Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Results Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Conclusions Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.
... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO I KNOW ... THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused by common ...
Maslow, Joel N.; Dawson, David; Carlin, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Steven M.
Isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex were examined for hemolysin expression. Only invasive isolates of M. avium were observed to be hemolytic (P < 0.001), with activity the greatest for isolates of serovars 4 and 8. Thus, M. avium hemolysin appears to represent a virulence factor necessary for invasive disease.
Maslow, Joel N.; Dawson, David; Carlin, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Steven M.
Isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex were examined for hemolysin expression. Only invasive isolates of M. avium were observed to be hemolytic (P < 0.001), with activity the greatest for isolates of serovars 4 and 8. Thus, M. avium hemolysin appears to represent a virulence factor necessary for invasive disease. PMID:9889239
Masahiro Ishikane; Junko Tanuma
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The ...
Askgaard, D. S.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Thybo, S.; Lerche, A.; Bennedsen, J.
Danish isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex were serotyped by the use of seroagglutination. The most prevalent serovars among patients with AIDS (n = 89) were 4 and 6, while among non-AIDS patients the most prevalent serovars were 1, 6, and 4, with no major differences between those in patients...... with pulmonary disease (n = 65) and those in patients with lymph node infection (n = 58). The results suggest a Scandinavian distribution of serovars with a predominance of serovar 6 and fail to demonstrate any selective protection against different serovars by Mycobacterium bovis ECG vaccination....
Chua, Leon O
Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur
Full Text Available Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The gastrointestinal (GI tract appears to be a common port of entry for MAC infection in patients with AIDS. Early recognition of GI MAC infection by endoscopy in HIV-infected patients and initiation of anti-MAC therapy and ART may reduce morbidity and mortality.
Shimizu, Toshiaki; Tomioka, Haruaki
We studied the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of picolinic acid (PA) in combination with the antiprotozoal drug quinacrine against intramacrophage Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Quinacrine significantly potentiated the anti-MAC activity of PA, suggesting the usefulness of this combination in the clinical control of MAC infection.
Bala, Shukal; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Kazempour, Kazem; Inglis, Shelly; Dempsey, Walla L.
Increased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) appears to play an important role in the progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease. One treatment strategy being explored is the use of TNF-α inhibitors. TNF-α also appears to be important in conferring resistance to infections, and the inhibition of this cytokine may exacerbate the emergence of opportunistic pathogens, such as Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The present study examines the possibility that inhibition of ...
von Reyn, C F; Waddell, R D; Eaton, T.; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J.N.; Barber, T W; Brindle, R. J.; Gilks, C F; Lumio, J; Lähdevirta, J
Disseminated infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a common complication of AIDS in the United States and other developing countries, but it is rare or absent in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the comparative likelihood of exposure to MAC in these geographic areas, we used a standard protocol to culture 91 water samples from environmental sites and piped water supply systems in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya. MAC was isolated from all geographic are...
Bauer, Jeanett; Andersen, Åse B.; Askgaard, Dorthe;
In the present study restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses with the recently described insertion sequence IS1245 as a probe was performed with clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured in Denmark during a 2-year period. The overall aim of the study was to disclose potentia...... as potting soil) and veterinary samples were found to contain viable M avium isolates belonging to genotypes also found in humans....
Miyashita, Emiko; Yoshida, Hisao; Mori, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Natsuki; Miyamura, Takako; Ohta, Hideaki; Seki, Masafumi; Tomono, Kazunori; Hashii, Yoshiko; Ozono, Keiichi
Peritonitis remains an important complication of peritoneal dialysis and is mostly caused by aerobic enteric bacteria. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-associated peritonitis is an unusual but serious infection, requiring special culture techniques to avoid delay in diagnosis. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with aplastic anemia on ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who had Mycobacterium avium complex-associated peritonitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This case emphasizes that we should be constantly cautious about NTM infection in allo-HSCT recipients, especially when standard cultures are negative and the infection is refractory to empirical antibiotic therapy. PMID:25521993
Petrović Slavica P.
Full Text Available Chaos and complexity theory is a special, functionalist systems approach to dealing with complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems. Through treating organizations as complex, with their environments coevolving, nonlinear systems, complexity theory is aimed at creative research of their erratic nature. When an organization is in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, order and disorder are intertwined, its behavior is irregular and unpredictable but has some pattern. According to the complexity paradigm organizations have to strive to avoid the equilibrium states of stability and instability. They have instead to strive to remain in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, where they are able to display their full potential for creativity and innovation.
Whiley, Harriet; Giglio, Steven; Bentham, Richard
Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic pathogens of public health concern. Hot water systems, including showers, have been identified as a potential source of infection. This paper describes the colonization of Legionella and MAC on the flexible tubing within a model potable shower system, utilizing thermostatic mixing and a flexible shower head. A MAC qPCR method of enumeration was also developed. MAC and Legionella spp. were detected within the biofilm at maximum concentrations of 7.0 × 104 and 2.0 × 103 copies/cm2 PVC tubing respectively. No significant changes were observed between sample of the flexible shower tubing that dried between uses and those that remained filled with water. This suggested the “unhooking” showerheads and allowing them to dry is not an effective method to reduce the risk of Legionella or MAC colonisation. PMID:26213977
Enfermedad pulmonar por especies del complejo Mycobacterium avium intracellulare y correspondencia terapéutica Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex pulmonary disease species and therapeutic match
Hayvin Pérez Cruz
Full Text Available Introducción: la preocupación mundial ante las enfermedades causadas por micobacterias ambientales es creciente, debido a las dificultades diagnósticas y de tratamiento. Objetivos: determinar el comportamiento de la enfermedad pulmonar por especies del complejo Mycobacterium avium intracellulare y la correspondencia con la terapéutica recibida en el Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico de La Habana, durante el período 2000-2010. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, que abarcó 55 pacientes con el diagnóstico de la enfermedad, los cuales cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión-exclusión predefinidos; la tendencia en el registro de diagnósticos se basó en el coeficiente de correlación lineal; en las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas discretas se usaron distribuciones de frecuencia con el cálculo del porcentaje y su respectivo intervalo de confianza de 95 %. Resultados: se obtuvo una tendencia decreciente en el diagnóstico de enfermedad pulmonar por especies del complejo Mycobacterium avium intracellulare, el 47,3 % de los pacientes estudiados se encontraba entre los 50 y 69 años de edad. La mayor parte del grupo no tenía ocupación de riesgo epidemiológico y la comorbilidad pulmonar se detectó en 97,9 %, sobresaliendo la tuberculosis pulmonar. Se comprobó la no correspondencia entre la terapéutica recibida y el régimen recomendado por la American Thoracic Society, en 100 % de los pacientes. Conclusión: la instauración de un programa ajustado a las normativas de tratamiento internacionalmente aceptadas, constituye en el Hospital Benéfico Jurídico, una necesidad para la atención a este grupo de enfermos.Introduction: the global concern about diseases caused by environmental mycobacteria is growing since their diagnosis and treatment are difficult. Objectives: to determine the behavior of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex pulmonary disease, and the therapeutic match with the
Sisson, P. R.; Freeman, R.; Magee, J G; Lightfoot, N F
Thirty four cultures of slow growing, Tween-80 negative mycobacteria were analysed by pyrolysis mass spectrometry. The results showed that pyrolysis mass spectrometry could positively distinguish strains of Mycobacterium xenopi from those of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) complex. Pyrolysis mass spectrometry may be a useful technique for the rapid characterisation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in such clinical settings as their isolation from immunocompromised patients-for exa...
Nussbaum, J. M.; Dealist, C; Lewis, W; Heseltine, P N
A smear of the buffy coat of peripheral blood for acid-fast bacilli was assessed for sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Seventeen AIDS patients with blood cultures positive for MAC had simultaneous quantitative blood cultures and buffy coat smears performed, as did 4 patients later proven not to have disseminated MAC. The sensitivity of the buffy coat smear for the dete...
Ravi P. Manglani
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infections rarely affect the pleura, accounting for 5–15% of pulmonary MAC. We report a case of MAC pleural effusion in an otherwise immunocompetent young patient. A 37-year-old healthy female with no past medical history was admitted to the hospital with two weeks of right sided pleuritic chest pain, productive cough, and fever. She was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with signs of right sided pleural effusion which were confirmed by chest X-ray and chest CT. Thoracentesis revealed lymphocytic predominant exudative fluid. The patient underwent pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, and video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS, all of which failed to identify the causative organism. Six weeks later, MAC was identified in the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy by DNA hybridization and culture. The patient was started on clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampin. After six months of treatment, she was asymptomatic with complete radiological resolution of the effusion. The presence of lymphocytic effusion should raise the suspicion for both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Pleural biopsy must be considered to make the diagnosis. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion of MAC infection in an otherwise immunocompetent patient presenting with a unilateral lymphocytic exudative effusion.
Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Hijikata, Minako; Matsushita, Ikumi; Tanaka, Goh; Ieki, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Toyota, Emiko; Nagai, Hideaki; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Keicho, Naoto
Although genetic variants in SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) have been associated with mycobacterial diseases, these findings have not been extensively validated in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. This study investigated the genomic structure of SLC11A1 and its association with MAC infection. Nineteen polymorphic loci were genotyped in European descendents and the Japanese population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures and frequencies of major haplotypes differed between these 2 populations. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen from the data set, and 6 polymorphic sites were genotyped in 122 pulmonary MAC cases and 211 controls from Japan. We observed that the T allele of rs2279014 in the 3' untranslated region was associated with protection from MAC disease when comparing allele frequencies with an odds ratio of 0.582 (95% confidence interval 0.379-0.894, p = 0.013). The frequencies of haplotypes constructed with the above 6 variants did not differ between cases and controls. Allele-specific expression imbalance of SLC11A1 mRNA was evaluated in peripheral blood cells from heterozygous individuals, but no difference was observed among haplotypes. Although the significance was modest, rs2279014 is in strong LD with nearby SNPs and further studies are required for conclusive validation. PMID:22387151
Full Text Available A 34-year-old female with sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin SS disease and severe iron overload presented to our institution with the subacute presentation of recurrent pain crisis, fever of unknown origin, pancytopenia, and weight loss. A CT scan demonstrated both lung and liver nodules concerning for granulomatous disease. Subsequent biopsies of the liver and bone marrow confirmed the presence of noncaseating granulomas and blood cultures isolated Mycobacterium avium complex MAC. Disseminated MAC is considered an opportunistic infection typically diagnosed in the immunocompromised and rarely in immunocompetent patients. An appreciable number of mycobacterial infection cases have been reported in sickle cell disease patients without immune dysfunction. It has been reported that iron overload is known to increase the risk for mycobacterial infection in vitro and in vivo studies. While iron overload is primarily known to cause end organ dysfunction, the clinical relationship with sickle cell disease and disseminated MAC infection has not been reported. Clinical iron overload is a common condition diagnosed in the sub-Saharan African population. High dietary iron, genetic defects in iron trafficking, as well as hemoglobinopathy are believed to be the etiologies for iron overload in this region. Patients with iron overload in this region were 17-fold more likely to die from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggest a possible link to iron overload and mycobacterial infections; however larger observational studies are necessary to determine true causality.
Full Text Available Purpose: To determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of various anti-tuberculosis drugs for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC strains isolated from clinical samples. Methods: Forty-nine human isolates of MAC were tested for susceptibility to nine chemotherapeutic agents. All isolates were from Indian patients suffering from chronic pulmonary mycobacteriosis. Drug susceptibility was performed both by agar dilution and MIC method. MIC values were analysed, both visually and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader. Results: More than 40% of the MAC isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacine (48.98%, amikacin (46.94% and roxithromycin (42.86% by the MIC method. In contrast, the isolates showed high degree of resistance to the first line antituberculosis drugs: only 28.6% were sensitive to rifampicine, 22.85% to isoniazid and ethambutol each and 36.7% were sensitive to streptomycin. In addition, 22.85% of the strains were sensitive to clofazimine and 34.7% to kanamycin. Conclusions: Results of the study confirm the suitability of the rapid broth micro dilution (MIC method as a simple yet reliable method to assay for the drug susceptibility of nontuberculosis mycobacterium.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa) is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC). Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of...
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC): an unusual potential pathogen in cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patients Complexo Mycobacterium avium: um patógeno potencial pouco comum no líquido céfalo -raquidiano de pacientes com AIDS
David Jamil Hadad; Tereza Cristina Petry; Anaenza Freie Maresca; Lucilaine Ferrazoli; Maria Conceição Martins; Maria Cecilia de Almeida Palhares; Walkyria Pereira Pinto; Adauto Castelo Filho; Moises Palaci
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is frequently isolated from patients with late complications of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), especially in North America and Europe. However, its isolation from the central nervous system (CNS) has been seldom reported in these countries. MAC infections in AIDS patients in African and Latin American countries are believed to be uncommon. We report the isolation of MAC from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 11 AIDS patients out of 1723 (0.63%) seen at...
Full Text Available The so-called Complexity Sciences are a topic of fast growing interest inside the scientific community. Actually, researchers did not come to a definition of complexity, since it manifests itself in so many different ways . This field itself is not a single discipline, but rather a heterogeneous amalgam of different techniques of mathematics and science. In fact, under the label of Complexity Sciences we comprehend a large variety of approaches: nonlinear dynamics, deterministic chaos theory, nonequilibrium thermodynamics, fractal geometry, intermediate asymptotics, complete and incomplete similarity, renormalization group theory, catastrophe theory, self-organized criticality, neural networks, cellular automata, fuzzy logic, etc. Aim of this paper is at providing insight into the role of complexity in the field of Materials Science and Fracture Mechanics [2-3]. The presented examples will be concerned with the snap-back instabilities in the structural behaviour of composite structures (Carpinteri [4-6], the occurrence of fractal patterns and selfsimilarity in material damage and deformation of heterogeneous materials, and the apparent scaling on the nominal mechanical properties of disordered materials (Carpinteri [7,8]. Further examples will deal with criticality in the acoustic emissions of damaged structures and with scaling in the time-to-failure (Carpinteri et al. . Eventually, results on the transition towards chaos in the dynamics of cracked beams will be reported (Carpinteri and Pugno [10,11].
Mina, Ali A.; Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer
Human history is often seen as an inexorable march towards greater complexity — in ideas, artifacts, social, political and economic systems, technology, and in the structure of life itself. While we do not have detailed knowledge of ancient times, it is reasonable to conclude that the average resident of New York City today faces a world of much greater complexity than the average denizen of Carthage or Tikal. A careful consideration of this change, however, suggests that most of it has occurred recently, and has been driven primarily by the emergence of technology as a force in human life. In the 4000 years separating the Indus Valley Civilization from 18th century Europe, human transportation evolved from the bullock cart to the hansom, and the methods of communication used by George Washington did not differ significantly from those used by Alexander or Rameses. The world has moved radically towards greater complexity in the last two centuries. We have moved from buggies and letter couriers to airplanes and the Internet — an increase in capacity, and through its diversity also in complexity, orders of magnitude greater than that accumulated through the rest of human history. In addition to creating iconic artifacts — the airplane, the car, the computer, the television, etc. — this change has had a profound effect on the scope of experience by creating massive, connected and multiultra- level systems — traffic networks, power grids, markets, multinational corporations — that defy analytical understanding and seem to have a life of their own. This is where complexity truly enters our lives.
This book describes a complete revolution in software engineering based on complexity science through the establishment of NSE -- Nonlinear Software Engineering paradigm which complies with the essential principles of complexity science, including the Nonlinearity principle, the Holism principle, the Complexity Arises From Simple Rules principle, the Initial Condition Sensitivity principle, the Sensitivity to Change principle, the Dynamics principle, the Openness principle, the Self-organization principle, and the Self-adaptation principle. The aims of this book are to offer revolutionary solu
Whiley, H; Keegan, A; Fallowfield, H; Bentham, R
Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10⁵, 10³ and 10⁵ copies/mL, respectively. During the summer period of sampling the concentration of all three organisms significantly increased (P residual along the pipelines was observed. This suggests that the combination of reduced chlorine residual and increased water temperature promoted the presence of these opportunistic pathogens. PMID:26042986
Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Ángel; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Olivares-Santos, Roberto Antonio
This article presents elements to better understand health systems from the complety paradigm, innovative perspective that offers other ways in the conception of the scientific knowledge prevalent away from linear, characterized by the arise of emerging dissociative and behaviors, based on the intra and trans-disciplinarity concepts such knowledges explain and understand in a different way what happens in the health systems with a view to efficiency and effectiveness. The complexity paradigm means another way of conceptualizing the knowledge, is different from the prevalent epistemology, is still under construction does not separate, not isolated, is not reductionist, or fixed, does not solve the problems, but gives other bases to know them and study them, is a different strategy, a perspective that has basis in the systems theory, informatics and cybernetics beyond traditional knowledge, the positive logics, the newtonian physics and symmetric mathematics, in which everything is centered and balanced, joint the "soft sciences and hard sciences", it has present the Social Determinants of Health and organizational culture. Under the complexity paradigm the health systems are identified with the following concepts: entropy, neguentropy, the thermodynamic second law, attractors, chaos theory, fractals, selfmanagement and self-organization, emerging behaviors, percolation, uncertainty, networks and robusteness; such expressions open new possibilities to improve the management and better understanding of the health systems, giving rise to consider health systems as complex adaptive systems. PMID:25982615
Waseda, Koichi; Ocho, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Kou; Kimura, Kosuke; Iwamuro, Masaya; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Kondo, Eisei; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Otsuka, Fumio
KL-6 is a glycoprotein found predominantly on type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages, and often shows increased serum levels in patients with interstitial pneumonia. We report a case of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection whose disease activity was correlated with KL-6 levels in serum. During treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) with prednisolone, chest image findings improved in association with decreased KL-6 levels. Following taper...
Slutsky, A M; Arbeit, R D; Barber, T W; Rich, J.; von Reyn, C F; Pieciak, W; Barlow, M A; Maslow, J.N.
Invasive infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is common among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. In previous studies, we analyzed multiple individual colonies of MAC isolated from specimens obtained at the same time and observed that 14 to 20% of patients are simultaneously infected with more than one strain. In this study, we examined sequential isolates from 12 patients with AIDS who had two or more MAC isolates available from clinica...
Lein, A D; von Reyn, C F; Ravn, P;
disease due to either Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis with those in healthy, skin test-negative, control subjects. Significant IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 were detected in 16 (59%) of 27 M. tuberculosis pulmonary disease patients, 0 (0%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 0...... (0%) of 8 controls. Significant IFN-gamma responses to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative were detected in 23 (85%) of 27 M. tuberculosis disease patients, 2 (25%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 5 (63%) of 8 healthy controls. M. avium sensitin was recognized in 24 (89%) of 27 M. tuberculosis...... disease patients, 4 (50%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 1 (13%) of 8 controls. IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 are specificfor disease due to M. tuberculosis and are not observed in patients with MAC disease or in healthy controls....
Lein, A D; von Reyn, C F; Ravn, P;
disease due to either Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis with those in healthy, skin test-negative, control subjects. Significant IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 were detected in 16 (59%) of 27 M. tuberculosis pulmonary disease patients, 0 (0%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 0...... (0%) of 8 controls. Significant IFN-gamma responses to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative were detected in 23 (85%) of 27 M. tuberculosis disease patients, 2 (25%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 5 (63%) of 8 healthy controls. M. avium sensitin was recognized in 24 (89%) of 27 M. tuberculosis...... disease patients, 4 (50%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 1 (13%) of 8 controls. IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 are specific for disease due to M. tuberculosis and are not observed in patients with MAC disease or in healthy controls....
Andrea Barral Martins
Full Text Available Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM, especially Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC, has been considered responsible for human disease, especially in HIV patients. Nevertheless, it has been diagnosed in immunocompetent elderly men, frequently with previous pulmonary disease: chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, complications of tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiectasis. We relate the case of a female patient, 51 years old, with continuously acid fast bacilli (AFB smears and with three previous treatments, which were conducted at the multiresistant tuberculosis (MRTB service. MAC was identified in the sputum culture, and she received treatment for one year. The posterior sputum exams were negative. The cavity lesions observed in the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT were reduced, and some of the nodule lesions became bronchiectasis, even after the end of treatment. We agree with the literature reports that indicate that MAC is the cause of bronchiectasis. It is necessary to identify the type of mycobacteria in immunocompetent individuals with positive AFB smears that do not become negative with tuberculosis treatment.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung disease (LD due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an important clinical concern. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC is one of the most common causative agents but the diagnosis of MAC-LD remains challenging. Detection of serum IgA antibody against MAC glycopeptidolipid (GPL has recently been shown to improve the diagnosis of MAC-LD, but has yet to be validated worldwide. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral center in northern Taiwan and enrolled patients with MAC-LD, MAC contamination, other lung diseases, and control subjects. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA antibody against MAC-GPL was detected in the participants and its specificity and sensitivity was assessed. RESULTS: There were 56 patients with MAC-LD, 11 with MAC contamination, 13 M. kansasii-LD, 26 LD due to rapidly-growing mycobacteria (RGM, 48 pulmonary tuberculosis, and 42 household contacts of patients with TB. Patients with MAC-LD were older and 32% of them had an underlying co-morbidity. By logistic regression, serum MAC-GPL IgA level was an independent predictor of MAC-LD among the study subjects and those with culture-positive specimens for MAC. By the receiver operating characteristic curve, serum MAC-GPL IgA had a good power to discriminate MAC-LD from MAC contamination. Under the optimal cut-off value of 0.73 U/mL, its sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 91%, respectively. Among MAC-LD patients, presence of co-morbidity was associated with MAC-GPL <0.73 U/ml in logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of serum anti-MAC-GPL IgA level is useful for the diagnosis of MAC-LD. However, its implement in clinical practice for immuno-compromised hosts needs careful consideration.
Maycher, B. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Radiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); O' Connor, R. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Long, R. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Medicine, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: email@example.com
To describe the range and frequency of abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) scans in patients who met the American Thoracic Society (ATS) case definition of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. Further, to report the effect of time and treatment on the progression of these abnormalities. The demographic, clinical and radiologic features of 10 patients with proven MAC lung disease (mean age 71 years, standard deviation 12 years) were described. The presence or absence of 14 CT abnormalities was recorded in each of 10 lung zones. The effects of time and treatment on the abnormalities were recorded. The patients' lung function was minimally impaired. Pretreatment CT scans showed small nodules in 47% of the lung zones, reduced lung attenuation in 41%, and bronchiectasis in 27%. Bronchiectasis was associated with nodules in 20 zones from 9 patients and with no nodules in 7 zones from 1 patient. Reduced attenuation was associated with bronchiectasis alone in 8 zones, with nodules alone in 25 zones and with both bronchiectasis and nodules in 8 zones. In patients without treatment, or with non-curative treatment, bronchiectasis developed or worsened in 12 of 26 zones and resolved or improved in none. In contrast, after curative treatment, small nodules disappeared completely in 10 of 21 zones and developed in none. Of 7 zones with only nodules and reduced attenuation before treatment, 6 had no abnormalities after treatment. Our data suggest that the 3 leading CT abnormalities in nodular-bronchiectatic MAC lung disease are small nodules, reduced attenuation and bronchiectasis. Reduced attenuation appeared to result from gas trapping and hypoxic vasoconstriction due to bronchiolocentric inflammatory nodules. Bronchiectasis appeared to be secondary to this bronchiolar disease. (author)
To describe the range and frequency of abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) scans in patients who met the American Thoracic Society (ATS) case definition of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. Further, to report the effect of time and treatment on the progression of these abnormalities. The demographic, clinical and radiologic features of 10 patients with proven MAC lung disease (mean age 71 years, standard deviation 12 years) were described. The presence or absence of 14 CT abnormalities was recorded in each of 10 lung zones. The effects of time and treatment on the abnormalities were recorded. The patients' lung function was minimally impaired. Pretreatment CT scans showed small nodules in 47% of the lung zones, reduced lung attenuation in 41%, and bronchiectasis in 27%. Bronchiectasis was associated with nodules in 20 zones from 9 patients and with no nodules in 7 zones from 1 patient. Reduced attenuation was associated with bronchiectasis alone in 8 zones, with nodules alone in 25 zones and with both bronchiectasis and nodules in 8 zones. In patients without treatment, or with non-curative treatment, bronchiectasis developed or worsened in 12 of 26 zones and resolved or improved in none. In contrast, after curative treatment, small nodules disappeared completely in 10 of 21 zones and developed in none. Of 7 zones with only nodules and reduced attenuation before treatment, 6 had no abnormalities after treatment. Our data suggest that the 3 leading CT abnormalities in nodular-bronchiectatic MAC lung disease are small nodules, reduced attenuation and bronchiectasis. Reduced attenuation appeared to result from gas trapping and hypoxic vasoconstriction due to bronchiolocentric inflammatory nodules. Bronchiectasis appeared to be secondary to this bronchiolar disease. (author)
Imam H. Shaik
Full Text Available Chylous ascites is very rare in HIV/AIDS and its association with Mycobacterium avium complex-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (MAC-IRIS has been rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a young African-American male who developed chylous ascites as a late sequela to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome while on treatment for MAC. Antiretroviral drug-naive patients who start HAART in close proximity to the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection and have a rapid decline in HIV RNA level should be monitored for development of IRIS. Although the long term prognosis is poor, early diagnosis and treatment help to improve quality of life.
Yuji Shibata; Nobuyuki Horita; Masaki Yamamoto; Toshinori Tsukahara; Hideyuki Nagakura; Ken Tashiro; Hiroki Watanabe; Kenjiro Nagai; Kentaro Nakashima; Ryota Ushio; Misako Ikeda; Atsuya Narita; Akinori Kanai; Takashi Sato; Takeshi Kaneko
Currently, an anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody assay kit for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is commercially available. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to reveal the precise diagnostic accuracy of anti-GPL-core IgA antibodies for MAC pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). We systematically searched reports that could provide data for both sensitivity and specificity by anti-GPL-core IgA antibody for clinically diagnosed MAC-PD. Diagnostic test accuracy wa...
Bermudez, Luiz E.; Kolonoski, Peter; Seitz, Lianne E.; Petrofsky, Mary; Reynolds, Robert; Wu, Martin; Young, Lowell S.
Treatment of Mycobacterium avium disease remains challenging when macrolide resistance develops. We infected C57 beige mice and treated them with mefloquine, SRI-286, and moxifloxacin. SRI-286 (80 mg/kg) was bactericidal in the liver. Mefloquine plus moxifloxacin or mefloquine plus SRI-286 were better than mefloquine alone.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC. Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves.
Rodrigues, Liliana; Sampaio, Daniela; Couto, Isabel; Machado, Diana; Kern, Winfried V; Amaral, Leonard; Viveiros, Miguel
Mycobacteriumavium complex (MAC) is clinically important since it can cause severe infections in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and other immunocompromised individuals. Use of the macrolides clarithromycin and azithromycin has improved the outcome of MAC infections, but therapeutic failure is still a major problem. In this work, we studied efflux pump activity in MAC clinical strains and evaluated the contribution of active efflux to macrolide resistance. Eighteen clinical strains isolated from AIDS patients were evaluated for macrolide resistance in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) thioridazine, chlorpromazine and verapamil. The efflux activity of these strains was then assessed by a semi-automated fluorometric method that detects extrusion of ethidium bromide (EtBr), a known efflux pump substrate. Resistance to clarithromycin was significantly reduced in the presence of thioridazine, chlorpromazine and verapamil. The same EPIs were effective in decreasing the efflux of EtBr from MAC cells. Moreover, increased retention of [(14)C]-erythromycin in the presence of these EPIs further demonstrated that active efflux contributes to MAC resistance to macrolides. This study demonstrates that efflux pumps play an important role in MAC resistance to antibiotics. PMID:19740629
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) isolated from AIDS patients and the criteria required for its implication in disease Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC) isolado de pacientes com AIDS e os critérios exigidos para sua implicação em doença
David Jamil Hadad; Maria Cecília de Almeida Palhares; Anna Luiza Nunes Placco; Carmem Silvia Bruniera Domingues; Adauto Castelo Filho; Lucilaine Ferrazoli; Sueli Yoko Mizuka Ueki; Maria Alice da Silva Telles; Maria Conceição Martins; Moisés Palaci
Before the AIDS pandemia, the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was responsible in most cases for the pneumopathies that attack patients with basic chronic pulmonary diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis36. In 1981, with the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), MAC started to represent one of the most frequent bacterial diseases among AIDS patients, with the disseminated form of the disease being the major clinical manifestation of the infection8. Between Janua...
Slutsky, A M; Arbeit, R D; Barber, T W; Rich, J; von Reyn, C F; Pieciak, W; Barlow, M A; Maslow, J N
Invasive infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is common among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. In previous studies, we analyzed multiple individual colonies of MAC isolated from specimens obtained at the same time and observed that 14 to 20% of patients are simultaneously infected with more than one strain. In this study, we examined sequential isolates from 12 patients with AIDS who had two or more MAC isolates available from clinical specimens collected more than 1 week apart; the intervals between the first and last specimens ranged from 8 to 192 (median, 46) days. For each isolate, restriction digests of genomic DNA were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; DNA was prepared by using a protocol, described here in detail, which had been optimized for conditions of bacterial growth and lysis. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis identified four patients (33%) infected with two different MAC strains. Both M. avium and M. intracellulare were cultured from blood specimens from two patients. In each of the four patients, the second strain was identified from a culture taken within 14 days of the initial study isolate, and in three of these patients, the first strain was detected again in a subsequent culture. These observations suggest that the presence of two different strains among isolates from sequential cultures may reflect ongoing polyclonal infection. We conclude that polyclonal infection with MAC is common among patients with AIDS. The identification of such infections may be critical in the development of effective treatments. Images PMID:7929773
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome due to Mycobacterium avium complex successfully followed up using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A case report
Namkoong, Ho; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Ishii, Makoto; Yagi, Kazuma; Haraguchi, Mizuha; Matsusaka, Masako; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Asami,Takahiro; Saito, Fumitake; Fukunaga, Koichi; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki
Background In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is one of the most difficult types of IRIS to manage. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) has been suggested as a useful tool for evaluating the inflammatory status of HIV-infected patients. We present the first case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS (M...
Enns, Carolyn Zerbe
The well-developed body of theory and research on men's gender role conflict provides an excellent foundation for developing increasingly complex models of men's gender-related concerns. Theorists and researchers are encouraged to incorporate themes related to social structural aspects of gender as well as to examine the ways in which men's…
Taylor, Robert Henry
Mycobacterium avium, an opportunistic human pathogen, infects between 25 and 50% of advanced-stage acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in the United States. M. avium has been isolated from many environmental sources including: natural waters, soils, and aerosols. M. avium has also been recovered from within municipal and hospital drinking water systems. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected with the simian HIV analog, SIV, have been shown to acquire M. avium infections...
Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J
Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment. PMID:19443033
The position adopted in this paper is inspired by Edgar Morin's paradigm of complexity and his critique of scientific and philosophical forms of reductionism. This paper is based on research focusing on the diversity of conceptions of critique developed in academic discourses. It aims to challenge the fragmentation and the reduction framing the…
Carbone, A.; Ajmone-Marsan, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Batty, M.; Masera, M.; Rome, E.
"In the next century, planet earth will don an electronic skin. It will use the Internet as a scaffold to support and transmit its sensations. This skin is already being stitched together. It consists of millions of embedded electronic measuring devices: thermostats, pressure gauges, pollution detectors, cameras, microphones, glucose sensors, EKGs, electroencephalographs. These will probe and monitor cities and endangered species, the atmosphere, our ships, highways and fleets of trucks, our conversations, our bodies-even our dreams ....What will the earth's new skin permit us to feel? How will we use its surges of sensation? For several years-maybe for a decade-there will be no central nervous system to manage this vast signaling network. Certainly there will be no central intelligence...some qualities of self-awareness will emerge once the Net is sensually enhanced. Sensuality is only one force pushing the Net toward intelligence". These statements are quoted by an interview by Cherry Murray, Dean of the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Professor of Physics. It is interesting to outline the timeliness and highly predicting power of these statements. In particular, we would like to point to the relevance of the question "What will the earth's new skin permit us to feel?" to the work we are going to discuss in this paper. There are many additional compelling questions, as for example: "How can the electronic earth's skin be made more resilient?"; "How can the earth's electronic skin be improved to better satisfy the need of our society?";"What can the science of complex systems contribute to this endeavour?"
Using ideas from complexity theory and its application in the areas of ecology, biology, chemistry and medicine this paper shows how the paradigm of complexity is able to offer the conceptual frame in which they can project, evaluate and coordinate processes specific to the living world. Because a lot of environmental models were elaborated in last years, in this article we present some nonlinear techniques which can be used in stability analyses. Mathematical modelling plays a central and in...
Full Text Available This popular quote from Hamlet might be recast for the field of communication as “There are more things in science than are dreamt of in our philosophies”. This article will review several new and strange ideas from complexity science about how the natural world is organized and how we can go about researching it. These strange ideas, (e.g., deterministic, but unpredictable systems resonate with many communication phenomena that our field has traditionally had difficulty studying. By reviewing these areas, we hope to add a new, compelling and useful way to think about science that goes beyond the current dominant philosophy of science employed in communication. Though the concepts reviewed here are difficult and often appear at odds with the dominant paradigm; they are not. Instead, this approach will facilitate research on problems of communication process and interaction that the dominant paradigm has struggled to study. Specifically, this article explores the question of process research in communication by reviewing three major paradigms of science and then delving more deeply into the most recent: complexity science. The article provides a broad overview of many of the major ideas in complexity science and how these ideas can be used to study many of the most difficult questions in communication science. It concludes with suggestions going forward for incorporating complexity science into communication.
Trends in overall opportunistic illnesses, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis andMycobacterium avium complex incidence rates over the 30 years of the HIV epidemic: a systematic review
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The natural history of HIV infection has changed dramatically after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Currently, opportunistic illnesses still represent a major cause of death and hospitalization in this population. In this study, we review the trends in opportunistic illnesses incidence rates and compare the results observed in high-income settings with that for low/middle-income settings, with special attention given to studies from Brazil. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs and Google scholar for publications on HIV associated opportunistic illness. Studies reporting rates based on person-time for all opportunistic illnesses and/or the three opportunistic infections of interest, namely,Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and Mycobacterium avium complex were included. RESULTS: Significant reductions in the incidence rates were demonstrated for opportunistic illnesses overall and also for the specific opportunistic infections included in the present study, both in high and low/middle-income settings. Out of the 37 studies included in the present review, almost 70% were from high-income settings. All the studies conducted in low/middle-income settings were single center studies and four were from Brazil. We found no study from Brazil reporting annual incidence rates of opportunistic illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunistic illnesses remain an important public health problem. To better guide health policies in low/middle-income settings, multicenter cohort studies should be encouraged. Studies from Brazil are urgently needed to assess the current burden of opportunistic illnesses in our population and to support the planning of HIV/AIDS health care services organization.
Albert J Weideman
Developing a theory of applied linguistics is a top priority for the discipline today. The emergence of a new paradigm - a complex systems approach - in applied linguistics presents us with a unique opportunity to give prominence to the development of a foundational framework for this design discipline. Far from being a mere philosophical exercise, such a framework will find application in the training and induction of new entrants into the discipline within the developing context of South Af...
Roberto Bueno Cuadra
Full Text Available RESUMEN: En las ciencias sociales el tema de la complejidad se presenta con frecuencia en el marco de la discusión entre los paradigmas cuantitativo y cualitativo y en ese debate, casi siempre, es asociado con este último, sobre la base de que la complejidad implica, necesariamente, asumir un enfoque holístico, idiográfico, no reduccionista y comprensivo en las ciencias sociales. El presente artículo se propone argumentar en contra de ese supuesto mostrando que no se requiere ningún desplazamiento paradigmático hacia el enfoque cualitativo para asumir una visión compleja en las ciencias sociales. ABSTRACT: n social sciences, the subject of complexity arises frequently in the context of the discussion between the quantitative and qualitative paradigms and in that debate, it is almost always associated with the latter, on the basis, that complexty necessarily implies, taking a holistic, idiographic approach, not reductionist or comprehensive in the social sciences. This article intends to argue against that assumption, showing that any paradigm shift towards the qualitative approach is not required to assume a complex vision in social sciences.
Soft tissue abscess and lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium avium Complex as an expression of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after a second scheme of highly active antiretroviral therapy Linfadenitis y absceso subcutáneo por Complejo Mycobacterium avium como manifestación de síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune luego de un segundo esquema de terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad
Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is an atypical and unexpected reaction related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. IRIS includes an atypical response to an opportunistic pathogen (generally Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, cytomegalovirus and herpes varicella-zoster, in patients responding to HAART with a reduction of plasma viral load and evidence of immune restoration based on increase of CD4+ T-cell count. We reported a case of a patient with AIDS which, after a first failure of HAART, developed a subcutaneous abscess and supraclavicular lymphadenitis as an expression of IRIS due to Mycobacterium avium complex after starting a second scheme of HAART.El síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune (SIRI es una reacción atípica e inesperada relacionada con el tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. El SIRI representa una respuesta inflamatoria frente a un patógeno oportunista (generalmente Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Complejo Mycobacterium avium, citomegalovirus y herpes varicela-zóster en pacientes que responden a la TARGA con una marcada reducción de la carga viral en plasma y evidencia de una recuperación inmunológica expresada por el incremento de los niveles de linfocitos T CD4+. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida que desarrolló un absceso subcutáneo en muslo derecho y una adenitis supraclavicular izquierda como manifestación de SIRI por Complejo Mycobacterium avium luego del inicio de un segundo esquema de TARGA.
Fujita, Yukiko; Doi, Takeshi; Maekura, Ryoji; Ito, Masami; Yano, Ikuya
Disease due to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is one of the most important opportunistic pulmonary infections. Since the clinical features of MAC pulmonary disease and tuberculosis (TB) resemble each other, and the former is often difficult to treat with chemotherapy, early differential diagnosis is desirable. The humoral immune responses to both diseases were compared by a unique multiple-antigen ELISA using mycobacterial species-common and species-specific lipid antigens, including glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core. The results were assessed for two patient groups hospitalized and diagnosed clinically as having TB or MAC pulmonary disease. Diverse IgG antibody responsiveness was demonstrated against five lipid antigens: (1) monoacyl phosphatidylinositol dimannoside (Ac-PIM2), (2) cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate) (TDM-T) and (3) trehalose monomycolate from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) (TMM-T), and (4) trehalose monomycolate (TMM-M) and (5) GPL-core from MAC. Anti-GPL-core IgG antibody was critical, and detected only in the primary and the secondary MAC diseases with high positivity, up to 88.4 %. However, IgG antibodies against Ac-PIM2, TDM-T and TMM-T were elevated in both TB and MAC patients. Anti-TMM-M IgG antibody was also elevated in MAC disease preferentially, with a positive rate of 89.9 %, and therefore, it was also useful for the diagnosis of the disease. IgG antibody levels were increased at the early stages of the disease and declined in parallel to the decrease of bacterial burden to near the normal healthy control level, when the anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was completed successfully. Unexpectedly, about 25 % of hospitalized TB patient sera were anti-GPL-core IgG antibody positive, although the specificity of GPL-core was sufficiently high (95.8 % negative in healthy controls), suggesting that a considerable number of cases of latent co-infection with MAC may exist in TB patients. Taken together, the combination of
Albert J Weideman
Full Text Available Developing a theory of applied linguistics is a top priority for the discipline today. The emergence of a new paradigm - a complex systems approach - in applied linguistics presents us with a unique opportunity to give prominence to the development of a foundational framework for this design discipline. Far from being a mere philosophical exercise, such a framework will find application in the training and induction of new entrants into the discipline within the developing context of South Africa, as well as internationally.
Bush, Jennifer Choe; Pantelis, Peter Christopher; Morin Duchesne, Xavier; Kagemann, Sebastian Alexander; Kennedy, Daniel Patrick
We present a novel "Gaze-Replay" paradigm that allows the experimenter to directly test how particular patterns of visual input-generated from people's actual gaze patterns-influence the interpretation of the visual scene. Although this paradigm can potentially be applied across domains, here we applied it specifically to social comprehension. Participants viewed complex, dynamic scenes through a small window displaying only the foveal gaze pattern of a gaze "donor." This was intended to simulate the donor's visual selection, such that a participant could effectively view scenes "through the eyes" of another person. Throughout the presentation of scenes presented in this manner, participants completed a social comprehension task, assessing their abilities to recognize complex emotions. The primary aim of the study was to assess the viability of this novel approach by examining whether these Gaze-Replay windowed stimuli contain sufficient and meaningful social information for the viewer to complete this social perceptual and cognitive task. The results of the study suggested this to be the case; participants performed better in the Gaze-Replay condition compared to a temporally disrupted control condition, and compared to when they were provided with no visual input. This approach has great future potential for the exploration of experimental questions aiming to unpack the relationship between visual selection, perception, and cognition. PMID:26252493
Kaveh Parvandar Asadollahi
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds.Mycobacterium avium can not only infect all species of birds, but also infect some domesticated mammals.The most crucial aspect of control and eradication scheme is identification of infection sources and transmission routs. Mo- lecular techniques such as restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulse field gel electrophoresis have been shown to be much more discriminatory and suitable for use in the epidemiological study.Materials and Methods: Eighty suspected pigeons to avian tuberculosis based on their clinical signs, were subjected to the study. Forty Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates out of a total of 51 identified isolates were subjected to the test.Results: IS901-RFLP using Pvu II was successfully conducted and produced 7 patterns. The majority of isolates (60% were RFLP type PI.1. This type was the most similar type to standard strain. However, all the patterns obtained in this study were different from the standard strain.Conclusion: The result of this study indicate that these isolates probably are limited to Khuzestan region. We recommend DNA fingerprinting differentiation of non tuberculous Mycobacteria particularly Mycobacterium avium complex isolated from infected birds and human to possibly find source of infections. Keywords: Mycobacterium avium, RFLP, polymorphism, avian tuberculosis
Miyamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Tetsu; Maeda, Yumi; Nakata, Noboru; Kai, Masanori; Naka, Takashi; Yano, Ikuya; Makino, Masahiko
The cell envelopes of several species of nontuberculous mycobacteria, including the Mycobacterium avium complex, contain glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) as major glycolipid components. GPLs are highly antigenic surface molecules, and their variant oligosaccharides define each serotype of the M. avium complex. In the oligosaccharide portion of GPLs, the fucose residue is one of the major sugar moieties, but its biosynthesis remains unclear. To elucidate it, we focused on the 5.0-kb chromosomal regio...
Lucia eDe Martino
Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations of a single gene named Autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE which results in a failure of T cell tolerance. Central tolerance takes place within the thymus and represents the mechanism by which potentially autoreactive T cells are eliminated through the negative selection process. The expression of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs in the thymus is a key process in the central tolerance and is driven by the protein encoded by AIRE gene, the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (Aire. A failure in this process caused by AIRE mutations is thought to be responsible of the systemic autoimmune reactions of APECED. APECED is characterized by several autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations and the phenotype is often complex. Although APECED is the paradigm of a monogenic autoimmune disorder, it is characterized by a wide variability of the clinical expression even between siblings with the same genotype, thus implying that additional mechanisms, other than the failure of Aire function, are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Unraveling open issues of the molecular basis of APECED, will help improve diagnosis, management and therapeutical strategies of this complex disease.
Determination of genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies from human and animal origins by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat and IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing methods.
Radomski, Nicolas; Thibault, Virginie C; Karoui, Claudine; de Cruz, Krystel; Cochard, Thierry; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Supply, Philip; Biet, Frank; Boschiroli, María Laura
Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are ubiquitous bacteria that can be found in water, food, and other environmental samples and are considered opportunistic pathogens for numerous animal species, mainly birds and pigs, as well as for humans. We have recently demonstrated the usefulness of a PCR-based mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing for the molecular characterization of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium strains exclusively isolated from AIDS patients. In the present study we extended our analysis, based on eight MIRU-VNTR markers, to a strain collection comprehensively comprising the other M. avium subspecies, including M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, and M. avium subsp. silvaticum, isolated from numerous animal species, HIV-positive and HIV-negative humans, and environmental sources. All strains were fully typeable, with the discriminatory index being 0.885, which is almost equal to that obtained by IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing as a reference. In contrast to IS1311 RFLP typing, MIRU-VNTR typing was able to further discriminate M. avium subsp. avium strains. MIRU-VNTR alleles strongly associated with or specific for M. avium subspecies were detected in several markers. Moreover, the MIRU-VNTR typing-based results were consistent with a scenario of the independent evolution of M. avium subsp. avium/M. avium subsp. silvaticum and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from M. avium subsp. hominissuis, previously proposed on the basis of multilocus sequence analysis. MIRU-VNTR typing therefore appears to be a convenient typing method capable of distinguishing the three main subspecies and strains of the complex and providing new epidemiological knowledge on MAC. PMID:20107094
Tieri Paolo; Grignolio Andrea; Zaikin Alexey; Mishto Michele; Remondini Daniel; Castellani Gastone C; Franceschi Claudio
Abstract Recently, the network paradigm, an application of graph theory to biology, has proven to be a powerful approach to gaining insights into biological complexity, and has catalyzed the advancement of systems biology. In this perspective and focusing on the immune system, we propose here a more comprehensive view to go beyond the concept of network. We start from the concept of degeneracy, one of the most prominent characteristic of biological complexity, defined as the ability of struct...
Meskin, Jacob; Shapiro, Harvey
Agamben's notion of the "paradigm" has far-reaching implications for educational thinking, curriculum design and pedagogical conduct. In his approach, examples--or paradigms--deeply engage our powers of analogy, enabling us to discern previously unseen affinities among singular objects by stepping outside established systems of…
Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Csivincsik, Ágnes; Dán, Ádám; Gyuranecz, Miklós
Besides Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), M. avium subsp. avium (MAA), M. avium subsp. silvaticum (MAS), and 'M. avium subsp. hominissuis' (MAH) are equally important members of M. avium complex, with worldwide distribution and zoonotic potential. Genotypic discrimination is a prerequisite to epidemiological studies which can facilitate disease prevention through revealing infection sources and transmission routes. The primary aim of this study was to identify the genetic diversity within 135 MAA, 62 MAS, and 84 MAH strains isolated from wild and domestic mammals, reptiles and birds. Strains were tested for the presence of large sequence polymorphism LSP(A)17 and were submitted to Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis at 8 loci, including MIRU1, 2, 3, and 4, VNTR25, 32, and 259, and MATR9. In 12 strains hsp65 sequence code type was also determined. LSP(A)17 was present only in 19.9% of the strains. All LSP(A)17 positive strains belonged to subspecies MAH. The discriminatory power of the MIRU-VNTR loci set used reached 0.9228. Altogether 54 different genotypes were detected. Within MAH, MAA, and MAS strains 33, 16, and 5 different genotypes were observed. The described genotypes were not restricted to geographic regions or host species, but proved to be subspecies specific. Our knowledge about MAS is limited due to isolation and identification difficulties. This is the first study including a large number of MAS field strains. Our results demonstrate the high diversity of MAH and MAA strains and the relative uniformity of MAS strains. PMID:26964909
Griffiths, P.; Norman, Ian
In recent decades, development of research capacity to accompany academic development in nursing has been punctuated by “paradigm wars”, mirroring those of the social sciences, with proponents of differing epistemological and ontological positions advocating particular approaches to research. Although some have declared the paradigm wards to be over (Bryman, 2006) hostility has not ceased on all fronts and many still act as if they are members of opposing armies, eyeing the former enemies wit...
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC isolated from AIDS patients and the criteria required for its implication in disease Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC isolado de pacientes com AIDS e os critérios exigidos para sua implicação em doença
David Jamil Hadad
Full Text Available Before the AIDS pandemia, the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC was responsible in most cases for the pneumopathies that attack patients with basic chronic pulmonary diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis36. In 1981, with the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, MAC started to represent one of the most frequent bacterial diseases among AIDS patients, with the disseminated form of the disease being the major clinical manifestation of the infection8. Between January 1989 and February 1991, the Section of Mycobacteria of the Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, isolated MAC from 103 patients by culturing different sterile and no-sterile processed specimens collected from 2304 patients seen at the AIDS Reference and Training Center and/or Emilio Ribas Infectology Institute. Disseminated disease was diagnosed in 29 of those patients on the basis of MAC isolation from blood and/or bone marrow aspirate. The other 74 patients were divided into categories highly (5, moderately (26 and little suggestive of disease (43 according to the criteria of DAVIDSON (198910. The various criteria for MAC isolation from sterile and non-sterile specimens are discussed.Anterior a pandemia de AIDS, o Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC era responsável pela maioria das vezes, por pneumopatias acometendo pacientes com doença pulmonar crônica de base como enfisema e bronquite crônica36. Em 1981, com o advento da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA, o MAC passou a representar uma das doenças bacterianas mais frequentes em pacientes com esta síndrome, sendo a doença disseminada a principal forma de manifestação clínica da infecção8. Entre Janeiro de 1989 e Fevereiro de 1991, no Setor de Micobactérias do Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo, o MAC foi isolado de 103 pacientes a partir do cultivo de diferentes espécimes estéreis e não estéreis processados, coletados de 2.304 pacientes atendidos no Centro de Referência e
I.A. Ivanova; L. Leydesdorff
Time series of US patents per million inhabitants show cyclic structures which can be attributed to the different knowledge-generating paradigms that drive innovation systems. The changes in the slopes between the waves can be used to indicate efficiencies in the generation of knowledge. When knowle
Pietila, Michael P.; Vohra, Pawan K.; Sanyal, Bharati; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Thomas, Charles F.
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) causes chronic lung disease in immunocompetent people and disseminated infection in patients with AIDS. MAC is intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimycobacterial agents, it develops drug resistance rapidly to macrolide antibiotics, and patients with MAC infection experience frequent relapses or the inability to completely eradicate the infection with current treatment. Treatment regimens are prolonged and complicated by drug toxicity or intoleranc...
Kirilyuk, A P
This work introduces the Universal Science of Complexity. It emerges together with the paradigm of the dynamic redundance, or fundamental multivaluedness of dynamical functions, based on the plurality of incompatible, but equally real, solutions to a problem which naturally appear in the formal description of a generic dynamical behaviour, if one tries to avoid, in a universally applicable fashion, the simplification of the ordinary perturbative reduction to an effectively one-dimensional, 'separable' problem. The discovered dynamic multivaluedness directly leads to the new, universal concept of dynamic complexity and its naturally forming hierarchical structure. The lowest levels of the universal hierarchy of complexity give the complete causal wave mechanics that can be described as the unreduced version of the double solution proposed by Louis de Broglie and amplified here with the idea of the intrinsic dynamical chaos realising the dynamic redundance at the lowest levels of being. This complete wave mecha...
Krueger-Burg, Dilja; Winkler, Daniela; Mitkovski, Mišo; Daher, Fernanda; Ronnenberg, Anja; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dere, Ekrem; Ehrenreich, Hannelore
Impairments in social skills are central to mental disease, and developing tools for their assessment in mouse models is essential. Here we present the SocioBox, a new behavioral paradigm to measure social recognition. Using this paradigm, we show that male wildtype mice of different strains can readily identify an unfamiliar mouse among 5 newly acquainted animals. In contrast, female mice exhibit lower locomotor activity during social exploration in the SocioBox compared to males and do not seem to discriminate between acquainted and unfamiliar mice, likely reflecting inherent differences in gender-specific territorial tasks. In addition to a simple quantification of social interaction time of mice grounded on predefined spatial zones (zone-based method), we developed a set of unbiased, data-driven analysis tools based on heat map representations and characterized by greater sensitivity. First proof-of-principle that the SocioBox allows diagnosis of social recognition deficits is provided using male PSD-95 heterozygous knockout mice, a mouse model related to psychiatric pathophysiology. PMID:27563287
Määttänen, Pekka; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects the gastrointestinal tract of calves, localizing and persisting primarily in the distal ileum. A high percentage of cattle exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis do not develop JD, but the mechanisms by which they resist infection are not understood. Here, we merge an established in vivo bovine intestinal segment model for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays as a first step to understanding how infection influences host kinomic responses at the site of infection. Application of peptide arrays to in vivo tissue samples represents a critical and ambitious step in using this technology to understand host-pathogen interactions. Kinome analysis was performed on intestinal samples from 4 ileal segments subdivided into 10 separate compartments (6 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected compartments and 4 intra-animal controls) using bovine-specific peptide arrays. Kinome data sets clustered into two groups, suggesting unique binary responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Similarly, two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immune responses, characterized by different antibody, T cell proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses, were also observed. Interestingly, the kinomic groupings segregated with the immune response groupings. Pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that differences in innate immune and interleukin signaling and particular differences in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway distinguished the kinomic groupings. Collectively, kinome analysis of tissue samples offers insight into the complex cellular responses induced by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the ileum and provides a novel method to understand mechanisms that alter the balance between cell-mediated and antibody responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID
Full Text Available Actinomyces and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare are facultative intracellular organisms, members of the bacterial order actinomycetales. Although Actinomyces can behave as copathogen when anatomic barriers are compromised, its coinfection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has not previously been reported. We present the first reported case of palatal actinomycosis co-infection with disseminated MAC, in an HIV-infected subject with Kaposi sarcoma and diabetes. We discuss the pathogenesis of the complex condition of this subject.
Giancarlo Dal Bo
Full Text Available Discussions about the paradigms that shape science are important in order to promote reflection among researchers as to their role in society. The Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm lies both in the natural and social sciences, both of which initially adopted it, before gradually bringing it into question due to the depletion of its explanatory power for current phenomena. Some authors propose the paradigm of complexity, which would, based on the features exposed in this paper, be better suited to providing a broad understanding of the process of knowledge construction. Through literature review and quantitative research conducted with students of the Doctoral Program in Business Administration at two Higher Education Institutions in Rio Grande do Sul, this paper attempts to identify the prevailing perceptions regarding the epistemological and paradigmatic positions adopted in the sciences and challenge them with the complexity paradigm proposed by Edgar Morin.
Karne, Sampada S.; Sangle, Shashikala A.; Kiyawat, Dilip S.; Dharmashale, Sujata N.; Kadam, Dilip B.; Bhardwaj, Renu S.
Mycobacterial opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is one of the leading causes of opportunistic infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome i.e., with CD4 count less than 50/cu.mm. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is among the most common opportunistic bacterial infections in those patients with advanced immunodeficiency apart from cryptococcal meningitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, etc. Common presentations of mycobacterium avium complex are fever, lymphadenitis and respiratory disease. Immune reconstitution disease is also known to manifest with MAC infections in PLHIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Very few cases of central nervous system involvement due to NTM infection have been described. We are reporting a case of advanced acquired immunodeficiency who presented with brain abscess due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare. PMID:22412276
Sampada S Karne
Full Text Available Mycobacterial opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV (PLHIV worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM infection is one of the leading causes of opportunistic infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome i.e., with CD4 count less than 50/cu.mm. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC is among the most common opportunistic bacterial infections in those patients with advanced immunodeficiency apart from cryptococcal meningitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, etc. Common presentations of mycobacterium avium complex are fever, lymphadenitis and respiratory disease. Immune reconstitution disease is also known to manifest with MAC infections in PLHIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Very few cases of central nervous system involvement due to NTM infection have been described. We are reporting a case of advanced acquired immunodeficiency who presented with brain abscess due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare.
Drinkard, Lynne Bradford
Early systems theory was a precursor of complexity theory, a global theory that suggests that the universe is an open system interacting on many dimensions. Chaos theory, a subset of complexity theory, states that in seeming chaos there is an underlying order. Between chaos and order lies emergence, from which healthy growth and change occur. Twenty years ago, chaos theory did not have a name and dissociative disorders were largely written off as rare or more imaginative than real. After physicists and mathematicians explained chaos and complexity in language understood by those outside their fields, scientists and practitioners from disparate disciplines were struck by the potential for applying the theories to their respective fields. Complexity and chaos theory combine reductionistic and holistic approaches to explain phenomena. Many mental health practitioners have suggested that a systems framework based in complexity theory may lead to greater understanding of human nature and ultimately toward more effective treatment of different disorders. This paper proposes that complexity and chaos theories may offer insight into the efficacy of various treatments for dissociative disorders.
Growth and remodelling impact the network topology of complex systems, yet a general theory explaining how new links arise between existing nodes has been lacking, and little is known about the topological properties that facilitate link-prediction. Here we investigate the extent to which the connectivity evolution of a network might be predicted by mere topological features. We show how a link/community-based strategy triggers substantial prediction improvements because it accounts for the singular topology of several real networks organised in multiple local communities - a tendency here named local-community-paradigm (LCP). We observe that LCP networks are mainly formed by weak interactions and characterise heterogeneous and dynamic systems that use self-organisation as a major adaptation strategy. These systems seem designed for global delivery of information and processing via multiple local modules. Conversely, non-LCP networks have steady architectures formed by strong interactions, and seem designed for systems in which information/energy storage is crucial.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium is the principal etiologic agent of non-tuberculous lymphadenitis in children. It is also a known pathogen for birds and other animals. Genetic typing of M. avium isolates has led to a proposal to expand the set of subspecies to include M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Isolates associated with disease in humans belong to this subspecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six healthy blood donors were stimulated in vitro with ten isolates of M. avium avium and 11 isolates of M. avium hominissuis followed by multiplex bead array quantification of cytokines in supernatants. M. avium hominissuis isolates induced significantly more IL-10 and significantly less IL-12p70, TNF, IFN-γ and IL-17 when compared to M. avium avium isolates. All strains induced high levels of IL-17, but had very low levels of IL-12p70. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The strong association between M. avium subsp. hominissuis and disease in humans and the clear differences in the human immune response to M. avium subsp. hominissuis compared to M. avium subsp. avium isolates, as demonstrated in this study, suggest that genetic differences between M. avium isolates play an important role in the pathogenicity in humans.
Kirilyuk, A P
Complex-dynamical fractal is a hierarchy of permanently, chaotically changing versions of system structure, obtained as the unreduced, causally probabilistic general solution of arbitrary interaction problem (physics/0305119, physics/9806002). Intrinsic creativity of this extension of usual fractality determines its exponentially high operation efficiency, which underlies many specific functions of living systems, such as autonomous adaptability, "purposeful" development, intelligence and consciousness (at higher complexity levels). We outline in more detail genetic applications of complex-dynamic fractality, demonstrate the dominating role of genome interactions, and show that further progressive development of genetic research, as well as other life-science applications, should be based on the dynamically fractal structure analysis of interaction processes involved. We finally summarise the obtained extension of mathematical concepts and approaches closely related to their biological applications.
Full Text Available Abstract Recently, the network paradigm, an application of graph theory to biology, has proven to be a powerful approach to gaining insights into biological complexity, and has catalyzed the advancement of systems biology. In this perspective and focusing on the immune system, we propose here a more comprehensive view to go beyond the concept of network. We start from the concept of degeneracy, one of the most prominent characteristic of biological complexity, defined as the ability of structurally different elements to perform the same function, and we show that degeneracy is highly intertwined with another recently-proposed organizational principle, i.e. 'bow tie architecture'. The simultaneous consideration of concepts such as degeneracy, bow tie architecture and network results in a powerful new interpretative tool that takes into account the constructive role of noise (stochastic fluctuations and is able to grasp the major characteristics of biological complexity, i.e. the capacity to turn an apparently chaotic and highly dynamic set of signals into functional information.
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome due to Mycobacterium avium complex successfully followed up using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A case report
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is one of the most difficult types of IRIS to manage. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) has been suggested as a useful tool for evaluating the inflammatory status of HIV-infected patients. We present the first case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS (MAC-IRIS) that was successfully followed up using 18 F-FDG PET/CT. A 44-year-old homosexual Japanese man was referred to our hospital with fever and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and found to be HIV positive. After the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the patient’s mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy gradually enlarged, and bilateral infiltrates appeared in the upper lung fields. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was performed five months after the initiation of cART and showed intense accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) corresponding to the lesions of infiltration as well as the mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. A bronchial wash culture and pathology findings led to a diagnosis of MAC-IRIS. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy with rifampicin, ethambutol, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin was started. One year after the chemotherapy was initiated, there was a significant reduction in FDG uptake in the area of the lesions except in the mediastinal lymph node. This implied incomplete resolution of the MAC-IRIS-related inflammation. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was continued because of the residual lesion. To date, the patient has not experienced a recurrence of MAC-IRIS, a period of nine months. We present a case of MAC-IRIS in an HIV-infected patient whose disease activity was successfully followed up using 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Our data suggest that 18 F-FDG PET/CT is useful for evaluating the disease activity of NTM-IRIS and
Canagarajah, Bertram J.; Ren, Xuefeng; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hurley, James H.
The clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1 and AP-2 are two members of a family of heterotetrameric assemblies that connect transmembrane protein cargo to vesicular coats. Cargo binding by AP-1 is activated by the small GTPase Arf1, while AP-2 is activated by the phosphoinositide PI(4,5)P2. The structures of both AP-1 and AP-2 have been determined in their locked and unlocked conformations. The structures show how different activators use different mechanisms to trigger simil...
Larger, Laurent; Maistrenko, Yuri
Chimera is a rich and fascinating class of self-organized solutions developed in high dimensional networks having non-local and symmetry breaking coupling features. Its accurate understanding is expected to bring important insight in many phenomena observed in complex spatio-temporal dynamics, from living systems, brain operation principles, and even turbulence in hydrodynamics. In this article we report on a powerful and highly controllable experiment based on optoelectronic delayed feedback applied to a wavelength tunable semiconductor laser, with which a wide variety of Chimera patterns can be accurately investigated and interpreted. We uncover a cascade of higher order Chimeras as a pattern transition from N to N - 1 clusters of chaoticity. Finally, we follow visually, as the gain increases, how Chimera is gradually destroyed on the way to apparent turbulence-like system behaviour.
Full Text Available Investigating the changes associated with the development of epileptic state in humans is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Understanding the intricacies of medically intractable epilepsy still remains a challenge for neurosurgeons across the world. A significant number of patients who has undergone resective brain surgery for epilepsy still continue to have seizures. The reason behind this therapy resistance still eludes us. Thus to develop a cure for the difficult to treat epilepsy, we need to comprehensively study epileptogenesis. Although various animal models are developed but none of them replicate the pathological conditions in humans. So the ideal way to understand epileptogenecity is to examine the tissue resected for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Advanced imaging and electrical localization procedures are utilized to establish the epileptogenic zone in epilepsy patients. Further molecular and cytological studies are required for the microscopic analysis of brain samples collected from the epileptogenic focus. As alterations in inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic transmission are key features of epilepsy, understanding the regulation of neurotransmission in the resected surgery zone is of immense importance. Here we summarize various modalities of in vitro slice analysis from the resected brain specimen to understand the changes in GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in epileptogenic zone. We also review evidence pertaining to the proposed role of nicotinic receptors in abnormal synaptic transmission which is one of the major causes of epileptiform activity. Elucidation of current concepts in regulation of synaptic transmission will help develop therapies for epilepsy cases that cannot me managed pharmacologically.
Hawkins, Jared B; Jones, Mark T.; Plassmann, Paul E.; Thorley-Lawson, David A.
Germinal centers (GCs) are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly struct...
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC causes mainly two types of disease. The first is disseminated disease in immunocompromised hosts, such as individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The second is pulmonary disease in individuals without systemic immunosuppression, and the incidence of this type is increasing worldwide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis, a component of MAC, causes infection in pigs as well as in humans. Many aspects of the different modes of M. avium infection and its host specificity remain unclear. Here, we report the characteristics and complete sequence of a novel plasmid, designated pMAH135, derived from M. avium strain TH135 in an HIV-negative patient with pulmonary MAC disease. The pMAH135 plasmid consists of 194,711 nucleotides with an average G + C content of 66.5% and encodes 164 coding sequences (CDSs. This plasmid was unique in terms of its homology to other mycobacterial plasmids. Interestingly, it contains CDSs with sequence homology to mycobactin biosynthesis proteins and type VII secretion system-related proteins, which are involved in the pathogenicity of mycobacteria. It also contains putative conserved domains of the multidrug efflux transporter. Screening of isolates from humans and pigs for genes located on pMAH135 revealed that the detection rate of these genes was higher in clinical isolates from pulmonary MAC disease patients than in those from HIV-positive patients, whereas the genes were almost entirely absent in isolates from pigs. Moreover, variable number tandem repeats typing analysis showed that isolates carrying pMAH135 genes are grouped in a specific cluster. Collectively, the pMAH135 plasmid contains genes associated with M. avium's pathogenicity and resistance to antimicrobial agents. The results of this study suggest that pMAH135 influence not only the pathological manifestations of MAC disease, but also the host specificity of MAC infection.
Sampada S Karne; Shashikala A Sangle; Dilip S Kiyawat; Dharmashale, Sujata N.; Kadam, Dilip B.; Bhardwaj, Renu S.
Mycobacterial opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is one of the leading causes of opportunistic infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome i.e., with CD4 count less than 50/cu.mm. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is among the most common opportunistic bacterial infections in those patients with advanced immunodeficiency apart from crypto...
Fernandes, P B; Hardy, D J; McDaniel, D; Hanson, C W; Swanson, R N
There is no effective therapy to treat Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Clarithromycin (A-56268; TE-031) is a new macrolide which is twofold more active than erythromycin against most aerobic bacteria. In addition, higher levels in serum and tissue are achieved with clarithromycin than with erythromycin. In this study, clarithromycin, erythromycin, difloxacin, temafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, amikacin, and ethambutol were tested...
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap, the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD, infects many farmed ruminants, wildlife animals and humans. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we analyzed the whole genome sequences of several M. ap and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium strains isolated from various hosts and environments. Using Next-generation sequencing technology, all 6 M. ap isolates showed a high percentage of homology (98% to the reference genome sequence of M. ap K-10 isolated from cattle. However, 2 M. avium isolates (DT 78 and Env 77 showed significant sequence diversity from the reference strain M. avium 104. The genomes of M. avium isolates DT 78 and Env 77 exhibited only 87% and 40% homology, respectively, to the M. avium 104 reference genome. Within the M. ap isolates, genomic rearrangements (insertions/deletions, Indels were not detected, and only unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were observed among the 6 M. ap strains. While most of the SNPs (~100 in M. ap genomes were non-synonymous, a total of ~ 6000 SNPs were detected among M. avium genomes, most of them were synonymous suggesting a differential selective pressure between M. ap and M. avium isolates. In addition, SNPs-based phylo-genomic analysis showed that isolates from goat and Oryx are closely related to the cattle (K-10 strain while the human isolate (M. ap 4B is closely related to the environmental strains, indicating environmental source to human infections. Overall, SNPs were the most common variations among M. ap isolates while SNPs in addition to Indels were prevalent among M. avium isolates. Genomic variations will be useful in designing host-specific markers for the analysis of mycobacterial evolution and for developing novel diagnostics directed against Johne’s disease in animals.
Besancenot, Damien; Dogguy, Habib
This paper analyses the consequences of young researchers' scientifc choice on the dynamics of sciences. We develop a simple two state mean field game model to analyze the competition between two paradigms based on Kuhn's theory of scientifc revolutions. At the beginning of their career, young researchers choose the paradigm in which they want to work according to social and personal motivations. Despite the possibility of multiple equilibria the model exhibits at least one stable solution in...
We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in β-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium.
Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.
Shivangi Verma; Prashant Dabral; Vinod Rana; Kumud Upadhaya; Bhardwaj
The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.
Carter, George; Young, Lowell S.; Bermudez, Luiz E.
Mycobacterium avium causes disseminated infection in immunosuppressed individuals and lung infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. M. avium forms biofilm in the environment and possibly in human airways. Antibiotics with activity against the bacterium could inhibit biofilm formation. Clarithromycin inhibits biofilm formation but has no activity against established biofilm.
Bannantine John P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is remarkably homogeneous among the genomes of bovine, human and wildlife isolates. However, previous work in our laboratories with the bovine K-10 strain has revealed substantial differences compared to sheep isolates. To systematically characterize all genomic differences that may be associated with the specific hosts, we sequenced the genomes of three U.S. sheep isolates and also obtained an optical map. Results Our analysis of one of the isolates, MAP S397, revealed a genome 4.8 Mb in size with 4,700 open reading frames (ORFs. Comparative analysis of the MAP S397 isolate showed it acquired approximately 10 large sequence regions that are shared with the human M. avium subsp. hominissuis strain 104 and lost 2 large regions that are present in the bovine strain. In addition, optical mapping defined the presence of 7 large inversions between the bovine and ovine genomes (~ 2.36 Mb. Whole-genome sequencing of 2 additional sheep strains of MAP (JTC1074 and JTC7565 further confirmed genomic homogeneity of the sheep isolates despite the presence of polymorphisms on the nucleotide level. Conclusions Comparative sequence analysis employed here provided a better understanding of the host association, evolution of members of the M. avium complex and could help in deciphering the phenotypic differences observed among sheep and cattle strains of MAP. A similar approach based on whole-genome sequencing combined with optical mapping could be employed to examine closely related pathogens. We propose an evolutionary scenario for M. avium complex strains based on these genome sequences.
Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula
Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin. PMID:26904899
Pérez José Gutiérrez
Full Text Available This paper is intended to help lay the groundwork for the formulation and design of programs and materials for environmental education focused on water issues and based on the perspective of the new water culture and ecosystem services. The methodology is based on a study of the type of environmental education promoted in a sample of programs and resources whose focus is water: identifying under what paradigm is inserted, which models implicitly management supports them and if there is a mention explicitly to ecosystem services such as conceptual support a modern approach to the topic of study in two countries such as Spain and Mexico. As a result, a set of criteria and recommendations help to guide and reorient educational intervention programs are proposed interested in addressing water issues from more advanced conceptual approaches and new generation.
A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)
The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.
Chen, Chao-Ying; Harrison, Tondi; Heathcock, Jill
The purpose of this study was to examine learning, short-term memory and general development including cognitive, motor, and language domains in infants with Complex Congenital Heart Defects (CCDH). Ten infants with CCHD (4 males, 6 females) and 14 infants with typical development (TD) were examined at 3 months of age. The mobile paradigm, where an infant's leg is tethered to an overhead mobile, was used to evaluate learning and short-term memory. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition (Bayley-III) was used to evaluate general development in cognitive, motor, and language domains. Infants with CCHD and infants with TD both showed learning with significant increase in kicking rate (pshort-term memory (p=0.017) in the mobile paradigm. There were no differences on cognitive, motor, and language development between infants with CCHD and infants with TD on the Bayley-III. Early assessment is necessary to guide targeted treatment in infants with CCHD. One-time assessment may fail to detect potential cognitive impairments during early infancy in infants with CCHD. Supportive intervention programs for infants with CCHD that focuses on enhancing short-term memory are recommended. PMID:25919428
Jared B Hawkins
Full Text Available Germinal centers (GCs are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.
Studies on the radiolarite igneous (ophiolitic) complexes were done for more than one century in Costa Rica that range from Jurassic to Eocene. These studies can be grouped in four stages of knowledge: 1) from 1904 to 1957 were recognized the cherts, and the mafic and ultramafic igneous complexes, the first regional maps were done, and the first time were recognized ellipsoidal basalts, now widely known as pillow lavas. 2) From 1958 to 1978 the complexes were seen under the concept of the association of ophiolites (serpentine, gabbro, diabase, basalts, and related rocks) and interpreted the radiolarites as deep-sea sediments. The stage is characterized by the seminal work of Gabriel Dengo and by the first geochemical analyses in the framework of the plate tectonics. 3) A huge amount of geochemical data, paleontological and K/Ar ages were published from 1979 to 1994 and it was the stage of more controversial papers, their interpretation varied for the same locality (i.e. (Nicoya Peninsula) from relative simple stratigraphic model to a very complex nappe slices, and from a simple tectonic evolution (in situ and formed by a mid oceanic ridge volcanism) to a multistage evolution (terrains, and mid oceanic ridge, aseismic ridge, intraplate and island arc volcanism). The situation was similar in the other Costa Rican oceanic complexes. 4) The outlook for 1995 to the present it has been clarified and mutual agreement between the different groups. The stage is characterized by joint collaboration, the use of modern laboratory techniques as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes, major, trace and complete rare earth elements. 40Ar/39Ar dating, and volcanological criteria, together with detailed field mapping. The main new result of these studies was that the radiolarites (164-84 Ma) in the Nicoya Peninsula were significatively older than the basic igneous rocks (140-84 Ma), indicating a complex magmatic event intruding and erupting into the thick sedimentary sequence. For other areas
Taylor, Robert H.; Joseph O. Falkinham; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.
Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains wer...
Beach, Nathan M; Thompson, Seth; Mutnick, Rachel; Brown, Lisa; Kettig, Gina; Puffenbarger, Robyn; Miyamoto, David; Temple, Louise
Bordetella avium continues to be an economic issue in the turkey industry as the causative agent of bordetellosis, which often leads to serious secondary infections. This study presents a broad characterization of the antibiotic resistance patterns in this diverse collection of B. avium strains collected over the past thirty years. In addition, the plasmid basis for the antibiotic resistance was characterized. The antibiotic resistance pattern allowed the development of a novel enrichment cul...
LIVIU GABRIEL CREŢU
Full Text Available In the industrial age of the twenty century small firms or mass-production giants have been all organized on the classic principles defined by Smith, Taylor and Fayol. Lately, new organization theories have emerged to describe modern enterprises, process-oriented and much more agile in the new highly collaborative business landscape. Information and knowledge became the most important organizational assets as well as the basic concepts in enterprise architecture. This paper will provide an overview of organizational paradigms with respect to information and knowledge role in the business structure equation.
Alzetta, Roberto; Cesario, Alfredo; Fini, Massimo
If longevity is a biological and demographic indicator to determine human lifetime extension, hyper-longevity notion can represent a heuristic tool to better disentangle the complex bio-psycho-social implications of ageing and elderly in Western developed globalised countries. Departing from the assumption of a holistic approach to human condition understanding, it is possible to reveal the grounds and patterns of a multilayered and multidimensional structuring of longevity and ageing in our societies that would lead to a form of hyper-longevity. Socio-cultural processes, underlying hyper-longevity notion, rise the question of transition from modern/ latemodern societies to post-modern ones and it offers room for a cultural analysis of concepts, such as space time compression, digital capitalism, knowledge and mass information society. These are relevant ideas that can contribute to reshape and rethink the boundaries and traits of ageing experience in 21(st) century societies. To better catch the point emerging social category of Baby Boomers is presented and used to provide a concrete context related example on how hyper-longevity can better explain complex social evidences in many cultural respects and social domains. As a conclusive step some preliminary reflections, largely centered on the relation between Baby Boomers, hyper-longevity and bio-medical sciences are presented and discussed to provide a starting point for further future analyses within a trans and inter-disciplinary framework. PMID:24641235
Álvarez, Julio; García, Ignacio Gómez; Aranaz, Alicia; Bezos, Javier; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Mateos, Ana; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique; Domínguez, Lucas
Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms from clinical samples may occur in patients without clinical disease, making the interpretation of results difficult. The clinical relevance of MAC isolates from different types of clinical samples (n = 47) from 39 patients in different sections of a hospital was assessed by comparison with environmental isolates (n = 17) from the hospital. Various methods for identification and typing (commercial probes, phenotypic characteristics, PCR...
Neilsen, Gerry H.; Neilsen, Denise; Herbert, Linda; Losso, Istvan; Rabie, Bill
Continuous air temperature measurements were made during 2006-2008 at 30 different locations within a topographically complex orchard containing 10 yr old ‘Sweetheart’ sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) on Mazzard rootstock in southern British Columbia. Yield, trunk cross-sectional area, fruit quality, and leaf and fruit mineral concentrations were measured throughout the study on adjacent trees at each location. Granier sap flow probes were installed on 10 nearby ‘Sweetheart’ trees to monitor ...
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.
Beach, Nathan M; Thompson, Seth; Mutnick, Rachel; Brown, Lisa; Kettig, Gina; Puffenbarger, Robyn; Stockwell, Stephanie B; Miyamoto, David; Temple, Louise
Bordetella avium continues to be an economic issue in the turkey industry as the causative agent of bordetellosis, which often leads to serious secondary infections. This study presents a broad characterization of the antibiotic resistance patterns in this diverse collection of B. avium strains collected over the past thirty years. In addition, the plasmid basis for the antibiotic resistance was characterized. The antibiotic resistance pattern allowed the development of a novel enrichment culture method that was subsequently employed to gather new isolates from diseased turkeys and a healthy sawhet owl. While a healthy turkey flock was shown to seroconvert by four weeks-of-age, attempts to culture B. avium from healthy turkey poults were unsuccessful. Western blot of B. avium strains using pooled serum from diseased and healthy commercial turkey flocks revealed both antigenic similarities and differences between strains. In sum, the work documents the continued exposure of commercial turkey flocks to B. avium and the need for development of an effective, inexpensive vaccine to control spread of the disease. PMID:22721730
Full Text Available Aim of the study: The Breeding Program of wild cherry (Prunus avium developed by Lourizán Forest Research Center (NW Spain, aims for the creation of the Main Breeding Population, that is formed by a large number of plus trees and for obtaining an Elite Population generated from controlled crosses of a number of plus trees selected by, at least, one trait of economic importance. The aim of this study was to genotype 131 accessions of Prunus avium plus trees, included in the breeding program.Area of study: The Prunus avium plus trees are located in the North, Northwest and Central Spain.Material and Methods: The Prunus avium plus trees were genotyped with nine microsatellites. Several genetic parameters were calculated. Genetic data were analyzed with STRUCTURE and the genetic distance between the plus trees were calculated.Main results: A total of 122 multilocus genotypes were detected. Several accessions with the same genotype were identified, which could be due to clonality or to labelling errors. The nine microsatellites are useful for identifying individuals because the combined probability of identity was low (PI = 5.19X10-9. Bayesian methods detected two genetic clusters in the sampled plus trees.Research highlights: The unique genotypes identified in this work are suitable for being included in the elite breeding population for economic traits.Keywords: Prunus avium; breeding program; microsatellite; genetic distance.
Fisher, Walter R.
Replies to Rowland's article (same issue) on Fisher's views of the narrative paradigm. Clarifies the narrative paradigm by discussing three senses in which "narration" can be understood, and by indicating what the narrative paradigm is not. (SR)
The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides, is provided for prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis....
Javier Fernandez-Cruz; Josefa Fernandez-Lopez; Maria Eugenia Miranda-Fontaiña; Raquel Diaz; Gabriel Toval
Aim of the study: The Breeding Program of wild cherry (Prunus avium) developed by Lourizán Forest Research Center (NW Spain), aims for the creation of the Main Breeding Population, that is formed by a large number of plus trees and for obtaining an Elite Population generated from controlled crosses of a number of plus trees selected by, at least, one trait of economic importance. The aim of this study was to genotype 131 accessions of Prunus avium plus trees, included in the breeding program....
Full Text Available Still in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy, late recognition of HIV disease or lack of sufficient immune recovery pose HIV-infected patients at risk to develop opportunistic infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM, which are environmental organisms commonly retrieved in soil and superficial waters.Among these microorganisms, the most frequent is represented by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC. Health care professionals who face HIV-infected patients should suspect disseminated mycobacterial disease when a deep immunodeficiency is present, (a CD4+ lymphocyte count below 50 cells/μL often associated with constitutional signs and symptoms, and non-specific laboratory abnormalities. Mycobacterial culture of peripheral blood is a reliable technique for diagnosing disseminated disease. Among drugs active against NTM, as well as some anti-tubercular compounds, the rifampin derivative rifabutin, and some novel fluoroquinolones, the availability of macrolides, has greatly contributed to improve both prophylaxis and treatment outcome of disseminated MAC infections. Although multiple questions remain about which regimens may be regarded as optimal, general recommendations can be expressed on the ground of existing evidences.Treatment should begin with associated clarithromycin (or azithromycin, plus ethambutol and rifabutin (with the rifabutin dose depending on other concomitant medications that might result in drug-drug interactions.A combined three-drug regimen is preferred for patients who cannot be prescribed an effective antiretroviral regimen immediately. Patients with a CD4+ lymphocyte count below 50 cells/μL, who do not have clinical evidence of active mycobacterial disease, should receive a primary prophylaxis with either clarithromycin or azithromycin, with or without rifabutin.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...
Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium distribution studied in a naturally infected hen flock and in the environment by culture, serotyping and IS901 RFLP methods CZECH REPUBLIC (Shitaye, J.E.) CZECH REPUBLIC Received: 2006-11-01 Revised: 2007-07-25 Accepted: 2007-07-27
von Reyn, C F; Jacobs, N J; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J N; Niemczyk, S
Broth microdilution MICs were determined for pairs of strains isolated from five AIDS patients with polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infection. Four (80%) of the five patients were infected simultaneously with strains having different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. These findings have implications for the interpretation of susceptibility data in M. avium prophylaxis and treatment trials. PMID:7790424
von Reyn, C F; Jacobs, N J; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J.N.; Niemczyk, S
Broth microdilution MICs were determined for pairs of strains isolated from five AIDS patients with polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infection. Four (80%) of the five patients were infected simultaneously with strains having different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. These findings have implications for the interpretation of susceptibility data in M. avium prophylaxis and treatment trials.
Lama glama con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis causadas por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium Lama glama with signology and lesion compatible with paratuberculosis and injuries caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium
Full Text Available Los camélidos sudamericanos (CS incluyen cuatro especies, guanaco, vicuña, alpaca y llama (Lama glama. En Argentina las llamas eran consideradas fauna y actualmente ganado, revalorizando su carne, fibra, cueros y pieles, también son un medio de subsistencia. Los CS son susceptibles a las enfermedades ocasionadas por micobacterias. El diagnóstico presuntivo se realiza por los signos clínicos y los hallazgos de necropsia y se confirma por técnicas bacteriológicas, moleculares e histopatología. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un caso clínico con signos compatibles de paratuberculosis y el diagnóstico de laboratorio en una llama en cautiverio perteneciente a un zoológico de Olavarría, Provincia de Buenos Aires. En la necropsia se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en yeyuno, íleon y linfonodos mesentéricos compatibles con paratuberculosis, en los frotis directos y en la histopatología se observaron bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en cluster. Se confirmó la presencia de Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium por bacteriología y por PCR fue detectada la IS1245 característica de este agente, no detectando la IS900 correspondiente a Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico, combinando técnicas, de un caso de enteritis granulomatosa en llamas causado por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis.Guanaco, vicuña, alpaca and llama (Lama glama are also known as Sudamerican camelids (SC. In Argentina llama was considered non profitable wildlife specie but now it is considered a mean for surviving because their meat, wool, leather and skin is valuable. SC are susceptible hosts of mycobacterial infections. A presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical and necropsy findings and is confirmed with bacterial isolation, molecular identification and histopathology. The objective of this publication is to describe a clinical
Cheke, Robert A; Garms, Rolf
Onchocerciasis in savanna zones is generally more severe than in the forest and pathologies also differ geographically, differences often ascribed to the existence of two or more strains and incompatibilities between vectors and strains. However, flies in the forest transmit more infective larvae than their savanna counterparts, even in sympatry, contradicting expectations based on the forest and savanna strains paradigm. We analysed data on the numbers of Onchocerca volvulus larvae of different stages found in 10 different taxonomic categories of the Simulium damnosum complex derived from more than 48,800 dissections of flies from Sierra Leone in the west of Africa to Uganda in the east. The samples were collected before widespread ivermectin distribution and thus provide a baseline for evaluating control measures. Savanna species contained fewer larvae per infected or per infective fly than the forest species, even when biting and parous rates were accounted for. The highest transmission indices were found in the forest-dwelling Pra form of Simulium sanctipauli (616 L3/1000 parous flies) and the lowest in the savanna-inhabiting species S. damnosum/S. sirbanum (135) and S. kilibanum (65). Frequency distributions of numbers of L1-2 and L3 larvae found in parous S. damnosum/S. sirbanum, S. kilibanum, S. squamosum, S. yahense, S. sanctipauli, S. leonense and S. soubrense all conformed to the negative binomial distribution, with the mainly savanna-dwelling species (S. damnosum/S. sirbanum) having less overdispersed distributions than the mainly forest-dwelling species. These infection patterns were maintained even when forest and savanna forms were sympatric and biting the same human population. Furthermore, for the first time, levels of blindness were positively correlated with infection intensities of the forest vector S. yahense, consistent with relations previously reported for savanna zones. Another novel result was that conversion rates of L1-2 larvae to L3s
Liu, Guanhua; Liang, Manfei; Zuo, Xuemei; Zhao, Xue; Guo, Fanxia; Yang, Shifa; Zhu, Ruiliang
Bordetella avium is the etiologic agent of coryza and rhinotracheitis in poultry. This respiratory disease is responsible for substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B. avium isolated from diseased chickens. BALB/c mice were immunized with the extracted B. avium OMPs. Then the splenocytes from immunized mice and SP2/0 myeloma cells were fused using PEG 4000. Three stable hybridoma clones (des...
Lee, Choong Won; Sung, Han Dong; Choi, Byong Moon; Kim, Chun Wook; Jun, Su Jin; Min, Sang Jo
A case of Mycobacterium avium arthritis in a 39-year-old female patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) was reported. An extra-articular abscess had formed outside the knee joint and extended down the calf. A culture was taken of the abscess and synovial fluid disclosed Mycobacteriun avium. This was resistant to most anti-tuberculosis agents. A combination of anti-tuberculosis drugs followed a total resection of the abscess. We concluded that M avium septic arthritis could insidio...
Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard; Ahrens, Peter
By a suppression subtractive hybridization based method, nine novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. para tuberculosis (M. para tuberculosis) fragments of between 318 and 596 bp have been identified and characterized. Database search revealed little or no similarity with other mycobacteria. The...... uniqueness and diagnostic potential of seven of these fragments in relation to M. paratuberculosis closest relative Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (M. avium) was confirmed by species-specific PCR and Southern blot. Furthermore, RT-PCR indicated that eight of the nine fragments originate from areas of the...
Askgaard, D. S.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Thybo, S.; Lerche, A.; Bennedsen, J.
with pulmonary disease (n = 65) and those in patients with lymph node infection (n = 58). The results suggest a Scandinavian distribution of serovars with a predominance of serovar 6 and fail to demonstrate any selective protection against different serovars by Mycobacterium bovis ECG vaccination....
Deosir Flávio Lobo de Castro Júnior
Full Text Available The quantitative- qualitative debate is not a new discussion. The aim of this study therefore is to check through the concept of paradigm, new perspectives to understand the academic research in marketing, developments of marketing thinking and methodologies used in the studies of quality of service. Without pretending to exhaust the subject and present a final conclusion, studies that point to the need and importance of qualitative research, as it helps the researcher to better understand the complex nature of the social world in which we live are presented. According to Santana and Gomes (2007, after examining the discussion of Hegel and Kant, reason and conclude that epistemology itself are historical buildings and evolve from contradictions. This article is divided into five moments. The first part presents besides introducing the constitution of the goals of this theoretical essay. The second part presents a brief discussion of the concept of paradigm and marketing. The third part presents a historical retrospective of marketing and its evolution from its schools from studies of Miranda and Arruda (2004. The fourth part presents the methodology of the studies on quality of services and finally the fifth part presents the final considerations.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an idea for understanding cultural processes in the organizational discourse from the perspective of four paradigms in management sciences based on the concept of G. Burrell and G. Morgan.Methodology: The author has elaborated a valuable list of structures of the scientifi c theory based on the respective paradigms and has compared cultural paradigms in management sciences. The methodology involves an analysis of classical and recent world literature. Nowadays there is no consensus on the defi nitions, types or research models of organizational culture.Originality: In the literature on the subject we can fi nd many, sometimes contradictory cultural research studies that require further analysis. Precisely because of the diversity and complexity of cultural issues in management sciences a multi-paradigmatic analysis is necessary. The paper presents a proposal for a pluralistic approach to the theory and methodology of cultural studies in management sciences.
Christensen, Torben Spanget
The article discusses the proposal of a didactic reflection paradigm set forward by Ellen Krogh in this issue of CURSIV. In CURSIV 9, Krogh proposed the paradigm in a discussion of possible links between the phenomenological analysis of subject didactics by Frede V. Nielsen and the semiotic......’s proposal is discussed in some detail and it is argued that a reflection paradigm does not live up to the criterion provided by Nielsen that a didactic paradigm must refer to a naturalistic phenomenon to be applicable for selection of content, at least in the interpretation of Nielsen that underlies this...... article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded that...
Species within the Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) group are found to be both prevalent and persistent in drinking water distribution systems. The MAC is composed of two predominant species: M. avium and M. intracellulare. These species have the ability to survive drinking ...
The dryland desertification paradigm focuses on losses of ecosystem services accompanying transitions from grasslands to systems dominated by bare ground or woody plants unpalatable for domestic livestock. However, recent studies reveal complex transitions across a range of environmental conditions ...
Dana Ramona ANDRISESCU
This paper approaches the subject of paradigms for the categories of intelligent systems. First we can look at the term paradigm in its scientific meaning and then we make acquaintance with the main categories of intelligent systems (expert systems, intelligent systems based on genetic algorithms, artificial neuronal systems, fuzzy systems, hybrid intelligent systems). We will see that every system has one or more paradigms, but hybrid intelligent systems combine paradigms because they are ma...
This article discusses the importance of theory and paradigm to a researcher. It starts from introducing and analyzing the definition of the two terms, by using the theories in the field of intercultural communication as examples. To a good researcher, he needs not only clarifying the paradigm his research is positioned, but also integrating the theories in his paradigm.
Pestel-Caron, Martine; Arbeit, Robert D.
IS1245 is an insertion element widely prevalent among isolates of Mycobacterium avium. We used PvuII Southern blots to analyze IS1245 polymorphisms among 159 M. avium isolates (141 clinical isolates from 40 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients plus 18 epidemiologically related environmental isolates) that represented 40 distinct M. avium strains, as resolved by previous studies by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All 40 strains carried DNA homologous to IS1245 and thus were typeable. Twenty-five (63%) strains had ≥10 copies of the element, 6 (15%) had 4 to 9 copies, and 9 (23%) had only 1 to 3 copies. Among the last group of nine strains (each of which was distinct by PFGE analysis), IS1245 typing resolved only four patterns and thus provided poor discriminatory power. To evaluate the in vivo stability of IS1245, we analyzed 32 strains for which sets of 2 to 19 epidemiologically related isolates were available. For 19 (59%) of these sets, all isolates representing the same strain had indistinguishable IS1245 patterns. Within eight (25%) sets, one or more isolates had IS1245 patterns that differed by one or two fragments from the modal pattern for the isolates of that strain. Five (16%) sets included isolates whose patterns differed by three or more fragments; on the basis of IS1245 typing those isolates would have been designated distinct strains. IS1245 was stable during in vitro passage, suggesting that the variations observed represented natural translocations of the element. IS1245 provides a useful tool for molecular strain typing of M. avium but may have limitations for analyzing strains with low copy numbers or for resolving extended epidemiologic relationships. PMID:9650925
Specific antibodies, available in unlimited quantities, have not been produced against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the bacterium that causes Johne’s disease (JD). To fill this gap in JD research, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were produced fr...
The opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium is a significant inhabitant of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems. M. avium expresses on its cell surface serovar-specific glycopeptidolipids (ssGPLs). Studies have implicated the core GPL in biofilm formation by M. aviu...
Ping-Ping Yang, Rong-De Ma1, Xue Zhao and Rui-Liang Zhu*
Full Text Available To study the similarity among Bordetella avium isolates in China, antigens and diagnostic antiserum of 22 B. avium isolates were prepared for serotyping, and a set of 20 commercially available primers was screened out to identify suitable primers for random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting (RAPD analysis in this study. Twenty-two B. avium isolates were divided into two serovars (A and B based on their reaction in the plate-agglutination test. Four primers R1, R2, R4 and R10 resulted in informative fingerprints and were used to evaluate the B. avium isolates. Based on their RAPD patterns, a dendrogram allowed the separation of the B. avium isolates into six genetic similarity clusters. However, no direct correlation was observed between serotypes and RAPD typing among the isolates.
Murdoch David M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulitis caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has rarely been described. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is a rare cause of septic arthritis after intra-articular injection, though the causative role of injection is difficult to ascertain in such cases. Case presentation A 57-year-old with rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisone and azathioprine developed bilateral painful degenerative shoulder arthritis. After corticosteroid injections into both acromioclavicular joints, he developed bilateral cellulitis centered over the injection sites. Skin biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas, and culture grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Joint aspiration also revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. Conclusion Although rare, skin and joint infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare should be considered in any immunocompromised host, particularly after intra-articular injection. Stains for acid-fast bacilli may be negative in pathologic samples even in the presence of infection; cultures of tissue specimens should always be obtained.
Tkachuk, Victoria L; Krause, Denis O; McAllister, Tim A; Buckley, Katherine E; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve; Ominski, Kim H
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle
Full Text Available Diagnosis of avian tuberculosis by conventional culture method is still considered as the "gold standard" technique. The main objective of this study was to compare growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium on four specific Mycobacterial cultures such as glycerinated Lowenstein-Jensen medium, pyruvate-enriched Lowenstein-Jensen medium, mycobactin J-supplemented Herrold-egg yolk medium and plain Herrold-egg yolk medium.Eighty out of more than 600 pigeons were selected based on their clinical signs and poor health conditions. The birds were numbered and their clinical signs were registered in the working sheets, and under standard condi-tion, euthanized, subjecting to necropsy examinations, followed by bacterial culture on four specific media for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, including glycerinated Lowenstein-Jensen (LJG medium, pyruvate-enriched Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJP, mycobactin J-supplemented Herrold-egg yolk medium and plain Herrold-egg yolk medium.Fifty one Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium were isolated from pigeons. Mycobactin J-supplemented Herrold-egg yolk media yielded greater number of colonies in shorter incubation time in compare with other media.It was concluded that most of the isolates need mycobactin as a growth factor.
Um olhar paradigmático sobre a Assistência de Enfermagem: um caminhar para o cuidado complexo Una mirada paradigmática en la atención de enfermería: un caminar para el cuidado complejo A paradigmatic glance on the nursing care: a to walk for the complex care
Ana Lúcia da Silva
Full Text Available O texto aborda os paradigmas cartesiano (moderno e o da complexidade (pós-moderno de Edgar Morin objetivando aprofundar a reflexão sobre o tema e a compreensão do modo de assistir predominante na enfermagem. Para tanto, as autoras põem em discussão o modelo de assistência de enfermagem pautado no paradigma cartesiano definindo-o como produtor de uma assistência autoritária, fragmentada e linear. Apontam a necessidade de repensar esse modelo pelo fato de restringir a autonomia das pessoas/pacientes, caminhando na direção de um assistir pautado na complexidade, que proporciona condições de participação dos clientes/atores no planejamento dos cuidados à sua saúde.El texto aborda los paradigmas Cartesiano (moderno y el de la complejidad (post-moderno de Edgar Morin con el objetivo de profundizar en la reflexión sobre el tema y en la comprensión del modo de asistir predominante en enfermería. Para esto, los autores discuten el modelo de asistencia de enfermería pautado en el paradigma Cartesiano, definiéndolo como productor de una asistencia autoritaria, fragmentada y lineal. Señalan la necesidad de repensar sobre ese modelo por el hecho de restringir la autonomía de las personas/pacientes, caminando en dirección de un asistir basado en la complejidad, que proporciona condiciones de participación de los clientes/actores en la planificación de los cuidados a su salud.The text addresses the Cartesian paradigms (modern and the complexity paradigm (post-modern of Edgar Morin aiming to deepen reflection on the theme and understanding to improve nursing. To this end, the authors discuss the model of care of methodical nursing in the Cartesian paradigm defining it as producer of an authoritarian, fragmented and linear care. They point the need to rethink that model because it restricts the autonomy of the people/patient moving in the direction of complex care that provides for customers/actors' participation in their health care
丁勇; 钟雪锋; 方保民; 柯会星; 孙铁英; 陈启航
Objective To study the diagnosis and treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease with severe renal insufficiency,and to provide a basis for improving the clinical diagnosis and treatment of MAC lung disease with severe renal insufficiency.Methods Clinical data of an elderly patient with MAC lung disease confirmed by induced sputum culture and complicated with chronic kidney disease (CKD 4) was reported.The related literatures at home and abroad were reviewed.Results A male patient aged 80 years with poor nutrition was suffering from progressive weight loss,exhaustion and night sweats.His weight was only 43-44 Kg.Chest CT showed that multiple small nodules,small spot pieces of shadow and ground glass shadows in bilateral lung tissues.PET/CT indicated that spot pieces and nodules with metabolic activity in high performance.Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) inspection was negative.MAC was identified by induced sputum culture through high permeability brine induced sputum.It was difficult to choose drugs for the treatment of MAC lung disease due to his poor kidney function [GFR of left kidney:9.0 ml /min,GFR of right kidney:18.8 ml/min].Conventional anti-mycobacterium drugs showed a low to high resistance to MAC.Moxifloxacin was discontinued for renal insufficiency.His condition was stable after choosing trimodality therapy including azithromycin 0.25 g/d tiw,rifapentine 0.3 g/d biw,ethambutol 0.375 g /d tiw and the joining immunotherapy.Conclusions PET/ CT is not useful in identifying tuberculosis and MAC lung disease.The treatment of MAC lung disease is difficult in elderly patients with severe renal insufficiency and low weight.Individual therapy combined with immunotherapy and improving the nutrition state is a good choice for the treatment of MAC lung disease in elderly patients with severe renal insufficiency.The anti-MAC drugs should be carefully selected and the adverse reactions should be closely observed in order to obtain the satisfactory
Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Jungersen, Gregers; Ussery, David
We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....
Based on the perspective of cognitive metaphor, this paper firstly illustrates the historical evolutionfrom the paradigm of simplicity to paradigm of complexity and their scientific development background respectively; secondly indicates that ' non - machine'metaphor is the basic feature of the paradigm of complexity thinking; finally reveals the inner structure and basic content of complexity thinking paradigm, that is system thinking is the basis of the paradigm of complexity thinking and the "life -eco" metaphor is the basic features of that.%从认知隐喻的视角,阐述了简单性思维和复杂性思维的历史演进及其科学发展背景;指出,复杂性思维范式是以"非机器"认知隐喻为其基本特征,其内在结构是以"系统"思维为基础、以"生命"和"生态"双重认知隐喻为基本特征.
Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat
Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.
I review briefly different aspects of the MOND paradigm, with emphasis on phenomenology, epitomized here by many MOND laws of galactic motion--analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. I then comment on the possible roots of MOND in cosmology, possibly the deepest and most far reaching aspect of MOND. This is followed by a succinct account of existing underlying theories. I also reflect on the implications of MOND's successes for the dark matter (DM) paradigm: MOND predictions imply tha...
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...
Abstract Background Our laboratories have previously reported on the experimental infection of cattle with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) using an intratonsillar infection model. In addition, we have recently developed a partial protein array representing 92 M. par...
Taylor, Ann M; Harris, Ashley D; Varnava, Alice; Phillips, Rhiannon; HUghes, Owen; Wilkes, Antony R.; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G.
Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMSKP) is attentionally demanding, complex and multi-factorial; neuroimaging research in the population seen in pain clinics is sparse. A better understanding of the neural activity underlying attentional processes to pain related information compared to healthy controls may help inform diagnosis and management in the future. Methods Blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) compared brain responses in patients...
Oh, Y. K.; Nix, D E; Straubinger, R M
Mycobacterium avium is an intracellular pathogen that can invade and multiply within macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Current therapy is not highly effective. Particulate drug carriers that are targeted to the reticuloendothelial system may provide a means to deliver antibiotics more efficiently to M. avium-infected cells. We investigated the formulation of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and azithromycin in liposomes and tested their antibacterial activities in vitro against M. a...
ABSTRACT Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare are environmental opportunistic pathogens whose source for human infection is water and soil. M. avium and M. intracellulare cause pulmonary infections (tuberculosis) in immunocompetent individuals and bacteremia in immunodeficient individuals (e.g. AIDS). One factor likely influencing the lack of success of antibiotic therapy in patients would be their ability to form biofilms. Growth in biofilms might result in antimicrob...
Whittington, Richard J.; Marsh, Ian B; Saunders, Vanessa; Grant, Irene R.; Juste, Ramon; Sevilla, Iker A; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Whitlock, Robert H.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants in most countries. Historical data suggest substantial differences in culturability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants and cattle; however, a systematic comparison of culture media and isolates from different countries and hosts has not been undertaken. Here, 35 field isolates from the United States, Spain, Northern Ireland, and Australia were propagated in Bactec ...
Michalak Marcin; Plitta-Michalak Beata P.; Chmielarz Paweł
A variable response of Prunus avium L. seeds to desiccation and storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) has been reported in the literature. The majority of these experiments were conducted on initially dried seeds. The desiccation and LN exposure tolerance of fresh P. avium seeds is unknown. In the present study, fresh seeds were used to determine seed response to desiccation and cryopreservation. Desiccation of seeds from a moisture content (MC) of 19.7-20.2% to 10.1-10.9% o...
Le Dantec, Loick; Quero-Garcia, José; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth
Very few genomic resources are actually available for sweet cherry. Emergence and generalization of next‐generation DNA sequencing technologies that reduce cost, labor, and time, provide the opportunity to conduct large‐scale genomic projects at lower cost even for non‐model organisms like prunus avium. In order to obtain a panel of prunus avium expressed genes for functional studies and candidate gene strategy, a normalized complementary DNA library has been sequenced using high throughput 4...
Pestel-Caron, Martine; Graff, Gabriel; Berthelot, Gilles; Pons, Jean-Louis; Lemeland, Jean-François
Genetic relationships among 46 isolates of Mycobacterium avium recovered from 37 patients in a 2,500-bed hospital from 1993 to 1998 were assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR amplification of genomic sequences located between the repetitive elements IS1245 and IS1311. Each technique enabled the identification of 27 to 32 different patterns among the 46 isolates, confirming that the genetic heterogeneity of M. avium strains is high in a given community. Furthermore, this ...
Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Denis O Krause; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve; Ominski, Kim H.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 20...
Li, Lingling; Munir, Shirin; Bannantine, John P.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Kanjilal, Sagarika; Kapur, Vivek
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants and other species. Detection of infection in animals is hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. We describe here an approach that utilizes translationally active PCR fragments for the rapid in vitro transcription and translation of recombinant proteins for antigen discovery in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The investigations showed...
Cebula, B R; Rocco, J M; Maslow, J N; Irani, V R
Mycobacterium avium is an opportunistic pathogen whose pathogenesis is attributed to its serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid (ssGPL), which varies among its 31 serovars. To determine if the presence and type of ssGPLs contribute to M. avium pathogenesis, we infected murine macrophages (mφs) with two M. avium wild type (wt) serovars (2 and 8) and their serovar-null strains. We examined the influence of ssGPL (presence and type) on cytokine production in non-activated (-IFN-γ) and activated (+IFN-γ) mφs, and the bacterial intra-mφ survival over a 6-day infection process. Serovar-2 infections activated TNF-α production that increased over the 6 day period and was capable of controlling the intra-mφ serovar-2 null strain. In contrast, the serovar-8 infection stimulated a strong pro-inflammatory response, but was incapable of removing the invading pathogen, maybe through IL-10 production. It was clear that the intracellular growth of serovar-null in contrast to the wt M. avium strains was easily controlled. Based on our findings and the undisputed fact that M. avium ssGPL is key to its pathogenesis, we conclude that it is not appropriate to dissect the pathogenesis of one M. avium serovar and apply those findings to other serovars. PMID:22991047
Bermudez, Luiz E.; Inderlied, Clark B.; Kolonoski, Peter; Petrofsky, Mary; Aralar, Priscilla; Wu, Martin; Young, Lowell S.
Moxifloxacin activity against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was evaluated in vitro against 25 strains. The MIC was determined to range from 0.125 to 2.0 μg/ml. In addition, U937 macrophage monolayers infected with MAC strain 101 (serovar 1) were treated with moxifloxacin (0.25 to 8 μg/ml) daily, and the number of intracellular bacteria was quantitated after 4 days. Moxifloxacin showed inhibitory activity at 0.5 μg/ml and higher. To assess the activity of moxifloxacin containing regimens i...
Belisle John T; Inamine Julia M; Eckstein Torsten M; Lee Sun-Hwa; Irani Vida R; Maslow Joel N
Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system,...
Ruiz, Aroldo; Mederos, Lilian; Capó, Virginia
A 64 years-old patient, who was a farmer suffering from chronic fever for two years, loss of weight and acute asthenia, was studied. He was admitted to "Pedro Kourí" Tropical Medicine Institute where the studies were conducted and revealed a globular sedimentation rate of 116 mm in 2 hours, and anemia of 9,8g% hemoglobin. The laparoscopic study indicated hepatic granulomatosis that was confirmed by hepatic biopsy in which a sample was taken from the liver to be microbiologically and cytologically examined. By microbiological methods, a non-pigmented slowly-growing strain was isolated, which was classified by conventional diagnostic techniques for the non-tuberculous mycobacteria classification and the alternative diagnosing technique known as bidimensional thin layer chromatography to confirm the previous classification and set the mycolic acid patterns. The isolated strain belonged to group III of Rynyon and was identified as Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. PMID:15849945
Chang, An-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Sheng
A 5-year-old female intact Mastiff dog was presented with a history of vaginal discharge for 1 day. Physical examination revealed a sanguineo-purulent vaginal discharge and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Abdominal radiographs showed several dilated and gas- filled tubular loops. The differential diagnoses included emphysematous pyometra or small intestinal mechanical ileus. Surgical exploration of the abdomen demonstrated a severely dilated and gas-filled uterus, and emphysematous pyometra was confirmed. The patient's clinical signs resolved after ovariohysterectomy. Histopathology revealed mild endometrial cystic hyperplasia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the superficial endometrial epithelia. Enterococcus avium, an α-hemolytic gram-positive coccus, was isolated from the uterus. This paper highlights the radiographic features of emphysematous pyometra and a pathogen that has never been reported to be associated with canine pyometra previously. PMID:27111397
Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Honda, Atsuro; Baba, Tomohisa; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Shichi, Izumi; Eto, Takashi; Arai, Kazumori
A 26-year-old man presented with complaints of exertional dyspnea and cough. The patient has already been given corticosteroids at a previous hospital. Chest CT revealed small centrilobular nodules with diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs. Lung biopsy specimens at thoracoscopy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas, patchy foci of mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrous thickening of alveolar septa, and Masson's bodies in bronchioles. Sputum culture showed the growth of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Culture of water from the bath tub of his home showed MAC. Administration of antituberculous drugs and corticosteroids, and avoidance of bathing at home resulted in the improvement of his symptoms and CT findings. We believe the case is hypersensitivity pneumonitis to MAC in an immunocompetent patient, simulating hot tub lung. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by MAC is rare in Japan. PMID:16366369
Full Text Available The main problem of this text concerns the question of duality of human existence, and its relation with humans body. In the animistic paradigm body of a man is an “implement” unifying with the world, made by contact with sprits and ancestors. In the mechanical approach body is separate from consciousness, mind and spirit. It is a machine. In the holistic paradigm body is a part of the universe, and nowadays this universe is the informatics web. The man – golem, homunculus and automaton becomes part of total information. In this new situation the problem concerns psychological and moral attitude of man.
Nørreklit, Hanne; Nørreklit, Lennart; Mitchell, Falconer
the analysis of the comment on their past paper. Findings - In addressing each of the issues in turn the authors clarify their analysis. Originality/value - The paper provides an argument for the development of a paradigm for accounting practice derived from the use of pragmatic constructivism....
Dunlap, Riley E.; Van Liere, Kent D.
The "New Environmental Paradigm" or NEP appears to have gained considerable popularity in academic and intellectual circles, as well as among many college students; however, very little is known concerning the degree to which the general public has come to accept the ideas embodied in it. Thus, although there have been dozens of studies of…
This short paper points to some paradigm issues in the field of school development (leadership, effectiveness, improvement) and their relationship to social justice. It contextualises the dominant School Effectiveness and School Improvement models within neo-liberal marketisation, paying attention to their transformation through a "marriage of…
Dias, Alcina Portugal
In this short contribution a reflection on the evolution of the the Total Quality Management paradigm is pesented. The main differences between the three perspectives of Quality Management are analyzed, together with a set of changes and improvements to the practice of TQM that are likely to take place.
Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks
Schorey, J S; Holsti, M A; Ratliff, T L; Allen, P M; Brown, E J
Mycobacterium avium is an intracellular pathogen and a major opportunistic infectious agent observed in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Evidence suggests that the initial portal of infection by M. avium is often the gastrointestinal tract. However, the mechanism by which the M. avium crosses the epithelial barrier is unclear. A possible mechanism is suggested by the ability of M. avium to bind fibronectin, an extracellular matrix protein that is a virulence factor for several extracellular pathogenic bacteria which bind to mucosal surfaces. To further characterize fibronectin binding by M. avium, we have cloned the M. avium fibronectin-attachment protein (FAP). The M. avium FAP (FAP-A) has an unusually large number of Pro and Ala residues (40% overall) and is 50% identical to FAP of both Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using recombinant FAP-A and FAP-A peptides, we show that two non-continuous regions in FAP-A bind fibronectin. Peptides from these regions and homologous sequences from M. leprae FAP inhibit fibronectin binding by both M. avium and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). These regions have no homology to eukaryotic fibronectin-binding proteins and are only distantly related to fibronectin-binding peptides of Gram-positive bacteria. Nevertheless, these fibronectin-binding regions are highly conserved among the mycobacterial FAPs, suggesting an essential function for this interaction in mycobacteria infection of their metazoan hosts. PMID:8858587
de Armas, Yaxsier; Capó, Virginia; González, Ida; Mederos, Lilian; Díaz, Raúl; de Waard, Jacobus H; Rodríguez, Alberto; García, Yarmila; Cabanas, Ricardo
We report a case of an immunocompetent child with simultaneously an infection with Mycobacterium avium and Hodgkin's disease in a cervical lymph node. A positive PCR result for M. avium on a biopsy of the lymph node directed the definitive diagnosis for both etiologies and avoided a possible dissemination of this infection after chemotherapy was started. PMID:20467849
The genome sequence strain 104 of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium was isolated form an adult AIDS patient in Southern California in 1983. Isolates of non-paratuberculosis M. avium from 207 other patients in Southern California and elsewhere were examined for genoty...
In this paper, the author attempts to extend the paradigm approach into the philosophy of music education and to build upon this basis a model for structuring music education discourse. The author begins with an examination of Peter Abbs' account of paradigms and paradigm shifts in arts education. Then she turns to Kuhn's conception and to his…
Tatchou-Nyamsi-König, Josiane-Aurore; Dague, Etienne; Mullet, Martine; Duval, Jérôme F L; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Block, Jean-Claude
Adhesion of the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and Mycobacterium avium onto polyethylene terephtalate (PET), a polymer widely used within the bottled water industry was measured in two different groundwater solutions. From this, it was found that whilst the percentage cell adhesion for a given strain did not change between groundwater types, substantial variation was obtained between the two bacterial species tested: M. avium (10-30% adhered cells) and C. jejuni (1-2%) and no major variations were measured as a function of groundwater composition for a given strain. To explain this, the interfacial electro-hydrodynamic properties of the bacteria were investigated by microelectrophoresis, with the resultant data analysed on the basis of electrokinetic theory for soft biocolloidal particles. The results obtained showed that M. avium carries a significant volume charge density and that its peripheral layer exhibits limited hydrodynamic flow permeation compared to that of C. jejuni. It was also demonstrated that steric hindrance to flow penetration and the degree of hydrophobicity within/of the outer bacterial interface are larger for M. avium cells. In line with this, the larger amount of M. avium cells deposited onto PET substrates as compared to that of C. jejuni can be explained by hydrophobic attraction and chemical binding between hydrophobic PET and outer soft surface layer of the bacteria. Hydrophobicity of PET was addressed by combining contact angle analyses and force spectroscopy using CH(3)-terminated AFM tip. PMID:18929388
Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro
The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.
A review of research paradigm of displaced aggression is presented. The author arranged the Japanese wording of displaced aggression, summarized the historical transition of research on displaced aggression, and reviewed research paradigm of displaced aggression.
Full Text Available All new developments in biology deal with the issue of the complexity of organisms, often pointing out the necessity to update our current understanding. However, it is impossible to think about a change of paradigm in biology without introducing new explanatory mechanisms. I shall introduce the mechanisms of teleonomy and teleology as viable explanatory tools. Teleonomy is the ability of organisms to build themselves through internal forces and processes (in the expression of the genetic program and not external ones, implying a freedom relative to the exterior; however, the organism is able to integrate internal and external constraints in a process of co-adaptation. Teleology is that mechanism through which an organism exercises an informational control on another system in order to establish an equivalence class and select some specific information for its metabolic needs. Finally, I shall examine some interesting processes in phylogeny, ontogeny, and epigeny in which these two mechanisms are involved.
Andersen, Anna Bjerning Berg; Nielsen, Anna Sabine; Zunda, Daniella
Our focal point and core concepts in this paper are science, health and yoga. Our main concern is to shed light on the understanding of these three concepts and how it varies, depending on the scientific approach these concepts are dealt with. The problem statement of this paper is thereby: How is it possible to argue, based on Kuhn's paradigm theory, that yoga/ayurveda and medical science represent fundamentally different views on health, yoga and science? We choose two scientific ap...
Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed
V. A. Testov
Full Text Available The paradigm concept, essential for comprehension and analysis of the science history, is used quite freely and easily in educational sphere nowadays when some authors discuss their views, theories and developments referring to a new paradigm. Consequently, in pedagogy, there is an illusion of pseudo-paradigmatic progress, which results from the lack of unified understanding of the given concept, and reorganization complexity. According to the author, paradigmatic transformation in pedagogy and education mainly depends on the fundamental changes of the scientific worldview. Though, compared to the worldview alterations, paradigmatic changes take more time and effort. So, in order to overcome this lagging behind, a lot of contradicting views appear in the modern pedagogic theory. The research methodology is based on the works by T. Coon, defining the paradigm as the complex of theoretical and methodological notions, more general than the theory, concept and attitude. In author’s opinion, turning back to the scientific interpretation of the paradigm concept can overcome the existing misunderstanding of educational experience and its prospects, and ensure the adequate perception of pedagogic reality.
Full Text Available Background: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins is the major cause of diabetic complications. The inhibition of glycation process can reduce complications of diabetes. In the Iranian traditional medicine, the decoction (boiled extraction of Cerasus avium stalk is used as a hypoglycemic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of decoction and ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Cerasus avium stalk on albumin glycation reaction. Methods: In this experimental study, first, the ethanolic, aqueous and decoction extracts of Cerasus avium stalk were prepared. Then, different concentrations of these extracts were prepared and added to albumin and glucose solutions. Finally, compared to control group that was not treated with any extracts, the albumin glycation rate in the groups treated with various concentrations of extracts was evaluated using TBA (thio-barbituric acid method. Results: The results showed that compared to control group, decoction of Cerasus avium stalk in the concentrations of 20, 10 and 2 mg/dl could reduce albumin glycation to 85.10±1.55, 72.35±1.75 and 51.25±1.22 %, respectively (P>0.001. Moreover, in the concentration of 20 mg/dl, the inhibitory effect of decoction of Cerasus avium stalk on the albumin glycation reaction was higher than those of aqueous (P=0.021 and ethanolic (P=0.009 extracts. Conclusion: The findings showed that the extracs of Cerasus avium stalk, in particular in the decoction form, could significantly reduce the rate of albumin glycation; therefore, it can be used for decreasing diabetes mellitus complications.
Harrenstien, Lisa A; Finnegan, Mitchell V; Woodford, Nina L; Mansfield, Kristin G; Waters, W Ray; Bannantine, John P; Paustian, Michael L; Garner, Michael M; Bakke, Antony C; Peloquin, Charles A; Phillips, Terry M
The Columbia basin subpopulation of pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis was listed as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in November 2001, and no pygmy rabbits have been seen in the wild since spring 2002. Captive propagation efforts have attempted to increase population size in preparation for reintroduction of animals into central Washington. Disseminated mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium avium has been the most common cause of death of adult captive pygmy rabbits. Between June 2002 and September 2004, mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in 28 captive adult pygmy rabbits (representing 29% of the captive population), in contrast to 18 adult pygmy rabbits dying of all other causes in the same time period. Antemortem and postmortem medical records were evaluated retrospectively to describe the clinical course of mycobacteriosis in pygmy rabbits, physical examination findings, and diagnostic test results in the diagnosis of mycobacteriosis in pygmy rabbits. Various treatment protocols, possible risk factors for mortality, and recommendations for prevention of mycobacteriosis were evaluated also. Compromised cell-mediated immunity appears to be the best explanation at this time for the observed high morbidity and mortality from mycobacterial infections in pygmy rabbits. PMID:17315435
Register, Karen B.; Yersin, Andrew G.
Bordetella avium is the etiologic agent of turkey coryza or bordetellosis, a respiratory disease responsible for substantial economic losses to the turkey industry. At present, identification of this bacterium relies on isolation and biochemical testing. Although a PCR for the detection of B. avium was proposed a number of years ago (P. H. Savelkoul, L. E. de Groot, C. Boersma, I. Livey, C. J. Duggleby, B. A. van der Zeijst, and W. Gaastra, Microb. Pathog. 15:207-215, 1993), lack of analytica...
Full Text Available Even if sustainable development is a concept that gained quite recently its scientific prestige, through contribution of researchers its content has upgraded to a high degree of conceptual luggage and, through contribution from governance representatives, has gained an impressive good-practice background. Allowing the use of different methodological premises and conceptual tools, sustainable development paradigm is equipped with all the elements that would allow the opening of new horizons of knowledge. Based on the facility which can operate the concept of sustainable development, the European Union aims to develop both a more competitive economy based on environmental protection as well as a new governance of economic policy. This on one hand demonstrates the sustainable development ability to irradiate creativity towards the establishment of interdisciplinary bridges and on the other hand explains the growing interest of researchers interested in the problem of analyzing in detail this fruitful concept. Launched first as a theoretical framework to serve justify actions responsible for weighting economic growth, the concept of Sustainable Development has quickly become a topic of ethical debate circumscribed to the area of perfectibility of human nature to the necessity registry. In this regard, the philosophical content of this paradigm could not remain outside researchers concerns, who want to provide both policy makers and the general public a wide range of evidence to demonstrate the viability of this paradigm. Academia waits until maximization of the contribution of governance to achieve sustainable economic development, which consists in conjunction of this upward path with the momentum given by public policy sync, perfectly adapted for globalization era and all crises to come. However, because this concept based its structure and composition on three pillars, equally important economy, society and environment any attempt to strengthen
Sveiby, Karl Erik; Segercrantz, Beata
Innovation is almost always seen as a "good thing". Challenging the Innovation Paradigm is a critical analysis of the innovation frenzy and contemporary innovation research. The one-sided focus on desirable effects of innovation misses many opportunities to reduce the undesirable consequences. Authors in this book show how systemic effects outside the innovating firms reduce the net benefits of innovation for individual employees, customers, as well as for society as a whole - also the innovators' own organizations. This book analyzes the dominant discourses that construct and recons
Thomas Kuhn's concept of paradigm as central to the functioning of a mature science is linked with Johnson-Abercrombie's recognition that perception itself is shaped by the schemata available to the subject. The rapidly advancing field of non-linear mathematics, in offering conceptual forms to represent complex events, may provide a useful framework in which to place various psychodynamic formulations about the development of the personality, and suggests the possibility of a new approach to research concerning the efficacy of psychotherapy. Dan Stern's latest concept of "moments" as the basic unit in structuring the personality, leading to the complex representational patterns and feed-back loops he terms "RIGS" may be viewed in this context. The paradigm may be extended to include such concepts as Peterfreund's linkage of psychodynamic theorising with aspects of information theory generated by the study of computers, and with Sullivan's concepts of repetitive patterns of behaviour recognisable, and changing, throughout the course of a therapy. PMID:1793425
In planning the management of nuclear waste, the U.S. has emphasized performance assessments and compliance with regulations, and has under-utilized processes for facilitating public understanding and public acceptance. A paradigm shift is needed. Motivation for this viewpoint comes from the author's five years of service on the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (NWTRB) and from his experience in assessing risks associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex
Taillandier, Patrick; Chu, Thanh-Quang
International audience Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the cause of Johne’s disease, an enteric granulomatous disease. Recently, MAP has been associated with different autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D and multiple sclerosis. Transthyretin (TTR is a plasma transport protein for thyroid hormone and forms a complex with retinol-binding protein. Reduced TTR plasma levels in MAP infected ovines have been reported. TTR exerts also a functional role in the pancreas promoting insulin release and protecting β-cells from death. Our objective was to identify a protein that could be used as a diagnostic marker of T1D for determining disease progression and monitoring at-risk patients. We postulate that serological TTR levels would be reduced in T1D MAP exposed patients. Our hypothesis is based on the observation of cases of T1D patients with decreased TTR levels beside the reduced TTR plasma levels in ovines with Johne’s disease. We quantified the plasma protein levels of TTR in 50 people with T1D and 51 age-matched healthy controls (HCs by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Findings Our pilot study showed that plasma TTR levels were not significantly lower/higher in T1D Sardinian cases compared to the HCs. Conclusion These preliminary data indicate that plasma TTR may not be a good candidate biomarker for T1D diagnosis and further studies to elucidate the possible link are needed.
Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To
Boomershine, C S; Lafuse, W P; Zwilling, B S
Catecholamine regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production by IFNgamma-primed macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium was investigated. Epinephrine treatment of IFNgamma-primed macrophages at the time of M. avium infection inhibited the anti-mycobacterial activity of the cells. The anti-mycobacterial activity of macrophages correlated with NO production. Using specific adrenergic receptor agonists, the abrogation of mycobacterial killing and decreased NO production by catecholamines was shown to be mediated via the beta2-adrenergic receptor. Elevation of intracellular cAMP levels mimicked the catecholamine-mediated inhibition of NO in both M. avium infected and LPS stimulated macrophages. Specific inhibitors of both adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A prevented the beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide production. Beta2-adrenoreceptor stimulation at the time of M. avium infection of IFNgamma-primed macrophages also inhibited expression of iNOS mRNA. These observations show that catecholamine hormones can affect the outcome of macrophage-pathogen interactions and suggest that one result of sympathetic nervous system activation is the suppression of the capacity of macrophages to produce anti-microbial effector molecules. PMID:10580815
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. This bacterium is a slow growing, gram-positive, acid-fast organism which can be difficult to culture from the environment. For ...
The Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 35-kDa major membrane protein (MMP) encoded by MAP2121c has been shown to play a role in invasion of epithelial cells and is an important membrane antigen recognized by cattle with Johne’s disease. In this study, purified recombinant MMP was used to p...
In the first step of a comprehensive large-scale antigen discovery project, 651 Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins were produced in Escherichia coli. All of these were purified by affinity chromatography, dialyzed in phosphate buffered saline, and analyzed on SDS-PAGE gels. C...
Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Nielen, M.; Hoeboer, J.; Santema, W.J.; Koets, A.P.
A better understanding of the biodiversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) offers more insight in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis and therefore may contribute to the control of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity in bovine MAP isolate
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cows that were low shedders of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were passive shedding animals or whether they were truly infected with MAP. We also evaluated whether these MAP-infected animals could have been infected as adults by ...
Stedingh, R. W.
Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")
Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter
Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11...
Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte
The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...
Mratinić Evica; Fotirić-Akšić Milica; Jovković Radmila
Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed ade...
Kobayashi, K; Kasama, T.; Yamazaki, J.; Hosaka, M; Katsura, T.; Mochizuki, T; Soejima, K; Nakamura, R M
Treatment with interleukin-12 (IL-12) significantly reduced the number of viable bacteria in mice infected with Mycobacterium avium. IL-12 itself, however, could not inhibit directly mycobacterial growth in vitro. IL-12 exerts antimycobacterial activity in vivo with a low level of toxicity, possibly by enhancing the host defense against the infection.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. Cows infected with Johne’s disease shed large quantities of MAP into soil. Further, MAP has been isolated from surface water, is resi...
Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts...
Cows in advanced stages of Johne’s disease shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into both their milk and feces, allowing for transmission of the bacteria between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of MAP from milk and colos...
Pestel-Caron, Martine; Graff, Gabriel; Berthelot, Gilles; Pons, Jean-Louis; Lemeland, Jean-François
Genetic relationships among 46 isolates of Mycobacterium avium recovered from 37 patients in a 2,500-bed hospital from 1993 to 1998 were assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR amplification of genomic sequences located between the repetitive elements IS1245 and IS1311. Each technique enabled the identification of 27 to 32 different patterns among the 46 isolates, confirming that the genetic heterogeneity of M. avium strains is high in a given community. Furthermore, this retrospective analysis of sporadic isolates allowed us (i) to suggest the existence of two remanent strains in our region, (ii) to raise the question of the possibility of nosocomial acquisition of M. avium strains, and (iii) to document laboratory contamination. The methods applied in the present study were found to be useful for the typing of M. avium isolates. In general, both methods yielded similar results for both related and unrelated isolates. However, the isolates in five of the six PCR clusters were distributed among two to three PFGE patterns, suggesting that this PCR-based method may have limitations for the analysis of strains with low insertion sequence copy numbers or for resolution of extended epidemiologic relationships. PMID:10405383
Schwartz David C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection of cattle with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap causes severe economic losses to the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. In an effort to better examine diversity among M. ap strains, we used optical mapping to profile genomic variations between strains of M. ap K-10 (sequenced strain and M. ap ATCC 19698 (type strain. Results The assembled physical restriction map of M. ap ATCC 19698 showed a genome size of 4,839 kb compared to the sequenced K-10 genome of 4,830 kb. Interestingly, alignment of the optical map of the M. ap ATCC 19698 genome to the complete M. ap K-10 genome sequence revealed a 648-kb inversion around the origin of replication. However, Southern blotting, PCR amplification and sequencing analyses of the inverted region revealed that the genome of M. ap K-10 differs from the published sequence in the region starting from 4,197,080 bp to 11,150 bp, spanning the origin of replication. Additionally, two new copies of the coding sequences > 99.8% were identified, identical to the MAP0849c and MAP0850c genes located immediately downstream of the MAP3758c gene. Conclusion The optical map of M. ap ATCC 19698 clearly indicated the miss-assembly of the sequenced genome of M. ap K-10. Moreover, it identified 2 new genes in M. ap K-10 genome. This analysis strongly advocates for the utility of physical mapping protocols to complement genome sequencing projects.
Rowe Michael T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698, which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25°C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25°C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1–1.5 log10 increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 μg/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log10 reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log10 reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p Conclusion This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters.
Ana Lúcia da Silva
ñanzaaprendizaje por medio de la trans= disciplinariedad y enseñar la ciudadanía. Este estudio nos ha mostrado que es posible que haya una enseñanza superior pautada en la condición humana, en la solidaridad y en la interrelación de los conocimientos.The objectives of this research were to recognize, interpret and discuss themes that arise out of the speeches of instructors of an undergraduate course of Nursing as guiding sources to a humanized teaching-learning experience in the light of Edgard Morin's Theory of Complexity. It is a qualitative, exploratory and analytic research. The study tried to verify principles of the paradigm of complexity through content analysis, theme modality, in the speeches of 11 instructors, obtained in 2004. The themes that were found were: teaching the instructor's responsibility; combining knowledge: connections and interrelations to face reality; teaching human complexity; stimulating creativity and curiosity; facing uncertainty: building life's continuous, dynamic knowledge; experiencing the teaching-learning process through transdisciplinarity; and teaching citizenship. This study shows that it is possible to have a university education based on the human condition, solidarity and knowledge interconnection.
Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C
Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of
The paper presents an overview of various modeling paradigms applicable to the analysis of complex decision-making that can be represented by large non-linear models. Such paradigms are illustrated by their application to the analysis of a model that helps to identify and analyze various cost-effective policy options aimed at improving European air quality. Also presented is the application of this model to support intergovernmental negotiations.
Lotto, Linda S.
Despite the rhetoric acclaiming it as a new paradigm, educational researchers have tended to treat naturalistic inquiry as a new or alternative method employed within the dominant, rationalistic paradigm. Spokespersons for naturalistic inquiry tend to concentrate on what one does differently rather than how one perceives what one is doing…
Coussens, Paul M.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Guilherme J. M. Rosa; Perez Laspiur, Juliana; Elftman, Michael D.
A bovine-specific cDNA microarray system was used to compare gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from control uninfected (n = 4) and Johne's disease-positive (n = 6) Holstein cows. Microarray experiments were designed so that for each animal, a direct comparison was made between PBMCs stimulated in vitro with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and PBMCs stimulated with phosphate-buffered saline (nil-stimulated PBMCs). As expected, M. avium subsp. pa...
Secott, T. E.; Lin, T. L.; Wu, C. C.
Efficient attachment and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultured epithelial cells requires the expression of a fibronectin (FN) attachment protein homologue (FAP-P) which mediates FN binding by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Invasion of Peyer's patches by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis occurs through M cells, which, unlike other intestinal epithelial cells, express integrins on their luminal faces. We sought to determine if the interaction between FAP-P of M....
Tasara, T; Stephan, R.
A light cycler-based real-time PCR (LC-PCR) assay that amplifies the F57 sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was developed. This assay also includes an internal amplification control template to monitor the amplification conditions in each reaction. The targeted F57 sequence element is unique for M.avium subsp. paratuberculosis and is not known to exist in any other bacterial species. The assay specificity was demonstrated by evaluation of 10 known M. avium subsp. paratube...
Plack, Margaret M.
Human nature is a very complex phenomenon. In physical therapy this complexity is enhanced by the need to understand the intersection between the art and science of human behavior and patient care. A paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview, defines the nature of the world and the individual's place in it, and helps to…
Kirk, O; Gatell, J M; Mocroft, A;
year; HR = 0.58 [95% confidence intervals: 0.45-0.74], whereas this was not the case for TB; 0.95 [0.74-1.22]). In conclusion, we documented marked decreases in the incidence of TB and to an even larger extent of MAC among HIV-infected patients from 1994 to 1999. The decrease in TB was associated with......The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on the incidences of mycobacterial infections has not been studied in detail. We assessed incidences of mycobacterial diseases among HIV- infected patients following the...... introduction of HAART, using data from the EuroSIDA study, a European, multicenter observational cohort of more than 7,000 patients. Overall incidences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were 0.8 and 1.4 cases/100 person-years of follow-up (PYF), decreasing from 1.8 (TB...
This article describes conceptual difference between imperative, reactive paradigms and functional reactive style advantages in Android development. Solutions of imperative paradigm main problems are described.
James Michael Whitacre
Full Text Available Robustness has been studied through the analysis of data sets, simulations, and a variety of experimental techniques that each have their own limitations but together confirm the ubiquity of biological robustness. Recent trends suggest that different types of perturbation (e.g. mutational, environmental are commonly stabilized by similar mechanisms, and system sensitivities often display a long-tailed distribution with relatively few perturbations representing the majority of sensitivities. Conceptual paradigms from network theory, control theory, complexity science, and natural selection have been used to understand robustness, however each paradigm has a limited scope of applicability and there has been little discussion of the conditions that determine this scope or the relationships between paradigms. Systems properties such as modularity, bow-tie architectures, degeneracy, and other topological features are often positively associated with robust traits, however common underlying mechanisms are rarely mentioned. For instance, many system properties support robustness through functional redundancy or through response diversity with responses regulated by competitive exclusion and cooperative facilitation. Moreover, few studies compare and contrast alternative strategies for achieving robustness such as homeostasis, adaptive plasticity, environment shaping, and environment tracking. These strategies share similarities in their utilization of adaptive and self-organization processes that are not well appreciated yet might be suggestive of reusable building blocks for generating robust behavior.
Naim Hamdija Afgan
Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for
Bannantine, John P; Bermudez, Luiz E.
The infection biology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has recently crystallized, with added details surrounding intestinal invasion. The involvement of pathogen-derived effector proteins such as the major membrane protein, oxidoreductase, and fibronectin attachment proteins have been uncovered. Mutations constructed in this pathogen have also shed light on genes needed for invasion. The host cell types that are susceptible to invasion have been defined, along with their transcr...
Waldner, Cheryl L.; Cunningham, Gail L.; Janzen, Eugene D.; Campbell, John R.
Johne's disease is a well recognized problem in dairy herds. Relatively little information is available on either the prevalence or the control of Johne's disease in commercial cow-calf operations. In the fall of 1999, blood samples were collected during pregnancy testing from cows on community pastures in Saskatchewan. Sera from these cows were analyzed using a commercial ELISA for antibodies to Mycoplasma avium subspecies paratuberculosis. All cows from each herd examined at the community p...
Florido, M; Appelberg, R.
The infection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-deficient mice with low doses of the virulent Mycobacterium avium strain 25291 led to the appearance of necrotic granulomas at 93 days of infection, i.e., sooner than necrotic granulomas appeared in C57BL/6 animals. Additionally, TNF-deficient mice exhibited higher mycobacterial loads in the infected organs, had extremely exacerbated gamma interferon responses as evaluated in the sera of infected animals, and showed reduced survival. Thus, TNF is n...
Nepal, Rajeev M; Mampe, Stephanie; Shaffer, Brian; Erickson, Ann H; Bryant, Paula
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages demonstrate diminished capacity to present antigens via class II MHC molecules. Since successful class II MHC-restricted antigen presentation relies on the actions of endocytic proteases, we asked whether the activities of cathepsins (Cat) B, S and L-three major lysosomal cysteine proteases-are modulated in macrophages infected with pathogenic Mycobacterium spp. Infection of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with either Mycobacterium avium or M. tuberculosis had no obvious effect on Cat B or Cat S activity. In contrast, the activity of Cat L was altered in infected cells. Specifically, whereas the 24-kDa two-chain mature form of active Cat L predominated in uninfected cells, we observed an increase in the steady-state activity of the precursor single-chain (30 kDa) and 25-kDa two-chain forms of the enzyme in cells infected with either M. avium or M. tuberculosis. Pulse-chase analyses revealed that maturation of nascent, single-chain Cat L into the 25-kDa two-chain form was impaired in infected macrophages, and that maturation into the 24-kDa two-chain form did not occur. Consistent with these data, M. avium infection inhibited the IFNgamma-induced secretion of active two-chain Cat L by macrophages. Viable bacilli were not required to disrupt Cat L maturation, suggesting that a constitutively expressed mycobacterial component was responsible. The absence of the major active form of lysosomal Cat L in M. avium- and M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages may influence the types of T cell epitopes generated in these antigen-presenting cells, and/or the rate of class II MHC peptide loading. PMID:16636015
Cordier, Christelle; Trouvelot, A; GIANINAZZI, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne
Deux champignons endomycorhizogenes a arbuscules (Glomus intraradices, Glomus caledonium), introduits pendant la periode d'acclimatation, ont ete testes pour leur pouvoir infectieux et leur effet sur la croissance de plants micropropages de merisiers (Prunus avium L) transplantes dans deux differents sols neutres, prealablement desinfectes ou non. Les vitroplants endomycorhizes presentent une meilleure croissance que les plantes temoins sur les deux sols desinfectes. L'importance de l'augment...
Karunasena, Enusha; McMahon, K Wyatt; Chang, David; Brashears, Mindy M.
Differences between microbial pathogenesis in male and female hosts are well characterized in disease conditions connected to sexual transmission. However, limited biological insight is available on variances attributed to sex specificity in host-microbe interactions, and it is most often a minimized variable outside these transmission events. In this work, we studied two gut microbes—a pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and a probiotic, Lactobacillus animalis NP-51—and th...
Crohn\\'s disease (CD) is a multifactorial syndrome with genetic and environmental contributions. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been frequently isolated from mucosal tissues of patients with CD but the cellular immune response to this bacterium has been poorly described. Our aim was to examine the influence of MAP on T-cell proliferation and cytokine responses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Song, Xiao-Heng; Chen, Hong-Xi; Zhou, Wang-Shu; Wang, Jiang-Bo; Liu, Ma-Feng; Wang, Ming-Shu; Cheng, An-Chun; Jia, Ren-Yong; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kun-Feng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yue; Zhu, De-Kang
Mycobacterium avium is an important pathogenic bacterium in birds and has never, to our knowledge, reported to be isolated from domestic ducks. We present here the complete genome sequence of a virulent strain of Mycobacterium avium, isolated from domestic Pekin ducks for the first time, which was determined by PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. PMID:27587804
Andova, S.; Groenewegen, L. P. J.; Vink, de, E.P.; Aceto, Luca; Mousavi, M.R.
The coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm models, a translation of Paradigm into process algebra has been defined in previous work. In this paper we investigate, guided by a client-server example, reduction of Paradigm models based on a notion of global...
Lalonde, Roxanne; Jackson, Edgar L.
Reports on a study based on the premise that although it continues to be desirable to chart public attitudes toward the natural environment, the widely-used, 12-item New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale is in need of revision if it is to measure the public's more recent and sophisticated understanding of complex environmental issues. (Contains…
Kuhn's theory of paradigm reveals a pattern of scientific progress,in which normal science alternates with scientific revolution.But Kuhn underrated too much the function of scientific test in his pattern,because he focuses all his attention on the hypothetico-deductive schema instead of Bayesian schema.This paper employs Bayesian schema to re-examine Kuhn's theory of paradigm,to uncover its logical and rational components,and to illustrate the tensional structure of logic and belief,rationality and irrationality,in the process of scientific revolution.
Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.
Robertson, Amy D; McKagan, Sarah B
Physics education research (PER) includes three distinct paradigms: quantitative research, qualitative research, and question-driven research. Quantitative PER seeks reproducible, representative patterns and relationships; human behavior is seen as dictated by lawful (albeit probabilistic) relationships. Qualitative PER seeks to refine and develop theory by linking theory to cases; human action is seen as shaped by the meanings that participants make of their local environments. Question-driven physics education researchers prioritize questions over the pursuit of local meanings or abstract relationships. We illustrate each paradigm with interviews with physics education researchers and examples of published PER.
Full Text Available Survival and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in the intestinal mucosa is associated with host immune tolerance. However, the initial events during MAP interaction with its host that lead to pathogen survival, granulomatous inflammation, and clinical disease progression are poorly defined. We hypothesize that immune tolerance is initiated upon initial contact of MAP with the intestinal Peyer's patch. To test our hypothesis, ligated ileal loops in neonatal calves were infected with MAP. Intestinal tissue RNAs were collected (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hrs post-infection, processed, and hybridized to bovine gene expression microarrays. By comparing the gene transcription responses of calves infected with the MAP, informative complex patterns of expression were clearly visible. To interpret these complex data, changes in the gene expression were further analyzed by dynamic Bayesian analysis, and genes were grouped into the specific pathways and gene ontology categories to create a holistic model. This model revealed three different phases of responses: i early (30 min and 1 hr post-infection, ii intermediate (2, 4 and 8 hrs post-infection, and iii late (12 hrs post-infection. We describe here the data that include expression profiles for perturbed pathways, as well as, mechanistic genes (genes predicted to have regulatory influence that are associated with immune tolerance. In the Early Phase of MAP infection, multiple pathways were initiated in response to MAP invasion via receptor mediated endocytosis and changes in intestinal permeability. During the Intermediate Phase, perturbed pathways involved the inflammatory responses, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and cell-cell signaling. During the Late Phase of infection, gene responses associated with immune tolerance were initiated at the level of T-cell signaling. Our study provides evidence that MAP infection resulted in differentially regulated genes, perturbed
Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Meehan, Thomas P.
Continuing education (CE) that strives to improve patient care in a complex health care system requires a different paradigm than CE that seeks to improve clinician knowledge and competence in an educational setting. A new paradigm for CE is necessary in order to change clinician behavior and to improve patient outcomes in an increasingly…
Liu, Liping; Yu, Cuilian; Wang, Chuanwen; Shao, Mingxu; Yan, Zhengui; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chi, Shanshan; Wang, Zhen; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang
Bordetellosis, caused by Bordetella avium, continues to be an economic problem in the poultry industry of China. Vaccines with good protective ability are lacking. Thus, developing a novel vaccine against the B. avium infection is crucial. Here, we constructed a recombinant Pichia pastoris transformant capable of expressing the outer membrane protein A (ompA) of B. avium to prepare the recombinant ompA subunit vaccine and then evaluated its immune effects. To further investigate the immunomodulation effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS) on this subunit vaccine, three concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mg/mL) of TPPPS were used as the adjuvants of the ompA subunit vaccine respectively. The conventional Freund's incomplete adjuvant served as the control of TPPPS. Chickens in different groups were separately vaccinated with these vaccines thrice. During the monitoring period, serum antibody titers, concentrations of serum IL-4, percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, lymphocyte transformation rate, and protection rate were detected. Results showed that the pure ompA vaccine induced the production of anti-ompA antibody, the secretion of IL-4, the increase of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes counts and lymphocyte transformation rate in the peripheral blood. Moreover, the pure ompA vaccine provided a protection rate of 71.67% after the B. avium challenge. Notably, TPPPS adjuvant vaccines induced higher levels of immune responses than the pure ompA vaccine, and 60 mg/mL TPPPS adjuvant vaccine showed optimal immune effects and had a 91.67% protection rate. Our findings indicated that this recombinant B. avium ompA subunit vaccine combined with TPPPS had high immunostimulatory potential. Results provided a new perspective for B. avium subunit vaccine research. PMID:26975477
Albrecht, Don; And Others
Reports the reliability, validity, and unidimensionality of New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale, an instrument designed to measure how people feel about nature. Based on statewide samples of farmers (N=348) and metropolitan residents (N=407) of Iowa, the NEP was determined to be valid, reliable, and multidimensional, measuring three distinct…
A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia
Strom, Terry B.
During transplant rejection, migrating T cells infiltrate the grafted organ, but the signals that direct this migration are incompletely understood. In this issue of the JCI, Walch et al. debunk two classical paradigms concerning transplant rejection, with important consequences for the design of antirejection therapeutics. PMID:23676457
Strom, Terry B.
During transplant rejection, migrating T cells infiltrate the grafted organ, but the signals that direct this migration are incompletely understood. In this issue of the JCI, Walch et al. debunk two classical paradigms concerning transplant rejection, with important consequences for the design of antirejection therapeutics.
Manchet: This paper was first presented by Professor Enemark at the RICS Christmas Lecture in December last year. It provides a cogent and detailed reference point for the current state of land management in developed countries, charts a course for the future and looks at how education must chang...... to meet the new paradigm....
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can be...
Lawson, Hal A.
Researchers' social-cultural organization influences the scope, quality, quantity, coherence, dissemination, utilization and impact of research-based, theoretically sound knowledge. Five concepts--paradigm, exemplar, segment, network and gatekeeper--are salient to research on researchers' organization. Autobiographical reflections signal these…
Full Text Available A number of different software engineering paradigms like Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE, Autonomic Computing, Service-Oriented Computing (SOC, Fault-Tolerant Computing and many others are being researched currently. These paradigms denote a paradigm shift from the currently mainstream object-oriented paradigm and are altering the way we view, design, develop and exercise software. Though these paradigms indicate a major shift in the way we design and code software. However, we still rely on traditional reliability models for estimating the reliability of any of the above systems. This paper analyzes the underlying characteristics of these paradigms and proposes a novel Finite Automata Based Reliability model as a suitable model for estimating reliability of modern, complex, distributed and critical software applications. We further outline the basic framework for an intelligent, automata-based reliability model that can be used for accurate estimation of system reliability of software systems at any point in the software life cycle.
Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises. PMID:27010259
Investigación de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis en leche ultrapasteurizada para consumo humano Research of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ultrapasteurized milk for human consumption
G. G Magnano
Full Text Available Actualmente se vincula al Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis como potencial agente etiológico implicado en la enfermedad de Crohn en humanos. Una de las vías de ingreso sería a través de la ingestión de leche contaminada. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de Map en leche comercial homogeneizada y ultrapasteurizada para consumo humano en supermercados de la ciudad de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Se muestrearon 98 envases de 1 litro de leche entera homogeneizada y ultrapasteurizada de seis marcas comerciales. Previa descontaminación con el método de Cornell modificado, se sembraron en medio de cultivo Herrold con y sin micobactina. Todas las muestras fueron negativas. Como posibles causas de estos resultados se discuten: el origen de la leche y su probable muy baja carga de micobacterias, la eficacia de la pasteurización, el proceso en el laboratorio, entre otras.Currently, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is linked to Crohn's disease in humans as a potential etiologic agent. One route of infection to be considered is by the ingestion of contaminated milk. The objective of the present work was to evaluate Map's presence in commercial homogenized and ultrapasteurized milk for human consumption in supermarkets in the city of Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Ninety eight packages of 1 liter of entire, homogenized and ultrapasteurized milk of six commercial brands were sampled. After decontamination by the modified Cornell's method, the samples were cultured in Herrold's medium with and without micobactin. All samples were negative. Possible causes of this result such as the origin of the milk and its probable very low amount of micobacterias, the efficiency of the pasteurization, the processing in the laboratory, among others are here discussed.
Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte
fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit in......The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...
Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
control, in order to assist the decision-makers in planning and optimizing these programs economically. We compared six different groups of cattle (three dairy and three non-dairy) in Denmark by calculating the MES for each herd in each group.Results: The distribution of MES showed a large variation...... for MAP, given that the data used are unbiased.......Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility is...
Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter
Milk and faeces samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. paratuberculosis was cultivated in variable numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in eight of 11...... animals. In milk from five cows (all faeces culture positive), we cultivated a few colonies of M. paratuberculosis (<100 CFU per ml). Milk samples from two cows were PCR positive (both animals were faeces culture positive, and one cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture negative on intestinal...
Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.
Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection.
International audience * The sensitivity of dormant seeds of mazzard cherry (Prunus avium L.) of Polish provenances to extreme desiccation and/or the ultra-low temperature of liquid nitrogen, LN (− 196 °C), was investigated to identify the optimum seed water content (w.c.) at this temperature.* Germination and seedling emergence tests in this study showed that there is no critical seed w.c. for deeply desiccated seeds (stone w.c. 1.6%), although such desiccated seeds were sensitive to the ...
TANČEVA CRMARIĆ, Olivera; Kajba, Davorin
Velika pozornost pridaje se divljoj trešnji (Prunus avium L.) zbog plemenitog i visokovrijednog drva, ali i zbog važnosti očuvanja njezine genetičke raznolikosti. Oplemenjivanje divlje trešnje uobičajenim metodama uzgoja mogao bi biti vrlo spor proces, otežan time da je u prirodi teško dobiti redovne i dovoljne količine sjemena. Iako osnivanje klonskih sjemenskih plantaža osigurava redovitiji prinos kvalitetnog sjemena, ipak ostaje ovisnost od vremenskih prilika koje utječu na cvjetanje tj. p...
Over, Ken; Crandall, Philip G; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes the disease of cattle, Johne's. The economic impact of this disease includes early culling of infected cattle, reduced milk yield, and weight loss of cattle sold for slaughter. There is a possible link between MAP and Crohn's disease, a human inflammatory bowel disease. MAP is also a potential human food borne pathogen because it survives current pasteurization treatments. We review the current knowledge of MAP, Johne's disease and Crohn's disease and note directions for future work with this organism including rapid and economical detection, effective management plans and preventative measures. PMID:21254832
Atreya, Raja; Bülte, Michael; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W; Köhler, Heike; Meens, Jochen; Möbius, Petra; Roeb, Elke; Weiss, Siegfried
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease [JD]), a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. JD is one of the most widespread bacterial diseases of domestic animals with significant economic impact. The histopathological picture of JD resembles that of Crohn's disease (CD), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease of still unresolved aetiology. An aetiological relevance of MAP for CD has been proposed. This and the ambiguity of other published epidemiological findings raise the question whether MAP represents a zoonotic agent. In this review, we will discuss evidence that MAP has zoonotic capacity. PMID:25128370
Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection
Annemarie van de Vyver
Full Text Available Anaemia is a relatively common finding in HIV-positive patients, with rates (among females as high as 37%, compared with their HIV negative counterparts (17%. Anaemia of chronic disease plays a very important role in this population group, and is estimated to occur in 18 - 95% of cases. For this reason, it is imperative to distinguish this condition from other underlying or concurrent causes of anaemia that may warrant treatment. This clinical case illustrates the value of critically evaluating the parameters of a full blood count and haematinic screen, to so determine which patients warrant further workup.
Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) has been studying the e-Science paradigm. With its successful application to particle physics, we consider the application of the paradigm to astroparticle physics. The Standard Model of particle physics is still not considered perfect even though the Higgs boson has recently been discovered. Astrophysical evidence shows that dark matter exists in the universe, hinting at new physics beyond the Standard Model. Therefore, there are efforts to search for dark matter candidates using direct detection, indirect detection, and collider detection. There are also efforts to build theoretical models for dark matter. Current astroparticle physics involves big investments in theories and computing along with experiments. The complexity of such an area of research is explained within the framework of the e-Science paradigm. The idea of the e-Science paradigm is to unify experiment, theory, and computing. The purpose is to study astroparticle physics anytime and anywhere. In this paper, an example of the application of the paradigm to astrophysics is presented.
Full Text Available The coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm models, a translation of Paradigm into process algebra has been defined in previous work. In this paper we investigate, guided by a client-server example, reduction of Paradigm models based on a notion of global inertness. Representation of Paradigm models as process algebraic specifications helps to establish a property-preserving equivalence relation between the original and the reduced Paradigm model. Experiments indicate that in this way larger Paradigm models can be analyzed.
A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved
Andova, S.; Groenewegen, L.P.J.; Vink, E.P. de; Aceto, L.; Mousavi, M.R.
The coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm models, a tran
'The art of storytelling in the modern age is fundamentally important. So, how we create stories for a screen-based culture is vitally important to master' (Hegarty, 2011, p.96-97). This paper explores the potential benefit of fusing aspects of creative writing with the curriculum of the BA Creative Advertising programme (BACAP) at Leeds College of Art (LCA) in order to address Sir John Hegarty's assertion. In particular it will focus on the characteristics of the 'classical paradigms' us...
Eling, Christopher; Oz, Yaron
We discuss recent work showing that in certain cases the membrane paradigm equations governing the dynamics of black hole horizons can be recast as relativistic conservation law equations. In the context of gauge/gravity dualities, these equations are interpreted as defining the viscous hydrodynamics of a holographically dual relativistic field theory. Using this approach, one can derive the viscous transport coefficients and the form of the entropy current for field theories dual to gravity plus matter fields.
In the field of translation studies, owing to the factors such as the interests of scholar, cultural and historical reasons, scholars usually choose a definition of translation as the research orientation in a certain period of time. That is, as a scholastic community, they study under the same paradigm. Since the definition of translation not only describes and interprets the basic properties of translation, but also determines its connotation and extension, it is the core and basic part of ...
Contrasts are drawn between mainstream macroeconomics (with the 'New Consensus in Macroeconomics' taken as the current manifestation) and heterodox macroeconomics and their abilities to comprehend the financial crises and world wide recession of 2007 â€“ 09 for macroeconomic paradigms is discussed. Specifically, the contrasting ways in which the two schools of thought treat unemployment, human behaviour, aggregate and money and credit are discussed. It is concluded that the events of 2007 â€“...
There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r....../cadastre/land registration function with topographic mapping. The author seeks to awaken more awareness of global trends in this area, recognising that the systems design involved is always unique....
Full Text Available The paper Political Market. Paradigms and Realities, by Simona Busoi, is an important contribution and a spadework within our specialized literature. Recently issued by Editura ASE (The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies Publishing House, in the collection “Et in Arcadia ego”, it offers to the readers a synthesis of the literature destined to the study of political phenomena from an economic point of view, but also a lucid analysis of the Romanian political market.
Pethe, V P
This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation. PMID:12294462
Full Text Available In my essay I would like to examine current interpretative paradigm, which western scholarship cast on heterogenous and ambiguous data first to create and then to modify the notion of ‘orphism’. In case of paradigms preceding the actual one, the role which ‘orphism’ played in contemporary theories and controversies centered around the question of its significance for emergence of Christianity is well known. That is why in my work I would like to focus on deconstruction of interpretative consensus, elaborated in recent years, which is to be found in such works as Martin West’s The Orphic Poems (1983, Ritual Texts for the Afterlife. Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets by Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles-Johnston (2007 or monumental Orfeo y la tradición órfica. Un reencuentro (2008 edited by Alberto Bernabé. What is significant, inasmuch as we can write the history of Athenian religion or the history of Hellenistic kings’ worship, we still cannot write the history of orphism. In formulation of all these scholars it is an ahistorical phenomenon, a hidden constant in the sphere of Greek religion, never expressed directly and entirely, but always alluded to y ancient authors. I find difficult to agree with such a statement. The aim of my inquiry is to reveal assumptions of current paradigm, which are hidden in it, but leave a distinct impression on data.
Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses to Johne’s disease, a chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is complicated by the multifaceted disease progression, late-onset host reaction, and the lack of ex vivo infection models ...
The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...
The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...
The immune responses of 390 BALB/c mice fed the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51® and infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) were evaluated in a 6-month trial. Mice were randomized to nine treatment groups fed either viable- or heat-killed NP51 and inocula...
Ghadiali, Alifiya H.; Strother, Megan; Naser, Saleh A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand
Analysis of short sequence repeats of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from Crohn's disease patients identified two alleles, both of which clustered with strains derived from animals with Johne's disease. Identification of a limited number of genotypes among human strains implies the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals.
A major drawback of current whole-cell vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is the interference with diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. The current study was designed to explore effects of immunization with a heat-killed whole cell vaccine (Mycop...
Mikkelsen, Heidi; Jungersen, Gregers; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). It is possible to detect infection with paratuberculosis at different stages of disease by means of various diagnostic test strategies. The objective of the present study was to evalu...
Longitudinal infection data on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was collected on three dairy farms in Northeastern United States during approximately 10 years. Precise data on animal characteristics and animal location within farm were collected on these farms. Cows were followe...
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the intestine. The etiology is still unknown. One hypothesis is that CD is caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in genetically predisposed individuals. MAP causes a similar disease in ruminants,...
The role of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn’s disease (CD) remains controversial. One issue that has been raised is the lack of data showing a cellular immune response to MAP. Earlier studies have mostly focused on responses in peripheral blood which have several limit...
The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...
Barateiro, Carlos Eduardo R.B.; Farias Filho, Jose Rodrigues de; Campagnac, Luiz Antonio da Paz [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
If we consider that the growing technological development has a number of benefits to society, we can also observe that there is an increased complexity in the implementation of modern life activities. The increased complexity is unavoidable and is even desirable in certain aspects. What should be avoided is the complication in the execution of any of such activities. The article discusses the concept of project implementation focused on the human being who will operate or use the product of the project, and the control process automation of petrochemical plants as examples of the use of this technique. (author)
Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non
Bruffaerts, N.; Vluggen, C.; Duytschaever, L.; Mathys, V.; Saegerman, C.; Chapeira, O.
This paper announces the genome sequences of four strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, isolated from cases of lymphadenopathy in swine and humans, differing in virulence in a murine intranasal infection model. PMID:27313293
Gubitosi, Giulia; Lagos, Macarena; Magueijo, João; Allison, Rupert
In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes' theorem along the following nested hierarchy of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a hierarchy the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior's normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive a considerable modification when evaluating paradigms, when testability and fitting data are equally important. By considering toy models we illustrate how models and paradigms that are difficult to falsify are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. With this motivation we propose a measure which we term predictivity, as well as a prior to be incorporated into the Bayesian framework, penalising unpredictivity as much as not fitting data. We apply this measure to inflation seen as a whole, and to a scenario where a specific inflationary model is hypothetically deemed as the only one viable as a result of information alien to cosmology (e.g. Solar System gravity experiments, or particle physics input). We conclude that cosmic inflation is currently hard to falsify, but that this could change were external/additional information to cosmology to select one of its many models. We also compare this state of affairs to bimetric varying speed of light cosmology.
Cashman, W.; Buckley, J.; Quigley, T.; Fanning, S.; S. More; Egan, J.; Berry, D.; GRANT, I.; O'Farrell, K
Since 1994, Irish cattle have been exposed to greater risks of acquiring Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection as a consequence of the importation of over 70,000 animals from continental Europe. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reported clinical cases of paratuberculosis in Ireland. This study examines the prevalence of factors that promote the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MA...
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Causes Suppression of RANTES, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Expression in Peripheral Blood of Experimentally Infected Cattle
Buza, Joram J.; Mori, Yasuyuki; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Hikono Aodon-geril, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Shu, Yujing; Momotani, Eiichi
Blood from cattle with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection was stimulated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens, and expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL-8 was measured. Expression of TNF-α, RANTES, and MCP-1 was lower in infected than in uninfected cattle. The reduced response may weaken protective immunity and perpetuate infection.
Herndon, J. Marvin
I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stri...
A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.
Xia Aiding; Feng Shuai
This article first traces the origin of four concepts: International Politics (IP), International Relations (IR), World Politics (WP) and Global Politics (GP) and discusses the similarities among these four paradigms. It then analyses their application both at home and abroad. Finally, it argues for the desirability of selecting the concept of IP in academic training, thus facilitating practical application of concepts. It asserts that this will not only enhance academic discussion about IP among different Chinese schools of thought, but also help blazing new ideas.
Paradigma da ciência, do saber e do conhecimento e a educação para a complexidade: pressupostos e possibilidades para a formação docente Paradigm of science, of wisdom and knowledge and education to the complexity: assumptions and possibilities for teacher training
Zita Ana Lago Rodrigues
Full Text Available Centrando leituras sobre as bases teóricas do paradigma científico dominante, em seus fundamentos racionalistas-cientificistas, determinantes na ciência, no saber e nos conhecimentos trabalhados na escola, apresentamos a proposição de uma educação voltada para a complexidade. Tal proposição surge do chamado paradigma emergente, o qual visa superar as inércias e a reatividade tradicionais nos procedimentos de escolarização e de formação docente e caminhar em situações pró-ativas e em prótopias mobilizadoras para a implementação de ações curriculares e educativas que possibilitem uma formação mais aberta, flexível e inter-transcultural, que culmine com uma educação mais humana e convivencial.Focusing readings on the theoretical foundations of the dominant scientific paradigm, in their rationalist-cientificist pleas, determinants in science, in knowing and in the knowledge learned at school, we present the proposition of an education geared towards complexity. This proposition is the so-called emerging paradigm, which aims at overcoming the inertia and reactivity in the traditional procedures for education and teacher training and walk into proactive situations and mobilizing protopias for the implementation of curriculum and educational training actions to promote a more open, flexible and inter-cross learning, which will result in a more human and convivial education.
Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C.; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J. A. Scott
The human dynamic clamp (HDC) is proposed as a general paradigm for studies of elementary forms of social behavior in complex biological systems. HDC enables parametric control of real-time bidirectional interaction between humans and empirically grounded theoretical models of coordination dynamics. It thus provides necessary experimental access for laboratory investigations, while preserving the reciprocity and open boundary conditions inherent in daily life social interactions. As proof of ...
Conrad P. Pritscher
Full Text Available A part of hypothesis formation, while necessary for scientific investigation, is beyond direct observation. Powerful hypothesis formation is more than logical and is facilitated by mindopening. As Percy Bridgeman, Nobel laureate, said, science is: “Nothing more than doing one's damnedest with one's mind, no holds barred.” This paper suggests more open schooling helps generate more open hypothesizing which helps one do one's damnedest with one's mind. It is hypothesized that a more open process of hypothesis formation may help schools and society forge new ways of living and learning so that more people more often can do their damnedest with their mind. This writing does not offer a new paradigm but rather attempts to elaborate on the notion that new paradigms are difficult to form without openness to what was previously quasiunthinkable. More on these topics and issues is included in the author's Reopening Einstein's Thought: About What Can't Be Learned From Textbooks to be published by Sense Publishers in June 2008.
Innate defensive behaviour and panic-like reactions evoked by rodents during aggressive encounters with Brazilian constrictor snakes in a complex labyrinth: behavioural validation of a new model to study affective and agonistic reactions in a prey versus predator paradigm.
Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Guimarães-Costa, Maria Beatriz; Pippa-Gadioli, Leonardo; Weltson, Alfredo; Ubiali, Walter Adriano; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibrahim; Laure, Carlos Júlio; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne
Defensive behaviour has been extensively studied, and non-invasive methodologies may be interesting approaches to analyzing the limbic system function as a whole. Using experimental models of animals in the state of anxiety has been fundamental in the search for new anxiolytic and antipanic compounds. The aim of this present work is to examine a new model for the study of affective behaviour, using a complex labyrinth consisting of an arena and galleries forming a maze. Furthermore, it aims to compare the defensive behaviour of Wistar rats, Mongolian gerbils and golden hamsters in a complex labyrinth, as well as the defensive behaviour of Meriones unguiculatus in aggressive encounters with either Epicrates cenchria assisi or Boa constrictor amarali in this same model. Among species presently studied, the Mongolian gerbils showed better performance in the exploration of both arena and galleries of the labyrinth, also demonstrating less latency in finding exits of the galleries. This increases the possibility of survival, as well as optimizes the events of encounter with the predator. The duration of alertness and freezing increased during confrontation with living Epicrates, as well as the duration of exploratory behaviour in the labyrinth. There was an increase in the number of freezing and alertness behaviours, as well as in duration of alertness during confrontations involving E.c. assisi, compared with behavioural reactions elicited by jirds in presence of B.c. amarali. Interestingly, the aggressive behaviour of Mongolian gerbils was more prominent against B.c. amarali compared with the other Boidae snake. E.c. assisi elicited more offensive attacks and exhibited a greater time period of body movement than B.c. amarali, which spent more time in the arena and in defensive immobility than the E.c. assisi. Considering that jirds evoked more fear-like reaction in contact with E.c. assisi, a fixed E.c. assisi kept in a hermetically closed acrylic box was used as
Kingsley, S Manoj Kumar; Bhat, B Vishnu
Sepsis is a serious clinical problem involving complex mechanisms which requires better understanding and insight. Animal models of sepsis have played a major role in providing insight into the complex pathophysiology of sepsis. There have been various animal models of sepsis with different paradigms. Endotoxin, bacterial infusion, cecal ligation and puncture, and colon ascendens stent peritonitis models are the commonly practiced methods at present. Each of these models has their own advantages and also confounding factors. We have discussed the underlying mechanisms regulating each of these models along with possible reasons why each model failed to translate into the clinic. In animal models, the timing of development of the hemodynamic phases and the varied cytokine patterns could not accurately resemble the progression of clinical sepsis. More often, the exuberant and transient pro-inflammatory cytokine response is only focused in most models. Immunosuppression and apoptosis in the later phase of sepsis have been found to cause more damage than the initial acute phase of sepsis. Likewise, better understanding of the existing models of sepsis could help us create a more relevant model which could provide solution to the currently failed clinical trials in sepsis. PMID:27432263
Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)
Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)
Reynolds, Heather L; Smith, Alex A; Farmer, James R
Conducting science for practical ends implicates scientists, whether they wish it or not, as agents in social-ecological systems, raising ethical, economic, environmental, and political issues. Considering these issues helps scientists to increase the relevance and sustainability of research outcomes. As we rise to the worthy call to connect basic research with food production, scientists have the opportunity to evaluate alternative food production paradigms and consider how our research funds and efforts are best employed. In this contribution, we review some of the problems produced by science conducted in service of industrial agriculture and its associated economic growth paradigm. We discuss whether the new concept of "ecological intensification" can rescue the industrial agriculture/growth paradigm and present an emerging alternative paradigm of decentralized, localized, biodiversity-promoting agriculture for a steady-state economy. This "custom fit" agriculture engages constructively with complex and highly localized ecosystems, and we draw from examples of published work to demonstrate how ecologists can contribute by using approaches that acknowledge local agricultural practices and draw on community participation. PMID:25326612
D. D. Miniaeva
This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...
Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter
intestinal mucosa, but culture-positive in milk, and both faeces and milk were negative in culture and PCR from 2 cows. In conclusion the presence of M. a. paratuberculosis could be detected in raw milk by PCR but cultivation of milk was more sensitive in detecting the organism.......Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11...... animals. In milk from 5 cows (all faecal culture-positive) we cultivated a few colonies of M. a. paratuberculosis (less than 100 CFU per mi). Milk samples from 2 cows were PCR-positive (both animals were faecal culture-positive, and 1 cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture-negative on...
Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen; Grønbæk, Betina Chemnitz; Brogaard, Louise;
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes paratuberculosis, a chronic enteritis of ruminants. The aim of the study was to use high-throughput reverse transcriptase (RT) qPCR to describe intestinal gene expression patterns in response to different levels of Map infection with a large...... expected, leads to increased expression of local IFN-γ. Expression of IL-10 also increased as a result of Map infection, and this increase was more correlated to the amount of Map than IFN-γ, indicating a shift towards a regulatory environment as infection progress. Th17-mediated immune responses were...... suppressed at this stage. Gene expression of all other genes could not be interpreted in relation to infection status. High throughput RT qPCR can be used for exploring gene expression patterns in response to Map infection but larger study groups are needed to fully understand which are key mechanisms and...
Full Text Available Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed adequate grouping of wild sweet cherry genotypes according to pomological characterization and distinguished them into two distinct groups. The first group had two subgroups and consisted of seven genotypes, while the second one included only three accessions. Despite of the significant differences among genotypes, the total concentration of phenols made a clear separation between the clusters. The level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees are useful sources of variability for attributes studied and can be employed in further breeding programs or conservation.
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. The study took place in 2012, on 491 Korean black goats, older than 2 years, from goat herds located in Southern region, Korea. The animals were sampled and tested for paratuberculosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and microbiological culture were used to investigate MAP infection. Among the 491 goats from 100 herds screened, 4 (0.8% and 3 (0.6% goats were defined positive for MAP by ELISA and faecal culture, respectively. Isolated colonies were confirmed as MAP by IS900-PCR, and genotyped by IS1311 PCR-REA assays. The results revealed MAP infection at a low prevalence rate with "cattle type" and "bison type" genotypes.
Gitlin, Laura; Borody, Thomas Julius; Chamberlin, William; Campbell, Jordana
The relation of Mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis (MAP) to Crohn's Disease (CD) and other MAP-associated conditions remains controversial. New data, coupled with the analogous Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) story, has permitted us to piece together the MAP puzzle and move forward with a more scientific way of treating inflammatory bowel disease, particularly CD. As infection moves centre stage in inflammatory bowel disease, the dated "aberrant reaction" etiology has lost scientific credibility. Now, our growing understanding of MAP-associated diseases demands review and articulation. We focus here on (1) the concept of MAP-associated diseases; (2) causality, Johne Disease, the "aberrant reaction" hypothesis; and (3) responses to published misconceptions questioning MAP as a pathogen in CD. PMID:22858515
Retamal, Patricio; Beltrán, Caroll; Abalos, Pedro; Quera, Rodrigo; Hermoso, Marcela
Paratuberculosis is a chronic intestinal disease of animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), which has some pathological features similar to Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. The presence of MAP in food for human consumption and in affected tissues of patients with CD has been detected. Therefore, a causal association between this microorganism and the disease in humans, has been postulated. However, several related studies have failed to confirm this hypothesis and the scientific acceptance of MAP as a zoonotic agent remains controversial. This review presents the main findings related to this issue, contrasting evidences for and against an association between MAP and CD. The need to promote national studies focusing on this area is suggested. PMID:22051762
Singh, A V; Singh, S V; Sohal, J S; Singh, P K
Present study aimed to genotype Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) recovered from suspected and Crohn' s disease patients. A total of 32 MAP and DNA (directly from clinical samples) recovered from human origin were genotyped using IS 1311 PCR-REA. Isolates were cultured from stool, biopsies and blood clots of Crohn's disease patients, and stool samples of suspected (animal attendants, lab workers etc). Of the 32 MAP isolates belonging to 28 human beings, majority (84.3%) were genotyped as 'Bison type', while 21.7% were of 'cattle' and none was 'sheep' genotype. Study first time reports distribution of 'Cattle' and 'Bison type' 'genotypes in suspected and Crohn's patients on pilot scale in India. 'Bison type' genotype was predominant in the surveyed human population. PMID:22471168
Delgado, Fernando; Aguilar, Diana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Francinelli, Gladys; Hernández-Pando, R.; Romano, María Isabel
In situ detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is useful for diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis. The aim of this paper was to detect this agent in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by a direct in situ PCR. The technique was performed on ileum or ileocaecal lymph node samples from 8 naturally infected cattle and 1 healthy calf, by using p89 and p92 primers for amplification of IS900 sequence. Moderate positive signal was detected in all positive samples and not in negative control, but tissues resulted were affected in many cases due to the enzymatic treatment and the high temperature exposition. Although the technique was useful for Map detection, the signal was lower than immunohistochemistry probably because of the fixation process. In one case, signal was higher, which might be due to the detection of spheroplasts. Thus, the described method should be recommended when others resulted negative or for spheroplasts detection. PMID:21772965
Belisle John T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis
Irani, Vida R; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Eckstein, Torsten M; Inamine, Julia M; Belisle, John T; Maslow, Joel N
Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA) gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt) rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH) resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis, biosynthesis, or drug
Sasha J Rose
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an opportunistic pathogen that is associated with biofilm-related infections of the respiratory tract and is difficult to treat. In recent years, extracellular DNA (eDNA has been found to be a major component of bacterial biofilms, including many pathogens involved in biofilm-associated infections. To date, eDNA has not been described as a component of mycobacterial biofilms. In this study, we identified and characterized eDNA in a high biofilm-producing strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH. In addition, we surveyed for presence of eDNA in various MAH strains and other nontuberculous mycobacteria. Biofilms of MAH A5 (high biofilm-producing strain and MAH 104 (reference strain were established at 22°C and 37°C on abiotic surfaces. Acellular biofilm matrix and supernatant from MAH A5 7 day-old biofilms both possess abundant eDNA, however very little eDNA was found in MAH 104 biofilms. A survey of MAH clinical isolates and other clinically relevant nontuberculous mycobacterial species revealed many species and strains that also produce eDNA. RAPD analysis demonstrated that eDNA resembles genomic DNA. Treatment with DNase I reduced the biomass of MAH A5 biofilms when added upon biofilm formation or to an already established biofilm both on abiotic surfaces and on top of human pharyngeal epithelial cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of an established biofilm with DNase 1 and either moxifloxacin or clarithromycin significantly increased the susceptibility of the bacteria within the biofilm to these clinically used antimicrobials. Collectively, our results describe an additional matrix component of mycobacterial biofilms and a potential new target to help treat biofilm-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections.
Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M
The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and
Wilkins, D.; Oosten, J.-J. van; Besford, R.T. (Horticulture Research International, Littlehampton, Sussex (United Kingdom))
A study was conducted of the growth response of Prunus avium L. Stella (wild cherry) to elevated CO[sub 2]. The associated changes in photosynthetic machinery of the leaf tissue were characterized. Self-pollinated seedlings and mature cuttings (clones) from the same parent plant of P. avium were grown for two consecutive growing seasons (about 60 days each) in ambient or elevated CO[sub 2] with high or low nutrient supply. The degree of acclimation of leaf biochemistry and growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] depended on the plant material (seedling or mature cutting) and nutrient supply. There was little or no growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] in seedlings or cuttings in the low nutrient supply treatments, whereas in both seasons, there was a strongly positive growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] in seedlings and cuttings in the high nutrient supply regimes, resulting in increases in the root/shoot ratio and in carbon allocation to the roots. In contrast, the protein content and activity of ribulose-1,5-biophosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 18.104.22.168) were down regulated in elevated CO[sub 2]. The loss of Rubisco on an area basis in plants in the elevated CO[sub 2] treatments was compensated for at the canopy level by increased leaf area. The loss of Rubisco protein was accompanied by decreases in the contents of chlorophyll and the thylakoid membrane proteins D[sub 1], D[sub 2] and cytochrome f, which are involved in light harvesting and photo-electron transport. It is concluded that in the medium- to long-term, the initial stimulation of biomass production by elevated CO[sub 2] may be increasingly offset by a lower photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area in perennial plants. 27 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Karunasena, Enusha; McMahon, K Wyatt; Chang, David; Brashears, Mindy M
Differences between microbial pathogenesis in male and female hosts are well characterized in disease conditions connected to sexual transmission. However, limited biological insight is available on variances attributed to sex specificity in host-microbe interactions, and it is most often a minimized variable outside these transmission events. In this work, we studied two gut microbes-a pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and a probiotic, Lactobacillus animalis NP-51-and the interaction between each agent and the male and female gastrointestinal systems. This trial was conducted in BALB/c mice (n=5 per experimental group and per sex at a given time point), with analysis at four time points over 180 days. Host responses to M.avium subsp. paratuberculosis and L. animalis were sensitive to sex. Cytokines that were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) betweenthe sexes included interleukin-1α/β (IL-1α/β), IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and gamma interferon (IFN-) and were dependent on experimental conditions. However, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and IL-13/23 showed no sex specificity. A metabolomics study indicated a 0.5- to 2.0-fold (log2 scale) increase in short-chain fatty acids (butyrate and acetate) in males and greater increases in o-phosphocholine or histidine from female colon tissues; variances distinct to each sex were observed with age or long-term probiotic consumption. Two genera, Staphylococcus and Roseburia, were consistently overrepresented in females compared to males; other species were specific to one sex but fluctuated depending on experimental conditions. The differences observed suggest that male and female gut tissues and microbiota respond to newly introduced microorganisms differently and that gut-associated microorganisms with host immune system responses and metabolic activity are supported by biology distinct to the host sex. PMID:24814797
structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...
Johansen, Anders; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Gounelle, Matthieu
Asteroids and meteorites provide key evidence on the formation of planetesimals in the Solar System. Asteroids are traditionally thought to form in a bottom-up process by coagulation within a population of initially km-scale planetesimals. However, new models challenge this idea by demonstrating that asteroids of sizes from 100 to 1000 km can form directly from the gravitational collapse of small particles which have organised themselves in dense filaments and clusters in the turbulent gas. Particles concentrate passively between eddies down to the smallest scales of the turbulent gas flow and inside large-scale pressure bumps and vortices. The streaming instability causes particles to take an active role in the concentration, by piling up in dense filaments whose friction on the gas reduces the radial drift compared to that of isolated particles. In this chapter we review new paradigms for asteroid formation and compare critically against the observed properties of asteroids as well as constraints from meteo...
paradigm. The model reflects drivers of globalisation and technology development which support establishment of multifunctional information systems incorporating diverse land rights, land use regulations and other useful data. A third major driver, sustainable development, stimulates demands...... for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...
Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert
This book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research. The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems. Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...
Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert
regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal......The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type of...... competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...
Many shieldings have been designed under the criteria of 'Maximum dose rates of project'. It has created the paradigm of those 'low dose rates', for the one which not few specialists would consider unacceptable levels of dose rate superior to the units of μSv.h-1, independently of the exposure times. At the present time numerous shieldings are being designed considering dose restrictions in real times of exposure. After these new shieldings, the dose rates could be notably superior to those after traditional shieldings, without it implies inadequate designs or constructive errors. In the work significant differences in levels of dose rates and thickness of shieldings estimated by both methods for some typical facilities. It was concluded that the use of real times of exposure is more adequate for the optimization of the Radiological Protection, although this method demands bigger care in its application. (Author)
Rossi, Angelo Pio; Baumann, Peter
Spatio-temporal data sets often can be represented conveniently through datacubes as a common unifying paradigm. Flexible, scalable services can be offered based on the concept of a datacube query language while hiding the technicalities, thereby allowing user-friendly visual data interaction. One of today's most influential initiatives in Big Geo Data is EarthServer which is paving the way for flexible, scalable datacube services based on innovative NewSQL technology (Fig. 1). Researchers from Europe, the US and recently Australia have teamed up to rigorously materialize the datacube paradigm for Earth Observation, ocean, meteorological, and planetary science. EarthServer has established client and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes strictly based on the open datacube standards, OGC WCS and WPCS. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman, enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, what-if scenarios, common EO data processing, and general analytics on regular and irregular grids. Integration of datacube and metadata retrieval, together with advanced visualization based on NASA WorldWind, are geared towards an effective, user-friendly access and analysis. Conversely, EarthServer is significantly shaping the ISO, OGC, and INSPIRE Big Data standards landscape by being specification editor. Phase 1 of EarthServer has advanced scalable array data¬base technology into 100+ TB services; in phase 2, a federation of Petabyte datacubes is being built in Europe and Australia to perform ad-hoc querying and merging. Phase 1 reviewers have attested rasdaman to "significantly transform the way that scientists in different areas of Earth Science will be able to access and use data in a way that hitherto was not possible". Altogether, these large-scale deployments prove that datacubes are a convenient model for presenting users with a simple, consolidated view on the massive amount of data files gathered - "a cube tells more than a million
Belzen, Jacob A; Hood, Ralph W
Recent evaluations have identified the psychology of religion as a field in crisis and have called for a new multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm. However, a critical meta-perspective on methods reveals a broad range of methodologies, each appropriate for particular levels of complexity in the psychology of religion. No single methodology is appropriate for every level, nor can higher levels of complexity be explained by data from lower levels. The authors identify the different types of research practiced in the psychology of religion and critically discuss philosophical presuppositions involved in two major methodological traditions, the empiricist-analytical and the hermeneutical, often identified as quantitative and qualitative traditions, respectively. PMID:16619941
Gentry-Weeks, C R; Hultsch, A L; Kelly, S M; Keith, J M; Curtiss, R
Three gene libraries of Bordetella avium 197 DNA were prepared in Escherichia coli LE392 by using the cosmid vectors pCP13 and pYA2329, a derivative of pCP13 specifying spectinomycin resistance. The cosmid libraries were screened with convalescent-phase anti-B. avium turkey sera and polyclonal rabbit antisera against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. One E. coli recombinant clone produced a 56-kDa protein which reacted with convalescent-phase serum from a turkey infected with B. avium 197. In addition, five E. coli recombinant clones were identified which produced B. avium outer membrane proteins with molecular masses of 21, 38, 40, 43, and 48 kDa. At least one of these E. coli clones, which encoded the 21-kDa protein, reacted with both convalescent-phase turkey sera and antibody against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. The gene for the 21-kDa outer membrane protein was localized by Tn5seq1 mutagenesis, and the nucleotide sequence was determined by dideoxy sequencing. DNA sequence analysis of the 21-kDa protein revealed an open reading frame of 582 bases that resulted in a predicted protein of 194 amino acids. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the gene encoding the 21-kDa outer membrane protein with protein sequences in the National Biomedical Research Foundation protein sequence data base indicated significant homology to the OmpA proteins of Shigella dysenteriae, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, and Salmonella typhimurium and to Neisseria gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein III, Haemophilus influenzae protein P6, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa porin protein F. The gene (ompA) encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein hybridized with 4.1-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica and with 6.0- and 3.2-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of B. avium and B. avium-like DNA, respectively. A 6.75-kb DNA fragment encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein was subcloned into the
Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; M. Hashemi; Struik, P. C.
Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that seed ...
Zare, Yalda; Shook, George E.; Collins, Michael T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian W.
Paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease), an enteric disorder in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), causes economic losses in excess of $200 million annually to the US dairy industry. To identify genomic regions underlying susceptibility to MAP infection in Jersey cattle, a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. Blood and fecal samples were collected from ∼5,000 mature cows in 30 commercial Jersey herds from across the US. Discovery ...
Cooney, Meagan A.; Steele, James L; Steinberg, Howard; Talaat, Adel M.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) the causative agent of Johne's disease, is one of the most serious infectious diseases in dairy cattle worldwide. Due to the chronic nature of this disease and no feasible control strategy, it is essential to have an efficient animal model which is representative of the natural route of infection as well as a viable treatment option. In this report, we evaluated the effect of different doses of M. paratuberculosis in their abil...
Morales Corts, Remedios; Rodrigues, Luciano MR; Ortiz, Jesús María; Pérez Sánches, Rodrigo
Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal), were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the syst...
Stjepanović Stefan; Ivetić Vladan
This paper presents morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) with special reference to their correlations. The examined parameters were: length, diameter, weight of the aboveground and underground parts, number of buds, root volume, root length and leaf area. The ratio of heights was determined on the basis of the parameters derived: diameter, and the ratio of aboveground and underground parts of a s...
Jolivet, C.; Rogge, M.; Degen, B.
Genetic diversity strongly influences populations' adaptability to changing environments and therefore survival. Sustainable forest management practices have multiple roles including conservation of genetic resources and timber production. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the variation in genetic diversity among adult and offspring individuals, and the effects of mating system on offspring survival and growth in wild cherry, Prunus avium. We analysed adult trees and open pollin...
Singh, A V; Singh, S V; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease or paratuberculosis, a gastro intestinal inflammatory condition in ruminants and other animals, which is similar to Crohn's disease (CD) that occurs in man. The role of MAP in the causation of CD has been under intense investigation in the last few decades. This review summarizes the status of MAP in animals and the food chain and its association with CD in man. PMID:20443099
Johnston, C.; Coffey, A.; O'Mahony, Jim; Sleator, RD
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of Johne disease, a granulomatous enteritis of cattle and other domesticated and wild ruminant species. Johne disease is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. Current vaccines against Johne are insufficient in stemming its spread, and associated side-effects prevent their widespread use in control programs. Effective and safe vaccine strategies are needed. The main purpose...
Cirone, K.; Huberman, Y.; Morsella, C.; L. Méndez; Jorge, M.; F Paolicchi
The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) during preparation and refrigerated storage of yogurt. Three yogurts were prepared using pasteurized commercial milk. Each yogurt was artificially contaminated with (1) MAP, (2) E. coli + S. Enteritidis, and (3) MAP + E. coli + S. Enteritidis. Samples were taken during and after the fermentation process until day...
Gharib, Asal; Louis, Ankmalika Gupta; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gupta, Sudhir
Cutaneous non-disseminated, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections have been reported in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects. Systemic Mycobacterium avium intracellulaire (MAI) have been reported in non-HIV patients with Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. We report a comprehensive immunological analysis in syndrome of selective IgM deficiency and T lymphocytopenia (both CD4+ and CD8+) with disseminated cutaneous MAI infection. Naïve (TN) and Central memory (TCM) subsets of both...
Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk of bovine origin is suspected of being implicated Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization is considered to reduce the concentration of MAP by at least 4 to 5 log10. This study aimed at estimating the level of MAP in milk at farm level and simulating the effect of different control options at different infection prevalences. The concentration of MAP in milk was estimated using a hierarchical simulation model representing individual co...
Dr. Woocher's essay, states Mirvis, is seminal in the field of Jewish education. It proposes a new paradigm for Jewish education in North America. This proposed paradigm is supported by a comprehensive multi-disciplinary research drawing on literature from education, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology, and economics. The essay reflects a…
Main styles, or paradigms of programming – imperative, functional, logic, and object-oriented – are shortly described and compared, and corresponding programming techniques are outlined. Programming languages are classified in accordance with the main style and techniques supported. It is argued that profound education in computer science should include learning base programming techniques of all main programming paradigms.
Rowland, Robert C.
Analyzes Walter Fisher's work on the "narrative paradigm." Considers Fisher's definition of narrative too broad and advocates a more limited definition. Rejects Fisher's view that there is an independent standard of narrative rationality distinguishable from the "rational world paradigm," and his idea that the role of the expert in the public…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis (previously Mycobacterium avium subsp avium is an environmental organism associated with opportunistic infections in humans. Mycobacterium hominissuis infects and replicates within mononuclear phagocytes. Previous study characterized an attenuated mutant in which the PPE gene (MAV_2928 homologous to Rv1787 was inactivated. This mutant, in contrast to the wild-type bacterium, was shown both to have impaired the ability to replicate within macrophages and to have prevented phagosome/lysosome fusion. Results MAV_2928 gene is primarily upregulated upon phagocytosis. The transcriptional profile of macrophages infected with the wild-type bacterium and the mutant were examined using DNA microarray, which showed that the two bacteria interact uniquely with mononuclear phagocytes. Based on the results, it was hypothesized that the phagosome environment and vacuole membrane of the wild-type bacterium might differ from the mutant. Wild-type bacterium phagosomes expressed a number of proteins different from those infected with the mutant. Proteins on the phagosomes were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot. The environment in the phagosome of macrophages infected with the mutant differed from the environment of vacuoles with M. hominissuis wild-type in the concentration of zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium. Conclusion The results suggest that the MAV_2928 gene/operon might participate in the establishment of bacterial intracellular environment in macrophages.
Full Text Available Uncertainty is a pervasive feature in natural resource management. Adaptive management, an approach that focuses on identifying critical uncertainties to be reduced via diagnostic management experiments, is one favored approach for tackling this reality. While adaptive management is identified as a key method in the environmental management toolbox, there remains a lack of clarity over when its use is appropriate or feasible. Its implementation is often viewed as suitable only in a limited set of circumstances. Here we restructure some of the ideas supporting this view, and show why much of the pessimism around AM may be unwarranted. We present a new framework for deciding when AM is appropriate, feasible, and subsequently successful. We thus present a new paradigm for adaptive management that shows that there are no categorical limitations to its appropriate use, the boundaries of application being defined by problem conception and the resources available to managers. In doing so we also separate adaptive management as a management tool, from the burden of failures that result from the complex policy, social, and institutional environment within which management occurs.
The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole
Herndon, J Marvin
I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges ...
Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D
We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism. PMID:24878596
Carbone, Anna; Ajmone-Marsan, Marco; Axhausen, Kay W.; Batty, Michael; Masera, Marcelo; Rome, Erich
"In the next century, planet earth will don an electronic skin. It will use the Internet as a scaffold to support and transmit its sensations. This skin is already being stitched together. It consists of millions of embedded electronic measuring devices: thermostats, pressure gauges, pollution detectors, cameras, microphones, glucose sensors, EKGs, electroencephalographs. These will probe and monitor cities and endangered species, the atmosphere, our ships, highways and fleets of trucks, our ...
Carbone, Anna; Axhausen, Kay W; Batty, Michael; Masera, Marcelo; Rome, Erich; 10.1140/epjst/e2012-01701-5
"In the next century, planet earth will don an electronic skin. It will use the Internet as a scaffold to support and transmit its sensations. This skin is already being stitched together. It consists of millions of embedded electronic measuring devices: thermostats, pressure gauges, pollution detectors, cameras, microphones, glucose sensors, EKGs, electroencephalographs. These will probe and monitor cities and endangered species, the atmosphere, our ships, highways and fleets of trucks, our conversations, our bodies--even our dreams ....What will the earth's new skin permit us to feel? How will we use its surges of sensation? For several years--maybe for a decade--there will be no central nervous system to manage this vast signaling network. Certainly there will be no central intelligence...some qualities of self-awareness will emerge once the Net is sensually enhanced. Sensuality is only one force pushing the Net toward intelligence". These statements are quoted by an interview by Cherry Murray, Dean of the...
The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition
Highlights: ► A hybrid ensemble learning paradigm integrating EEMD and LSSVR is proposed. ► The hybrid ensemble method is useful to predict time series with high volatility. ► The ensemble method can be used for both one-step and multi-step ahead forecasting. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel hybrid ensemble learning paradigm integrating ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and least squares support vector regression (LSSVR) is proposed for nuclear energy consumption forecasting, based on the principle of “decomposition and ensemble”. This hybrid ensemble learning paradigm is formulated specifically to address difficulties in modeling nuclear energy consumption, which has inherently high volatility, complexity and irregularity. In the proposed hybrid ensemble learning paradigm, EEMD, as a competitive decomposition method, is first applied to decompose original data of nuclear energy consumption (i.e. a difficult task) into a number of independent intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of original data (i.e. some relatively easy subtasks). Then LSSVR, as a powerful forecasting tool, is implemented to predict all extracted IMFs independently. Finally, these predicted IMFs are aggregated into an ensemble result as final prediction, using another LSSVR. For illustration and verification purposes, the proposed learning paradigm is used to predict nuclear energy consumption in China. Empirical results demonstrate that the novel hybrid ensemble learning paradigm can outperform some other popular forecasting models in both level prediction and directional forecasting, indicating that it is a promising tool to predict complex time series with high volatility and irregularity.
Mycobacterium avium restriction fragment lenght polymorphism-IS IS1245 and the simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction typing method to screen genetic diversity in Brazilian strains
Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira
Full Text Available Simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (MaDRE-PCR and Pvu II-IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing methods were used to type 41 Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from 14 Aids inpatients and 10 environment and animals specimens identified among 53 mycobacteria isolated from 237 food, chicken, and pig. All environmental and animals strains showed orphan patterns by both methods. By MaDRE-PCR four patients, with multiple isolates, showed different patterns, suggesting polyclonal infection that was confirmed by RFLP in two of them. This first evaluation of MaDRE-PCR on Brazilian M. avium strains demonstrated that the method seems to be useful as simple and less expensive typing method for screening genetic diversity in M. avium strains on selected epidemiological studies, although with limitation on analysis identical patterns except for one band.
Ryland, Elisabeth K.
Describes business administration education based on the New Environmental Paradigm of biosystems, balance, and interdependence. Provides syllabus, lesson plans, and partially annotated bibliography of 102 books, articles, periodicals, videos, and electronic media. (SK)
The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international......, John Cantwell, Terutomo Ozawa, Gabriel Benito, Lars Oxelheim, Timothy Devinney and Anoop Madhok - examine the legacy of the eclectic paradigm. This book systematically evaluates how the eclectic paradigm has survived the test of time, from a wide variety of perspectives. Contributors discuss whether...
I discuss the formation of the modern cosmological paradigm. In more detail I describe the early study of dark matter and cosmic web and the role of Yakov Zeldovich in the formation of the present concepts on these subjects.
Argues that traditional sociology has treated Black studies as peripheral to the study of human behavior. Proposes a paradigm that includes an emphasis on Afrocentric perspective and a methodology that combines positivist and critical methodologies. (FMW)
This paper addresses some of the emerging software paradigms that may be used in developing safety-critical software applications. Paradigms considered in this paper include knowledge-based systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy systems. It presents one view of the software verification and validation activities that should be associated with each paradigm. The paper begins with a discussion of the historical evolution of software verification and validation. Next, a comparison is made between the verification and validation processes used for conventional and emerging software systems. Several verification and validation issues for the emerging paradigms are discussed and some specific research topics are identified. This work is relevant for monitoring and control at nuclear power plants
This essay discusses 'paradigms' as means to conceive anthropogenic global change. Humankind alters earth-systems because of the number of people, the patterns of consumption of resources, and the alterations of environments. This process of anthropogenic global change is a composite consisting of societal (in the 'noosphere') and natural (in the 'bio-geosphere') features. Engineering intercedes these features; e.g. observing stratospheric ozone depletion has led to understanding it as a collateral artefact of a particular set of engineering choices. Beyond any specific use-case, engineering works have a common function; e.g. civil-engineering intersects economic activity and geosphere. People conceive their actions in the noosphere including giving purpose to their engineering. The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political concepts ('shared subjective mental insights') of people. Among people's concepts are the paradigms how to shape environments, production systems and consumption patterns given their societal preferences. In that context, engineering is a means to implement a given development path. Four paradigms currently are distinguishable how to make anthropogenic global change happening. Among the 'engineering paradigms' for anthropogenic global change, 'adaptation' is a paradigm for a business-as-usual scenario and steady development paths of societies. Applying this paradigm implies to forecast the change to come, to appropriately design engineering works, and to maintain as far as possible the current production and consumption patterns. An alternative would be to adjust incrementally development paths of societies, namely to 'dovetail' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. To apply that paradigm research has to identify 'natural boundaries', how to modify production and consumption patterns, and how to tackle process in the noosphere to render alterations of common development paths acceptable. A further alternative
Theories of justice are marred by a permanent state of conflict because they express prejudices whose source lies in the lifeworld. One may regard these theories as interpretations of the concept of justice. Assuming a strong meaning of “theory,” one can legitimately ask if it is possible to reduce a theory of justice to its underlying paradigm. Several different paradigms coexist in modernity; the tension between them has intensified with the advent of political ideologies. The newest parad...
The dominant view of design in information systems and software engineering, the Rational Design Paradigm, views software development as a methodical, plan-centered, approximately rational process of optimizing a design candidate for known constraints and objectives. This paper synthesizes an Alternative Design Paradigm, which views software development as an amethodical, improvisational, emotional process of simultaneously framing the problem and building artifacts to address it. These confl...
Babrak, Lmar; Danelishvili, Lia; Rose, Sasha J; Kornberg, Tiffany; Bermudez, Luiz E
"Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" is an opportunistic environmental pathogen that causes respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis as well as other chronic respiratory diseases. Currently, there is no efficient approach to prevent or treat M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection in the lungs. During initial colonization of the airways, M. avium subsp. hominissuis forms microaggregates composed of 3 to 20 bacteria on human respiratory epithelial cells, which provides an environment for phenotypic changes leading to efficient mucosal invasion in vitro and in vivo. DNA microarray analysis was employed to identify genes associated with the microaggregate phenotype. The gene encoding microaggregate-binding protein 1 (MBP-1) (MAV_3013) is highly expressed during microaggregate formation. When expressed in noninvasive Mycobacterium smegmatis, MBP-1 increased the ability of the bacteria to bind to HEp-2 epithelial cells. Using anti-MBP-1 immune serum, microaggregate binding to HEp-2 cells was significantly reduced. By far-Western blotting, and verified by coimmunoprecipitation, we observed that MBP-1 interacts with the host cytoskeletal protein vimentin. As visualized by confocal microscopy, microaggregates, as well as MBP-1, induced vimentin polymerization at the site of bacterium-host cell contact. Binding of microaggregates to HEp-2 cells was inhibited by treatment with an antivimentin antibody, suggesting that MBP-1 expression is important for M. avium subsp. hominissuis adherence to the host cell. MBP-1 immune serum significantly inhibited M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection throughout the respiratory tracts of mice. This study characterizes a pathogenic mechanism utilized by M. avium subsp. hominissuis to bind and invade the host respiratory epithelium, suggesting new potential targets for the development of antivirulence therapy. PMID:25422262
R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann
From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.
Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)
Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3
Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from
Paradigms of AI Programming is the first text to teach advanced Common Lisp techniques in the context of building major AI systems. By reconstructing authentic, complex AI programs using state-of-the-art Common Lisp, the book teaches students and professionals how to build and debug robust practical programs, while demonstrating superior programming style and important AI concepts. The author strongly emphasizes the practical performance issues involved in writing real working programs of significant size. Chapters on troubleshooting and efficiency are included, along with a discussion of th
Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel
We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm. PMID:26418255
Widagdo Sri Nugroho
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspesies paratuberculosis (MAP is a thermal tolerant bacteria. The presenceof these bacteria in pasteurized dairy milk is associated with infectious bowel disease in human known asCrohn’s disease. The aim of this study was to detect MAP in pasteurized dairy milk sold in Bogor. Fourtytwo samples of plain flavoured milk (180–250 ml from 7 producers were bought from supermarkets inBogor. The presence of MAP was detected by isolation and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCRusing IS 900 and F57. Bacterial isolation were done by Herrold’s egg yolk medium with mycobactine J(HEYMj and without mycobactin J (HEYM and incubated at 37°C for 20 weeks. The DNA extraction ofall pasteurized dairy milk samples were conducted by DNeasy® Tissue Kit. Amplification conditionsfor PCR were: 1 cycle at 94°C for 10 minutes, 40 cycles at 94°C for 1 minute, 58°C for 1 minute, and72°C for 3 minutes, and 1 cycle at 72°C for 7 minutes. After 20 weeks of incubation, there were no sign ofMAP which grew in all isolation mediums. The PCR IS 900 and F57 did not detect the DNA band of thetarget. In the conclusion, there was no MAP detected in pasteurized dairy milk sold in Bogor.
Slater, Noa; Mitchell, Rebecca Mans; Whitlock, Robert H; Fyock, Terry; Pradhan, Abani Kumar; Knupfer, Elena; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Louzoun, Yoram
Super-shedders are infectious individuals that contribute a disproportionate amount of infectious pathogen load to the environment. A super-shedder host may produce up to 10,000 times more pathogens than other infectious hosts. Super-shedders have been reported for multiple human and animal diseases. If their contribution to infection dynamics was linear to the pathogen load, they would dominate infection dynamics. We here focus on quantifying the effect of super-shedders on the spread of infection in natural environments to test if such an effect actually occurs in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). We study a case where the infection dynamics and the bacterial load shed by each host at every point in time are known. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we estimate the parameters of a model with multiple transmission routes, including direct contact, indirect contact and a background infection risk. We use longitudinal data from persistent infections (MAP), where infectious individuals have a wide distribution of infectious loads, ranging upward of three orders of magnitude. We show based on these parameters that the effect of super-shedders for MAP is limited and that the effect of the individual bacterial load is limited and the relationship between bacterial load and the infectiousness is highly concave. A 1000-fold increase in the bacterial contribution is equivalent to up to a 2-3 fold increase in infectiousness. PMID:26925966
Meng, Qing-Feng; Li, Ying; Yang, Fan; Yao, Gui-Zhi; Qian, Ai-Dong; Wang, Wei-Li; Cong, Wei
Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic infectious granulomatous enteritis of ruminants and other animals, which has a worldwide occurrence, but little is known of MAP infection in domestic sika deer in Jilin Province, China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine seroprevalence and risk factors of MAP infection in Jilin Province. Serum samples collected from 1400 sika deer from 16 sika deer herds were collected in the 4 districts of the province between May 2013 and August 2014 and were tested independently for the presence of antibodies against MAP. A total of 247 (17.64 %) sika deer tested positive for MAP antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit. The management level of farm and collecting region of sika deer was the main risk factor associated with MAP infection. The present study revealed the seroprevalence of MAP infection in sika deer in Jilin Province, China, which provided the baseline data for taking comprehensive countermeasures and measures in effectively preventing and controlling MAP infection in sika deer. PMID:25904509
Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas
Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109
Ana C Coelho
Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map seroprevalence in sheep in the North of Portugal. The effects on seroprevalence of several variables such as individual characteristics, management practices, farm characteristics, animal health, and available veterinary services were evaluated. This information was then used in a multivariable logistic regression model in order to identify risk factors for Map seropositivity. Univariable analysis was used to screen the variables used in the logistic regression model. Variables that showed p values of <0.15 were retained for the multivariable analysis. Fifteen variables were associated with paratuberculosis in univariable analysis. The multivariable logistic regression model identified a number of variables as risk factors for seropositivity like sheep pure local and/or a cross of a local breed (OR=2.02, herd size with 31-60 head (OR=2.14, culling during the Spring-Summer season (OR=1.69 and the use of an anti-parasitic treatment such as Ivermectin as the only anti-parasitic medication (OR=5.60. Potential risk factors identified in this study support current recommendations for the control of paratuberculosis.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is a well-established etiological agent of Johne′s disease in animals. In humans, similar clinical condition, first described by Crohn as regional ileitis in 1932, now known as Crohn′s diseases (CD, has also been associated with this mycobacterial species. However, there are two schools of thoughts, one favoring MAP as its etiological agent while the second considers it as an immune-inflammatory condition triggered by an external factor. Onset of CD requires a series of events including predisposition of certain inherited genetic traits, associated environmental stimuli, and immune-inflammatory response. A combination of these factors probably leads to this disease. Recently, some human genes have also been identified which regulate ability to respond appropriately to the external factors. Added to these factors are concerns about the selection of clinical specimens and poor adherence to laboratory quality controls. The literature is full of contradictory findings, but there a lack of uniformity in the materials and methods used by many of these researchers. In this review, we provide our perspective under above circumstances and give our point of view which may open a platform for debate regarding the MAP as the etiological agent of human CD.
Davis, William C
The historic suggestion that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) might be a zoonotic pathogen was based on the apparent similarity of lesions in the intestine of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) with those present in cattle infected with Map, the etiological agent of Johne’s disease. Reluctance to fully explore this possibility has been attributed to the difficulty in demonstrating the presence of Map in tissues from patients with CD. Advances in technology have resolved this problem and revealed the presence of Map in a significant proportion of patients with CD and other diseases. The seminal finding from recent investigations, however, is the detection of Map in healthy individuals with no clinical signs of disease. The latter observation indicates all humans are susceptible to infection with Map and lends support to the thesis that Map is zoonotic, with a latent stage of infection similar to tuberculosis, where infection leads to the development of an immune response that controls but does not eliminate the pathogen. This clarifies one of the reasons why it has been so difficult to document that Map is zoonotic and associated with the pathogenesis of CD and other diseases. As discussed in the present review, a better understanding of the immune response to Map is needed to determine how infection is usually kept under immune control during the latent stage of infection and elucidate the triggering events that lead to disease progression in the natural host and pathogenesis of CD and immune related diseases in humans. PMID:26730151
Delgado, F; Estrada-Chávez, C; Romano, M; Paolicchi, F; Blanco-Viera, F; Capellino, F; Chavez-Gris, G; Pereira-Suárez, A L
Paratuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic disease caused by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects several animal species, and some studies have suggested that there may be a relationship between Crohn's disease and PTB. Significant aspects of PTB pathogenesis are not yet completely understood, such as the role of macrophages. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) molecules have shown nonspecific effects against several intracellular pathogens residing within macrophages. However, these molecules have been scarcely studied during natural infection with MAP. In this work, changes in NRAMP1 and iNOS expression were surveyed by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from MAP-infected cattle and healthy controls. Our findings show strong specific immunolabeling against both NRAMP1 and iNOS molecules, throughout granulomatous PTB-compatible lesions in ileum and ileocaecal lymph nodes from paratuberculous cattle compared with uninfected controls, suggesting a relationship between the expression of these molecules and the pathogenesis of PTB disease. PMID:19345998
Banche, Giuliana; Allizond, Valeria; Sostegni, Raffaello; Lavagna, Alessandro; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Sidoti, Francesca; Daperno, Marco; Rocca, Rodolfo; Cuffini, Anna Maria
The difficulties involved in detecting and enumerating Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) as a pathogen potentially involved in Crohn's disease (CD) are well known. This study aimed to improve this situation through the application of multiple laboratory diagnostic tests to detect and isolate this bacterium from different specimens collected from CD-patients and non-CD subjects as controls. A total of 120 samples (terminal ileum and colon biopsies, blood and stool) were obtained from 19 CD-patients and from 11 individuals who did not have a clinicopathological diagnosis of CD (non-CD controls) attending for ileocolonoscopy. All samples were processed by staining techniques, culture on both solid and liquid media, and Insertion Sequence 900/F57 real-time PCR. The MAP frequency in CD-patients was found in a significantly greater proportion than in non-CD subjects; the most positive samples were biopsies from CD-patients tested by real-time PCR. MAP detection in biopsies, and in the other samples, by applying multiple and validated laboratory diagnostic tests, could be a marker of active infection, supporting MAP involvement in CD. PMID:26147146
Singh, Sarman; Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a well-established etiological agent of Johne's disease in animals. In humans, similar clinical condition, first described by Crohn as regional ileitis in 1932, now known as Crohn's diseases (CD), has also been associated with this mycobacterial species. However, there are two schools of thoughts, one favoring MAP as its etiological agent while the second considers it as an immune-inflammatory condition triggered by an external factor. Onset of CD requires a series of events including predisposition of certain inherited genetic traits, associated environmental stimuli, and immune-inflammatory response. A combination of these factors probably leads to this disease. Recently, some human genes have also been identified which regulate ability to respond appropriately to the external factors. Added to these factors are concerns about the selection of clinical specimens and poor adherence to laboratory quality controls. The literature is full of contradictory findings, but there a lack of uniformity in the materials and methods used by many of these researchers. In this review, we provide our perspective under above circumstances and give our point of view which may open a platform for debate regarding the MAP as the etiological agent of human CD. PMID:22219557
Davis, William C; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A
The initial suggestion that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) might be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) was based on the apparent similarity of lesions in the intestine of patients with CD with those present in cattle infected with Map, the etiological agent of Johne's disease (JD). Recent investigations have now revealed the presence of Map or Map DNA in blood or lesions from adults and children with CD. Of special interest, Map has also been found in patients with other diseases as well as healthy subjects. The latter observations indicate all humans are susceptible to infection with Map and that, like with other mycobacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, infection does not invariably lead to development of clinical disease but rather development of a persistent latent stage of infection where an immune response controls but does not eliminate the pathogen. Limited information has been obtained on the immune response to Map in healthy subjects and patients with CD. Understanding how Map may be involved in the pathogenesis of CD will require a better understanding of the immune response to Map in one of its common hosts as well as healthy humans and patients with CD. PMID:22209202
Liverani, Elisa; Scaioli, Eleonora; Cardamone, Carla; Dal Monte, Paola; Belluzzi, Andrea
The origin of inflammatory bowel disease is unknown. Attempts have been made to isolate a microorganism that could explain the onset of inflammation, but no pathological agent has ever been identified. Johne's disease is a granulomatous chronic enteritis of cattle and sheep caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and shows some analogies with Crohn's disease (CD). Several studies have tried to clarify if MAP has a role in the etiology of CD. The present article provides an overview of the evidence in favor and against the "MAP-hypothesis", analyzing the methods commonly adopted to detect MAP and the role of antimycobacterial therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Studies were identified through the electronic database, MEDLINE, and were selected based on their relevance to the objective of the review. The presence of MAP was investigated using multiple diagnostic methods for MAP detection and in different tissue samples from patients affected by CD or ulcerative colitis and in healthy controls. On the basis of their studies, several authors support a close relationship between MAP and CD. Although increasing evidence of MAP detection in CD patients is unquestionable, a clear etiological link still needs to be proven. PMID:25278700
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis affects all ruminants worldwide. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP could have a role in human diseases like Crohn’s. Some extra European Union (EU countries request importation of MAP-free products. Italy has not yet actualised a control programme and the diffusion of the infection is still unknown in Southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the infection in five regions of Southern Italy. Bulk tank milk and in-line milk filters were sampled in 780 dairy cattle herds and respectively analysed by ELISA and real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and 55 out of 780 herds (19.9% were found positive by ELISA and/or real time PCR. Individual milk samples were then collected from all the producing animals of positive herds and from a selection of negative herds. The estimated prevalence varies from region to region between 2.8 and 5.5%. Our results indicate that the disease is widespread in the five regions. The observed prevalence could be underestimated.
Pott, Johanna; Basler, Tina; Duerr, Claudia U; Rohde, Manfred; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a highly prevalent chronic intestinal infection in domestic and wildlife ruminants. The microbial pathogenesis of MAP infection has attracted additional attention due to an association with the human enteric inflammatory Crohn's disease. MAP is acquired by the faecal-oral route prompting us to study the interaction with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. MAP was rapidly internalized and accumulated in a late endosomal compartment. In contrast to other opportunistic mycobacteria or M. bovis, MAP induced significant epithelial activation as indicated by a NF-kappaB-independent but Erk-dependent chemokine secretion. Surprisingly, MAP-induced chemokine production was completely internalization-dependent as inhibition of Rac-dependent bacterial uptake abolished epithelial activation. In accordance, innate immune recognition of MAP by differentiated intestinal epithelial cells occurred through the intracellularly localized pattern recognition receptors toll-like receptor 9 and NOD1 with signal transduction via the adaptor molecules MyD88 and RIP2. The internalization-dependent innate immune activation of intestinal epithelial cells is in contrast to the stimulation of professional phagocytes by extracellular bacterial constituents and might significantly contribute to the histopathological changes observed during enteric MAP infection. PMID:19681906
Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W; Stevenson, Karen; Zadoks, Ruth N; Biek, Roman; Kao, Rowland; Trewby, Hannah; Haupstein, Deb; Kelton, David F; Fecteau, Gilles; Labrecque, Olivia; Keefe, Greg P; McKenna, Shawn L B; Tahlan, Kapil; De Buck, Jeroen
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative bacterium of Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants. The control of JD in the dairy industry is challenging, but can be improved with a better understanding of the diversity and distribution of MAP subtypes. Previously established molecular typing techniques used to differentiate MAP have not been sufficiently discriminatory and/or reliable to accurately assess the population structure. In this study, the genetic diversity of 182 MAP isolates representing all Canadian provinces was compared to the known global diversity, using single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through whole genome sequencing. MAP isolates from Canada represented a subset of the known global diversity, as there were global isolates intermingled with Canadian isolates, as well as multiple global subtypes that were not found in Canada. One Type III and six "Bison type" isolates were found in Canada as well as one Type II subtype that represented 86% of all Canadian isolates. Rarefaction estimated larger subtype richness in Québec than in other Canadian provinces using a strict definition of MAP subtypes and lower subtype richness in the Atlantic region using a relaxed definition. Significant phylogeographic clustering was observed at the inter-provincial but not at the intra-provincial level, although most major clades were found in all provinces. The large number of shared subtypes among provinces suggests that cattle movement is a major driver of MAP transmission at the herd level, which is further supported by the lack of spatial clustering on an intra-provincial scale. PMID:26871723
Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K
mycobacteria. Our objective was to investigate the M.tuberculosis-and M. avium-specific cytotoxic capacity of T cells from healthy, bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated, HIV-seropositive individuals. Blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 10 healthy HIV-seropositive and 10 healthy seronegative persons with...... no history of previous or active mycobacterial infection. Antigen-specific killing of macrophages presenting mycobacterial antigens (purified protein derivative or M. avium culture filtrate) was conducted. The phenotype of the killer cells was determined by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter after...
Gys M. Loubser
Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.
Gonçalves, Berta Maria de Carvalho
Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Biológica e Ambiental No contexto da fruticultura moderna, a cerejeira (Prunus avium L.) tem uma elevada importância económica, havendo, por isso, a preocupação especial de formar árvores produtoras de cerejas com elevada qualidade, mas com porte mais ananicante devido aos elevados custos da mão-de-obra na colheita e noutras práticas culturais do pomar. Assim, a expansão e a exploração rentável desta cultura implicam a aquisição de conhecimentos, entre ou...
Cigdem Demirtas; Hakan Buyukcangaz; Senih Yazgan; Burak Nazmi Candogan
This study was carried out in the summer of 2001 in a 3 year old and in the summer of 2002 in a 4 year old sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium, variety Z-900) on Mazzard rootstocks in Bayramic-Canakkale which is located in the west part of Turkey. Micro-sprinkler irrigation was selected as the irrigation method. The trees were subjected to four micro-sprinkler irrigation treatments (T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4). The water applied in treatment T-3 was considered sufficient to satisfy fully needs ...
Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which...... depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. Considerable variation of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and individual cow’s milk (IM) is reported, but factors associated with MAP occurrence in milk at farm level have not been described. This study systematically reviewed published...
Full Text Available A new method for early selection of wild cherry clones for resistance to Phytophthora sp. is presented. Four Phytophthora species (P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. megasperma, P. alni were tested in vitro on four micropropagated cherry (Prunus avium clones, obtaining reliable and reproducible results. Variability in clones susceptibilities and in parasite virulence has been evidenced. Phytophthora citrophthora is confirmed to be a dangerous parasite, due to its capability to produce symptoms rapidly and its fitness to Mediterranean environments. On the contrary P. alni does not seem a dangerous parasite for wild cherry.
Kristjan Jarni; Bart De Cuyper; Robert Brus
Microsatellite markers were used to describe the genetic variability of four seed stands of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.). One hundred and thirty one individuals were genotyped at ten nuclear microsatellite loci. Total genetic diversity was high (H(E) = 0.704), while differences between stands were small but significant (F(ST) = 0.053, G'(ST) = 0.234). There was a significant amount of clonal reproduction in one stand, with only 11 genotypes identified among 36 trees. One stand showed a signi...
Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah
Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars. PMID:25631389
Lorna M O'Brien; Stewart, Linda D.; Strain, Sam A. J.; Grant, Irene R
The generation of novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific monoclonal antibodies and phage-display derived peptide binders, along with their application for the magnetic separation (MS) of MAP cells, is described. Our aim was to achieve even greater MAP capture capability than is possible with peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS) using a 50:50 mix of biotinylated-aMp3 and biotinylated-aMptD peptide-coated beads. Gamma-irradiated whole MAP cells and ethanol extrac...
Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo
Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. PMID:23121861
D. D. Miniaeva
Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4
The Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm is perhaps the best-known iterative technique to solve sparse linear systems that are symmetric and positive definite. In previous work, we investigated the effects of various ordering and partitioning strategies on the performance of CG using different programming paradigms and architectures. This paper makes several extensions to our prior research. First, we present a hybrid(MPI+OpenMP) implementation of the CG algorithm on the IBM SP and show that the hybrid paradigm increases programming complexity with little performance gains compared to a pure MPI implementation. For ill-conditioned linear systems, it is often necessary to use a preconditioning technique. We present MPI results for ILU(0) preconditioned CG (PCG) using the BlockSolve95 library, and show that the initial ordering of the input matrix dramatically affect PCG's performance. Finally, a multithreaded version of the PCG is developed on the Cray (Tera) MTA. Unlike the message-passing version, this implementation did not require the complexities of special orderings or graph dependency analysis. However, only limited scalability was achieved due to the lack of available thread level parallelism
Md. Shariful Alam
Full Text Available An organization is a vital part of social environment. Different parts of organization have great impact to the environment. On the other hand the different organizational strategy helps to improve the efficiency of organization and customer satisfaction. The people and tools of organization help to organization to work properly. This paper mainly describes about the organizational paradigms and people paradigms also the way how the people paradigms facilitate the organizational paradigms to improve the organizational architecture for better performance. This paper describes the different aspects of organizational like Information system strategy, Information system planning, Business process reengineering etc also End user computing, Knowledge management, Expert system of people paradigms.And finally there is a combination between those. Keywords: Business process reengineering, Customer satisfaction, end used computing, In Information System Strategy, knowledge management, Organizational improvement.
Full Text Available Two general models for paradigm shifts, deterministic propagation model (DM and stochastic propagation model (SM, are proposed to describe paradigm shifts and the adoption of new technological levels. By defining the order parameter m based on the diversity of ideas, Δ, it is studied when and how the phase transition or the disappearance of a dominant paradigm occurs as a cost C in DM or an innovation probability α in SM increases. In addition, we also investigate how the propagation processes affect the transition nature. From analytical calculations and numerical simulations m is shown to satisfy the scaling relation m=1-f(C/N for DM with the number of agents N. In contrast, m in SM scales as m=1-f(α(aN.
Bornholdt, S; Jensen, M H; Sneppen, K
Scientific paradigms have a tendency to rise fast and decline slowly. This asymmetry reflects the difficulty in developing a truly original idea, compared to the ease at which a concept can be eroded by numerous modifications. Here we formulate a model for the emergence and spread of ideas which deals with this asymmetry by constraining the ability of agents to return to already abandoned concepts. The model exhibits a fairly regular pattern of global paradigm shifts, where older paradigms are eroded and subsequently replaced by new ones. The model sets the theme for a new class of pattern formation models, where local dynamics breaks the detailed balance in a way that prevents old states from defending themselves against new nucleating or invading states. The model allows for frozen events in terms of the coexistence of multiple metastable states. PMID:21405444
Protopopescu, V.; Rao, N.S.V.
We address three problems in machine learning, namely: (i) function learning, (ii) regression estimation, and (iii) sensor fusion, in the Probably and Approximately Correct (PAC) framework. We show that, under certain conditions, one can reduce the three problems above to the regression estimation. The latter is usually tackled with artificial neural networks (ANNs) that satisfy the PAC criteria, but have high computational complexity. We propose several computationally efficient PAC alternatives to ANNs to solve the regression estimation. Thereby we also provide efficient PAC solutions to the function learning and sensor fusion problems. The approach is based on cross-fertilizing concepts and methods from statistical estimation, nonlinear algorithms, and the theory of computational complexity, and is designed as part of a new, coherent paradigm for machine learning.
Johne’s disease, due to infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, causes significant economic losses to the livestock farming industry. Improved investigative and diagnostic tools - necessary to understand disease processes and to identify sub-clinical infection - are much sought a...
Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola; Tondo, Annalucia; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics s...
Dans le cadre de l’amélioration génétique du merisier (Prunus avium L.) on a expérimenté trois techniques de multiplication végétative en masse : culture in vitro, bouturage de racines, bouturage herbacé.
Vanleeuwen, John A.; Forsythe, LeeAnn; Tiwari, Ashwani; Chartier, Renee
Blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. For antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5.6% of cows were test positive, respectively, while 29.2% of herds had unvaccinated animals with ≥ 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.
Klausen, Joan; Perez, V.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Marin, J.F.G.; Ahrens, Peter
A monoclonal antibody raised against a 40 kDa protein present in certain M. avium strains (IS901/IS902 positive) was used for developing a blocking ELISA. Sera from experimentally infected sheep were evaluated by indirect ELISA, AGID and blocking ELISA. The blocking assay proved to be highly spec...
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is shed into milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne’s disease, allowing transmission of MAP among animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of MAP from milk. Parameters investigated included che...
The ability of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and a commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolate to persist under low pH and high organic acid conditions was determined. Die-off rates were calculated followi...
Galiero, Alessia; Fratini, Filippo; Mataragka, Antonia; Turchi, Barbara; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Ikonomopoulos, John; Cerri, Domenico
Paratuberculosis is an infectious disease which affects mainly domestic and wild ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Map has been associated with human diseases like Crohn disease, type-1 diabetes, sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to determine the level of Map positivity of cheeses produced in Tuscany (Italy) as an indication of human exposure to the specific pathogen. Sampling was focused on artisanal cheeses produced without commercial starter culture from raw sheep or goat milk, on small-scale farms. Samples were tested by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture. Map DNA was detected in 4/7 (57.14%) goat, and in 14/25 (56%) sheep cheeses by qPCR, whereas cultivation produced a positive result in only one case. This corresponded to a goat cheese that had also reacted positively by qPCR and yielded a viable Type S (sheep) strain of Map. The Map load of the tested samples based on qPCR ranged from 6×10 to 1.8×10(4)Map cells/g of cheese. The results indicate on average 56.57% and 66.6% positivity of cheese samples and farms, respectively. Hence, the type of cheeses that were analyzed within the context of this study seem to constitute a considerable source of human exposure to Map; although the question remains of whether the Map cells were present in a viable form, since positive results were almost exclusively recorded by qPCR. PMID:26555160
Kugadas, Abirami; Lamont, Elise A; Bannantine, John P; Shoyama, Fernanda M; Brenner, Evan; Janagama, Harish K; Sreevatsan, Srinand
The ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although, studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophages and MAC-T cells that coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc(2) 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increased bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5) conditions, compared to the parent strain. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted. PMID:27597934
Colavecchia, Silvia B; Fernández, Bárbara; Jolly, Ana; Minatel, Leonardo; Hajos, Silvia E; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Mundo, Silvia L
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of ruminant paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological behavior of different Argentinean strains of MAP in two bovine infection models: macrophage (in vitro) and calf (in vivo) through the evaluation of early immune responses at the peripheral and local levels. Two MAP strains (A and C) were selected taking into account the different patterns of TNF-α and IL-10 secretion displayed by infected bovine macrophages in vitro. Two groups of calves were infected with 250mg of total wet weight live MAP: strain A infected group (MA, n=3), strain C infected group (MC, n=2). Another group of animals was mock-infected (MI, n=3). Infection was confirmed by MAP culture of feces and microscopic observation of granulomatous lesions in the gut tissue. All infected calves showed positive results in the DTH skin test. A significant increase in peripheral CD4CD25(+) cells in MC group on day 150 was detected. The specific cellular immune response developed allowed the identification of the infection as early as 30days in the MA group. However, the percentage of CD8CD25(+) cells was significantly increased on day 120 in MC group. Significant differences between groups in proliferation and cellular responses were also detected in ileocecal lymph node samples. In summary, the strains of MAP employed herein induced differential immune responses in peripheral cells, in the proliferative responses and in cell functionality at the local level. Our findings support the hypotheses that the in vitro behavior displayed by macrophages could be a tool to identify differences among MAP strains infecting bovines and that the host-pathogen interactions occurring upon infection are dependent on the strain of MAP involved. PMID:27138443
Full Text Available It is admitted that the lack of winter chilling is a limiting factor for the cultivation of temperate fruit trees in warm climates. Nevertheless, the characteristics of dormancy in sweet cherry under such conditions are still not fully understood. Therefore, and in order to contribute to the elucidation of these mechanisms, the objective of this work is to evaluate the dormancy of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under the Mediterranean conditions of Meknes region (Morocco. Evaluation of dormancy behaviour of four varieties was made on the basis of a biological test, known as the « single node cuttings », and histological dissections of flower buds at the time of bud break. The variations of mean time to bud break (MTB were interpreted in terms of the evolution of growth capacity of the buds. The lack of cold affected tree phenological development. The evolution of dormancy in cherry buds showed three phases with variable levels of inertia: the first and third phases being of similar intensity and duration while the second phase was of a high level of inertia (endo-dormancy. The correlative inhibitions of the leaves imposed on the buds continued up to the arrival of continuous low temperatures. The delay in the decrease of inertia reveals insufficient chilling accumulation causing incomplete release from dormancy and low bud break percentage in the orchard. Histological observations showed that vascular connection of flower buds was established during bud break stage. However, flowers showed certain abnormalities, ie low pollen production and malformations of pistils, which limit the possibilities of pollination.
Wolf, R; Orsel, K; De Buck, J; Kanevets, U; Barkema, H W
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a production-limiting disease in cattle. Detection of infected herds is often done using environmental samples (ES) of manure, which are collected in cattle pens and manure storage areas. Disadvantages of the method are that sample accuracy is affected by cattle housing and type of manure storage area. Furthermore, some sampling locations (e.g., manure lagoons) are frequently not readily accessible. However, sampling socks (SO), as used for Salmonella spp. testing in chicken flocks, might be an easy to use and accurate alternative to ES. The objective of the study was to assess accuracy of SO for detection of MAP in dairy herds. At each of 102 participating herds, 6 ES and 2 SO were collected. In total, 45 herds had only negative samples in both methods and 29 herds had ≥1 positive ES and ≥1 positive SO. Furthermore, 27 herds with ≥1 positive ES had no positive SO, and 1 herd with no positive ES had 1 positive SO. Bayesian simulation with informative priors on sensitivity of ES and MAP herd prevalence provided a posterior sensitivity for SO of 43.5% (95% probability interval=33-58), and 78.5% (95% probability interval=62-93) for ES. Although SO were easy to use, accuracy was lower than for ES. Therefore, with improvements in the sampling protocol (e.g., more SO per farm and more frequent herd visits), as well as improvements in the laboratory protocol, perhaps SO would be a useful alternative for ES. PMID:26851860
Full Text Available Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0, 10(-2, 10(-4 and 10(-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to
Strickland, S J; Scott, H M; Libal, M C; Roussel, A J; Jordan, E R
Validity of Johne's disease programs and control protocols that rely on established cut points [e.g., specified sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios] for ELISA serological tests depends on interpreted results that are not susceptible to variable test accuracy. It was hypothesized that seasonal variability exists in serological response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. Further, a reciprocal response may occur, resulting in greater risk of fecal shedding in subclinically infected animals. A testing regimen was invoked that included multiple testing of individual adult cows during the 4 seasons. Serum was collected on a cyclic, monthly basis from 3 randomly selected cohorts of dairy cows, and fecal samples were collected from the 20% of cows with the greatest ELISA test S/P ratios. Staggered, quarterly sampling was continued for 1 yr, and at the conclusion, serum was analyzed en masse. The ELISA outcome values (i.e., S/P ratio) were treated both as categorical and continuous variables. The potential lagged effects of temperature-related seasonality on S/P ratio, as well as the potential for a change in test result caused by temperature were assessed. Results for fecal culture were analyzed on a categorical scale and compared with the ELISA results to explore the possibility of reciprocal fecal shedding. No significant seasonal effects on either S/P ratios or the proportion of cows seropositive to MAP were observed. Furthermore, no evidence was found linking temperature-related seasonality to a reciprocal increase in the risk of fecal culture positivity for MAP. PMID:15956306
Naser, Saleh A; Sagramsingh, Sudesh R; Naser, Abed S; Thanigachalam, Saisathya
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition that plagues millions all over the world. This debilitating bowel disease can start in early childhood and continue into late adulthood. Signs and symptoms are usually many and multiple tests are often required for the diagnosis and confirmation of this disease. However, little is still understood about the cause(s) of CD. As a result, several theories have been proposed over the years. One theory in particular is that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is intimately linked to the etiology of CD. This fastidious bacterium also known to cause Johne's disease in cattle has infected the intestines of animals for years. It is believed that due to the thick, waxy cell wall of MAP it is able to survive the process of pasteurization as well as chemical processes seen in irrigation purification systems. Subsequently meat, dairy products and water serve as key vehicles in the transmission of MAP infection to humans (from farm to fork) who have a genetic predisposition, thus leading to the development of CD. The challenges faced in culturing this bacterium from CD are many. Examples include its extreme slow growth, lack of cell wall, low abundance, and its mycobactin dependency. In this review article, data from 60 studies showing the detection and isolation of MAP by PCR and culture techniques have been reviewed. Although this review may not be 100% comprehensive of all studies, clearly the majority of the studies overwhelmingly and definitively support the role of MAP in at least 30%-50% of CD patients. It is very possible that lack of detection of MAP from some CD patients may be due to the absence of MAP role in these patients. The latter statement is conditional on utilization of methodology appropriate for detection of human MAP strains. Ultimately, stratification of CD and inflammatory bowel disease patients for the presence or absence of MAP is necessary for appropriate and effective
Wynne, James W; Bull, Tim J; Seemann, Torsten; Bulach, Dieter M; Wagner, Josef; Kirkwood, Carl D; Michalski, Wojtek P
A comparative genomics approach was utilised to compare the genomes of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolated from early onset paediatric Crohn's disease (CD) patients as well as Johne's diseased animals. Draft genome sequences were produced for MAP isolates derived from four CD patients, one ulcerative colitis (UC) patient, and two non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) control individuals using Illumina sequencing, complemented by comparative genome hybridisation (CGH). MAP isolates derived from two bovine and one ovine host were also subjected to whole genome sequencing and CGH. All seven human derived MAP isolates were highly genetically similar and clustered together with one bovine type isolate following phylogenetic analysis. Three other sequenced isolates (including the reference bovine derived isolate K10) were genetically distinct. The human isolates contained two large tandem duplications, the organisations of which were confirmed by PCR. Designated vGI-17 and vGI-18 these duplications spanned 63 and 109 open reading frames, respectively. PCR screening of over 30 additional MAP isolates (3 human derived, 27 animal derived and one environmental isolate) confirmed that vGI-17 and vGI-18 are common across many isolates. Quantitative real-time PCR of vGI-17 demonstrated that the proportion of cells containing the vGI-17 duplication varied between 0.01 to 15% amongst isolates with human isolates containing a higher proportion of vGI-17 compared to most animal isolates. These findings suggest these duplications are transient genomic rearrangements. We hypothesise that the over-representation of vGI-17 in human derived MAP strains may enhance their ability to infect or persist within a human host by increasing genome redundancy and conferring crude regulation of protein expression across biologically important regions. PMID:21799786
James W Wynne
Full Text Available A comparative genomics approach was utilised to compare the genomes of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP isolated from early onset paediatric Crohn's disease (CD patients as well as Johne's diseased animals. Draft genome sequences were produced for MAP isolates derived from four CD patients, one ulcerative colitis (UC patient, and two non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD control individuals using Illumina sequencing, complemented by comparative genome hybridisation (CGH. MAP isolates derived from two bovine and one ovine host were also subjected to whole genome sequencing and CGH. All seven human derived MAP isolates were highly genetically similar and clustered together with one bovine type isolate following phylogenetic analysis. Three other sequenced isolates (including the reference bovine derived isolate K10 were genetically distinct. The human isolates contained two large tandem duplications, the organisations of which were confirmed by PCR. Designated vGI-17 and vGI-18 these duplications spanned 63 and 109 open reading frames, respectively. PCR screening of over 30 additional MAP isolates (3 human derived, 27 animal derived and one environmental isolate confirmed that vGI-17 and vGI-18 are common across many isolates. Quantitative real-time PCR of vGI-17 demonstrated that the proportion of cells containing the vGI-17 duplication varied between 0.01 to 15% amongst isolates with human isolates containing a higher proportion of vGI-17 compared to most animal isolates. These findings suggest these duplications are transient genomic rearrangements. We hypothesise that the over-representation of vGI-17 in human derived MAP strains may enhance their ability to infect or persist within a human host by increasing genome redundancy and conferring crude regulation of protein expression across biologically important regions.
Arrazuria, Rakel; Elguezabal, Natalia; Juste, Ramon A.; Derakhshani, Hooman; Khafipour, Ehsan
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) the causative agent of paratuberculosis, produces a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. It has been recently suggested that MAP infection may be associated with dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in ruminants. Since diet is one of the key factors affecting the balance of microbial populations in the digestive tract, we intended to evaluate the effect of MAP infection in a rabbit model fed a regular or high fiber diet during challenge. The composition of microbiota of the cecal content and the sacculus rotundus was studied in 20 New Zealand white female rabbits. The extracted DNA was subjected to paired-end Illumina sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene for microbiota analysis. Microbial richness (Chao1) in the cecal content was significantly increased by MAP infection in regular diet rabbits (p = 0.0043) and marginally increased (p = 0.0503) in the high fiber group. Analysis of beta-diversity showed that MAP infection produces deeper changes in the microbiota of sacculus rotundus than in the cecal content. A lower abundance of Proteobacteria in the cecal content of infected animals fed the high fiber diet and also lower abundance of Bacteroidetes in the sacculus rotundus of infected animals fed the regular diet were observed. Based on OPLS-DA analysis, we observed that some bacteria repeatedly appear to be positively associated with infection in different samples under different diets (families Dehalobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, and Mogibacteriaceae; genus Anaerofustis). The same phenomenon was observed with some of the bacteria negatively associated with MAP infection (genera Anaerostipes and Coprobacillus). However, other groups of bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae family and ML615J-28 order) were positively associated with infection in some circumstances and negatively associated with infection in others. Data demonstrate that MAP infection
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Johne’s disease is the chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants, and a major health hazard worldwide. In recent years, researchers have focused on mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP antigens in diagnostic tests. Identification of antibodies against MAP antigens is, therefore, effective for the diagnosis or preparation of vaccine. The aim of this study was to prepare and purify polyclonal antibodies against MAP antigens. Materials and Methods: A New Zealand white rabbit was immunized at a certain time period with MAP antigens and Freund’s adjuvant. After the immunization of the animal, the rabbit was bled to obtain enriched serum. Immunoglobulins were obtained via sedimentation with ammonium sulfate 35% and then IgG was purified by ion exchange (DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Serologic test was used to evaluate the interaction of antigens and antibodies. Results: Ion exchange chromatography of IgG showed one peak, and SDS_PAGE of IgG showed a single band. Serologic test was applied and clear precipitation lines were appeared up to 1:16 dilution, which indicated the high quality of the product. Conclusion: In this study, the humoral immune response was induced well by immunization with MAP antigens in a New Zealand white rabbit and polyclonal antibodies were produced in high titers. Polyclonal antibodies are relatively inexpensive and easy to produce in large quantities and can connect to the more connective sites, resulting in better sensitivity. Identification of polyclonal antibodies via immunological tests can play a significant role in studying MAP disorders.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP the causative agent of paratuberculosis, produces a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. It has been recently suggested that MAP infection may be associated with dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in ruminants. Since diet is one of the key factors affecting the balance of microbial populations in the digestive tract, we intended to evaluate the effect of MAP infection in a rabbit model fed a regular or high fiber diet during challenge. The composition of microbiota of the cecal content and the sacculus rotundus was studied in 20 New Zealand white female rabbits. The extracted DNA was subjected to paired-end Illumina sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene for microbiota analysis. Microbial richness (Chao1 in the cecal content was significantly increased by MAP infection in regular diet rabbits (p = 0.0043 and marginally increased (p = 0.0503 in the high fiber group. Analysis of beta-diversity showed that MAP infection produces deeper changes in the microbiota of sacculus rotundus than in the cecal content. A lower abundance of Proteobacteria in the cecal content of infected animals fed the high fiber diet and also lower abundance of Bacteroidetes in the sacculus rotundus of infected animals fed the regular diet were observed. Based on OPLS-DA analysis, we observed that some bacteria repeatedly appear positively associated with infection in different samples under different diets (families Dehalobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Mogibacteriaceae; genus Anaerofustis. The same phenomenon was observed with some of the bacteria negatively associated with MAP infection (genera Anaerostipes and Coprobacillus. However, other groups of bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae family and ML615J-28 order were positively associated with infection in some circumstances and negatively associated with infection in others.Data demonstrate that MAP
Widagdo Sri Nugroho
Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD or partuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants caused by infection of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis subspecies (MAP. The disease has been detected serologically in Indonesia. It’s potential to spread to other herds and could create great economic losses. The objectives of current study were to detect MAP in milk and faeces of dairy cows as well as to evaluate the association between farm management factors and presence of the bacteria in dairy cows in Bogor. The sample size was calculated using the formula to detect disease with the prevalence assumed to be 5% using 95% significant level. Milk and faeces samples were taken from 62 dairy cows which were suspected as suffering from MAP infection. Detection of MAP was done by isolation in Herrold’ egg yolk medium with mycobactin J (HEYMj, acid-fast bacilli Ziehl-Neelsen staining, PCR IS900 and F57. Biochemical test to confirm M. tuberculosis presence was also conducted. Fifteen isolates of Mycobacterium sp. were found from the faeces samples but not from the corresponding milk samples. However, conventional PCR conducted on the isolate as well as the milk samples, gave negative results. Biochemical test proved that all Mycobacterium sp. isolates were not M. tuberculosis. This study indicated the prevalence of MAP in Bogor was less than 5%. These findings should be continued by observational study to achieve the comprehensive information at the cattle and herd level. Bovine Tuberculosis monitoring should be done also to protect dairy herd and food safety for the community.
Jeroen De Buck
Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics
Denmirtas, Cigdem; Buyukcangaz, Hakan; Yazgan, Senih; Candogan, Burak Nazmi
This study was carried out in the summer of 2001 in a 3 year old and in the summer of 2002 in a 4 year old sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium, variety Z-900) on Mazzard rootstocks in Bayramic-Canakkale which is located in the west part of Turkey. Micro-sprinkler irrigation was selected as the irrigation method. The trees were subjected to four micro-sprinkler irrigation treatments (T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4). The water applied in treatment T-3 was considered sufficient to satisfy fully needs of the crop (100% of ETc) and to allow good rooting and tree growth. The water balance relationship was used in estimating ETc. A total of 4 climatological methods were selected for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration on a daily basis. Some of these methods are based on combination theory and others are empirical methods based primarily on solar radiation, temperature ans relative humidity. An attempt was made in the current study to develop regional relationship between the evapotranspiration measured and that estimated by the climatological methods, such as FAO-Penman, Penman-Monteith, FAO-Radiation and FAO-Blaney-Criddle. Performance of the climatological methods in estimating the ETo values as compared to the measured values was evaluated on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE). In 2001, the Penman-Monteith equation gave the best results followed by FAO-Penman, FAO-Radiation and FAO-Blaney-Criddle. In 2002, the Penman-Monteith and FAO-Blaney-Criddle equations gave same results. PMID:19069518
Examines the paradigm of Pan-Africanism and the identity construct in the historic and cultural contexts of blacks outside of Africa, critiquing theories on the African identity construct. Suggests that black American identity is too complex for this simplification and must be considered within the context of world acculturation. Contains 34…
The past 25 years of research on the cattle genome has focused on DNA marker based tools that can be applied to genetic improvement in cattle. However, the paradigm of marker assisted selection for complex traits has recently shifted from focusing on genetic variation contained in specific quantita...
This article critiques the performance approach to HRD and proposes a new model that takes into account the deep complexities inherent in the human transaction of work. In critically examining the dominant performance paradigm, meanings of work are examined, illustrating that the desire to work extends beyond extrinsic considerations. That work…
Theonys Diógenes Freitas
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to conduct an epidemiological study and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease in dairy goats within the semiarid region of Paraíba State. The study was done during the period of March 2009 to July 2011, during which 727 female goats from 86 flocks from the city of Monteiro, Paraíba were investigated. For the serological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map infection indirect ELISA tests (screening and confirmatory were performed. Of the 727 animals used six (0.82% were seropositive at the confirmatory test after screening, and of the 86 flocks six (6.97% presented at least one seropositive animal. In positive flocks the frequency of reactive animals ranged from 5.26% to 16.60%. Risk factors identified were production system (weaning and reproduction (odds ratio = 36.0; 95% CI = 2.6 –486.1; p < 0,001 and absence of technical infrastructure (odds ratio = 54.0; 95% CI = 4.5 –642.9; p < 0,001. It was concluded that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is present in dairy goat flocks in the region; however, its influence on decrease productivity as well as the risk of transmission to humans through animal products must totally evaluated. Based on the analysis of risk factors, improvements are recommended for the technical infrastructure and the management of breeding goats.
Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R
Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation. PMID:16244077
Jolivet, C; Rogge, M; Degen, B
Genetic diversity strongly influences populations' adaptability to changing environments and therefore survival. Sustainable forest management practices have multiple roles including conservation of genetic resources and timber production. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the variation in genetic diversity among adult and offspring individuals, and the effects of mating system on offspring survival and growth in wild cherry, Prunus avium. We analysed adult trees and open pollinated seed-families from three stands in Germany at eight microsatellite loci and one incompatibility system locus and conducted paternity analyses. Seed viability testing and seed sowing in a nursery allowed further testing for the effects of pollen donor diversity and genetic similarity between mates on the offspring performance at the seed and seedling stages. Our results were contrasting across stands. Loss of genetic diversity from adult to seedling stages and positive effect of mate diversity on offspring performance occurred in one stand only, whereas biparental inbreeding depression and significant decrease in fixation index from adults to seedlings was detected in two stands. We discussed the effects of stand genetic diversity on the magnitude of biparental inbreeding depression at several life-stages and its consequences on the management of genetic resources in P. avium. PMID:23211795
Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie
The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment. PMID:24812040
Zahra Ebrahim (MSc
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. this study aimed to characterize the genome of the MAP 316F strain. Methods: The MAP 316F strain was subjected to the PCR-F57 and PCR-IS900 experiments in order to ensure its identity as MAP. This was followed by application of the Thibault genotyping system consisting of eight loci including 292, x3, 25, 47, 3, 7, 10 and 32. Required genomic material for all experiments was prepared using the simple method of boiling. Gel electrophoresis findings related to the typing PCRs were backed by sequencing of amplification products. Results: In PCR amplification, eight products with the size of 300, 298, 350, 217, 208, 203, 803 and 649 bp were detected at 292, X3, 25, 47, 3, 7, 10 and 32 loci, holding 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2 and 8 copies of TRs at these loci, respectively. Conclusion: This genomic pattern is matched with that of the MAP 316F vaccine strain from the French Merial company and also the MAP K10 fully-sequenced strain. Keywords: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Genomics, Genotyping techniques, Strain
Brown, Michael A.
The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.
González-Macías, Vannia; Wudka, José
A simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) that provides an explicit realization of the dark-matter (DM) neutrino-portal paradigm is presented. The leading interactions between the dark sector, containing scalars and relic fermions, and the SM involve neutrinos. This model meets all observational constraints.
Geller, Jack M.; Lasley, Paul
Explains how the New Environmental Paradigm Scale (NEP) is used to examine and measure paradigmatic shifts in the public's orientation toward the physical environment. Study findings across three different populations confirm the dimensionality of a three-factor model. An appendix contains the NEP scale and item numbers. (ML)
MA Qin-hai; GUAN Zhi-min; LI Ying; ZHAO Xi-nan
Process representation or modeling plays an important role in business process engineering.Process modeling languages can be evaluated by the extent to which they provide constructs useful for representing and reasoning about the aspects of a process, and subsequently are chosen for a certain purpose.This paper reviews process modeling language paradigms and points out their advantages and disadvantages.
Answer Set Programming (ASP) is one of the most prominent and successful knowledge representation paradigms. The success of ASP is due to its expressive non-monotonic modeling language and its efficient computational methods originating from building propositional satisfiability solvers. The wide adoption of ASP has motivated several extensions to…
Petiton, S.; Sato, M.; Emad, N.; Calvin, C.; Tsuji, M.; Dandouna, M.
Abstract: In order to propose a framework and programming paradigms for post-petascale computing, on the road to exascale computing and beyond, we introduced new languages, associated with a hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm, allowing scientific end-users and developers to program highly hierarchical architectures designed for extreme computing. In this paper, we explain the interest of such hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing and its well adaptation to several large computational science applications, such as for linear algebra solvers used for reactor core physic. We describe the YML language and framework allowing describing graphs of parallel components, which may be developed using PGAS-like language such as XMP, scheduled and computed on supercomputers. Then, we propose experimentations on supercomputers (such as the "K" and "Hooper" ones) of the hybrid method MERAM (Multiple Explicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method) as a case study for iterative methods manipulating sparse matrices, and the block Gauss-Jordan method as a case study for direct method manipulating dense matrices. We conclude proposing evolutions for this programming paradigm.
Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe
The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…
Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee
Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…
Chadwick, Clifton B.
The author reviews various elements of what may be considered as evidence that the long-awaited shift in the education paradigm is actually happening. Concepts like student-centered learning, attainment-based evaluation, knowledge-based constructivism, and effort-based intelligence are growing, are being more widely recognized as important, and…
the attention of politicians, planners and architects today is focused on the individual, not the collective. But the policy of the third way has no counterpart in an urbanism torn between two paradigms. Tom Nielsen paints the picture of what has to urban development since the welfare state and the...
Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T
Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available sev...
Asmus, Edward P., Jr.
This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…
Wales, Charles E.; And Others
Defines education's new paradigm as schooling based on decision making, the critical thinking skills serving it, and the knowledge base supporting it. Outlines a model decision-making process using a hypothetical breakfast problem; a late riser chooses goals, generates ideas, develops an action plan, and implements and evaluates it. (4 references)…
Full Text Available The paper reviews principles of different concepts of enterprise management including a theory of constrains, a Balanced Scorecard, lean production, Six Sigma. The authors believe that creating some mix or integration of these paradigms can bring extraordinary effect for production management. As example the modified Balanced Scorecard based on constraints and its application on Magnitorsk metallurgical enterprise in Russia is described.
Poulsen, Lars K.
In this review of research priorities, presented for the European Commission, food allergy is established as a disease with a considerable impact on modern society. Research paradigms have changed from establishing basic symptomatology and diagnostic methods over allergen characterization to a ri...
Khare, Sangeeta; Thomas A Ficht; Renato L. Santos; Romano, Juan; Ficht, Allison R.; Zhang, Shuping; Grant, Irene R.; Libal, Melissa; Hunter, David; Adams, L. Garry
Immunomagnetic bead separation coupled with bead beating and real-time PCR was found to be a very effective procedure for the isolation, separation, and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk and/or fecal samples from cattle and American bison. Samples were spiked with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms, which bound to immunomagnetic beads and were subsequently lysed by bead beating; then protein and cellular contaminants were removed by phenol-chloroform-i...
A novel real-time PCR assay for specific detection and quantification of
Wagner Martin; Baumgartner Walter; Khol Johannes; Volgger Patrick; Dzieciol Monika; Hein Ingeborg
Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants and is suggested to be one of the etiologic factors in Crohn's disease in humans. Contaminated milk might expose humans to that pathogen. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel real-time PCR assay providing the additional possibility to detect viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) based on the MAP-specific Mptb52.16 t...
Cashman W; Buckley J.; Quigley T; Fanning S; More S; Egan J; Berry D.; Grant I; O'Farrell K
Abstract Since 1994, Irish cattle have been exposed to greater risks of acquiring Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection as a consequence of the importation of over 70,000 animals from continental Europe. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reported clinical cases of paratuberculosis in Ireland. This study examines the prevalence of factors that promote the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratubercu...
Neutralization of Interleukin-10 Significantly Enhances Gamma Interferon Expression in Peripheral Blood by Stimulation with Johnin Purified Protein Derivative and by Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Experimentally Infected Cattle with Paratuberculosis
Buza, Joram J.; Hikono, Hirokazu; Mori, Yasuyuki; Nagata, Reiko; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Shu, Yujing; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Momotani, Eiichi
Monoclonal antibody neutralization of interleukin-10 (IL-10) increased Johnin purified protein derivative-induced whole-blood gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion 23-fold and also increased IFN-γ secretion ninefold following in vitro Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results demonstrate the suppressive effect of IL-10 on immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle.
Contemporary spreadsheets are plagued by a profusion of errors, auditing difficulties, lack of uniform development methodologies, and barriers to easy comprehension of the underlying business models they represent. This paper presents a case that most of these difficulties stem from the fact that the standard spreadsheet user-interaction paradigm - the 'cell-matrix' approach - is appropriate for spreadsheet data presentation but has significant drawbacks with respect to spreadsheet creation, maintenance and comprehension when workbooks pass a minimal threshold of complexity. An alternative paradigm for the automated generation of spreadsheets directly from plain-language business model descriptions is presented along with its potential benefits. Sunsight Modeller (TM), a working software system implementing the suggested paradigm, is briefly described.
Waddell, L A; Rajić, A; Stärk, K D C; McEwen, S A
Global research knowledge has accumulated over the past few decades, and there is reasonable evidence for a positive association between Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease in humans, although its role as a human pathogen has not been entirely accepted. For this reason, management of public health risk due to M. paratuberculosis remains an important policy issue in agri-food public health arenas in many countries. Responsible authorities must decide whether existing mitigation strategies are sufficient to prevent or reduce human exposure to M. paratuberculosis. A Web-based questionnaire was administered to topic specialists to elicit empirical knowledge and opinion on the overall public health impact of M. paratuberculosis, the importance of various routes of human exposure to the pathogen, existing mitigation strategies and the need for future strategies. The questionnaire had four sections and consisted of 20 closed and five open questions. Topic specialists believed that M. paratuberculosis is likely a risk to human health (44.8%) and, given the paucity of available evidence, most frequently ranked it as a moderate public health issue (40.1%). A significant correlation was detected between topic specialists' commitment to M. paratuberculosis in terms of the number of years or proportion of work dedicated to this topic, and the likelihood of an extreme answer (high or low) to the above questions. Topic specialists identified contact with ruminants and dairy products as the most likely routes of exposure for humans. There was consensus on exposure routes for ruminants and what commodities to target in mitigation efforts. Described mandatory programmes mainly focused on culling diseased animals and voluntary on-farm prevention programmes. Despite ongoing difficulties in the identification of subclinical infections in animals, the topic specialists largely agreed that further enhancement of on-farm programmes in affected commodities by
Conclusion: This case raises an important clinical question of whether close observation off antimicrobials is appropriate in select cases of immunocompetent patients with localized atypical mycobacterial disease of soft tissue and skeletal structures.
After describing the characteristics of programming paradigm,this pap er introduces the approach of code component composition reuse in detail, propos es and discusses viewpoint that code component composition reuse is a kind of ne w programming paradigm. This paper also specifies the characteristics of this ne w programming paradigm in detail, and points out some issues that must be resolv ed for using this new programming paradigm.
Evaluation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis faecal culture protocols and media Avaliação de protocolos de cultivo fecal e meios para a cultura de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an important enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. The disease is officially considered exotic in Brazil, but recent serological surveys and the isolation of the agent suggest it may occur in our herds. The aim of this study was to evaluate three different formulations of Herrold's egg yolk agar with mycobactin J (HEYM and four faecal culture protocols considering their ability for Map growth as well as cost and ease of application. Three formulations of HEYM were inoculated with two suspensions of Map. Spiked faeces and naturally contaminated faecal samples were treated by the four faecal culture protocols. Centrifugation protocol and HEYM recommended by OIE showed the best results on the recovery of Map.A paratuberculose é uma importante enterite de ruminantes causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. A enfermidade é oficialmente considerada exótica no Brasil, mas inquéritos sorológicos recentes e o isolamento do agente etiológico sugerem que ela pode estar presente em nossos rebanhos. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar três diferentes fórmulas do Ágar gema de ovo de Herrold suplementado com micobactina J (HEYM e quatro protocolos de cultura fecal quanto ao crescimento de Map, bem como custo e facilidade de implementação. Três fórmulas de HEYM foram inoculadas com duas suspensões de Map. Fezes contaminadas artificialmente e naturalmente com Map foram tratadas pelos quatro protocolos de cultura fecal. O protocolo da centrifugação e a fórmula de HEYM recomendada pela OIE demonstraram os melhores resultados quanto à recuperação de Map.
在汲取国内外相关研究成果及学术观点的基础上,详细阐述了欧洲甜樱桃的生物学和生态学特性、起源及地理分布,探讨了果实所含营养成分及其营养和医疗保健价值;分析了存量资源的保存现状、优良品种及砧木选育的研究进展;指出了资源开发利用过程中存在的不足,展望了欧洲甜樱桃系列产品综合开发和创新利用的广阔前景。旨在实现欧洲甜樱桃无公害、标准化栽培及资源的可持续利用,为推动功能性饮品、保健品及药品的产业化发展,提供理论依据和科技支撑。%This paper expounded systematically the biological and ecological characteristics of Prunus avium L.,and its the origin and geographic distribution on the basis of generalized the research production and science paper of P.avium at home and abroad in the recently years.We discussed the nutrition ingredient of P.avium and its nutrition and health function,analyzed the status quo of germplasm resources conservation,utilization and estimate,and the progress of variety breeding study.We pointed out the insufficiencies in exploitation and utilization,and expected the bright future for the development of series production of P.avium The aim was to carry out nuisanceless,standardization planting and sustainable utilization of P.avium resources,provided theory warranty and support of science and technology for promoted the industrialization development of functionality beverage,health products and material medica of P.avium.
Latency is associated with the time lag it takes for the health effects resulting from exposure to ionising radiation to show up. However, the term latency can also be applied to the time it takes for a policy to be implemented. This length of time has been suggested as broadly 40-year process. Given that radioactivity was identified and named in 1896, three paradigms are identified and examined from 1896 to 2016 and the criteria for a 4th paradigm suggested for the period 2017-2056. The review examines the changes that have taken place in scientific understanding and in public trust, a few key developments and the associated establishment of the related organisational infrastructure designed to collate and assess the evidence.
Full Text Available A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm providesmany benefits in developments of distributed application at the sametime introduce new requirements for security issues with thesesystems. In this paper we try to focus mainly on security issues thatarise when mobile agent paradigm comes into play.
system boundary under investigation? A fundamental rethinking of how to identify the needed chemicals based products and how to design, build and operate the corresponding production units, is necessary. Indeed, the chemical industry today is changed from the chemical industry of forty years ago. Clear...... evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical engineering professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. In terms of where the graduating chemical engineers are going to work, a clear shift from the commodity chemical industry to the product oriented...... businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...
Mak, Grace Zee; Loeff, Deborah S
Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of emergent surgery in children. Historically, surgical dogma dictated emergent appendectomy due to concern for impending perforation. Recently, however, there has been a paradigm shift in both the understanding of its pathophysiology as well as its treatment to more nonoperative management. No longer is it considered a spectrum from uncomplicated appendicitis inevitably progressing to complicated appendicitis over time. Rather, uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis are now considered two distinct pathophysiologic entities. This change requires not only educating the patients and their families but also the general practitioners who will be managing treatment expectations and caring for patients long term. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of appendicitis, including the differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, as well as the new treatment paradigms. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e235-e240.]. PMID:27403670
Full Text Available This article deals with the conceptual foundations of the modern global economic system of development. It reflects the cyclical nature of changes to and the details of global integration processes. The creation of a global economy from a multi-paradigmatic angle is briefly outlined, taking into account the modern paradigms of globalization and the predominance of alternatives to the future development of a global economic space. The article investigates the development of a new type of world economy, a multi-system with a proven role for linkages and a more consolidated world economy. The article reveals the initial conditions for and main qualitative changes related to the integrated development of a complex network of interdependent national societies and macro-regional geo-economic structures. The article also reveals changes in the configuration of those factors that provide competitiveness for these societies and geo-economic formations.
Ma, Kevin C; Perli, Samuel D; Lu, Timothy K
Genetic circuits, composed of complex networks of interacting molecular machines, enable living systems to sense their dynamic environments, perform computation on the inputs, and formulate appropriate outputs. By rewiring and expanding these circuits with novel parts and modules, synthetic biologists have adapted living systems into vibrant substrates for engineering. Diverse paradigms have emerged for designing, modeling, constructing, and characterizing such artificial genetic systems. In this paper, we first provide an overview of recent advances in the development of genetic parts and highlight key engineering approaches. We then review the assembly of these parts into synthetic circuits from the perspectives of digital and analog logic, systems biology, and metabolic engineering, three areas of particular theoretical and practical interest. Finally, we discuss notable challenges that the field of synthetic biology still faces in achieving reliable and predictable forward-engineering of artificial biological circuits. PMID:26908220
Rauscher, Laura Anne
Paradigm adherence has been developed as a meta-theoretical approach to organize and to classify the multitude of different theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Four paradigms have been identified in the literature: The Organic-Medical, The Psychological, The Systemic-Relational, and the Social Constructivist paradigms. Only one other study…
Robbins, William W.
This viewgraph presentation reviews changes that are required in Space Transportation. This new transportation paradigm from the reliance on the Space Shuttle to a mixture of space transportation vehicles, i.e., the Russian Progress, vehicle, the Japanese HTV, the European ATV and other commercial orbital transportation systems, requires a new cultural paradigm. This new paradigm is outlined, and reviewed.
Rowland, Robert C.
Considers Walter Fisher's criticisms of the "rational-world" paradigm, as well as his defense of the narrative paradigm. Concludes that a useful argumentative tradition, best represented by the informal logic movement, avoids the dangers identified by narrative proponents. Notes that the narrative paradigm largely fails to fulfill its aims. (MM)
Angela Köppl; Claudia Pichl
At the turn of the last decade a paradigm change in environmental policies became apparent. At the end of the 1970s and at the beginning of the 1980s, during the first environmental revolution, environmental problems were seen as a potential conflict between economic growth and the quality of the environment; since the end of the 1980s, however, the new concept of "sustainable development" which has guided the discussion and policies regarding the environment, has implied the possibility of a...
Maria de Lourdes Mollo
This article addresses the discussion proposed by the World Academy of Art & Science (WAAS) about the need to build a new paradigm to confront the challenges of the global society and to move across to a New Society discussing specific problems related to economic globalization and proposing changes. The ways in which economic orthodoxy and heterodoxy analyze the role of the State and the question of sustainability of development and the problems of environmental sustainability depend on thei...
Byerlee, Derek; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth
The fundamental role that agriculture plays in development has long been recognized. In the seminal work on the subject, agriculture was seen as a source of contributions that helped induce industrial growth and a structural transformation of the economy. However, globalization, integrated value chains, rapid technological and institutional innovations, and environmental constraints have deeply changed the context for agriculture's role. We argue that a new paradigm is needed that recognizes ...
The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropria...
Nitin Jain; Neeraj Singla
A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm...
Whether we are referring to architectural practice or architectural education, women’s lack of visibility is an important issue that reveals the fact that architecture is still defined by a masculine paradigm starting from design norms and canons followed by the dissemination of the traditional image of the architect as white aggressive and egocentric middle-class man. In terms of architectural education, the gender barometer leans, according to specific statistics, in favour of the male side...
A paradigm shift is taking place in contemporary understanding of the role of human resources in development. Support for the supply-sided human capital model rests on the proposition, not yet established empirically, that it leads to more rapid rates of development than alternative approaches. The human resources development strategy stresses that human resources are both producers and the intended beneficiaries of development. It thus focuses on the achievement of human development directly...
There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr’s explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater, Oaksford, Nakisa, & Reddington, 2003). It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning—implementational level—has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning—computational level (Over, 2009). Consequently, recent imaging results ...
This article provides a critical analysis from the viewpoint of social anthropology of the different theoretic approaches that also set the tone of current debates on immigration in Europe and elsewhere. We begin by retracing the models developed and popularized since the 1960s to discuss the integration theory and Marxist reflections on the rise of class consciousness in immigrants. The article illustrates the paradigm shift that occurred in the 1990s that takes into account the role of the ...
Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Lavender, Peter
Purpose - If we are to achieve meaningful participation and co-production for older people in care, more radical approaches are required. This project explores an innovation where older people using social care were matched to community based learning mentors to develop partnerships within which learning interventions were facilitated. We explore how the concept of learning might be used as a paradigm to raise the quality of care in institutionalised settings using a co-productive and relati...
Mark W. Antley
Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.
Ecological theory provides applications to biodiversity management but often falls short of expectations. One possibility is that heuristic theories of a young science are too immature. Logistic growth predicts a carrying capacity, but fisheries managed with the Lotka-Volterra paradigm continue to collapse. A second issue is that general predictions may not be useful. The theory of island biogeography predicts species richness but does not predict community composition. A third possibility is that the theory itself may not have much to do with nature, or that empirical parameterization is too difficult to know. The meta population paradigm is relevant to conservation, but meta populations might not be common in nature. For instance, empirical parameterization within the meta population paradigm is usually infeasible. A challenge is to determine why ecology fails to match needs of managers sometimes but helps at other. Managers may expect too much of paradigmatic blueprints, while ecologists believe them too much. Those who implement biodiversity conservation plans need simple, pragmatic guidelines based on science. Is this possible. What is possible An eclectic review of theory and practice demonstrate the power and weaknesses of the ideas that guide conservation and attempt to identify reasons for prevailing disappointment.
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis progresses more quickly in young red deer than in sheep or cattle. This study describes the clinical, immunological and pathological changes over a 50-week period in fourteen 4-month-old red deer that received heavy oral challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. At 4 and 12 weeks post challenge they were anaesthetized and a section of jejunal lymph node was surgically removed for culture, histopathology, and genetic studies. All 14 deer became infected, none were clinically affected, and they had varying degrees of subclinical disease when killed at week 50. Week 4 biopsies showed no paratuberculosis lesions, but MAP was cultured from all animals. At weeks 12 and 50 histopathological lesions ranged from mild to severe with corresponding low-to-high antibody titres, which peaked at 12–24 weeks. IFN-γ responses peaked at 8–15 weeks and were higher in mildly affected animals than in those with severe lesions.
Huda, A.; Jungersen, Gregers; Lind, Peter
During a 2-year study period, 252 animals from dairy herds infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and 119 animals from non-infected herds were subjected to repeated blood and faecal sampling. Animals were retrospectively grouped by infection status as infected, exposed (culture......-blood lymphocytes (IFN-gamma test), and measurement of antibody responses against M. paratuberculosis in serum and milk by an in-house absorbed ELISA. The IFN-gamma test diagnosed higher proportions of infected and exposed animals than the antibody ELISAs. The highest sensitivity of IFN-gamma test was in infected...... compared with repeated samplings showed better performance of the IFN-gamma test by repeated samplings, and the milk antibody ELISA in animals of 3+ years of age performed significantly better with repeated sampling compared with single sampling. In conclusion, the IFN-gamma test may be applied for...
Full Text Available This paper presents morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. with special reference to their correlations. The examined parameters were: length, diameter, weight of the aboveground and underground parts, number of buds, root volume, root length and leaf area. The ratio of heights was determined on the basis of the parameters derived: diameter, and the ratio of aboveground and underground parts of a seedling and the Quality Index. Height and diameter have proven to be good indicators of quality. Root volume has proven to be a better indicator of the quality of seedlings than root length. The weight ratio of the aboveground and underground parts of broadleaved trees in the dry state must be defined in advance, both when the measurements are carried out with and without leaves. The Quality Index has proven to be the most comprehensive morphological indicator of quality.
Mariette, Stéphanie; Balsemin, Emilie; Stoeckel, Solenn; Tavaud, Muriel; Le Bouler, Hervé; Santi, Frédérique; Verger, Michel
La diversité génétique des parents et de leurs descendants, ainsi que les contributions mâle et femelle à la récolte de graines ont été estimées dans trois vergers à graines expérimentaux de Prunus avium. Les données collectées ont été utilisées pour comparer différentes tailles de population efficace, en se basant sur l'analyse de la phénologie, de la récolte de graines et de la paternité. Nos résultats n'ont pas montré de différence de diversité génétique entre les parents et les descendant...
Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia
The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant. PMID:27144542
Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.
Full Text Available Functionality in wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones of Tuscany Appenines provenances. Results of a research regarding the functionality of already selected wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones are reported. The main target was to select the genotypes with the best ecological efficiency and less sensible to environmental stress, in order to give concrete indications for arboriculture for wood productions. Starting from 2002, measurements were carried out in the experimental plot of Papiano (Stia, AR, where the following clones with provenance from the Tuscan Apennines were compared: Casina Alpe 1 (A, Casina Alpe 2 (D, Puzzòlo (C, Paradisino (E, Piantata Catenaia (F. Dendrometrical data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each season, in order to evaluate the growth and the individual current increment of the clones. To better characterize the canopies of each clone, measurements of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and of the leaf area index (LAI where carried out with ceptometers and PCA LAI 2000. In order to evaluate differences between the clones regarding functionality and response to environmental stress, growth and productivity were related to the most important canopy characteristics. Ecological efficiency was calculated for the different clones using the net assimilation rate (NAR. The results show that the clone E has the most developed canopies and the best results in terms of growth. But at the same time it also presents densely branched round canopies and results more sensible to the effects of summer drought. These elements contribute to advise against the use of this clone in future genetic improvement programs and in high quality wood productions. On the contrary, the clones C and A have both good growth characteristics and a better general architecture and are therefore advised for high quality wood productions especially in the same geographic region.
Else, Mark A; Stankiewicz-Davies, Anna P; Crisp, Carol M; Atkinson, Christopher J
It was investigated whether premature fruit abscission in Prunus avium L. was triggered by a reduction in polar auxin transport (PAT). The capacity of pedicels to transport tritiated IAA ([3H]-IAA) via the PAT pathway was measured at intervals throughout flower and fruit development. The extent of passive diffusion, assessed by concurrent applications of [14C]-benzoic acid ([14C]-BA), was negligible. Transported radioactivity recovered from agar blocks eluted at the same retention time as authentic [3H]-IAA during HPLC fractionation. The capacity for PAT was already high 7 d before anthesis and increased further following the fertilization of flowers at anthesis. PAT intensity was greatest immediately following fertilization and at the beginning of the cell expansion phase of fruit growth; the transport intensity in fruitlets destined to abscind was negligible. The amount of endogenous IAA moving through the PAT pathway was greatest during the first 3 weeks after fertilization and was again high at the beginning of the fruit expansion stage. IAA export in the phloem increased following fertilization then declined below detectable levels. ABA export in the phloem increased markedly during stone formation and at the onset of fruit expansion. TIBA applied to pedicels of fruit in situ promoted fruitlet abscission in 2000 but not in 2001, despite PAT capacity being reduced by over 98% in the treated pedicels. The application of TIBA to pedicels did not affect fruit expansion. The role of PAT and IAA in relation to the development and retention of Prunus avium fruit is discussed. PMID:15310825
Public facility restoration planning traditionally focused on response to natural disasters and hazardous materials accidental releases. These plans now need to integrate response to terrorist actions. Therefore, plans must address a wide range of potential vulnerabilities. Similar types of broad remediation planning are needed for restoration of waste and hazardous material handling areas and facilities. There are strong similarities in damage results and remediation activities between unintentional and terrorist actions; however, the uncertainties associated with terrorist actions result in a re-evaluation of approaches to planning. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in confined industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. Therefore, they arguably involve a superset of drivers, concerns and public agencies compared to other restoration efforts. This superset of conditions increases complexity of interactions, reduces our knowledge of the initial conditions, and even condenses the timeline for restoration response. Therefore, evaluations of alternative restoration management approaches developed for responding to terrorist actions provide useful knowledge for large, complex waste management projects. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the 'adaptive management' paradigm provides a constructive parallel operations paradigm for restoration of facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, multiple/simultaneous public agency actions, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a facility and surrounding area(s) after a
Janecky, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doerr, Ted B [NON LANL
Public facility restoration planning traditionally focused on response to natural disasters and hazardous materials accidental releases. These plans now need to integrate response to terrorist actions. Therefore, plans must address a wide range of potential vulnerabilities. Similar types of broad remediation planning are needed for restoration of waste and hazardous material handling areas and facilities. There are strong similarities in damage results and remediation activities between unintentional and terrorist actions; however, the uncertainties associated with terrorist actions result in a re-evaluation of approaches to planning. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in confined industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. Therefore, they arguably involve a superset of drivers, concerns and public agencies compared to other restoration efforts. This superset of conditions increases complexity of interactions, reduces our knowledge of the initial conditions, and even condenses the timeline for restoration response. Therefore, evaluations of alternative restoration management approaches developed for responding to terrorist actions provide useful knowledge for large, complex waste management projects. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the 'adaptive management' paradigm provides a constructive parallel operations paradigm for restoration of facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, multiple/simUltaneous public agency actions, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a facility and surrounding area
Kulski, J K; Khinsoe, C; Pryce, T; K. Christiansen
The presence of mycobacteria in blood culture fluids (BACTEC) of AIDS patients with positive growth indices (GIs, > 20 U) was investigated by using a multiplex PCR to detect and identify members of the genus Mycobacterium, M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. tuberculosis. Three different methods of extracting mycobacterial DNA from blood culture fluid were compared for use with the multiplex PCR. Mycobacterial cells were pelleted from a small aliquot of blood culture fluid by centrifugation, ...
KAWAJI, Satoko; Nagata, Reiko; Mori, Yasuyuki
ABSTRACT An efficient protocol for the manual fluorescent MGIT culture system combined with rapid confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) growth in the broth culture was established and evaluated for the detection of viable MAP in direct quantitative PCR (QPCR) positive bovine feces. Manually detected fluorescence emissions from MGIT tubes were analyzed objectively using an open source software, ImageJ. For molecular confirmation of MAP growth, DNA samples harvested ...
René Ramírez G.; Juan Maldonado E.
RESUMENEl Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis (MAP) es el agente causal de una enfermedad granulomatosica crónica, que afecta el tracto gastrointestinal de rumiantes domesticos y salvajes, conocida como la enfermedad de Johne o paratuberculosis. MAP es un microorganismo de crecimiento lento en cultivo, no obstante sobrevive in vivo en células fagocíticas mononucleares de los rumiantes, bajo condiciones de susceptibilidad individual, virulencia de la cepa infectante y estado inmune...
Comparison of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare strains from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), patients without AIDS, and animal sources.
Byrne, S K; Geddes, G L; Isaac-Renton, J. L.; Black, W A
Difloxacin, A-56620, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, cephapirin, SK&F 88070, and spectinomycin were used to compare the in vitro susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellular isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), patients without AIDS, and diseased animals. Against the isolates from humans without AIDS, the quinolone compounds difloxacin and A-56620 were found to be the most effective, each inhibiting 50% of strains at a concentration of 2 micro...
Scanu, Antonio M.; Tim J Bull; Cannas, Sara; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Dettori, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Stefania; Hermon-Taylor, John
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, a systemic infection and chronic inflammation of the intestine that affects many species, including primates. Infection is widespread in livestock, and human populations are exposed. Johne's disease is associated with immune dysregulation, with involvement of the enteric nervous system overlapping with features of irritable bowel syndrome in humans. The present study was designed to look for an association between Mycobacteri...
Merianne Alkio; Uwe Jonas; Myriam Declercq; Steven Van Nocker; Moritz Knoche
The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘Regina’), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes...
Vanleeuwen, John A.; Tiwari, Ashwani; Plaizier, Jan C; Whiting, Terry L.
Of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for Bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for Neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres ≥ 1:64 for Bovine viral diarrhea virus.
Singh, A. V.; Singh, S. V.; D K Verma; Yadav, R.; P K Singh; Sohal, J. S.
In present pilot study aimed to estimate, presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in the human serum samples originating from North India using “Indigenous absorbed ELISA kit” (ELISA kit). The phase I, “ELISA kit” was optimized using protoplasmic antigen from native isolate of MAP “Indian Bison type” recovered from the biopsies of Crohn's disease patients. The phase II, sensitivity and specificity of the kit were estimated as 40.0 and 83.3%, respectively, ...
Sadock, Benjamin J
The author suggests that a new paradigm may be needed which holds that some suicides may be inevitable. The goal of this paradigm would be to diminish the sense of failure and inadequacy felt by many psychiatrists who experience the suicide of a patient and to increase understanding of the unique biopsychosocial profile of those whose suicides appear to be inevitable. The author stresses that this proposed paradigm should not be misconstrued as therapeutic nihilism but rather should serve to stimulate efforts to treat this patient population more effectively. Risk factors that place individuals at high risk for suicide are reviewed, including presence of a mental illness, genetic predisposition, and factors such as a history of abuse, divorce, unemployment, male gender, recent discharge from a psychiatric hospital, prior suicide attempts, alcohol or other substance abuse, a history of panic attacks, and persistent suicidal thoughts, especially if coupled with a plan. The author notes that, in those suicides that appear to have been inevitable, risk factors are not only numerous but at the extreme end of profound pathology. The example of Ernest Hemingway is used to illustrate how such a combination of risk factors may have contributed to his eventual suicide. Psychiatrists, like other doctors, may have to acknowledge that some psychiatric disorders are associated with a high mortality rate as a natural outcome. This could lead to heightened vigilance, a more realistic view of what can and cannot be achieved with therapy, and efforts to improve the quality of life of patients at high risk for suicide with the goal of reducing this risk and prolonging their lives. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:221-224). PMID:22617088
For uninitiated researchers, engineers, and scientists interested in a quick entry into the subject of chaos, this book offers a timely collection of 55 carefully selected papers covering almost every aspect of this subject. Because Chua's circuit is endowed with virtually every bifurcation phenomena reported in the extensive literature on chaos, and because it is the only chaotic system which can be easily built by a novice, simulated in a personal computer, and tractable mathematically, it has become a paradigm for chaos, and a vehicle for illustrating this ubiquitous phenomenon. Its supreme
Basili, Victor R.
A new paradigm for software development that treats software development as an experimental activity is presented. It provides built-in mechanisms for learning how to develop software better and reusing previous experience in the forms of knowledge, processes, and products. It uses models and measures to aid in the tasks of characterization, evaluation and motivation. An organization scheme is proposed for separating the project-specific focus from the organization's learning and reuse focuses of software development. The implications of this approach for corporations, research and education are discussed and some research activities currently underway at the University of Maryland that support this approach are presented.
A problem has been raised on the necessity to substitute the linear-nonthreshold hypothesis as a paradigm of radiation hygiene for the hypothesis of the biological effectiveness of ionizing irradiations. A comparison of the methodological substantiation for both hypotheses and a conception of 'acceptable risk' has been carried out. It is suggested that the possibility of theoretical substantiation of safety standards for the radiational factor on the basis of adatational hypothesis be acknowledged instead of the linear - nonthreshold conception which has lost its historic significance
Straipsnyje iš socialinės antropologijos perspektyvos yra analizuojamos skirtingos teorinės prieigos, būdingos šiuolaikiniams debatams apie imigraciją Europoje ir pasaulyje. Straipsnio pradžioje aptariami modeliai, išplėtoti ir išpopuliarinti XX a. 7-ajame dešimtmetyje, naudoti aptariant integracijos teoriją ir marksistines refleksijas apie klasinę imigrantų sąmonę. Straipsnyje atveriama paradigmų kaita, įvykusi praeito amžiaus paskutiniajame dešimtmetyje: naujos analitinės prieigos ėmė telkt...
Drew, A P
The physical properties of human beings and other organisms as well as their social behavioral traits are manifestations of both genetic inheritance and environment. Recent behavioral research has indicated that certain characteristics or behaviors--such as schizophrenia, divorce, and homosexuality--are highly heritable and are not governed exclusively by social environment. A balanced view of human behavior includes the effects of social learning as well as of genetically determined behavior. A new paradigm promotes enhanced understanding and acceptance of human diversity, be it cultural, racial, or sexual, and has the potential to unite scientists and theologians by creating common grounds of understanding. PMID:15719495
In this article the author claims that there is a paradigm shift from ZFC to NFUM and further to NACT - due to philosophical reasons, not mathematical ones. The goal is to construct systems where every "Not-Properclass" is a set! With help of Non-Monotonic Logic, the consistent systems NACT-MoonW, NACT*W, and NACT-SunW are producing "largest possible universes" of sets. Using self-evident philosophical principles, three approximations are suggested: NACT+NFUM-closed (to NACT*), NACT&ZFC4+(GCH...
Smith, Cameron M.
Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.
Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Glerean, Enrico; Seppänen, Miia; Pakarinen, Satu; Tervaniemi, Mari; Näätänen, Risto
Studies have consistently shown that the mismatch negativity (MMN) for different auditory features correlates with musical skills, and that this effect is more pronounced for stimuli integrated in complex musical contexts. Hence, the MMN can potentially be used for determining the development of...... auditory skills and musical expertise. MMN paradigms, however, are typically very long in duration, and far from sounding musical. Therefore, we developed a novel multi-feature MMN paradigm with 6 different deviant types integrated in a complex musical context of no more than 20 min in duration. We found...... significant MMNs for all 6 deviant types. Hence, this short objective measure can putatively be used as an index for auditory and musical development....
Full Text Available When ionizing radiation traverses biological material, some energy depositions occur and ionize directly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA molecules, the critical target. A classical paradigm in radiobiology is that the deposition of energy in the cell nucleus and the resulting damage to DNA are responsible for the detrimental biological effects of radiation. It is presumed that no radiation effect would be expected in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure through nucleus. The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation. However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose radiation than they do to high dose radiation. Moreover, recent experimental evidences from many laboratories reveal the fact that radiation effects also occur in cells that were not exposed to radiation and in the progeny of irradiated cells at delayed times after radiation exposure where cells do not encounter direct DNA damage. Recently, the classical paradigm in radiobiology has been shifted from the nucleus, specifically the DNA, as the principal target for the biological effects of radiation to cells. The universality of target theory has been challenged by phenomena of radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effect and adaptive response. The new radiation biology paradigm would cover both targeted and non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms underlying these responses involve biochemical/molecular signals that respond to targeted and non-targeted events. These results brought in understanding that the biological response to low dose radiation at tissue or organism level is a complex process of integrated response of cellular targets as well as extra-cellular factors. Biological understanding of
Roddy, Kimberly A.; Dickson, Michael R.
Today's modeling and simulation communities are being challenged to create rich, detailed models incorporating human decision-making and organizational behavior. Recent advances in distributed artificial intelligence and complex systems theory have demonstrated that such ill-defined problems can be effectively modeled with agent-based simulation techniques using multiple, autonomoous, adaptive entities. RELATE, a relation-centric design paradigm for multi-agent systems (MAS), is presented to ...
Mendonça, E.; Picado, Ana; Paixão, Susana M.; Barbosa, Marta; Cunha, Maria Ana; Silva, Luís Manuel
Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) discharge complex effluents raising special concern and direct toxicity assessment can be an added value strategy in WWTP environmental protection. The EU project “Integrated approach to energy and climate changes: changing the paradigm of wastewater treatment management” was set up for a WWTP discharging into Tagus estuary (Portugal). The main objectives of the project are to implement a tool to optimize the management of WWTP in terms of energy efficiency ...
Chingtham, Tejbanta Singh; Sahoo, G.; Ghose, M. K.
The immune system is a highly parallel and distributed intelligent system which has learning, memory, and associative capabilities. Artificial Immune System is an evolutionary paradigm inspired by the biological aspects of the immune system of mammals. The immune system can inspire to form new algorithms learning from its course of action. The human immune system has motivated scientists and engineers for finding powerful information processing algorithms that has solved complex engineering p...
This habilitation introduces the question-learn-test-feedback pattern that resulted from a series of investigations in the domains of software testing and modular software construction. The contributions to these fields are of various natures, but are all fundamentally related through two major assumptions: software construction paradigms have to constantly evolve in order to deal with the increasingly complex requirements that software-intensive systems have to meet; a tester's perspective c...
Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.
Long period variables, among them Miras, are thought to be pulsating. Under this approach the whole star inflates and deflates along a period that can vary from 100 to 900 days; that pulsation is assumed to produce shock waves on the outer layers of the star that propagate into the atmosphere and could account for the increase in luminosity and the presence of emission lines in the spectra of these stars. However, this paradigm can seriously be questioned from a theoretical point of view. First, in order to maintain a radial pulsation, the spherical symmetry of the star must be preserved: how can it be reconciled with the large convective cells present in these stars? or when close companions are detected? Secondly, how different radial and non-radial pulsation modes of a sphere could be all damped except one radial mode? These problems have no solution and significantly weigh on the pulsation paradigm. Acknowledging this inconsistency, we show that a close companion around these stars could account for the s...