium L.) IZ KLONSKE SJEMENSKE PLANTAŽE

    OpenAIRE

    TANČEVA CRMARIĆ, Olivera; Kajba, Davorin

    2016-01-01

    Velika pozornost pridaje se divljoj trešnji (Prunus avium L.) zbog plemenitog i visokovrijednog drva, ali i zbog važnosti očuvanja njezine genetičke raznolikosti. Oplemenjivanje divlje trešnje uobičajenim metodama uzgoja mogao bi biti vrlo spor proces, otežan time da je u prirodi teško dobiti redovne i dovoljne količine sjemena. Iako osnivanje klonskih sjemenskih plantaža osigurava redovitiji prinos kvalitetnog sjemena, ipak ostaje ovisnost od vremenskih prilika koje utječu na cvjetanje tj. p...

  1. Current perspectives on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, and Crohn's disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Ken; Crandall, Philip G; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C

    2011-05-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes the disease of cattle, Johne's. The economic impact of this disease includes early culling of infected cattle, reduced milk yield, and weight loss of cattle sold for slaughter. There is a possible link between MAP and Crohn's disease, a human inflammatory bowel disease. MAP is also a potential human food borne pathogen because it survives current pasteurization treatments. We review the current knowledge of MAP, Johne's disease and Crohn's disease and note directions for future work with this organism including rapid and economical detection, effective management plans and preventative measures. PMID:21254832

  2. Facts, myths and hypotheses on the zoonotic nature of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Raja; Bülte, Michael; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W; Köhler, Heike; Meens, Jochen; Möbius, Petra; Roeb, Elke; Weiss, Siegfried

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease [JD]), a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. JD is one of the most widespread bacterial diseases of domestic animals with significant economic impact. The histopathological picture of JD resembles that of Crohn's disease (CD), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease of still unresolved aetiology. An aetiological relevance of MAP for CD has been proposed. This and the ambiguity of other published epidemiological findings raise the question whether MAP represents a zoonotic agent. In this review, we will discuss evidence that MAP has zoonotic capacity. PMID:25128370

  3. Cutaneous gallium uptake in patients with AIDS with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare septicemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection

  4. Characterization of the inflammatory phenotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using a novel cell culture passage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses to Johne’s disease, a chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is complicated by the multifaceted disease progression, late-onset host reaction, and the lack of ex vivo infection models ...

  5. SRI-286, a Thiosemicarbazole, in Combination with Mefloquine and Moxifloxacin for Treatment of Murine Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, Luiz E.; Kolonoski, Peter; Seitz, Lianne E.; Petrofsky, Mary; Reynolds, Robert; Wu, Martin; Young, Lowell S.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of Mycobacterium avium disease remains challenging when macrolide resistance develops. We infected C57 beige mice and treated them with mefloquine, SRI-286, and moxifloxacin. SRI-286 (80 mg/kg) was bactericidal in the liver. Mefloquine plus moxifloxacin or mefloquine plus SRI-286 were better than mefloquine alone.

  6. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in Balb/c Mice by Feeding Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

  7. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

  8. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in BALB/c Mice by Feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain NP-51

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immune responses of 390 BALB/c mice fed the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51® and infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) were evaluated in a 6-month trial. Mice were randomized to nine treatment groups fed either viable- or heat-killed NP51 and inocula...

  9. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strains Isolated from Crohn's Disease Patients and Animal Species Exhibit Similar Polymorphic Locus Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadiali, Alifiya H.; Strother, Megan; Naser, Saleh A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of short sequence repeats of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from Crohn's disease patients identified two alleles, both of which clustered with strains derived from animals with Johne's disease. Identification of a limited number of genotypes among human strains implies the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals.

  10. Mediation of host immune responses after immunization of neonatal calves with a heat-killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major drawback of current whole-cell vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is the interference with diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. The current study was designed to explore effects of immunization with a heat-killed whole cell vaccine (Mycop...

  11. Association between milk antibody and interferon-gamma responses in cattle from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Jungersen, Gregers; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). It is possible to detect infection with paratuberculosis at different stages of disease by means of various diagnostic test strategies. The objective of the present study was to evalu...

  12. Longitudinal data collection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies Paratuberculosis infections in dairy herds. Collection and use of observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longitudinal infection data on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was collected on three dairy farms in Northeastern United States during approximately 10 years. Precise data on animal characteristics and animal location within farm were collected on these farms. Cows were followe...

  13. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Reactive T-cells from Intestinal Biopsies of Crohn's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the intestine. The etiology is still unknown. One hypothesis is that CD is caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in genetically predisposed individuals. MAP causes a similar disease in ruminants,...

  14. CD4 T Cells From Intestinal Biopsies of Crohn's Disease Patients React to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn’s disease (CD) remains controversial. One issue that has been raised is the lack of data showing a cellular immune response to MAP. Earlier studies have mostly focused on responses in peripheral blood which have several limit...

  15. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in BALB/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

  16. Genome Sequences of Four Strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, Isolated from Swine and Humans, Differing in Virulence in a Murine Intranasal Infection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, N.; Vluggen, C.; Duytschaever, L.; Mathys, V.; Saegerman, C.; Chapeira, O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper announces the genome sequences of four strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, isolated from cases of lymphadenopathy in swine and humans, differing in virulence in a murine intranasal infection model. PMID:27313293

  17. Risk factors for the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection on 59 Irish dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Cashman, W.; Buckley, J.; Quigley, T.; Fanning, S.; S. More; Egan, J.; Berry, D.; GRANT, I.; O'Farrell, K

    2008-01-01

    Since 1994, Irish cattle have been exposed to greater risks of acquiring Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection as a consequence of the importation of over 70,000 animals from continental Europe. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reported clinical cases of paratuberculosis in Ireland. This study examines the prevalence of factors that promote the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MA...

  18. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Causes Suppression of RANTES, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Expression in Peripheral Blood of Experimentally Infected Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Buza, Joram J.; Mori, Yasuyuki; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Hikono Aodon-geril, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Shu, Yujing; Momotani, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Blood from cattle with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection was stimulated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens, and expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL-8 was measured. Expression of TNF-α, RANTES, and MCP-1 was lower in infected than in uninfected cattle. The reduced response may weaken protective immunity and perpetuate infection.

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk from Clinically Affected Cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    intestinal mucosa, but culture-positive in milk, and both faeces and milk were negative in culture and PCR from 2 cows. In conclusion the presence of M. a. paratuberculosis could be detected in raw milk by PCR but cultivation of milk was more sensitive in detecting the organism.......Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11...... animals. In milk from 5 cows (all faecal culture-positive) we cultivated a few colonies of M. a. paratuberculosis (less than 100 CFU per mi). Milk samples from 2 cows were PCR-positive (both animals were faecal culture-positive, and 1 cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture-negative on...

  20. Characterization of gene expression profiles to chronic infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen; Grønbæk, Betina Chemnitz; Brogaard, Louise;

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes paratuberculosis, a chronic enteritis of ruminants. The aim of the study was to use high-throughput reverse transcriptase (RT) qPCR to describe intestinal gene expression patterns in response to different levels of Map infection with a large...... expected, leads to increased expression of local IFN-γ. Expression of IL-10 also increased as a result of Map infection, and this increase was more correlated to the amount of Map than IFN-γ, indicating a shift towards a regulatory environment as infection progress. Th17-mediated immune responses were...... suppressed at this stage. Gene expression of all other genes could not be interpreted in relation to infection status. High throughput RT qPCR can be used for exploring gene expression patterns in response to Map infection but larger study groups are needed to fully understand which are key mechanisms and...

  1. Analysis of wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. germplasm diversity in south-east Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mratinić Evica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed adequate grouping of wild sweet cherry genotypes according to pomological characterization and distinguished them into two distinct groups. The first group had two subgroups and consisted of seven genotypes, while the second one included only three accessions. Despite of the significant differences among genotypes, the total concentration of phenols made a clear separation between the clusters. The level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees are useful sources of variability for attributes studied and can be employed in further breeding programs or conservation.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Korean black goat (Capra hircus aegagrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. The study took place in 2012, on 491 Korean black goats, older than 2 years, from goat herds located in Southern region, Korea. The animals were sampled and tested for paratuberculosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and microbiological culture were used to investigate MAP infection. Among the 491 goats from 100 herds screened, 4 (0.8% and 3 (0.6% goats were defined positive for MAP by ELISA and faecal culture, respectively. Isolated colonies were confirmed as MAP by IS900-PCR, and genotyped by IS1311 PCR-REA assays. The results revealed MAP infection at a low prevalence rate with "cattle type" and "bison type" genotypes.

  3. Mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis-associated diseases: piecing the Crohn's puzzle together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Laura; Borody, Thomas Julius; Chamberlin, William; Campbell, Jordana

    2012-09-01

    The relation of Mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis (MAP) to Crohn's Disease (CD) and other MAP-associated conditions remains controversial. New data, coupled with the analogous Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) story, has permitted us to piece together the MAP puzzle and move forward with a more scientific way of treating inflammatory bowel disease, particularly CD. As infection moves centre stage in inflammatory bowel disease, the dated "aberrant reaction" etiology has lost scientific credibility. Now, our growing understanding of MAP-associated diseases demands review and articulation. We focus here on (1) the concept of MAP-associated diseases; (2) causality, Johne Disease, the "aberrant reaction" hypothesis; and (3) responses to published misconceptions questioning MAP as a pathogen in CD. PMID:22858515

  4. [Possible association between Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection and Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Patricio; Beltrán, Caroll; Abalos, Pedro; Quera, Rodrigo; Hermoso, Marcela

    2011-06-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic intestinal disease of animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), which has some pathological features similar to Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. The presence of MAP in food for human consumption and in affected tissues of patients with CD has been detected. Therefore, a causal association between this microorganism and the disease in humans, has been postulated. However, several related studies have failed to confirm this hypothesis and the scientific acceptance of MAP as a zoonotic agent remains controversial. This review presents the main findings related to this issue, contrasting evidences for and against an association between MAP and CD. The need to promote national studies focusing on this area is suggested. PMID:22051762

  5. Genotype profiles of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis recovered from suspected and Crohn's disease patients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A V; Singh, S V; Sohal, J S; Singh, P K

    2010-06-01

    Present study aimed to genotype Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) recovered from suspected and Crohn' s disease patients. A total of 32 MAP and DNA (directly from clinical samples) recovered from human origin were genotyped using IS 1311 PCR-REA. Isolates were cultured from stool, biopsies and blood clots of Crohn's disease patients, and stool samples of suspected (animal attendants, lab workers etc). Of the 32 MAP isolates belonging to 28 human beings, majority (84.3%) were genotyped as 'Bison type', while 21.7% were of 'cattle' and none was 'sheep' genotype. Study first time reports distribution of 'Cattle' and 'Bison type' 'genotypes in suspected and Crohn's patients on pilot scale in India. 'Bison type' genotype was predominant in the surveyed human population. PMID:22471168

  6. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a Direct In Situ PCR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Fernando; Aguilar, Diana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Francinelli, Gladys; Hernández-Pando, R.; Romano, María Isabel

    2011-01-01

    In situ detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is useful for diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis. The aim of this paper was to detect this agent in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by a direct in situ PCR. The technique was performed on ileum or ileocaecal lymph node samples from 8 naturally infected cattle and 1 healthy calf, by using p89 and p92 primers for amplification of IS900 sequence. Moderate positive signal was detected in all positive samples and not in negative control, but tissues resulted were affected in many cases due to the enzymatic treatment and the high temperature exposition. Although the technique was useful for Map detection, the signal was lower than immunohistochemistry probably because of the fixation process. In one case, signal was higher, which might be due to the detection of spheroplasts. Thus, the described method should be recommended when others resulted negative or for spheroplasts detection. PMID:21772965

  7. Opportunistic Pathogens Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) and Legionella spp. Colonise Model Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Giglio, Steven; Bentham, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic pathogens of public health concern. Hot water systems, including showers, have been identified as a potential source of infection. This paper describes the colonization of Legionella and MAC on the flexible tubing within a model potable shower system, utilizing thermostatic mixing and a flexible shower head. A MAC qPCR method of enumeration was also developed. MAC and Legionella spp. were detected within the biofilm at maximum concentrations of 7.0 × 104 and 2.0 × 103 copies/cm2 PVC tubing respectively. No significant changes were observed between sample of the flexible shower tubing that dried between uses and those that remained filled with water. This suggested the “unhooking” showerheads and allowing them to dry is not an effective method to reduce the risk of Legionella or MAC colonisation. PMID:26213977

  8. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisle John T

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis

  9. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Vida R; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Eckstein, Torsten M; Inamine, Julia M; Belisle, John T; Maslow, Joel N

    2004-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA) gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt) rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH) resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis, biosynthesis, or drug

  10. Mycobacterium avium Possesses Extracellular DNA that Contributes to Biofilm Formation, Structural Integrity, and Tolerance to Antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha J Rose

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an opportunistic pathogen that is associated with biofilm-related infections of the respiratory tract and is difficult to treat. In recent years, extracellular DNA (eDNA has been found to be a major component of bacterial biofilms, including many pathogens involved in biofilm-associated infections. To date, eDNA has not been described as a component of mycobacterial biofilms. In this study, we identified and characterized eDNA in a high biofilm-producing strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH. In addition, we surveyed for presence of eDNA in various MAH strains and other nontuberculous mycobacteria. Biofilms of MAH A5 (high biofilm-producing strain and MAH 104 (reference strain were established at 22°C and 37°C on abiotic surfaces. Acellular biofilm matrix and supernatant from MAH A5 7 day-old biofilms both possess abundant eDNA, however very little eDNA was found in MAH 104 biofilms. A survey of MAH clinical isolates and other clinically relevant nontuberculous mycobacterial species revealed many species and strains that also produce eDNA. RAPD analysis demonstrated that eDNA resembles genomic DNA. Treatment with DNase I reduced the biomass of MAH A5 biofilms when added upon biofilm formation or to an already established biofilm both on abiotic surfaces and on top of human pharyngeal epithelial cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of an established biofilm with DNase 1 and either moxifloxacin or clarithromycin significantly increased the susceptibility of the bacteria within the biofilm to these clinically used antimicrobials. Collectively, our results describe an additional matrix component of mycobacterial biofilms and a potential new target to help treat biofilm-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections.

  11. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  12. Effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on growth and chloroplast proteins in Prunus avium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, D.; Oosten, J.-J. van; Besford, R.T. (Horticulture Research International, Littlehampton, Sussex (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted of the growth response of Prunus avium L. Stella (wild cherry) to elevated CO[sub 2]. The associated changes in photosynthetic machinery of the leaf tissue were characterized. Self-pollinated seedlings and mature cuttings (clones) from the same parent plant of P. avium were grown for two consecutive growing seasons (about 60 days each) in ambient or elevated CO[sub 2] with high or low nutrient supply. The degree of acclimation of leaf biochemistry and growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] depended on the plant material (seedling or mature cutting) and nutrient supply. There was little or no growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] in seedlings or cuttings in the low nutrient supply treatments, whereas in both seasons, there was a strongly positive growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] in seedlings and cuttings in the high nutrient supply regimes, resulting in increases in the root/shoot ratio and in carbon allocation to the roots. In contrast, the protein content and activity of ribulose-1,5-biophosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1.39) were down regulated in elevated CO[sub 2]. The loss of Rubisco on an area basis in plants in the elevated CO[sub 2] treatments was compensated for at the canopy level by increased leaf area. The loss of Rubisco protein was accompanied by decreases in the contents of chlorophyll and the thylakoid membrane proteins D[sub 1], D[sub 2] and cytochrome f, which are involved in light harvesting and photo-electron transport. It is concluded that in the medium- to long-term, the initial stimulation of biomass production by elevated CO[sub 2] may be increasingly offset by a lower photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area in perennial plants. 27 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Host responses to the pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and beneficial microbes exhibit host sex specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasena, Enusha; McMahon, K Wyatt; Chang, David; Brashears, Mindy M

    2014-08-01

    Differences between microbial pathogenesis in male and female hosts are well characterized in disease conditions connected to sexual transmission. However, limited biological insight is available on variances attributed to sex specificity in host-microbe interactions, and it is most often a minimized variable outside these transmission events. In this work, we studied two gut microbes-a pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and a probiotic, Lactobacillus animalis NP-51-and the interaction between each agent and the male and female gastrointestinal systems. This trial was conducted in BALB/c mice (n=5 per experimental group and per sex at a given time point), with analysis at four time points over 180 days. Host responses to M.avium subsp. paratuberculosis and L. animalis were sensitive to sex. Cytokines that were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) betweenthe sexes included interleukin-1α/β (IL-1α/β), IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and gamma interferon (IFN-) and were dependent on experimental conditions. However, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and IL-13/23 showed no sex specificity. A metabolomics study indicated a 0.5- to 2.0-fold (log2 scale) increase in short-chain fatty acids (butyrate and acetate) in males and greater increases in o-phosphocholine or histidine from female colon tissues; variances distinct to each sex were observed with age or long-term probiotic consumption. Two genera, Staphylococcus and Roseburia, were consistently overrepresented in females compared to males; other species were specific to one sex but fluctuated depending on experimental conditions. The differences observed suggest that male and female gut tissues and microbiota respond to newly introduced microorganisms differently and that gut-associated microorganisms with host immune system responses and metabolic activity are supported by biology distinct to the host sex. PMID:24814797

  14. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC): an unusual potential pathogen in cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patients Complexo Mycobacterium avium: um patógeno potencial pouco comum no líquido céfalo -raquidiano de pacientes com AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    David Jamil Hadad; Tereza Cristina Petry; Anaenza Freie Maresca; Lucilaine Ferrazoli; Maria Conceição Martins; Maria Cecilia de Almeida Palhares; Walkyria Pereira Pinto; Adauto Castelo Filho; Moises Palaci

    1995-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is frequently isolated from patients with late complications of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), especially in North America and Europe. However, its isolation from the central nervous system (CNS) has been seldom reported in these countries. MAC infections in AIDS patients in African and Latin American countries are believed to be uncommon. We report the isolation of MAC from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 11 AIDS patients out of 1723 (0.63%) seen at...

  15. Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 21-kilodalton outer membrane protein from Bordetella avium and expression of the gene in Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry-Weeks, C R; Hultsch, A L; Kelly, S M; Keith, J M; Curtiss, R

    1992-12-01

    Three gene libraries of Bordetella avium 197 DNA were prepared in Escherichia coli LE392 by using the cosmid vectors pCP13 and pYA2329, a derivative of pCP13 specifying spectinomycin resistance. The cosmid libraries were screened with convalescent-phase anti-B. avium turkey sera and polyclonal rabbit antisera against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. One E. coli recombinant clone produced a 56-kDa protein which reacted with convalescent-phase serum from a turkey infected with B. avium 197. In addition, five E. coli recombinant clones were identified which produced B. avium outer membrane proteins with molecular masses of 21, 38, 40, 43, and 48 kDa. At least one of these E. coli clones, which encoded the 21-kDa protein, reacted with both convalescent-phase turkey sera and antibody against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. The gene for the 21-kDa outer membrane protein was localized by Tn5seq1 mutagenesis, and the nucleotide sequence was determined by dideoxy sequencing. DNA sequence analysis of the 21-kDa protein revealed an open reading frame of 582 bases that resulted in a predicted protein of 194 amino acids. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the gene encoding the 21-kDa outer membrane protein with protein sequences in the National Biomedical Research Foundation protein sequence data base indicated significant homology to the OmpA proteins of Shigella dysenteriae, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, and Salmonella typhimurium and to Neisseria gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein III, Haemophilus influenzae protein P6, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa porin protein F. The gene (ompA) encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein hybridized with 4.1-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica and with 6.0- and 3.2-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of B. avium and B. avium-like DNA, respectively. A 6.75-kb DNA fragment encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein was subcloned into the

  16. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; M. Hashemi; Struik, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that seed ...

  17. Rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium xenopi from mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex by pyrolysis mass spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Sisson, P. R.; Freeman, R.; Magee, J G; Lightfoot, N F

    1992-01-01

    Thirty four cultures of slow growing, Tween-80 negative mycobacteria were analysed by pyrolysis mass spectrometry. The results showed that pyrolysis mass spectrometry could positively distinguish strains of Mycobacterium xenopi from those of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) complex. Pyrolysis mass spectrometry may be a useful technique for the rapid characterisation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in such clinical settings as their isolation from immunocompromised patients-for exa...

  18. Genome-Wide Association Analysis and Genomic Prediction of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection in US Jersey Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zare, Yalda; Shook, George E.; Collins, Michael T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease), an enteric disorder in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), causes economic losses in excess of $200 million annually to the US dairy industry. To identify genomic regions underlying susceptibility to MAP infection in Jersey cattle, a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. Blood and fecal samples were collected from ∼5,000 mature cows in 30 commercial Jersey herds from across the US. Discovery ...

  19. Rapid diagnosis by buffy coat smear of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, J. M.; Dealist, C; Lewis, W; Heseltine, P N

    1990-01-01

    A smear of the buffy coat of peripheral blood for acid-fast bacilli was assessed for sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Seventeen AIDS patients with blood cultures positive for MAC had simultaneous quantitative blood cultures and buffy coat smears performed, as did 4 patients later proven not to have disseminated MAC. The sensitivity of the buffy coat smear for the dete...

  20. Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium avium Isolates Recovered from Clinical Samples and from the Environment: Molecular Characterization for Diagnostic Purposes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Julio; García, Ignacio Gómez; Aranaz, Alicia; Bezos, Javier; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Mateos, Ana; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique; Domínguez, Lucas

    2008-01-01

    Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms from clinical samples may occur in patients without clinical disease, making the interpretation of results difficult. The clinical relevance of MAC isolates from different types of clinical samples (n = 47) from 39 patients in different sections of a hospital was assessed by comparison with environmental isolates (n = 17) from the hospital. Various methods for identification and typing (commercial probes, phenotypic characteristics, PCR...

  1. A murine oral model for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and immunomodulation with Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    OpenAIRE

    Cooney, Meagan A.; Steele, James L; Steinberg, Howard; Talaat, Adel M.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) the causative agent of Johne's disease, is one of the most serious infectious diseases in dairy cattle worldwide. Due to the chronic nature of this disease and no feasible control strategy, it is essential to have an efficient animal model which is representative of the natural route of infection as well as a viable treatment option. In this report, we evaluated the effect of different doses of M. paratuberculosis in their abil...

  2. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L.) and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) varieties with five isozyme systems

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Corts, Remedios; Rodrigues, Luciano MR; Ortiz, Jesús María; Pérez Sánches, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal), were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the syst...

  3. Morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old bare-root seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stjepanović Stefan; Ivetić Vladan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) with special reference to their correlations. The examined parameters were: length, diameter, weight of the aboveground and underground parts, number of buds, root volume, root length and leaf area. The ratio of heights was determined on the basis of the parameters derived: diameter, and the ratio of aboveground and underground parts of a s...

  4. Molecular and quantitative signatures of biparental inbreeding depression in the self-incompatible tree species Prunus avium

    OpenAIRE

    Jolivet, C.; Rogge, M.; Degen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity strongly influences populations' adaptability to changing environments and therefore survival. Sustainable forest management practices have multiple roles including conservation of genetic resources and timber production. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the variation in genetic diversity among adult and offspring individuals, and the effects of mating system on offspring survival and growth in wild cherry, Prunus avium. We analysed adult trees and open pollin...

  5. Is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the cause of Johne's disease in animals, a good candidate for Crohn's disease in man?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A V; Singh, S V; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S

    2010-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease or paratuberculosis, a gastro intestinal inflammatory condition in ruminants and other animals, which is similar to Crohn's disease (CD) that occurs in man. The role of MAP in the causation of CD has been under intense investigation in the last few decades. This review summarizes the status of MAP in animals and the food chain and its association with CD in man. PMID:20443099

  6. Development of a novel oral vaccine against Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis and Johne disease: A patho-biotechnological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, C.; Coffey, A.; O'Mahony, Jim; Sleator, RD

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of Johne disease, a granulomatous enteritis of cattle and other domesticated and wild ruminant species. Johne disease is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. Current vaccines against Johne are insufficient in stemming its spread, and associated side-effects prevent their widespread use in control programs. Effective and safe vaccine strategies are needed. The main purpose...

  7. Growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis during Preparation and Storage of Yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Cirone, K.; Huberman, Y.; Morsella, C.; L. Méndez; Jorge, M.; F Paolicchi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) during preparation and refrigerated storage of yogurt. Three yogurts were prepared using pasteurized commercial milk. Each yogurt was artificially contaminated with (1) MAP, (2) E. coli + S. Enteritidis, and (3) MAP + E. coli + S. Enteritidis. Samples were taken during and after the fermentation process until day...

  8. Syndrome of selective IgM deficiency with severe T cell deficiency associated with disseminated cutaneous mycobacterium avium intracellulaire infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gharib, Asal; Louis, Ankmalika Gupta; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gupta, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous non-disseminated, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections have been reported in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects. Systemic Mycobacterium avium intracellulaire (MAI) have been reported in non-HIV patients with Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. We report a comprehensive immunological analysis in syndrome of selective IgM deficiency and T lymphocytopenia (both CD4+ and CD8+) with disseminated cutaneous MAI infection. Naïve (TN) and Central memory (TCM) subsets of both...

  9. Modeling of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in farm bulk tank milk

    OpenAIRE

    Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk of bovine origin is suspected of being implicated Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization is considered to reduce the concentration of MAP by at least 4 to 5 log10. This study aimed at estimating the level of MAP in milk at farm level and simulating the effect of different control options at different infection prevalences. The concentration of MAP in milk was estimated using a hierarchical simulation model representing individual co...

  10. Factors affecting within orchard variability of nutrition,yield and quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Neilsen, Gerry H.; Neilsen, Denise; Herbert, Linda; Losso, Istvan; Rabie, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Continuous air temperature measurements were made during 2006-2008 at 30 different locations within a topographically complex orchard containing 10 yr old ‘Sweetheart’ sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) on Mazzard rootstock in southern British Columbia. Yield, trunk cross-sectional area, fruit quality, and leaf and fruit mineral concentrations were measured throughout the study on adjacent trees at each location. Granier sap flow probes were installed on 10 nearby ‘Sweetheart’ trees to monitor ...

  11. Virulence-related Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis MAV_2928 gene is associated with vacuole remodeling in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Steven

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis (previously Mycobacterium avium subsp avium is an environmental organism associated with opportunistic infections in humans. Mycobacterium hominissuis infects and replicates within mononuclear phagocytes. Previous study characterized an attenuated mutant in which the PPE gene (MAV_2928 homologous to Rv1787 was inactivated. This mutant, in contrast to the wild-type bacterium, was shown both to have impaired the ability to replicate within macrophages and to have prevented phagosome/lysosome fusion. Results MAV_2928 gene is primarily upregulated upon phagocytosis. The transcriptional profile of macrophages infected with the wild-type bacterium and the mutant were examined using DNA microarray, which showed that the two bacteria interact uniquely with mononuclear phagocytes. Based on the results, it was hypothesized that the phagosome environment and vacuole membrane of the wild-type bacterium might differ from the mutant. Wild-type bacterium phagosomes expressed a number of proteins different from those infected with the mutant. Proteins on the phagosomes were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot. The environment in the phagosome of macrophages infected with the mutant differed from the environment of vacuoles with M. hominissuis wild-type in the concentration of zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium. Conclusion The results suggest that the MAV_2928 gene/operon might participate in the establishment of bacterial intracellular environment in macrophages.

  12. Mycobacterium avium restriction fragment lenght polymorphism-IS IS1245 and the simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction typing method to screen genetic diversity in Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (MaDRE-PCR and Pvu II-IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing methods were used to type 41 Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from 14 Aids inpatients and 10 environment and animals specimens identified among 53 mycobacteria isolated from 237 food, chicken, and pig. All environmental and animals strains showed orphan patterns by both methods. By MaDRE-PCR four patients, with multiple isolates, showed different patterns, suggesting polyclonal infection that was confirmed by RFLP in two of them. This first evaluation of MaDRE-PCR on Brazilian M. avium strains demonstrated that the method seems to be useful as simple and less expensive typing method for screening genetic diversity in M. avium strains on selected epidemiological studies, although with limitation on analysis identical patterns except for one band.

  13. The environment of "Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" microaggregates induces synthesis of small proteins associated with efficient infection of respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babrak, Lmar; Danelishvili, Lia; Rose, Sasha J; Kornberg, Tiffany; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2015-02-01

    "Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" is an opportunistic environmental pathogen that causes respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis as well as other chronic respiratory diseases. Currently, there is no efficient approach to prevent or treat M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection in the lungs. During initial colonization of the airways, M. avium subsp. hominissuis forms microaggregates composed of 3 to 20 bacteria on human respiratory epithelial cells, which provides an environment for phenotypic changes leading to efficient mucosal invasion in vitro and in vivo. DNA microarray analysis was employed to identify genes associated with the microaggregate phenotype. The gene encoding microaggregate-binding protein 1 (MBP-1) (MAV_3013) is highly expressed during microaggregate formation. When expressed in noninvasive Mycobacterium smegmatis, MBP-1 increased the ability of the bacteria to bind to HEp-2 epithelial cells. Using anti-MBP-1 immune serum, microaggregate binding to HEp-2 cells was significantly reduced. By far-Western blotting, and verified by coimmunoprecipitation, we observed that MBP-1 interacts with the host cytoskeletal protein vimentin. As visualized by confocal microscopy, microaggregates, as well as MBP-1, induced vimentin polymerization at the site of bacterium-host cell contact. Binding of microaggregates to HEp-2 cells was inhibited by treatment with an antivimentin antibody, suggesting that MBP-1 expression is important for M. avium subsp. hominissuis adherence to the host cell. MBP-1 immune serum significantly inhibited M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection throughout the respiratory tracts of mice. This study characterizes a pathogenic mechanism utilized by M. avium subsp. hominissuis to bind and invade the host respiratory epithelium, suggesting new potential targets for the development of antivirulence therapy. PMID:25422262

  14. Deteksi Mycobacterium Avium Subspesies Paratuberculosis pada Susu Pasturisasi yang Dijual di Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widagdo Sri Nugroho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspesies paratuberculosis (MAP is a thermal tolerant bacteria. The presenceof these bacteria in pasteurized dairy milk is associated with infectious bowel disease in human known asCrohn’s disease. The aim of this study was to detect MAP in pasteurized dairy milk sold in Bogor. Fourtytwo samples of plain flavoured milk (180–250 ml from 7 producers were bought from supermarkets inBogor. The presence of MAP was detected by isolation and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCRusing IS 900 and F57. Bacterial isolation were done by Herrold’s egg yolk medium with mycobactine J(HEYMj and without mycobactin J (HEYM and incubated at 37°C for 20 weeks. The DNA extraction ofall pasteurized dairy milk samples were conducted by DNeasy® Tissue Kit. Amplification conditionsfor PCR were: 1 cycle at 94°C for 10 minutes, 40 cycles at 94°C for 1 minute, 58°C for 1 minute, and72°C for 3 minutes, and 1 cycle at 72°C for 7 minutes. After 20 weeks of incubation, there were no sign ofMAP which grew in all isolation mediums. The PCR IS 900 and F57 did not detect the DNA band of thetarget. In the conclusion, there was no MAP detected in pasteurized dairy milk sold in Bogor.

  15. Impact of the shedding level on transmission of persistent infections in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Noa; Mitchell, Rebecca Mans; Whitlock, Robert H; Fyock, Terry; Pradhan, Abani Kumar; Knupfer, Elena; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Louzoun, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Super-shedders are infectious individuals that contribute a disproportionate amount of infectious pathogen load to the environment. A super-shedder host may produce up to 10,000 times more pathogens than other infectious hosts. Super-shedders have been reported for multiple human and animal diseases. If their contribution to infection dynamics was linear to the pathogen load, they would dominate infection dynamics. We here focus on quantifying the effect of super-shedders on the spread of infection in natural environments to test if such an effect actually occurs in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). We study a case where the infection dynamics and the bacterial load shed by each host at every point in time are known. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we estimate the parameters of a model with multiple transmission routes, including direct contact, indirect contact and a background infection risk. We use longitudinal data from persistent infections (MAP), where infectious individuals have a wide distribution of infectious loads, ranging upward of three orders of magnitude. We show based on these parameters that the effect of super-shedders for MAP is limited and that the effect of the individual bacterial load is limited and the relationship between bacterial load and the infectiousness is highly concave. A 1000-fold increase in the bacterial contribution is equivalent to up to a 2-3 fold increase in infectiousness. PMID:26925966

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in domestic sika deer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-Feng; Li, Ying; Yang, Fan; Yao, Gui-Zhi; Qian, Ai-Dong; Wang, Wei-Li; Cong, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic infectious granulomatous enteritis of ruminants and other animals, which has a worldwide occurrence, but little is known of MAP infection in domestic sika deer in Jilin Province, China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine seroprevalence and risk factors of MAP infection in Jilin Province. Serum samples collected from 1400 sika deer from 16 sika deer herds were collected in the 4 districts of the province between May 2013 and August 2014 and were tested independently for the presence of antibodies against MAP. A total of 247 (17.64 %) sika deer tested positive for MAP antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit. The management level of farm and collecting region of sika deer was the main risk factor associated with MAP infection. The present study revealed the seroprevalence of MAP infection in sika deer in Jilin Province, China, which provided the baseline data for taking comprehensive countermeasures and measures in effectively preventing and controlling MAP infection in sika deer. PMID:25904509

  17. Pleural Mycobacterium Avium Complex Infection in an Immunocompetent Female with No Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi P. Manglani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infections rarely affect the pleura, accounting for 5–15% of pulmonary MAC. We report a case of MAC pleural effusion in an otherwise immunocompetent young patient. A 37-year-old healthy female with no past medical history was admitted to the hospital with two weeks of right sided pleuritic chest pain, productive cough, and fever. She was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with signs of right sided pleural effusion which were confirmed by chest X-ray and chest CT. Thoracentesis revealed lymphocytic predominant exudative fluid. The patient underwent pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, and video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS, all of which failed to identify the causative organism. Six weeks later, MAC was identified in the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy by DNA hybridization and culture. The patient was started on clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampin. After six months of treatment, she was asymptomatic with complete radiological resolution of the effusion. The presence of lymphocytic effusion should raise the suspicion for both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Pleural biopsy must be considered to make the diagnosis. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion of MAC infection in an otherwise immunocompetent patient presenting with a unilateral lymphocytic exudative effusion.

  18. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109

  19. A seroepidemiological survey of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sheep from North of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Coelho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map seroprevalence in sheep in the North of Portugal. The effects on seroprevalence of several variables such as individual characteristics, management practices, farm characteristics, animal health, and available veterinary services were evaluated. This information was then used in a multivariable logistic regression model in order to identify risk factors for Map seropositivity. Univariable analysis was used to screen the variables used in the logistic regression model. Variables that showed p values of <0.15 were retained for the multivariable analysis. Fifteen variables were associated with paratuberculosis in univariable analysis. The multivariable logistic regression model identified a number of variables as risk factors for seropositivity like sheep pure local and/or a cross of a local breed (OR=2.02, herd size with 31-60 head (OR=2.14, culling during the Spring-Summer season (OR=1.69 and the use of an anti-parasitic treatment such as Ivermectin as the only anti-parasitic medication (OR=5.60. Potential risk factors identified in this study support current recommendations for the control of paratuberculosis.

  20. Mycobacterium avium subspecies Paratuberculosis and crohn′s regional ileitis: How strong is association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarman Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is a well-established etiological agent of Johne′s disease in animals. In humans, similar clinical condition, first described by Crohn as regional ileitis in 1932, now known as Crohn′s diseases (CD, has also been associated with this mycobacterial species. However, there are two schools of thoughts, one favoring MAP as its etiological agent while the second considers it as an immune-inflammatory condition triggered by an external factor. Onset of CD requires a series of events including predisposition of certain inherited genetic traits, associated environmental stimuli, and immune-inflammatory response. A combination of these factors probably leads to this disease. Recently, some human genes have also been identified which regulate ability to respond appropriately to the external factors. Added to these factors are concerns about the selection of clinical specimens and poor adherence to laboratory quality controls. The literature is full of contradictory findings, but there a lack of uniformity in the materials and methods used by many of these researchers. In this review, we provide our perspective under above circumstances and give our point of view which may open a platform for debate regarding the MAP as the etiological agent of human CD.

  1. On deaf ears, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in pathogenesis Crohn’s and other diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William C

    2015-01-01

    The historic suggestion that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) might be a zoonotic pathogen was based on the apparent similarity of lesions in the intestine of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) with those present in cattle infected with Map, the etiological agent of Johne’s disease. Reluctance to fully explore this possibility has been attributed to the difficulty in demonstrating the presence of Map in tissues from patients with CD. Advances in technology have resolved this problem and revealed the presence of Map in a significant proportion of patients with CD and other diseases. The seminal finding from recent investigations, however, is the detection of Map in healthy individuals with no clinical signs of disease. The latter observation indicates all humans are susceptible to infection with Map and lends support to the thesis that Map is zoonotic, with a latent stage of infection similar to tuberculosis, where infection leads to the development of an immune response that controls but does not eliminate the pathogen. This clarifies one of the reasons why it has been so difficult to document that Map is zoonotic and associated with the pathogenesis of CD and other diseases. As discussed in the present review, a better understanding of the immune response to Map is needed to determine how infection is usually kept under immune control during the latent stage of infection and elucidate the triggering events that lead to disease progression in the natural host and pathogenesis of CD and immune related diseases in humans. PMID:26730151

  2. Expression of NRAMP1 and iNOS in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F; Estrada-Chávez, C; Romano, M; Paolicchi, F; Blanco-Viera, F; Capellino, F; Chavez-Gris, G; Pereira-Suárez, A L

    2010-09-01

    Paratuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic disease caused by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects several animal species, and some studies have suggested that there may be a relationship between Crohn's disease and PTB. Significant aspects of PTB pathogenesis are not yet completely understood, such as the role of macrophages. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) molecules have shown nonspecific effects against several intracellular pathogens residing within macrophages. However, these molecules have been scarcely studied during natural infection with MAP. In this work, changes in NRAMP1 and iNOS expression were surveyed by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from MAP-infected cattle and healthy controls. Our findings show strong specific immunolabeling against both NRAMP1 and iNOS molecules, throughout granulomatous PTB-compatible lesions in ileum and ileocaecal lymph nodes from paratuberculous cattle compared with uninfected controls, suggesting a relationship between the expression of these molecules and the pathogenesis of PTB disease. PMID:19345998

  3. Application of multiple laboratory tests for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis detection in Crohn's disease patient specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banche, Giuliana; Allizond, Valeria; Sostegni, Raffaello; Lavagna, Alessandro; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Sidoti, Francesca; Daperno, Marco; Rocca, Rodolfo; Cuffini, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The difficulties involved in detecting and enumerating Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) as a pathogen potentially involved in Crohn's disease (CD) are well known. This study aimed to improve this situation through the application of multiple laboratory diagnostic tests to detect and isolate this bacterium from different specimens collected from CD-patients and non-CD subjects as controls. A total of 120 samples (terminal ileum and colon biopsies, blood and stool) were obtained from 19 CD-patients and from 11 individuals who did not have a clinicopathological diagnosis of CD (non-CD controls) attending for ileocolonoscopy. All samples were processed by staining techniques, culture on both solid and liquid media, and Insertion Sequence 900/F57 real-time PCR. The MAP frequency in CD-patients was found in a significantly greater proportion than in non-CD subjects; the most positive samples were biopsies from CD-patients tested by real-time PCR. MAP detection in biopsies, and in the other samples, by applying multiple and validated laboratory diagnostic tests, could be a marker of active infection, supporting MAP involvement in CD. PMID:26147146

  4. Mycobacterium avium subspecies Paratuberculosis and Crohn's regional ileitis: how strong is association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarman; Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy

    2011-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a well-established etiological agent of Johne's disease in animals. In humans, similar clinical condition, first described by Crohn as regional ileitis in 1932, now known as Crohn's diseases (CD), has also been associated with this mycobacterial species. However, there are two schools of thoughts, one favoring MAP as its etiological agent while the second considers it as an immune-inflammatory condition triggered by an external factor. Onset of CD requires a series of events including predisposition of certain inherited genetic traits, associated environmental stimuli, and immune-inflammatory response. A combination of these factors probably leads to this disease. Recently, some human genes have also been identified which regulate ability to respond appropriately to the external factors. Added to these factors are concerns about the selection of clinical specimens and poor adherence to laboratory quality controls. The literature is full of contradictory findings, but there a lack of uniformity in the materials and methods used by many of these researchers. In this review, we provide our perspective under above circumstances and give our point of view which may open a platform for debate regarding the MAP as the etiological agent of human CD. PMID:22219557

  5. Crohn's disease and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: the need for a study is long overdue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William C; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A

    2012-01-15

    The initial suggestion that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) might be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) was based on the apparent similarity of lesions in the intestine of patients with CD with those present in cattle infected with Map, the etiological agent of Johne's disease (JD). Recent investigations have now revealed the presence of Map or Map DNA in blood or lesions from adults and children with CD. Of special interest, Map has also been found in patients with other diseases as well as healthy subjects. The latter observations indicate all humans are susceptible to infection with Map and that, like with other mycobacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, infection does not invariably lead to development of clinical disease but rather development of a persistent latent stage of infection where an immune response controls but does not eliminate the pathogen. Limited information has been obtained on the immune response to Map in healthy subjects and patients with CD. Understanding how Map may be involved in the pathogenesis of CD will require a better understanding of the immune response to Map in one of its common hosts as well as healthy humans and patients with CD. PMID:22209202

  6. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in the etiology of Crohn's disease, cause or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Elisa; Scaioli, Eleonora; Cardamone, Carla; Dal Monte, Paola; Belluzzi, Andrea

    2014-09-28

    The origin of inflammatory bowel disease is unknown. Attempts have been made to isolate a microorganism that could explain the onset of inflammation, but no pathological agent has ever been identified. Johne's disease is a granulomatous chronic enteritis of cattle and sheep caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and shows some analogies with Crohn's disease (CD). Several studies have tried to clarify if MAP has a role in the etiology of CD. The present article provides an overview of the evidence in favor and against the "MAP-hypothesis", analyzing the methods commonly adopted to detect MAP and the role of antimycobacterial therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Studies were identified through the electronic database, MEDLINE, and were selected based on their relevance to the objective of the review. The presence of MAP was investigated using multiple diagnostic methods for MAP detection and in different tissue samples from patients affected by CD or ulcerative colitis and in healthy controls. On the basis of their studies, several authors support a close relationship between MAP and CD. Although increasing evidence of MAP detection in CD patients is unquestionable, a clear etiological link still needs to be proven. PMID:25278700

  7. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and dairy cattle in Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Marchetti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis affects all ruminants worldwide. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP could have a role in human diseases like Crohn’s. Some extra European Union (EU countries request importation of MAP-free products. Italy has not yet actualised a control programme and the diffusion of the infection is still unknown in Southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the infection in five regions of Southern Italy. Bulk tank milk and in-line milk filters were sampled in 780 dairy cattle herds and respectively analysed by ELISA and real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and 55 out of 780 herds (19.9% were found positive by ELISA and/or real time PCR. Individual milk samples were then collected from all the producing animals of positive herds and from a selection of negative herds. The estimated prevalence varies from region to region between 2.8 and 5.5%. Our results indicate that the disease is widespread in the five regions. The observed prevalence could be underestimated.

  8. Internalization-dependent recognition of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Johanna; Basler, Tina; Duerr, Claudia U; Rohde, Manfred; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a highly prevalent chronic intestinal infection in domestic and wildlife ruminants. The microbial pathogenesis of MAP infection has attracted additional attention due to an association with the human enteric inflammatory Crohn's disease. MAP is acquired by the faecal-oral route prompting us to study the interaction with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. MAP was rapidly internalized and accumulated in a late endosomal compartment. In contrast to other opportunistic mycobacteria or M. bovis, MAP induced significant epithelial activation as indicated by a NF-kappaB-independent but Erk-dependent chemokine secretion. Surprisingly, MAP-induced chemokine production was completely internalization-dependent as inhibition of Rac-dependent bacterial uptake abolished epithelial activation. In accordance, innate immune recognition of MAP by differentiated intestinal epithelial cells occurred through the intracellularly localized pattern recognition receptors toll-like receptor 9 and NOD1 with signal transduction via the adaptor molecules MyD88 and RIP2. The internalization-dependent innate immune activation of intestinal epithelial cells is in contrast to the stimulation of professional phagocytes by extracellular bacterial constituents and might significantly contribute to the histopathological changes observed during enteric MAP infection. PMID:19681906

  9. Genome-Wide Diversity and Phylogeography of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Canadian Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W; Stevenson, Karen; Zadoks, Ruth N; Biek, Roman; Kao, Rowland; Trewby, Hannah; Haupstein, Deb; Kelton, David F; Fecteau, Gilles; Labrecque, Olivia; Keefe, Greg P; McKenna, Shawn L B; Tahlan, Kapil; De Buck, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative bacterium of Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants. The control of JD in the dairy industry is challenging, but can be improved with a better understanding of the diversity and distribution of MAP subtypes. Previously established molecular typing techniques used to differentiate MAP have not been sufficiently discriminatory and/or reliable to accurately assess the population structure. In this study, the genetic diversity of 182 MAP isolates representing all Canadian provinces was compared to the known global diversity, using single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through whole genome sequencing. MAP isolates from Canada represented a subset of the known global diversity, as there were global isolates intermingled with Canadian isolates, as well as multiple global subtypes that were not found in Canada. One Type III and six "Bison type" isolates were found in Canada as well as one Type II subtype that represented 86% of all Canadian isolates. Rarefaction estimated larger subtype richness in Québec than in other Canadian provinces using a strict definition of MAP subtypes and lower subtype richness in the Atlantic region using a relaxed definition. Significant phylogeographic clustering was observed at the inter-provincial but not at the intra-provincial level, although most major clades were found in all provinces. The large number of shared subtypes among provinces suggests that cattle movement is a major driver of MAP transmission at the herd level, which is further supported by the lack of spatial clustering on an intra-provincial scale. PMID:26871723

  10. Association of SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) polymorphisms with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Hijikata, Minako; Matsushita, Ikumi; Tanaka, Goh; Ieki, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Toyota, Emiko; Nagai, Hideaki; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Keicho, Naoto

    2012-05-01

    Although genetic variants in SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) have been associated with mycobacterial diseases, these findings have not been extensively validated in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. This study investigated the genomic structure of SLC11A1 and its association with MAC infection. Nineteen polymorphic loci were genotyped in European descendents and the Japanese population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures and frequencies of major haplotypes differed between these 2 populations. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen from the data set, and 6 polymorphic sites were genotyped in 122 pulmonary MAC cases and 211 controls from Japan. We observed that the T allele of rs2279014 in the 3' untranslated region was associated with protection from MAC disease when comparing allele frequencies with an odds ratio of 0.582 (95% confidence interval 0.379-0.894, p = 0.013). The frequencies of haplotypes constructed with the above 6 variants did not differ between cases and controls. Allele-specific expression imbalance of SLC11A1 mRNA was evaluated in peripheral blood cells from heterozygous individuals, but no difference was observed among haplotypes. Although the significance was modest, rs2279014 is in strong LD with nearby SNPs and further studies are required for conclusive validation. PMID:22387151

  11. Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection in a Patient with Sickle Cell Disease and Severe Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Shemisa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old female with sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin SS disease and severe iron overload presented to our institution with the subacute presentation of recurrent pain crisis, fever of unknown origin, pancytopenia, and weight loss. A CT scan demonstrated both lung and liver nodules concerning for granulomatous disease. Subsequent biopsies of the liver and bone marrow confirmed the presence of noncaseating granulomas and blood cultures isolated Mycobacterium avium complex MAC. Disseminated MAC is considered an opportunistic infection typically diagnosed in the immunocompromised and rarely in immunocompetent patients. An appreciable number of mycobacterial infection cases have been reported in sickle cell disease patients without immune dysfunction. It has been reported that iron overload is known to increase the risk for mycobacterial infection in vitro and in vivo studies. While iron overload is primarily known to cause end organ dysfunction, the clinical relationship with sickle cell disease and disseminated MAC infection has not been reported. Clinical iron overload is a common condition diagnosed in the sub-Saharan African population. High dietary iron, genetic defects in iron trafficking, as well as hemoglobinopathy are believed to be the etiologies for iron overload in this region. Patients with iron overload in this region were 17-fold more likely to die from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggest a possible link to iron overload and mycobacterial infections; however larger observational studies are necessary to determine true causality.

  12. Drug resistance profile of human Mycobacterium avium complex strains from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of various anti-tuberculosis drugs for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC strains isolated from clinical samples. Methods: Forty-nine human isolates of MAC were tested for susceptibility to nine chemotherapeutic agents. All isolates were from Indian patients suffering from chronic pulmonary mycobacteriosis. Drug susceptibility was performed both by agar dilution and MIC method. MIC values were analysed, both visually and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader. Results: More than 40% of the MAC isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacine (48.98%, amikacin (46.94% and roxithromycin (42.86% by the MIC method. In contrast, the isolates showed high degree of resistance to the first line antituberculosis drugs: only 28.6% were sensitive to rifampicine, 22.85% to isoniazid and ethambutol each and 36.7% were sensitive to streptomycin. In addition, 22.85% of the strains were sensitive to clofazimine and 34.7% to kanamycin. Conclusions: Results of the study confirm the suitability of the rapid broth micro dilution (MIC method as a simple yet reliable method to assay for the drug susceptibility of nontuberculosis mycobacterium.

  13. Mycobacterium avium and purified protein derivative-specific cytotoxicity mediated by CD4+ lymphocytes from healthy HIV-seropositive and-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K

    1996-01-01

    mycobacteria. Our objective was to investigate the M.tuberculosis-and M. avium-specific cytotoxic capacity of T cells from healthy, bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated, HIV-seropositive individuals. Blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 10 healthy HIV-seropositive and 10 healthy seronegative persons with...... no history of previous or active mycobacterial infection. Antigen-specific killing of macrophages presenting mycobacterial antigens (purified protein derivative or M. avium culture filtrate) was conducted. The phenotype of the killer cells was determined by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter after...

  14. Ecofisiologia da cerejeira (Prunus avium L.),composição fenólica e actividade antioxidante dos frutos

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Berta Maria de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Biológica e Ambiental No contexto da fruticultura moderna, a cerejeira (Prunus avium L.) tem uma elevada importância económica, havendo, por isso, a preocupação especial de formar árvores produtoras de cerejas com elevada qualidade, mas com porte mais ananicante devido aos elevados custos da mão-de-obra na colheita e noutras práticas culturais do pomar. Assim, a expansão e a exploração rentável desta cultura implicam a aquisição de conhecimentos, entre ou...

  15. Evaluation of Evapotranspiration Estimation Methods for Sweet Cherry Trees (Prunus avium) in Sub-humid Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Cigdem Demirtas; Hakan Buyukcangaz; Senih Yazgan; Burak Nazmi Candogan

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2001 in a 3 year old and in the summer of 2002 in a 4 year old sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium, variety Z-900) on Mazzard rootstocks in Bayramic-Canakkale which is located in the west part of Turkey. Micro-sprinkler irrigation was selected as the irrigation method. The trees were subjected to four micro-sprinkler irrigation treatments (T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4). The water applied in treatment T-3 was considered sufficient to satisfy fully needs ...

  16. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which...... depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. Considerable variation of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and individual cow’s milk (IM) is reported, but factors associated with MAP occurrence in milk at farm level have not been described. This study systematically reviewed published...

  17. Early-screening for resistance to Phytophthora sp.p. in wild cherry clones (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerri S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for early selection of wild cherry clones for resistance to Phytophthora sp. is presented. Four Phytophthora species (P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. megasperma, P. alni were tested in vitro on four micropropagated cherry (Prunus avium clones, obtaining reliable and reproducible results. Variability in clones susceptibilities and in parasite virulence has been evidenced. Phytophthora citrophthora is confirmed to be a dangerous parasite, due to its capability to produce symptoms rapidly and its fitness to Mediterranean environments. On the contrary P. alni does not seem a dangerous parasite for wild cherry.

  18. Genetic variability of Wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed stands in Slovenia as revealed by nuclear microsatellite loci

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjan Jarni; Bart De Cuyper; Robert Brus

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to describe the genetic variability of four seed stands of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.). One hundred and thirty one individuals were genotyped at ten nuclear microsatellite loci. Total genetic diversity was high (H(E) = 0.704), while differences between stands were small but significant (F(ST) = 0.053, G'(ST) = 0.234). There was a significant amount of clonal reproduction in one stand, with only 11 genotypes identified among 36 trees. One stand showed a signi...

  19. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars. PMID:25631389

  20. Novel Monoclonal Antibody and Peptide Binders for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Their Application for Magnetic Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorna M O'Brien; Stewart, Linda D.; Strain, Sam A. J.; Grant, Irene R

    2016-01-01

    The generation of novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific monoclonal antibodies and phage-display derived peptide binders, along with their application for the magnetic separation (MS) of MAP cells, is described. Our aim was to achieve even greater MAP capture capability than is possible with peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS) using a 50:50 mix of biotinylated-aMp3 and biotinylated-aMptD peptide-coated beads. Gamma-irradiated whole MAP cells and ethanol extrac...

  1. Isolation of High-Affinity Single-Chain Antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Surface Proteins from Sheep with Johne's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease, due to infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, causes significant economic losses to the livestock farming industry. Improved investigative and diagnostic tools - necessary to understand disease processes and to identify sub-clinical infection - are much sought a...

  2. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola; Tondo, Annalucia; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2011-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics s...

  3. Techniques de production de plants de merisier (Prunus avium L.) par culture in vitro Bouturage herbacé, bouturage de racines

    OpenAIRE

    Chaix, C.

    1982-01-01

    Dans le cadre de l’amélioration génétique du merisier (Prunus avium L.) on a expérimenté trois techniques de multiplication végétative en masse : culture in vitro, bouturage de racines, bouturage herbacé.

  4. Seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    Vanleeuwen, John A.; Forsythe, LeeAnn; Tiwari, Ashwani; Chartier, Renee

    2005-01-01

    Blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. For antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5.6% of cows were test positive, respectively, while 29.2% of herds had unvaccinated animals with ≥ 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  5. Immunological detection of sheep experimentally infected with strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies containing insertion sequence IS901/IS902 and a 40 kDa protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Joan; Perez, V.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Marin, J.F.G.; Ahrens, Peter

    A monoclonal antibody raised against a 40 kDa protein present in certain M. avium strains (IS901/IS902 positive) was used for developing a blocking ELISA. Sera from experimentally infected sheep were evaluated by indirect ELISA, AGID and blocking ELISA. The blocking assay proved to be highly spec...

  6. Chemical decontamination with n-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide improves recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms from cultured milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is shed into milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne’s disease, allowing transmission of MAP among animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of MAP from milk. Parameters investigated included che...

  7. Sensitivity of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, escherichia coli and salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium to low pH, high organic acids and ensiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and a commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolate to persist under low pH and high organic acid conditions was determined. Die-off rates were calculated followi...

  8. Detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cheeses from small ruminants in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiero, Alessia; Fratini, Filippo; Mataragka, Antonia; Turchi, Barbara; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Ikonomopoulos, John; Cerri, Domenico

    2016-01-18

    Paratuberculosis is an infectious disease which affects mainly domestic and wild ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Map has been associated with human diseases like Crohn disease, type-1 diabetes, sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to determine the level of Map positivity of cheeses produced in Tuscany (Italy) as an indication of human exposure to the specific pathogen. Sampling was focused on artisanal cheeses produced without commercial starter culture from raw sheep or goat milk, on small-scale farms. Samples were tested by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture. Map DNA was detected in 4/7 (57.14%) goat, and in 14/25 (56%) sheep cheeses by qPCR, whereas cultivation produced a positive result in only one case. This corresponded to a goat cheese that had also reacted positively by qPCR and yielded a viable Type S (sheep) strain of Map. The Map load of the tested samples based on qPCR ranged from 6×10 to 1.8×10(4)Map cells/g of cheese. The results indicate on average 56.57% and 66.6% positivity of cheese samples and farms, respectively. Hence, the type of cheeses that were analyzed within the context of this study seem to constitute a considerable source of human exposure to Map; although the question remains of whether the Map cells were present in a viable form, since positive results were almost exclusively recorded by qPCR. PMID:26555160

  9. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Predicted Serine Protease Is Associated with Acid Stress and Intraphagosomal Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugadas, Abirami; Lamont, Elise A; Bannantine, John P; Shoyama, Fernanda M; Brenner, Evan; Janagama, Harish K; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although, studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophages and MAC-T cells that coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc(2) 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increased bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5) conditions, compared to the parent strain. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted. PMID:27597934

  10. Immunological findings associated with Argentinean strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavecchia, Silvia B; Fernández, Bárbara; Jolly, Ana; Minatel, Leonardo; Hajos, Silvia E; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Mundo, Silvia L

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of ruminant paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological behavior of different Argentinean strains of MAP in two bovine infection models: macrophage (in vitro) and calf (in vivo) through the evaluation of early immune responses at the peripheral and local levels. Two MAP strains (A and C) were selected taking into account the different patterns of TNF-α and IL-10 secretion displayed by infected bovine macrophages in vitro. Two groups of calves were infected with 250mg of total wet weight live MAP: strain A infected group (MA, n=3), strain C infected group (MC, n=2). Another group of animals was mock-infected (MI, n=3). Infection was confirmed by MAP culture of feces and microscopic observation of granulomatous lesions in the gut tissue. All infected calves showed positive results in the DTH skin test. A significant increase in peripheral CD4CD25(+) cells in MC group on day 150 was detected. The specific cellular immune response developed allowed the identification of the infection as early as 30days in the MA group. However, the percentage of CD8CD25(+) cells was significantly increased on day 120 in MC group. Significant differences between groups in proliferation and cellular responses were also detected in ileocecal lymph node samples. In summary, the strains of MAP employed herein induced differential immune responses in peripheral cells, in the proliferative responses and in cell functionality at the local level. Our findings support the hypotheses that the in vitro behavior displayed by macrophages could be a tool to identify differences among MAP strains infecting bovines and that the host-pathogen interactions occurring upon infection are dependent on the strain of MAP involved. PMID:27138443

  11. Sardinian Type 1 diabetes patients, Transthyretin and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masala Speranza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the cause of Johne’s disease, an enteric granulomatous disease. Recently, MAP has been associated with different autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D and multiple sclerosis. Transthyretin (TTR is a plasma transport protein for thyroid hormone and forms a complex with retinol-binding protein. Reduced TTR plasma levels in MAP infected ovines have been reported. TTR exerts also a functional role in the pancreas promoting insulin release and protecting β-cells from death. Our objective was to identify a protein that could be used as a diagnostic marker of T1D for determining disease progression and monitoring at-risk patients. We postulate that serological TTR levels would be reduced in T1D MAP exposed patients. Our hypothesis is based on the observation of cases of T1D patients with decreased TTR levels beside the reduced TTR plasma levels in ovines with Johne’s disease. We quantified the plasma protein levels of TTR in 50 people with T1D and 51 age-matched healthy controls (HCs by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Findings Our pilot study showed that plasma TTR levels were not significantly lower/higher in T1D Sardinian cases compared to the HCs. Conclusion These preliminary data indicate that plasma TTR may not be a good candidate biomarker for T1D diagnosis and further studies to elucidate the possible link are needed.

  12. Dormancy in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahhou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is admitted that the lack of winter chilling is a limiting factor for the cultivation of temperate fruit trees in warm climates. Nevertheless, the characteristics of dormancy in sweet cherry under such conditions are still not fully understood. Therefore, and in order to contribute to the elucidation of these mechanisms, the objective of this work is to evaluate the dormancy of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under the Mediterranean conditions of Meknes region (Morocco. Evaluation of dormancy behaviour of four varieties was made on the basis of a biological test, known as the « single node cuttings », and histological dissections of flower buds at the time of bud break. The variations of mean time to bud break (MTB were interpreted in terms of the evolution of growth capacity of the buds. The lack of cold affected tree phenological development. The evolution of dormancy in cherry buds showed three phases with variable levels of inertia: the first and third phases being of similar intensity and duration while the second phase was of a high level of inertia (endo-dormancy. The correlative inhibitions of the leaves imposed on the buds continued up to the arrival of continuous low temperatures. The delay in the decrease of inertia reveals insufficient chilling accumulation causing incomplete release from dormancy and low bud break percentage in the orchard. Histological observations showed that vascular connection of flower buds was established during bud break stage. However, flowers showed certain abnormalities, ie low pollen production and malformations of pistils, which limit the possibilities of pollination.

  13. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  14. Short communication: Evaluation of sampling socks for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Orsel, K; De Buck, J; Kanevets, U; Barkema, H W

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a production-limiting disease in cattle. Detection of infected herds is often done using environmental samples (ES) of manure, which are collected in cattle pens and manure storage areas. Disadvantages of the method are that sample accuracy is affected by cattle housing and type of manure storage area. Furthermore, some sampling locations (e.g., manure lagoons) are frequently not readily accessible. However, sampling socks (SO), as used for Salmonella spp. testing in chicken flocks, might be an easy to use and accurate alternative to ES. The objective of the study was to assess accuracy of SO for detection of MAP in dairy herds. At each of 102 participating herds, 6 ES and 2 SO were collected. In total, 45 herds had only negative samples in both methods and 29 herds had ≥1 positive ES and ≥1 positive SO. Furthermore, 27 herds with ≥1 positive ES had no positive SO, and 1 herd with no positive ES had 1 positive SO. Bayesian simulation with informative priors on sensitivity of ES and MAP herd prevalence provided a posterior sensitivity for SO of 43.5% (95% probability interval=33-58), and 78.5% (95% probability interval=62-93) for ES. Although SO were easy to use, accuracy was lower than for ES. Therefore, with improvements in the sampling protocol (e.g., more SO per farm and more frequent herd visits), as well as improvements in the laboratory protocol, perhaps SO would be a useful alternative for ES. PMID:26851860

  15. Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Trefz

    Full Text Available Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0, 10(-2, 10(-4 and 10(-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to

  16. Effects of seasonal climatic conditions on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, S J; Scott, H M; Libal, M C; Roussel, A J; Jordan, E R

    2005-07-01

    Validity of Johne's disease programs and control protocols that rely on established cut points [e.g., specified sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios] for ELISA serological tests depends on interpreted results that are not susceptible to variable test accuracy. It was hypothesized that seasonal variability exists in serological response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. Further, a reciprocal response may occur, resulting in greater risk of fecal shedding in subclinically infected animals. A testing regimen was invoked that included multiple testing of individual adult cows during the 4 seasons. Serum was collected on a cyclic, monthly basis from 3 randomly selected cohorts of dairy cows, and fecal samples were collected from the 20% of cows with the greatest ELISA test S/P ratios. Staggered, quarterly sampling was continued for 1 yr, and at the conclusion, serum was analyzed en masse. The ELISA outcome values (i.e., S/P ratio) were treated both as categorical and continuous variables. The potential lagged effects of temperature-related seasonality on S/P ratio, as well as the potential for a change in test result caused by temperature were assessed. Results for fecal culture were analyzed on a categorical scale and compared with the ELISA results to explore the possibility of reciprocal fecal shedding. No significant seasonal effects on either S/P ratios or the proportion of cows seropositive to MAP were observed. Furthermore, no evidence was found linking temperature-related seasonality to a reciprocal increase in the risk of fecal culture positivity for MAP. PMID:15956306

  17. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes Crohn's disease in some inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Saleh A; Sagramsingh, Sudesh R; Naser, Abed S; Thanigachalam, Saisathya

    2014-06-21

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition that plagues millions all over the world. This debilitating bowel disease can start in early childhood and continue into late adulthood. Signs and symptoms are usually many and multiple tests are often required for the diagnosis and confirmation of this disease. However, little is still understood about the cause(s) of CD. As a result, several theories have been proposed over the years. One theory in particular is that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is intimately linked to the etiology of CD. This fastidious bacterium also known to cause Johne's disease in cattle has infected the intestines of animals for years. It is believed that due to the thick, waxy cell wall of MAP it is able to survive the process of pasteurization as well as chemical processes seen in irrigation purification systems. Subsequently meat, dairy products and water serve as key vehicles in the transmission of MAP infection to humans (from farm to fork) who have a genetic predisposition, thus leading to the development of CD. The challenges faced in culturing this bacterium from CD are many. Examples include its extreme slow growth, lack of cell wall, low abundance, and its mycobactin dependency. In this review article, data from 60 studies showing the detection and isolation of MAP by PCR and culture techniques have been reviewed. Although this review may not be 100% comprehensive of all studies, clearly the majority of the studies overwhelmingly and definitively support the role of MAP in at least 30%-50% of CD patients. It is very possible that lack of detection of MAP from some CD patients may be due to the absence of MAP role in these patients. The latter statement is conditional on utilization of methodology appropriate for detection of human MAP strains. Ultimately, stratification of CD and inflammatory bowel disease patients for the presence or absence of MAP is necessary for appropriate and effective

  18. Exploring the zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis through comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, James W; Bull, Tim J; Seemann, Torsten; Bulach, Dieter M; Wagner, Josef; Kirkwood, Carl D; Michalski, Wojtek P

    2011-01-01

    A comparative genomics approach was utilised to compare the genomes of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolated from early onset paediatric Crohn's disease (CD) patients as well as Johne's diseased animals. Draft genome sequences were produced for MAP isolates derived from four CD patients, one ulcerative colitis (UC) patient, and two non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) control individuals using Illumina sequencing, complemented by comparative genome hybridisation (CGH). MAP isolates derived from two bovine and one ovine host were also subjected to whole genome sequencing and CGH. All seven human derived MAP isolates were highly genetically similar and clustered together with one bovine type isolate following phylogenetic analysis. Three other sequenced isolates (including the reference bovine derived isolate K10) were genetically distinct. The human isolates contained two large tandem duplications, the organisations of which were confirmed by PCR. Designated vGI-17 and vGI-18 these duplications spanned 63 and 109 open reading frames, respectively. PCR screening of over 30 additional MAP isolates (3 human derived, 27 animal derived and one environmental isolate) confirmed that vGI-17 and vGI-18 are common across many isolates. Quantitative real-time PCR of vGI-17 demonstrated that the proportion of cells containing the vGI-17 duplication varied between 0.01 to 15% amongst isolates with human isolates containing a higher proportion of vGI-17 compared to most animal isolates. These findings suggest these duplications are transient genomic rearrangements. We hypothesise that the over-representation of vGI-17 in human derived MAP strains may enhance their ability to infect or persist within a human host by increasing genome redundancy and conferring crude regulation of protein expression across biologically important regions. PMID:21799786

  19. Exploring the zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis through comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Wynne

    Full Text Available A comparative genomics approach was utilised to compare the genomes of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP isolated from early onset paediatric Crohn's disease (CD patients as well as Johne's diseased animals. Draft genome sequences were produced for MAP isolates derived from four CD patients, one ulcerative colitis (UC patient, and two non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD control individuals using Illumina sequencing, complemented by comparative genome hybridisation (CGH. MAP isolates derived from two bovine and one ovine host were also subjected to whole genome sequencing and CGH. All seven human derived MAP isolates were highly genetically similar and clustered together with one bovine type isolate following phylogenetic analysis. Three other sequenced isolates (including the reference bovine derived isolate K10 were genetically distinct. The human isolates contained two large tandem duplications, the organisations of which were confirmed by PCR. Designated vGI-17 and vGI-18 these duplications spanned 63 and 109 open reading frames, respectively. PCR screening of over 30 additional MAP isolates (3 human derived, 27 animal derived and one environmental isolate confirmed that vGI-17 and vGI-18 are common across many isolates. Quantitative real-time PCR of vGI-17 demonstrated that the proportion of cells containing the vGI-17 duplication varied between 0.01 to 15% amongst isolates with human isolates containing a higher proportion of vGI-17 compared to most animal isolates. These findings suggest these duplications are transient genomic rearrangements. We hypothesise that the over-representation of vGI-17 in human derived MAP strains may enhance their ability to infect or persist within a human host by increasing genome redundancy and conferring crude regulation of protein expression across biologically important regions.

  20. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection Modifies Gut Microbiota under Different Dietary Conditions in a Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Elguezabal, Natalia; Juste, Ramon A.; Derakhshani, Hooman; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) the causative agent of paratuberculosis, produces a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. It has been recently suggested that MAP infection may be associated with dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in ruminants. Since diet is one of the key factors affecting the balance of microbial populations in the digestive tract, we intended to evaluate the effect of MAP infection in a rabbit model fed a regular or high fiber diet during challenge. The composition of microbiota of the cecal content and the sacculus rotundus was studied in 20 New Zealand white female rabbits. The extracted DNA was subjected to paired-end Illumina sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene for microbiota analysis. Microbial richness (Chao1) in the cecal content was significantly increased by MAP infection in regular diet rabbits (p = 0.0043) and marginally increased (p = 0.0503) in the high fiber group. Analysis of beta-diversity showed that MAP infection produces deeper changes in the microbiota of sacculus rotundus than in the cecal content. A lower abundance of Proteobacteria in the cecal content of infected animals fed the high fiber diet and also lower abundance of Bacteroidetes in the sacculus rotundus of infected animals fed the regular diet were observed. Based on OPLS-DA analysis, we observed that some bacteria repeatedly appear to be positively associated with infection in different samples under different diets (families Dehalobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, and Mogibacteriaceae; genus Anaerofustis). The same phenomenon was observed with some of the bacteria negatively associated with MAP infection (genera Anaerostipes and Coprobacillus). However, other groups of bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae family and ML615J-28 order) were positively associated with infection in some circumstances and negatively associated with infection in others. Data demonstrate that MAP infection

  1. Preparation and Purification of Polyclonal Antibodies against Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis Antigens in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafezeh Alizadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Johne’s disease is the chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants, and a major health hazard worldwide. In recent years, researchers have focused on mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP antigens in diagnostic tests. Identification of antibodies against MAP antigens is, therefore, effective for the diagnosis or preparation of vaccine. The aim of this study was to prepare and purify polyclonal antibodies against MAP antigens. Materials and Methods: A New Zealand white rabbit was immunized at a certain time period with MAP antigens and Freund’s adjuvant. After the immunization of the animal, the rabbit was bled to obtain enriched serum. Immunoglobulins were obtained via sedimentation with ammonium sulfate 35% and then IgG was purified by ion exchange (DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Serologic test was used to evaluate the interaction of antigens and antibodies. Results: Ion exchange chromatography of IgG showed one peak, and SDS_PAGE of IgG showed a single band. Serologic test was applied and clear precipitation lines were appeared up to 1:16 dilution, which indicated the high quality of the product. Conclusion: In this study, the humoral immune response was induced well by immunization with MAP antigens in a New Zealand white rabbit and polyclonal antibodies were produced in high titers. Polyclonal antibodies are relatively inexpensive and easy to produce in large quantities and can connect to the more connective sites, resulting in better sensitivity. Identification of polyclonal antibodies via immunological tests can play a significant role in studying MAP disorders.

  2. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection modifies gut microbiota under different dietary conditions in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakel Arrazuria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP the causative agent of paratuberculosis, produces a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. It has been recently suggested that MAP infection may be associated with dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in ruminants. Since diet is one of the key factors affecting the balance of microbial populations in the digestive tract, we intended to evaluate the effect of MAP infection in a rabbit model fed a regular or high fiber diet during challenge. The composition of microbiota of the cecal content and the sacculus rotundus was studied in 20 New Zealand white female rabbits. The extracted DNA was subjected to paired-end Illumina sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene for microbiota analysis. Microbial richness (Chao1 in the cecal content was significantly increased by MAP infection in regular diet rabbits (p = 0.0043 and marginally increased (p = 0.0503 in the high fiber group. Analysis of beta-diversity showed that MAP infection produces deeper changes in the microbiota of sacculus rotundus than in the cecal content. A lower abundance of Proteobacteria in the cecal content of infected animals fed the high fiber diet and also lower abundance of Bacteroidetes in the sacculus rotundus of infected animals fed the regular diet were observed. Based on OPLS-DA analysis, we observed that some bacteria repeatedly appear positively associated with infection in different samples under different diets (families Dehalobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Mogibacteriaceae; genus Anaerofustis. The same phenomenon was observed with some of the bacteria negatively associated with MAP infection (genera Anaerostipes and Coprobacillus. However, other groups of bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae family and ML615J-28 order were positively associated with infection in some circumstances and negatively associated with infection in others.Data demonstrate that MAP

  3. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis of dairy cows in Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widagdo Sri Nugroho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD or partuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants caused by infection of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis subspecies (MAP. The disease has been detected serologically in Indonesia. It’s potential to spread to other herds and could create great economic losses. The objectives of current study were to detect MAP in milk and faeces of dairy cows as well as to evaluate the association between farm management factors and presence of the bacteria in dairy cows in Bogor. The sample size was calculated using the formula to detect disease with the prevalence assumed to be 5% using 95% significant level. Milk and faeces samples were taken from 62 dairy cows which were suspected as suffering from MAP infection. Detection of MAP was done by isolation in Herrold’ egg yolk medium with mycobactin J (HEYMj, acid-fast bacilli Ziehl-Neelsen staining, PCR IS900 and F57. Biochemical test to confirm M. tuberculosis presence was also conducted. Fifteen isolates of Mycobacterium sp. were found from the faeces samples but not from the corresponding milk samples. However, conventional PCR conducted on the isolate as well as the milk samples, gave negative results. Biochemical test proved that all Mycobacterium sp. isolates were not M. tuberculosis. This study indicated the prevalence of MAP in Bogor was less than 5%. These findings should be continued by observational study to achieve the comprehensive information at the cattle and herd level. Bovine Tuberculosis monitoring should be done also to protect dairy herd and food safety for the community.

  4. Metabolomic profiling in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen De Buck

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics

  5. Evaluation of evapotranspiration estimation methods for sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium) in sub-humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmirtas, Cigdem; Buyukcangaz, Hakan; Yazgan, Senih; Candogan, Burak Nazmi

    2007-02-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2001 in a 3 year old and in the summer of 2002 in a 4 year old sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium, variety Z-900) on Mazzard rootstocks in Bayramic-Canakkale which is located in the west part of Turkey. Micro-sprinkler irrigation was selected as the irrigation method. The trees were subjected to four micro-sprinkler irrigation treatments (T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4). The water applied in treatment T-3 was considered sufficient to satisfy fully needs of the crop (100% of ETc) and to allow good rooting and tree growth. The water balance relationship was used in estimating ETc. A total of 4 climatological methods were selected for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration on a daily basis. Some of these methods are based on combination theory and others are empirical methods based primarily on solar radiation, temperature ans relative humidity. An attempt was made in the current study to develop regional relationship between the evapotranspiration measured and that estimated by the climatological methods, such as FAO-Penman, Penman-Monteith, FAO-Radiation and FAO-Blaney-Criddle. Performance of the climatological methods in estimating the ETo values as compared to the measured values was evaluated on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE). In 2001, the Penman-Monteith equation gave the best results followed by FAO-Penman, FAO-Radiation and FAO-Blaney-Criddle. In 2002, the Penman-Monteith and FAO-Blaney-Criddle equations gave same results. PMID:19069518

  6. Epidemiological characterization and risk factors associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy goats in the Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theonys Diógenes Freitas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to conduct an epidemiological study and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease in dairy goats within the semiarid region of Paraíba State. The study was done during the period of March 2009 to July 2011, during which 727 female goats from 86 flocks from the city of Monteiro, Paraíba were investigated. For the serological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map infection indirect ELISA tests (screening and confirmatory were performed. Of the 727 animals used six (0.82% were seropositive at the confirmatory test after screening, and of the 86 flocks six (6.97% presented at least one seropositive animal. In positive flocks the frequency of reactive animals ranged from 5.26% to 16.60%. Risk factors identified were production system (weaning and reproduction (odds ratio = 36.0; 95% CI = 2.6 –486.1; p < 0,001 and absence of technical infrastructure (odds ratio = 54.0; 95% CI = 4.5 –642.9; p < 0,001. It was concluded that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is present in dairy goat flocks in the region; however, its influence on decrease productivity as well as the risk of transmission to humans through animal products must totally evaluated. Based on the analysis of risk factors, improvements are recommended for the technical infrastructure and the management of breeding goats.

  7. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with Map-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R

    2005-07-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation. PMID:16244077

  8. Molecular and quantitative signatures of biparental inbreeding depression in the self-incompatible tree species Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, C; Rogge, M; Degen, B

    2013-05-01

    Genetic diversity strongly influences populations' adaptability to changing environments and therefore survival. Sustainable forest management practices have multiple roles including conservation of genetic resources and timber production. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the variation in genetic diversity among adult and offspring individuals, and the effects of mating system on offspring survival and growth in wild cherry, Prunus avium. We analysed adult trees and open pollinated seed-families from three stands in Germany at eight microsatellite loci and one incompatibility system locus and conducted paternity analyses. Seed viability testing and seed sowing in a nursery allowed further testing for the effects of pollen donor diversity and genetic similarity between mates on the offspring performance at the seed and seedling stages. Our results were contrasting across stands. Loss of genetic diversity from adult to seedling stages and positive effect of mate diversity on offspring performance occurred in one stand only, whereas biparental inbreeding depression and significant decrease in fixation index from adults to seedlings was detected in two stands. We discussed the effects of stand genetic diversity on the magnitude of biparental inbreeding depression at several life-stages and its consequences on the management of genetic resources in P. avium. PMID:23211795

  9. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment. PMID:24812040

  10. Genomic Characterization of the Vaccinal Strain of Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP 316F by MIRU-VNTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ebrahim (MSc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. this study aimed to characterize the genome of the MAP 316F strain. Methods: The MAP 316F strain was subjected to the PCR-F57 and PCR-IS900 experiments in order to ensure its identity as MAP. This was followed by application of the Thibault genotyping system consisting of eight loci including 292, x3, 25, 47, 3, 7, 10 and 32. Required genomic material for all experiments was prepared using the simple method of boiling. Gel electrophoresis findings related to the typing PCRs were backed by sequencing of amplification products. Results: In PCR amplification, eight products with the size of 300, 298, 350, 217, 208, 203, 803 and 649 bp were detected at 292, X3, 25, 47, 3, 7, 10 and 32 loci, holding 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2 and 8 copies of TRs at these loci, respectively. Conclusion: This genomic pattern is matched with that of the MAP 316F vaccine strain from the French Merial company and also the MAP K10 fully-sequenced strain. Keywords: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Genomics, Genotyping techniques, Strain

  11. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Bovine Milk and Feces by a Combination of Immunomagnetic Bead Separation-Conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, Sangeeta; Thomas A Ficht; Renato L. Santos; Romano, Juan; Ficht, Allison R.; Zhang, Shuping; Grant, Irene R.; Libal, Melissa; Hunter, David; Adams, L. Garry

    2004-01-01

    Immunomagnetic bead separation coupled with bead beating and real-time PCR was found to be a very effective procedure for the isolation, separation, and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk and/or fecal samples from cattle and American bison. Samples were spiked with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms, which bound to immunomagnetic beads and were subsequently lysed by bead beating; then protein and cellular contaminants were removed by phenol-chloroform-i...

  12. A novel real-time PCR assay for specific detection and quantification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk with the inherent possibility of differentiation between viable and dead cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Martin; Baumgartner Walter; Khol Johannes; Volgger Patrick; Dzieciol Monika; Hein Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants and is suggested to be one of the etiologic factors in Crohn's disease in humans. Contaminated milk might expose humans to that pathogen. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel real-time PCR assay providing the additional possibility to detect viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) based on the MAP-specific Mptb52.16 t...

  13. Risk factors for the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection on 59 Irish dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Cashman W; Buckley J.; Quigley T; Fanning S; More S; Egan J; Berry D.; Grant I; O'Farrell K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Since 1994, Irish cattle have been exposed to greater risks of acquiring Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection as a consequence of the importation of over 70,000 animals from continental Europe. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reported clinical cases of paratuberculosis in Ireland. This study examines the prevalence of factors that promote the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratubercu...

  14. Neutralization of Interleukin-10 Significantly Enhances Gamma Interferon Expression in Peripheral Blood by Stimulation with Johnin Purified Protein Derivative and by Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Experimentally Infected Cattle with Paratuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Buza, Joram J.; Hikono, Hirokazu; Mori, Yasuyuki; Nagata, Reiko; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Shu, Yujing; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Momotani, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody neutralization of interleukin-10 (IL-10) increased Johnin purified protein derivative-induced whole-blood gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion 23-fold and also increased IFN-γ secretion ninefold following in vitro Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results demonstrate the suppressive effect of IL-10 on immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle.

  15. The potential Public Health Impact of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: Global Opinion Survey of Topic Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L A; Rajić, A; Stärk, K D C; McEwen, S A

    2016-05-01

    Global research knowledge has accumulated over the past few decades, and there is reasonable evidence for a positive association between Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease in humans, although its role as a human pathogen has not been entirely accepted. For this reason, management of public health risk due to M. paratuberculosis remains an important policy issue in agri-food public health arenas in many countries. Responsible authorities must decide whether existing mitigation strategies are sufficient to prevent or reduce human exposure to M. paratuberculosis. A Web-based questionnaire was administered to topic specialists to elicit empirical knowledge and opinion on the overall public health impact of M. paratuberculosis, the importance of various routes of human exposure to the pathogen, existing mitigation strategies and the need for future strategies. The questionnaire had four sections and consisted of 20 closed and five open questions. Topic specialists believed that M. paratuberculosis is likely a risk to human health (44.8%) and, given the paucity of available evidence, most frequently ranked it as a moderate public health issue (40.1%). A significant correlation was detected between topic specialists' commitment to M. paratuberculosis in terms of the number of years or proportion of work dedicated to this topic, and the likelihood of an extreme answer (high or low) to the above questions. Topic specialists identified contact with ruminants and dairy products as the most likely routes of exposure for humans. There was consensus on exposure routes for ruminants and what commodities to target in mitigation efforts. Described mandatory programmes mainly focused on culling diseased animals and voluntary on-farm prevention programmes. Despite ongoing difficulties in the identification of subclinical infections in animals, the topic specialists largely agreed that further enhancement of on-farm programmes in affected commodities by

  16. Evaluation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis faecal culture protocols and media Avaliação de protocolos de cultivo fecal e meios para a cultura de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ristow

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an important enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. The disease is officially considered exotic in Brazil, but recent serological surveys and the isolation of the agent suggest it may occur in our herds. The aim of this study was to evaluate three different formulations of Herrold's egg yolk agar with mycobactin J (HEYM and four faecal culture protocols considering their ability for Map growth as well as cost and ease of application. Three formulations of HEYM were inoculated with two suspensions of Map. Spiked faeces and naturally contaminated faecal samples were treated by the four faecal culture protocols. Centrifugation protocol and HEYM recommended by OIE showed the best results on the recovery of Map.A paratuberculose é uma importante enterite de ruminantes causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. A enfermidade é oficialmente considerada exótica no Brasil, mas inquéritos sorológicos recentes e o isolamento do agente etiológico sugerem que ela pode estar presente em nossos rebanhos. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar três diferentes fórmulas do Ágar gema de ovo de Herrold suplementado com micobactina J (HEYM e quatro protocolos de cultura fecal quanto ao crescimento de Map, bem como custo e facilidade de implementação. Três fórmulas de HEYM foram inoculadas com duas suspensões de Map. Fezes contaminadas artificialmente e naturalmente com Map foram tratadas pelos quatro protocolos de cultura fecal. O protocolo da centrifugação e a fórmula de HEYM recomendada pela OIE demonstraram os melhores resultados quanto à recuperação de Map.

  17. 欧洲甜樱桃研究进展及开发利用前景%Research Progress of Prunus avium and the Development Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰士波

    2012-01-01

    在汲取国内外相关研究成果及学术观点的基础上,详细阐述了欧洲甜樱桃的生物学和生态学特性、起源及地理分布,探讨了果实所含营养成分及其营养和医疗保健价值;分析了存量资源的保存现状、优良品种及砧木选育的研究进展;指出了资源开发利用过程中存在的不足,展望了欧洲甜樱桃系列产品综合开发和创新利用的广阔前景。旨在实现欧洲甜樱桃无公害、标准化栽培及资源的可持续利用,为推动功能性饮品、保健品及药品的产业化发展,提供理论依据和科技支撑。%This paper expounded systematically the biological and ecological characteristics of Prunus avium L.,and its the origin and geographic distribution on the basis of generalized the research production and science paper of P.avium at home and abroad in the recently years.We discussed the nutrition ingredient of P.avium and its nutrition and health function,analyzed the status quo of germplasm resources conservation,utilization and estimate,and the progress of variety breeding study.We pointed out the insufficiencies in exploitation and utilization,and expected the bright future for the development of series production of P.avium The aim was to carry out nuisanceless,standardization planting and sustainable utilization of P.avium resources,provided theory warranty and support of science and technology for promoted the industrialization development of functionality beverage,health products and material medica of P.avium.

  18. [A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by inhalation of Mycobacterium avium from a home bath with a circulating water system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Honda, Atsuro; Baba, Tomohisa; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Shichi, Izumi; Eto, Takashi; Arai, Kazumori

    2005-11-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with complaints of exertional dyspnea and cough. The patient has already been given corticosteroids at a previous hospital. Chest CT revealed small centrilobular nodules with diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs. Lung biopsy specimens at thoracoscopy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas, patchy foci of mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrous thickening of alveolar septa, and Masson's bodies in bronchioles. Sputum culture showed the growth of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Culture of water from the bath tub of his home showed MAC. Administration of antituberculous drugs and corticosteroids, and avoidance of bathing at home resulted in the improvement of his symptoms and CT findings. We believe the case is hypersensitivity pneumonitis to MAC in an immunocompetent patient, simulating hot tub lung. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by MAC is rare in Japan. PMID:16366369

  19. Longitudinal Pathogenesis Study of Young Red Deer (Cervus elaphus after Experimental Challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Mackintosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis progresses more quickly in young red deer than in sheep or cattle. This study describes the clinical, immunological and pathological changes over a 50-week period in fourteen 4-month-old red deer that received heavy oral challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. At 4 and 12 weeks post challenge they were anaesthetized and a section of jejunal lymph node was surgically removed for culture, histopathology, and genetic studies. All 14 deer became infected, none were clinically affected, and they had varying degrees of subclinical disease when killed at week 50. Week 4 biopsies showed no paratuberculosis lesions, but MAP was cultured from all animals. At weeks 12 and 50 histopathological lesions ranged from mild to severe with corresponding low-to-high antibody titres, which peaked at 12–24 weeks. IFN-γ responses peaked at 8–15 weeks and were higher in mildly affected animals than in those with severe lesions.

  20. Longitudinal study of interferon-gamma, serum antibody and milk antibody responses in cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huda, A.; Jungersen, Gregers; Lind, Peter

    During a 2-year study period, 252 animals from dairy herds infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and 119 animals from non-infected herds were subjected to repeated blood and faecal sampling. Animals were retrospectively grouped by infection status as infected, exposed (culture......-blood lymphocytes (IFN-gamma test), and measurement of antibody responses against M. paratuberculosis in serum and milk by an in-house absorbed ELISA. The IFN-gamma test diagnosed higher proportions of infected and exposed animals than the antibody ELISAs. The highest sensitivity of IFN-gamma test was in infected...... compared with repeated samplings showed better performance of the IFN-gamma test by repeated samplings, and the milk antibody ELISA in animals of 3+ years of age performed significantly better with repeated sampling compared with single sampling. In conclusion, the IFN-gamma test may be applied for...

  1. Morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old bare-root seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepanović Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. with special reference to their correlations. The examined parameters were: length, diameter, weight of the aboveground and underground parts, number of buds, root volume, root length and leaf area. The ratio of heights was determined on the basis of the parameters derived: diameter, and the ratio of aboveground and underground parts of a seedling and the Quality Index. Height and diameter have proven to be good indicators of quality. Root volume has proven to be a better indicator of the quality of seedlings than root length. The weight ratio of the aboveground and underground parts of broadleaved trees in the dry state must be defined in advance, both when the measurements are carried out with and without leaves. The Quality Index has proven to be the most comprehensive morphological indicator of quality.

  2. Parental participation in progeny and effective population sizes in experimental seed orchards of wild cherry Prunus avium L. (Batsch)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Balsemin, Emilie; Stoeckel, Solenn; Tavaud, Muriel; Le Bouler, Hervé; Santi, Frédérique; Verger, Michel

    2007-01-01

    La diversité génétique des parents et de leurs descendants, ainsi que les contributions mâle et femelle à la récolte de graines ont été estimées dans trois vergers à graines expérimentaux de Prunus avium. Les données collectées ont été utilisées pour comparer différentes tailles de population efficace, en se basant sur l'analyse de la phénologie, de la récolte de graines et de la paternité. Nos résultats n'ont pas montré de différence de diversité génétique entre les parents et les descendant...

  3. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant. PMID:27144542

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  5. The presence of opportunistic pathogens, Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex, in South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, H; Keegan, A; Fallowfield, H; Bentham, R

    2015-06-01

    Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10⁵, 10³ and 10⁵ copies/mL, respectively. During the summer period of sampling the concentration of all three organisms significantly increased (P residual along the pipelines was observed. This suggests that the combination of reduced chlorine residual and increased water temperature promoted the presence of these opportunistic pathogens. PMID:26042986

  6. Diversità funzionale in cloni di ciliegio da legno (Prunus avium L. di provenienza Appennino toscano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionality in wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones of Tuscany Appenines provenances. Results of a research regarding the functionality of already selected wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones are reported. The main target was to select the genotypes with the best ecological efficiency and less sensible to environmental stress, in order to give concrete indications for arboriculture for wood productions. Starting from 2002, measurements were carried out in the experimental plot of Papiano (Stia, AR, where the following clones with provenance from the Tuscan Apennines were compared: Casina Alpe 1 (A, Casina Alpe 2 (D, Puzzòlo (C, Paradisino (E, Piantata Catenaia (F. Dendrometrical data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each season, in order to evaluate the growth and the individual current increment of the clones. To better characterize the canopies of each clone, measurements of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and of the leaf area index (LAI where carried out with ceptometers and PCA LAI 2000. In order to evaluate differences between the clones regarding functionality and response to environmental stress, growth and productivity were related to the most important canopy characteristics. Ecological efficiency was calculated for the different clones using the net assimilation rate (NAR. The results show that the clone E has the most developed canopies and the best results in terms of growth. But at the same time it also presents densely branched round canopies and results more sensible to the effects of summer drought. These elements contribute to advise against the use of this clone in future genetic improvement programs and in high quality wood productions. On the contrary, the clones C and A have both good growth characteristics and a better general architecture and are therefore advised for high quality wood productions especially in the same geographic region.

  7. The role of polar auxin transport through pedicels of Prunus avium L. in relation to fruit development and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Stankiewicz-Davies, Anna P; Crisp, Carol M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2004-09-01

    It was investigated whether premature fruit abscission in Prunus avium L. was triggered by a reduction in polar auxin transport (PAT). The capacity of pedicels to transport tritiated IAA ([3H]-IAA) via the PAT pathway was measured at intervals throughout flower and fruit development. The extent of passive diffusion, assessed by concurrent applications of [14C]-benzoic acid ([14C]-BA), was negligible. Transported radioactivity recovered from agar blocks eluted at the same retention time as authentic [3H]-IAA during HPLC fractionation. The capacity for PAT was already high 7 d before anthesis and increased further following the fertilization of flowers at anthesis. PAT intensity was greatest immediately following fertilization and at the beginning of the cell expansion phase of fruit growth; the transport intensity in fruitlets destined to abscind was negligible. The amount of endogenous IAA moving through the PAT pathway was greatest during the first 3 weeks after fertilization and was again high at the beginning of the fruit expansion stage. IAA export in the phloem increased following fertilization then declined below detectable levels. ABA export in the phloem increased markedly during stone formation and at the onset of fruit expansion. TIBA applied to pedicels of fruit in situ promoted fruitlet abscission in 2000 but not in 2001, despite PAT capacity being reduced by over 98% in the treated pedicels. The application of TIBA to pedicels did not affect fruit expansion. The role of PAT and IAA in relation to the development and retention of Prunus avium fruit is discussed. PMID:15310825

  8. Cellular immune responses to ESAT-6 discriminate between patients with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex and those with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lein, A D; von Reyn, C F; Ravn, P;

    1999-01-01

    disease due to either Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis with those in healthy, skin test-negative, control subjects. Significant IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 were detected in 16 (59%) of 27 M. tuberculosis pulmonary disease patients, 0 (0%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 0...... (0%) of 8 controls. Significant IFN-gamma responses to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative were detected in 23 (85%) of 27 M. tuberculosis disease patients, 2 (25%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 5 (63%) of 8 healthy controls. M. avium sensitin was recognized in 24 (89%) of 27 M. tuberculosis...... disease patients, 4 (50%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 1 (13%) of 8 controls. IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 are specificfor disease due to M. tuberculosis and are not observed in patients with MAC disease or in healthy controls....

  9. Cellular immune responses to ESAT-6 discriminate between patients with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex and those with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lein, A D; von Reyn, C F; Ravn, P;

    1999-01-01

    disease due to either Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis with those in healthy, skin test-negative, control subjects. Significant IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 were detected in 16 (59%) of 27 M. tuberculosis pulmonary disease patients, 0 (0%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 0...... (0%) of 8 controls. Significant IFN-gamma responses to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative were detected in 23 (85%) of 27 M. tuberculosis disease patients, 2 (25%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 5 (63%) of 8 healthy controls. M. avium sensitin was recognized in 24 (89%) of 27 M. tuberculosis...... disease patients, 4 (50%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 1 (13%) of 8 controls. IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 are specific for disease due to M. tuberculosis and are not observed in patients with MAC disease or in healthy controls....

  10. Use of a multiplex PCR to detect and identify Mycobacterium avium and M. intracellulare in blood culture fluids of AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Kulski, J K; Khinsoe, C; Pryce, T; K. Christiansen

    1995-01-01

    The presence of mycobacteria in blood culture fluids (BACTEC) of AIDS patients with positive growth indices (GIs, > 20 U) was investigated by using a multiplex PCR to detect and identify members of the genus Mycobacterium, M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. tuberculosis. Three different methods of extracting mycobacterial DNA from blood culture fluid were compared for use with the multiplex PCR. Mycobacterial cells were pelleted from a small aliquot of blood culture fluid by centrifugation, ...

  11. Detection and Confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Direct Quantitative PCR Positive Fecal Samples by the Manual Fluorescent MGIT Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAJI, Satoko; Nagata, Reiko; Mori, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An efficient protocol for the manual fluorescent MGIT culture system combined with rapid confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) growth in the broth culture was established and evaluated for the detection of viable MAP in direct quantitative PCR (QPCR) positive bovine feces. Manually detected fluorescence emissions from MGIT tubes were analyzed objectively using an open source software, ImageJ. For molecular confirmation of MAP growth, DNA samples harvested ...

  12. Increased Serum KL-6 Levels Induced by Pulmonary Mycobacterium Avium Complex Infection in a Patient with RA-associated Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Waseda, Koichi; Ocho, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Kou; Kimura, Kosuke; Iwamuro, Masaya; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Kondo, Eisei; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Otsuka, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    KL-6 is a glycoprotein found predominantly on type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages, and often shows increased serum levels in patients with interstitial pneumonia. We report a case of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection whose disease activity was correlated with KL-6 levels in serum. During treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) with prednisolone, chest image findings improved in association with decreased KL-6 levels. Following taper...

  13. Comparison of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare strains from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), patients without AIDS, and animal sources.

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, S K; Geddes, G L; Isaac-Renton, J. L.; Black, W A

    1990-01-01

    Difloxacin, A-56620, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, cephapirin, SK&F 88070, and spectinomycin were used to compare the in vitro susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellular isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), patients without AIDS, and diseased animals. Against the isolates from humans without AIDS, the quinolone compounds difloxacin and A-56620 were found to be the most effective, each inhibiting 50% of strains at a concentration of 2 micro...

  14. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection in Cases of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Comparison with Crohn's Disease and Johne's Disease: Common Neural and Immune Pathogenicities▿

    OpenAIRE

    Scanu, Antonio M.; Tim J Bull; Cannas, Sara; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Dettori, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Stefania; Hermon-Taylor, John

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, a systemic infection and chronic inflammation of the intestine that affects many species, including primates. Infection is widespread in livestock, and human populations are exposed. Johne's disease is associated with immune dysregulation, with involvement of the enteric nervous system overlapping with features of irritable bowel syndrome in humans. The present study was designed to look for an association between Mycobacteri...

  15. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Merianne Alkio; Uwe Jonas; Myriam Declercq; Steven Van Nocker; Moritz Knoche

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘Regina’), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes...

  16. Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    Vanleeuwen, John A.; Tiwari, Ashwani; Plaizier, Jan C; Whiting, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    Of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for Bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for Neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres ≥ 1:64 for Bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  17. Evaluation of “Indigenous Absorbed ELISA Kit” for the Estimation of Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Antibodies in Human Beings in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, A. V.; Singh, S. V.; D K Verma; Yadav, R.; P K Singh; Sohal, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    In present pilot study aimed to estimate, presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in the human serum samples originating from North India using “Indigenous absorbed ELISA kit” (ELISA kit). The phase I, “ELISA kit” was optimized using protoplasmic antigen from native isolate of MAP “Indian Bison type” recovered from the biopsies of Crohn's disease patients. The phase II, sensitivity and specificity of the kit were estimated as 40.0 and 83.3%, respectively, ...

  18. Polyclonal infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of sequential clinical isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Slutsky, A M; Arbeit, R D; Barber, T W; Rich, J.; von Reyn, C F; Pieciak, W; Barlow, M A; Maslow, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Invasive infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is common among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. In previous studies, we analyzed multiple individual colonies of MAC isolated from specimens obtained at the same time and observed that 14 to 20% of patients are simultaneously infected with more than one strain. In this study, we examined sequential isolates from 12 patients with AIDS who had two or more MAC isolates available from clinica...

  19. NlpC/P60 domain-containing proteins of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis that differentially bind and hydrolyze peptidoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannantine, John P; Lingle, Cari K; Adam, Philip R; Ramyar, Kasra X; McWhorter, William J; Stabel, Judith R; Picking, William D; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2016-04-01

    A subset of proteins containing NlpC/P60 domains are bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolases that cleave noncanonical peptide linkages and contribute to cell wall remodeling as well as cell separation during late stages of division. Some of these proteins have been shown to cleave peptidoglycan in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and play a role in Mycobacterium marinum virulence of zebra fish; however, there are still significant knowledge gaps concerning the molecular function of these proteins in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). The MAP genome sequence encodes five NlpC/P60 domain-containing proteins. We describe atomic resolution crystal structures of two such MAP proteins, MAP_1272c and MAP_1204. These crystal structures, combined with functional assays to measure peptidoglycan cleavage activity, led to the observation that MAP_1272c does not have a functional catalytic core for peptidoglycan hydrolysis. Furthermore, the structure and sequence of MAP_1272c demonstrate that the catalytic residues normally required for hydrolysis are absent, and the protein does not bind peptidoglycan as efficiently as MAP_1204. While the NlpC/P60 catalytic triad is present in MAP_1204, changing the catalytic cysteine-155 residue to a serine significantly diminished catalytic activity, but did not affect binding to peptidoglycan. Collectively, these findings suggest a broader functional repertoire for NlpC/P60 domain-containing proteins than simply hydrolases. PMID:26799947

  20. Infección pulmonar por Mycobacterium avium en paciente VIH/SIDA: Primer reporte en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carrasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El complejo Mycobacterium avium (MAC es un patógeno que se encuentra en el medioambiente y causa infecciones tanto en pacientes inmunocompetentes como inmunocomprometidos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente VIH positivo varón de 38 años infectado por P. jirovecii y aparentemente infectado por Mycobacterium tuberculosis desde el año 2009, el cual fue tratado con antibioticoterapia para pneumocistosis y terapia antituberculosis (TB logrando mejoría parcial. En el año 2012 se le realizó nuevamente examen de cultivo y un nuevo tratamiento anti TB, frente a la sospecha de estar en presencia de una cepa de TB multidrogorresistente se recomienda realizar la identificación micobacteriana. El examen de cultivo fue positivo y el resultado genotípico resultó positivo para MAC. Se reporta el primer caso de un paciente VIH/SIDA con infección pulmonar por MAC en el Perú, así como una breve revisión de los aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y de tratamiento

  1. In vitro cytokine profiles and viability of different human cells treated with whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Pittu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is a zoonotic pathogen, a very slow growing bacterium which is difficult to isolate and passage in conventional laboratory culture. Although its association with Johne’s disease or paratuberculosis of cattle is well established, it has been only putatively linked to Crohn’s disease in humans. Further, MAP has been recently suggested to be a trigger for other autoimmune diseases such as type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Recently, some studies have indicated that exposure to MAP is associated with elevated levels of antibodies against MAP lysate although the exact mechanism and significance of the same remains unclear. Further, the cytokine profiles relevant in MAP associated diseases of humans and their exact role in the pathophysiology are not clearly known. We performed in vitro cytokine analyses after exposing different cultured human cells to the whole cell lysate of MAP and found that MAP lysate induces secretion of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Also, it induces secretion of IL-8 by cultured human stomach adenocarcinoma cells (AGS and PANC-1(human pancreatic carcinoma cell line cells. We also found that MAP lysate induced cytotoxicity in PANC-1cells. Collectively, these results provide a much needed base-line data set of cytokines broadly signifying a MAP induced cellular response by human cells.

  2. Serum BAFF levels, Methypredsinolone therapy, Epstein-Barr Virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in Multiple Sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Cocco, Eleonora; Frau, Jessica; Arru, Giannina; Caggiu, Elisa; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-01-01

    Elevated B lymphocyte activating factor BAFF levels have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients; moreover, disease-modifying treatments (DMT) have shown to influence blood BAFF levels in MS patients, although the significance of these changes is still controversial. In addition, BAFF levels were reported increased during infectious diseases. In our study, we wanted to investigate on the serum BAFF concentrations correlated to the antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and their human homologous epitopes in MS and in patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND), divided in Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (IND), Non Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (NIND) and Undetermined Neurological Diseases (UND), in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). Our results confirmed a statistically significant high BAFF levels in MS and IND patients in comparison to HCs but not NIND and UND patients. Interestingly, BAFF levels were inversely proportional to antibodies level against EBV and MAP peptides and the BAFF levels significantly decreased in MS patients after methylprednisolone therapy. These results implicate that lower circulating BAFF concentrations were present in MS patients with humoral response against MAP and EBV. In conclusion MS patients with no IgGs against EBV and MAP may support the hypothesis that elevated blood BAFF levels could be associated with a more stable disease. PMID:27383531

  3. Overt Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection: An Infrequent Occurrence in Archived Tissue from False TB Reactor Cattle in Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Fitzgerald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to retrospectively determine whether or not cattle from the state of Michigan which were classified as bovine tuberculosis reactors, based on currently approved field and laboratory testing methods, were overtly infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Included in this study were 384 adult cattle submitted to the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health over a seven-year period. Cattle were tested utilizing standard methods to confirm that all cattle were lesion and culture negative for infection with Mycobacterium bovis at postmortem examination. Retrospective analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of ileum and ileocecal lymph node were evaluated by histopathology, acid-fast staining, and PCR assays to detect MAP. Overall, only 1.04 percent of cattle showed overt infection with MAP on visual examination of sections of ileum and/or ileo-cecal lymph node. This increased slightly to 2.1 percent of cattle likely infected with MAP after additional testing using a PCR assay. Based on these results, we found no evidence that overt infection with MAP plays a major role in the false tuberculosis reactor test results for cattle examined in this study.

  4. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. PMID:24986906

  5. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds relevant to human health of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Gabriele; Continella, Alberto; Gentile, Alessandra; Amenta, Margherita; Fabroni, Simona; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2013-10-15

    The fruit quality characteristics, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown on the mountainsides of the Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify sugars, organic acids and phenolics. A total of seven phenolic compounds were characterised as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid) and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside). The total anthocyanin content ranged from 6.21 to 94.20mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenol content ranged from 84.96 to 162.21mg gallic acid equivalents/100g FW. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay indicated that fruit of all genotypes possessed considerable antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some sweet cherry fruits implied that they might be sources of bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. PMID:23692746

  6. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  7. Genetic variability of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. seed stands in Slovenia as revealed by nuclear microsatellite loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Jarni

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers were used to describe the genetic variability of four seed stands of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.. One hundred and thirty one individuals were genotyped at ten nuclear microsatellite loci. Total genetic diversity was high (H(E = 0.704, while differences between stands were small but significant (F(ST = 0.053, G'(ST = 0.234. There was a significant amount of clonal reproduction in one stand, with only 11 genotypes identified among 36 trees. One stand showed a significant excess (F(IS = -0.044 of heterozygosity, and one showed a deficit (F(IS = 0.044. Our results demonstrate the importance of taking into account the biological and genetic characteristics of species in forest management, especially when determining a new seed stand. The small genetic differences found between seed stands indicate that a large number of stands are not required. However, they should be carefully selected and should possess adequate genetic variability to ensure low relatedness between seed trees.

  8. Paternal-specific S-allele transmission in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.): the potential for sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedhly, A; Wünsch, A; Kartal, Ö; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2016-03-01

    Homomorphic self-incompatibility is a well-studied example of a physiological process that is thought to increase population diversity and reduce the expression of inbreeding depression. Whereas theoretical models predict the presence of a large number of S-haplotypes with equal frequencies at equilibrium, unequal allele frequencies have been repeatedly reported and attributed to sampling effects, population structure, demographic perturbation, sheltered deleterious mutations or selection pressure on linked genes. However, it is unclear to what extent unequal segregations are the results of gametophytic or sexual selection. Although these two forces are difficult to disentangle, testing S-alleles in the offspring of controlled crosses provides an opportunity to separate these two phenomena. In this work, segregation and transmission of S-alleles have been characterized in progenies of mixed donors and fully compatible pollinations under field conditions in Prunus avium. Seed set patterns and pollen performance have also been characterized. The results reveal paternal-specific distorted transmission of S-alleles in most of the crosses. Interestingly, S-allele segregation within any given paternal or maternal S-locus was random. Observations on pollen germination, pollen tube growth rate, pollen tube cohort size, seed set dynamics and transmission patterns strongly suggest post-pollination, prezygotic sexual selection, with male-male competition as the most likely mechanism. According to these results, post-pollination sexual selection takes precedence over frequency-dependent selection in explaining unequal S-haplotype frequencies. PMID:26559165

  9. Induction of matrix metalloproteinases and TLR2 and 6 in murine colon after oral exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderfeld, Martin; Koc, Arzu; Rath, Timo; Blöcher, Sonja; Tschuschner, Annette; Akineden, Ömer; Fischer, Marta; von Gerlach, Susanne; Goethe, Ralph; Eckelt, Elke; Meens, Jochen; Bülte, Michael; Basler, Tina; Roeb, Elke

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is suspected to be a causative agent in Crohn's disease. Recent evidence suggests that MAP can induce the expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are the main proteases in the pathogenesis of mucosal ulcerations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Within the present study, we analysed whether oral MAP exposure can induce colonic MMP expression in vivo. In MAP exposed mice MAP and spheroplasts were visualized in intramucosal leukocyte aggregates. MAP exposed mice exhibited a higher colonic expression of Mmp-2, -9, -13, -14, Timp-1, Tlr2, Tlr6, Il-1β, and Tnf-α. Cell clusters of MMP-9 positive cells adjacent to intramucosal leukocyte aggregates and CD45(+) leukocytes were identified as the major cellular sources of MMP-9. Enhanced TLR2 expression was visualized on the luminal side of colonic enterocytes. Although MAP exposure did not lead to macroscopic intestinal inflammation, the observed MAP spheroplasts in intramucosal leukocyte aggregates together with increased colonic expression of toll-like receptors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and MMPs upon MAP exposure represents a part of the host immune response towards MAP. PMID:22289202

  10. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection in individual and bulk tank milk samples from bovine herds and caprine flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favila-Humara, Lucía C; Chávez-Gris, Gilberto G; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2010-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), and it generates great economic losses for the dairy industry worldwide. In humans, Map has been associated with Crohn's disease. Mexico has unknown paratuberculosis prevalence, and yet, control programs have not been applied. This study aimed to determine the presence of Map in milk samples from seropositive goats and cows and bulk tank milk samples from herds previously designated Map-infected using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Map DNA was detected in 100% of the bulk tank milk samples of 14 bovine herds and 3 caprine flocks using a modified insertion sequence 900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, Map DNA was detected in 100% of the individual milk samples from 10 cows and 8 goats. Further, based on the findings of the experimental insertion sequence 900 PCR assessment, evaluation of bulk tank and individual milk samples through a type-specific PCR was performed, which confirmed our previous findings and revealed that 56.25% cow and 63.63% goat milk had concurrent infections of the C, I, and S types. Out of 14 bulk tank milk samples, 10 had viable mycobacteria. Paratuberculosis was detected at a high frequency in cow and goat milk, which suggests that raw milk ingestion represents a potential risk of Map infection. PMID:19911881

  11. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis--incidences in milk and milk products, their isolation, enumeration, characterization, and role in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ami; Shah, Nihir

    2011-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), excreted in the feces and milk, is reported to be not easily inactivated by pasteurization and thermal treatments as other bacteria infecting humans and animals do. The D values of all MAP strains tested were considerably higher than those published for other pathogens. Culturing techniques for this organism are labor intensive. Although an increasing amount of scientific evidence suggests that this organism can be responsible for at least some cases of Crohn's disease (CD), there is controversy about MAP being a cause of CD in humans. In general, although some studies have described an association between the presence of MAP and CD, the role of Mycobacterium species and MAP in the etiology of this human disease remains unestablished. Although published reports indicate that it may not be completely inactivated by pasteurization of milk, the effectiveness of increasing the time or temperature in the pasteurization process has not been established and hence any potential benefit to human health cannot be determined. This article summarizes the incidences of MAP in milk and milk products with respect to human health and brief discussion of various serological as well as molecular techniques used for their isolation, enumeration, and characterization. PMID:21620785

  12. Infección pulmonar por Mycobacterium avium en paciente VIH/SIDA: Primer reporte en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carrasco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El complejo Mycobacterium avium (MAC es un patógeno que se encuentra en el medioambiente y causa infecciones tanto en pacientes inmunocompetentes como inmunocomprometidos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente VIH positivo varón de 38 años infectado por P. jirovecii y aparentemente infectado por Mycobacterium tuberculosis desde el año 2009, el cual fue tratado con antibioticoterapia para pneumocistosis y terapia antituberculosis (TB logrando mejoría parcial. En el año 2012 se le realizó nuevamente examen de cultivo y un nuevo tratamiento anti TB, frente a la sospecha de estar en presencia de una cepa de TB multidrogorresistente se recomienda realizar la identificación micobacteriana. El examen de cultivo fue positivo y el resultado genotípico resultó positivo para MAC. Se reporta el primer caso de un paciente VIH/SIDA con infección pulmonar por MAC en el Perú, así como una breve revisión de los aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y de tratamiento

  13. Syndrome of selective IgM deficiency with severe T cell deficiency associated with disseminated cutaneous mycobacterium avium intracellulaire infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Asal; Louis, Ankmalika Gupta; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gupta, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous non-disseminated, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections have been reported in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects. Systemic Mycobacterium avium intracellulaire (MAI) have been reported in non-HIV patients with Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. We report a comprehensive immunological analysis in syndrome of selective IgM deficiency and T lymphocytopenia (both CD4+ and CD8+) with disseminated cutaneous MAI infection. Naïve (TN) and Central memory (TCM) subsets of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were decreased, whereas terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) subset of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were markedly increased. IFN-γ producing T cells were markedly decreased. Although CD14(high)CD16- proinflammatory monocytes were modestly increased, IFN-γR+ monocytes were markedly decreased. The expression of TLR3, TLR5, TLR7, and TLR9 on monocytes was decreased. Germinal center B cells (CD19+IgD-CD38+CD27(lo)) and B1 cells (CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70-) were markedly decreased. A role of immune alterations, including B cells and antibodies in disseminated cutaneous MAI infection is discussed. PMID:26550546

  14. Linking chronic infection and autoimmune diseases: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, SLC11A1 polymorphisms and type-1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Paccagnini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is still unknown; numerous studies are performed to unravel the environmental factors involved in triggering the disease. SLC11A1 is a membrane transporter that is expressed in late endosomes of antigen presenting cells involved in the immunopathogenic events leading to T1DM. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP has been reported to be a possible trigger in the development of T1DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty nine T1DM patients and 79 healthy controls were genotyped for 9 polymorphisms of SLC11A1 gene, and screened for the presence of MAP by PCR. Differences in genotype frequency were evaluated for both T1DM patients and controls. We found a polymorphism in the SLC11A1 gene (274C/T associated to type 1 diabetic patients and not to controls. The presence of MAP DNA was also significantly associated with T1DM patients and not with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 274C/T SCL11A1 polymorphism was found to be associated with T1DM as well as the presence of MAP DNA in blood. Since MAP persists within macrophages and it is also processed by dendritic cells, further studies are necessary to evaluate if mutant forms of SLC11A1 alter the processing or presentation of MAP antigens triggering thereby an autoimmune response in T1DM patients.

  15. Infection with the Mycobacterium avium complex in patients without predisposing conditons: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barral Martins

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM, especially Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC, has been considered responsible for human disease, especially in HIV patients. Nevertheless, it has been diagnosed in immunocompetent elderly men, frequently with previous pulmonary disease: chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, complications of tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiectasis. We relate the case of a female patient, 51 years old, with continuously acid fast bacilli (AFB smears and with three previous treatments, which were conducted at the multiresistant tuberculosis (MRTB service. MAC was identified in the sputum culture, and she received treatment for one year. The posterior sputum exams were negative. The cavity lesions observed in the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT were reduced, and some of the nodule lesions became bronchiectasis, even after the end of treatment. We agree with the literature reports that indicate that MAC is the cause of bronchiectasis. It is necessary to identify the type of mycobacteria in immunocompetent individuals with positive AFB smears that do not become negative with tuberculosis treatment.

  16. Johne's disease: reliability of environmental sampling to characterize Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in beef cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawonn, W; Einax, E; Pützschel, R; Schmidt, M; Donat, K

    2016-08-01

    Environmental samples are considered to be a cost-effective method of identifying Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive dairy herds, but evidence for beef cow-calf herds is weak. This study aims at evaluating this approach in a total of 20 German herds that were characterized by individual faecal samples (n = 2545) of all cows. For 14 MAP-positive herds having at least one MAP-positive animal, the within-herd prevalence was calculated from concurrent individual faecal culture-based testing. Six herds certified as 'MAP free' based on the negative results of previous years served as MAP-negative controls. On average, six environmental samples were taken at the end of winter from areas with high cow traffic and tested for MAP by faecal culture. According to the environmental samples, nine (64·3%) out of the 14 MAP-positive cow-calf herds were infected. The percentage of positive environmental samples and the apparent within-herd prevalence (Spearman's P = 0·73, P test results (positive and negative) and the herd's status based on individual testing (Fisher's exact test, P = 0·014) showed a positive association. Considering limitations in low-prevalence herds, MAP-positive beef cow-calf herds are detectable by environmental samples in temperate climate zones. PMID:27094619

  17. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin)Rehd.) and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin) Rehd.) y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L.) y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Pérez; Florentino Navarro; María Ángeles Sánchez; Jesús María Ortíz; Remedios Morales

    2010-01-01

    The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) were carried out. For qualitative descr...

  18. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L.) and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L.) e cerejeira (Prunus avium L.) em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Remedios Morales Corts; Luciano Cordeiro Rodrigues; Jesús Maria Ortíz Marcide; Rodrigo Pérez Sánches

    2008-01-01

    Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal), were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the syst...

  19. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) isolated from AIDS patients and the criteria required for its implication in disease Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC) isolado de pacientes com AIDS e os critérios exigidos para sua implicação em doença

    OpenAIRE

    David Jamil Hadad; Maria Cecília de Almeida Palhares; Anna Luiza Nunes Placco; Carmem Silvia Bruniera Domingues; Adauto Castelo Filho; Lucilaine Ferrazoli; Sueli Yoko Mizuka Ueki; Maria Alice da Silva Telles; Maria Conceição Martins; Moisés Palaci

    1995-01-01

    Before the AIDS pandemia, the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was responsible in most cases for the pneumopathies that attack patients with basic chronic pulmonary diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis36. In 1981, with the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), MAC started to represent one of the most frequent bacterial diseases among AIDS patients, with the disseminated form of the disease being the major clinical manifestation of the infection8. Between Janua...

  20. Chylous Ascites in a Patient with HIV/AIDS: A Late Complication of Mycobacterium avium Complex-Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam H. Shaik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chylous ascites is very rare in HIV/AIDS and its association with Mycobacterium avium complex-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (MAC-IRIS has been rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a young African-American male who developed chylous ascites as a late sequela to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome while on treatment for MAC. Antiretroviral drug-naive patients who start HAART in close proximity to the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection and have a rapid decline in HIV RNA level should be monitored for development of IRIS. Although the long term prognosis is poor, early diagnosis and treatment help to improve quality of life.

  1. Development of improved method for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bulk tank milk: Effect of age of milk, centrifugation, and decontamination

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Anli; Odumeru, Joseph; Raymond, Melinda; Mutharia, Lucy

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease in cattle and it has been suggested that this organism may be associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. Cows at the advanced stage of the disease shed this organism into both their milk and feces. The objective of this study was to develop a more efficient procedure for isolating MAP from bulk tank raw milk. Bulk tank raw milk (50 mL) samples 3 to 13 d old after collection without spiking were investi...

  2. Activity of Moxifloxacin by Itself and in Combination with Ethambutol, Rifabutin, and Azithromycin In Vitro and In Vivo against Mycobacterium avium

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, Luiz E.; Inderlied, Clark B.; Kolonoski, Peter; Petrofsky, Mary; Aralar, Priscilla; Wu, Martin; Young, Lowell S.

    2001-01-01

    Moxifloxacin activity against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was evaluated in vitro against 25 strains. The MIC was determined to range from 0.125 to 2.0 μg/ml. In addition, U937 macrophage monolayers infected with MAC strain 101 (serovar 1) were treated with moxifloxacin (0.25 to 8 μg/ml) daily, and the number of intracellular bacteria was quantitated after 4 days. Moxifloxacin showed inhibitory activity at 0.5 μg/ml and higher. To assess the activity of moxifloxacin containing regimens i...

  3. Enhancement of humoral immune responses. I. Potentiating influence of purified protein derivative on the invitro immune response of spleen cells sensitized to Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscoplat, C C; Setcavage, T M; Thoen, C O; Kim, Y B

    1976-01-01

    Addition of purified protein derivate (PPD) to suspension cultures of spleen cells from swine sensitized to Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium resulted in marked enhancement of antisheep erythrocyte plaque-forming cells after stimulation with sheep erythrocytes. The enhancing effect appeared early in the response and was specific for the sensitizing antigen. The enhancing effect was dependent upon the presence of both sheep erythrocytes and PPD in the culture system. PPD had no effect in the absence of sheep erythrocytes. Addition of PPD to cells from nonsensitized animals did not produce any enhancing effect. PMID:797671

  4. VPLIV UPORABE RASTNIH HORMONOV V RAZLIČNIH RAZVOJNIH FAZAH PLODOV NA KOLIČINO IN KAKOVOST PRIDELKA ČEŠNJE (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pelc, David

    2015-01-01

    V letu 2008 smo v Sadjarskem centru Maribor – Gačnik spremljali vpliv uporabe rastnih hormonov v različnih razvojnih fazah plodov na količino in kakovost pridelka češnje (Prunus avium L.). Namen poskusa je bil ugotoviti, ali rastni hormoni (avksini, citokinini) lahko pri češnji vplivajo na kakovost, velikost in na količino pridelka. Vključenih je bilo 6 obravnavanj, od katerih so 3 obravnavanja predstavljala tretiranje z avksini (Amid-thin, Maxim), 1 obravnavanje s citokinini (CPPU), 1 obravn...

  5. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’) Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    OpenAIRE

    Silvija Zeman; Zlatko Čmelik; Tomislav Jemrić

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid), 20 ppm GA 3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’) were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest. Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant differe...

  6. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. ‘Regina’

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Baryła; Magdalena Kapłan; Marcela Krawiec

    2014-01-01

    Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L.), on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vege...

  7. Mikroklonsko razmnožavanje divlje trešnje (Prunus avium L.) iz vegetacijskog vrška stabla i izdanka korjenjaka

    OpenAIRE

    PEVALEK-KOZLINA, BRANKA; Michler, Charles H.; Jelaska, Sibila

    1994-01-01

    Istražen je utjecaj različitih kombinacija i koncentracija regulatora rasta: 6-benzilaminopurina (BA), 6-furfurilaminopurina (KIN), n6-(2-izopentenil) adenina (2iP), indol-3-maslačne kiseline (IBA), indol-3-octene kiseline (IAA) i a-naftalenoctene kiseline (NAA) na stopu umnožavanja izdanka divlje trešnje (Primus avium L.). Kao početni eksplantati za postavljanje kulture upotrebljeni su vršni i bočni pupovi mlade biljke stare pet godina (genotip 5/11) i izdanci razvijeni iz korjenjaka stabla ...

  8. Diagnostic test accuracy of anti-glycopeptidolipid-core IgA antibodies for Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji Shibata; Nobuyuki Horita; Masaki Yamamoto; Toshinori Tsukahara; Hideyuki Nagakura; Ken Tashiro; Hiroki Watanabe; Kenjiro Nagai; Kentaro Nakashima; Ryota Ushio; Misako Ikeda; Atsuya Narita; Akinori Kanai; Takashi Sato; Takeshi Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Currently, an anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody assay kit for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is commercially available. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to reveal the precise diagnostic accuracy of anti-GPL-core IgA antibodies for MAC pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). We systematically searched reports that could provide data for both sensitivity and specificity by anti-GPL-core IgA antibody for clinically diagnosed MAC-PD. Diagnostic test accuracy wa...

  9. Revised description and classification of atypical isolates of Pasteurella multocida from bovine lungs based on genotypic characterization to include variants previously classified as biovar 2 of Pasteurella canis and Pasteurella avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Angen, Øystein; Olsen, John E.;

    2004-01-01

    Strains deviating in key phenotypic characters, mainly isolated from cases of bovine pneumonia in five European countries, were genotyped in order to examine their genotypic relationship with Pasteurella multocida. Twenty-two strains of Pasteurella avium biovar 2, including variants in indole, xy...... and the source host also seems important for safe diagnosis....

  10. Rapid and sensitive detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine milk and feces by a combination of immunomagnetic bead separation-conventional PCR and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Sangeeta; Ficht, Thomas A; Santos, Renato L; Romano, Juan; Ficht, Allison R; Zhang, Shuping; Grant, Irene R; Libal, Melissa; Hunter, David; Adams, L Garry

    2004-03-01

    Immunomagnetic bead separation coupled with bead beating and real-time PCR was found to be a very effective procedure for the isolation, separation, and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk and/or fecal samples from cattle and American bison. Samples were spiked with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms, which bound to immunomagnetic beads and were subsequently lysed by bead beating; then protein and cellular contaminants were removed by phenol-chloroform-isopropanol extraction prior to DNA precipitation. DNA purified by this sequence of procedures was then analyzed by conventional and real-time IS900-based PCR in order to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces and milk. By use of this simple and rapid technique, 10 or fewer M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms were consistently detected in milk (2-ml) and fecal (200-mg) samples, making this sensitive procedure very useful and cost-effective for the diagnosis of clinical and subclinical Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) compared to bacteriological culture, which is constrained by time, labor, and expense under diagnostic laboratory conditions. PMID:15004056

  11. The other way around: probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restrict progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice via activiation of CD8 alpha+ immune cell-mediated immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the immune-modulating effects of feeding a novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD) in rumi...

  12. The other way around: Probiotic lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restricts progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice through activation of CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine immune effects of feeding novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). We hypothesized that fe...

  13. ZAP-70, CTLA-4 and proximal T cell receptor signaling in cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fernando L; Eslabão, Livia B; Pesch, Bruce; Bannantine, John P; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Stabel, Judith R

    2015-09-15

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic intestinal disease of ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). A hallmark of paratuberculosis is a transition from a cell-mediated Th1 type response to a humoral Th2 response with the progression of disease from a subclinical to clinical state. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of two crucial molecules in T cell function, ZAP-70 (zeta-chain-associated protein of 70 kDa) and CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4), in cows naturally infected with MAP. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from control non-infected cows (n=5), and cows in subclinical (n=6) and clinical stages of paratuberculosis (n=6) were cultured alone (medium only), and with concanavalin A, and a whole cell sonicate of MAP for 24, 72 and 144 h to measure the dynamic changes of ZAP-70 and CTLA-4 expression on CD4, CD8, and gamma delta (γδ) T cells. Flow cytometry was also performed to measure ZAP-70 phosphorylation to examine proximal T cell receptor signaling in animals of different disease status. The surface expression of CTLA-4 was increased in animals in subclinical stage of infection while levels of ZAP-70 were decreased in CD4+ T cells of both subclinical and clinical animals, indicating a change in T cell phenotype with disease state. Interestingly, proximal T cell receptor signaling was not altered in infected animals. This study demonstrated changes in crucial signaling molecules in animals infected with MAP, thereby elucidating T cell alterations associated with disease progression. PMID:26163934

  14. Sero-diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease using serum immunoglobulin A antibody against glycopeptidolipid antigen in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chung Shu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung disease (LD due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an important clinical concern. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC is one of the most common causative agents but the diagnosis of MAC-LD remains challenging. Detection of serum IgA antibody against MAC glycopeptidolipid (GPL has recently been shown to improve the diagnosis of MAC-LD, but has yet to be validated worldwide. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral center in northern Taiwan and enrolled patients with MAC-LD, MAC contamination, other lung diseases, and control subjects. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA antibody against MAC-GPL was detected in the participants and its specificity and sensitivity was assessed. RESULTS: There were 56 patients with MAC-LD, 11 with MAC contamination, 13 M. kansasii-LD, 26 LD due to rapidly-growing mycobacteria (RGM, 48 pulmonary tuberculosis, and 42 household contacts of patients with TB. Patients with MAC-LD were older and 32% of them had an underlying co-morbidity. By logistic regression, serum MAC-GPL IgA level was an independent predictor of MAC-LD among the study subjects and those with culture-positive specimens for MAC. By the receiver operating characteristic curve, serum MAC-GPL IgA had a good power to discriminate MAC-LD from MAC contamination. Under the optimal cut-off value of 0.73 U/mL, its sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 91%, respectively. Among MAC-LD patients, presence of co-morbidity was associated with MAC-GPL <0.73 U/ml in logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of serum anti-MAC-GPL IgA level is useful for the diagnosis of MAC-LD. However, its implement in clinical practice for immuno-compromised hosts needs careful consideration.

  15. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding bovine interleukin-10 receptor alpha are associated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelton David F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Since this pathogen has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human IBDs, the goal of this study was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in several well-known candidate genes for human IBD are associated with susceptibility to MAP infection in dairy cattle. Methods The bovine candidate genes, interleukin-10 (IL10, IL10 receptor alpha/beta (IL10RA/B, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1, TGFB receptor class I/II (TGFBR1/2, and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (SLC11A1 were sequenced for SNP discovery using pooled DNA samples, and the identified SNPs were genotyped in a case-control association study comprised of 242 MAP negative and 204 MAP positive Holstein dairy cattle. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of SNPs and reconstructed haplotypes with MAP infection status. Results A total of 13 SNPs were identified. Four SNPs in IL10RA (984G > A, 1098C > T, 1269T > C, and 1302A > G were tightly linked, and showed a strong additive and dominance relationship with MAP infection status. Haplotypes AGC and AAT, containing the SNPs IL10RA 633C > A, 984G > A and 1185C > T, were associated with an elevated and reduced likelihood of positive diagnosis by serum ELISA, respectively. Conclusions SNPs in IL10RA are associated with MAP infection status in dairy cattle. The functional significance of these SNPs warrants further investigation.

  16. Effects of biological and methodological factors on volatile organic compound patterns during cultural growth of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küntzel, Anne; Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Oertel, Peter; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen K; Reinhold, Petra; Köhler, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. Bacterial growth is still the diagnostic 'gold standard', but is very time consuming. MAP-specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) above media could accelerate cultural diagnosis. The aim of this project was to assess the kinetics of a VOC profile linked to the growth of MAP in vitro. The following sources of variability were taken into account: five different culture media, three different MAP strains, inoculation with different bacterial counts, and different periods of incubation. Needle-trap microextraction was employed for pre-concentration of VOCs, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for subsequent analysis. All volatiles were identified and calibrated by analysing pure references at different concentration levels. More than 100 VOCs were measured in headspaces above MAP-inoculated and control slants. Results confirmed different VOC profiles above different culture media. Emissions could be assigned to either egg-containing media or synthetic ingredients. 43 VOCs were identified as potential biomarkers of MAP growth on Herrold's Egg Yolk Medium without significant differences between the tree MAP strains. Substances belonged to the classes of alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. With increasing bacterial density the VOC concentrations above MAP expressed different patterns: the majority of substances increased (although a few decreased after reaching a peak), but nine VOCs clearly decreased. Data support the hypotheses that (i) bacteria emit different metabolites on different culture media; (ii) different MAP strains show uniform VOC patterns; and (iii) cultural diagnosis can be accelerated by taking specific VOC profiles into account. PMID:27604146

  17. Computed tomographic abnormalities in Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease include the mosaic pattern of reduced lung attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maycher, B. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Radiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); O' Connor, R. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Long, R. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Medicine, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: richard.long@ualberta.ca

    2000-04-15

    To describe the range and frequency of abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) scans in patients who met the American Thoracic Society (ATS) case definition of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. Further, to report the effect of time and treatment on the progression of these abnormalities. The demographic, clinical and radiologic features of 10 patients with proven MAC lung disease (mean age 71 years, standard deviation 12 years) were described. The presence or absence of 14 CT abnormalities was recorded in each of 10 lung zones. The effects of time and treatment on the abnormalities were recorded. The patients' lung function was minimally impaired. Pretreatment CT scans showed small nodules in 47% of the lung zones, reduced lung attenuation in 41%, and bronchiectasis in 27%. Bronchiectasis was associated with nodules in 20 zones from 9 patients and with no nodules in 7 zones from 1 patient. Reduced attenuation was associated with bronchiectasis alone in 8 zones, with nodules alone in 25 zones and with both bronchiectasis and nodules in 8 zones. In patients without treatment, or with non-curative treatment, bronchiectasis developed or worsened in 12 of 26 zones and resolved or improved in none. In contrast, after curative treatment, small nodules disappeared completely in 10 of 21 zones and developed in none. Of 7 zones with only nodules and reduced attenuation before treatment, 6 had no abnormalities after treatment. Our data suggest that the 3 leading CT abnormalities in nodular-bronchiectatic MAC lung disease are small nodules, reduced attenuation and bronchiectasis. Reduced attenuation appeared to result from gas trapping and hypoxic vasoconstriction due to bronchiolocentric inflammatory nodules. Bronchiectasis appeared to be secondary to this bronchiolar disease. (author)

  18. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE. PMID:24266407

  19. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds. PMID:25806548

  20. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  1. Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis and the etiology of Crohn's disease: a review of the controversy from the clinician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Greg; Bressler, Brian

    2010-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate intracellular organism that has frequently been associated with Crohn's disease (CD). Because CD is a chronic inflammatory condition, many researchers have speculated that an infectious agent must be the cause of CD. MAP has often been proposed to be one such agent; however, despite considerable research, the evidence remains inconclusive. Higher levels of MAP have been found in the tissues and blood of CD patients than in controls, forming the foundation for much of the research into the role of MAP in CD and the primary argument in support of a causative role for MAP in CD. MAP is a slow-growing and fastidious organism that is difficult to grow in culture and, therefore, challenging to detect in patients. As a result, there has been variability in the results of studies attempting to detect the presence of MAP in CD patients, and considerable controversy over whether this organism has a causative role in the etiology of CD. Two main hypotheses exist with respect to the role of MAP in CD. The first is that MAP is a principal cause of CD, while the second is that MAP is more prevalent because of the immune dysfunction seen in CD but does not play a causative role. Clinicians are often faced with questions regarding the role of this organism and the need to treat it. The present article attempts to provide an overview of the controversy including the nature of the mycobacterium, the difficulty in detecting it, the use of antimycobacterial agents to treat it and the effect of immunosuppressive agents - all from a clinician's perspective. Although the role of MAP in CD remains controversial and an area of considerable research, it is currently only of academic interest because there is no clinically useful test to identify the presence of the organism, and no evidence to support the use of antibiotics to eradicate it for the treatment of CD. PMID:21037992

  2. Computed tomographic abnormalities in Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease include the mosaic pattern of reduced lung attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the range and frequency of abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) scans in patients who met the American Thoracic Society (ATS) case definition of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. Further, to report the effect of time and treatment on the progression of these abnormalities. The demographic, clinical and radiologic features of 10 patients with proven MAC lung disease (mean age 71 years, standard deviation 12 years) were described. The presence or absence of 14 CT abnormalities was recorded in each of 10 lung zones. The effects of time and treatment on the abnormalities were recorded. The patients' lung function was minimally impaired. Pretreatment CT scans showed small nodules in 47% of the lung zones, reduced lung attenuation in 41%, and bronchiectasis in 27%. Bronchiectasis was associated with nodules in 20 zones from 9 patients and with no nodules in 7 zones from 1 patient. Reduced attenuation was associated with bronchiectasis alone in 8 zones, with nodules alone in 25 zones and with both bronchiectasis and nodules in 8 zones. In patients without treatment, or with non-curative treatment, bronchiectasis developed or worsened in 12 of 26 zones and resolved or improved in none. In contrast, after curative treatment, small nodules disappeared completely in 10 of 21 zones and developed in none. Of 7 zones with only nodules and reduced attenuation before treatment, 6 had no abnormalities after treatment. Our data suggest that the 3 leading CT abnormalities in nodular-bronchiectatic MAC lung disease are small nodules, reduced attenuation and bronchiectasis. Reduced attenuation appeared to result from gas trapping and hypoxic vasoconstriction due to bronchiolocentric inflammatory nodules. Bronchiectasis appeared to be secondary to this bronchiolar disease. (author)

  3. Systems biology analysis of gene expression during in vivo Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis enteric colonization reveals role for immune tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Khare

    Full Text Available Survival and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in the intestinal mucosa is associated with host immune tolerance. However, the initial events during MAP interaction with its host that lead to pathogen survival, granulomatous inflammation, and clinical disease progression are poorly defined. We hypothesize that immune tolerance is initiated upon initial contact of MAP with the intestinal Peyer's patch. To test our hypothesis, ligated ileal loops in neonatal calves were infected with MAP. Intestinal tissue RNAs were collected (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hrs post-infection, processed, and hybridized to bovine gene expression microarrays. By comparing the gene transcription responses of calves infected with the MAP, informative complex patterns of expression were clearly visible. To interpret these complex data, changes in the gene expression were further analyzed by dynamic Bayesian analysis, and genes were grouped into the specific pathways and gene ontology categories to create a holistic model. This model revealed three different phases of responses: i early (30 min and 1 hr post-infection, ii intermediate (2, 4 and 8 hrs post-infection, and iii late (12 hrs post-infection. We describe here the data that include expression profiles for perturbed pathways, as well as, mechanistic genes (genes predicted to have regulatory influence that are associated with immune tolerance. In the Early Phase of MAP infection, multiple pathways were initiated in response to MAP invasion via receptor mediated endocytosis and changes in intestinal permeability. During the Intermediate Phase, perturbed pathways involved the inflammatory responses, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and cell-cell signaling. During the Late Phase of infection, gene responses associated with immune tolerance were initiated at the level of T-cell signaling. Our study provides evidence that MAP infection resulted in differentially regulated genes, perturbed

  4. Presence of intestinal Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP DNA is not associated with altered MMP expression in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halwe Jörg M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is suspected to be a causative agent in human Crohn's disease (CD. Recent evidence suggests that pathogenic mycobacteria and MAP can induce the expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP, which are the main proteases in the pathogenesis of mucosal ulcerations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Within this study we assessed the prevalence of intestinal MAP specific DNA in patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis (UC, and healthy controls. We further analysed regulation patterns of MMPs in mucosal tissues of UC patients with and without intestinal MAP DNA detection. Methods Colonic biopsy samples were obtained from 63 Norwegian and German IBD patients and 21 healthy controls. RNA was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to study MMP gene expression in both pathological and healthy mucosal specimens. The presence of MAP DNA in colonic mucosa was examined using MAP specific PCR. Results MAP DNA was detected in 20% of UC patients and 33% of healthy controls but only in 7% of patients with CD. UC patients treated with corticosteroids exhibited a significantly increased frequency of intestinal MAP DNA compared to those not receiving corticosteroids. Expression of MMP-1, -2, -7, -9, -13, -19, -28 and TNF-α did not differ between UC patients with presence of intestinal MAP DNA compared to those without. MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13 were significantly decreased in UC patients receiving corticosteroids. Conclusions The presence of intestinal MAP specific DNA is not associated with altered MMP expression in UC in vivo. Corticosteroids are associated with increased detection of intestinal MAP DNA and decreased expression of certain MMPs. Frequent detection of MAP DNA in healthy controls might be attributable to the wide environmental distribution of MAP and its presence in the food-chain.

  5. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L., on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vegetative rootstock were characterized by strongest growth and best quality. In each year, they were thicker, higher and better branched than sweet cherries on the rootstock. Under the tested conditions, ‘GiSelA 5’ dwarf rootstock significantly reduced the growth and quality of budded sweet cherry trees in the nursery. During the period 2007–2009, no physiological incompatibility symptoms were observed ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cv. and ‘Piast’ seedling rootstocks. The growth of trees budded on ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry was poorer than on ‘Colt’ clonal rootstock, but it was stronger than on ‘F12/1’ and Prunus avium L. rootstocks.

  6. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. PMID:23206932

  7. The modification and evaluation of an ELISA test for the surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in wild ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruvot Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is often used to test wildlife samples for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infection. However, commercially available kits are only validated for use with domestic ruminant species. A literature review was performed to document the current use of MAP serum ELISA in wild and semi-domestic ruminants. We then modified and evaluated a commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit for use with species for which it was not originally developed: elk (Cervus elaphus, bison (Bison bison and caribou (Rangifer tarandus. We tested the affinity of different conjugates for immunoglobulin G (IgG isolated from these species, performed checkerboard tests to determine the optimal dilutions of samples and conjugates, and established cut-off values using two different methods: a Receiver Operational Curve on a panel of known samples for elk, and an alternate method involving a panel of unknown serum samples for the three species. Results We found that the anti-bovine conjugate included in the IDEXX ELISA kit has limited affinity for elk, bison, and caribou IgG. Protein G showed good affinity for IgG of all three species, while anti-deer conjugate also bound elk and caribou IgG. Using Protein G with elk serum, a cut-off sample-to-positive (S/P value of 0.22 was selected, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 90%, respectively, whereas, using an anti-deer conjugate with elk serum, an S/P cut-off value of 0.29 gave a sensitivity of 68%, with 100% specificity. Cut-off values for bison and caribou using the Protein G conjugate were 0.17 and 0.25 respectively. Conclusions Due to incomplete reporting and a lack of test validation, it is difficult to critically appraise results of many sero-surveys that have previously been done for MAP in wildlife. Commercial ELISA kits may have limited or no capacity to detect antibodies from species other than for

  8. Genome-wide association analysis and genomic prediction of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in US Jersey cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Yalda; Shook, George E; Collins, Michael T; Kirkpatrick, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), an enteric disorder in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), causes economic losses in excess of $200 million annually to the US dairy industry. To identify genomic regions underlying susceptibility to MAP infection in Jersey cattle, a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. Blood and fecal samples were collected from ∼ 5,000 mature cows in 30 commercial Jersey herds from across the US. Discovery data consisted of 450 cases and 439 controls genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Cases were animals with positive ELISA and fecal culture (FC) results. Controls were animals negative to both ELISA and FC tests that matched cases on birth date and herd. Validation data consisted of 180 animals including 90 cases (positive to FC) and 90 controls (negative to ELISA and FC), selected from discovery herds and genotyped by Illumina BovineLD BeadChip (∼ 7K SNPs). Two analytical approaches were used: single-marker GWAS using the GRAMMAR-GC method and Bayesian variable selection (Bayes C) using GenSel software. GRAMMAR-GC identified one SNP on BTA7 at 68 megabases (Mb) surpassing a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-5). ARS-BFGL-NGS-11887 on BTA23 (27.7 Mb) accounted for the highest percentage of genetic variance (3.3%) in the Bayes C analysis. SNPs identified in common by GRAMMAR-GC and Bayes C in both discovery and combined data were mapped to BTA23 (27, 29 and 44 Mb), 3 (100, 101, 106 and 107 Mb) and 17 (57 Mb). Correspondence between results of GRAMMAR-GC and Bayes C was high (70-80% of most significant SNPs in common). These SNPs could potentially be associated with causal variants underlying susceptibility to MAP infection in Jersey cattle. Predictive performance of the model developed by Bayes C for prediction of infection status of animals in validation set was low (55% probability of correct ranking of paired case and control samples). PMID:24523889

  9. Evaluation of a Salmonella vectored vaccine expressing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens against challenge in a goat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M Faisal

    Full Text Available Johnes disease (JD, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP, occurs worldwide as chronic granulomatous enteritis of domestic and wild ruminants. To develop a cost effective vaccine, in a previous study we constructed an attenuated Salmonella strain that expressed a fusion product made up of partial fragments of MAP antigens (Ag85A, Ag85B and SOD that imparted protection against challenge in a mouse model. In the current study we evaluated the differential immune response and protective efficacy of the Sal-Ag vaccine against challenge in a goat model as compared to the live attenuated vaccine MAP316F. PBMCs from goats vaccinated with Sal-Ag and challenged with MAP generated significantly lower levels of IFN-γ, following in vitro stimulation with either Antigen-mix or PPD jhonin, than PBMC from MAP316F vaccinated animals. Flow cytometric analysis showed the increase in IFN-γ correlated with a significantly higher level of proliferation of CD4, CD8 and γδT cells and an increased expression of CD25 and CD45R0 in MAP316F vaccinated animals as compared to control animals. Evaluation of a range of cytokines involved in Th1, Th2, Treg, and Th17 immune responses by quantitative PCR showed low levels of expression of Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12 and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNF-α in the Sal-Ag immunized group. Significant levels of Th2 and anti-inflammatory cytokines transcripts (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, TGF-β were expressed but their level was low and with a pattern similar to the control group. Over all, Sal-Ag vaccine imparted partial protection that limited colonization in tissues of some animals upon challenge with wild type MAP but not to the level achieved with MAP316F. In conclusion, the data indicates that Sal-Ag vaccine induced only a low level of protective immunity that failed to limit the colonization of MAP in infected animals. Hence the Sal-Ag vaccine needs further refinement to increase its efficacy.

  10. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect

  11. Synergistic interaction of catecholamine hormones and Mycobacterium avium results in the induction of interleukin-10 mRNA expression by murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Boomershine, C; Wang, T; Lafuse, W P; Zwilling, B S

    1999-01-01

    The results of this investigation provides evidence that catecholamine hormones interact with macrophages that are infected with Mycobacterium avium resulting in the induction of IL-10 mRNA and protein. The effect of catecholamine hormones was prevented by treating the cells with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol but not by alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. The effect of catecholamine stimulation was mimicked by the addition of beta-2 adrenergic agonists and by the addition of cAMP to the infected macrophage cultures. These observations suggest that sympathetic nervous system activation together with microbial infection results in a synergistic interaction that could result in the control of inflammatory processes. PMID:10378878

  12. 诱导樱桃试管苗生根的研究%Adventitious root induction of cherry(Prunus cerasus × p· avium ) in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清荣; 孙洪雁

    2000-01-01

    Propagation on vitro with cherry(Prunus cerasus × P. avium )hybrid "S2" showed that culture in dark marked ly affected rooting, IBA and sucrose had smaller effect on rooting.%以甜樱桃和酸樱桃杂种"S2"的试管苗为试材,研究了IBA、蔗糖及暗培养时间对不定根产生的影响。结果表明,暗培养对不定根产生有显著影响,IBA和蔗糖的影响作用较小,获得高生根率的最优组合为1/2 MS+IBA 0.1m/gL+蔗糖3%培养基、暗培养7天。

  13. Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium among HIV-infected patients after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. EuroSIDA Study Group JD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Gatell, J M; Mocroft, A;

    2000-01-01

    year; HR = 0.58 [95% confidence intervals: 0.45-0.74], whereas this was not the case for TB; 0.95 [0.74-1.22]). In conclusion, we documented marked decreases in the incidence of TB and to an even larger extent of MAC among HIV-infected patients from 1994 to 1999. The decrease in TB was associated with......The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on the incidences of mycobacterial infections has not been studied in detail. We assessed incidences of mycobacterial diseases among HIV- infected patients following the...... introduction of HAART, using data from the EuroSIDA study, a European, multicenter observational cohort of more than 7,000 patients. Overall incidences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were 0.8 and 1.4 cases/100 person-years of follow-up (PYF), decreasing from 1.8 (TB...

  14. Lack of association between the occurrence of Crohn's disease and occupational exposure to dairy and beef cattle herds infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qual, D A; Kaneene, J B; Varty, T J; Miller, R; Thoen, C O

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify associations between Crohn's disease (CD) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) exposure. A questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to cattle infected with Map, and personal and family history of CD in dairy and beef cattle producers with and without Map-infected herds, and in veterinarians who did or did not have contact with Map-infected herds. Cases of CD were selected from respondents and matched 1:4 with controls on occupation, age, and sex. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between Map exposure and CD. There were 3 cases of CD in 702 producers and 4 cases in 774 veterinarians, yielding a prevalence of 0.47%. No association was found between exposure to JD and CD in any phase of the analysis. However, the number of cases of CD is not large and limits the power to detect important differences. PMID:20494145

  15. Validation and standardization of IS900 and F57 real-time quantitative PCR assays for the specific detection and quantification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoti, Francesca; Banche, Giuliana; Astegiano, Sara; Allizond, Valeria; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Bergallo, Massimiliano

    2011-05-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of Johne's disease and may contribute to the onset and development of Crohn's disease in humans. Rapid detection of Map is fundamental because of its reported isolation from pasteurized milk and its potential for transmission through environmental sources. In this study, we developed two independent real-time quantitative PCR assays targeting the IS900 genetic insertion sequence and the F57 sequence, which proved capable of detecting and quantifying Map DNA. Validation and standardization of the developed methods were performed by evaluating diagnostic trueness, precision, and accuracy of the techniques. Specificity of the IS900 and F57 methods was verified in both in silico and experimental studies. The assays were found to be very accurate and precise with high repeatability and reproducibility. Moreover, the two real-time assays were very specific for Map, discriminating most of mycobacterial and nonmycobacterial species. PMID:21510779

  16. Development of a novel DNA extraction method for identification and quantification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from tissue samples by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kun Taek; Allen, Andrew J; Davis, William C

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants and possibly associated with human Crohn's disease. One impediment in furthering our understanding of this potential association has been the lack of an accurate method for detection of Map in affected tissues. Real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods have been reported to have different sensitivities in detection of Map. This is in part attributable to the difficulties of extracting Map DNA and removing PCR inhibitors from the clinical specimens. The maximum efficiency of RT-PCR can only be achieved by using high quality DNA samples. In this study, we present a novel pre-treatment method which significantly increases Map DNA recovery and decreases PCR inhibitors (pMap DNA extraction method from tissue samples will make RT-PCR a more powerful tool for a wide range of applications for Map identification and quantification. PMID:24534783

  17. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R

    2016-04-01

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk. PMID:26805975

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red and yellow fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wei

    Full Text Available Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.. The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry.In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of fruit color. Normalized cDNA libraries from red and yellow fruits were sequenced using the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. Over 66 million high-quality reads were assembled into 43,128 unigenes using a combined assembly strategy. Then a total of 22,452 unigenes were compared to public databases using homology searches, and 20,095 of these unigenes were annotated in the Nr protein database. Furthermore, transcriptome differences between the four stages of fruit ripening were analyzed using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE profiling. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 72 unigenes were involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. The expression patterns of unigenes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavanone 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP glucose: flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT during fruit ripening differed between red and yellow fruit. In addition, we identified some transcription factor families (such as MYB, bHLH and WD40 that may control anthocyanin biosynthesis. We confirmed the altered expression levels of eighteen unigenes that encode anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR.The obtained sweet cherry transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information that lends insights

  19. Polyclonal infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of sequential clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, A M; Arbeit, R D; Barber, T W; Rich, J; von Reyn, C F; Pieciak, W; Barlow, M A; Maslow, J N

    1994-01-01

    Invasive infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is common among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. In previous studies, we analyzed multiple individual colonies of MAC isolated from specimens obtained at the same time and observed that 14 to 20% of patients are simultaneously infected with more than one strain. In this study, we examined sequential isolates from 12 patients with AIDS who had two or more MAC isolates available from clinical specimens collected more than 1 week apart; the intervals between the first and last specimens ranged from 8 to 192 (median, 46) days. For each isolate, restriction digests of genomic DNA were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; DNA was prepared by using a protocol, described here in detail, which had been optimized for conditions of bacterial growth and lysis. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis identified four patients (33%) infected with two different MAC strains. Both M. avium and M. intracellulare were cultured from blood specimens from two patients. In each of the four patients, the second strain was identified from a culture taken within 14 days of the initial study isolate, and in three of these patients, the first strain was detected again in a subsequent culture. These observations suggest that the presence of two different strains among isolates from sequential cultures may reflect ongoing polyclonal infection. We conclude that polyclonal infection with MAC is common among patients with AIDS. The identification of such infections may be critical in the development of effective treatments. Images PMID:7929773

  20. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome due to Mycobacterium avium complex successfully followed up using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Namkoong, Ho; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Ishii, Makoto; Yagi, Kazuma; Haraguchi, Mizuha; Matsusaka, Masako; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Asami,Takahiro; Saito, Fumitake; Fukunaga, Koichi; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Background In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is one of the most difficult types of IRIS to manage. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) has been suggested as a useful tool for evaluating the inflammatory status of HIV-infected patients. We present the first case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS (M...

  1. Antituberculosis agents. IX. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of N-(2-phenyl-2-oxoethyl) and N-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl]ciprofloxacin derivatives against some drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroumadi, A; Soltani, F

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antimycobacterial activity of two ciprofloxacin analogues (2a and 2b) containing 2-phenyl-2-axoethyl and 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-axoethyl groups attached to N-4 position of piperazin ring, was evaluated against M. tuberculosis strains resistant to Isoniazid (MIC 2a and 2b = 3.13 micrograms/ml), Ethambutol (MIC 2a and 2b = 1.56 micrograms/ml), Rifampin (MIC 2a and 2b = 1.56 micrograms/ml), Kanamycin (MIC 2a and 2b = 1.56 micrograms/ml) and ciprofloxacin (MIC 2a and 2b > 25 micrograms/ml). Furthermore, the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 2a and 2b was determined against M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MBC2a = 6.25 and 2b = 25 micrograms/ml) and strains resistant to isoniazid (MBCs > 25 micrograms/ml) and rifampin (MBC2a = 3.13 and 2b = 6.25 micrograms/ml). Also, in this study the activity of 2a and 2b was determined against a strain of M. avium (%Inhibition 2a = 89 and 2b = 95%). Expanded primary screening was conducted for 2b (having MIC activity of 2b suggested further M. avium assays and so, 2b was then retested at lower concentrations against 30 strains of M. avium including five strains resistant to claritromycin (MIC = 2-16 micrograms/ml). PMID:14606264

  2. Soft tissue abscess and lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium avium Complex as an expression of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after a second scheme of highly active antiretroviral therapy Linfadenitis y absceso subcutáneo por Complejo Mycobacterium avium como manifestación de síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune luego de un segundo esquema de terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is an atypical and unexpected reaction related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. IRIS includes an atypical response to an opportunistic pathogen (generally Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, cytomegalovirus and herpes varicella-zoster, in patients responding to HAART with a reduction of plasma viral load and evidence of immune restoration based on increase of CD4+ T-cell count. We reported a case of a patient with AIDS which, after a first failure of HAART, developed a subcutaneous abscess and supraclavicular lymphadenitis as an expression of IRIS due to Mycobacterium avium complex after starting a second scheme of HAART.El síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune (SIRI es una reacción atípica e inesperada relacionada con el tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. El SIRI representa una respuesta inflamatoria frente a un patógeno oportunista (generalmente Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Complejo Mycobacterium avium, citomegalovirus y herpes varicela-zóster en pacientes que responden a la TARGA con una marcada reducción de la carga viral en plasma y evidencia de una recuperación inmunológica expresada por el incremento de los niveles de linfocitos T CD4+. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida que desarrolló un absceso subcutáneo en muslo derecho y una adenitis supraclavicular izquierda como manifestación de SIRI por Complejo Mycobacterium avium luego del inicio de un segundo esquema de TARGA.

  3. Risk factors for the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infection on 59 Irish dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashman W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 1994, Irish cattle have been exposed to greater risks of acquiring Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infection as a consequence of the importation of over 70,000 animals from continental Europe. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reported clinical cases of paratuberculosis in Ireland. This study examines the prevalence of factors that promote the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP on selected Irish dairy farms in the Cork region, and the association between these factors and the results of MAP screening tests on milk sock filter residue (MFR. A total of 59 dairy farms, selected using non-random methods but apparently free of endemic paratuberculosis, were enrolled into the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data about risk factors for MAP introduction and transmission. The MFR was assessed on six occasions over 24 months for the presence of MAP, using culture and immunomagnetic separation prior to polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR. Furthermore, blood samples from all entire male and female animals over one year of age in 20 herds were tested by ELISA. Eighteen (31% farms had operated as closed herds since 1994, 28 (47% had purchased from multiple sources and 14 (24% had either direct or indirect (progeny contact with imported animals. Milk and colostrum were mixed on 51% of farms, while 88% of farms fed pooled milk. Thirty (51% herds tested negative to MFR culture and IMS-PCR, 12 (20% were MFR culture positive, 26 (44% were IMS-PCR positive and seven (12% were both culture and IMS-PCR positive. The probability of a positive MFR culture was significantly associated with reduced attendance at calving, and with increased use of individual calf pens and increased (but not significantly if mulitiple suckling was practised. There was poor agreement between MFR culture and MFR IMS-PCR results, but moderate agreement

  4. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  5. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L. e cerejeira (Prunus avium L. em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Morales Corts

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal, were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the systems with the highest discrimination power. These systems presented seven and five different zymogrames, respectively. IDH showed four patterns. SKDH and 6-PGD grouped the varieties only into two patterns. The evident and discriminant restrictions of this type of analysis had got results that have only been a complement for agronomical and morphological characterization.Nove extratos de folhas com desenvolvimento encompleto foram obtidos de 9 variedades de cerejeira (Prunus avium L. e 8 de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L., localizados no campo de germoplasma da "Direcção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior" (Fundão, Portugal. Esses extratos foram analisados para 5 sistemas isoenzimáticos a fim de caracterizar essas variedades e simultaneamente detectar sinonímias e homonímias, freqüentes neste tipo de estudos. As variedades de cerejeira e ginjeira analisadas mostraram baixo polimorfismo isoenzimático, sendo que os sistemas PGM e PGI mostraram maior poder de discriminação. Estes sistemas apresentaram 7 e 5 zimogramas diferentes, respectivamente. IDH mostrou 4 padrões. SKDH e 6-PGD agruparam as variedades em 2 padrões. Os evidentes limites discriminatórios desse tipo de análise serviram somente de complemento para a caracterização agronômica e morfológica.

  6. Antituberculosis agents. VI. Activity of a new ciprofloxacin derivative against Mycobacterium avium and some drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroumadi, A; Soltani, F; Moshafi, M H

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro antimycobacterial activity of a new quinolone derivative, 1a containing 2-(2-furyl)-2-oxoethyl group at N-4 position of piperazine ring of Ciprofloxacin was tested for efficacy in vitro in TB-infected macrophage model (EC90 = 3.25 micrograms/ml and EC99 > 12.5 micrograms/ml). The MIC values of 1a were determined against M. tuberculosis strains resistant to Isoniazid (MIC = 1.56 micrograms/ml), Rifampin (MIC = 1.56 micrograms/ml), Ethambutol (MIC = 0.78 microgram/ml), Kanamycin (MIC = 0.78 microgram/ml) and Ciprofloxacin (MIC > 25 micrograms/ml). Furthermore, the MIC and selectivity index (SI) of 1a were evaluated against M. avium. Also, in this study the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1a was determined against M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MBC = 6.25 micrograms/ml) and strain resistant to Rifampim (MBC = 25 micrograms/ml) and Isoniazid (MBC = 25 micrograms/ml). PMID:12481384

  7. Detection and confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in direct quantitative PCR positive fecal samples by the manual fluorescent MGIT culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaji, Satoko; Nagata, Reiko; Mori, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the manual fluorescent MGIT culture system combined with rapid confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) growth in the broth culture was established and evaluated for the detection of viable MAP in direct quantitative PCR (QPCR) positive bovine feces. Manually detected fluorescence emissions from MGIT tubes were analyzed objectively using an open source software, ImageJ. For molecular confirmation of MAP growth, DNA samples harvested by simply boiling the broth, an inexpensive and time- and labor-saving DNA preparation method, yielded adequate results. The sheep strain of MAP required longer incubation time relative to the cattle strain, suggesting that the MGIT system may not support well the growth of ovine isolates as described previously. Of 61 direct QPCR positive bovine feces, the recovery rate of MAP in the MGIT system (62.3%) was significantly higher (Pculture by the MGIT system was several weeks earlier compared to solid media. In MGIT culture positive samples, the time to detect fluorescence was correlated with the DNA quantity detected in fecal QPCR. As a positive result in the direct fecal QPCR test does not mean fecal excretion of viable MAP, bacterial isolation by fecal culture could be conducted to verify the QPCR result. For this purpose, the manual MGIT system is a sensitive and rapid culture method at least for bovine samples. PMID:24065085

  8. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Commercial Dairy and Beef Cattle in Northern and Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Lv, Wen-Fa; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are important pathogens, commonly responsible for economical loss to cattle farms all over the world, yet their epidemiology in commercial dairy and beef cattle in China is still unknown. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with MAP and BLV infection. The source sample was 3674 cattle from 113 herds in northern and northeastern China. Antibodies against MAP and BLV were detected using ELISA tests. At animal-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 11.79% (433/3674) and 18.29% (672/3674), respectively. At herd-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 20.35% and 21.24% (24/113), respectively. Herd size was identified to be associated with MAP infection while herd size and presence of cattle introduced from other farms were significantly associated with BLV infection. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and improve the knowledge of the epidemiology of these two pathogens in these regions and elsewhere in China. PMID:26504798

  9. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment. PMID:19443033

  10. Effects of planting density and bearing-branch composition on the yield of sweet cherry [Prunus avium] grown by hedge-row training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the yield of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) grown by hedge-row training, the following two methods were compared: increased numbers of spurs and bouquet spurs to improve the spur composition and narrowed row intervals to increase planting density. To develop spurs and bouquet spurs, 30 cm long branches were positioned at 30 cm intervals on lateral branches in addition to the conventional spur development from 5 cm current shoots. Although this measure decreased the number of bouquet spurs, it increased the total number of spurs including the conventional short spurs to improve the yield to 1,024 kg/10a from 557 kg/10a using conventional hedge-row training. However, this method decreased solar radiation in the tree crowns thereby lowering fruit quality. In contrast, increasing planting density from 3-m intervals to 2- or 1.5-m intervals did not affect fruit quality. Moreover, in contrast to a yield of 588 kg/10a when row intervals were 3 m, the row intervals narrowed to 2 m and 1.5 m improved the yield to 881 kg/10a and 1,101 kg/10a, respectively. The above results show that decreasing row intervals is an effective method for increasing the yield of sweet cherries grown by hedge-row training without lowering fruit quality

  11. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Zeman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid, 20 ppm GA3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest.Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant difference in comparison to control. However, fruit from GA 3 – treated trees had significantly improved all characteristics in comparison to control fruits. Weight of fruit from trees treated with combination of 3,5,6-TPA and GA 3 was 14% higher than control fruit and 2.8% higher than fruit from GA 3 - treated trees, but there was no significant difference comparing to fruit from trees treated with GA 3 alone. These results are preliminary results after a one-year study and more research should be done to examine the possible influence of other factors, such as ecological factors, before final management recommendations could be made.

  12. Impact of Cultivar on Profile and Concentration of Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds in Kernel Oils Recovered from Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) by-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnaś, Paweł; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Raczyk, Marianna; Mišina, Inga; Segliņa, Dalija

    2016-06-01

    Lipophilic bioactive compounds in oils recovered from the kernels of seven sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, harvested at single location in 2013, were studied. Oil yield in sweet cherry ranged between 30.3-40.3 % (w/w) dw. The main fatty acids were oleic acid (39.62-49.92 %), linoleic acid (31.13-38.81 %), α-eleostearic acid (7.23-10.73 %) and palmitic acid (5.59-7.10 %), all four represented approximately 95 % of the total detected fatty acids. The ranges of total tocochromanols and sterols were between 83.1-111.1 and 233.6-419.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Regardless of the cultivar, the γ-tocopherol and β-sitosterol were the main lipophilic minor bioactive compounds. The content of the carotenoids and squalene were between 0.38-0.62 and 60.9-127.7 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Three significant correlations were found between oil yield and total contents of sterols (r = -0.852), tocochromanols (r = -0.880) and carotenoids (r = -0.698) in sweet cherry kernel oils. The oil yield, as well as the content of lipophilic bioactive compounds in oil was significantly affected by the cultivar. PMID:26984340

  13. 甜樱桃组培苗的生根研究%Research on tissue culture rooting of Prunus avium L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小环; 彭向永; 李青; 张开春

    2004-01-01

    研究了基本培养基(1/2 WPM,1/2 F14,1/2 MS)、培养方式(液体培养、根部黑暗、两步生根法)和生长素浓度对甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品系"6-7"组培苗生根的作用效果.结果表明,1/2 F14为最适基本培养基;液体培养对组培苗的生根有很大的促进作用,根部黑暗条件培养次之,两步生根法作用不明显;生长素质量浓度配比以IBA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 1.0 mg/L效果最好,生根率可达89.7%.据此认为,要提高组培生根困难的木本植物的有效生根率,以岩棉为支撑物的液体培养是一项有效措施.

  14. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Zeman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid, 20 ppm GA 3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest. Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant difference in comparison to control. However, fruit from GA 3 – treated trees had significantly improved all characteristics in comparison to control fruits. Weight of fruit from trees treated with combination of 3,5,6-TPA and GA 3 was 14% higher than control fruit and 2.8% higher than fruit from GA 3 - treated trees, but there was no significant difference comparing to fruit from trees treated with GA 3 alone. These results are preliminary results after a one-year study and more research should be done to examine the possible influence of other factors, such as ecological factors, before final management recommendations could be made.

  15. 晚熟甜樱桃新品种‘彩霞’%A New Late Ripening Prunus avium Cultivar Caixia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓明; 张开春; 闫国华; 周宇; 王晶

    2012-01-01

    Caixia, a new late ripening cultivar ofPrunus avium L. was selected. 'Caixia' is a medium to large-sized, firm, crisp, attractive, good-flavor red cherry. Its average fruit weight is 6.23 g, and the biggest one is 9.04 g. The soluble solids content is 17.05%. It ripens in late June in Beijing area, nearly 15 days later than'Van' (ripens in mid-June in Beijing). The tree is moderately vigorous. No special susceptibility to common pests, diseases and stress injuries. It has good adaptability to chilling and freezing damages.%‘彩霞’为晚熟甜樱桃新品种。平均单果质量6.23g,最大9.04g,可食率93%,可溶性固形物含量17.05%。果肉黄色,质地脆,汁多,风味酸甜可口。6月下旬成熟,是目前适宜北京地区种植的晚熟樱桃品种之一。

  16. The effect of rootstocks on the efficiency of a nursery of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five rootstocks: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’, and ‘Piast’, on bud take in the cultivar ‘Regina’, the quality of budded trees and the efficiency of a sweet cherry tree nursery. The highest percentage of bud take in cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ and the best efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery were obtained for the rootstocks ‘Piast’ and ‘Colt’. In two years during the three-year study period, the rootstock was found to significantly affect the efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery. When grafted on the rootstocks ‘Colt’ and ‘Piast’, a significantly higher percentage of trees met the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-R-67010 than on the clonal rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’. Under the tested conditions, the quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ grafted on the dwarfing rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’ was lowest.

  17. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Declercq, Myriam; Van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., 'Regina'), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes was constructed from de novo assembled short complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences generated from developing fruit between flowering and maturity at 14 time points. Expression levels in each sample were estimated for 34 695 contigs from numbers of reads mapping to each contig. Contigs were annotated functionally based on BLAST, gene ontology and InterProScan analyses. Coregulated genes were detected using partitional clustering of expression patterns. The results are discussed with emphasis on genes putatively involved in cuticle deposition, cell wall metabolism and sugar transport. The high temporal resolution of the expression patterns presented here reveals finely tuned developmental specialization of individual members of gene families. Moreover, the de novo assembled sweet cherry fruit transcriptome with 7760 full-length protein coding sequences and over 20 000 other, annotated cDNA sequences together with their developmental expression patterns is expected to accelerate molecular research on this important tree fruit crop. PMID:26504533

  18. Genetic determinism of phenological traits highly affected by climate change in Prunus avium: flowering date dissected into chilling and heat requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; García, José Quero; Le Dantec, Loïck; Lafargue, Maria; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the genetic determinism of flowering date (FD), dissected into chilling (CR) and heat (HR) requirements. Elucidation of the genetic determinism of flowering traits is crucial to anticipate the increasing of ecological misalignment of adaptative traits with novel climate conditions in most temperate-fruit species. CR and HR were evaluated over 3 yr and FD over 5 yr in an intraspecific sweet cherry (Prunus avium) F1 progeny, and FD over 6 yr in a different F1 progeny. One quantitative trait locus (QTL) with major effect and high stability between years of evaluation was detected for CR and FD in the same region of linkage group (LG) 4. For HR, no stable QTL was detected. Candidate genes underlying the major QTL on LG4 were investigated and key genes were identified for CR and FD. Phenotypic dissection of FD and year repetitions allowed us to identify CR as the high heritable component of FD and a high genotype × environment interaction for HR. QTLs for CR reported in this study are the first described in this species. Our results provide a foundation for the identification of genes involved in CR and FD in sweet cherry which could be used to develop ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions. PMID:24417538

  19. Techniques for Protected Cultivation of Dwarfed Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) in Warm Area%南方矮化甜樱桃设施栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪莉; 陈令会; 曹锦萍; 卢秀友

    2016-01-01

    Basing on cultivation practices of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) grafted on dwarf stocks Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 in Zhejiang Province for several years, its growth habit and phenological period were studied. Then a set of techniques suitable for the protected cultivation of dwarf sweet cherry in warm area was concluded as folows: farm facilities, variety choice, plantation and tree pruning, pest control and prevention, and other ifeld management measures.%通过引进以“吉塞拉5号”和“吉塞拉6号”为砧木的甜樱桃嫁接苗,经过观察其在南方地区设施栽培条件下的生长习性、物候期等,在园地和设施、品种选择、定植和树形培养、花果期管理、采后管理、越冬管理、灾害防控和病虫害防治方面总结出了一套适合南方地区矮化甜樱桃设施栽培的技术。

  20. Characterization of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis laminin-binding/histone-like protein (Lbp/Hlp) which reacts with sera from patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, Louise H; Pujol, Céline; Bodier, Christelle C; Teixeira-Gomez, Ana Paula; Drobecq, Hervé; Rosso, Marie-Laure; Raze, Dominique; Dias, André Alves; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Chacon, Ofelia; Barletta, Raul G; Locht, Camille; Vidal Pessolani, Maria Cristina; Biet, Franck

    2011-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes a chronic enteric disease in ruminants, called paratuberculosis or Johne's disease. The current model proposes that after ingestion by the host, Map crosses the intestinal barrier via internalization by the M cells. Experimental observations suggest, however, that Map may also transcytose the intestinal wall via the enterocytes, but the mechanisms involved in this process remain poorly understood. Cytoadherence assays performed on epithelial cells with Map revealed that the addition of laminin to the cell culture increases adhesion. A Map protein was isolated by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and identified as a laminin-binding protein like. The gene encoding this protein named Lbp/Hlp was identified in the Map genome sequence at locus MAP3024 (annotated Hup B). The deduced Map Lbp/Hlp amino acid sequence reveals 80% identity with that reported for other mycobacteria. The C-terminal domain involved in adhesion is mainly composed of arginine and lysine residues modified by methylation. In vitro tests demonstrated that recombinant Lbp/Hlp binds laminin, heparin, collagen and epithelial cells. Interestingly, we found that this adhesin corresponds to the antigen described as the target of pANCA and serum antibodies of patients with Crohn's disease. PMID:21334452

  1. Evaluation of "Indigenous Absorbed ELISA Kit" for the Estimation of Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Antibodies in Human Beings in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A V; Singh, S V; Verma, D K; Yadav, R; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S

    2011-01-01

    In present pilot study aimed to estimate, presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in the human serum samples originating from North India using "Indigenous absorbed ELISA kit" (ELISA kit). The phase I, "ELISA kit" was optimized using protoplasmic antigen from native isolate of MAP "Indian Bison type" recovered from the biopsies of Crohn's disease patients. The phase II, sensitivity and specificity of the kit were estimated as 40.0 and 83.3%, respectively, when evaluated in 40 human serum samples (5 Crohn's disease and 22 ulcerative colitis patients and 13 healthy human subjects) with defined MAP status with respect to stool culture. Seroprevalence of MAP antibodies was higher in CD patients (80.0%) as compared to ulcerative colitis patients (4.5%) and normal human subjects (15.3%). The phase III, seroprevalence of MAP antibodies was estimated as 23.4%, on the basis of the screening of 452 human serum samples (without history) from different geographical regions of North India. Region-wise, 34.0, 33.3, 32.8, 25.0, 23.0, 17.7, and 12.5% samples were positive from the states of Punjab, Uttarakhand, New Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, respectively. Study reported moderately higher presence of MAP antibodies in human population, which necessitates programs to reduce the bioburden of MAP in the environment and in animal population. PMID:23738105

  2. Repeated cycles of chemical and physical disinfection and their influence on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability measured by propidium monoazide F57 quantitative real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Petr; Babak, Vladimir; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has a high degree of resistance to chemical and physical procedures frequently used for the elimination of other bacteria. Recently, a method for the determination of viability by exposure of MAP to propidium monoazide (PMA) and subsequent real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was established and found to be comparable with culture. The aim of this study was to apply the PMA qPCR method to determine the impact of increasing concentration or time and repeated cycles of the application of selected disinfectants on MAP viability. Different MAP isolates responded to the same type of stress in different ways. The laboratory strain CAPM 6381 had the highest tolerance, while the 8819 low-passage field isolate was the most sensitive. Ultraviolet exposure caused only a partial reduction in MAP viability; all MAP isolates were relatively resistant to chlorine. Only the application of peracetic acid led to the total elimination of MAP. Repeated application of the treatments resulted in more significant decreases in MAP viability compared to single increases in the concentration or time of exposure to the disinfectant. PMID:24934261

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Antiapoptotic Responses to Infection: A Common Denominator of Human and Bovine Macrophages Infected with Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Abendaño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map is the causative agent of a chronic intestinal inflammation in ruminants named Johne's disease or paratuberculosis and a possible etiopathological agent of human Crohn's disease (CD. Analysis of macrophage transcriptomes in response to Map infection is expected to provide key missing information in the understanding of the role of this pathogen in establishing an inappropriate and persistent infection in a susceptible host and of the molecular mechanisms that might underlie the early phases of CD. In this paper we summarize transcriptomic studies of human and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs, and macrophages-like cell lines in vitro infected with Map. Most studies included in this paper consistently reported common gene expression signatures of bovine and human macrophages in response to Map such as enhanced expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-6, which promote bacterial survival. Overexpression of IL-10 could be responsible for the Map-associated reduction in the expression of the proapoptotic TNF-α gene observed in bovine and human macrophages.

  4. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W; Krause, Denis O; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that

  5. Trends in overall opportunistic illnesses, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis andMycobacterium avium complex incidence rates over the 30 years of the HIV epidemic: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Coelho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The natural history of HIV infection has changed dramatically after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Currently, opportunistic illnesses still represent a major cause of death and hospitalization in this population. In this study, we review the trends in opportunistic illnesses incidence rates and compare the results observed in high-income settings with that for low/middle-income settings, with special attention given to studies from Brazil. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs and Google scholar for publications on HIV associated opportunistic illness. Studies reporting rates based on person-time for all opportunistic illnesses and/or the three opportunistic infections of interest, namely,Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and Mycobacterium avium complex were included. RESULTS: Significant reductions in the incidence rates were demonstrated for opportunistic illnesses overall and also for the specific opportunistic infections included in the present study, both in high and low/middle-income settings. Out of the 37 studies included in the present review, almost 70% were from high-income settings. All the studies conducted in low/middle-income settings were single center studies and four were from Brazil. We found no study from Brazil reporting annual incidence rates of opportunistic illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunistic illnesses remain an important public health problem. To better guide health policies in low/middle-income settings, multicenter cohort studies should be encouraged. Studies from Brazil are urgently needed to assess the current burden of opportunistic illnesses in our population and to support the planning of HIV/AIDS health care services organization.

  6. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin. PMID:24443499

  7. 极早熟甜樱桃新品种‘早丹’%A New Extremely Early Ripening Prunus avium Cultivar 'Zaodan'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国华; 张开春; 张晓明; 周宇; 王晶

    2012-01-01

    'Zaodan', a new extremely early ripening cultivar of Prunus avium L., is derived from mutations of cultivar 'Xesphye' . It is a medium to large-sized red skin cherry with juicy red flesh, its average fruit weight is 6.2 g, and the biggest one is 8.3 g. Its good-flavor is due to medium acidity and high sweetness, average soluble solids content is 16.6%. It matures in mid-May in Beijing area, 3 - 6 days earlier than 'Burlat' . It is very suitable for protected cultivations because of its low-chilling requirement and extremely early ripening. The tree is moderately vigorous. No special susceptibility to common pests, diseases and stress injuries, with good adaptability to chilling and freezing damages.%‘早丹’为极早熟甜樱桃新品种。平均单果质量6.2g,最大果质量8.3g。果肉红色,汁多,可溶性固形物16.6%,风味酸甜可口。在北京地区果实发育期30~35d,5月中旬成熟,比‘伯兰特’早成熟3~6d。需冷量低,适宜温室及南方地区栽培。早果丰产性好,树体和花芽抗寒力均较强,无特殊的敏感性病虫害和逆境伤害。

  8. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. PMID:23121861

  9. Melatonin enhances root regeneration, photosynthetic pigments, biomass, total carbohydrates and proline content in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, Virginia; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis; Koukourikou-Petridou, Magdalene

    2012-12-01

    The present study, investigates the effects of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on the morphogenic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium L. × Prunus cerasus L.), from shoot tip explants. The incorporation of melatonin (0-10 μM) in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, greatly influenced rooting either positively or negatively. Melatonin, irrespective of its concentration, had a negative effect concerning the number of roots. However, application of 0.5 μM melatonin significantly increased the root length; while 1 μM melatonin increased the root length by 2.5 times, and the fresh weight of the roots by 4 times, in comparison to the control. Although 0.05 μM melatonin increased rooting by 11.11%, 5 μM melatonin had a significant reduction on the number, the fresh weight of roots, and the rooting percentage. Melatonin concentration of 0.1 μM resulted in the greatest chlorophyll (a + b) content, and 5-10 μM reduced the chlorophyll concentration by 2 times, compared to the control. The high melatonin concentrations (5 and 10 μM), increased the levels of proline and carbohydrates in leaves by 3-4 times. In the roots, 0.5 μM of melatonin concentration increased the carbohydrate levels by 1.5 times, while 0.05, 0.1 and 1 μM melatonin concentration significantly reduced the proline content. PMID:23127522

  10. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. PMID:26995127

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in tie-stall dairy herds using a standardized environmental sampling technique and targeted pooled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Côté, Geneviève; Paré, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Buczinski, Sébastien; Doré, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Julie H; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a chronic contagious enteritis of ruminants that causes major economic losses. Several studies, most involving large free-stall herds, have found environmental sampling to be a suitable method for detecting MAP-infected herds. In eastern Canada, where small tie-stall herds are predominant, certain conditions and management practices may influence the survival and transmission of MAP and recovery (isolation). Our objective was to estimate the performance of a standardized environmental and targeted pooled sampling technique for the detection of MAP-infected tie-stall dairy herds. Twenty-four farms (19 MAP-infected and 5 non-infected) were enrolled, but only 20 were visited twice in the same year, to collect 7 environmental samples and 2 pooled samples (sick cows and cows with poor body condition). Concurrent individual sampling of all adult cows in the herds was also carried out. Isolation of MAP was achieved using the MGIT Para TB culture media and the BACTEC 960 detection system. Overall, MAP was isolated in 7% of the environmental cultures. The sensitivity of the environmental culture was 44% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20% to 70%] when combining results from 2 different herd visits and 32% (95% CI: 13% to 57%) when results from only 1 random herd visit were used. The best sampling strategy was to combine samples from the manure pit, gutter, sick cows, and cows with poor body condition. The standardized environmental sampling technique and the targeted pooled samples presented in this study is an alternative sampling strategy to costly individual cultures for detecting MAP-infected tie-stall dairies. Repeated samplings may improve the detection of MAP-infected herds. PMID:27408329

  12. Effectiveness of combination of Mini-and Microsatellite loci to sub-type Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Italian type C isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbarino Chiara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis. The aim of our study was to combine Mini-and Microsatellite loci analysis in order to explore the effectiveness of this sub-typing method in a group of Map isolates. For this purpose, 84 Italian Type C Map isolates, each from a different cattle herd, were submitted to MIRU-Variable-Number Tandem-Repeats (VNTRs typing and Short Sequence repeats (SSRs sequencing. Moreover, the method was used to analyse the variability inside 10 herds (from three to 50 isolates per herd. Results The molecular sub-typing, carried out using three SSR and 10 MIRU-VNTR loci, differentiated the 84 isolates into 33 clusters, reaching a Simpson's Discriminatory Index (SID value of 0.952 (0.933 to 0.972, 95% confidence intervals. Among all considered loci, six (SSR2, MIRU2, SSR1, SSR8, VNTR3527 and VNTR1067 showed relevant allelic variability. Thirty-eight% of the isolates were clustered into four genotypes, differing from each other for the SSR2 locus. The other isolates, characterised by differences in two or more loci, were spread among the rest of the clusters. The intra-herd analysis revealed more than one genotype in most herds with a similar distribution of clusters. Conclusions Our results revealed the advantage of using both Mini-and Microsatellite approaches for successfully discriminating among Map Type C isolates from the same geographic area, host species and herd. These data suggest that the combination of loci here proposed could be a useful molecular tool for regional epidemiological studies.

  13. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis specific IS900 insertion sequences in bulk-tank milk samples obtained from different regions throughout Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Roger

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP was isolated from intestinal tissue of a human patient suffering Crohn's disease, a controversial discussion exists whether MAP have a role in the etiology of Crohn's disease or not. Raw milk may be a potential vehicle for the transmission of MAP to human population. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that MAP are found in raw milk samples obtained from a defined region in Switzerland. The aim of this work is to collect data about the prevalence of MAP specific IS900 insertion sequence in bulk-tank milk samples in different regions of Switzerland. Furthermore, we examined eventual correlation between the presence of MAP and the somatic cell counts, the total colony counts and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae. Results 273 (19.7% of the 1384 examined bulk-tank milk samples tested IS900 PCR-positive. The prevalence, however, in the different regions of Switzerland shows significant differences and ranged from 1.7% to 49.2%. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant (p >> 0.05 differences between the somatic cell counts and the total colony counts of PCR-positive and PCR-negative milk samples. Enterobacteriaceae occur as often in IS900 PCR-positive as in PCR-negative milk samples. Conclusion This is the first study, which investigates the prevalence of MAP in bulk-tank milk samples all over Switzerland and infers the herd-level prevalence of MAP infection in dairy herds. The prevalence of 19.7% IS900 PCR-positive bulk-milk samples shows a wide distribution of subclinical MAP-infections in dairy stock in Switzerland. MAP can therefore often be transmitted to humans by raw milk consumption.

  14. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ANKRA2 and CD180 genes with bovine respiratory disease and presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Garcia, M D; Wells, J E; Smith, T P L

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ANKRA2 and CD180 genes are associated with incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle. Two independent populations were used. The first population (BRD-affected; N = 90) was composed of 31 half-sib progeny, from a Brahman × Angus sire, that were treated for BRD. Untreated offspring from the sire were selected to serve as controls. The second population (MAP-infected) of 330 animals of unknown parentage was evaluated for the presence of MAP in ileocecal lymph node and classified as positive or negative. Markers in both genes were assessed for association in these two populations. In the BRD-affected population, five SNPs in the ANKRA2 gene were significantly associated (P < 0.05), and two SNPs were highly associated (P < 0.01) with incidence of BRD. In addition, two SNPs in the CD180 gene were found to be associated with this trait. In the MAP-infected population, one SNP in the ANKRA2 gene was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the presence or absence of MAP, and a SNP in the CD180 gene was highly associated (P < 0.01) with the trait. Haplotypes, using significant markers, showed a positive association with both incidence of BRD (P = 0.0001) and with the presence of MAP (P = 0.0032). Markers in the ANKRA2 and CD180 genes are associated with the ability of the animal to cope with pathogens. PMID:22034997

  15. Messa a punto di un metodo per l'individuazione di β-1,3- glucanasi e chitinasi attraverso Native PAGE su estratti di piante di Prunus avium L. inoculate con Phytophthora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Rogatis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tecnique to detect on ß-1,3- glucanase and chitinasi by native PAGE, in Prunus avium (L.clones inoculated with Phytophthora spp. ß-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities have been detected by native PAGE (poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis on leaf extracts of wild cherry (P. avium inoculated with different species of Phytophthora spp.. These pathogens are aggressive in wild cherry and they can cause wiltings and death of the plant. These two PR (pathogen-related proteins are normally produced by plants as first resistance strategy towards pathogens. The PR activities are involved in ifal cell wall degradation and growth. Usually, the techniques to detect them are based on colorimetric assay performed with the total protein extracts or in the poliacrylamide gels, through expensive procedures. In this work a direct colorimetric detection on a Carboximetil (cm-Curdlan RBB (Remazol Brilliant Blu and Glycol Chitosan substrate, is used to reveal ß-1,3-glucanase and chitinasi respectively. This protocol resulted to be very sensible in detecting the two proteins, very simply, reliable and cheap.

  16. Dam Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status does not predetermine calves for future shedding when raised in a contaminated environment: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by calves in the first days of life from colostrum, milk and faeces is regarded an important moment of transmission. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between the MAP status of dams as determined by the presence of MAP DNA and antibody in colostrum and that of DNA in faeces and the environment with subsequent MAP shedding of their daughters. A cohort of 117 dam-daughter pairs giving birth/being born on eight commercial dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis was followed where colostrum, faecal and environmental samples (dust) were analysed for the presence of MAP using an IS900 real-time PCR. Antibodies in colostrum were measured by ELISA. Analysis of dust samples showed that on all farms environmental MAP exposure occurred continuously. In significantly more colostrum samples (48%) MAP DNA was detected compared to faecal samples (37%). MAP specific antibodies were present in 34% of the colostrum samples. In total MAP DNA was present in faecal samples of 41% of the daughters at least once during the sampling period. The association between faecal shedding in the offspring and the dam MAP status defined by MAP PCR on colostrum, MAP PCR on faeces or ELISA on colostrum was determined by an exact cox regression analysis for discrete data. The model indicated that the hazard for faecal shedding in daughters born to MAP positive dams was not significantly different compared to daughters born to MAP negative dams. When born to a dam with DNA positive faeces the HR was 1.05 (CI 0.6; 1.8) and with DNA positive colostrum the HR was 1.17 (CI 0.6; 2.3). When dam status was defined by a combination of both PCR outcomes (faeces and colostrum) and the ELISA outcome the HR was 1.26 (CI 0.9; 1.9). Therefore, this study indicates that neither the presence of MAP DNA in colostrum, MAP DNA in faeces nor the presence of MAP antibodies in colostrum of the dam significantly influences the hazard of

  17. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  18. Differences in serological responses to specific glycopeptidolipid-core and common lipid antigens in patients with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yukiko; Doi, Takeshi; Maekura, Ryoji; Ito, Masami; Yano, Ikuya

    2006-02-01

    Disease due to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is one of the most important opportunistic pulmonary infections. Since the clinical features of MAC pulmonary disease and tuberculosis (TB) resemble each other, and the former is often difficult to treat with chemotherapy, early differential diagnosis is desirable. The humoral immune responses to both diseases were compared by a unique multiple-antigen ELISA using mycobacterial species-common and species-specific lipid antigens, including glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core. The results were assessed for two patient groups hospitalized and diagnosed clinically as having TB or MAC pulmonary disease. Diverse IgG antibody responsiveness was demonstrated against five lipid antigens: (1) monoacyl phosphatidylinositol dimannoside (Ac-PIM2), (2) cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate) (TDM-T) and (3) trehalose monomycolate from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) (TMM-T), and (4) trehalose monomycolate (TMM-M) and (5) GPL-core from MAC. Anti-GPL-core IgG antibody was critical, and detected only in the primary and the secondary MAC diseases with high positivity, up to 88.4 %. However, IgG antibodies against Ac-PIM2, TDM-T and TMM-T were elevated in both TB and MAC patients. Anti-TMM-M IgG antibody was also elevated in MAC disease preferentially, with a positive rate of 89.9 %, and therefore, it was also useful for the diagnosis of the disease. IgG antibody levels were increased at the early stages of the disease and declined in parallel to the decrease of bacterial burden to near the normal healthy control level, when the anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was completed successfully. Unexpectedly, about 25 % of hospitalized TB patient sera were anti-GPL-core IgG antibody positive, although the specificity of GPL-core was sufficiently high (95.8 % negative in healthy controls), suggesting that a considerable number of cases of latent co-infection with MAC may exist in TB patients. Taken together, the combination of

  19. 上海地区栽培甜樱桃光合特性研究%Study on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Prunus avium L. in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勃; 蔚玉红; 刘庆忠

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究上海地区栽培甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)的光合特性.[方法]对上海地区栽植的拉宾斯、先锋、萨米脱和布鲁克斯4个甜樱桃品种的光合特性进行研究.[结果]布鲁克斯和萨米脱的叶绿素含量高于拉宾斯和先锋,但4个甜樱桃品种叶片中叶绿素含量与光合速率(Pn)不存在正相关关系.拉宾斯和先锋的气孔密度明显大于布鲁克斯和萨米脱,气孔纵径和横径却较相对小.4个甜樱桃品种的饱和光强都在800 μmol/(m2·s)附近,拉宾斯的光饱和光合速率最高,为11.7 μmol/(m2·s),光合能力最强.布鲁克斯存在一定程度的光抑制现象,与其他品种相比,表现出了一定的阴生植物的倾向,能较充分地利用弱光,而且利用低浓度CO2的能力仅次于拉宾斯,比较适合在光照较差的设施内或者南方地区栽培.[结论]该研究可为上海等长江以南地区甜樱桃的引种和优质高效栽培提供理论支持.

  20. Application of IS1311 locus 2 PCR-REA assay for the specific detection of ′Bison type′ Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates of Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Of the three major genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, ′Bison type′ is most prevalent genotype in the domestic livestock species of the country, and has also been recovered from patients suffering from Crohn′s disease. Recently, a new assay based on IS1311 locus 2 PCR- restriction endonuclease analysis (REA was designed to distinguish between ′Indian Bison type′ and non-Indian genotypes. The present study investigated discriminatory potential of this new assay while screening of a panel of MAP isolates of diverse genotypes and from different geographical regions. Methods: A total of 53 mycobacterial isolates (41 MAP and 12 mycobacterium other than MAP, three MAP genomic DNA and 36 MAP positive faecal DNA samples from different livestock species (cattle, buffaloes, goat, sheep and bison and geographical regions (India, Canada, USA, Spain and Portugal were included in the study. The extracted DNA samples (n=92 were analyzed for the presence of MAP specific sequences (IS900, ISMav 2 and HspX using PCR. DNA samples were further subjected to genotype differentiation using IS1311 PCR-REA and IS1311 L2 PCR-REA methods. Results: All the DNA samples (except DNA from non-MAP mycobacterial isolates were positive for all the three MAP specific sequences based PCRs. IS1311 PCR-REA showed that MAP DNA samples of Indian origin belonged to ′Bison type′. Whereas, of the total 19 non-Indian MAP DNA samples, 2, 15 and 2 were genotyped as ′Bison type′, ′Cattle type′ and ′Sheep type′, respectively. IS1311 L2 PCR-REA method showed different restriction profiles of ′Bison type′ genotype as compared to non-Indian DNA samples. Interpretation & conclusions: IS1311 L2 PCR-REA method successfully discriminated ′Indian Bison type′ from other non-Indian genotypes and showed potential to be future epidemiological tool and for genotyping of MAP isolates.

  1. Isolation and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP from cattle in Ireland using both traditional culture and molecular based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douarre Pierre E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP causes a chronic gastroenteritis affecting many species. Johne's disease is one of the most widespread and economically important disease of ruminants. Since 1992 and the opening of the European market, the exposure and the transmission of MAP in cattle herds considerably increased. Improvements in diagnostic strategies for Ireland and elsewhere are urgently required. In total, 290 cattle from seven Irish herds with either a history or a strong likelihood of paratuberculosis infection were selected by a veterinary team over 2 years. Faecal samples (290 were collected and screened for MAP by a conventional culture method and two PCR assays. In order to further evaluate the usefulness of molecular testing, a nested PCR was also assessed. Results M. paratuberculosis was isolated and cultured from 23 faecal samples (7.9% on solid medium. From a molecular perspective, 105 faecal samples (36% were PCR positive for MAP specific DNA. A complete correlation (100% was observed between the results of both molecular targets (IS900 and ISMAP02. Sensitivity was increased by ~10% with the inclusion of a nested PCR for ISMAP02 (29 further samples were positive. When culturing and PCR were retrospectively compared, every culture positive faecal sample also yielded a PCR positive result for both targets. Alternatively, however not every PCR positive sample (n = 105, 36% produced a corresponding culture isolate. Interestingly though when analysed collectively at the herd level, the correlation between culture and PCR results was 100% (ie every herd which recorded at least 1 early PCR +ve result later yielded culture positive samples within that herd. Conclusion PCR on bovine faecal samples is a fast reliable test and should be applied routinely when screening for MAP within herds suspected of paratuberculosis. Nested PCR increases the threshold limit of detection for MAP DNA by approximately 10

  2. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D

    2015-08-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also

  3. Avaliação sorológica e de fatores de risco para a infecção por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis em rebanhos leiteiros da Microrregião de Garanhuns, Pernambuco Serological evaluation and risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds of Microregion Garanhuns, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luenda de M. e Sá

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho realizar um inquérito epidemiológico da infecção por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP em bovinos leiteiros da microrregião de Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brasil. Para este estudo foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas de 408 animais, provenientes de 19 rebanhos localizados em 15 municípios. O exame sorológico foi realizado por Ensaio Imunoenzimático (ELISA indireto para detecção de anticorpos frente ao MAP. Em todas as propriedades, foi aplicado um questionário investigativo para análise dos fatores de risco, e as coordenadas geográficas coletadas por um aparelho de Global Position System (GPS para realização da distribuição espacial. A prevalência da infecção por MAP foi de 2,7% (11/408; I.C. 1,4-4,9. O número de focos foi 47,4% (9/19. Na análise de regressão logística foi identificado como fator de risco a taxa anual de nascimentos superior a 51 bezerros/ano (OR 3,8; I.C. 1,1-13,1. Desta forma, conclui-se que a infecção por MAP encontra-se presente nos rebanhos bovinos leiteiros da microrregião estudada e que medidas de controle baseadas nos fatores de risco identificados devem ser implementadas com o objetivo de reduzir o número de focos da infecção.The present study aimed to conduct an epidemiological investigation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infection in dairy cattle of the Garanhuns microregion, in Pernambuco, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 408 animals from 19 herds located in 15 cities. Serological tests were performed by indirect immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA for antibodies against MAP. In all farms, a questionnaire to investigate risk factors was used, and Global Position System (GPS receivers were used to collect geographic coordinates to show the spatial distribution of the animals. The prevalence of MAP infected cattle was 2.7% (11/408; I.C. 1.4-4.9. The rate of infection was 47.4% (9/19. An annual birth rate over 51 calves

  4. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC isolated from AIDS patients and the criteria required for its implication in disease Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC isolado de pacientes com AIDS e os critérios exigidos para sua implicação em doença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jamil Hadad

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Before the AIDS pandemia, the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC was responsible in most cases for the pneumopathies that attack patients with basic chronic pulmonary diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis36. In 1981, with the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, MAC started to represent one of the most frequent bacterial diseases among AIDS patients, with the disseminated form of the disease being the major clinical manifestation of the infection8. Between January 1989 and February 1991, the Section of Mycobacteria of the Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, isolated MAC from 103 patients by culturing different sterile and no-sterile processed specimens collected from 2304 patients seen at the AIDS Reference and Training Center and/or Emilio Ribas Infectology Institute. Disseminated disease was diagnosed in 29 of those patients on the basis of MAC isolation from blood and/or bone marrow aspirate. The other 74 patients were divided into categories highly (5, moderately (26 and little suggestive of disease (43 according to the criteria of DAVIDSON (198910. The various criteria for MAC isolation from sterile and non-sterile specimens are discussed.Anterior a pandemia de AIDS, o Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC era responsável pela maioria das vezes, por pneumopatias acometendo pacientes com doença pulmonar crônica de base como enfisema e bronquite crônica36. Em 1981, com o advento da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA, o MAC passou a representar uma das doenças bacterianas mais frequentes em pacientes com esta síndrome, sendo a doença disseminada a principal forma de manifestação clínica da infecção8. Entre Janeiro de 1989 e Fevereiro de 1991, no Setor de Micobactérias do Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo, o MAC foi isolado de 103 pacientes a partir do cultivo de diferentes espécimes estéreis e não estéreis processados, coletados de 2.304 pacientes atendidos no Centro de Referência e

  5. Effect of days in milk and milk yield on testing positive in milk antibody ELISA to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples are becoming more used as a diagnostic specimen for assessment of occurrence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study assessed the effect of days in milk (DIM) and milk yield on testing positive in a commercial MAP specific milk antibody ELISA...... among 222,774 Danish Holstein cows. Results showed that odds of testing positive on 1-2 DIM were 9-27 times higher than the rest of lactation, where the chance of testing positive varied less. The reason is most likely a high concentration of non-specific antibodies in colostrum. Consequently, samples...... from the first couple of DIM should be excluded from MAP testing until further information on their significance is established. Milk yield also had a significant effect on odds of testing positive due to its diluting effect. Inclusion of milk yield in the interpretation of test results could improve...

  6. 甜樱桃果实MAP试验和不同部位呼吸强度变化规律研究%MAP Experiment and Variation of Respiratory Intensity of Different Parts of Fruit in Prunus avium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志华; 王文辉; 佟伟; 张志云; 贾晓辉; 姜云斌

    2009-01-01

    @@ 甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)又名大樱桃,果实色泽艳丽、风味鲜美,成熟时正值夏季高温季节,易失水、褐变、腐烂,风味品质下降较快,耐贮性差,常温下只能放3~5 d,极大地限制了樱桃的异地销售,而且成熟期集中,造成旺季吃不完、淡季吃不着.自发气调包装(简称MAP)作为一种投资小,使用方便的贮藏技术,广泛应用于果蔬贮运保鲜中.

  7. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Ana L T; Santos, Carolina S A B; Pimenta, Carla L R M; Freitas, Theonys D; Brasil, Arthur W L; Clementino, Inácio J; Alves, Clebert J; Bezerra, Camila S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Oliveira, Taynara S; Azevedo, Sérgio S

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study based on a planned sampling was carried out to determine herd-level and animal-level prevalences, and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level prevalence for bovine paratuberculosis in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. The state was divided into three sampling groups: sampling stratum 1 (mesoregion of Sertão), sampling stratum 2 (mesoregion of Borborema), and sampling stratum 3 (mesoregions of Zona da Mata and Agreste). For each sampling stratum, herd-level and animal-level prevalences were estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In the first stage, a pre-established number of herds (primary sampling units) were randomly selected; in the second stage, a pre-established number of cows aged ≥24 months were randomly selected (secondary sampling units). Ten animals were sampled in herds with up to 99 cows aged over 24 months; 15 animals were sampled in herds with 100 or more cows aged over 24 months; and all animals were sampled in those with up to 10 cows aged over 24 months. In total, 2504 animals were sampled from 480 herds. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) test kits were used for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibody detection. A herd was deemed positive for the presence of MAP if it included at least one positive animal in herds of up to 24 females, and two positive animals in herds with more than 24 females. The herd-level prevalence in the State of Paraíba was 34.5% (95% CI=30.2-39.1%), 26.6% (95% CI=20.2-34.2%) in the region of Borborema, 30.5% (95% CI=23.9-38.0%) in Agreste/Mata, and 41.4% (95% CI=34.0-49.1%) in Sertão. The animal-level prevalence was 10.7% (95% CI=7.3-15.4%) in the State of Paraíba, 7.9% (95% CI=5.2-11.7%) in the region of Borborema, 9.4% (95% CI=7.3-12.1%) in Sertão, and 13.9% (95% CI=6.2--28.3%) in Agreste/Mata. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 6.7% to 100% (median of 20%). The risk factors identified were as follows: Sertão region

  8. 甜樱桃黄酮醇合酶基因的克隆及其表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of PacFLS in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳爱玲; 沈欣杰; 刘芸; 袁华招; 张晓明; 李天红

    2013-01-01

    The flavonol synthase gene is an important gene involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. A full-length cDNA sequence of FLS gene, PaFLS (GenBank accessionn number:JQ289290), was cloned from the young leaves of Prunus avium L. by using RT-PCR and RACE method. The full-length cDNA of PaFLS was 1 077 bp with an open reading frame of 1 014 bp, which encoded a putative protein of 337 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 38 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.58. GenBank conserved domain search and function analysis revealed that PaFLS belonged to the 2-oxoglutarate iron-dependent oxygenase (2OG-Fell_Oxy) family. Sequence analysis showed that the homologies of FLS protein from P. avium with Malus domestica, Pyrus communis and Fragaria ananassa were 99% ,97% and 77% , respectively. The prokaryotic expression system of pGEX-4T-1 /PaFLS was constructed and transformed into E.coli BL21. The protein expression was induced by 0.5 mmol/L IPTG. A 65 kDa fusion protein was detected by SDS-PAGE. The expression levels of PaFLS in different tissues of plants were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Higher level of transcription was observed in the flowers than that in the fruits, pholems and leaves, which might be associated with pollinator attraction and pollen germination.%为了解黄酮醇合酶在甜樱桃类黄酮生物合成途径中的作用,根据其他物种已知的FLS cDNA保守序列设计简并引物,采用RT-PCR和RACE的技术,从甜樱桃(Prunus avium.L)嫩叶中扩增获得FLS cDNA全长,命名为PaFLS(GenBank登录号:JQ289290).该基因cDNA全长为1 077 bp,开放阅读框为1 014 bp,编码337个氨基酸,分子质量为38 ku,等电点pI为5.58.生物信息学分析表明PaFLS属于依赖2-酮戊二酸的双加氧酶家族(2OG-FeII_Oxy),该基因所编码的氨基酸序列与苹果、梨和草莓的同源性分别为99%、97%和77%.将该基因重组到表达载体pGEX4T-1中进行原核表达,电泳检测到一条约为65 ku

  9. Successful treatment of asymptomatic or clinically terminal bovine Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection (Johne's disease) with the bacterium Dietzia used as a probiotic alone or in combination with dexamethasone: Adaption to chronic human diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    A naturally occurring gastrointestinal disease, primarily of ruminants (Johne disease), is a chronic debilitating disease that is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP infection occurs primarily in utero and in newborns. Outside our Dietzia probiotic treatment, there are no preventive/curative therapies for bovine paratuberculosis. Interestingly, MAP is at the center of controversy as to its role in (cause of) Crohn disease (CD) and more recently, its role in diabetes, ulcerative colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); the latter two, like CD, are considered to be a result of chronic intestinal inflammation. Treatments, both conventional and biologic agents, which induce and maintain remission are directed at curtailing processes that are an intricate part of inflammation. Most possess side effects of varying severity, lose therapeutic value, and more importantly, none routinely result in prevention and/or cures. Based on (a) similarities of Johne disease and Crohn disease, (b) a report that Dietzia inhibited growth of MAP under specific culture conditions, and (c) findings that Dietzia when used as a probiotic, (i) was therapeutic for adult bovine paratuberculosis, and (ii) prevented development of disease in MAP-infected calves, the goal of the present investigations was to design protocols that have applicability for IBD patients. Dietzia was found safe for cattle of all ages and for normal and immunodeficient mice. The results strongly warrant clinical evaluation as a probiotic, in combination with/without dexamethasone. PMID:21460639

  10. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease is unrelated to the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2241880 (ATG16L1) and rs10045431 (IL12B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, James P; Desmond, Alan; Shanahan, Fergus; Hill, Colin

    2014-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been controversially linked with Crohn's disease (CD). Detection of MAP in CD has been highly variable, and one explanation might be the genetic heterogeneity of this syndrome. Many of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked with CD are contained within genes that are associated with bacterial handling in general, and some are specifically implicated in susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. We tested a cohort of IBD patients (n = 149) to determine whether the presence of MAP was associated with a selection of these SNPs. Blood samples from CD patients (n = 84), ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 65) patients and healthy controls (n = 55) were examined for the presence of MAP and SNPs in ATG16L1, IL12B, NOD2/CARD15, NKx2-3, IL23R and IRGM. Statistical analysis was then used to determine whether there was any association between the presence of MAP and these SNPs. MAP, rs2241880 (ATG16L1) and rs10045431 (IL12B) were found to be significantly associated with CD. The presence of MAP was not related to the status of the SNPs in ATG16L1 or IL12B. We have found no evidence for the contribution of these SNPs to the presence of MAP in CD patients. PMID:24522266

  11. Preliminary study on polymorphism of ACO gene in six varieties of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium )%6个甜樱桃品种ACO基因多态性的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王廿; 张开春; 王晶; 张晓明; 闫国华

    2012-01-01

    乙烯在植物果实成熟过程中起着重要的作用,ACC合酶(1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase,ACS)和ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase,ACO)是植物乙烯生物合成途径的限速酶。通过DNA序列分析,以不同果实成熟期的6个甜樱桃品种(Prunus avium L.)为材料,检测ACO基因的多态性。获得甜樱桃ACO基因约1kh,与桃(Ppersica)ACO基因(GenBank登录号:AF532976)序列的同源性达96%,其预测的氨基酸序列与桃、梅(Pmume)、美洲李(Parmeniaca)和欧洲李(Pdomestica)等ACO的氨基酸序列同源性超过95%。该片段包括4个外显子和4个内含子,内含子符合GT—AT规律。用DNAMAN进行多序列比对分别在内含子2和内含子4内发现2个多态性简单重复序列(AT)n。内含子2有3种片段:即(AT)6、(AT)7和(AT)8;内含子4有2种片段,即(AT)5和(AT)6,组合后共得到4种ACO单倍型。研究在甜樱桃ACO基因座上发现2个SSR标记,为进一步研究4CD基因多态性与果实成熟期相关性奠定基础。%Ethylene plays an important role in ripening of plants. ACC synthease ( 1-aminocyclop ropane- 1-carboxylic acid synthase, ACS) and ACC oxidase (1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase, ACO) are rate-limiting enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis in plants. DNA sequence analysis was applied to detect the polymorphism of A CO gene in 6 sweet cherry varieties (Prunus avium L.) of different maturity time. The DNA sequences of partial A CO gene about 1 kb were obtained from sweet cherry (P. avium). The identity of these DNA sequences was 96% with A CO of peach (P. persica). The identity of predicted amino acid sequences was 95% with the amino acid sequence of ACO in P. persica, Prunus mume, Prunus armeniaca, and Prunus domestica. These fragments contained four extrons and four introns which has GT-AG sequence. Two SSR markers

  12. TLR4, IL10RA, and NOD2 mutation in paediatric Crohn's disease patients: an association with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and TLR4 and IL10RA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Josef; Skinner, Narelle A; Catto-Smith, Anthony G; Cameron, Donald J S; Michalski, Wojtek P; Visvanathan, Kumar; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2013-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). The role of CD susceptibility genes in association with these microbes is not known. Sixty-two early onset paediatric CD patients and 46 controls with known MAP status were analysed for an association with 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 18 CD susceptibility genes. Functional studies on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were conducted on 17 CD patients with known CD mutations to assess IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α expression upon stimulation with MAP precipitated protein derivative (PPD) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, surface expression of IL10R and TLR4 on resting B cells, NK cells, T cells, and monocytes was assessed. A mutation in TLR4 (rs4986790) and IL10RA (rs22291130) was significantly associated with MAP-positive CD patients compared to MAP-negative CD patients (27.6 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.021, and 62.1 vs. 33.3 %, p = 0.024, respectively). PPD and LPS significantly increased IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α production in PBMCs. IL-10 and TNF-α production were significantly lower in a subgroup of CD patients (5/12) with a known NOD2 mutation. Receptor for IL-10 was significantly higher expressed on NK cells (CD56low) and on NK T cells harbouring a NOD2 mutations compared to wildtype cells (p = 0.031 and 0.005, respectively). TLR4 was significantly higher expressed on NK cells (CD56high) harbouring a NOD2 mutations compared to wildtype cells (p = 0.038). PMID:23455702

  13. 樱桃叶片气孔导度动态模拟研究%Study on Dynamic Simulation of Stomatal Conductance( Gs ) of Cherry(Prunus avium L.' Hongdeng' ) Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高照全; 赵晨霞; 冯社章; 程建军

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to simulate the dynamic change law of cherry leaf s Gs under different weather by Gs model. [ Method] The experiment was conducted in a ' Hongdeng' cherry orchard. The parameters of the model were tested by the data observed in upper canopy from 2008 to 2011 during the growing seasons. [ Result] The diurnal course of Gs showed a double-peak curve on sunny days. And it reached the first peak of 240 mmol/(m2 · S) at mid-morning about 08:00 and the second at mid-afternoon about 16:00. The decline of Gs at noon was caused by lower RH and ψt. During a whole day (12 h) , average Gs was about 154. 36 mmol/( m2 · S) on sunny day. [ Conclusion] The study provides a scientific basis for using Gs model to simulate Gs of fruit tree leaf under different weather.%[目的]利用气孔导度(Gs)模型模拟红灯樱桃(Prunus avium L.‘Hongdeng’)叶片G,在不同气象条件下的动态变化规律.[方法]于2008~2011年在红灯樱桃园中,利用树冠上层叶片气体交换数据拟合相应参数.[结果]在晴天,樱桃上层叶片Gs呈双峰曲线,最大峰值出现在08:00左右,约240 mmol/( m2·s);第2峰值在16:00,气孔的“午休”现象主要与中午较低的RH和ψ1有关.晴天时,一天当中Gs的平均值为154.36 mmol/( m2·s).[结论]该研究为采用Gs模型来模拟不同气象条件下果树叶片G1提供了科学依据.

  14. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome due to Mycobacterium avium complex successfully followed up using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is one of the most difficult types of IRIS to manage. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) has been suggested as a useful tool for evaluating the inflammatory status of HIV-infected patients. We present the first case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS (MAC-IRIS) that was successfully followed up using 18 F-FDG PET/CT. A 44-year-old homosexual Japanese man was referred to our hospital with fever and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and found to be HIV positive. After the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the patient’s mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy gradually enlarged, and bilateral infiltrates appeared in the upper lung fields. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was performed five months after the initiation of cART and showed intense accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) corresponding to the lesions of infiltration as well as the mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. A bronchial wash culture and pathology findings led to a diagnosis of MAC-IRIS. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy with rifampicin, ethambutol, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin was started. One year after the chemotherapy was initiated, there was a significant reduction in FDG uptake in the area of the lesions except in the mediastinal lymph node. This implied incomplete resolution of the MAC-IRIS-related inflammation. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was continued because of the residual lesion. To date, the patient has not experienced a recurrence of MAC-IRIS, a period of nine months. We present a case of MAC-IRIS in an HIV-infected patient whose disease activity was successfully followed up using 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Our data suggest that 18 F-FDG PET/CT is useful for evaluating the disease activity of NTM-IRIS and

  15. Padronização do teste imunoalérgico aplicado ao diagnóstico da tuberculose e micobacterioses em suínos (Sus scrofa experimentalmente sensibilizados com suspensões oleosas de Mycobacterium bovis ou M. avium inativados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia C.S. Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o valor diagnóstico da resposta alérgica cutânea em leitões experimentalmente sensibilizados, pela via intramuscular, com suspensões oleosas de Mycobacterium bovis ou M. avium inativados pelo calor.Foram utilizados 91 animais, divididos em quatro grupos: grupos A e B, cada um com 25 indivíduos, grupos C e D com 21 e 20 indivíduos respectivamente, balanceando-se as características de raça, linhagem, faixa etária e sexo. Aos 30 dias de idade, todos os animais foram submetidos a uma triagem com a aplicação de tuberculina PPD bovina, pela via intradérmica na base da orelha e não houve qualquer tipo de reação. Decorridos 60 dias do teste tuberculínico de triagem, o grupo A recebeu injeção intramuscular de 0,5 mL de uma suspensão oleosa de M. avium estirpe D4; o grupo B recebeu 0,5 mL de uma suspensão oleosa de M. bovis estirpe AN5; o grupo C (controle I, recebeu 0,5 mL do adjuvante oleoso; e o grupo D (controle II, recebeu 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica. Após 30 dias da sensibilização foi realizada a prova de tuberculinização comparativa com reação medida pela variação da espessura da pele com cutímetro de mola às 0h, 24h, 48h e 72h, após a aplicação das tuberculinas. No teste comparativo, lido às 48 ou 72 horas, a reação foi considerada negativa quando a diferença das reações entre o PPD bovino e o PPD aviário foi menor que 6,7 mm; suspeito ou inconclusivo quando a diferença se situou na faixa de 6,7 a 7,5 mm; e positiva de acordo com o tipo de PPD, considerando-se tuberculose para PPD M. bovis e micobacteriose para PPD M. avium, quando a diferença da reação foi superior a 7,5 mm.

  16. Cloning and Expression Analysis of PaGAI gene of DELLA Protein from Prunus avium%甜樱桃DELLA蛋白基因PaGAI的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟翡; 沈欣杰; 刘芳; 袁华招; 刘兰英; 李天红

    2012-01-01

    利用RT-PCR和RACE技术从甜樱桃(PrunusaviumL.)嫩叶中克隆了赤霉素信号转导途径中的关键负调控因子DELLA蛋白基因cDNA全序列,将其命名为PaGAI。该基因cDNA全长2310bp,开放阅读框ORF为1788bp,推测其编码一个含有595个氨基酸残基的多肽链,蛋白质分子量约64kD。生物信息学分析结果表明,PaGAI编码蛋白具有DELLA蛋白保守结构域,其N端存在两个非常保守的酸性结构域DELLA和VHYNP作为信号感知区域,C端有VHIID、RVER和SAW结构域作为阻遏区域。PaGAI与其它植物的DELLA蛋白具有较高的同源性,其中与苹果MdRGL2b蛋白同源性最高,达到84%。构建pGEX.4T-1/PaGAI原核表达体系,并转化EcoliBL21,经0.5mmol.L^-1IPTG诱导蛋白表达,SDS.PAGE检测获得了分子质量为91kD的融合蛋白,半定量RT-PCR分析表明,PaGAI在花、果实、叶片、韧皮部中普遍表达,在花与韧皮部中的表达远远强于在果实与叶片中的表达。%DELLA protein is a key negative regulation factor of gibberellins (GAs)signal transduction pathway. A whole cDNA sequence of DELLA protein gene, named PaGAI, was cloned from Prunus avium L. tender leaves using RTPCR and RACEPCR. The cDNA of PaGAI had a length of 2 310 bp and contain an openingreading frame (ORF) of 1 788 bp, which was supposed to encode a 595 aminoacid residues polypeptide of 64 kD. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the protein encoded by PaGAI had a conservative structural domain of DELLA protein. It had two strict Conservative amino acid domains DELLA and VHYNP in the N terminal and three repression regions ofVHVID, RVER and SAW in the Cterminal. PaGAI, with high homologous with the DELLA proteins in some other plants, and showed the highest homology of 84% with Malus domestica. The prokaryotic expression system of pGEX4T1/PaGAI was constructed and transformated into E. coli BL21, and the protein expression was induced by 0.5 mmol

  17. Effects of Inoculation with Mix PGPR on Rhizosphere Microbiota and Root Respiration of Cerasus avium Moench./C. sachalinensis Kom.%根际促生细菌混合接种对甜樱桃/东北山樱根际微生物区系及根系呼吸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕德国; 杨丹丹; 秦嗣军; 刘灵芝

    2012-01-01

    为探讨有益微生物对甜樱桃根系的接种效应,试验采用灌根的方法,研究了从野生东北山樱根际分离筛选出的4株促生细菌,混合接种对甜樱桃/东北山樱根际微生物区系及根系呼吸代谢途径的影响.结果表明:接种促生菌液改变了甜樱桃根际细菌、放线菌及真菌的数量比例,使根际细菌数量显著增加.接种2次,根际细菌增加幅度最大,为对照的3.4倍;接种促生菌液提高了根系活力,接种2次效果最显著,为对照的2.4倍,达到200.4μg/(g·h);接种促生菌液对根系呼吸的基础生化途径与末端氧化电子传递途径运行比例无明显影响,但整体上提高了根系呼吸速率.%In order to explore the effects of inoculating beneficial microorganisms on C. Avium/ C. Sachalinensis, plants were inoculated with a mixture of four bacterial strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) screened from rhizosphere soil of C. Sachalinensis in wild by means of root irrigation . The aspects were investigated of rhizosphere microbiota and root respiratory metabolism of the inoculated plants. It was found that the microbial community structure underwent variation in the rhizosphere of C. Avium/C. Sachalinensis, and the amount of rhizosphere bacteria increased after inoculation with PGPR ,3-4 times more than the control after inoculation with PGPR twice. The root activity was enhanced after inoculation with PGPR and its enhancement was 2.4 times more than the control after inoculation twice, reaching 200.4μg/(g·h). The entire respiratory rate was evidently increased after inoculation with PGPR, while the contribution ratios of basis biochemical and the end of the oxidation electron trans port pathways of root respiratory were not evidently affected.

  18. 甜樱桃果实果肉Ca2+质量浓度变化规律及其与裂果的关系%Change of Ca2+ concentration in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)fruit and its relationship with fruit cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阁; 朱国英; 刘成连; 原永兵; 李志军; 王永章

    2008-01-01

    通过对拉宾斯(Lapins),滨库(Bing)和红丰(Hongfeng)3个抗裂性不同的甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种进行果实发育期外源补钙处理,研究了甜樱桃果实整个发育过程中果肉Ca2+质量浓度变化规律,及其对甜樱桃裂果的影响.结果表明,1)拉宾斯果实在成熟后期果肉Ca2+质量浓度呈稳定的上升趋势,而滨库和红丰在果实成熟期果肉Ca2+质量浓度则呈下降趋势.2)外源补钙处理可明显提高果实中的钙含量,所有处理的果实在整个发育过程中果肉Ca2+质量浓度都明显高于对照,其中拉宾斯比对照高12%、比滨库高13%、比红丰高40%.3)在裂果试验中,高抗裂品种拉宾斯对于外源补钙不敏感,叶面补钙处理后裂果率由7%降为4%;而抗裂性较差的滨库和红丰则非常敏感,裂果率滨库由49%降为28%、红丰由92%降为60%,证明果肉Ca2+质量浓度的提高可明显降低果实裂果率.

  19. Effects of Cutting Back Pruning Degree on Distribution and Utilization of 13C and 15N for Prunus avium ‘Hongdeng’%短截修剪程度对‘红灯’甜樱桃13C和15N分配利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付莹; 姜远茂; 张世忠; 雷庆国; 汤先状

    2015-01-01

    以2年生‘红灯’(Prunus avium L.‘Hongdeng’)/东北山樱(Cerasus sachalinensis Kom.)为试材,研究了不同短截程度对13C和15N分配和利用的影响.结果表明,新梢生长期,短截处理修剪促进了碳水化合物向根系分配,极重度短截处理使叶片和新梢中13C分配率分别减少了29.15%和7.3%,粗根和细根中13C分配率增加了46.65%和48.43%.随着时间的推移,短截处理的叶片和新梢的13C分配率均显著高于对照,多年生枝干的13C分配率随短截程度的增加而减小,根系的13C分配率以中短截最低,极重度短截最高.各处理15N利用率从高到底依次为中度短截>对照>极重度短截,在新梢停长期差别最大,3个处理15N利用率分别为6.91%、5.54%和3.60%;多年生枝干15N分配率随短截程度的增加而减小,短截处理叶片和新梢的15N分配率随短截程度的增加而增加.

  20. 外源GA3和PP333对甜樱桃新梢生长及赤霉素代谢关键基因表达的影响%Effects of GA3 And PP333 on Shoot Growth and Gene Expression of Gibberellins Metabolism in Prunus Avium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 袁华招; 沈欣杰; 廖雄; 李天红

    2013-01-01

    本研究以9年生甜樱桃红灯(Prunus avium L.‘Hongdeng’)为试材,于新梢生长期进行100mg·L-1赤霉素(GA3)、300 mg·L-1多效唑(PP333)叶面喷施处理.试验结果表明GA3可明显促进新梢生长,新梢生长量长达15.04cm,为对照的2倍,而PP333则显著抑制了新梢的生长.GA3处理可使其内源GA3含量发生明显变化,在处理后14d更高达对照的2.2倍,之后迅速下降,而PP333处理后内源GA3含量呈持续下降趋势.实时荧光定量PCR结果表明GA3处理能够抑制GA20-ox、GA3-ox2种合成关键酶基因的转录,而PP333处理则使GA20-ox、GA3-ox转录水平在后期明显升高.同时赤霉素代谢关键酶GA2-ox转录水平在不同处理中均表现出与赤霉素含量类似的变化规律.说明在甜樱桃内源赤霉素含量与合成代谢酶转录水平间,反馈调节机制可能发挥着重要作用.该研究结果将为生产中采用基因工程手段控制营养生长,实现矮化密植提供理论参考.

  1. Estratificado de huesos de cerezo (Prunus avium Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Catalina, Joaquín

    1980-01-01

    [EN] Stones from three cherry cultivars were germinated following different stratification methods. Differences in percentage germination among varieties (from 57% to 82%) were greater than among stratification treatments (from 63% to 77%). Lath house stratification from september to germination, cold stratification (3-5 ºC) during four months, and warm stratification (20ºC) during a fortnight followed by cold stratification (3-5ºC) during three and a half months, gave similar percenta...

  2. Serovars of Mycobacterium avium Complex isolated from patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, D. S.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Thybo, S.; Lerche, A.; Bennedsen, J.

    1994-01-01

    with pulmonary disease (n = 65) and those in patients with lymph node infection (n = 58). The results suggest a Scandinavian distribution of serovars with a predominance of serovar 6 and fail to demonstrate any selective protection against different serovars by Mycobacterium bovis ECG vaccination....

  3. PHYLLODY (FLOWER ABNORMALITY) IN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM L.)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Engin and Z. Gokbayrak*

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with a case of phyllody, flower abnormality which is described as leaf-like development of the floralorgans. In most extreme form, the organ involved is replaced by a foliage-type leaf. Any floral organ, even the ovule,may become leafy in form or color.

  4. Kvaliteta plodova trešanja (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav JEMRIĆ

    1996-01-01

    Na kvalitetu plodova utječu sljedeći čimbenici: sorta, podloga, ekološki uvjeti (klima i tlo), agrotehnika pomotehika, primjena regulatora rasta, napad bolesti i štetočinja, način berbe i skla-dištenje. Postoji i čitav niz čimbenika koji se teško mogu kontrolirati, a odražavaju utjecaj na kvalitetu plodova trešanja. Različitim pomo i agrotehničkim zahvatima kvalitetu možemo poboljšati, ali i pogoršati, pa o tome treba strogo voditi računa. Proizvodnju trešanja uvijek treba smjestiti u klimats...

  5. Proteome and Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subspecies Paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter will review what is known about the proteome of this significant veterinary pathogen by discussing the use of various whole cell preparations and fractionated components thereof. With improvements in technology, many new modifications to the traditional ELISA assay have been introduced...

  6. Trypanosoma avium: experimental transmission from black flies to canaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Svobodová, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 2 (2004), s. 147-151. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1094 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 147/2002/B-BIO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Trypanosoma * birds * transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2004

  7. Induced sputum culture for the identification of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease with severe renal insufficiency: a case report and review%鸟分枝杆菌复合群肺病合并重度肾功能不全一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁勇; 钟雪锋; 方保民; 柯会星; 孙铁英; 陈启航

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnosis and treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease with severe renal insufficiency,and to provide a basis for improving the clinical diagnosis and treatment of MAC lung disease with severe renal insufficiency.Methods Clinical data of an elderly patient with MAC lung disease confirmed by induced sputum culture and complicated with chronic kidney disease (CKD 4) was reported.The related literatures at home and abroad were reviewed.Results A male patient aged 80 years with poor nutrition was suffering from progressive weight loss,exhaustion and night sweats.His weight was only 43-44 Kg.Chest CT showed that multiple small nodules,small spot pieces of shadow and ground glass shadows in bilateral lung tissues.PET/CT indicated that spot pieces and nodules with metabolic activity in high performance.Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) inspection was negative.MAC was identified by induced sputum culture through high permeability brine induced sputum.It was difficult to choose drugs for the treatment of MAC lung disease due to his poor kidney function [GFR of left kidney:9.0 ml /min,GFR of right kidney:18.8 ml/min].Conventional anti-mycobacterium drugs showed a low to high resistance to MAC.Moxifloxacin was discontinued for renal insufficiency.His condition was stable after choosing trimodality therapy including azithromycin 0.25 g/d tiw,rifapentine 0.3 g/d biw,ethambutol 0.375 g /d tiw and the joining immunotherapy.Conclusions PET/ CT is not useful in identifying tuberculosis and MAC lung disease.The treatment of MAC lung disease is difficult in elderly patients with severe renal insufficiency and low weight.Individual therapy combined with immunotherapy and improving the nutrition state is a good choice for the treatment of MAC lung disease in elderly patients with severe renal insufficiency.The anti-MAC drugs should be carefully selected and the adverse reactions should be closely observed in order to obtain the satisfactory

  8. Análisis comparativo de las subespecies de Ocelote Leopardus pardalis (Felidae a partir de datos craneométricos y moleculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales Duque Carolina

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El ocelote (Leopardus pardalis es uno de los felinos con mayor distribución geográfica a lo largo del continente americano. Se han designado 11 subespecies, soportadas en características morfológicas. Sin embargo, estas subdivisiones no han sido aclaradas molecularmente. En este trabajo se analizaron siete subespecies, L. p. mearnsi, L. p. pseudopardalis, L. p. maripensis, L. p. pusaeus, L. p. aequatorialis, L. p. steinbachi, y L. p. mitis a nivel craneométrico, para reconocer y verificar la
    diferenciación entre subespecies de ocelote; y a nivel molecular, mediante el uso de marcadores heterólogos para comprobar la existencia de estas subespecies e igualmente conocer detalles de su estructura poblacional e historia evolutiva. Únicamente para el análisis craneométrico fueron incluidas dos subespecies norteamericanas L. p. pardalis, y L. p. albescens; y para comparar el nivel molecular se emplearon los datos de Walker (1997. Pudieron ser ratificadas solo cuatro subespecies,
    de las cuales, L. p. pardalis, L. p. albescens y L. p. steinbachi fueron las más diferenciadas para ambos niveles. Las demás subespecies, presentaron altos niveles de flujo génico que indican una homogenización de la especie. No obstante, se evidenció un exceso de homocigotos posiblemente causado por alelos nulos o endogamia. Al combinar los resultados de cada estudio, se puede clarificar entonces cuestiones taxonómicas y sugerir manejos de conservación para la especie, ya sea como una unidad integral o como varias unidades particulares.

  9. Descripción de una nueva subespecie de Leptotila Verreauxi Bonaparte,1855 (Aves: Columbidae) del sureste de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Zambrano Hernando; Morales Sánchez Jorge E.

    1981-01-01

    La especie Leptotila verreauxi se conocía en Colombia en la región suroccidental, mitad meridional de la cuenca del río Cauca y la ladera occidental de los Andes occidentales en el Departamento del Cauca, hacia el sur y en la ladera amazónica de los Andes en el sureste de Nariño (cf. Meyer De Schauensee,1952: 4) con la subespecie L. v. decolor (SALVIN, 1892). Al norte del país y en el valle del río Magdalena está representada por L. v, verreauxi (BONAPARTE,1855) de la cual para el oriente del...

  10. Análisis comparativo de las subespecies de Ocelote Leopardus pardalis (Felidae) a partir de datos craneométricos y moleculares

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales Duque Carolina

    2005-01-01

    El ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) es uno de los felinos con mayor distribución geográfica a lo largo del continente americano. Se han designado 11 subespecies, soportadas en características morfológicas. Sin embargo, estas subdivisiones no han sido aclaradas molecularmente. En este trabajo se analizaron siete subespecies, L. p. mearnsi, L. p. pseudopardalis, L. p. maripensis, L. p. pusaeus, L. p. aequatorialis, L. p. steinbachi, y L. p. mitis a nivel craneométrico, para reconocer y verificar la...

  11. 甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种S基因型鉴定%Identifying the S Genotypes of Sweet Cherry ( Prunus avium L.) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓流; 陈学森; 束怀瑞

    2004-01-01

    根据蔷薇科S-RNase基因(S基因)高度保守区C2和RC4区设计一对特异引物PruC2和PruC4R,对甜樱桃品种的基因组DNA进行S基因特异PCR扩增.克隆S基因的扩增片段,核酸序列在GenBank上搜索,确定了4种S基因的核酸序列和大小.结果表明,在琼脂糖凝胶上位置相同的扩增带其核酸序列相同,是同一种S基因.4种S基因扩增片段的大小分别是:S1为677 bp,S3为762 bp,S4为945 bp,S6为456 bp.参试的自交不亲和品种的S基因型分别是:红灯、红艳、早红宝石和先锋相同,为S1S3;抉择、红丰和那翁相同,为S3S4;大紫为S1S6;长把红为S1S4;养老为S3S6;自交亲和品种外引7号和斯太拉为S3S4'.

  12. Biotipos y sensibilidad antimicrobiana de Pasteurella multocida subespecie multocida aisladas de pulmones de cerdos de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Moredo, Fabiana; Vigo, Germán; Leotta, Gerardo Aníbal

    2008-01-01

    Se estudiaron 37 aislamientos de Pasteurella multocida subespecie multocida obtenidas entre los años 2004-2007, a partir de pulmones de cerdos de la provincia de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico de neumonía, con el objeto de determinar sus biotipos y la sensibilidad antimicrobiana frente a ampicilina, florfenicol, estreptomicina, enrofloxacina, tetraciclina y fosfomicina, utilizándose el método de difusión en agar. Los biotipos se determinaron en función a la fermentación de arabinosa, dulcitol,...

  13. Rational Discovery of T Helper Epitopes Specific for Bovine Infections with Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Claus; Aagaard, C.; Ussery, David; Andersen, P. L.; Jungersen, Gregers

    2011-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, a chronic wasting disease in ruminants, is causing significant losses to both EU dairy and meat producers, due to a decreasing milk yield, loss of body weight and early replacements. The absence of adequate diagnostic tools for early detection of subclinically infected livestock...... bioinformatics tools has been used to identify peptides in the MAP genome, which are predicted to bind to bovine MHC (BoLA) class II antigen presenting molecules. Comparative genomics tools has been used to further select MAP specific peptides 100% conserved in the two MAP strains and with low similarity to...... goal is to combine positive responding peptides with new promising adjuvants in order to develop effective bovine MAP vaccines which do not cross react with traditional skin tests for M. bovis infections....

  14. Effect of ripeness and postharvest storage on the phenolic profiles of cherries (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Knudsen, D.;

    2004-01-01

    The phenolic compounds hydroxycinnamates, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols of sweet cherry cultivars Burial, Saco, Summit, and Van harvested in 2001 and 2002 were quantified by HPLC-DAD. Phenolics were analyzed at partially ripe and ripe stages and during storage at 15+/-5 degreesC (room...... temperature) and 1-2 degreesC (cool temperature). Neochlorogenic and p-coumaroylquinic acids were the main hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, but chlorogenic acid was also identified in all cultivars. The 3-glucoside and 3-rutinoside of cyanidin were the major anthocyanins. Peonidin and pelargonidin 3......-rutinosides were the minor anthocyanins, and peonidin 3-glucoside was also present in cvs. Burlat and Van. Epicatechin was the main monomeric flavan-3-ol with catechin present in smaller amounts in all cultivars. The flavonol rutin was also detected. Cultivar Saco contained the highest amounts of phenolics...

  15. Differential Immune Responses of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) following Experimental Challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Mark; O'Brien, Rory; Mackintosh, Colin; Griffin, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Immune responses of red deer (Cervus elaphus) that presented with different levels of paucibacillary pathology were profiled to detail immune changes during the progression of Johne's disease. Immune responses were monitored using an immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ELISA, and flow cytometry. Animals in the study were divided into outcome groups postmortem according to disease severity. All animals mounted IgG1 antibody an...

  16. Role of IL-6 in Mycobacterium avium associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Daniel L.; Andrade, Bruno B; McBerry, Cortez; Sereti, Irini; Sher, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) is a major adverse event of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV infection, and paradoxically occurs as HIV viremia is suppressed and CD4 T cell numbers recover. IRIS reflects pathogenic immune responses against opportunistic infections acquired during the period of immunodeficiency, but little is understood about the mechanisms of inflammatory pathology. Here we show that IL-6 and CRP levels transiently rise at the time of the IRIS event in H...

  17. Variación clonal de la susceptibilidad de Prunus avium frente a Blumeriella jaapii.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, R; Rodríguez, J.; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Fernández-López, J.

    2005-01-01

    7 páginas, 2 tablas, 3 figuras -- Comunicación presentada al 4º Congreso Forestal Español que se celebró en Zaragoza entre el 26 y el 30 de septiembre de 2005 bajo el lema ‘La ciencia forestal: Respuestas para la sostenibilidad’.

  18. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Castède

    Full Text Available The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  19. Assessment of self-(in) compatibility in some sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Radičević Sanja; Marić Slađana; Cerović Radosav; Đorđević Milena

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of a three-year study of self-(in)compatibility in four economically important sweet cherry genotypes - ‘Karina’, ‘Kordia’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Summit’, under agro-environmental conditions of Western Serbia. Determination of S-RNase genotype, microscopic observation of the pollen tube growth rate and assaying of the fruit set level after self-pollination were used to assess the genotypes. ‘Kordia’ (S3S6), ‘Regina’ (S1S3) and ‘Summit’ (S...

  20. Flowering time and incompatibility groups: Cultivar combination in commercial sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Radičević Sanja; Cerović Radosav; Marić Slađana; Đorđević Milena

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents results of eight-year study (1999-2006) of flowering phenophase in 21 introduced sweet cherry cultivars grown under the agro-environmental conditions of West Serbia. Flowering time, as well as progress and abundance of flowering were studied, and classification of the studied cultivars according to flowering time was derived. On the basis of mean several-year overlap in phenophase of full flowering and on the grounds of so far known data ...

  1. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions. PMID:26587668

  2. Flowering time and incompatibility groups: Cultivar combination in commercial sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of eight-year study (1999-2006 of flowering phenophase in 21 introduced sweet cherry cultivars grown under the agro-environmental conditions of West Serbia. Flowering time, as well as progress and abundance of flowering were studied, and classification of the studied cultivars according to flowering time was derived. On the basis of mean several-year overlap in phenophase of full flowering and on the grounds of so far known data on classification of these cultivars among incompatibility groups, we have offered a recommendation for their cultivation in orchards whereby the most effective pollination and fertilization can be ensured as well as good fruit-set and satisfactory fruit yields.

  3. Algunas características de 24 variedades de cerezo (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuenca Abadía, María de la Concepción

    1986-01-01

    [EN] Information on characters including fruit size and shape, flesh colour, ratio of flesh to stone, pedicel length, flesh firmness, and others is presented for 24 cultivars grown in the Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, CSIC (Zaragoza, Spain). Tabulated data show the scores (average of 5 years) for season of flowering and ripening, and cracking susceptibility.

  4. Radiation-induced mutations in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. ) cvs Napoleon and Bing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saamin, S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using gamma radiation to determine radiosensitivities of main and accessory buds, to increase the proportion of mutant tissue, and to determine the type of damage and mode of recovery in irradiated shoot spices of sweet cherry cvs Napoleon and Bin. Survival, growth, and the types of mutations of V/sub 1/ (primary) shoots and V/sub 2/ plants were observed. LD/sub 50/ values, based on survival of forced buds were about 5kR for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air, 5.5kR for acute exposure in water, and 6kR for fractionated dose in water. 0.39-0.69 accessory buds/site on non-irradiated Napoleon had forced after 30 days in the glasshouse. In the Bing field experiment with main buds, the LD/sub 50/ for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air was 3.5kR. In water, the LD/sub 50/ was 5kR for acute treatment and 6.5kR for fractionated dose. The overall mutation frequency in Napoleon V/sub 2/ shoots derived from main buds was 7.6%: 0.04% growth-reduced mutants, 0.4% total leaf mutants, and7.1% partial leaf mutants.

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease. PMID:23525699

  6. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C. PMID:27478231

  7. Metabolic profiling of ethephon-treated sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing costs and decreasing labor availability for sweet cherry harvest in Washington State, USA, has reinvigorated commercial and research interest of mechanized harvest. Ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) can be used to improve fruit abscission for mechanical harvest. Our previous work s...

  8. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars. PMID:24444903

  9. Assessment of self-(in compatibility in some sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a three-year study of self-(incompatibility in four economically important sweet cherry genotypes - ‘Karina’, ‘Kordia’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Summit’, under agro-environmental conditions of Western Serbia. Determination of S-RNase genotype, microscopic observation of the pollen tube growth rate and assaying of the fruit set level after self-pollination were used to assess the genotypes. ‘Kordia’ (S3S6, ‘Regina’ (S1S3 and ‘Summit’ (S1S2 are self-incompatible genotypes, with a considerable number of pollen tubes ending the growth in the middle third of the style and lack of fruit set. ‘Karina’, as S3S4 genotype, behaved as self-compatible, since its pollen tubes reached the base of the style and ovary, penetrating the nucellus. In addition, fruit set for ‘Karina’ was recorded in all three years of study (40.26%, 18.79% and 21.81%, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064: Development and preservation of genetic potential of temperate zone fruits

  10. Gastro-intestinal Mycobacterium avium complex as a cause of anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie van de Vyver

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a relatively common finding in HIV-positive patients, with rates (among females as high as 37%, compared with their HIV negative counterparts (17%. Anaemia of chronic disease plays a very important role in this population group, and is estimated to occur in 18 - 95% of cases. For this reason, it is imperative to distinguish this condition from other underlying or concurrent causes of anaemia that may warrant treatment. This clinical case illustrates the value of critically evaluating the parameters of a full blood count and haematinic screen, to so determine which patients warrant further workup.

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in surgicalpathology blocks from patients with Crohn's disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Cheng; Tim Bull; Nazira Sumar; Joe Sheridan; Peter Dalton; John Hermon-Taylor

    2000-01-01

    AIM To determine whether MAP can be detected in archival paraffin embedded full thickness samples ofintestinal tissue from patients in China with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and in controlsubjects (NIBD) having surgery for bowel cancer.METHODS Optimized procedures for the removal of paraffin, recovery of tissue and access to MAP DNA,followed by MAP-specific nested IS900 PCR. Confirmation of specific amplification by Southern blotting andDNA sequencing.RESULTS IS900 PCR positive tests identified MAP in 9 (69%) of 13 CD, 1 of 3 UC and 2 (14%) of 14NIBD in the presence of correctly reporting positive and negative sample and reagent control reactions. DNAsequence analysis of the 298bp IS900 PCR amplification product from MAP in 2 Chinese CD patientsdemonstrated 99% homology with the GenBank IS900 sequence accession number X16293.CONCLUSION Although larger numbers of Chinese samples need to be studied, these initial results areconsistent with an exposure of human populations in China to MAP, and an involvement of this pathogen inchronic inflammation of the intestine of the Crohn's disease type. The results are in agreement with similarpositive studies reported from China, from Western Europe and elsewhere.

  12. Rational Discovery of T Helper Epitopes Specific for Bovine Infections with Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Claus; Aagaard, C.; Ussery, David;

    2011-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, a chronic wasting disease in ruminants, is causing significant losses to both EU dairy and meat producers, due to a decreasing milk yield, loss of body weight and early replacements. The absence of adequate diagnostic tools for early detection of subclinically infected livestock...... goal is to combine positive responding peptides with new promising adjuvants in order to develop effective bovine MAP vaccines which do not cross react with traditional skin tests for M. bovis infections....

  13. The role of efflux pumps in macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium avium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Liliana; Sampaio, Daniela; Couto, Isabel; Machado, Diana; Kern, Winfried V; Amaral, Leonard; Viveiros, Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacteriumavium complex (MAC) is clinically important since it can cause severe infections in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and other immunocompromised individuals. Use of the macrolides clarithromycin and azithromycin has improved the outcome of MAC infections, but therapeutic failure is still a major problem. In this work, we studied efflux pump activity in MAC clinical strains and evaluated the contribution of active efflux to macrolide resistance. Eighteen clinical strains isolated from AIDS patients were evaluated for macrolide resistance in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) thioridazine, chlorpromazine and verapamil. The efflux activity of these strains was then assessed by a semi-automated fluorometric method that detects extrusion of ethidium bromide (EtBr), a known efflux pump substrate. Resistance to clarithromycin was significantly reduced in the presence of thioridazine, chlorpromazine and verapamil. The same EPIs were effective in decreasing the efflux of EtBr from MAC cells. Moreover, increased retention of [(14)C]-erythromycin in the presence of these EPIs further demonstrated that active efflux contributes to MAC resistance to macrolides. This study demonstrates that efflux pumps play an important role in MAC resistance to antibiotics. PMID:19740629

  14. Immunogenicity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific peptides for inclusion in a subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Tollefsen, S.; Olsen, I.;

    efficacies. The main problem with available vaccines is their interference with surveillance and diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. Our ultimate aim is to develop a subunit vaccine consisting of selected MAP peptides, which allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Here...

  15. Enhanced expression of codon optimized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in Lactobacillus salivarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously identified the mycobacterial high G+C codon usage bias as a limiting factor in heterologous expression of MAP proteins from Lb.salivarius, and demonstrated that codon optimisation of a synthetic coding gene greatly enhances MAP protein production. Here, we effectively demonstrate ...

  16. Early weight development of goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa N Malone

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne's disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne's disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne's disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne's disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne's disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age.

  17. Effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus animalis in murine Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunasena Enusha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MAP is a suspected zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of Johne’s Disease in cattle and other ruminant animals. With over $1 billion dollars in loss to the dairy industry due to Johne’s Disease, efforts to eliminate or reduce MAP from cattle are of importance. The purpose of this study was to determine if daily intake of probiotics could eliminate or reduce Johne’s Disease associated symptoms and pathogenesis by MAP. Post infection, animals are often asymptomatic carriers with limited shedding of the pathogen, proving early detection to be difficult. Disease and symptoms often appear 3–4 years after infection with antibiotic treatment proving ineffective. Symptoms include chronic gastrointestinal inflammation leading to severe weight-loss from poor feed and water intake cause a wasting disease. These symptoms are similar to those found in individuals with Crohn’s Disease (CD; MAP has been implicated by not proven to be the causative agent of CD. Probiotics administered to livestock animals, including dairy and beef cattle have demonstrated improvements in cattle performance and health. Our objectives included determining the benefits of Lactobacillus animalis (strain name: NP-51 in MAP infected BALB/c mice by evaluating systemic and gastrointestinal response by the host and gut microbiota. Male and female animals were fed 1×106 CFU/g probiotics in sterile, powdered mouse chow daily and infected with 1 × 107 CFU/ml MAP and compared to controls. Animals were evaluated for 180 days to assess acute and chronic stages of disease, with sample collection from animals every 45 days. MAP concentrations from liver and intestinal tissues were examined using real time-PCR methods and the expression of key inflammatory markers were measured during MAP infection (interferon-gamma [IFN-Υ], Interleukin-1α, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]. Results Our results demonstrate administration of probiotics reduces production of IFN-Υ and IL-6 while increasing TNF-α and IL-17 in chronic disease; healthful immune responses that reduce chronic inflammation associated to MAP infection. Conclusions We observed that the immune system’s response in the presence of probiotics to MAP contributes towards host health by influencing the activity of the immune system and gut microbial populations.

  18. TWO NEW SUBSPECIES OF TROPAEOLUM (TROPAEOLACEAE FROM THE IV REGION (COQUIMBO, CHILE DOS NUEVAS SUBESPECIES DE TROPAEOLUM (TROPAEOLACEAE DE LA IV REGION (COQUIMBO DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Watson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new subspecies of Tropaeolum hookerianum Barn. are described. Apart from T. hookerianum subsp. austropurpureum presented here, only one other Andean-Pacific temperate Tropaeolum, T. azureum Bert. ex Colla, has blue to purple flowers. The second taxon, T. hookerianum subsp. pilosum, is distinguished by pilose pedicels, a feature unique among Andean-Pacific temperate species. Both novelties are Chilean endemics restricted to the IV Region (Coquimbo, as also is the nominate subspecies. All three are allopatric, and considered together extend the species' range to the north, to the south and to the east. Their characters and interrelationships pose implications for Tropaeolum evolution which are likely to be of interest to exponents of phylogenetics (cladistics, phenetics (taxometrics and other disciplines. Descriptions and a key are provided, and aspects of morphology, ecology and distribution discussedSe describen dos subespecies nuevas de Tropaeolum hookerianum Barn. Además de T. hookerianum subsp. austropurpureum J. M. Watson & A.R. Flores presentado aquí, sólo otro Tropaeolum de la zona templada andino-pacífica, T. azureum Bert. ex Colla, tiene flores de color que va de azul a morado. El segundo nuevo taxon, T. hookerianum subsp. pilosum J.M. Watson & A.R. Flores, se distingue por sus pedicelos pilosos, un caracter único entre las especies templadas del sector andino-pacífico. Ambos nuevos taxones son endémicos chilenos y están restringidos a la IV Región (Coquimbo, igual que la subespecie típica. Los tres son alopátricos y en total extienden el rango de la especie hacia el norte, el sur y el este. Sus caracteres e interrelaciones se hallan involucrados en la evolución del género, que parece ser de interés a los exponentes de la filogenética (cladística, la fenética (taxometría y otras disciplinas. Se provee de descripciones, una clave y se discute aspectos de su morfología, ecología y distribución.

  19. SIMILARIDADES CLINICOPATOLÓGICAS ENTRE PARATUBERCULOSIS Y ENFERMEDAD DE CROHN. ¿POSIBLE VÍNCULO ZOONÓTICO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Calderón

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available EL artículo presenta a la luz de la literatura científica actual la asociación del Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis con la enfermedad de Crohn, las principales similaridades clinicopatológicas. La revisión se limitó a las publicaciones contenidas en el programa HINARI de la WHO, en especial de Elservier Science, Bioline Internacional, Blackwell Publishing, BMJ Publishing, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Nature Publishing, PubMed, Springer Science y publicaciones de la Asociación Internacional para estudio de Paratuberculosis. Evidencias significativas apoyan un posible vinculo zoonótico entre las enfermedades. El aislamiento del Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis en pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn desde muestras de intestino, leche, sangre periférica y nódulos linfáticos; de igual manera la respuesta inmune especifica a algunos antígenos de Mycobacterium en pacientes con la enfermedad; aunque estos hallazgos tienen cada uno sus propias controversias. La evidencia actualmente disponible no es suficiente para validar o negar al Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis como agente causal de por lo menos algunos casos de enfermedad de Crohn. Los estudios son inconclusos en aceptar un vinculo zoonótico dada la naturaleza multifactorial de esta enfermedad. Se requieren estudios para determinar sí Mycobacterium es un agente espectador ó patogénico; paralelamente realizar estudios epidemiológicos a gran escala que permitan analizar la distribución geográfica y temporal de ambas enfermedades.

  20. Serovariedades de Salmonella enterica subespecie enterica en porcinos de faena y su resistencia a los antimicrobianos Serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica and its antimicrobial resistance in slaughterhouse pigs

    OpenAIRE

    M. P. Ibar; Vigo, G.; P. Piñeyro; M. I. Caffer; Quiroga, P.; Perfumo, C.; Centrón, D.; G. Giacoboni

    2009-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para determinar la prevalencia de Salmonella y sus serovariedades en cerdos de faena, para evaluar sus perfiles de resistencia a los antimicrobianos y para conocer la presencia de integrones de clase 1 como posibles reservorios de resistencia. A partir de un total de 386 muestras de porcinos provenientes de cuatro frigoríficos de las provincias de Buenos Aires y de Santa Fe (Argentina), se identificaron 93 (24,1%) cepas de Salmonella enterica subespecie enterica, 52 (55,...

  1. New data on morphometrics, distribution and ecology of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1849 (Orthoptera, Acrididae in Spain: is maghrebi a well defined subespecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, J. M.

    2007-06-01

    males. Because of its wide range disjunction, its discontinuous regional distribution and morphological variability, we believe that M.w. is an interesting species to investigate possible substructuring of populations in which we probably may recognize ecological forms or varieties that deserve deeper and further study.Estudiamos distintas poblaciones de Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1859, considerado como M. w. maghrebi por Fernandes (1968 en España, con algunas nuevas citas para la especie. Para dilucidar si el taxón maghrebi es consistente en nuestras poblaciones, realizamos un análisis morfométrico de 53 ejemplares considerando los mismos caracteres utilizados para establecer dicha subespecie, a citar: tamaño del cuerpo, relieve y forma del pronoto, longitud de la antena y forma del epifalo. El tamaño de los individuos de nuestras poblaciones no es intermedio entre las formas conocidas de M. w. wagneri y M. w. rogenhoferi Saussuare, 1888, como cabría esperar asumiendo la existencia de maghrebi. Nuestras poblaciones no se apartan del tamaño de wagneri e incluso encontramos las menores tallas descritas para este taxón. El relieve del pronoto, y en particular la presencia de un segundo surco, el anterior, es muy variable abarcando en una misma población fenotipos dispares utilizados anteriormente para separar las formas maghrebi y wagneri. Las diferencias entre el tamaño del cuerpo, el pronoto, la longitud de la antena y la forma del epifalo no nos parecen suficientes para asignar como maghrebi al conjunto de las poblaciones estudiadas y separarlas de la subespecie nominada wagneri. M.w. es una especie de requerimientos ecológicos muy restringidos. La hemos encontrado a orillas de lagunas hipersalinas y siempre dependiendo de Suaeda vera (Forsskål, 1791 Chenopodiacea que utiliza como refugio y alimento, en particular en suelos desnudos y salitrosos donde predominan manchas de esa planta. Su distribución regional es marcadamente discontinua y muy puntual

  2. The wildlife hosts of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the Czech Republic during the years 2002–2007

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečná, M.; Trčka, I.; Lamka, J.; Morávková, M.; Koubek, Petr; Heroldová, Marta; Mrlík, V.; Králová, A.; Pavlík, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 8 (2008), s. 420-426. ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Johne’s disease * epidemiology * cattle * non-ruminant species * IS900 PCR Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2008 http://journals.uzpi.cz:8050/uniqueFiles/02031.pdf

  3. Dynamics of specific anti-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody response through age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Okura, Hisako

    2013-01-01

    G antibodies on their final test-record were used to estimate age-specific sensitivities (Se). These cows were the infected ones considered to develop disease in a population with a representative age-distribution and were defined as cases. The specificity (Sp) of the test was estimated based on test......-results from 166,905 cows, which had no MAP IgG antibodies in their final four test-records. The Sp, age-specific Se and maximum Se were used to estimate the probability of having HI at a given age resulting in the proportion of infected cows with HI at a given age. For cows 2 years of age, the proportion of...... detectable cases was 0.33, while it was 0.94 for cows 5 years of age. Thus, there was a significant shift in the tip of the iceberg with aging. This study provided a model for estimating the proportion of latent chronic infections that would progress to disease, and the results can be used to model infection...

  4. Mycobacterium avium complex olecranon bursitis resolves without antimicrobials or surgical intervention: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Working

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case raises an important clinical question of whether close observation off antimicrobials is appropriate in select cases of immunocompetent patients with localized atypical mycobacterial disease of soft tissue and skeletal structures.

  5. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    result in production of IFN-γ in samples previously exposed to MAP antigens. Whole blood samples were collected from heifers in a Danish dairy herd known to be infected with MAP. The samples were collected on three sample dates, and on each date the blood samples were stimulated with PPDj and recombinant...... time interval from blood sampling to culture. The objective of the study was to assess options for use of day-old blood samples for early-stage diagnosis of MAP infections. Bovine interleukin 12 (IL-12) can induce, and IL-10 reduce, IFN-γ production. Therefore, addition of IL-12 and anti-IL-10 could...... antigens as fresh samples, as day-old samples potentiated with bovine IL-12, and as day-old samples treated with anti-bovine IL-10 antibody. Day-old samples were stored overnight at -4ºC. The correlations between IFN-γ responses in the three types of samples and on different sampling dates were then...

  6. Storage affects the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of cherries (Prunus avium L) on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Let, Mette Bruni;

    2004-01-01

    -performance liquid chromatography. Hydroxycinnamates dominated in all samples and represented 60-74% by weight of the phenols in the fresh and stored samples of the cvs Saco, Summit and Van, and 45% by weight of the phenols in the cv Burlat samples, which were richer in anthocyanins. The relative and total levels of...... hydroxycinnamates, anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols varied among cultivars and during storage. Storage at 15degreesC increased the phenol levels, particularly the cyanidin-3-rutinoside concentration. Cold storage induced decreased total phenol levels in the cvs Summit and Van but increased total phenol...

  7. Seroreactivity against Specific L5P Antigen from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Children at Risk for T1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niegowska, Magdalena; Rapini, Novella; Biet, Frank; Piccinini, Simona; Bay, Sylvie; Lidano, Roberta; Manca Bitti, Maria Luisa; Sechi, Leonardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Although numerous environmental agents have been investigated over the years as possible triggers of type 1 diabetes (T1D), its causes remain unclear. We have already demonstrated an increased prevalence of antibodies against peptides derived from Mycobacterium avuim subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) homologous to human zinc transporter 8 protein (ZnT8) and proinsulin in Italian subjects at risk for or affected by T1D. In this study, we compared titers of the previously detected antibodies with seroreactivity to MAP lipopentapetide (L5P) that recently emerged as a strong immunogenic component able to specifically distinguish MAP from other mycobacteria. Methods Plasma of 32 children and youth at risk for T1D including follow-up samples and 42 age-matched healthy controls (HC) recruited at the Tor Vergata University Hospital in Rome was analyzed by indirect ELISA for the presence of antibodies against MAP-derived epitopes MAP3865c133–141, MAP3865c125-133, MAP2404c70-85 and MAP1,4αgbp157-173 along with their ZnT8 and proinsulin homologs. The data were analyzed through two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test and relation between variables was determined by principal component analysis. Results Responses to L5P were not detectable in subjects whose initial seroreactivity to MAP peptides and their human homologs was lost in follow-up samples, whereas anti-L5P antibodies appeared constantly in individuals with a stable immunity against MAP antigens. The overall coincidence in positivity to L5P and the four MAP epitopes both in children at risk for T1D and HC exceeded 90%. Conclusions MAP-derived homologs may cross-react with ZnT8 and proinsulin peptides inducing immune responses at a young age in subjects predisposed for T1D. Thus, L5P may have a diagnostic value to immediately indicate the presence of anti-MAP seroreactivity when evaluation of a more complex antibody status is not required. Almost complete coincidence in responses to both types of antigens lends support to the involvement of MAP in T1D. PMID:27336739

  8. Seroreactivity against Specific L5P Antigen from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Children at Risk for T1D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Niegowska

    Full Text Available Although numerous environmental agents have been investigated over the years as possible triggers of type 1 diabetes (T1D, its causes remain unclear. We have already demonstrated an increased prevalence of antibodies against peptides derived from Mycobacterium avuim subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP homologous to human zinc transporter 8 protein (ZnT8 and proinsulin in Italian subjects at risk for or affected by T1D. In this study, we compared titers of the previously detected antibodies with seroreactivity to MAP lipopentapetide (L5P that recently emerged as a strong immunogenic component able to specifically distinguish MAP from other mycobacteria.Plasma of 32 children and youth at risk for T1D including follow-up samples and 42 age-matched healthy controls (HC recruited at the Tor Vergata University Hospital in Rome was analyzed by indirect ELISA for the presence of antibodies against MAP-derived epitopes MAP3865c133-141, MAP3865c125-133, MAP2404c70-85 and MAP1,4αgbp157-173 along with their ZnT8 and proinsulin homologs. The data were analyzed through two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test and relation between variables was determined by principal component analysis.Responses to L5P were not detectable in subjects whose initial seroreactivity to MAP peptides and their human homologs was lost in follow-up samples, whereas anti-L5P antibodies appeared constantly in individuals with a stable immunity against MAP antigens. The overall coincidence in positivity to L5P and the four MAP epitopes both in children at risk for T1D and HC exceeded 90%.MAP-derived homologs may cross-react with ZnT8 and proinsulin peptides inducing immune responses at a young age in subjects predisposed for T1D. Thus, L5P may have a diagnostic value to immediately indicate the presence of anti-MAP seroreactivity when evaluation of a more complex antibody status is not required. Almost complete coincidence in responses to both types of antigens lends support to the involvement of MAP in T1D.

  9. Erratum: Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from danish slaughter cattle (Veterinary Medicine International)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    A tabulation error appeared in Table 1. The fecal contamination data for Age <2 years and >2 years were incorrectly recorded into the table. Whereas the numbers in the table were transposed incorrectly, the actual statistical analyses remain correct.The revised table is reproduced below....

  10. Expression and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis-Modulating Potential of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. MYB10 and bHLH Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Starkevič

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are essential contributors to fruit coloration, an important quality feature and a breed determining trait of a sweet cherry fruit. It is well established that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is regulated by an interplay of specific transcription factors belonging to MYB and bHLH families accompanied by a WD40 protein. In this study, we isolated and analyzed PaWD40, PabHLH3, PabHLH33, and several closely related MYB10 gene variants from different cultivars of sweet cherry, analyzed their expression in fruits with different anthocyanin levels at several developmental stages, and determined their capabilities to modulate anthocyanin synthesis in leaves of two Nicotiana species. Our results indicate that transcription level of variant PaMYB10.1-1 correlates with fruit coloration, but anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana was induced by another variant, PaMYB10.1-3, which is moderately expressed in fruits. The analysis of two fruit-expressed bHLH genes revealed that PabHLH3 enhances MYB-induced anthocyanin synthesis, whereas PabHLH33 has strong inhibitory properties.

  11. 甜樱桃胚培养研究%Embryo Culture of Sweet Cherry( Prunus avium L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱华; 戴洪义; 于士梅

    2003-01-01

    对甜樱桃品种"拉宾斯"和"斯特拉"种胚的离体培养进行了研究.基本培养基为1/2MS,蔗糖浓度为3%.结果表明,甜樱桃胚培养的最佳取样时期为盛花后45d(PF1=0.9).60和80d的低温(2~4℃)处理对于打破胚休眠效果较好.在不进行低温处理的条件下,GA3(15mg/L)对打破带种皮和不带种皮胚的休眠有作用,GA3(10mg/L,5mg/L)与BA(2mg/L,4mg/L)同时使用对打破胚的休眠更为有效.在去种皮的条件下,GA3和BA打破胚休眠的作用更为明显.

  12. Genetic Diversity and Relatedness of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Cultivars Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández i Martí, Ángel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3' untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the ...

  13. Eating quality and health-promoting properties of two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars stored in passive modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Isabel; Camats, Josep A; Comabella, Eva; Ortiz, Abel

    2015-03-01

    Two sweet cherry cultivars ('New Star' and 'Sweet Heart') were chosen to explore the impact of passive modified atmosphere packaging on the eating quality and health-promoting properties of fruit. Packaged and unpackaged fruits were stored at 0 ℃ for 15 or 30 days, followed by zero or three days at 20 ℃, after which the analyses were undertaken. In most cases, modified atmosphere packaging helped preserving higher firmness values and reducing the incidence of alterations and decay in both cultivars, but the effects on other physicochemical attributes were different for each cultivar. Partial least squares regression procedures were used to reveal relationships among the different variables assessed. Generally, fruits displaying higher antioxidant capacity were also characterised by higher values for firmness and titratable acidity, in turn related to better acceptability scores in both cultivars. However, the attributes contributing most to acceptability were different in each case. In 'New Star' fruit, acceptability was closely related to the perception of cherry flavour. In this cultivar, acetaldehyde content was related to the perception of off-flavours, while ethanol content was found to associate to soluble solids and to the perception of sweetness. In contrast, acceptability of 'Sweet Heart' fruit was related mainly to the perception of firmness and, to a lower extent, of sweetness. PMID:24474188

  14. Compositional changes in cell wall polysaccharides from five sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars during on-tree ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, María F; Ponce, Nora M A; Salum, María L; Raffo, María D; Vicente, Ariel R; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Stortz, Carlos A

    2014-12-24

    Excessive softening is a major cause of postharvest deterioration during transportation and storage of fresh cherries. In continuing our studies to identify the factors determining the textural differences between sweet cherry fruit genotypes, we evaluated the solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition of pectin and hemicelluloses from five sweet cherry cultivars ('Chelan', 'Sumele', 'Brooks', 'Sunburst', and 'Regina') with contrasting firmness and cracking susceptibility at two developmental stages (immature and ripe). In contrast to what is usually shown in most fruits, cherry softening could occur is some cultivars without marked increases in water-soluble pectin. Although polyuronide and hemicellulose depolymerization was observed in the water-soluble and dilute-alkali-soluble fractions, only moderate association occurs between initial polymer size and cultivar firmness. In all the genotypes the Na2CO3-soluble polysaccharides (NSF) represented the most abundant and dynamic wall fraction during ripening. Firm cultivars showed upon ripening a lower neutral sugars/uronic acid ratio in the NSF, suggesting that they have a lower proportion of highly branched polyuronides. The similar molar ratios of arabinose plus galactose to rhamnose [(Ara+Gal)/Rha] suggest that the cultivars differed in their relative proportion of homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) rather than in the size of the RG side chains; with greater proportions of HG in firmer cherries. Ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was useful to identify the depolymerization patterns of weakly bound pectins, but gave less accurate results on ionically bound pectins, and was unable to find any pattern on covalently bound pectins. PMID:25434844

  15. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of Prunus avium L.: The widely studied fruits and the unexplored stems

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Claudete; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Ricardo C. Calhelha; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize sweet cherry regarding nutritional composition of the fruits, and individual phytochemicals and bioactive properties of fruits and stems. The chromatographic profiles in sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds were established. All the preparations (extracts, infusions and decoctions) obtained using stems revealed higher antioxidant potential than the fruits extract, which is certainly related with its hig...

  16. Association between Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA sequences in Chinese Prunus genotypes (Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium)

    OpenAIRE

    Pervaiz, Tariq; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Yanyi; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Junhuan; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-01

    Background The nuclear DNA is conventionally used to assess the diversity and relatedness among different species, but variations at the DNA genome level has also been used to study the relationship among different organisms. In most species, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes are inherited maternally; therefore it is anticipated that organelle DNA remains completely associated. Many research studies were conducted simultaneously on organelle genome. The objectives of this study was to ana...

  17. Phenolic Compounds, Volatiles, and Sensory Characteristics of Twelve Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars Grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the phenolic, anthocyanin, and volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of 12 cultivars of sweet cherries including cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat. Eight individual phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. Among these cherries, cvs. Bing, Durona di Cesena, and Lambert contained higher levels of total individual phenolic compounds than the other cultivars. Six anthocyanins were detected in cherries and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was principal and it was the highest level in cv. Bing. The major volatiles found were 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzylalcohol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde. Sensory evaluation of the cherries showed that cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, and Summit have higher textural and flavor scores than others. It was concluded that the same compounds for phenolic or volatiles profiles of sweet cherries were similar in qualitative; however, quantitative differences were observed in these cultivars. PMID:26646816

  18. Expression and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis-Modulating Potential of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) MYB10 and bHLH Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkevič, Pavel; Paukštytė, Jurgita; Kazanavičiūtė, Vaiva; Denkovskienė, Erna; Stanys, Vidmantas; Bendokas, Vidmantas; Šikšnianas, Tadeušas; Ražanskienė, Aušra; Ražanskas, Raimundas

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are essential contributors to fruit coloration, an important quality feature and a breed determining trait of a sweet cherry fruit. It is well established that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is regulated by an interplay of specific transcription factors belonging to MYB and bHLH families accompanied by a WD40 protein. In this study, we isolated and analyzed PaWD40, PabHLH3, PabHLH33, and several closely related MYB10 gene variants from different cultivars of sweet cherry, analyzed their expression in fruits with different anthocyanin levels at several developmental stages, and determined their capabilities to modulate anthocyanin synthesis in leaves of two Nicotiana species. Our results indicate that transcription level of variant PaMYB10.1-1 correlates with fruit coloration, but anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana was induced by another variant, PaMYB10.1-3, which is moderately expressed in fruits. The analysis of two fruit-expressed bHLH genes revealed that PabHLH3 enhances MYB-induced anthocyanin synthesis, whereas PabHLH33 has strong inhibitory properties. PMID:25978735

  19. Chemical characterisation and bioactive properties of Prunus avium L.: the widely studied fruits and the unexplored stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Claudete; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to characterise sweet cherry regarding nutritional composition of the fruits, and individual phytochemicals and bioactive properties of fruits and stems. The chromatographic profiles in sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds were established. All the preparations (extracts, infusions and decoctions) obtained using stems revealed higher antioxidant potential than the fruits extract, which is certainly related with its higher phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids) concentration. The fruits extract was the only one showing antitumor potential, revealing selectivity against HCT-15 (colon carcinoma) (GI50∼74 μg/mL). This could be related with anthocyanins that were only found in fruits and not in stems. None of the preparations have shown hepatotoxicity against normal primary cells. Overall, this study reports innovative results regarding chemical and bioactive properties of sweet cherry stems, and confirmed the nutritional and antioxidant characteristics of their fruits. PMID:25466123

  20. Effect of hydrogen fluoride on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Prunus avium L. cv. Royal Ann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facteau, T.J.; Wang, S.Y.; Rowe, K.E.

    1973-05-01

    Increased fluoride (F) fumigation levels resulted in decrease in percent Royal Ann pollen germination and pollen tube growth. As dose (hour x concentration in ..mu.. gF/m/sup 3/) increased, Van pollen tube growth in vivo decreased. A linear relationship between increased dose and fluoride residue in the flowers was shown. 14 references, 5 figures.

  1. Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eFernandez i Marti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD and SSR markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of SNP markers generated from 3’UTRs for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with 7 SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3’UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, ‘Stella’ was separated from ‘Compact Stella’. This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3’ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.

  2. Use of Novel Recombinant Antigens in the Interferon Gamma Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    . The study included blood samples from 26 heifers of a MAP infected herd, collected three times with 4 and 5 week interval and blood samples from 60 heifers of a MAP non-infected herd collected once. The IFN-γ responses of the non-infected heifers were used to establish cut-off values for each antigen...

  3. Novel antigens for detection of cell mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2011-01-01

    included blood samples from 26 heifers from a MAP infected herd, collected three times with four to five-week intervals, and blood samples from 60 heifers of a non-infected herd collected once. Heifers of the non-infected herd were used to establish cut-off values for each antigen. The case definition was...

  4. Novel antigens used to detect cell-mediated immune responses over time in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    same 30 heifers from a known MAP infected herd. Determination of cut-off for each antigen was based on samples from a non-infected herd, including 60 heifers. Based on PPDj stimulations, more than 50% of the heifers tested MAP positive at the first two samplings, whereas only 20% tested positive at...

  5. Identification and characterization of a spore-like morphotype in chronically starved Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise A Lamont

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria are able to enter into a state of non-replication or dormancy, which may result in their chronic persistence in soil, aquatic environments, and permissive hosts. Stresses such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia provide environmental cues to enter a persistent state; however, a clear definition of the mechanism that mycobacteria employ to achieve this remains elusive. While the concept of sporulation in mycobacteria is not novel, it continues to spark controversy and challenges our perceptions of a non-replication. We investigated the potential role of sporulation in one-year old broth cultures of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. We show that dormant cultures of MAP contain a mix of vegetative cells and a previously unknown morphotype resembling a spore. These spore-like structures can be enriched for using sporulating media. Furthermore, purified MAP spore forms survive exposure to heat, lysozyme and proteinase K. Heat-treated spores are positive for MAP 16SrRNA and IS900. MAP spores display enhanced infectivity as well as maintain acid-fast characteristics upon germination in a well-established bovine macrophage model. This is the first study to demonstrate a new MAP morphotype possessing spore-like qualities. Data suggest that sporulation may be a viable mechanism by which MAP accomplishes persistence in the host and/or environment. Thus, our current understanding of mycobacterial persistence, pathogenesis, epidemiology and rational drug and vaccine design may need to be reevaluated.

  6. Chitosan acetate as an active coating material and its effects on the storing of Prunus avium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi Feng; Yan, Jing Quan; Li, Yan; Cheng, Xiao Jie; Liu, Cheng Sheng; Chen, Xi Guang

    2010-03-01

    In this article, chitosan acetate (CA) was prepared by the method of solid-liquid reaction. CA was a stable faint yellow powder with water solubility. CA kept the same backbone in the chemical structure as the raw material of chitosan, and it also had the similar antibacterial properties with chitosan. CA could form a coating film on the outside surface of the sweet cherries, could effectively retard the loss of the water, titratable acidity, and ascorbic acid of sweet cherries, and could induce a significant increase in the peroxidase and catalase activities in the fruit. The CA coating could also increase the ratio of the total soluble solids and titratable acidity in the fruit. The application of CA effectively maintained quality attributes and extended postharvest life of the sweet cherries. The results revealed that the CA salts had potential application in active edible coating materials in the storage of fresh fruit. PMID:20492258

  7. CD4+ T-cell lines used to evaluate a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) peptide vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybeck, Kari; Sjurseth, Siri K.; Al-Touama, Zainab;

    The aim of the study was to establish a protocol for generation of MAP-specific T-cell lines and to use these lines for evaluation of a peptide vaccine. A protocol for culturing T-cell lines from peripheral blood of goats naturally infected with MAP was established. CD4+ T cells were positively...... selected using an anti CD4 mAb and Dynabeads. Sorted CD4+ cells were cultivated with purified protein derivative from MAP (PPDj) or E. coli sonicate, IL-2, and IL-15. After two cultivation cycles, T cells were tested for recall responses in a proliferative T-cell assay. T-cell line responses were in...... antigens. T-cell lines were now generated by cultivating CD4+ cells with peptides instead of PPDj. Initially, both healthy and MAP-infected goats were vaccinated with 119 peptides defined by in silico analysis. Cellular responses to the peptides were not detected using standard IFN- γ plasma ELISA. However...

  8. CD4+ T-cell lines used to evaluate a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) peptide vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Lybeck, Kari; Sjurseth, Siri K.; Al-Touama, Zainab; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen; Aagaard, Claus; Lundegaard, Claus; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Olsen, Ingrid; Tollefsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish a protocol for generation of MAP-specific T-cell lines and to use these lines for evaluation of a peptide vaccine.A protocol for culturing T-cell lines from peripheral blood of goats naturally infected with MAP was established. CD4+ T cells were positively selected using an anti CD4 mAb and Dynabeads. Sorted CD4+ cells were cultivated with purified protein derivative from MAP (PPDj) or E. coli sonicate, IL-2, and IL-15. After two cultivation cycles, T cel...

  9. Modeling of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in farm bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    super-shedders. At the prevalence of 15%, discarding milk from test positive cows would result in discarding 11% of milk and reduce the MAP level by 80%. The model was relatively simple yet capable of capturing true infection status and associated contributions from milk and feces. Further knowledge on...... simulating the effect of different control options at different infection prevalences. The concentration of MAP in milk was estimated using a hierarchical simulation model representing individual cows in a herd while taking both direct and indirect contamination with MAP into account. Parameters included...... true within-herd infection prevalences with cows in different infection stages, which were used to estimate prevalences of milk and fecal shedders, and subsequently MAP concentrations in milk and feces. Cows in different infection stages were considered with different risks of excreting MAP testing...

  10. Characterization of the long-term immune response to vaccination against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Vibeke Thulstrup; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Thakur, Aneesh;

    2012-01-01

    vaccination on the cell-mediated immune response and to evaluate a possible interference with the diagnosis of M. bovis infections.The results showed that 37% of samples from vaccinated animals and 5% of samples from non-vaccinated animals, respectively, were test positive in the milk antibody ELISA. The...... prevalence of antibody responses of the vaccinated animals was relatively constant from 2 to 6years of age, but decreased in older animals. Among the 140 vaccinated animals 88% tested positive with the IFN-γ test to johnin PPD and 50% responded to PPDb with IFN-γ production above a similar cut-off. Although...... study including 895 vaccinated and 2526 non-vaccinated dairy cows in 9 Danish dairy herds aiming at characterizing the long-term antibody-response to vaccination; and (2) a cross-sectional study of responses in the IFN-γ assay carried out in 140 vaccinated animals in two herds to evaluate the effect of...

  11. Nuevos datos sobre los Pamphagidae (Orthoptera, Caelifera de la Península Ibérica I. Nueva subespecie de Eumigus Bolívar, 1878 de la Sierra de Alcaraz (Albacete, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, M. D.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Eumigus punctatus calarensis, a new subspecies of Pamphagidae, is described from Sierra de Alcaraz, in Albacete province (Spain, and its characteristics are discussed. We present data about its sound production and acoustic signals. New data on other species of Pamphagidae are given; including discussion of the taxonomic status of Acinipe mabillei, its account as valid species is proposed. We present the first known data on sound production by flapping method in Iberian Pamphagidae, for Eumigus punctatus punctatus. Lectotype and paralectotype of Kurtharzia nugatoria are designated.Se describe una nueva subespecie de Pamphagidae, Eumigus punctatus calarensis, de la Sierra de Alcaraz (Albacete, España, discutiéndose sus características diferenciales. Se presentan los datos sobre la producción de sonido y las manifestaciones acústicas. Se aportan nuevos datos sobre otras especies de Pamphagidae; entre ellos se discute la situación taxonómica de Acinipe mabillei, proponiéndose su consideración como especie válida, y se presentan los primeros datos conocidos sobre producción de sonido por el método del batido de tegminas (flapping en panfágidos ibéricos, en Eumigus punctatus punctatus. Se designan lectotipo y paralectotipo de Kurtharzia nugatoria.

  12. LCD array and IS900 efficiency in relation to traditional diagnostic techniques for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in cattle in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSayed, Mohamed Sabry Abd ElRaheam

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare traditional tests (Johnin test, fecal staining and fecal culture) with advanced laboratory tests (ELISA, LCD array and IS900 PCR) for detection of Johne's disease. A total of 365 Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle (40 express profuse diarrhea unresponsive to treatment and 325 contacting them) tested with Johnin test, blood collected for ELISA and fecal samples for fecal staining as well as fecal culture, application of LCD array and PCR using IS900 on DNA extracted from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis bacilli (from feces and culture). Johnin test was 40/40 (100%) and 25/325 (7.69%), fecal staining was 13 (37.1%) and 2 (50%), ELISA was 35/40 (87.5%) and 4/25 (16%) for clinical cattle and apparently healthy contacting them respectively. Isolation was 12/13 (92.3%) of the (Johnin test +ve, ELISA +ve and Acid Fast Bacilli +ve) from the clinically positive cattle and 1/2 (50%) of the (Johnin test +ve, ELISA +ve and Acid Fast Bacilli +ve) from apparently healthy contacting them while LCD array and IS900 gave 100% confirming the isolation results. In conclusion, LCD array depending on 16S RNA and DNA hybridization with specific probes for detection of M. paratuberculosis are fast, sensitive and labor-saving when combined with IS900. PMID:26786331

  13. Correlation between rpoB gene mutation in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and clinical rifabutin and rifampicin resistance for treatment of Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel R Beckler; Sammer Elwasila; George Ghobrial; John F Valentine; Saleh A Naser

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate overlapping regions of the rpoB gene previously involved with rifamycin resistance in M.tubercu/osis and seek correlation between rpoB mutations in clinical MAP strains with susceptibility to RIF and RFB.METHODS:We designed a molecular-based PCR method for the evaluation of rifabutin (RFB) and rifampicin (RIF)resistance based on probable determinant regions within the rpoB gene of MAP,including the 81 bp variable site located between nucleotides 1363 and 1443.The minimum inhibitory concentration (NIC) for RIF was also determined against 11 NAP isolates in attempt to seek correlation with rpoB sequences.RESULTS:We determined that MAP strain 18 had an IVlIC of>30 mg/L and≤5 mg/L for RIF and RFB respectively,and a significant and novel rpoB mutation C1367T,compared to an MIC of≤1.0 mg/L for both drugs in the wild type MAP.The 30-fold increase in the MIC was a direct result of the rpoB mutation C1367T,which caused an amino acid change Thr456 to Ile456 in the drug's binding site.In addition,MAP strain 185 contained five silent rpoB mutations and exhibited an MIC comparable to the wild-type.Moreover,our in vitro selected mutation in MAP strain UCF5 resulted in the generation of a new resistant strain (UCF5-RIF16r)that possessed T1442C rpoB mutation and an MIC>30 mg/L and>10 mg/L for RIF and RFB respectively.Sequencing of the entire rpoB gene in lAP strains UCF4,18,and UCF5-RIF16r revealed an rpoB mutation A2284C further downstream of the 81 bp variable region in UCF4,accounting for observed slight increase in NIC.In addition,no other significant mutations were found in strains 18 and UCF-RIF16r.CONCLUSION:The data clearly illustrates that clinical and in vitro-selected MAP mutants with rpoB mutations result in resistance to RIF and RFB,and that a single amino acid change in the beta subunit may have a significant impact on RIF resistance.Unconventional drug susceptibility testing such as our molecular approach will be beneficial for evaluation of antibiotic effectiveness.This molecular approach may also serve as a model for other drugs used for treatment of MAP infections.

  14. Characterisation of an ELISA detecting immunoglobulin G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zervens, Lisa Marie-Louise; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    2013-01-01

    colostrum taken between 0 and 4days-in-milk (DIM), and to assess the probability of an animal testing positive for MAP specific IgG over this time-period. Non-specific reactions were found in 3/365 (0.8%) of samples. The odds of an animal testing positive on day of calving were 130 times higher than at 4...

  15. Intracellular pH of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis following exposure to antimicrobial compounds monitored at the single cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaggìa, Francesca; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Biavati, Bruno;

    2010-01-01

    H(i)) of one strain of MAP after exposure to nisin and neutralized cell-free supernatants (NCSs) from five bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with known probiotic properties. The evaluation of pH(i) by FRIM provides information about the physiological state of bacterial cells, bypassing the...... long and problematic incubations needed for methods relying upon growth of MAP such as determination of colony forming units. The FRIM results showed that both nisin and the cell-free supernatant from Lactobacillus plantarum PCA 236 affected the pH(i) of MAP within a few hours. However, monitoring the...

  16. Use of novel recombinant antigens in the interferon gamma assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, C.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    2012-01-01

    of the study were to evaluate immunogenicity and specificity of 14 novel recombinant antigens for use in the IFN-¿ assay and to assess the consistency of IFN-¿ responses with repeated samplings. The antigens used were 4 ESAT-6 family members, 4 latency proteins, 4 secreted proteins including Ag85B, 3...... were positive to PPDj were non-cases and one case was negative to PPDj but positive to all other tested antigens. Furthermore, PPDj produced elevated IFN-¿ responses in both the infected and non-infected herds and showed low consistency. Immunogenicity was highest for the group of latency proteins (0...

  17. Susceptibility to paratuberculosis infection in cattle is associated withsingle nucleotide polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 2 which modulate immune responses against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koets, A; Santema, W; Oostenriik, D;

    2010-01-01

    genotype. Cows with the TLR2-1903 T/C mutation (i.e., the CT and CC genotypes) were at 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.8) times the odds of being Map-infected compared to cows with the TT genotype. In in vitro functional assays, monocyte-derived macrophages from animals with a TLR2-1903 TT genotype produced more IL12p......40 and IL1β when stimulated with Map compared to cells derived from TLR2-1903 CT and CC genotypes. Also, T cell proliferative responses to mycobacterial antigens were higher in animals with a TLR2-1903 TT genotype. In conclusion, we have found a significant association between SNP TLR2-1903 T...

  18. Mycobacterium avium and purified protein derivative-specific cytotoxicity mediated by CD4+ lymphocytes from healthy HIV-seropositive and-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K

    1996-01-01

    HIV is the greatest single risk factor for the development of tuberculosis. Diseases caused by M. tuberculosis and mycobacteria are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected persons, which may stem from a functional defect of the CD4+ T-cell-mediated killing of macrophages harborin...

  19. Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Prunus avium. L%欧洲大樱桃的组织培养与快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王计平; 侯思宇; 孙朝霞; 王玉国

    2007-01-01

    以欧洲大樱桃幼嫩茎段为外植体材料,研究了不同浓度6-BA和IAA外源激素配比组合和不同培养温度对樱桃茎段离体培养的影响,结果表明:在附加6-BA 1.5 mg/L、IAA0.3 mg/L的MS培养基上茎段外植体生长健壮,芽分化数和诱导率较高,为茎段初代培养的最适培养基.温度对茎段组织培养再生不定芽也有一定的影响.在培养温度为先15℃、后25℃的条件下,茎段外植体芽分化数为7.4个,芽诱导率为99%.这表明经低温15℃条件下处理的外植体比其他温度条件更能诱导芽分化.

  20. 甜樱桃S等位基因与育种%S alleles of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王关林; 李晓燕; 王家庆

    2007-01-01

    樱桃为蔷薇科李属植物,属配子体自交不亲和系统.该属植物其S基因在雌蕊中特异表达的蛋白产物S-RNase, 能够降解同一品种花粉管中的RNA, 抑制自体花粉的受精作用.S等位基因的结构在基因水平上都具有3个外显子和2个内含子,在蛋白水平上有5个高度保守区.S等位基因在雌蕊和花粉中的表达具有时间和组织特异性,并且受植物生长发育时期的调控,这种特异性的自交不亲和反应由多态的S位点单模型决定.分子系统发育树显示甜樱桃S等位基因聚为三类.S等位基因在樱桃各品种间配置授粉树和亲本育种的选配方面起重要作用.

  1. Identification of S-allele in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) by allele-specific PCR%甜樱桃S基因型PCR鉴定技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓明; 王鸿霞; 姜立杰; 王国英; 周宇; 闫国华; 张开春

    2007-01-01

    绝大部分甜樱桃品种自交不亲和,因此自交不亲和基因型的鉴定对于生产具有重要的意义.以甜樱桃主栽品种为试材,建立基于PCR技术的甜樱桃品种S基因型鉴定技术.试验根据已发表的樱桃S基因序列设计了2对引物组合BFP73/74,BFP93/94,结合S1、S5基因的特异扩增引物,利用扩增片段长度的不同,就可以对樱桃品种的S基因型进行鉴定.通过对已知S基因型品种基因组的扩增,最终建立了基于PCR技术的甜樱桃品种S基因型鉴定技术.

  2. Construction of High Density Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Linkage Maps Using Microsatellite Markers and SNPs Detected by Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Verónica; Solís, Simón; Sagredo, Boris; Gainza, Felipe; Muñoz, Carlos; Gasic, Ksenija; Hinrichsen, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Linkage maps are valuable tools in genetic and genomic studies. For sweet cherry, linkage maps have been constructed using mainly microsatellite markers (SSRs) and, recently, using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) from a cherry 6K SNP array. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a new methodology based on high-throughput sequencing, holds great promise for identification of high number of SNPs and construction of high density linkage maps. In this study, GBS was used to identify SNPs from an intra-specific sweet cherry cross. A total of 8,476 high quality SNPs were selected for mapping. The physical position for each SNP was determined using the peach genome, Peach v1.0, as reference, and a homogeneous distribution of markers along the eight peach scaffolds was obtained. On average, 65.6% of the SNPs were present in genic regions and 49.8% were located in exonic regions. In addition to the SNPs, a group of SSRs was also used for construction of linkage maps. Parental and consensus high density maps were constructed by genotyping 166 siblings from a 'Rainier' x 'Rivedel' (Ra x Ri) cross. Using Ra x Ri population, 462, 489 and 985 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups in 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and the Ra x Ri map, respectively, with 80% of mapped SNPs located in genic regions. Obtained maps spanned 549.5, 582.6 and 731.3 cM for 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and consensus maps, respectively, with an average distance of 1.2 cM between adjacent markers for both 'Rainier' and 'Rivedel' maps and of 0.7 cM for Ra x Ri map. High synteny and co-linearity was observed between obtained maps and with Peach v1.0. These new high density linkage maps provide valuable information on the sweet cherry genome, and serve as the basis for identification of QTLs and genes relevant for the breeding of the species. PMID:26011256

  3. Construction of High Density Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. Linkage Maps Using Microsatellite Markers and SNPs Detected by Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    Full Text Available Linkage maps are valuable tools in genetic and genomic studies. For sweet cherry, linkage maps have been constructed using mainly microsatellite markers (SSRs and, recently, using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs from a cherry 6K SNP array. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a new methodology based on high-throughput sequencing, holds great promise for identification of high number of SNPs and construction of high density linkage maps. In this study, GBS was used to identify SNPs from an intra-specific sweet cherry cross. A total of 8,476 high quality SNPs were selected for mapping. The physical position for each SNP was determined using the peach genome, Peach v1.0, as reference, and a homogeneous distribution of markers along the eight peach scaffolds was obtained. On average, 65.6% of the SNPs were present in genic regions and 49.8% were located in exonic regions. In addition to the SNPs, a group of SSRs was also used for construction of linkage maps. Parental and consensus high density maps were constructed by genotyping 166 siblings from a 'Rainier' x 'Rivedel' (Ra x Ri cross. Using Ra x Ri population, 462, 489 and 985 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups in 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and the Ra x Ri map, respectively, with 80% of mapped SNPs located in genic regions. Obtained maps spanned 549.5, 582.6 and 731.3 cM for 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and consensus maps, respectively, with an average distance of 1.2 cM between adjacent markers for both 'Rainier' and 'Rivedel' maps and of 0.7 cM for Ra x Ri map. High synteny and co-linearity was observed between obtained maps and with Peach v1.0. These new high density linkage maps provide valuable information on the sweet cherry genome, and serve as the basis for identification of QTLs and genes relevant for the breeding of the species.

  4. 大樱桃丰产栽培技术%High-yield Horticultural Techniques for Sweet Cherry Prunus avium cv. Dayingtao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕平会; 李淑琴

    2001-01-01

    @@ 大樱桃是北方落时果树中成熟最早的树种.春末夏初正当果品市场鲜果缺乏之际,大樱桃首先供应市场,弥补了早期果品市场的空缺,1998年西安市场最高售价为每公斤32元.樱桃果实发育期很短,从开花到果实成熟仅需50~60天,其间很少打药或不打药,是真正的"绿色食品".樱桃的果实除供鲜食之外,还可加工成樱桃汁、酒、酱等20多种加工品,产品供不应求.山东省滕州市羊庄乡大西庄村栽植的13亩10年生甜樱桃园,1996年总产6000多kg,平均价格每公斤40多元,总收入达20多万元.因此,因地制宜发展大樱桃生产,对于脱贫致富具有重要意义,笔者结合我省大樱桃发展现状,就以后生产发展提出应注意的几个问题.

  5. Primeiros resultados do efeito dos novos porta-enxertos sobre novas cultivares de cerejeira (Prunus avium L.) na Gardunha (Cova da Beira)

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. M. de Carvalho; Santos, M.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Comunicação apresentada no Simpósio de Propagação Vegetativa de Espécies Lenhosas que decorreu em Castelo Branco, na Escola Superior Agrária do Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco de 18 a 20 de Outubro de 1996. Após dois anos de experimentação apresentam-se os primeiros resultados sobre as percentagens de pegamento de dois tipos de enxertia, de garfo e de borbulha, em local definitivo, de três novos porta-enxertos de cerejeira – Damil; Tabel-Edabriz; e Maxma 14 – num pomar localizado n...

  6. Construction of an intra-specific sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genetic linkage map and synteny analysis with the Prunus reference map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkage maps of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Emperor Francis’ (EF) and the wild forest cherry ‘New York 54’ (NY) were constructed using primarily simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and gene-derived markers with known positions on the Prunus reference map. The success rate for identifying SSR markers...

  7. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Zeman

    2012-03-01

    Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant difference in comparison to control. However, fruit from GA 3 – treated trees had significantly improved all characteristics in comparison to control fruits. Weight of fruit from trees treated with combination of 3,5,6-TPA and GA 3 was 14% higher than control fruit and 2.8% higher than fruit from GA 3 - treated trees, but there was no significant difference comparing to fruit from trees treated with GA 3 alone. These results are preliminary results after a one-year study and more research should be done to examine the possible influence of other factors, such as ecological factors, before final management recommendations could be made.

  8. Preliminary Research on Grafting Prunus avium with Cerasus tomentosa as Rootstock%毛樱桃作砧木嫁接大樱桃初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓刚; 李文远; 张昱

    2009-01-01

    [目的]比较毛樱桃作砧木2种方法嫁接大樱桃的效果.[方法]以毛樱桃作为砧木,大樱桃作为接穗,比较腹接和插皮接2种方法进行大樱桃嫁接的效果.[结果]嫁接方法对接穗的成苗率和成活率影响不是很大.采用腹接的方式成活率在85.0%,采用插皮接的方式成活率是86.4%.二者的成苗率差别也不大,成苗率腹接还要高于插皮接,腹接的成苗率为81.0%,插皮接成苗率为80.9%.嫁接方法对接口愈合状况和苗木生长量也有影响,采用腹接接口的愈合程度要好于插皮接,但是插皮接的苗木生长量好于腹接.当年苗插皮接的长势较好,新梢高和新梢粗均高于腹接.[结论]该研究为大樱桃的广泛栽培奠定了基础.

  9. Fast breeding techniques in tubes of Prunus avium%欧洲大樱桃试管快繁技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯修胜

    2002-01-01

    取欧洲大樱桃茎段作外植体,探讨了其快速繁殖技术,筛选出最佳增殖、生根培养基,找出了影响试管苗移栽成活率的因素.试管苗增殖系数达到10左右,生根率达92.5%,移栽成活率达95%以上.

  10. Yield-increasing techniques of Prunus avium in Dalian area%大连地区甜樱桃增产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘立新; 龙忠伟

    2010-01-01

    大连地区大面积栽培甜樱桃过程中,普遍存在树势衰弱,病害较重,单株产量低的问题.针对现状,结合甜樱桃的生物学特性和当地生境特点,运用综合性的技术措施,不断增加甜樱桃的产量,促进甜樱桃产业的可持续发展.

  11. Air pollutants from hydrocarbons and derivatives in micropropagation laboratories: toxicity symptoms on tissue culture of the cherry rootstock Colt (Prunus avium x P. pseudocerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, B

    1990-11-01

    Several air pollutants in research and micropropagation laboratories originate from the combustion of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. The combustion products of some natural gases (propane-butane, propane, methane) and ethanol were analyzed, and the atmosphere composition was investigated inside the laminar flow box, inside the room where transplanting is performed and inside the culture vessels after transplanting. Large quantities of ethylene and other biologically active compounds are produced when hydrocarbons are partially oxidized or unevenly combusted and when ethanol is used for sterilization of dissecting instruments during transplanting operations. Air pollutants' effects have been tested on Prunus Colt shoot cultures; the toxicity symptoms observed suggest the elimination of gas combustion and alcohols during transplanting operations. PMID:24227058

  12. Identification of seroreactive proteins in the culture filtrate antigen of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis human isolates to sera from Crohn's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, A-Rum; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Cho, Sang Nae; Collins, Michael T; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Naser, Saleh A; Shin, Sung Jae

    2010-02-01

    The etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) is unresolved, but it is likely that an interplay of host genetic factors and environmental triggers is relevant. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (MAP) has been focused upon as one of these triggers because it causes a similar chronic inflammatory bowel disease in animals. However, the differences among MAP antigens isolated from humans (H-MAP) and cattle (B-MAP) have not been well characterized. In this study, culture filtrate (CF) proteins from MAP isolates were tested with sera from CD patients and healthy controls in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibody produced by seven CD patients reacted differently according to the antigen source: strong reactivity was seen to H-MAP CF, but not to B-MAP CF. Six proteins, ModD, PepA, transaldolase, EchA9, MAP2120c, and MAP2950c, in H-MAP CF reacting specifically with CD patient sera were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-MS. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that ModD and PepA were the same proteins reacting with sera from cattle infected with MAP. The elevated antibody responses of CD patients to rModD and rPepA were confirmed by ELISA (PMAP infections. The study also identified additional proteins potentially useful in the design of assays for human MAP infections. PMID:19878316

  13. Isolation and Identification of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis from Milk, Manure and Fecal Samples of Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    M. Seyyedin; T.Z. Salehi; H. Tadjbakhsh; M.F. Najafi; Rabbani, M.

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this study was detection of subclinical forms of Johne’s disease on dairy farms which were suspected of having Johne’s disease or history of it and confirmatory paraclinical of paratuberculosis in them. Also, the isolated bacteria will be used for genotyping and molecular epidemiology of paratuberculosis in the next studies. Samples were gathered of 137 farms in different parts of Razavi Khorasan Province of Iran. There were 505 fresh-fecal and manure samples and 148 raw milk ...

  14. Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis of Respiratory and Household Water Biofilm Isolates of "Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" with Establishment of a PCR Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakhiaeva, Elena; Howard, Susan T; Brown Elliott, Barbara A; McNulty, Steven; Newman, Kristopher L; Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    "Mycobacterium aviumsubsp.hominissuis" is an important cause of pulmonary disease. It is acquired from environmental sources, but there is no methodology for large population studies. We evaluated the potential of variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis. Clinical and household biofilmM. aviumisolates underwent molecular identification. Testing for IS901was done to separateM. aviumsubsp.aviumfromM. aviumsubsp.hominissuis VNTR types were defined using VNTR loci, and subtyping was performed using 3'hsp65and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Forty-nine VNTR types and eight subtypes ofM. aviumsubsp.hominissuis(IS901negative) were identified among 416 isolates ofM. aviumfrom 121 patients and 80 biofilm sites. Of those types, 67% were found only among patient isolates, 11% only among household water isolates, and 23% among both. Of 13 VNTR types that included ≥4 patients, the majority (61.5%) represented geographic clustering (same city). Most VNTR types with multiple patients belonged to the same 3'hsp65sequence code (sequevar). A total of 44 isolates belonging to fourM. aviumsubsp.hominissuisVNTR types (8%), including three with the rare Mav-F ITS sequence and 0/8 subspecies, produced amplicons with IS901PCR primers. By sequencing, all 44 amplicons were not IS901but ISMav6, which was recently observed in Japan but had not been previously described among U.S. isolates. VNTR analysis ofM. aviumsubsp.hominissuisisolates is easier and faster than pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Seven VNTR loci separated 417 isolates into 49 types. No isolates ofM. aviumsubsp.aviumwere identified. The distributions of the VNTR copy numbers, the allelic diversity, and the low prevalence of ISMav6 differed from the findings for respiratory isolates reported from Japan. PMID:26739155

  15. Comportamiento de “Monrepós” como patrón para cerezo (Prunus avium L.) en el Valle del Ebro

    OpenAIRE

    Pina Sobrino, Ana; Gella Fañanás, Rafael; Errea Abad, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Se ha evaluado el comportamiento agronómico de “Monrepós”, un nuevo patrón para cerezo seleccionado en el CITA de Aragón, perteneciente al grupo de ciruelos denominado de crecimiento rápido. El estudio se llevó a cabo durante 9 años en la zona del Valle del Ebro (España), en un suelo pesado y calizo, con la variedad Compact Stella injertada sobre 5 patrones utilizados para cerezo. Se evaluó el vigor, la producción y productividad, su capacidad de propagación, tanto por estaquilla leñosa como ...

  16. Utilisation de la culture in vitro pour la multiplication de merisiers adultes (Prunus avium L.) sélectionnés en forêt

    OpenAIRE

    Riffaud, J.L.; Cornu, D.

    1981-01-01

    L’intérêt nouveau pour le merisier en reboisement et la difficulté d’application des procédés classiques de multiplication végétative ont conduit à envisager la multiplication par culture in vitro d’arbres adultes sélectionnés en forêt. Les cultures sont établies à partir de bourgeons provenant soit de rameaux de l’année, prélevés dans la cime des arbres adultes, soit de jeunes drageons. L’expérimentation a porté sur le rôle de différents facteurs : solution de macroéléments, régulateurs...

  17. Modeling the effect of direct and indirect contamination of on-farm bulk tank milk with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2013-01-01

    in farm bulk tank milk and simulating the effect of direct and indirect contamination with MAP. The effect of discarding milk from test-positive cows at different prevalences was assessed. The concentration of MAP in milk was estimated using a simulation model, while taking direct and indirect...... milk from test positive cows would result in discarding 11% of milk and reduce the MAP level by 80%. Due to poor sensitivity of the diagnostic test, removing test-positive cows would not further reduce the already low concentration of MAP and it would not guarantee the milk as MAP-free. The model was...

  18. Dam's infection progress and within-herd prevalence as predictors of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ELISA response in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Hansen, Kira Frello; Kvist, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    correct for the effect of age. The results showed that both the within-herd test-prevalence and the dam's infection progress were significant predictors, while the dams that had tested positive when giving birth and up to 0.7 years after were more likely to have offspring that would test positive. The...... testing positive, compared to animals born in a low prevalence herd. The variance heterogeneity reduced 81% through the included predictors. The results of this study suggest that irrespective of the prevalence, offspring of dams with MAP specific antibodies should be considered as high-risk animals when...... odds of testing positive were about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher for these offspring, compared to offspring of dams that never tested positive. Furthermore, offspring born in high (>5% ELISA-positive) and medium (2.5 to 5% ELISA-positive) prevalence herds had 9 and 3, respectively, times higher odds of...

  19. Evaluation of critical control points in dairy herd management to reduce transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis - results from controlled clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne's disease is a chronic, debilitating intestinal disorder in cattle, sheep and wild ruminants, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss and death. Animals usually become infected when they are young by ingesting feces or milk containing the causative bacteria. However, clinical signs of disease...

  20. Sensibilidad del cultivo de pool fecal para detectar infección por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis en rebaños bovinos de leche y su relación con la prueba de ELISA Sensitivity of pooled faecal culture for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds and its relationship with the ELISA test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pradenas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la sensibilidad y especificidad del cultivo de pool fecal como alternativa diagnóstica de paratuberculosis en rebaños lecheros bovinos comparado con el cultivo fecal individual y la prueba de ELISA con la finalidad de reducir costos asociados al diagnóstico de la enfermedad. En 12 rebaños lecheros con antecedentes de paratuberculosis se recolectó un máximo de 50 muestras fecales individuales por rebaño (n=598 y se cultivaron en medio de Herrold en forma individual y en pools estratégicos de 5 y 10 animales. Simultáneamente, de cada animal se recolectó una muestra de sangre para la prueba de ELISA. Se evaluó la sensibilidad y especificidad de las pruebas usando como referencia los cultivos fecales individuales mediante tablas de dos entradas. En 10 (83,3% rebaños y en 42 (7% animales fue posible aislar Map en tanto que el 15,8% y 22% de los pools de 5 y 10 animales, respectivamente, resultaron positivos al cultivo fecal. La sensibilidad de los pools fecales de 5 y 10 animales fue 43,2% y 46,4%, respectivamente, mientras que la sensibilidad del ELISA fue 42,9%. El costo de los pools fecales de 5 animales fue similar al de la prueba de ELISA, pero cuatro veces menor que el costo del cultivo fecal individual; sin embargo, la sensibilidad y especificidad de los pools de 5 animales fue similar a los cultivos individuales. El cultivo de pools fecales demostró ser una buena y costo-efectiva alternativa para el diagnóstico de paratuberculosis para detectar rebaños infectados con MapThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of pooled faecal culture as a better alternative for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in dairy herds compared to the conventional faecal culture and the ELISA test. Individual faecal and blood samples were collected from 50 cows in each one of 12 dairy herds (n = 598 with a history of paratuberculosis. Faecal samples were cultured on Herrold's medium individually and in pools of 5 and 10 animals strategically grouped according to age. Sensitivity and specificity of both tests were evaluated by means of two by two tables using the conventional faecal culture as the reference test. 10 (83.3% herds and 42 (7% animals resulted positive for Map, and 15.8% and 22% of pooled faecal samples (5 and 10 animals, respectively were also positive. The sensitivity of the pooled faecal samples was 43.2% for the 5 animal pools and 46.4% for the 10 animal pools whilst the sensitivity of the ELISA test was 42.9%. The cost of using pooled faecal culture in 5 animals was similar to that of the ELISA test but four times less than the conventional faecal culture; however, the sensitivity and specificity of this pool was similar to the conventional faecal culture. These results suggest that faecal culture with pooled samples could be successfully used in combination with ELISA test for detection of Map infection in dairy herds

  1. Cambios de volumen, área superficial y factor de forma de Heywood durante la deshidratación de cerezas (Prunus avium Mudanças de volume, área superficial e fator de forma de Heywood durante a desidratação de cerejas doces (Prunus avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Michelis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se evaluaron experimentalmente los cambios de volumen, área superficial y factores de forma durante la deshidratación de cerezas enteras. En base a los resultados obtenidos, se propusieron modelos muy simples para la evaluación matemática de dichos cambios para su uso en simulación de lechos profundos de partículas. Los cambios de volumen se pudieron representar con una ecuación lineal y los de área superficial con un polinomio de tercer orden, en ambos casos como una función de la humedad adimensional del producto. Con respecto a la evaluación de los factores de forma, se encontró que las partículas, cuanto más se deshidratan, más tienden a la forma esférica, lo cual es un hecho auspicioso, ya que no sólo el producto posee un aspecto visual agradable, sino que se habilita la utilización de la forma esférica para los efectos de adoptar una dimensión característica para la evaluación de cinéticas de deshidratación en monocapa y/o en lechos de partículas.Neste trabalho foram avaliadas, experimentalmente, as mudanças de volume, área superficial e fatores de forma durante a secagem de cerejas doces inteiras. Com base nos resultados obtidos foram propostos modelos muito simples para a avaliação matemática dessas mudanças para seu uso em simulação de leitos fundos de partículas. As mudanças de volume foram representadas com uma equação linear e as mudanças de área superficial com um polinômio de terceiro grau, em ambos os casos como uma função da umidade adimensional do produto. Em relação à avaliação dos fatores de forma, foi achado que as partículas quanto mais desidratadas mais se esparramaram em forma esférica, o que é um fato favorável, já que o produto não só possui um aspecto visual agradável mas também habilita à utilização do modo esférico os efeitos de adotar uma dimensão característica para a avaliação de cinéticas de desidratação em capas magras ou em leitos fundos de partículas.

  2. THE STUDY OF EFFECTIVE POLLINATION PERIOD AND THE EFFECT OF POLLINATION ON FRUIT CHARACTERS IN SWEET CHERRY( PRUNUS AVIUM L.)%甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)有效授粉期及授粉对果实性状影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓流; 束怀瑞; 陈学森; 李宪利; 于丽艳

    2003-01-01

    本文研究了甜樱桃早红宝石品种的有效授粉期和不同品种授粉组合对果实的重量、果核重、坐果率、果柄长度、果形指数的影响.研究表明,早红宝石开花后的4d内为有效授粉期.红艳和红灯杂交不亲和.红灯不是养老、大紫的适宜授粉树;大紫是红灯的适宜授粉树,可使红灯的单果重较大,单核重与单果重之比较小;养老是大紫的适宜授粉树,使大紫的单果重较大.其他品种给养老授粉,使单果重降低.与自然授粉相比,用单一授粉品种授粉,缩短了果柄长度,改变了果形指数.不同品种用同一品种授粉或同一品种用不同品种授粉时,果柄缩短的程度不同,果形指数发生变化(或增加或减少).果实成熟期与子房授粉后发育的天数有关,与授粉品种无关.

  3. Efecto de la Inclusión de un Extracto de Cereza (Prunus avium L. sobre el Estado de Oxidación y las Características Fisicoquímicas y Sensoriales de Salchichas Tipo Frankfurt Effect of the Inclusion of a Cherry Extract (Prunus avium L. on the Oxidation and Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Frankfurter Type Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Lorena Isaza Maya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resúmen. Uno de los principales factores limitantes de la calidad y aceptabilidad de la carne y los derivados cárnicos es la oxidación lipídica. Con el objetivo de inhibir o minimizar el deterioro ocasionado por la misma en salchichas tipo Frankfurt, se adiciona un extracto de cereza comercial, y se evalúa el efecto de éste sobre el estado de oxidación y las características fisicoquímicas y sensoriales durante 60 días de almacenamiento. Se encontró que el extracto de cereza mantiene los valores de TBARS (ácido tiobarbitúrico y la concentración de peróxido de las salchichas por debajo de los del producto testigo (sin adición de extracto de cereza, pero con presencia de ascorbato de sodio. Las salchichas con adición del extracto de cereza no presentan diferencias con el producto testigo desde el punto de la percepción de los descriptores sensoriales y las diferencias de las características fisicoquímicas y de color no son demasiado grandes en comparación con el testigo, de esta manera, el extracto de cereza puede ser usado para minimizar la oxidación lipídica de las salchichas tipo Frankfurt, sin afectar en gran medida las características propias de la misma.Abstract. Lipid oxidation is a limiting factor in quality and acceptability of meat and meat products. In order to inhibit or to minimize lipid oxidation in Frankfurters sausages, a commercial cherry extract was added and evaluated the effect on oxidation and physicochemical and sensorial characteristics for 60 days of storage. It was found that commercial cherry extract hold TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values and peroxides concentration, lesser than a product no added with cherry extract but added with sodium ascorbate. Frankfurters added with cherry extract no showed any difference with Frankfurters no added with cherry extract from sensorial descriptors perception and were no much greater differences in physicochemical and color characteristics with no added Frankfurter. As a result, cherry extract can be applied to minimize lipid oxidation in this kind of product, without affectation on particular characteristics of Frankfurter sausage.

  4. Microbial biomass and N mineralization in mixed plantations of broadleaves and nitrogen-fixing species

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ermelinda; SANTOS, Sónia A.P.; Arrobas, Margarida; Claro, Ana Marília; Patrício, Maria do Sameiro

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted in a 10-year-old trial of mixed plantation located in the Northeast of Portugal. This study was developed in the three following treatments: pure of Robinia pseudoacacia; pure of Prunus avium and mixed of Prunus avium × Robinia pseudoacacia. To better understand the benefit of the consociation of an N-fixing species (Robinia pseudoacacia) with broadleaves quality timber production (Prunus avium), we compared the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-06-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-06-0028 ref|YP_883909.1| cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance protein [Mycobact...erium avium 104] gb|ABK67767.1| cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance protein [Mycobacterium avium 104] YP_883909.1 0.054 23% ...

  6. Strain-specific virulence of Bordetella hinzii in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Bordetella, B. avium and B. hinzii, are known to infect avian hosts. B. avium is the etiologic agent of turkey coryza, a disease of high morbidity. B. hinzii, though commonly acquired from the respiratory tracts of diseased poultry, has not been demonstrated to be pathogenic in eith...

  7. Utilization of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to Identify environmental Strains of Mycobacterium Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species within the Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) group are found to be both prevalent and persistent in drinking water distribution systems. The MAC is composed of two predominant species: M. avium and M. intracellulare. These species have the ability to survive drinking ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3068 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3068 ref|NP_960250.1| AppC [Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis... K-10] gb|AAS03633.1| AppC [Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis K-10] NP_960250.1 2.1 28% ...

  9. Comparación de dos sistemas modernos de conducción de cerezo (Prunus avium) en base a la eficiencia de intercepción lumínica

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Carlos; Tognetti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Los sistemas de conducción modernos de cerezos son diseñados para maximizar la intercepción lumínica y optimizar su distribución en el canopeo, y de esta manera incrementar la productividad y mejorar la calidad de los frutos. Se evaluaron dos sistemas: Eje Central (EC) con moderadamente alta densidad de plantación y Tatura Modificado (TM) con muy alta densidad, en términos de intercepción de energía lumínica y distribución del área foliar en el canopeo, en una plantación comercial durante dos...

  10. Correlation of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses of fresh blood samples from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected heifers with responses of day-old samples co-cultured with IL-12 or anti-IL-10 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2012-01-01

    overnight with specific MAP antigens followed by quantification of IFN-γ by ELISA. It is recommended that the time interval from sampling to culture does not exceed eight hours but addition of the co-stimulating cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12) or anti-IL-10 antibodies to culture have been demonstrated to...... enhance IFN-γ responses of cultures stimulated with Johnin purified protein derivative (PPDj). Here we examined the correlation of IFN-γ production in response to PPDj and 15 recombinant antigens in day-old blood samples from heifers 10–21 months of age from a MAP infected herd with addition of either...... recombinant bovine IL-12 or anti-bovine IL-10 antibody with IFN-γ production in sample day samples. IFN-γ responses of sample day samples showed high correlation with responses to some antigens in day-old samples with addition of IL-12 or anti-IL-10 antibodies to cultures, indicating that day-old protocols...

  11. Effects of compound coating polysaccharide of Sophora alopecuroides on storage quality of Prunus avium%苦豆子多糖复合涂膜对成县樱桃贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文斌; 樊亮

    2013-01-01

    以苦豆子半乳甘露聚糖为成膜基质,添加适量的CaCl2和柠檬酸为增塑剂,以甘油为成膜助剂,制备可食性复合膜,研究了常温(温度25℃~28℃,相对湿度68%~75%)下该复合涂膜保鲜剂对樱桃品质及生理生化指标的影响.结果表明:与对照组相比,该复合涂漠处理的樱桃其果实霉烂率、质量损失率及呼吸率明显降低,有机酸、VC等营养成分转化、流失的速度减慢;该复合涂漠可有效地抑制MDA、花青素的合成和相对电导率的升高,使PPO和POD酶活性处于较低的水平,延缓果实的衰老.

  12. Anatomical Study of Male and Female Gametophytes in Prunus avium L.‘ Lapins'%樱桃品种‘拉宾斯’雌雄配子体发育的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉; 蔡宇良; 慕小倩; 张雪; 李彬; 高天翔

    2014-01-01

    以‘拉宾斯’、‘艳阳’、‘马哈利CDR-1’为材料,对其自花授粉坐果率进行统计分析.用石蜡切片技术对拉宾斯雌雄配子体发育过程进行解剖观察.结果表明:(1)‘拉宾斯’自花授粉坐果率明显低于‘艳阳’和‘马哈利CDR-1’.(2)拉宾斯从小孢子母细胞形成至成熟花粉的各发育阶段均观察到小孢子退化、花粉囊中的花粉干瘪、出现空腔.花粉成熟阶段部分花药绒毡层细胞不发生退化,花粉难以散出,造成雄性败育.(3)雌配子体在大孢子母细胞发育阶段出现大孢子发育不良或不能形成等异常发育雌配子体败育类型.(4)雄配子体在3月1日左右开始发育,3月14日左右趋近成熟;雌配子体则发育相对较晚,3月12日左右开始发育,3月25日左右趋近成熟.研究表明,‘拉宾斯’雌、雄配子体在其形成发育过程中的各种异常使其不能正常受精并且雌雄配子体发育不同步,最终导致坐果量低下.

  13. Effects of hot water and Vc treatment on the storage quality of sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. )%热水结合Vc处理对甜樱桃果实贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 曾名勇; 董士远; 杜亚楠

    2005-01-01

    在预实验基础上,采用热水42℃,10min和0.1%Vc+热水42℃,10min对新鲜甜樱桃(品种:红灯)进行热处理.处理后的甜樱桃置于0+0.5℃条件下冷藏18d,货架期条件下2d后对果实的感官性状和贮藏品质进行检测.结果表明,热水处理后果实的色泽、风味和口感均明显优于对照.热处理明显抑制了甜樱桃果实褐变和腐烂率的上升及可滴定酸和Vc含量的下降.热水结合Vc处理强化了这一抑制效果.

  14. 甜樱桃品种吉列玛叶片再生不定梢的研究%Shoot regeneration from leaves of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清荣; 李勃; 张力思; 石荫坪

    2001-01-01

    本培养基NN69或WPM上附加BA和低浓度的NAA,IAA,IBA作培养基,诱导甜樱桃品种吉列玛试管苗的叶片产生了不定梢。以WPM附加BA 3mg/L和IAA0.3mg/L的处理,不定梢再生率最高,为33.3%。%Shoot regenerated from leaves of sweet cherry variety Dilemma in vitro on the media WPM or NN69 supplemented with cytokinin BA and auxin IAA, NAA or IBA. The regeneration ratio accounted for 33.3% when cultured on the medium WPM supplemented with 4mg/L BA and 0.3mg/L IAA.

  15. 几种因素对大樱桃"明珠"组培苗增殖生长的影响%Effect of Several Factors on Proliferation and Growth of Prunus avium ‘Mingzhu’ in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁遥; 李金蓉; 姜利建; 曲盈媛; 李美兰; 朴炫春

    2015-01-01

    以大连栽植的大樱桃品种"明珠"茎段为外植体,采用组织培养方式,研究了BA、BA与生长素组合、培养瓶透气滤膜有无、不同培养方法对"明珠"组培苗增殖生长的影响.结果表明:在BA 0.5 mg/L+IBA0.1 mg/L处理中,大樱桃组培苗增殖生长效果最好,分化数量最多,为9.0个/株;在培养瓶盖无透气滤膜的培养瓶中,大樱桃组培苗生长健壮,丛生苗数最多,为6.4个/株;接触式生物反应器培养方法最适合大樱桃的增殖生长,丛生苗数量可达到8.2个/株.

  16. The Dynamic Changes of Endogenous Hormones in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.)Pulp%甜樱桃果实发育过程中激素含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丙花; 姜远茂; 彭福田; 隋静; 赵凤霞; 王海云

    2007-01-01

    以9年生'红灯'甜樱桃为试材,对不同发育时期果实果肉内源激素变化动态进行了测定分析.结果表明:果肉中ZRS含量在果实第Ⅰ速长期开始时最高,之后除在果实第Ⅱ速长期开始时有小幅增加外,均呈逐渐下降趋势; IAA和GAS的变化动态相似,在果实第Ⅰ速长期含量较高,随果实发育逐渐减少,均在硬核期结束时(盛花后25 d)降到最低值,进入第Ⅱ速长期后又迅速增加并达到最大值,与果实生长动态吻合; ABA含量分别在盛花后5、15、35 d出现高峰,与落果(花)时期基本一致.

  17. 秋季叶施尿素对甜樱桃产量与品质的影响%STYDUES on THE EFFECT OF FOIAR SPRAY OF UREA ON THE YIELD AND OUALITY OF SWEET CHERRY(PRUNUS,AVIUM L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵祥奎; 张序; 姜远茂

    2007-01-01

    以田间7年生'红灯'甜樱桃/大青叶为试材,研究了叶面喷施尿素对甜樱桃产量与品质的影响.结果表明:叶面施氮有利于甜樱桃花器官发育,提高完全花比例和坐果率,增大果实体积,提高果实单果重,进而提高产量;同时,提高果实糖含量及果实糖酸比;总之,叶面施氮提高了甜樱桃果实的产量和品质.

  18. 大樱桃不同品种花器官抗寒性的初步研究%A Preliminary Study on The Cold Resistance of Different Prunus avium L.Cultivar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施海燕; 呼丽萍

    2012-01-01

    以“先锋”、“红灯”、“宇宙”、“佳红”、“巨红”、“早大果”、“胜利”、“8-102”、“8-129”大樱桃品种为试材,观察和测定了蕾期及盛开花期经4、2、0、-2、-4、-5、-6℃人工低温胁迫处理后的受冻指数、电导率、MDA含量、可溶性糖含量、花粉活力变化.结果表明:9个大樱桃品种的抗冻能力依次为:“先锋”>“红灯”>“巨红”>“早大果”>“宇宙”>“胜利”>“佳红”>“8-129”>“8-102”;大樱桃不同花器官在同一低温条件下,抗冻能力依次为花瓣>花梗>雄蕊>雌蕊,蕾期抗寒性大于盛花期;花粉活力随着低温胁迫的加剧而迅速降低.

  19. 大樱桃冬暖式大棚栽培技术%The culture techniques of sweet cherry(Prunus avium)in solar energy-saving plastic greenhouse in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱玲; 刘蔚霞; 乔健

    2009-01-01

    大樱桃又称甜樱桃或洋樱桃,原产于欧洲。20世纪初传入我国。其果实营养丰富,色、形、味俱佳,素有“果里第一枝”、“果中珍品”的美称。多年来,大樱桃露地栽培的效益很好,但由于其树体抗寒能力差,栽种地域窄,果实供应时间短.难以满足市场的需要。利用冬暖式大棚栽培大樱桃,扩大了其种植区域.延长了其鲜果的供应期,提高了果实的商品价值。为了满足广大栽培者的需要,本文从10个方面介绍大樱桃冬暖式大棚栽培技术。

  20. 甜樱桃SFB4与SFB4’基因的鉴别%Distinguish SFB4’Gene from SFB4 Gene of Sweet Cherry(Prunus avium)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱墨; 张开春; 姜立杰; 张晓明

    2005-01-01

    本研究以最近发现的李属花粉决定子候选基因"S单元型特异F-box蛋白基因(SFB)"为基础,根据甜樱桃SFB4基因设计引物,从自交不亲和'雷尼'和'佳红'以及自交亲和的'斯坦拉'总DNA中分别扩增出SFB4和SFB4'基因的部分序列.经测序结果发现:SFB4'基因比SFB4基因缺失了4个碱基TAAA.根据这个缺失差异,设计了一对引物BFP200和BFP201,这对引物只能扩增SFB4'基因,而不能扩增SFB4基因,从而利用SFB基因区分开了甜樱桃自交不亲和的S4和自交亲和的S4'单元型.