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Sample records for avid radioprobes preparation

  1. Mitochondrial avid radioprobes. Preparation and evaluation of 7'(Z)-[{sup 125}I]iodorotenone and 7'(Z)-[{sup 125}I]iodorotenol

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    Van Brocklin, Henry F. [Department of Functional Imaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: hfvanbrocklin@lbl.gov; Hanrahan, Stephen M. [Department of Functional Imaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Enas, Joel D. [Department of Functional Imaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nandanan, Erathodiyil [Department of Functional Imaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); O' Neil, James P. [Department of Functional Imaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The loss of mitochondrial function has been implicated in a number of maladies such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), cancer and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this research was to develop a radiolabeled mitochondrial probe. Two tracers, 7'-Z-iodorotenol and 7'-Z-iodorotenone, analogs of rotenone a natural product that inhibits Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, have been labeled with iodine-125 in 45-85% yield in a single step from the corresponding tributylstannyl precursor. In vivo distribution in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats for both compounds showed high accumulation in the heart (1.7-3.7 %ID/g at 1 h), a tissue with high mitochondrial content. Z-Iodorotenol did not washout of most tissues between 1 and 2 h postinjection, whereas Z-iodorotenone showed moderate washout (7-26%) over the same period. By 24 h, there was significant loss of both compounds from most tissues including the heart. Heart-to-blood, -lung and -liver ratios for Z-iodorotenone of 28.9, 10.7 and 2.4, respectively, were two- to fourfold higher than the Z-iodorotenol ratios. Compared to the current clinical perfusion tracers, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin, Z-iodorotenone demonstrates similar 1 h heart accumulation and significantly higher heart-to-lung ratio (P<.001). Z-Iodorotenone heart-to-liver ratio is equivalent to {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi. 7'-Z-Iodorotenone possesses distribution characteristics of an improved tracer for SPECT perfusion studies.

  2. Antibody avidity in swine lymphocyte antigen-defined miniature pigs.

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    Appleyard, G D; Mallard, B A; Kennedy, B W; Wilkie, B N

    1992-01-01

    Antibody avidity to hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was measured by thiocyanate ion elution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in swine lymphocyte antigen (SLA) defined miniature pigs. Serum antibody avidity was evaluated on day 14 and 30 after primary (day 0) and secondary (day 14) immunizations in eight to ten week old miniature pigs previously typed for swine lymphocyte antigen genotype. The effect of SLA genotype, litter, and gender on anti-HEWL antibody avidity was determined by least squares. Antibody avidity varied amongst individuals. Antibody avidity maturation was observed as a mean rise in antibody avidity from primary response (0.89 +/- 0.64) to secondary response (1.23 +/- 0.54) (p < 0.0005). Overall, SLA genotype did not significantly influence antibody avidity or avidity maturation, but pigs of dd genotype had greater avidity maturation between primary and secondary responses than other genotypes. Litter effects significantly affected antibody avidity and maturation. PMID:1477799

  3. Antibody avidity in swine lymphocyte antigen-defined miniature pigs.

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    Appleyard, G D; Mallard, B A; Kennedy, B. W.; Wilkie, B. N.

    1992-01-01

    Antibody avidity to hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was measured by thiocyanate ion elution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in swine lymphocyte antigen (SLA) defined miniature pigs. Serum antibody avidity was evaluated on day 14 and 30 after primary (day 0) and secondary (day 14) immunizations in eight to ten week old miniature pigs previously typed for swine lymphocyte antigen genotype. The effect of SLA genotype, litter, and gender on anti-HEWL antibody avidity was determined by lea...

  4. Improved assay for surface hydrophobic avidity of Candida albicans cells.

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    Hazen, K C; LeMelle, W G

    1990-01-01

    A simple method that distinguishes among hydrophobic avidity levels of highly hydrophobic isolates of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is described. This method involves mixing polystyrene microspheres at different concentrations with a constant concentration of yeast cells and plotting the data in accordance with the Langmuir isotherm equation. A 10-fold difference between the C. albicans isolates with the lowest and highest avidity (KH) values was found. This method may also demonstra...

  5. A quantitative comparative analysis of Advancement via Independent Determination (AVID) in Texas middle schools

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    Reed, Krystal Astra

    The "Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) program was designed to provide resources and strategies that enable underrepresented minority students to attend 4-year colleges" (AVID Center, 2013, p. 2). These students are characterized as the forgotten middle in that they have high test scores, average-to-low grades, minority or low socioeconomic status, and will be first-generation college students (AVID, 2011). Research indicates (Huerta, Watt, & Butcher, 2013) that strict adherence to 11 program components supports success of students enrolled in AVID, and AVID certification depends on districts following those components. Several studies (AVID Center, 2013) have investigated claims about the AVID program through qualitative analyses; however, very few have addressed this program quantitatively. This researcher sought to determine whether differences existed between student achievement and attendance rates between AVID and non-AVID middle schools. To achieve this goal, the researcher compared eighth-grade science and seventh- and eighth-grade mathematics scores from the 2007 to 2011 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and overall attendance rates in demographically equivalent AVID and non-AVID middle schools. Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) reports from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) were used to obtain 2007 to 2011 TAKS results and attendance information for the selected schools. The results indicated a statistically significant difference between AVID demonstration students and non-AVID students in schools with similar CI. No statistically significant differences were found on any component of the TAKS for AVID economically disadvantaged students. The mean scores indicated an achievement gap between non-AVID and AVID demonstration middle schools. The findings from the other three research questions indicated no statistically significant differences between AVID and non-AVID student passing rates on the seventh- and eighth

  6. Development of fully automated determination of marker-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity based on the avidity competition assay format: application for Abbott Architect cytomegalovirus and Toxo IgG Avidity assays.

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    Curdt, Ingo; Praast, Gerald; Sickinger, Eva; Schultess, Jan; Herold, Iris; Braun, Hans Bertram; Bernhardt, Stephanie; Maine, Gregory T; Smith, Darwin D; Hsu, Stephen; Christ, Heike M; Pucci, Dominick; Hausmann, Michael; Herzogenrath, Jörg

    2009-03-01

    Determination of the avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) directed against a specific marker has become an established diagnostic tool for identifying or excluding acute infections with pathogens. A novel assay format termed AVIcomp (avidity competition based on mass action) circumventing the conventional chaotropic format has been developed for determination of the avidity of marker-specific IgG in patient specimens. Its applications for cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma gondii are presented. Specific high-avidity IgG from the patient specimen is selectively blocked using a soluble antigen in a sample pretreatment reagent, and the amount of remaining specific low-avidity IgG is determined relative to that in an untreated control. The comparison of the conventional chaotropic format, represented by the Radim CMV IgG Avidity assay, and the newly developed AVIcomp method, as exemplified by the Architect CMV IgG Avidity assay, on blood drawn within 4 months after seroconversion revealed a sensitivity of 100% (97.3% by an alternative calculation) for the AVIcomp format versus 87.5% (75.7% by an alternative calculation) for the chaotropic avidity assay. The specificity on 312 CMV IgG reactive and CMV IgM nonreactive specimens from pregnant women was 100% for the AVIcomp assay and 99.7% for the conventional avidity assay. The Architect Toxo IgG Avidity assay showed an agreement of 97.2% with the bioMérieux Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity Assay employing chaotropic reagents. These performance data suggest that the AVIcomp format shows superior sensitivity and equivalent specificity for the determination of IgG avidity to assays based on the chaotropic method and that the AVIcomp format may also be applicable to other disease states.

  7. Avidity of anti-P aeruginosa antibodies during chronic infection in patients with cystic fibrosis

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    Ciofu, O; Petersen, T D; Jensen, P;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to study the impact on the lung function of patients with cystic fibrosis of the avidity of antipseudomonal antibodies, the avidity of antibodies against the chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) and against the 60-65 kDa heat shock protein of P...... function the avidity of a beta ab was higher than in patients with poor lung function (p = 0.018). No significant difference in the avidity of the anti-GroEL antibodies was observed between the two groups of patients. CONCLUSION: In patients with cystic fibrosis a high avidity of a beta ab could contribute...

  8. AVID: An integrative framework for discovering functional relationships among proteins

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    Keating Amy E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the functions of uncharacterized proteins is one of the most pressing problems in the post-genomic era. Large scale protein-protein interaction assays, global mRNA expression analyses and systematic protein localization studies provide experimental information that can be used for this purpose. The data from such experiments contain many false positives and false negatives, but can be processed using computational methods to provide reliable information about protein-protein relationships and protein function. An outstanding and important goal is to predict detailed functional annotation for all uncharacterized proteins that is reliable enough to effectively guide experiments. Results We present AVID, a computational method that uses a multi-stage learning framework to integrate experimental results with sequence information, generating networks reflecting functional similarities among proteins. We illustrate use of the networks by making predictions of detailed Gene Ontology (GO annotations in three categories: molecular function, biological process, and cellular component. Applied to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AVID provides 37,451 pair-wise functional linkages between 4,191 proteins. These relationships are ~65–78% accurate, as assessed by cross-validation testing. Assignments of highly detailed functional descriptors to proteins, based on the networks, are estimated to be ~67% accurate for GO categories describing molecular function and cellular component and ~52% accurate for terms describing biological process. The predictions cover 1,490 proteins with no previous annotation in GO and also assign more detailed functions to many proteins annotated only with less descriptive terms. Predictions made by AVID are largely distinct from those made by other methods. Out of 37,451 predicted pair-wise relationships, the greatest number shared in common with another method is 3,413. Conclusion AVID provides

  9. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis

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    Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test

  10. A New Method with General Diagnostic Utility for the Calculation of Immunoglobulin G Avidity

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    Korhonen, Maria H.; Brunstein, John; Haario, Heikki; Katnikov, Alexei; Rescaldani, Roberto; Hedman, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    The reference method for immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity determination includes reagent-consuming serum titration. Aiming at better IgG avidity diagnostics, we applied a logistic model for the reproduction of antibody titration curves. This method was tested with well-characterized serum panels for cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, rubella virus, parvovirus B19, and Toxoplasma gondii. This approach for IgG avidity calculation is generally applicable and attains t...

  11. T cell avidity and tumor recognition: implications and therapeutic strategies

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    Roszkowski Jeffrey J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last two decades, great advances have been made studying the immune response to human tumors. The identification of protein antigens from cancer cells and better techniques for eliciting antigen specific T cell responses in vitro and in vivo have led to improved understanding of tumor recognition by T cells. Yet, much remains to be learned about the intricate details of T cell – tumor cell interactions. Though the strength of interaction between T cell and target is thought to be a key factor influencing the T cell response, investigations of T cell avidity, T cell receptor (TCR affinity for peptide-MHC complex, and the recognition of peptide on antigen presenting targets or tumor cells reveal complex relationships. Coincident with these investigations, therapeutic strategies have been developed to enhance tumor recognition using antigens with altered peptide structures and T cells modified by the introduction of new antigen binding receptor molecules. The profound effects of these strategies on T cell – tumor interactions and the clinical implications of these effects are of interest to both scientists and clinicians. In recent years, the focus of much of our work has been the avidity and effector characteristics of tumor reactive T cells. Here we review concepts and current results in the field, and the implications of therapeutic strategies using altered antigens and altered effector T cells.

  12. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: importance of immunoglobulin G avidity test.

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    Olariu, T R; Creţu, Octavian; Koreck, Andrea; Petrescu, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity test has proved to be a highly useful test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, especially in combination with conventional serological assays. Acute infections at the time of gestation predispose the offspring to the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. The IgG avidity test was developed to differentiate between recent and more distant infection; this method is valuable in the situation in which a single serum sample is obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. This paper describes the utility of IgG avidity test during pregnancy, and its role in ruling out, by a high avidity, a recently acquired infection. Testing for specific IgG avidity has been reported to be useful for confirmatory testing in patients who have positive IgG and IgM antibodies.

  13. The Accuracy of IgG Avidity for Detection of Acute Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Saudi Women

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    Eman El Masry El Damarany

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis depends on the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM, but it may persist for a long time in some cases. The objective of this study was to determine the role and accuracy of IgG avidity for the detection of acute Toxoplasmosis in early pregnancy. METHOD: The study included 160 women. Sera were screened for anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM and for IgG-avidity using ELIZA. PCR was done for confirmation in selected group of specimens. This study was performed at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 through April 2009. RESULTS: 32 cases of low avidity were negative IgM while 15 cases of high avidity were positive IgM. 16 cases of low avidity were positive IgG. The accuracy of low avidity in relation to positive IgM revealed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and likelihood ratio of 77.0%, 51.5%, 64.0%, 66.7% and 1.58 respectively. The accuracy of low IgG avidity in comparison with PCR demonstrated 91%, 45.7%, 60.4% and 84.2% respectively. CONCLUSION: Negative IgM didn’t exclude recent Toxoplasma infection and positive IgG may be present with recent infection. IgG avidity testing help in accurate differentiation of recent infections. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 7-14

  14. AVIDITY EVALUATION OF LOCAL IgA ANTIBODIES IN PERSONS IMMUNIZED WITH LIVE INFLUENZA VACCINE

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    S. A. Donina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. At present, immunogenicity evaluation of influenza vaccines is performed by quantitative assessment of increased serum antibodies. It was, however, shown that the degree of human defense against influenza is mostly related to their qualitative characteristics, i.e., avidity (functional activity. Leading role of local immunity is demonstrated in protection against influenza. Such immunity is mediated by IgA antibodies from mucosal airways. Meanwhile, the avidity issues for local antibodies still remain open.In present study, an attempt was undertaken to evaluate post-vaccination local immunological memory for influenza A virus, according to IgA antibodies from upper respiratory secretions. Two techniques were used to evaluate antibody avidity, that were previously applied for studying this phenomenon with serum imunoglobulins, i.e., a dynamic test (measurement of antigen-antibody reaction rates, and a test with urea, a chaotropic agent (avidity is determined as a strength of antigen-antibody complex. A total of 202 persons (18 to 20 years old were enrolled into the study.With both tests, a broad range of individual avidity values was observed for the antibodies. A significant cohort (up to 30 per cent of persons immunized with live influenza vaccine, showed sharply increased avidity of secretory IgA antibodies by both methods, along with accumulation of these immunoglobulins after vaccination. A reverse relationship is revealed between avidity levels of these antibodies before vaccination, and increase of this parameter post-immunization. The data present convincing arguments for specific renewal of local humoral immunological memory, as induced by live influenza vaccine. The study substantiates a necessity for application of the both tests in parallel, when determining avidity of secretory IgA antibodies. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 423-430.

  15. Avidity of Antibodies against HSV-2 and Risk to Neonatal Transmission among Mexican Pregnant Women

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    Antonia Herrera-Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine HSV-2 seroprevalence, risk factors, and antibody avidity among a sample of Mexican pregnant women. Material and Methods. The avidity test was standardized with different urea concentrations and incubation times; the cut-off point was calculated to determine the low avidity (early infection. IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected from pregnant and postpartum women from Morelos, Mexico, and the avidity test was performed to positive samples. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was employed to evaluate demographic and sexual behavior characteristics associated with HSV-2 infection. Results. HSV-2 seroprevalence among Mexican women analyzed was 14.5% (333/2300, demographic factors (location of General Hospital, age, education level, and civil status, and risky sexual behaviors (STI self-report and number of sexual partners during last year were associated with HSV-2 infection. Seventeen women were detected with low avidity antibodies (early infection with a cut-off point of 66.1%. Conclusions. HSV-2 infection was common among this group of women from Mexico; the avidity test detected women with recent infections, and these women were more likely to transmit HSV-2 to their neonates. Neonatal herpes has no epidemiological surveillance, the disease could be overlooked, and so more studies are needed to estimate the magnitude of neonatal infection.

  16. Generation of polyclonal antibody with high avidity to rosuvastatin and its use in development of highly sensitive ELISA for determination of rosuvastatin in plasma

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    Al-Malaq Hamoud A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a polyclonal antibody with high avidity and specificity to the potent hypocholesterolaemic agent rosuvastatin (ROS has been prepared and used in the development of highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for determination of ROS in plasma. ROS was coupled to keyhole limpt hemocyanin (KLH and bovine serum albumin (BSA using carbodiimide reagent. ROS-KLH conjugate was used for immunization of female 8-weeks old New Zealand white rabbits. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct ELISA using ROS-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and avidity to ROS was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by avidity chromatography on protein A column. The purified antibody showed high avidity to ROS; IC50 = 0.4 ng/ml. The specificity of the antibody for ROS was evaluated by indirect ELISA using various competitors from the ROS-structural analogues and the therapeutic agents used with ROS in a combination therapy. The proposed ELISA involved a competitive binding reaction between ROS, in plasma sample, and the immobilized ROS-BSA for the binding sites on a limited amount of the anti-ROS antibody. The bound anti-ROS antibody was quantified with horseradish peroxidase-labeled second anti-rabbit IgG antibody (HRP-IgG and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB as a substrate for the peroxidase enzyme. The concentration of ROS in the sample was quantified by its ability to inhibit the binding of the anti-ROS antibody to the immobilized ROS-BSA and subsequently the color intensity in the assay wells. The assay enabled the determination of ROS in plasma at concentrations as low as 40 pg/ml.

  17. Low avidity IgG antibodies in diagnosis of recent human schistosomiasis.

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    Mostafa, Nahed E; Awad, Adel; Shalaby, Mohsen

    2002-12-01

    One hundred thirty school children from a schistosomiasis endemic area in Sharkia Governorate, were selected on parasitological findings. Seventy persons were negative on the first screen and turned positive after 3 months of the screening (recently infected). Stool examination, ELISA (IgG & IgM), low avid IgG, and circulating antigens were performed for all patients and controls. ELISA detected IgM in all cases. IgG and circulating antigens in 90% of schistosomiasis patients. Low avidity IgG were detected in 85.71% of recent cases. The specificity of ELISA appeared to be >99%. The IgM/IgG ratio was >1 in patients with recent infection. The percentage of fall of O.D. readings of IgG after addition of 6 molar urea was high among cases with recent infection. Low avid lgG appears to be good and valuable in diagnosis of recent schistosomiasis in man. PMID:12512829

  18. The avidity of PR3-ANCA in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis during follow-up.

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    Kemna, M J; Schlumberger, W; van Paassen, P; Dähnrich, C; Damoiseaux, J G M C; Cohen Tervaert, J W

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether the avidity of proteinase-3-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (PR3-ANCA) changes during follow-up in different subgroups of patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We selected 10 patients with renal relapsing GPA, 10 patients with renal non-relapsing GPA and 10 patients with non-renal relapsing GPA. In all patients, an ANCA rise occurred during remission. The avidity was measured using a chaotropic approach at the time of an ANCA rise and at the time of a relapse in relapsing patients or time-matched during remission in non-relapsing patients. No difference was observed in the avidity at the ANCA rise between renal relapsing patients [26·2% (15·5-47·5)], renal patients without a relapse [39·6% (21·2-63·4)] and non-renal relapsing patients [34·2% (21·6-59·5)]. In renal relapsing patients, the avidity increased significantly from the moment of the ANCA rise to the relapse [difference 6·4% (0·0-17·1), P = 0·0273]. The avidity did not increase after an ANCA rise in renal non-relapsing patients [difference 3·5 (-6·0 to 10·1), P = 0·6250] or in non-renal relapsing patients [difference -3·1% (-8·0 to 5·0), P = 0·5703]. The avidity of PR3-ANCA increases after an ANCA rise during follow-up in renal relapsing patients, but not after an ANCA rise in renal patients who remain in remission or in non-renal relapsing patients. PMID:27009928

  19. Schwannoma Showing Avid Uptake on 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT.

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    Kanthan, Gowri L; Izard, Michael A; Emmett, Louise; Hsiao, Edward; Schembri, Geoffrey Paul

    2016-09-01

    Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT is a relatively new and highly sensitive imaging modality used in staging metastatic prostate cancer. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with newly diagnosed prostate carcinoma who had a PSMA PET/CT scan for staging of his disease. A PSMA-avid right pelvic mass was identified anterior to the sacrum. Surgical removal and histopathological examination of this lesion revealed the diagnosis of schwannoma. It is important to be aware that schwannoma may also show avid uptake on PSMA PET/CT scan and may potentially lead to an incorrect diagnosis of metastatic prostate carcinoma. PMID:27405039

  20. Association between {sup 18}F-FDG avidity and the BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma

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    Lee, Suk Hyun; Han, Sang Won; Lee, Hyo Sang; Chae, Sun Young; Lee, Jong Jin; Song, Dong Eun; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The BRAF mutation, a potential prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), is associated with a high expression of the glucose transporter gene. We investigated which clinicopathologic factors, including BRAF mutation status, influence {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) avidity. We retrospectively reviewed 55 patients who underwent BRAF analysis from biopsy-confirmed PTC and {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography within 6 months before undergoing thyroid surgery from September 2008 to August 2014. Tumors were considered to be {sup 18}F-FDG avid if the uptake was greater than that of the liver. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake of PTCs was also analyzed semiquantitatively using SUV{sub max}. The association between {sup 18}F-FDG avidity and clinicopathologic variables (age, tumor size, perithyroidal extension, cervical lymph node status, and BRAF mutation status) was investigated. Twenty-nine (52.7 %) of 55 patients had {sup 18}F-FDG-avid PTCs. PTCs with the BRAF mutation showed higher {sup 18}F-FDG avidity (24/38, 63.2 %) than those without (5/17, 29.4 %). The BRAF mutation (p = 0.025) and tumor size (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with {sup 18}F-FDG avidity in univariate analysis, and the BRAF mutation status remained significant after adjusting for tumor size in multivariate analysis (p = 0.015). In the subgroup of tumor size ≥ 1 cm, the BRAF mutation was the only factor significantly associated with {sup 18}F-FDG avidity (p = 0.021). The mean SUV{sub max} of PTCs with the BRAF mutation was significantly higher than that of those without (4.89 ± 6.12 vs. 1.96 ± 1.10, p = 0.039). The BRAF mutation must be one of the most important factors influencing {sup 18}F-FDG avidity in PTCs, especially in those with a tumor size ≥ 1 cm.

  1. Avidity-dependent programming of autoreactive T cells in T1D.

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    Ivana Durinovic-Belló

    Full Text Available Fate determination for autoreactive T cells relies on a series of avidity-dependent interactions during T cell selection, represented by two general types of signals, one based on antigen expression and density during T cell development, and one based on genes that interpret the avidity of TCR interaction to guide developmental outcome. We used proinsulin-specific HLA class II tetramers to purify and determine transcriptional signatures for autoreactive T cells under differential selection in type 1 diabetes (T1D, in which insulin (INS genotypes consist of protective and susceptible alleles that regulate the level of proinsulin expression in the thymus. Upregulation of steroid nuclear receptor family 4A (NR4A and early growth response family genes in proinsulin-specific T cells was observed in individuals with susceptible INS-VNTR genotypes, suggesting a mechanism for avidity-dependent fate determination of the T cell repertoire in T1D. The NR4A genes act as translators of TCR signal strength that guide central and peripheral T cell fate decisions through transcriptional modification. We propose that maintenance of an NR4A-guided program in low avidity autoreactive T cells in T1D reflects their prior developmental experience influenced by proinsulin expression, identifying a pathway permissive for autoimmunity.

  2. The relationship between human T-lymphocyte subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies and by avidity differences to sheep erythrocytes

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    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Heron, I

    1982-01-01

    By E-rosette sedimentation procedures and fluorescence activated cell sorting of monoclonal antibody-coated T lymphocytes, we have investigated the relationship between the human T lymphocyte subsets defined by the monoclonal antibodies against the T4 and T8 antigens and those defined by avidity...... differences to sheep erythrocytes. Through a correlation was demonstrated between the T4+ (inducer) cells and the high avidity ("active") T cells and between the T8+ (suppressor) cells and low avidity T cells, these subsets were far from identical, and it is concluded that the application of monoclonal...

  3. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

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    Yeung Lo Tutterrow

    Full Text Available VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4SCN was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+ and those without (PM(- at delivery. Results showed that PM(- women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047 and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009 than PM(+ women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9 and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0 reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria.

  4. FDG avidity and PET/CT patterns in primary gastric lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radan, Lea [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Fischer, Doron [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Haifa (Israel); Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Israel, Ora [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rambam Health Care Campus and R. and B. Rappaport School of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Dann, Eldad J. [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Hematology, Rambam Health Care Campus, and R. and B. Rappaport School of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Epelbaum, Ron; Haim, Nissim [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Oncology, Rambam Health Care Campus, and R. and B. Rappaport School of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Gaitini, Diana [Rambam Health Care Campus, and R. and B. Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Haifa (Israel)

    2008-08-15

    The use of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) is challenging due to physiologic FDG activity in the stomach and variability in the degree of uptake in various histologic subtypes. This study assesses FDG avidity and PET/CT patterns in newly diagnosed PGL. Sixty-two PET/CT studies of newly diagnosed PGL were reviewed (24 low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT], 38 aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [AGNHL]). FDG avidity, patterns (focal/diffuse), and intensity (visually vs. the liver and SUVmax) were assessed and compared to 27 controls. Gastric CT abnormalities and extragastric sites were recorded. Gastric FDG uptake was found in 55/62 (89%) PGL (71% MALT vs. 100% AGNHL, p < 0.001) and 63% controls. A diffuse pattern was found in 60% PGL (76% MALT vs. 53% AGNHL, p = NS) and 47% controls. FDG uptake higher than liver was found in 82% PGL (58% MALT vs. 97% AGNHL, p < 0.05) and 63% controls. SUVmax in FDG-avid PGLs was 15.3 {+-} 11.7 (5.4 {+-} 2.9 MALT vs. 19.7 {+-} 11.5 AGNHL, p < 0.001) and 4.6 {+-} 1.4 in controls. CT abnormalities were found in 79% PGL (thickening, n = 49; ulcerations, n = 22). Extra-gastric FDG-avid sites were seen in none of MALT, but 61% of AGNHL (nodal, n = 18; nodal and extranodal, n = 5). FDG avidity was present in 89% of PGLs, including all patients with AGNHL but only 71% of MALT. FDG uptake can be differentiated, in particular in AGNHL-PGL, from physiologic tracer activity by intensity but not by pattern. Extragastric foci on PET and structural CT abnormalities are additional parameters that can improve PET/CT assessment of PGL. Defining FDG avidity and PET/CT patterns in AGNHL and a subgroup of MALT-PGL before treatment may be important for further monitoring therapy response. (orig.)

  5. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion; Smith, Joseph D; Pagano, Ian S; Ako, Simon; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM(-)) at delivery. Results showed that PM(-) women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047) and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009) than PM(+) women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI) and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9) and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0) reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria. PMID:22761948

  6. Use of IgG Avidity test in case definitions of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, C; Charrier, L; Giacomuzzi, M; Moiraghi Ruggenini, A; Mombrò, M; Fabris, C; Marocchetti, P; Alfieri, R; Leto, R; Renzi, N; Milano, R; Lievre, M A; Colozza, M; Zanella, D; Antona, G; Paschero, M C; Tosetti, F; Miglietti, D; Nicoletta, T; De Renzi, G; Tinivella, F; Donati, M; Ferrini, A; Crotti, G; Coucourde, L; Guazzotti, G C; Gera, A; Malabaila, A; Di Natale, C; Rabozzi, M L; Ginardi, C; Bruzzone, T; Canepa, C; Fruttero, M; Mastracchio, G; Valle, S; Toppino, M; Forno, N; Bellingeri, P; Caraccio, W; Lazzara, C; Decaroli, V; Pedrazzi, E; Gomella, S

    2004-01-01

    A survey network for congenital toxoplasmosis (TOXO-NET) was set up in December 1996 in Piedmont (Italy). Participants were asked to classify the infections in pregnant mothers and newborns by the criteria of the European Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis published by Lebech in 1996. Because the IgG Avidity test is largely employed as a 2nd level test in toxoplasmosis diagnosis and it could be helpful to date infection, the co-ordinators of TOXO-NET suggested including it in the "case definition" of "probable" infection and "unlikely" infection. 117 cases of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy divided into the risk categories under Lebech's criteria were re-examined using the "new" case definitions. 77 out of 117 (65.8%) Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy could be defined with only one serum sample using the IgG Avidity test. The IgG Avidity test proved a useful method to classify the Toxoplasma gondii infections in pregnancy, especially when we had only one serum sample.

  7. Evaluation of IgG anti-toxoplasma avidity and polymerase chain reaction in the postnatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elizabeth; Rivera, Raul; Cardona, Nestor; Sanchez, Victor; Lora, Fabiana; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2013-06-01

    Confirmatory tests for congenital toxoplasmosis were evaluated in 23 infected and 31 uninfected newborns. Conventional polymerase chain reaction was better than real-time polymerase chain reaction, but did not identify additional cases. Avidity tests added 2 new cases that were not identified by other criteria. Overall sensitivity was 82.6%. Avidity assay, but not polymerase chain reaction, increased the sensitivity of confirmatory assays in congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. Assessment of antibody level and avidity against Bordetella pertussis in a cohort of Egyptian individuals aged 1-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nihal M; El-Kady, Ebtsam M; Eissa, Somiaa A; Wahby, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis specific antibodies were studied with respect to quality and quantity in a cohort of apparently healthy Egyptian children and adolescents, with their age range between 1 and 18 years, in an attempt to get a close and clear insight into the current humoral immunization status in this specified group and to try find a relation between the antibody levels and their avidities in eradication of this devastating infectious disease. Our results showed that avidity increase was most marked in young school children (6-8 years) where it seemed to reach a plateau in older children and adolescents. Antibody titer was highest in toddlers (1-2 years) and young school children (6-8 years) groups, most probably following vaccination and/or booster doses. Among children aged 1-5 years, 28% had highly avid and 50% had high titer antibodies, whereas in adolescents aged 13-18 years, 70% had highly avid antibodies and only 30% had high titer antibodies. The results clearly demonstrated that while levels of anti-Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) antibodies wane with growing age, the avidity seems to increase, to a plateau, irrespective of further antigen exposure in a pattern showing complete independence of avidity on concentration. The present study draws attention to the importance of avidity measurements, together with conventional ELISAs, for evaluating immunity against pertussis. Being based on a limited sample size, it could open doors for larger-scale surveys to be possible indicators for the need and timing of booster vaccination doses among Egyptians.

  9. The effects of supramolecular network topology on hapten-receptor avidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoski, Jason; Mason, Andrew; La Favors, Jill; Wolfe, Joshua

    2009-03-01

    Antibodies produced in the early stages of the immune response have much lower affinities for a given antigen than those produced later on. Nature compensates for the initial weakness of these associative bonds by synthesizing multivalent antibodies. The total binding strength, represented by the avidity constant, is equal to the product of the affinity constants for the individual hapten/receptor sites. However, under realistic conditions the individual binding sites do not act independently. Factors such as steric hindrance, intramolecular stresses, and competitive binding can significantly alter the relationship between affinity and avidity. We investigate the influence of these factors on a model system consisting of synthetic multifunctional nanoparticles and polymers. Each polymer or nanoparticle is decorated with either multiple antigens (thromboxane B2) or multiple antibodies. We then measure the association and dissociation in real time using Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrometry (SPR). By using synthetic polymers and nanoparticles, we are able to systematically control the degree of functionality, flexibility, and distance between receptor and hapten sites.

  10. METASTATIC RADIOIODINE AVID STRUMA OVARII ASSOCIATED WITH PSEUDO-MEIGS' SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Saima; Bashir, Humayun; Hassan, Aamna; Syed, Aamir Ali; Hussain, Mudassar; Imtiaz, Saba

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of 21 years old lady who presented with ascites, left adnexal mass and elevated CA-125. With suspicion of ovarian malignancy, she underwent left salpingo-oophorectomy with omental biopsy. Histopathology revealed: 'follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii' with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in omental and peritoneal nodules. Patient underwent total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine therapy for metastatic omental and peritoneal disease. Post-therapy whole body scan, revealed extensive I-131 avid disease metastatic disease involving the chest, abdomen, pelvis and the musculoskeletal system. Patient was treated with multiple doses of high dose radioactive iodine. She became symptom free on supra-physiologic doses of oral thyroxin however her high thyroglobulin levels and residual radioiodine avid metastatic disease required further treatment. In literature a few cases of struma ovarii have been reported with elevated CA-125 and associated pseudo-Meigs' syndrome. The treatment for this rare disease is still not standardized and poses a therapeutic challenge. Our case emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach for managing struma ovarii. PMID:26721055

  11. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-08-01

    Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis.Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites.The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016).FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs.

  12. Cytomegalovirus IgG Level and Avidity in Breastfeeding Infants of HIV-Infected Mothers in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Jeffrey; Chang, Tiffany S.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Amin, Minal M.; Ellington, Sascha; Kayira, Dumbani; van der Horst, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common among infants of HIV-infected mothers in resource-limited settings. We examined the prevalence and timing of infant CMV infection during the first year of life using IgG antibody and avidity among HIV-exposed infants in Malawi and correlated the results with the presence of detectable CMV DNA in the blood. The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study randomized 2,369 mothers and their infants to maternal antiretrovirals, infant nevirapine, or neither for 28 weeks of breastfeeding, followed by weaning. Stored plasma specimens were tested for CMV IgG and antibody avidity from a random subset of infants who had been previously tested with blood CMV PCR and had available specimens at birth and at 24 and 48 weeks of age. Ninety-four of 127 infants (74.0%) tested at 24 weeks of age had CMV IgG of low or intermediate avidity, signifying primary CMV infections. An additional 22 infants (17.3%) had IgG of high avidity; 19 of them had CMV DNA detected in their blood, indicating infant infections. Taken together, these results show that the estimated prevalence of CMV infection at 24 weeks was 88.9%. By 48 weeks of age, 81.3% of infants had anti-CMV IgG; most of them (70.9%) had IgG of high avidity. The CMV serology and avidity testing, combined with the PCR results, confirmed a high rate of primary CMV infection by 6 months of life among breastfeeding infants of HIV-infected mothers. The CMV PCR in blood detected most, but not all, infant CMV infections. PMID:26424831

  13. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-08-01

    Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis.Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites.The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016).FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs. PMID:27512840

  14. Novel decapeptides that bind avidly and deliver radioisotope to colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Abraham

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of targeted tumor therapy often utilizes an antibody, sometimes tagged with a tumor-ablating material such as radioisotope, directed against a specific molecule.This report describes the discovery of nine novel decapeptides which can be radioactively labeled, bind to, and deliver (32P to colon cancer cells. The decapeptides vary from one another by one to three amino acids and demonstrate vastly different binding abilities. The most avidly binding decapeptide can permanently deliver very high levels of radioisotope to the adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines at an efficiency 35 to 150 times greater than to a variety of other cell types, including cell lines derived from other types of cancer or from normal tissue.This experimental approach represents a new example of a strategy, termed peptide binding therapy, for the potential treatment of colorectal and other adenocarcinomas.

  15. 18F-NaF Positive Bone Metastases of Non 18F-FDG Avid Mucinous Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Soydal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Detection of gastric cancer bone metastasis is crucial since its presence is an independent prognostic factor. In this case report, we would like to present 18F-NaF positive bone metastases of non 18F-FDG avid gastric mucinous cancer

  16. 18F-NaF Positive Bone Metastases of Non 18F-FDG Avid Mucinous Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Çiğdem Soydal; Elgin Özkan; Özlem Nuriye Küçük

    2015-01-01

    Detection of gastric cancer bone metastasis is crucial since its presence is an independent prognostic factor. In this case report, we would like to present 18F-NaF positive bone metastases of non 18F-FDG avid gastric mucinous cancer.

  17. Rubella Antibody Avidity Among Rubella Seropositive Women Attending a Tertiary Care Facility in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherifat Tinuke Suleiman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus antibodies among women of reproductive age group and assess risk factors to rubella infection. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among 285 women aged between 15 and 49 years. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method was used to detect and quantify human immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies with avidity for rubella virus in sera of participants. Socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, along with recent and previous history of fever and rash among others were obtained using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using the program statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 16. Results: Seroprevalence of rubella IgG among women of reproductive age in Ilorin was 92.3% (95% CI: 89.2%-95.4%. Thus susceptibility rate to rubella infection was 7.7%. Majority (87.1% of the IgG seropositive participants had high rubella IgG avidity, implying past rubella infection or re-infections. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among participants from lower educational and socio-economic classes compared with other participants (P=0.035 & 0.023 respectively. There was a negative correlation between age and rubella specific IgG titer (p=0.000. Thus rubella specific IgG titer decreases with increasing age. Conclusion: there is need for vaccination of susceptible women of reproductive age in Ilorin as the rubella susceptibility rate was higher than the 5.0% target set by the World Health Organization (WHO for prevention of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS.

  18. A Miniaturized Glycan Microarray Assay for Assessing Avidity and Specificity of Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C; de Vries, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinins recognize sialic acids on the cell surface as functional receptors to gain entry into cells. Wild waterfowl are the natural reservoir for IAV, but IAV can cross the species barrier to poultry, swine, horses and humans. Avian viruses recognize sialic acid attached to a penultimate galactose by a α2-3 linkage (avian-type receptors) whereas human viruses preferentially recognize sialic acid with a α2-6 linkage (human-type receptors). To monitor if avian viruses are adapting to human type receptors, several methods can be used. Glycan microarrays with diverse libraries of synthetic sialosides are increasingly used to evaluate receptor specificity. However, this technique is not used for measuring avidities. Measurement of avidity is typically achieved by evaluating the binding of serially diluted hemagglutinin or virus to glycans adsorbed to conventional polypropylene 96-well plates. In this assay, glycans with α2-3 or α2-6 sialic acids are coupled to biotin and adsorbed to streptavidin plates, or are coupled to polyacrylamide (PAA) which directly adsorb to the plastic. We have significantly miniaturized this assay by directly printing PAA-linked sialosides and their non PAA-linked counterparts on micro-well glass slides. This set-up, with 48 arrays on a single slide, enables simultaneous assays of 6 glycan binding proteins at 8 dilutions, interrogating 6 different glycans, including two non-sialylated controls. This is equivalent to 18x 96-well plates in the traditional plate assay. The glycan array format decreases consumption of compounds and biologicals and thus greatly enhances efficiency. PMID:27284789

  19. Characterization of Tumor-Avid Antibody Fragments Genetically Engineered for Mono-Specific Radionuclide Chelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, T.P.

    2003-12-31

    The successful clinical application of targeted-radiopharmaceuticals depends on the development of molecules that optimize tumor specific radionuclide deposition and minimize non-specific organ irradiation. To this end, this proposal outlines a research effort to identify and evaluate novel antibodies and antibody fragments that bind breast tumors. The tumor-avid antibodies will be investigated for as imaging and therapeutic agents and to gain a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of radiolabeled tumor-avid antibody fragments through the use of site-specifically labeled molecules. Antibodies or antibody fragments, that bind breast carcinoma carbohydrate antigens, will be obtained from hybridoma or bacteriophage library screening. More specifically, antibody fragments that bind the carcinoma-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen will be radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re at a natural amino acid chelation site and will be investigated in vivo for their abilities to target human breast tumors. In addition, site-specific radiolabeled antibody fragments will be biosynthesized using misacylated suppressor tRNAs. Homogeneously radiolabeled populations of antibody fragments will be used to investigate the effects of radionuclide location and chelation chemistries on their biodistribution and metabolism. It is hypothesized that site-specifically radiolabeled antibody fragments will possess enhanced tumor imaging and therapeutic properties due to optimal label location and conjugation chemistries. New insights into the factors that govern antibody metabolism in vivo are also expected from this work. Results from these studies should enhance our ability to design and synthesize radiolabeled antibody fragments that have improved pharmacokinetic properties. The studies in this proposal involve basic research into the development of antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals, with the ultimate goal of application in humans. This type of basic

  20. Characterization of Tumor-Avid Antibody Fragments Genetically Engineered for Mono-Specific Radionuclide Chelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful clinical application of targeted-radiopharmaceuticals depends on the development of molecules that optimize tumor specific radionuclide deposition and minimize non-specific organ irradiation. To this end, this proposal outlines a research effort to identify and evaluate novel antibodies and antibody fragments that bind breast tumors. The tumor-avid antibodies will be investigated for as imaging and therapeutic agents and to gain a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of radiolabeled tumor-avid antibody fragments through the use of site-specifically labeled molecules. Antibodies or antibody fragments, that bind breast carcinoma carbohydrate antigens, will be obtained from hybridoma or bacteriophage library screening. More specifically, antibody fragments that bind the carcinoma-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen will be radiolabeled with 99mTc and 188Re at a natural amino acid chelation site and will be investigated in vivo for their abilities to target human breast tumors. In addition, site-specific radiolabeled antibody fragments will be biosynthesized using misacylated suppressor tRNAs. Homogeneously radiolabeled populations of antibody fragments will be used to investigate the effects of radionuclide location and chelation chemistries on their biodistribution and metabolism. It is hypothesized that site-specifically radiolabeled antibody fragments will possess enhanced tumor imaging and therapeutic properties due to optimal label location and conjugation chemistries. New insights into the factors that govern antibody metabolism in vivo are also expected from this work. Results from these studies should enhance our ability to design and synthesize radiolabeled antibody fragments that have improved pharmacokinetic properties. The studies in this proposal involve basic research into the development of antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals, with the ultimate goal of application in humans. This type of basic nuclear

  1. Value of avidity index in diagnosis of herpes of IgG and polymerase chain reaction simplex 2 virus in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maysaa El Sayed Zaki

    2009-01-01

    Objective : The goal of the present study is to highlight the significance of the determination of IgG avidity to herpes simplex2virus( HSV2) compared to detection of viremia by polymerase chain reaction( PCR) in relation to recurrent abortions. Methods : Serum samples from pregnant patients with bad obstetric histories and control subjects were analyzed for quantitative determination of IgG specific for HSV2 by using ELISA with and without sample treatment with 8 M urea as protein-denaturing agents for measurement of avidity index ( AI). PCR was performed for samples to determine HSV2 viremia. Results : Regarding avidity index 11. 5% had avidity index = 100.0,11. 5% has avidity index = 47% and 76. 9% had avidity index > 60%. Control group had AI > 70% • There was statistically insignificant difference between OD of IgG in patients with viremia before urea treatment and after urea treatment compared to healthy control. Also there was statistically insignificant difference in OD before urea and after urea in patients with viremia. Conclusion : From this study we can conclude that viremia for HSV2 is common finding in patients with bad obstetric history. Low avidity immunoglobulin G was not common finding in those patients. This may be explain that even reactivation of latent HSV 2 infection is associated with fetal loss.

  2. Development and application of a GuHCl-modified ELISA to measure the avidity of anti-HPV L1 VLP antibodies in vaccinated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauner, Joseph G; Pan, Yuanji; Hildesheim, Allan; Kemp, Troy J; Porras, Carolina; Pinto, Ligia A

    2012-04-01

    Antibody responses against infectious agents are an important component in the prevention of disease. The avidity of antibodies for their antigens relates to their functional efficiency, and is a fundamental aspect in the investigation of humoral responses. Modified ELISAs are used to estimate avidity through the use of chaotropic agents and the measurement of the degree to which they disrupt the interaction between antibody and antigen. The theory behind the assay is the higher the avidity of an interaction the less susceptible it is to the effects of the chaotropic agent. The goal of this study was to generate a modified ELISA where a complex, multimeric coating-antigen, human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particles (VLP), was used to measure the avidity of anti-HPV antibodies generated following vaccination with HPV VLPs. A series of chaotropic agents were evaluated in the assay for their effectiveness in measuring avidity. Guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) was selected as a chaotropic reagent with the ability to disrupt antibody and antigen interactions, while not affecting the integrity of the plate-bound VLP. Two methods of determining the avidity index were assessed and shown to be comparable. This assay was then successfully applied to measure the avidity of anti-HPV VLP serum antibodies in samples from an HPV L1 VLP vaccine clinical trial. Overall, the assay was highly reproducible and captured a wide range of antibody avidities. Therefore, a GuHCl-modified ELISA is an acceptable method that can be used to determine HPV-specific antibody avidity indices within a clinical trial setting.

  3. Usefulness of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1) in an immunoglobulin G avidity test for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietkiewicz, H; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, E; Kur, J;

    2007-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of an acute and recent Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and the newborn child is important before treatment. This study describes a new Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity test based on a combination of recombinant GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1 antigens and shows that this test...... is useful for diagnostic purposes and may replace the lysed, whole-cell antigens. Although more sera need to be tested, the results obtained here suggest that the IgG avidity test performed with rec-antigens correlated more with the stage of a T. gondii infection than the IgG avidity results obtained...

  4. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Iyer, Revathy B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Levenback, Charles F. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Klopp, Ann, E-mail: aklopp@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  5. Comparison of immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoglobulin G avidity techniques for screening of anti: Toxoplasma antibodies among single serum sample pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Rajaii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital toxoplasmosis is that pregnant women acquire the infection during gestation; diagnosis of the acute infection during pregnancy is a complex subject of maternal toxoplasmosis. Thus, the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG and/or IgM Toxoplasma antibodies in a single serum sample drawn during gestation cannot be used to define whether the infection was recently acquired or chronic. Materials and Methods: At this cross-sectional descriptive study, sera of 391 pregnant women examined and compared. They were in an age range of 21-35 years, referred by gynecologists and infectious disease specialists, during March 2012-April 2013. They have referred, 215 (54.98%, 102 (26%, 74 (18.92% in the first, second and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. For each of them, a questionnaire was completed and serum samples were prepared in an equal condition, examined according to the procedures of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and IgG Avidity techniques. Results: We have found 111 (28.38% seronegative and 280 (71.61% seropositive cases by IIF and 124 (31.70% seronegative, 267 (68.28% seropositive cases by ELISA. The IgG avidity test confirmed 45 (69.23% and 7 (10.76% doubtful cases of IgM test in IIF and ELISA techniques. Conclusions: This study highlights how to manage pregnant women with toxoplasmosis, especially in a single serum sample condition.

  6. Development of a New Limiting-Antigen Avidity Dot Immuno-Gold Filtration Assay for HIV-1 Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyun; Yan, Hao; Feng, Xia; Wu, Lijin; Qiu, Maofeng; Xing, Wenge; Zhang, Guiyun; Zhang, Zhi; Jiang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Several laboratory assays on cross-sectional specimens for detecting recent HIV infections were developed, but these assays could not be applied in resource-limited and high HIV-incidence areas. This study describes the development of a rapid assay that can simultaneously detect the presence of HIV-1 antibodies of current and/or recent infection. The dot immuno-gold filtration assay (DIGFA) was used to detect recent infection on the principle of antibody avidity changes between recent and long-term infections. The dot immuno-gold silver staining filtration assay (DIGSSA) increases the sensitivity and accuracy of antibody detection by adding a silver staining step to the DIGFA. In the meantime the digital results were produced by the scanner for ambiguous specimens. Further, HIV-1 routine diagnostic antibody was detected simultaneously for improving practicability. The performance of the assays was then assessed through five serum panels with known serological statuses and seroconversion dates. The proportion of false recent infection (PFR) of the DIGSSA was obtained. Through the optimization of basic parameters for DIGSSA, six specimens were all classified correctly. DIGSSA demonstrated good repeatability and high sensitivity. The agreement of DIGSSA with the BED assay was 92.10% (κ = 0.65) and 95.36% with the LAg-Avidity assay (κ = 0.75). Moreover, the gray values of DIGSSA correlated well with BED ODn (R2 = 0.9397) and LAg-Avidity ODn (R2 = 0.9549). The PFR of DIGSSA was 2.73%, which was lower than that of the BED assay but higher than that of the LAg-Avidity assay. The DIGSSA can feasibly be applied to detect HIV infection and estimate HIV incidence. PMID:27513563

  7. Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome is an Avid and Persistent Sodium-Retaining State

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Vitorio; Alexandre Toledo Maciel

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is triggered by many conditions in the intensive care unit, including different types of circulatory shock. One under-recognized characteristic of the SIRS-induced AKI is its avidity for sodium retention, with progressive decreases in urinary sodium concentration (NaU) and its fractional excretion (FENa). This phenomenon occurs in parallel with increases in serum creatinine, being...

  8. The IgG avidity value for the prediction of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Kenji; Nishikawa, Akira; Tairaku, Shinya; Shinozaki, Nanae; Deguchi, Masashi; Morizane, Mayumi; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Morioka, Ichiro; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-09-01

    Primary Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection during pregnancy may lead to congenital toxoplasmosis. Maternal screening using T. gondii IgG avidity measurement and multiplex nested PCR was performed. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine a cut-off value of IgG avidity index (AI) for the prediction of the presence of T. gondii DNA in the amniotic fluid. One hundred thirty-nine women with positive or equivocal tests for IgM underwent both serum IgG avidity measurement and PCR analysis for the amniotic fluid. Nine had positive PCR results, and three of them were diagnosed as having congenital infection. A cut-off value of IgG AI was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. IgG AI (mean 13%) in women with positive PCR results was significantly lower than that (39%) in women with negative results. A cut-off value of amniotic fluid. None of women with IgG AI of ≥30% had a positive PCR result or congenital infection. This study firstly demonstrated that a cut-off value of 25-30% IgG AI might be useful for the prediction of the presence of T. gondii DNA in the amniotic fluid and congenital infection.

  9. Kinetics and avidity of anti-Toxocara antibodies (IgG) in rabbits experimentally infected with Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Lundia Luara Cavalcante; Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Laposy, Cecília Braga; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Roldán, William Henry; Giuffrida, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the kinetics and avidity of anti-Toxocara antibodies (IgG) in rabbits experimentally infected with embryonated Toxocara canis eggs. Seventeen four month old New Zealand White rabbits were distributed into two groups. In the experimental group, twelve rabbits were infected orally with 1,000 embryonated T. canis eggs. A second group (n = 5), uninfected, was used as a control. Serum samples were collected for analysis on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 60 post-infection (DPI). An indirect ELISA test was performed to evaluate the reactivity index (RI) of IgG anti-T. canis antibodies and to calculate the avidity index (AI). The animals showed seroconversion from the 14th DPI, with high AI (over 50%) except for one animal, which presented an intermediate AI. At 60 DPI, all the animals were seropositive and maintained a high AI. The data indicated that specific IgG antibodies formed early (14 DPI) in rabbits infected with T. canis, with a high avidity index that persisted throughout the course of the infection. PMID:27027550

  10. Correlation between dengue-specific neutralizing antibodies and serum avidity in primary and secondary dengue virus 3 natural infections in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Puschnik

    Full Text Available Although heterotypic secondary infection with dengue virus (DENV is associated with severe disease, the majority of secondary infections are mild or asymptomatic. The mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection are poorly understood. In 2010, 108 DENV3-positive cases were enrolled in a pediatric hospital-based study in Managua, Nicaragua, with 61 primary and 47 secondary infections. We analyzed DENV-specific neutralization titers (NT50, IgM and IgG avidity, and antibody titer in serum samples collected during acute and convalescent phases and 3, 6, and 18 months post-infection. NT50 titers peaked at convalescence and decreased thereafter. IgG avidity to DENV3 significantly increased between convalescent and 3-month time-points in primary DENV infections and between the acute and convalescent phase in secondary DENV infections. While avidity to DENV2, a likely previous infecting serotype, was initially higher than avidity to DENV3 in secondary DENV infections, the opposite relation was observed 3-18 months post-infection. We found significant correlations between IgM avidity and NT50 in acute primary cases and between IgG avidity and NT50 in secondary DENV infections. In summary, our findings indicate that IgM antibodies likely play a role in early control of DENV infections. IgG serum avidity to DENV, analyzed for the first time in longitudinal samples, switches from targeting mainly cross-reactive serotype(s to the current infecting serotype over time. Finally, serum avidity correlates with neutralization capacity.

  11. Evaluation of an in-house specific immunoglobulin G (IgG avidity ELISA for distinguishing recent primary from long-term human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Silmara de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the standardization and evaluation of an in-house specific IgG avidity ELISA for distinguishing recent primary from long-term human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection. The test was standardized with the commercial kit ETI-CYTOK G Plus (Sorin Biomedica, Italy using 8 M urea in phosphate-buffered saline to dissociate low-avidity antibodies after the antigen-antibody interaction. The performance of the in-house assay was compared to that of the commercial automated VIDAS CMV IgG avidity test (bioMérieux, France. Forty-nine sera, 24 from patients with a recent primary HCMV infection and 25 from patients with a long-term HCMV infection and a sustained persistence of specific IgM antibodies, were tested. Similar results were obtained with the two avidity methods. All 24 sera from patients with recently acquired infection had avidity indices compatible with acute HCMV infection by the VIDAS method, whereas with the in-house method, one serum sample had an equivocal result. In the 25 sera from patients with long-term infection, identical results were obtained with the two methods, with only one serum sample having an incompatible value. These findings suggest that our in-house avidity test could be a potentially useful tool for the immunodiagnosis of HCMV infection.

  12. Identification of BACE2 as an avid ß-amyloid-degrading protease

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    Abdul-Hay Samer O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases that degrade the amyloid ß-protein (Aß have emerged as key players in the etiology and potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but it is unlikely that all such proteases have been identified. To discover new Aß-degrading proteases (AßDPs, we conducted an unbiased, genome-scale, functional cDNA screen designed to identify proteases capable of lowering net Aß levels produced by cells, which were subsequently characterized for Aß-degrading activity using an array of downstream assays. Results The top hit emerging from the screen was ß-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 2 (BACE2, a rather unexpected finding given the well-established role of its close homolog, BACE1, in the production of Aß. BACE2 is known to be capable of lowering Aß levels via non-amyloidogenic processing of APP. However, in vitro, BACE2 was also found to be a particularly avid AßDP, with a catalytic efficiency exceeding all known AßDPs except insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE. BACE1 was also found to degrade Aß, albeit ~150-fold less efficiently than BACE2. Aß is cleaved by BACE2 at three peptide bonds—Phe19-Phe20, Phe20-Ala21, and Leu34-Met35—with the latter cleavage site being the initial and principal one. BACE2 overexpression in cultured cells was found to lower net Aß levels to a greater extent than multiple, well-established AßDPs, including neprilysin (NEP and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE1, while showing comparable effectiveness to IDE. Conclusions This study identifies a new functional role for BACE2 as a potent AßDP. Based on its high catalytic efficiency, its ability to degrade Aß intracellularly, and other characteristics, BACE2 represents a particulary strong therapeutic candidate for the treatment or prevention of AD.

  13. Radiation Therapy to the Primary and Postinduction Chemotherapy MIBG-Avid Sites in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazloom, Ali; Louis, Chrystal U.; Nuchtern, Jed; Kim, Eugene; Russell, Heidi; Allen-Rhoades, Wendy; Krance, Robert; Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@mdanderson.org

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Although it is generally accepted that consolidation therapy for neuroblastoma includes irradiation of the primary site and any remaining metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid metastatic sites, limited information has been published regarding the efficacy of this approach. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with high-risk neuroblastoma were treated at 1 radiation therapy (RT) department after receiving 5 cycles of induction chemotherapy and resection. All patients had at least a partial response after induction therapy, based upon international neuroblastoma response criteria. The primary sites were treated with 24 to 30 Gy whereas the MIBG-avid metastatic sites were treated with 24 Gy. RT was followed by high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue and 6 months of cis-retinoic acid. Results: The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 48% and 59%, respectively. The 5-year locoregional control at the primary site was 84%. There were no differences in locoregional control according to degree of primary surgical resection. The 5-year local control rate for metastatic sites was 74%. The 5-year PFS rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and >3 postinduction MIBG sites were 66%, 57%, 20%, and 0% (P<.0001), respectively, whereas 5-year OS rates were 80%, 57%, 50%, and 0%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: RT to the primary site and postinduction MIBG-positive metastatic sites was associated with 84% and 74% local control, respectively. The number of MIBG-avid sites present after induction chemotherapy and surgery was predictive of progression-free and overall survival.

  14. Favourable outcomes of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy in patients with FDG-avid neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Raghava [Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Kong, Grace; Akhurst, Timothy; Eu, Peter [Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Neuroendocrine Tumour Service, Melbourne (Australia); Michael, Michael [University of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne (Australia); Zannino, Diana [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Neuroendocrine Tumour Service, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-09-11

    Increased glycolytic activity on FDG PET/CT defines a subgroup of patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) with a poor prognosis. A limited range of systemic treatment options exist for more aggressive NET. The role of peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT) in such patients is, however, unclear. This retrospective study assessed the outcomes of patients with FDG-avid NET treated with PRCRT. Clinical, biochemical and imaging response was assessed after completion of induction treatment of PRCRT with 5-fluorouracil in 52 patients selected for treatment on the basis of somatostatin-receptor imaging without spatially discordant FDG-avid disease. Of the cohort, 67 % had received prior chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were also analysed. PRCRT was well tolerated with negligible grade 3/4 toxicities. After a median follow-up period of 36 months, the median OS was not achieved with a median PFS of 48 months. At 3 months after completion of PRCRT 2 % of patients showed a complete anatomical response, 28 % a partial response, 68 % stable disease, and only 2 % progression. On FDG PET/CT, 27 % achieved a complete metabolic response during the follow-up period. A biochemical response (>25 % fall in chromogranin-A levels) was seen in 45 %. PRCRT is an effective treatment in patients with FDG-avid NET, even in patients who have failed conventional therapies. Given apparently higher response rates than with alternative therapeutic options and low toxicity, further research is needed to establish whether PRCRT should be used as a first-line treatment modality in this patient population. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of Mumps Vaccine Failure by Means of Avidity Testing for Mumps Virus-Specific Immunoglobulin G

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Mitsuo; Matsuzono, Yoshihiro; Takekoshi, Yasuo; Yamada, Satoshi; Itakura, Osamu; Kubota, Mitsuru; Kikuta, Hideaki; Togashi, Takehiro

    1998-01-01

    To characterize patients with mumps vaccine failure, avidity testing was performed with the Enzygnost Anti-Parotitis Virus/IgG kit using a single-dilution–6 M urea denaturation method. Five groups of patients were tested. Group 1 consisted of 29 patients with primary mumps infections; group 2 was 20 children and adults with a definite history of natural infection; group 3 was 7 patients with a recent mumps vaccination, 1 of whom developed parotid gland swelling and aseptic meningitis; group 4...

  16. CTL responses of high functional avidity and broad variant cross-reactivity are associated with HIV control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mothe

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses targeting specific HIV proteins, in particular Gag, have been associated with relative control of viral replication in vivo. However, Gag-specific CTL can also be detected in individuals who do not control the virus and it remains thus unclear how Gag-specific CTL may mediate the beneficial effects in some individuals but not in others. Here, we used a 10mer peptide set spanning HIV Gag-p24 to determine immunogen-specific T-cell responses and to assess functional properties including functional avidity and cross-reactivity in 25 HIV-1 controllers and 25 non-controllers without protective HLA class I alleles. Our data challenge the common belief that Gag-specific T cell responses dominate the virus-specific immunity exclusively in HIV-1 controllers as both groups mounted responses of comparable breadths and magnitudes against the p24 sequence. However, responses in controllers reacted to lower antigen concentrations and recognized more epitope variants than responses in non-controllers. These cross-sectional data, largely independent of particular HLA genetics and generated using direct ex-vivo samples thus identify T cell responses of high functional avidity and with broad variant reactivity as potential functional immune correlates of relative HIV control.

  17. Differential expression profiling of circulation microRNAs in PTC patients with non-131I and 131I-avid lungs metastases: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Loss of the ability to concentrate 131I is one of the important causes of radioiodine-refractory disease in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Recent advantages of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) open a new realm of possibilities for noninvasive diagnosis and prognosis of many cancers. The aim of the current study was to identify differential expression profiling of circulation miRNAs in PTC patients with non-131I and 131I-avid lungs metastases. Methods: The expressions of miRNAs were examined using miRNA microarray chip. The most significantly changed miRNAs from microarray were verified by using qRT-PCR. The potential miRNAs regulating target genes and their preliminary biological functions were forecasted by Bioinformatic analysis. Results: Compared to 131I-avid lung metastases, 13 kinds of significantly differential serum miRNAs including 5 upregulated miRNAs (miR-1249, miR-106a, miR-503, miR-34c-5p, miR-1281) and 8 downregulated miRNAs (miR-1915, miR-2861, miR-3196, miR-500, miR-572, miR-33b, miR-554, miR-18a) in PTC patients with non-131 I-avid lung metastases were identified. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that miR-106a was the core miRNA regulating 193 genes in the network. The results of validation confirmed the up-regulation of miR-106a in non-131I-avid lungs metastatic PTC patients. Conclusion: Differentially expressed serum miRNA profiles between PTC patients with non-131I and 131I-avid lungs metastases were analyzed. These findings in our present study could represent new clues for the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy in PTC patients with non-131I-avid metastatic disease

  18. A Peptide Mimetic of 5-Acetylneuraminic Acid-Galactose Binds with High Avidity to Siglecs and NKG2D.

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    Laura L Eggink

    Full Text Available We previously identified several peptide sequences that mimicked the terminal sugars of complex glycans. Using plant lectins as analogs of lectin-type cell-surface receptors, a tetravalent form of a peptide with the sequence NPSHPLSG, designated svH1C, bound with high avidity to lectins specific for glycans with terminal 5-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac-galactose (Gal/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc sequences. In this report, we show by circular dichroism and NMR spectra that svH1C lacks an ordered structure and thus interacts with binding sites from a flexible conformation. The peptide binds with high avidity to several recombinant human siglec receptors that bind preferentially to Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal, Neu5Ac(α2,6GalNAc or Neu5Ac(α2,8Neu5Ac ligands. In addition, the peptide bound the receptor NKG2D, which contains a lectin-like domain that binds Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal. The peptide bound to these receptors with a KD in the range of 0.6 to 1 μM. Binding to these receptors was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, which contains multiple glycans that terminate in Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal or Neu5Ac(α2,6Gal, and by sialyllactose. Binding of svH1C was not detected with CLEC9a, CLEC10a or DC-SIGN, which are lectin-type receptors specific for other sugars. Incubation of neuraminidase-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with svH1C resulted in binding of the peptide to a subset of the CD14+ monocyte population. Tyrosine phosphorylation of siglecs decreased dramatically when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 100 nM svH1C. Subcutaneous, alternate-day injections of svH1C into mice induced several-fold increases in populations of several types of immune cells in the peritoneal cavity. These results support the conclusion that svH1C mimics Neu5Ac-containing sequences and interacts with cell-surface receptors with avidities sufficient to induce biological responses at low concentrations. The attenuation of inhibitory receptors suggests that svH1C

  19. Utility of tumor-avid photosensitizers in developing bifunctional agents for tumor imaging and/or phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Suresh K.; Chen, Yihui; Zawada, Robert H.; Oseroff, Allan; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2006-02-01

    HPPH (a chlorophyll-a analog) was linked with a cyanine dye and the resulting conjugate was found to be an efficient tumor imaging (fluorescence imaging) and photosensitizing agent (PDT). Our preliminary results suggest that tumor-avid porphyrin-based compounds can be used as vehicles for delivering the desired fluorophores to tumor for fluorescence imaging. In an early diagnosis of microscopic lesions in pre-clinical studies (C3H mice implanted with RIF tumors) the HPPH-cyanine dye conjugate showed tumor-imaging capability (λ ex: 780 nm, λ em: 860 nm) at the non- therapeutic doses that are 100 fold lower than those used therapeutically. Compared to the cyanine dye, the corresponding HPPH-conjugate showed enhanced long-term tumor imaging ability.

  20. Historically aggressive types of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer often have radioactive avid distant metastases: a study of 314 patients with distant metastases at a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tala, H.P.; Rondeau, G.; Fagin, J.A.; Tuttle, R.M. [Endocrinology Division, Department of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Ghossein, R.A. [Pathology Department, Nuclear Medecine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Grewal, R.K.; Larson, S.M. [Radiology Department, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) remains one of the primary treatment options for metastatic, follicular cell derived thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that metastatic lesions arising from one of the aggressive thyroid cancer histologies [tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCV-PTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC)] would demonstrate sufficient RAI avidity for visualization on RAI scanning and therefore could potentially benefit from RAI therapy. The study shows that in patients selected for RAI scanning or therapy at our center, RAI avid lesions can be identified in more than two thirds of the patients with distant metastases arising in the setting of C-PTC, WD-FTC, FV-PTC, TCV-PTC, or PDTC primary tumors. While RAI avidity on a post-therapy scan does not always correlate with clinically significant tumor killing activity, it is likely that some of these patients with RAI avid metastatic disease did obtain a clinical benefit

  1. ICOS+PD-1+CXCR3+ T follicular helper cells contribute to the generation of high-avidity antibodies following influenza vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Khurana, Surender; Schmitt, Nathalie; Kurup, Parvathi; Mueller, Cynthia; Obermoser, Gerlinde; Palucka, A. Karolina; Albrecht, Randy A.; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Golding, Hana; Ueno, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The immune mechanism leading to the generation of protective antibody responses following influenza trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) vaccinations remains largely uncharacterized. We recently reported that TIV vaccination induced a transient increase of circulating ICOS+PD-1+CXCR3+ T follicular helper (cTfh) cells in blood, which positively correlated with the induction of protective antibody responses measured at day 28. However, whether and how these T cells directly contribute to antibody response remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the changes after TIV vaccination in the amount and the avidity of the polyclonal antibodies specific for the HA1 subunit of the pandemic H1N1 virus, and analyzed the correlation with the increase of ICOS+PD-1+CXCR3+ cTfh cells. We found that both the amount and the avidity of specific antibodies rapidly increased during the first 7 days after TIV. Importantly, the increase of ICOS+PD-1+CXCR3+ cTfh cells strongly correlated with the increase in the avidity of antibodies, particularly in subjects who did not have high affinity antibodies at baseline. We propose that ICOS+PD-1+CXCR3+ Tfh cells directly contribute to the generation of high-avidity antibodies after TIV vaccinations by selectively interacting with high affinity B cells at extrafollicular sites. PMID:27231124

  2. A Unique Case of Pulmonary Hyalinizing Granuloma Associated With FDG-avid PET Scan and Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Imran; Stone, Chad; Kvale, Paul

    2009-04-01

    An 83-year-old obese woman with a 60-pack-year smoking history was referred for evaluation of an abnormal chest radiograph [chest x-ray (CXR)]. Her past medical history was significant for recurrent deep venous thrombosis without any predisposing factors. CXR showed a large mass in the right mid lung and another nodule at the right apex, highly suspicious for a neoplastic process. These were not present on a CXR from 2 years earlier. An fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan revealed that all lesions were strongly FDG-avid. Six CT-guided core-needle lung biopsy specimens were obtained from the lung mass and all contained dense, lamellar, or "ropy" keloid-like collagen bundles arranged in a haphazard pattern. The biopsy specimens lacked significant necrosis and granulomas. Congo red stain with polarization was also negative for amyloid. The diagnosis of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) was made. A complete hypercoagulable workup was performed but no underlying abnormalities were found, including a negative lupus anticoagulant and malignancy workup. The patient was maintained on warfarin and followed with serial CT scans for 1 year, with spontaneous regression in the lung mass. The case is unique as it is the first case that reports an association of PHG with recurrent deep venous thrombosis in the absence of autoimmune or procoagulant factors and emphasizes the need for life-long anticoagulation in such scenarios. Also, we report the FDG-avid PET scan findings here that are novel for this disease in adults and add PHG to the list of diseases causing false-positive PET scans when malignancy is suspected. PMID:23168510

  3. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS(®) Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS(®) CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  4. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  5. APPRAISAL OF PRENATAL ANTI-TOXOPLASMA GONDII (IGG+IGM)- IHA/IGM-ELISA SCREENING IN SINGLE SAMPLES VIA IGG AVIDITY TEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bali, Mohammed; Zaglool, Dina A M; Khodari, Yousif A W; Al-Harthi, Saeed A

    2016-04-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with important morbidity and mortality. Since vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii can occur in acute cases, antenatal screening for recent infections is vital. Accurate determination of acute toxoplasmosis requires a combination of immunoassays, usually not routinely applied for screening purposes. This study evaluated the anti-T. gondii (IgG+IgM)/IgM prenatal screening procedure by IgG avidity assay. The routine prenatal screening for (IgG+IgM) anti-T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) in serum samples was done of 2247 pregnant women who attended two hospitals between 2011 and 2013 revealed 487 (21.7%) positive samples. Examination of IHA-positive sera by IgM and IgG/IgG-avidity concurrent ELISA tests revealed 7 positive and 3 border-line IgM-ELISA titers during the initial check-up of 10 women, who were then followed up at 3-4 week-intervals. Among these, 4 (40%) showed simultaneous high avidity IgG antibodies, indicating distant infection by the parasite, and no anti-T. gondii specific IgG could be detected in follow-up sera of two cases (20%), indicating false IgM initial positive results. Only 4 (40%) women showed simultaneous IgM and low avidity IgG antibodies indicating active infections. Avoidance of an over-diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis Anti-T. gondii (IgG+IgM)/IgM prenatal screening must be supplemented by a discriminative test like IgG avidity ELISA. PMID:27363056

  6. Studies on the development of 99mTc labelled serotonin receptor avid molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the central nervous system (CNS) receptors, serotonin is reported to be very important with respect to the study of brain disorders. Hence this work focuses on serotonin. A summary of the studies that were carried out is given. These include: (a) standardization of the method of serotonin receptor preparation from rat brains and development of a radioreceptor assay using radio-iodinated serotonin, (b) standardization of the method of radio-iodination of serotonin using a tyrosylmethyl ester derivative of serotonin and the preparation of 14C labelled serotonin, (c) synthesis of the SNS tridentate ligand (following the procedure developed by the Democritos National Centre of Scientific Research (NCSR), Athens) and evaluation of a 99mTc complex formed with the tridentate SNS ligand and thiocresol for use as a CNS receptor imaging agent and (d) evaluation of the 99mTc complex formed with a SNS piperazine based tridentate ligand and a monodentate co-ligand (thiophenol obtained from NCSR). This limited study on brain uptake of the complex in rats showed that more structural modification of the ligand is required for preparation of a complex suitable for CNS receptor imaging. Also included is a design for synthesis of a novel complex based on the reported information on the 5-iodo-2-[(2-dimethyl)aminomethylphynoxy]benzyl alcohol compound, which is reported to have a binding affinity for serotonin re-uptake sites. (author)

  7. Difference of Clinical and Radiological Characteristics According to Radioiodine Avidity in Pulmonary Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dohoon; Jung, Jihoon; Song, Seung Hyun; Kim, Choonyoung; Hong, Chae Moon; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sangwoo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeongcheol [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate differences in clinical, radiological and laboratory findings between pulmonary metastasis with and without radioiodine avidity in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with pulmonary metastasis who underwent high-dose I-131 treatment. A total of 105 DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis (age, 48.7±16.8 years; women/men, 78/27) were included. Clinical characteristics, chest computed tomography (CT), F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET)/CT and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (s-Tg) level were compared between patients with and without radioiodine uptake in metastatic lung lesions. The response to I-131 treatment was evaluated with follow-up study. Eighty-nine patients (84.8 %, whole-body scan positive [WBSP] group) showed radioiodine uptake at pulmonary metastasis on post I-131 treatment whole-body scan (WBS) and 16 patients (15.2 %, WBS negative [WBSN] group) did not show uptake at pulmonary lesions on the WBS. Ninety percent and 87 % of the WBSP group had visible metastatic lesions on CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT; however, all of the patients in the WBSN group showed lesions on CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT. In seven (6.7 %) of 105 patients, CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT could not detect pulmonary lesions, which were diagnosed by post I-131 treatment WBS. Complete disease remission was achieved in six (5.7 %) patients and all of them were in the WBSP group. Metastatic lesion was not visualized on chest CT or F-18 FDG PET/CT in 6.7 % of DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis and the lesion was visualized only on post I-131 treatment WBS. Complete remission was achieved in 5.7 % of DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis and the cured metastases were non-visualizing or micronodular lesions on chest CT and demonstrated radioiodine avidity on post I-131 treatment WBS.

  8. Potential Pitfall in the Assessment of Lung Cancer with FDG-PET/CT: Talc Pleurodesis Causes Intrathoracic Nodal FDG Avidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Talc pleurodesis is a common procedure performed to treat complications related to lung cancer. The purpose of our study was to characterize any thoracic nodal findings on FDG PET/CT associated with prior talc pleurodesis. Materials and Methods. The electronic medical record identified 44 patients who underwent PET/CT between January 2006 and December 2010 and had a history of talc pleurodesis. For each exam, we evaluated the distribution pattern, size, and attenuation of intrathoracic lymph nodes and the associated standardized uptake value. Results. High-attenuation intrathoracic lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients (25%, and all had corresponding increased FDG uptake (range 2–9 mm. Involved nodal groups were anterior peridiaphragmatic (100%, paracardiac (45%, internal mammary (25%, and peri-IVC (18% nodal stations. Seven of the 11 patients (63% had involvement of multiple lymph nodal groups. Mean longitudinal PET/CT and standalone CT followups of 15±11 months showed persistence of both high-attenuation and increased uptake at these sites, without increase in nodal size suggesting metastatic disease involvement. Conclusions. FDG avid, high-attenuation lymph nodes along the lymphatic drainage pathway for parietal pleura are a relatively common finding following talc pleurodesis and should not be mistaken for nodal metastases during the evaluation of patients with history of lung cancer.

  9. Use of IgG avidity ELISA to differentiate acute from persistent infection with Salmonella Dublin in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.R.; Nielsen, L.R.; Lind, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether an immunoglobulin (Ig)G avidity ELISA can be used to differentiate between acute and persistent infection with Salmonella (S.) Dublin in cattle. To determine whether the IgG isotype, IgG(1) and IgG(2) responses in acute and persistent infections differ. Methods...... of persistent infection with S. Dublin in cattle, it can be concluded that the IgG-AI can aid in differentiating between acute and long-term infection on herd level. However, for the test to be useful as an alternative tool to repeated sampling over time for detection of persistently infected carriers during...... control strategies in cattle herds, the test needs to be optimized and studied further in a larger sample of well-characterized infections in cattle. The affinity of IgG(2) is higher than IgG(1) early in the S. Dublin infection. There appears to be no difference in the IgG(2)-AI between the acute...

  10. Lectin-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(vinyldimethyl azlactone) surface supports for high avidity microbial capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a critical and dynamic role in shaping the interactions between microbial community members and their local environment. The capture of targeted microbes using surface immobilized lectins that recognize specific extracellular oligosaccharide moieties offers a non-destructive method for functional characterization based on EPS content. In this report, we evaluate the use of the block co-polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA), as a surface support for lectin-specific microbial capture. Arrays of circular polymer supports ten micron in diameter were generated on silicon substrates to provide discrete, covalent coupling sites for Triticum vulgare and Lens culinaris lectins. These supports promoted microbe adhesion and colony formation in a lectin-specific manner. Silicon posts with similar topography containing only physisorbed lectins showed significantly less activity. These results demonstrate that micropatterned PGMA-b-PVDMA supports provide a unique platform for microbial capture and screening based on EPS content by combining high avidity lectin surfaces with three-dimensional topography.

  11. T-cell receptor affinity and avidity defines antitumor response and autoimmunity in T-cell immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shi; Malecek, Karolina; Johnson, Laura A.; Yu, Zhiya; Vega-Saenz de Miera, Eleazar; Darvishian, Farbod; McGary, Katelyn; Huang, Kevin; Boyer, Josh; Corse, Emily; Shao, Yongzhao; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Osman, Iman; Krogsgaard, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    T cells expressing antigen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) can mediate effective tumor regression, but they often also are accompanied by autoimmune responses. To determine the TCR affinity threshold defining the optimal balance between effective antitumor activity and autoimmunity in vivo, we used a unique self-antigen system comprising seven human melanoma gp100(209–217)-specific TCRs spanning physiological affinities (1–100 μM). We found that in vitro and in vivo T-cell responses are determined by TCR affinity, except in one case that was compensated by substantial CD8 involvement. Strikingly, we found that T-cell antitumor activity and autoimmunity are closely coupled but plateau at a defined TCR affinity of 10 µM, likely due to diminished contribution of TCR affinity to avidity above the threshold. Together, these results suggest that a relatively low-affinity threshold is necessary for the immune system to avoid self-damage, given the close relationship between antitumor activity and autoimmunity. The low threshold, in turn, indicates that adoptive T-cell therapy treatment strategies using in vitro-generated high-affinity TCRs do not necessarily improve efficacy. PMID:23576742

  12. SLAP deficiency increases TCR avidity leading to altered repertoire and negative selection of cognate antigen-specific CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Samantha F; Peterson, Lisa K; Kedl, Ross M; Dragone, Leonard L

    2013-03-01

    How T cell receptor (TCR) avidity influences CD8(+) T cell development and repertoire selection is not yet fully understood. To fill this gap, we utilized Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP)-deficient mice as a tool to increase TCR avidity on double positive (DP) thymocytes. We generated SLAP(-/-) mice with the transgenic MHC class I-restricted TCR (OT-1) and SLAP(-/-) Vβ5 mice, expressing only the β-chain of the TCR OT-1 transgene, to examine the effects of increased TCR surface levels on CD8(+) T cell development and repertoire selection. In comparing SLAP(-/-) OT-1 and Vβ5 mice with wild-type controls, we performed compositional analysis and assessed thymocyte signaling by measuring CD5 levels. In addition, we performed tetramer and compositional staining to measure affinity for the cognate antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) peptide, presented by MHC. Furthermore, we quantified differences in α-chain repertoire in SLAP(-/-) Vβ5 mice. We have found that SLAP(-/-) OT-1 mice have fewer CD8(+) thymocytes but have increased CD5 expression. SLAP(-/-) OT-1 mice have fewer DP thymocytes expressing Vα2, signifying increased endogenous α-chain rearrangement, and more non-OVA-specific CD8(+) splenocytes upon tetramer staining. Our data demonstrate that SLAP(-/-) Vβ5 mice also have fewer OVA-specific cells and increased Vα2 usage in the peripheral Vβ5 CD8(+) T cells that were non-OVA-specific, demonstrating differences in α-chain repertoire. These studies provide direct evidence that increased TCR avidity in DP thymocytes enhances CD8(+) T cell negative selection deleting thymocytes with specificity for cognate antigen, an antigen the mature T cells may never encounter. Collectively, these studies provide new insights into how TCR avidity during CD8(+) T cell development influences repertoire selection.

  13. Allorestricted T lymphocytes with a high avidity T-cell receptor towards NY-ESO-1 have potent anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krönig, Holger; Hofer, Kathrin; Conrad, Heinke; Guilaume, Philippe; Müller, Julia; Schiemann, Matthias; Lennerz, Volker; Cosma, Antonio; Peschel, Christian; Busch, Dirk H; Romero, Pedro; Bernhard, Helga

    2009-08-01

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 has been targeted as a tumor-associated antigen by immunotherapeutical strategies, such as cancer vaccines. The prerequisite for a T-cell-based therapy is the induction of T cells capable of recognizing the NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells. In this study, we generated human T lymphocytes directed against the immunodominant NY-ESO-1(157-165) epitope known to be naturally presented with HLA-A*0201. We succeeded to isolate autorestricted and allorestricted T lymphocytes with low, intermediate or high avidity TCRs against the NY-ESO-1 peptide. The avidity of the established CTL populations correlated with their capacity of lysing HLA-A2-positive, NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cell lines derived from different origins, e.g. melanoma and myeloma. The allorestricted NY-ESO-1-specific T lymphocytes displayed TCRs with the highest avidity and best anti-tumor recognition activity. TCRs derived from allorestricted, NY-ESO-1-specific T cells may be useful reagents for redirecting primary T cells by TCR gene transfer and, therefore, may facilitate the development of adoptive transfer regimens based on TCR-transduced T cells for the treatment of NY-ESO-1-expressing hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

  14. Demographic Profiles, Mercury, Selenium, and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Avid Seafood Consumers on Long Island, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastero, Rebecca; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Meliker, Jaymie

    2016-02-01

    Seafood consumption is known to confer nutritional benefits and risks from contaminant exposure. Avid seafood consumers are neither well-characterized with regard to their demographic profile nor their underlying risk-benefit profile. Contaminants [e.g., mercury (Hg)] and nutrients [e.g., selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids] are prevalent in some seafood. Participants (N = 285) recruited on Long Island, NY, completed food frequency and health questionnaires and received blood draws analyzed for Hg, omega-3s, and Se. Participants were categorized based on frequency and type of seafood consumption. Logistic regression analyses evaluated relationships between seafood consumption and demographics, and were age- and sex-adjusted. t tests assessed relationships between seafood consumption patterns and biomarkers Hg, omega-3s, and Se. Consumption of both tuna and salmon was associated with older age: those aged 55-75 and over 75 years old were more likely than participants aged 18-34 to eat tuna and salmon (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.05, 4.89 and OR 3.67; 95% CI 1.20, 11.20, respectively). Males were less likely than females to eat fish other than tuna or salmon (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.34, 0.97). Caucasians were more likely to consume tuna (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.10, 0.96) or salmon and tuna (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.12, 0.91), while non-Caucasians were more likely to consume other fish types (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.45, 5.12). Total blood Hg was associated with weekly consumption of any type of fish (p = 0.01) and with salmon and tuna consumption (p = 0.01). Salmon was associated with plasma omega-3s (p = 0.01). Se was not associated with fish intake categories. Risk communicators can use these findings to influence seafood preferences of different demographic groups.

  15. A technique for dating toxoplasmosis in pregnancy and comparison with the Vidas anti-toxoplasma IgG avidity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flori, P; Bellete, B; Crampe, C; Maudry, A; Patural, H; Chauleur, C; Hafid, J; Raberin, H; Tran Manh Sung, R

    2008-03-01

    A comparative evaluation of 384 selected sera was performed using the Beckman Coulter Access and Abbott Axsym Toxo-IgG assays. The Axsym assay yields positive early results following infection, while the Access assay gives higher titres during chronic infection. The ratio between the two complementary tests, Axsym Toxo-IgG/Access Toxo-IgG (Ax/Ac), was compared with the Vidas anti-Toxoplasma IgG avidity index (AI). The Ax/Ac ratio decreased progressively as the time between infection and sampling increased. The mean Ax/Ac values (+/-SE) were 2.50 (+/-0.26), 2.14 (+/-0.13), 2.33 (+/-0.22), 1.34 (+/-0.09), 1.32 (+/-0.10), 0.92 (+/-0.08) and 0.74 (+/-0.07) for groups of sera sampled at 1, 2, 3, 4-5, 6-8, 9-12 and 13-24 months, respectively, after infection in pregnant women. These values were much smaller for cases with chronic infection (>24 months), i.e., 0.56 (+/-0.03), 0.44 (+/-0.04) and 0.53 (+/-0.04), respectively, for pregnant women and immunodepressed patients with and without reactivation. Taking a ratio of 1 as a threshold for recent infection, the patients in the groups sampled at 1, 2 and 3 months had Ax/Ac ratios >1 in 49/50 (98%), 53/55 (96.4%) and 36/36 (100%) cases, respectively. Thus, an Ax/Ac ratio of <1 in serum from a pregnant woman allows a recent infection (<3 months) to be excluded. This technique has the advantage of yielding positive results that develop much more rapidly than the AI, thereby helping to reassure large numbers of pregnant women and avoiding costly and unnecessary prophylactic treatment and follow-up.

  16. High pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and loss of high avidity cross-reactive cytotoxic T-cells during the course of secondary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the most important human diseases transmitted by an arthropod vector and the incidence of dengue virus infection has been increasing - over half the world's population now live in areas at risk of infection. Most infections are asymptomatic, but a subset of patients experience a potentially fatal shock syndrome characterised by plasma leakage. Severe forms of dengue are epidemiologically associated with repeated infection by more than one of the four dengue virus serotypes. Generally attributed to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement, recent observations indicate that T-cells may also influence disease phenotype. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL showing high level cross reactivity between dengue serotypes could be expanded from blood samples taken during the acute phase of secondary dengue infection. These could not be detected in convalescence when only CTL populations demonstrating significant serotype specificity were identified. Dengue cross-reactive CTL clones derived from these patients were of higher avidity than serotype-specific clones and produced much higher levels of both type 1 and certain type 2 cytokines, many previously implicated in dengue pathogenesis. CONCLUSION: Dengue serotype cross-reactive CTL clones showing high avidity for antigen produce higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than serotype-specific clones. That such cells cannot be expanded from convalescent samples suggests that they may be depleted, perhaps as a consequence of activation-induced cell death. Such high avidity cross-reactive memory CTL may produce inflammatory cytokines during the course of secondary infection, contributing to the pathogenesis of vascular leak. These cells appear to be subsequently deleted leaving a more serotype-specific memory CTL pool. Further studies are needed to relate these cellular observations to disease phenotype in a large group of patients. If

  17. Vesicular monoamine transporter protein expression correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and MIBG avidity in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, William; Mendelsohn, Lori; Nekritz, Erin; Gustafson, W.C.; Matthay, Katherine K. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kim, Grace E. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lin, Lawrence; Giacomini, Kathy [UCSF School of Pharmacy, Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, San Francisco, CA (United States); Naranjo, Arlene; Van Ryn, Collin [University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group Statistics and Data Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yanik, Gregory A. [University of Michigan, CS Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kreissman, Susan G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hogarty, Michael [University of Pennsylvania, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DuBois, Steven G. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporters 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and VMAT2) are thought to mediate MIBG uptake in adult neuroendocrine tumors. In neuroblastoma, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been investigated as the principal MIBG uptake protein, though some tumors without NET expression concentrate MIBG. We investigated VMAT expression in neuroblastoma and correlated expression with MIBG uptake and clinical features. We evaluated VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in neuroblastoma tumors from 76 patients with high-risk metastatic disease treated in a uniform cooperative group trial (COG A3973). All patients had baseline MIBG diagnostic scans centrally reviewed. IHC results were scored as the product of intensity grading (0 - 3+) and percent of tumor cells expressing the protein of interest. The association between VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores and clinical and biological features was tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Patient characteristics were typical of high-risk neuroblastoma, though the cohort was intentionally enriched in patients with MIBG-nonavid tumors (n = 20). VMAT1 and VMAT2 were expressed in 62 % and 75 % of neuroblastoma tumors, respectively. VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores were both significantly lower in MYCN amplified tumors and in tumors with high mitotic karyorrhectic index. MIBG-avid tumors had significantly higher VMAT2 scores than MIBG-nonavid tumors (median 216 vs. 45; p = 0.04). VMAT1 expression did not correlate with MIBG avidity. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are expressed in the majority of neuroblastomas. Expression correlates with other biological features. The expression level of VMAT2 but not that of VMAT1 correlates with avidity for MIBG. (orig.)

  18. An Avid Imitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Liakos, Alexis; Miller, Michael B; Krane, Jeffrey F; Baden, Lindsey R; Hammond, Sarah P

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of disseminated cryptococcal disease, coexisting with and mimicking lymphoma. Determination of serum cryptococcal antigen should be considered for lymphopenic patients with hematologic malignancies, presenting with unexplained fever, and/or lymphadenopathy and/or pulmonary findings. Patients with hematologic malignancies treated with chemotherapy regimens are susceptible to diverse opportunistic infections. Therefore, in this patient population, it is often necessary to obtain a definitive pathologic diagnosis, to diagnose uncommon syndromes and guide management.

  19. The evaluation of rubella and sitomegalovirus IgG avidity tests in pregnants: four-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Uzun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aim to evaluate the retrospective IgG avidity index (AI test results of the pregnant, who have applied to our hospital and had pregnancy screening test and have been asked for rubella and cytomegalovirus antibody tests and IgG AI test in 4 year period. Methods: Anti-rubella IgM, anti-rubella IgG, anti-CMV IgM and anti-CMV antibodies were performed by IMMULITE 2000XPi™ Immunoassay System (Siemens, Germany whereas IgG AI tests were performed by commercial kits of rubella and cytomegalovirus antibody tests (Dia.Pro® Diagnostic, Milano-Italy. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2013, 23 (7.32 % of 314 pregnant women tested rubella IgG AI had low AI, and 266 cases had high AI rate; 14 (17.28% of 81 pregnant women tested CMV IgG AI, had lower AI rate, 52 of them had high AI. 9 out of 23 pregnant women, who were detected low rubella were requested only AI without any IgM and IgG value; the IgG antibody of 13 pregnant was reactive, and IgM antibody was not requested; IgG and IgM antibody of 1 pregnant was detected positive. When 5 pregnant, who were detected low CMV AI were requested AI without IgG and IgM value; the IgG and IgM of 4 was reactive; 4 of them had IgG reactive but IgM negative; 1 had IgG and IgM negative. Conclusion: As a result, our low rubella AI rate has been detected lower than the rates in our country since our study population contains only the pregnant. Our low CMV AI rate varies due to the same reasons as literature data. During pregnancy scanning, performing of AI testing together with specific IgG and IgM will save both time and will be more meaningful in clinical evaluation for pregnant women. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 420-423

  20. Impaired Haemophilus influenzae Type b Transplacental Antibody Transmission and Declining Antibody Avidity through the First Year of Life Represent Potential Vulnerabilities for HIV-Exposed but -Uninfected Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Gaensbauer, James T.; Rakhola, Jeremy T.; Onyango-Makumbi, Carolyne; Mubiru, Michael; Westcott, Jamie E; Krebs, Nancy F; Asturias, Edwin J; Fowler, Mary Glenn; McFarland, Elizabeth; Janoff, Edward N.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether immune function is impaired among HIV-exposed but -uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected mothers and to identify potential vulnerabilities to vaccine-preventable infection, we characterized the mother-to-infant placental transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b-specific IgG (Hib-IgG) and its levels and avidity after vaccination in Ugandan HEU infants and in HIV-unexposed U.S. infants. Hib-IgG was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 57 Ugandan HIV-inf...

  1. The quantum chemical causality of pMHC-TCR biological avidity: Peptide atomic coordination data and the electronic state of agonist N termini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S.E. Antipas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantum state of functional avidity of the synapse formed between a peptide-Major Histocompatibility Complex (pMHC and a T cell receptor (TCR is a subject not previously touched upon. Here we present atomic pair correlation meta-data based on crystalized tertiary structures of the Tax (HTLV-1 peptide along with three artificially altered variants, all of which were presented by the (Class I HLA-A201 protein in complexation with the human (CD8+ A6TCR. The meta-data reveal the existence of a direct relationship between pMHC-TCR functional avidity (agonist/antagonist and peptide pair distribution function (PDF. In this context, antagonist peptides are consistently under-coordinated in respect to Tax. Moreover, Density Functional Theory (DFT datasets in the BLYP/TZ2P level of theory resulting from relaxation of the H species on peptide tertiary structures reveal that the coordination requirement of agonist peptides is also expressed as a physical observable of the protonation state of their N termini: agonistic peptides are always found to retain a stable ammonium (NH3+ terminal group while antagonist peptides are not.

  2. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Fakhari; Amir Jalilian; Fariba Johari-daha; Mehdi Shafiee-Ardestani; Ali Khalaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga).Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies,...

  3. Evaluation of the Abbott AxSYM Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Assay in Conjunction with Other CMV IgM Tests and a CMV IgG Avidity Assay

    OpenAIRE

    T. Lazzarotto; Galli, C.; R. Pulvirenti; Rescaldani, R.; Vezzo, R.; La Gioia, A.; C. Martinelli; La Rocca, S.; Agresti, G.; Grillner, L; Nordin, M.; Van Ranst, M.; Combs, B.; Maine, G T; Landini, M P

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of the avidity of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies has been shown by several investigators to be useful in identifying and excluding primary CMV infections in pregnant women. In this work, we examined the diagnostic utility of reflex testing of CMV IgM-positive specimens from pregnant women by using a CMV IgG avidity assay. The utility of this approach was directly dependent on the sensitivity of the CMV IgM assay employed during the initial screen. The ...

  4. TH-E-BRF-11: Dynamic Treatment of Clinical Margins Beyond the PET-Avid Target in Emission Guided Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Patient Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanduri, A; Mazin, S [RefleXion Medical, Burlingame, CA (United States); Fan, Q [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yang, J; Graves, E; Loo, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Yamamoto, T [UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Emission guided radiation therapy (EGRT) is a new modality that uses PET emissions for direct real-time tumor tracking. Radiation beamlets are delivered along PET lines of response (LOR's) by a fast rotating PET-Linac closed ring gantry. In this work, we develop a scheme to treat clinical margins defined proximal to the moving PET-avid tumor, while maintaining EGRT's inherent real-time tracking ability. Methods: The principle of EGRT is to deliver radiation along PET emission paths to concentrate dose in the PET-avid gross tumor volume (GTV). To account for adjacent non- PET avid regions in the clinical volume (CTV) a method was developed that expands the set of radiation beamlet responses to include the effective margin extension from the GTV to the CTV. An LOR detection may now Result in multiple beamlet responses: one along the original LOR, and others that are adjacent to it in the direction of margin extension. Evaluation studies were performed on a 4D digital patient as well as a clinical breast cancer patient with moving lung tumors. Emission data were obtained using GATE and a commercial PET scanner. Dose delivery was simulated using VMC++. For the patient study, Philips Pinnacle was used for planning and Mirada RTx was used for deformable dose registration across multiple breathing phases. Results: Compared with IMRT, the EGRT margin extension method achieved a 25.3% and 9.0% relative increase in dose to 95% of the CTV for the digital and clinical patients, respectively. The corresponding CTV dose increases without margin extension were 9.7% and 1.4%. The organs at risk doses were kept similar or lower for EGRT in both cases, with tumor tracking preserved. Conclusions: With the capability of accurate treatment of the moving CTV, EGRT has the potential to enable a practical and effective implementation of 4D biologically guided radiation therapy. Authors SRM and AN are stockholders of RefleXion Medical.

  5. TH-E-BRF-11: Dynamic Treatment of Clinical Margins Beyond the PET-Avid Target in Emission Guided Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Patient Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Emission guided radiation therapy (EGRT) is a new modality that uses PET emissions for direct real-time tumor tracking. Radiation beamlets are delivered along PET lines of response (LOR's) by a fast rotating PET-Linac closed ring gantry. In this work, we develop a scheme to treat clinical margins defined proximal to the moving PET-avid tumor, while maintaining EGRT's inherent real-time tracking ability. Methods: The principle of EGRT is to deliver radiation along PET emission paths to concentrate dose in the PET-avid gross tumor volume (GTV). To account for adjacent non- PET avid regions in the clinical volume (CTV) a method was developed that expands the set of radiation beamlet responses to include the effective margin extension from the GTV to the CTV. An LOR detection may now Result in multiple beamlet responses: one along the original LOR, and others that are adjacent to it in the direction of margin extension. Evaluation studies were performed on a 4D digital patient as well as a clinical breast cancer patient with moving lung tumors. Emission data were obtained using GATE and a commercial PET scanner. Dose delivery was simulated using VMC++. For the patient study, Philips Pinnacle was used for planning and Mirada RTx was used for deformable dose registration across multiple breathing phases. Results: Compared with IMRT, the EGRT margin extension method achieved a 25.3% and 9.0% relative increase in dose to 95% of the CTV for the digital and clinical patients, respectively. The corresponding CTV dose increases without margin extension were 9.7% and 1.4%. The organs at risk doses were kept similar or lower for EGRT in both cases, with tumor tracking preserved. Conclusions: With the capability of accurate treatment of the moving CTV, EGRT has the potential to enable a practical and effective implementation of 4D biologically guided radiation therapy. Authors SRM and AN are stockholders of RefleXion Medical

  6. A rare case of asymptomatic radioiodine-avid renal and brain metastases 20 years after hemi-thyroidectomy for adenomatous goiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Verma, Roshan Kumar; Lal, Anupam; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old patient, with a history of left hemi-thyroidectomy for adenomatous goiter 20 years previously, was found to have pulmonary lesions on chest X-ray, a brain lesion on computerized tomography (CT), and elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg). While completion thyroidectomy revealed that no pathological evidence of thyroid malignancy, radioiodine-avid pulmonary, brain, and renal and bone lesions were identified on diagnostic as well as posttherapy whole body planar scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography-CT. Subsequent ultrasonography-guided biopsy of a renal nodule showed thyroid follicular cells. This case suggests that metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma should be suspected in asymptomatic patients with incidentally detected lesions, raised serum Tg, and history of thyroid lesions. PMID:26917894

  7. Duration of 18F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. During December 2009, patients referred for 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans (n = 293) filled in a questionnaire concerning vaccination type (seasonal and/or H1N1v), time and anatomical localization of vaccination. Only injections in deltoid regions were evaluated, thus ensuring that draining lymph nodes were axillary. If more vaccinations had been given, only the latest vaccination was evaluated in each deltoid region. Of all patients who underwent PET/CT scans during December 2009, 26% had been vaccinated with at least one influenza vaccination in the deltoid region. A total of 92 'draining' and 60 'reference' (i.e. contralateral, non-vaccinated) axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in 61 patients (19 of 61 patients were scanned twice). The maximal intensity in FDG uptake (SUVmax) in draining lymph nodes was 5 g/ml body weight (BW), whereas the maximal intensity in reference lymph nodes was 1.9 g/ml BW. The SUVmax was normalized approximately 40 days after vaccination. No significant enlargement of metabolically active draining lymph nodes could be demonstrated on CT scan. Chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs given within 2 weeks from vaccination did not affect SUVmax in the axillary lymph nodes. Influenza vaccination may lead to FDG-avid draining lymph nodes beyond 1 month. (orig.)

  8. The anti-cancer IgM monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 binds with high avidity to the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Rosenes

    Full Text Available The monoclonal IgM antibody PAT-SM6 derived from human tumours induces apoptosis in tumour cells and is considered a potential anti-cancer agent. A primary target for PAT-SM6 is the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78, over-expressed externally on the cell surface of tumour cells. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS studies of human GRP78 showed a two-domain dumbbell-shaped monomer, while SAXS analysis of PAT-SM6 revealed a saucer-shaped structure accommodating five-fold symmetry, consistent with previous studies of related proteins. Sedimentation velocity analysis of GRP78 and PAT-SM6 mixtures indicated weak complex formation characterized by dissociation constants in the high micromolar concentration range. In contrast, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs showed strong and specific interactions between PAT-SM6 and immobilized GRP78. The apparent binding constant estimated from a PAT-SM6 saturation curve correlated strongly with the concentration of GRP78 used to coat the microtiter tray. Experiments using polyclonal antiGRP78 IgG antibodies or a monoclonal IgG derivative of PAT-SM6 did not show a similar dependence. Competition experiments with soluble GRP78 indicated more effective inhibition of PAT-SM6 binding at low GRP78 coating concentrations. These observations suggest an avidity-based binding mechanism that depends on the multi-point attachment of PAT-SM6 to GRP78 clustered on the surface of the tray. Analysis of ELISA data at high GRP78 coating concentrations yielded an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 4 nM. We propose that the biological action of PAT-SM6 in tumour cell apoptosis may depend on the multivalent nature of PAT-SM6 and the high avidity of its interaction with multiple GRP78 molecules clustered on the tumour cell surface.

  9. Duration of {sup 18}F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, Anders; Lerberg Nielsen, Anne; Gerke, Oke; Johansen, Allan; Petersen, Henrik [OUH, Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. During December 2009, patients referred for {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans (n = 293) filled in a questionnaire concerning vaccination type (seasonal and/or H1N1v), time and anatomical localization of vaccination. Only injections in deltoid regions were evaluated, thus ensuring that draining lymph nodes were axillary. If more vaccinations had been given, only the latest vaccination was evaluated in each deltoid region. Of all patients who underwent PET/CT scans during December 2009, 26% had been vaccinated with at least one influenza vaccination in the deltoid region. A total of 92 'draining' and 60 'reference' (i.e. contralateral, non-vaccinated) axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in 61 patients (19 of 61 patients were scanned twice). The maximal intensity in FDG uptake (SUV{sub max}) in draining lymph nodes was 5 g/ml body weight (BW), whereas the maximal intensity in reference lymph nodes was 1.9 g/ml BW. The SUV{sub max} was normalized approximately 40 days after vaccination. No significant enlargement of metabolically active draining lymph nodes could be demonstrated on CT scan. Chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs given within 2 weeks from vaccination did not affect SUV{sub max} in the axillary lymph nodes. Influenza vaccination may lead to FDG-avid draining lymph nodes beyond 1 month. (orig.)

  10. Ultrastructural visualization of the transmembranous and cytomatrix-related part of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of frog motor endplate by means of an immunochemical avidity of IgG for d-tubocurarine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Tsuji

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fine ultrastructural localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR was attempted, using d-tubocurarine (d-TC, a quaternary ammonium compound binding to nAChR. The localization was based on the binding avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG for acetylcholine (ACh and other quaternary ammonium compounds, such as d-TC. d-TC was applied to the frog neuromuscular preparation and caused a blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Then, d-TC was rendered insoluble in situ by silicotungstic acid (STA, a precipitating agent of soluble proteins and quaternary ammonium compounds. After tissue fixation, a normal rabbit serum was applied to the fine precipitate of the insoluble salt of d-TC silicotungstate (quaternary ammonium radical of d-TC to form the immunochemical complex d-TC- rabbit IgG at ACh binding sites. The IgG of the complex was revealed by means of the conventional immunoperoxidase procedure used for ultrastructural localization. Under the electron microscope, fine diaminobenzidine (DAB precipitates appeared as regular rod-like structures oriented to cytoplasmic side of the horizontal part (crest of the postsynaptic membrane (between the junctional folds which is known to be endowed with nAChR. The rod-like precipitates were not observed in the postsynaptic junctional folds which are devoid of nAChR. The distance separating the rods each other was rather constant (12 - 15 nm, while the length of the rods was variable and exceeded the usual length of nAChR. The present work indicates that the rod-like structures, already observed in association with sarcoplasmic side of the postsynaptic membrane, did correspond to the intramembranous and intracytoplasmic part of nAChR and related proteins. These cytochemical results confirm that d-TC binds to ACh binding sites in the pore of nAChR, and raise the question of DAB staining of cytoskeletal proteins related to the nAChR complex.

  11. Label-free Fab and Fc affinity/avidity profiling of the antibody complex half-life for polyclonal and monoclonal efficacy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    A unified approach to affinity screening for Fab and Fc interactions of an antibody for its antigen and FcγR receptor has been developed. An antigen array is used for the Fab affinity and cross-reactivity screening and protein A/G proxy is the FcγR receptor. The affinities are derived using a simple 1:1 binding model with a consistent error analysis. The association and dissociation kinetics are measured over optimised times for accurate determination. The Fab/Fc affinities are derived for ten antibodies: mAb-actin (mouse), pAb-BSA (sheep), pAb-collagen V (rabbit), pAb-CRP (goat), mAb-F1 (mouse), mAbs (mouse) 7.3, 12.3, 29.3, 36.3 and 46.3 raised against LcrV in Yersinia pestis. The rate of the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes relates directly to their immunological function as does the Fc-FcγR complex and a new half-life plot has been defined with a Fab/Fc half-life range of 17-470 min. The upper half-life value points to surface avidity. Two antibodies that are protective as an immunotherapy define a Fab half-life >250 min and an Fc half-life >50 min as characteristics of ideal interactions which can form the basis of an antibody screen for immunotherapy. PMID:26187320

  12. Label-free Fab and Fc affinity/avidity profiling of the antibody complex half-life for polyclonal and monoclonal efficacy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    A unified approach to affinity screening for Fab and Fc interactions of an antibody for its antigen and FcγR receptor has been developed. An antigen array is used for the Fab affinity and cross-reactivity screening and protein A/G proxy is the FcγR receptor. The affinities are derived using a simple 1:1 binding model with a consistent error analysis. The association and dissociation kinetics are measured over optimised times for accurate determination. The Fab/Fc affinities are derived for ten antibodies: mAb-actin (mouse), pAb-BSA (sheep), pAb-collagen V (rabbit), pAb-CRP (goat), mAb-F1 (mouse), mAbs (mouse) 7.3, 12.3, 29.3, 36.3 and 46.3 raised against LcrV in Yersinia pestis. The rate of the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes relates directly to their immunological function as does the Fc-FcγR complex and a new half-life plot has been defined with a Fab/Fc half-life range of 17-470 min. The upper half-life value points to surface avidity. Two antibodies that are protective as an immunotherapy define a Fab half-life >250 min and an Fc half-life >50 min as characteristics of ideal interactions which can form the basis of an antibody screen for immunotherapy.

  13. Evaluation of Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and IgG Avidity Assays Using a Protein A-Peroxidase Conjugate for Serological Distinction between Brucella abortus S19-Vaccinated and -Infected Cows ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pajuaba, Ana C. A. M.; Deise A O Silva; Mineo, José R.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of protein A-peroxidase (horseradish peroxidase [HRPO]) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISAs) and IgG avidity assays for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Four groups were analyzed: GI, 41 nonvaccinated seropositive cows; GII, 79 S19-vaccinated heifers analyzed at 3 months postvaccination; GIII, 105 S19-vaccinated cows analyzed after 24 months of age; and GIV, 278 nonvaccinated seronegati...

  14. A new human IgG avidity test, using mixtures of recombinant antigens (rROP1, rSAG2, rGRA6), for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Lautenbach, Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary diagnostic utility of two mixtures of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6) in IgG ELISA and IgG avidity test has been evaluated. A total of 173 serum samples from patients with toxoplasmosis and seronegative people were examined. The sensitivity of IgG ELISA for rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6 was 91.1% and 76.7%, respectively, while the reactivity for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was higher, at 100% and 95.4%, respectively, than for people with chronic infection, at 88.2% and 70.6%. In this study a different trend in avidity maturation of IgG antibodies for two mixtures of proteins in comparison with native antigen was observed. The results suggest that a new IgG avidity test using the mixtures of recombinant antigens may be useful for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis. For this reason, selected mixtures after the additional tests on groups of sera with well-defined dates of infection could be used as a better alternative to the native antigens of the parasite in the serodiagnosis of human T. gondii infection.

  15. Use of an in vivo FTA assay to assess the magnitude, functional avidity and epitope variant cross-reactivity of T cell responses following HIV-1 recombinant poxvirus vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danushka K Wijesundara

    Full Text Available Qualitative characteristics of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs are important in measuring the effectiveness of CTLs in controlling HIV-1 infections. Indeed, in recent studies patients who are naturally resistant to HIV-1 infections have been shown to possess CTLs that are of high functional avidity and have a high capacity to recognize HIV epitope variants, when compared to HIV-1 infection progressors. When developing efficacious vaccines, assays that can effectively measure CTL quality specifically in vivo are becoming increasingly important. Here we report the use of a recently developed high-throughput multi-parameter technique, known as the fluorescent target array (FTA assay, to simultaneously measure CTL killing magnitude, functional avidity and epitope variant cross-reactivity in real time in vivo. In the current study we have applied the FTA assay as a screening tool to assess a large cohort of over 20 different HIV-1 poxvirus vaccination strategies in mice. This screen revealed that heterologous poxvirus prime-boost vaccination regimes (i.e., recombinant fowlpox (FPV-HIV prime followed by a recombinant vaccinia virus (VV-HIV booster were the most effective in generating high quality CTL responses in vivo. In conclusion, we have demonstrated how the FTA assay can be utilized as a cost effective screening tool (by reducing the required number of animals by >100 fold, to evaluate a large range of HIV-1 vaccination strategies in terms of CTL avidity and variant cross-reactivity in an in vivo setting.

  16. Optimal field of ionosphere radio-probing for underground nuclear explosions identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For option of ionosphere radio probing optimal conditions at remote monitoring of underground nuclear explosions it is necessary the attainments of ionosphere disturbances spatial sizes induced by explosions. In the paper experimental data obtained during 13 underground nuclear explosions conducted on the Semipalatinsk test site for 1987-1989 have been analyzed. Doppler radio probing of ionosphere has been carried out at 29 inclined radio directions. The largest length of radio direction was equal to 1320 km (Novosibirsk- Almaty). To interpret of the experimental results the coordinates and waves height reflection the point have been calculated. In the experiments the ionosphere disturbances have been observed at the latitudes from 97 to 290 km. Maximal registered size of ionosphere disturbance field in the described experiments made up: toward the south 99 km, toward the north 39 km, toward the west 73 km

  17. Evaluation of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and IgG avidity assays using a protein A-peroxidase conjugate for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuaba, Ana C A M; Silva, Deise A O; Mineo, José R

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of protein A-peroxidase (horseradish peroxidase [HRPO]) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISAs) and IgG avidity assays for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Four groups were analyzed: GI, 41 nonvaccinated seropositive cows; GII, 79 S19-vaccinated heifers analyzed at 3 months postvaccination; GIII, 105 S19-vaccinated cows analyzed after 24 months of age; and GIV, 278 nonvaccinated seronegative cows. IgG levels and avidity to B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) were determined using anti-bovine IgG-HRPO or protein A-HRPO conjugates. Similar levels of IgG anti-S-LPS were found with GI using both conjugates. Lower IgG levels were detected with GII, GIII, and GIV using protein A-HRPO. Both conjugates showed high performance in discriminating GI from GIII, with high sensitivity (Se; 97.6%) and specificity (Sp; 97.1%). Protein A-HRPO was better in distinguishing GI from GIV (Se, 97.6%; Sp, 94.6%) and GI from GII (Se, 80.5%; Sp, 94.9%). Protein A-HRPO excluded a higher number of positive samples with GII and GIV. IgG avidity showed that protein A-HRPO, but not anti-IgG-HRPO, was able to distinguish nonvaccinated from vaccinated cattle, showing a higher avidity index (AI) with GI than with GII, with 78% of serum samples in GII showing an AI of abortus S-LPS antigen and protein A-HRPO conjugate for preferential detection of the IgG2 subclass was shown to be suitable for serological distinction between S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Also, antibodies generated after vaccination showed lower avidity, suggesting a role for the IgG2 subclass as an antibody of higher-affinity maturation after infection, constituting an additional tool for differentiating vaccinated from infected cattle. PMID:20147498

  18. Gu-4 suppresses affinity and avidity modulation of CD11b and improves the outcome of mice with endotoxemia and sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TingTing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic leukocyte activation and disseminated leukocyte adhesion will impair the microcirculation and cause severe decrements in tissue perfusion and organ function in the process of severe sepsis. Gu-4, a lactosyl derivative, could selectively target CD11b to exert therapeutic effect in a rat model of severe burn shock. Here, we addressed whether Gu-4 could render protective effects on septic animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On a murine model of endotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, we found that the median effective dose (ED50 of Gu-4 was 0.929 mg/kg. In vivo treatment of Gu-4 after LPS challenge prominently attenuated LPS-induced lung injury and decreased lactic acid level in lung tissue. Using the ED50 of Gu-4, we also demonstrated that Gu-4 treatment significantly improved the survival rate of animals underwent sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. By adhesion and transwell migration assays, we found that Gu-4 treatment inhibited the adhesion and transendothelial migration of LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. By flow cytometry and microscopy, we demonstrated that Gu-4 treatment inhibited the exposure of active I-domain and the cluster formation of CD11b on the LPS-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Western blot analyses further revealed that Gu-4 treatment markedly inhibited the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Gu-4 improves the survival of mice underwent endotoxemia and sepsis, our in vitro investigations indicate that the possible underlying mechanism might involve the modulations of the affinity and avidity of CD11b on the leukocyte. Our findings shed light on the potential use of Gu-4, an interacting compound to CD11b, in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock.

  19. Proinsulin Expression Shapes the TCR Repertoire but Fails to Control the Development of Low-Avidity Insulin-Reactive CD8+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, James A; Thayer, Terri C; McLaren, James E; Ladell, Kristin; De Leenheer, Evy; Phillips, Amy; Davies, Joanne; Kakabadse, Dimitri; Miners, Kelly; Morgan, Peter; Wen, Li; Price, David A; Wong, F Susan

    2016-06-01

    NOD mice, a model strain for human type 1 diabetes, express proinsulin (PI) in the thymus. However, insulin-reactive T cells escape negative selection, and subsequent activation of the CD8(+) T-cell clonotype G9C8, which recognizes insulin B15-23 via an αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) incorporating TRAV8-1/TRAJ9 and TRBV19/TRBJ2-3 gene rearrangements, contributes to the development of diabetes. In this study, we used fixed TRAV8-1/TRAJ9 TCRα-chain transgenic mice to assess the impact of PI isoform expression on the insulin-reactive CD8(+) T-cell repertoire. The key findings were: 1) PI2 deficiency increases the frequency of insulin B15-23-reactive TRBV19(+)CD8(+) T cells and causes diabetes; 2) insulin B15-23-reactive TRBV19(+)CD8(+) T cells are more abundant in the pancreatic lymph nodes of mice lacking PI1 and/or PI2; 3) overexpression of PI2 decreases TRBV19 usage in the global CD8(+) T-cell compartment; 4) a biased repertoire of insulin-reactive CD8(+) T cells emerges in the periphery regardless of antigen exposure; and 5) low-avidity insulin-reactive CD8(+) T cells are less affected by antigen exposure in the thymus than in the periphery. These findings inform our understanding of the diabetogenic process and reveal new avenues for therapeutic exploitation in type 1 diabetes. PMID:26953160

  20. Avidity-controlled hydrogels for injectable co-delivery of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells and growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyasasmita, Widya; Cai, Lei; Dewi, Ruby E; Jha, Arshi; Ullmann, Sabrina D; Luong, Richard H; Huang, Ngan F; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2014-10-10

    To translate recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell biology to clinical regenerative medicine therapies, new strategies to control the co-delivery of cells and growth factors are needed. Building on our previous work designing Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogels (MITCHs) from engineered proteins, here we develop protein-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid hydrogels, MITCH-PEG, which form physical gels upon mixing for cell and growth factor co-delivery. MITCH-PEG is a mixture of C7, which is a linear, engineered protein containing seven repeats of the CC43 WW peptide domain (C), and 8-arm star-shaped PEG conjugated with either one or two repeats of a proline-rich peptide to each arm (P1 or P2, respectively). Both 20kDa and 40kDa star-shaped PEG variants were investigated, and all four PEG-peptide variants were able to undergo a sol-gel phase transition when mixed with the linear C7 protein at constant physiological conditions due to noncovalent hetero-dimerization between the C and P domains. Due to the dynamic nature of the C-P physical crosslinks, all four gels were observed to be reversibly shear-thinning and self-healing. The P2 variants exhibited higher storage moduli than the P1 variants, demonstrating the ability to tune the hydrogel bulk properties through a biomimetic peptide-avidity strategy. The 20kDa PEG variants exhibited slower release of encapsulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), due to a decrease in hydrogel mesh size relative to the 40kDa variants. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs) adopted a well-spread morphology within three-dimensional MITCH-PEG cultures, and MITCH-PEG provided significant protection from cell damage during ejection through a fine-gauge syringe needle. In a mouse hindlimb ischemia model of peripheral arterial disease, MITCH-PEG co-delivery of hiPSC-ECs and VEGF was found to reduce inflammation and promote muscle tissue regeneration compared to a saline control. PMID

  1. Avidity of IgG for rubella: an evaluation of the need for implementation at the Materno-Infantil Presidente Vargas Hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M M; Tessaro, M M; Cruz e Silva, J; Giordano, S A; d'Azevedo, P A

    2004-06-01

    Rubella serum assays performed in the laboratory of the Materno-Infantil Presidente Vargas Hospital (HMIPV) from 1998 to 2002 were reviewed to determine if IgG avidity assays should be implemented. IgG was determined using the Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay, ELFA, VIDAS system, bioMerieux or the Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay, MEIA, Axsym system, Abbott, and IgM was determined using the ELFA, VIDAS system, bioMerieux, a capture format assay. Specific IgG was assayed in 2,863 samples, with positive results for 84% of the patients, for the most part with high levels of antibodies. IgM was assayed in 2,851 samples, being positive in 14 (0.49%) and inconclusive in 25 (0.88%). Serology for toxoplasmosis was also positive or inconclusive in 5 patients. After a cost-effectiveness analysis, it was decided not to implement avidity assays, considering that the HMIPV is a public institution, with limited funding. Difficulties concerning the integration of the Clinical Pathology Service with the Clinical Staff of the institution were also considered.

  2. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Brazilian subtype B variant showed an increasing avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies over time compared to the subtype B US/European strain in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casseb Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 subtype B, (serotype B"-GWGR, has a tryptophan replacing the proline in position 328 the HIV-1 envelope. A longer median time period from infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS for serotype B (B"-GWGR infected subjects compared to the B-GPGR US/European strain was reported. In a cohort study, in São Paulo city, 10 B"-GWGR patients had a statistically significant increased avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies, from 79% ± 33% to 85% ± 75%, versus from 48% ± 59% to 32% ± 17% for the 10 B-GPGR subjects (p = 0.02. The T CD4+ cells showed a mean increase of + 0.45 cells/month for the B-GPGR subjects and for B"-GWGR the slope was + 1.24 cells/month (p = 0.06, for 62 and 55 months of follow up, respectively. RNA plasma viral load decreased from 3.98 ± 1.75 to 2.16 ± 1.54 log10 in the B"-GWGR group while B-GPGR patients showed one log10 reduction in viral load from 4.09 ± 0.38 to 3.17 ± 1.47 log10 over time (p = 0.23, with a decreasing slope of 0.0042 ± log10,/month and 0.0080 ± log10/month, for B-GPGR and B"-GWGR patients, respectively (p = 0.53. Neither group presented any AIDS defining events during the study, according to Center for Diseases Control criteria. Although the sample size is small, these results may indicate that differences in the pathogenicity of the 2 HIV-1 B serotypes which co-circulate in Brazil may be correlated to the avidity of anti-V3 antibodies.

  4. The value of rubella IgG avidity test in the diagnosis of recent rubella infection%风疹病毒IgG抗体亲和力检测对近期感染诊断的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊梅; 李进香; 郭振欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of rubella IgG avidity test in the diagnosis of recent rubella infection.Methods We detected the rubella IgG avidity of three groups of serum samples:48 acute infection samples from BIOMEX seroconversion panels RP-001,RP-014 and RP-011,38 rubella IgM positive samples,978 past infection samples (IgG positive IgM negative).Results All the acute infection samples from BIOMEX seroconversion panels RP-001 (50 days after infection),RP-014 (42 days after infection),RP-011 (71 days after infection) show IgG low avidity.Of the 38 rubella IgM positive samples,24 samples show IgG low avidity,9 samples show IgG high avidity,6 samples show grey zone.Of the 978 past infection samples,963 samples show IgG high avidity,9 samples show IgG low avidity,6 samples show grey zone.Conclusions Rubella IgG avidity test can be used to rapidly distinguish between past and acute infection.Of the rubella IgM positive samples,about 25% show IgG high avidity,indicate past infection,so it is important to detect IgG avidity for this population.%目的 评价风疹病毒IgG抗体亲和力检测对近期感染诊断的应用价值.方法 对三个人群样本进行了风疹病毒IgG抗体亲和力检测,包括近期感染样本:BIOMEX公司风疹病毒血清转化盘RP-001、RP-014、RP-011共计48份;风疹病毒IgM阳性样本38份;风疹病毒既往感染(IgM阴性IgG阳性)样本978份.结果 三个BIOMEX公司血清转化盘RP-001(至感染后第50天)、RP-014(至感染后第42天)、RP-011(至感染后第71天),检测均为低亲和力;38份风疹病毒IgM阳性样本中有24份检测为低亲和力,9份检测为高亲和力;978份既往感染人群样本,有963份检测为高亲和力,9份检测为低亲和力,6份检测为灰区.结论 IgG抗体亲和力的检测对于区分近期感染和既往感染具有较高的诊断价值,对于IgM阳性的人群,其中约有25%检测为高亲和力,提示对该人群进行抗体亲和力的检测尤为重要.

  5. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  6. Preparation and Biological Study of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Ashraf; Jalilian, Amir R.; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Khalaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA-conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga). Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95° C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation, biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats. Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320 GBq/mmol) after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a log P value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65%) was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (<1%) at 30 min after the injection. The data were also confirmed by sequential imaging at 30-90 min following the intravenous injection. Conclusion: The high solubility and anionic properties of the complex led to major renal excretion and low hydroxyapatite uptake; therefore, the complex failed to demonstrate bone imaging behaviors. PMID:27408898

  7. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fakhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga.Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5 at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats.Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320GBq/mmol after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a logP value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65% was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (

  8. Study on the preparation of methylene diphosphonate (MDP) labeling with 99mTc for bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 99mTc-MDP kit was prepared by using aseptic technique. The composition of MDP invivo kit including 5 mg MDP, 0.5 mg stannous chloride, 0.5 mg ascorbic acid and 5 mg sodium chloride. The kit produces 99mTc-MDP with more than 95% labelling efficiency at pH 6-7 when mixed with requisite amount of 99mTc-pertechnetate. The preparation has been found sterity, pyrogen free, to be sufficiency stable invitro as well as invivo, blood clearance. After intravenous administrations abound 50% of the dose is accumulated and retained by the skeleton. The kit provides quality product in high yield, more stable than other phosphonate kit, high bone uptake. High avidity of 99mTc-MDP for bone imaging makes it a promising agent for the detection of bone diseases. (author)

  9. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  10. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  11. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Anjanappa; Arjun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganism...

  12. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Povidone iodine (I odophors and chlorhexidine are most often used antiseptics for pre - operative skin preparation. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and in combination with antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine in preoperative skin p reparation by taking swab culture. (2 To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups. METHODS: One hundred patients (fifty in each group undergoing clean elective surgery with no focus of infection on the body were included in th e study. The pre - operative skin preparation in each group is done with the respective antiseptic regimen. In both the groups after application of antiseptics , sterile saline swab culture was taken immediately from site of incision. In cases which showed gr owth of organisms , the bacteria isolated were identified by their morphological and cultural characteristics. Grams staining , coagulase test and antibiotic sensitivity test were done wherever necessary and difference in colonization rates was determined as a measure of efficacy of antiseptic regimen. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that when compared to povidone iodine alone , using a combination of povidone iodine and alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine , the colonization rates of the site of incisi on were reduced significantly. As for the rate of post - operative wound infection , it is also proven that wound infections are also

  13. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  14. Access cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  15. Surface preparation of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any discussion of surface preparation for superconducting rf-surfaces is certainly connected with the question what is the best recipe for achieving high Q-values and high break-down fields. Since the break-down in a cavity is not understood so far and because several mechanisms play a role, it also is not possible to give one recipe which always works. Nevertheless in the past certain preparation techniques for niobium surfaces have been developed and certain rules for preparation can be applied. In the following the to-days state of the art will be described and it is attempted to give a short description of the surface in conjunction with the methods of surface treatments, which generally can be applied to niobium cavities. (orig./WTR)

  16. Preparation of americium amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of NGR-spectroscopy with the aid of 241Am isotope chemical state of transuranium elements in the volume and on the surface of amalgams is studied. Amalgam preparation was realized in a simplified electrolytic cell. It is shown that in the process of amalgam preparation the first order of reaction as to actinide is observed; americium is distributed gradually over the volume and it is partially sorbed by the surface of glass capillary. NGR spectrum of dry residue after mercury distillation at 200 deg C points to the presence of americium-mercury intermetal compounds

  17. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  18. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cry

  19. Preparing Global Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Welch, Lucas; Al-Khanji, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Global citizens are those who are aware of, demonstrate respect for, and are comfortable engaging across cultural boundaries. This article explores why preparing global citizens is important and how positive psychology can inform our understanding of those who engage comfortably in today's complicated world. Soliya's Connect program is described…

  20. Preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkybromides are ones of the main organic precursors for fatty acids and alcohols labelling with Carbon 1-14. In this work the preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane by bromodescarboxylation of 1-octacosanoic acid is described. The synthesis yielded 80.5% of final product and more than 97% of chemical purity. Clean-up procedure modifications and spectral data bromoheptacosane are also reported

  1. Teaching Preparation Program (TPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Geography.

    Because most graduate geography students will engage in professional teaching activities, the Teaching Preparation Program of UCLA's department of geography is viewed as an important part of graduate training. The program, co-directed by a graduate student and faculty member, is available to all graduate students on a voluntary basis and consists…

  2. Method for preparing superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Shelley D.

    1976-01-01

    A superconductor having an equiaxed fine grain beta-tungsten crystalline structure found to have improved high field critical current densities is prepared by sputter-depositing superconductive material onto a substrate cooled to below 200.degree. C. and heat-treating the deposited material.

  3. Preparing for CLIC tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Canon 5 undergoes first brazing for preparation in the CLIC study at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2). This will test injection for a proposed linear collider that will further explore discoveries made at the LHC. Electric fields in the canon will boost electrons into the acceleration fields of the collider.

  4. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  5. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  6. Preparation for Physics Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The textbook for our preparation for physics course has been rewritten ab initio. Like its predecessor, it adapts a spiral approach to dealing with preconceptions, but this version encourages work at higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy and makes students sensitive to how p-prims affect their understanding. As its title: "All in Proportion: Preparation for Physics" indicates, it emphasizes how far proportional reasoning will take the student. Classwork is mainly group work, and various techniques are used to encourage students to complete the learning cycle on material that has not been mastered. Both the FCI and the Lawson "Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning" have been given to gauge student progress. Preliminary results will be reported and sample materials will be shown.

  7. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  8. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  9. Preparation of chitosan gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerge S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  10. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  11. Preparation of americium amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a method for the electrochemical preparation of an americium amalgam from americium dioxide and americium 241 and 243 for use in determining the physicochemical properties of the alloy. Moessbauer spectra were made using neptunium dioxide, in the neptunium 237 form, as an absorber. Results show that electrolysis produces a homogeneous amalgam that gives an unoxidized product on vacuum distillation at 200 degrees C

  12. TORIS Data Preparation Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, H.; Remson, D.

    1999-03-11

    The objective of this manual is to present guidelines and procedures for the preparation of new data for the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) data base. TORIS is an analytical system currently maintained by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Bartlesville Project Office. It uses an extensive field- and reservoir-level data base to evaluate the technical and economic recovery potential of specific crude oil reservoirs.

  13. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  14. Evaluation of [{sup 125}I]7{alpha}-O-iodoally diprenophine as a new potential SPECT opioid receptor imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.F.; Tafani, J.A.M.; Frances, B.; Bergon, M.; Coulais, Y.; Zajac, J. M.; Guiraud, R

    1997-08-01

    A new iodinated diprenorphine analog, [{sup 125}I]7{alpha}-O-iodoallyl diprenorphine ([{sup 125}I]7{alpha}-O-IA-DPN), was prepared by iododestannylation and characterized. As an opioid antagonist, this agent showed very high affinity (K{sub i} = 0.4 {+-} 0.2 nM) and 63% of specific binding by in vitro and in vivo binding studies. Inhibition curves indicated that this tracer labeled with the same affinities to three opioid receptors ({mu} = {delta} = {kappa}). The findings demonstrate that this proposed compound appears to be a potential radioprobe for future study of opioid receptors by in vivo SPECT.

  15. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against cardiac myosin and some radiolabelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against myosin, a specific indicator of myocardial infarction and labelled with 125I and 99mTc. Human cardiac myosin was isolated from normal human heart and was used for raising the monoclonal antibodies by the hybridoma technique. Antibody producing clones were identified by ELISA and cloning was done by the limiting dilution technique. Of the 13 clones obtained, 4 were deemed suitable for further studies. The antibodies were grown in ascites, purified, isotyped and their cross reactions with other forms of myosin were estimated. All the clones showed negligible cross reaction with rabbit myosin, but reacted to different extents with bovine skeletal myosin. The most avid antibody Mab-4G4 was chosen for further labelling studies. Mab-4G4 was labelled with 125I using different oxidising agents such as iodogen, chloramine-T and lactoperoxidase. Purified radioiodinated antibody with radiochemical purity >95% could be obtained by gel filtration. Immunoreactivity was retained as tested by binding to myosin immobilised on a solid support. Mab-4G4 was also labelled with 99mTc using stannous tartrate as the reducing agent. Radiolabelling yield was ∼60%, the purity was >95% and the immunoreactivity was retained. Both the labelled preparations were tested for bio-distribution in normal and infarcted rats. The activity accumulation in the infarcted region was ∼ 1.5 and 3.5 times as that in normal heart muscle for 125I and 99mTc labelled Mab-4G4 respectively. The major problem with the iodinated antibody was the in vivo deiodination resulting in very high percentage of activity in the thyroid. Although the fraction of the total activity associated with the infarcted heart is not very impressive, the fact that the activities with the infarcted and normal hearths are significantly different is heartening. With further optimisation of labelling and use of F(ab)'2 fragments, better delineation of the infarct sites is aspired. (author)

  16. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-06-08

    Waste Processing Technology personnel routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  17. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  18. Seismic Network Deployment Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Husker; Igor Stubailo; Monica Kohler; Paul Davis

    2003-01-01

    Technological and scientific preparations are occurring for the development of a multi-hop radio-linked seismic array (MHRLSA) of 50 broadband stations (GURALP 3ts) and its first few deployments. A ruggedized data relay device (DRD) is being fabricated using Intel’¡Çs new low power, small form factor stargate motherboard. A DRD will be placed at each node of the array and configured as a local area network (LAN) with station spacing up to 10 km. The objective is to use protocols that have bee...

  19. Preparation of tungsten oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulian, Christopher J.; Dye, Robert C.; Son, Steven F.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Perry, W. Lee

    2009-09-22

    Tungsten trioxide hydrate (WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O) was prepared from a precursor solution of ammonium paratungstate in concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid. The precursor solution was rapidly added to water, resulting in the crash precipitation of a yellow white powder identified as WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O nanosized platelets by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Annealing of the powder at 200.degree. C. provided cubic phase WO.sub.3 nanopowder, and at 400.degree. C. provided WO.sub.3 nanopowder as a mixture of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases.

  20. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård;

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...... preparation has significant adverse physiologic effects, which may be attributed to dehydration. The majority of these findings is small and may not be of clinical relevance in otherwise healthy patients undergoing bowel preparation and following recommendations for oral fluid intake....

  1. KANJI: AN AYURVEDIC FERMENTATIVE PREPARATION

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh B; Jadar P. G.; Nageswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Kanji – A unique Ayurvedic fermentative preparation was prepared as per the textual reference Rasayanasara which is mainly indicated for the Shodhana (purification) of Metals and also for various mercurial processing. But Kanji by this reference is rarely prepared and used. Hence, the pharmaceutical and preliminary physico-chemical findings of this Kanji are reported in this paper. The fermentation process started on 7th day and completed on 31st day. The prepared Kanji was golden brown color...

  2. Why Specialized Preparation is Critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwin, C. Kenneth; Dickinson, Thomas S.; Smith, Tracy W.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that mandating specific teacher preparation programs may be necessary to ensure that teachers are adequately prepared for the unique challenges and rewards of teaching young adolescents, discussing: the desirability of teacher young adolescents, important elements of teacher preparation, the need for tighter licensure requirements, and the…

  3. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  4. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources is organising a preparation for retirement seminar which will take place on the four successive afternoons of 2 to 5 October 2007. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of one’s working life and the start of a new period of life. This period of transition and change is experienced differently from one individual to another. In any case, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above as well as those who have retired during the year have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of th...

  5. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  6. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

      The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Indico. &a...

  7. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...

  8. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...

  9. Importance of SPECT imaging in the assessment of tumour viability: Evaluation of an indigenous preparation of 99mTc-glucarate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    breast tumours. However an ideal tumour imaging radiopharmaceutical should not only be helpful in detecting tumour but more importantly it should be able to assess the therapeutic response functionally but also be helpful in prognostication. A baseline study is required to assess the tumour avidity of the radiopharmaceutical. We have been able to achieve good tumour concentration of 99mTc-Glucarate and the findings so far indicate that it could be used to assess therapeutic response as well. Conclusion: 99mTc-Glucarate is an easy to prepare radiopharmaceutical showing avid tumour concentration in lung and head neck malignancies. The results obtained so far suggests that 99mTc-glucarate is a potential tumour imaging agent with high sensitivity. The sensitivity was more with SPECT images providing better clarity, more confidence in interpretation and better comparison with morphological imaging This can be used for detection as well as assessing therapeutic response in malignancy. Clinical trial involving larger number of patients and potential comparison with FDG PET is underway. (author)

  10. Preparing for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Brendan

    2002-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the tight job market for Ph.D. recipients in physics led to a reexamination of graduate programs by some departments. The speaker participated in this reanalysis at his graduate institution and arranged presentations of alternative careers to the physics graduate student body. What became clear was that diverse options were open; job seekers just needed flexible expectations. However, there are a number of additions or modifications to graduate programs which could further help to prepare Ph.D. recipients as they move into non-traditional roles, such as additional and more formal experience in communicating science to a wide range of audiences. In particular, it would be advantageous to learn how to explain the role that basic scientific research projects play in the larger public policy arena. Examples from the speaker's experience of working as a staff member in the U.S. Congress will be presented to illustrate the skills needed in that environment.

  11. Hospital preparation and drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss how effective management of radiation accidents requires a large amount of preparation and thought. In addition, training of the staff is absolutely essential. This is best accomplished through annual drills, but also may be accomplished through the use of videotapes. The critical points to be remembered in the handling of such accidents and in writing the procedures is that treatment of non-radiation-related injuries and medical stabilization are paramount. The second point is that it is important to be able to distinguish between a patient who has been irradiated from an external radiation source and one who is contaminated with radioactive materials. The handling of these two types of accidents is entirely different and this distinction needs to be made early. All of the items outlined in this chapter concern the care of the severely injured and radioactively contaminated

  12. Preparing Students for Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    with international students studying at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering (in short - IHK); in particular students coming for one semester exchange program under Erasmus-programme. IHK's participation in EU-supported programmes like EIE-Surveyor and ELLEIEC, both ERASMUS thematic networks, have......A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences...... the positive influence on number of our partnership agreements with other European universities. Globalisation makes it necessary to cooperate on an international platform. At the IHK we have more than 50 active Erasmus agreements. We also have bilateral agreements with many non-European countries, for example...

  13. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  14. Exam preparation learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat

    This thesis investigates student learning through practice exams. A series of experiments were conducted using a web-based platform that provided students with an organized structure to study past exam problems. We establish the learning obtained from doing these practice exams (Chapter 1) and then manipulate the feedback mechanisms (Chapter 2 and 4) and duration of the treatment (Chapter 3). The results show that all students benefit from practice exams and worked out solution feedback. However, investing more resources in this learning tool might not result in better learning gains. A comparison between experiments suggests that, beyond the quality of the practice exams and solution feedback, motivation and learning goals may be crucial to enhancing student learning during exam preparation.

  15. Bowel preparation for CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.neri@med.unipi.it [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa (Italy); Lefere, Philippe; Gryspeerdt, Stefaan [Department of Radiology, Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Roeselare (Belgium); Bemi, Pietro; Mantarro, Annalisa; Bartolozzi, Carlo [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Bowel preparation represents an essential part of CT colonography, as the accuracy of the exam is strongly related to the adequacy of colonic cleansing, and a poor bowel preparation may compromise the diagnostic quality even despite optimization of all other acquisition parameters. Residual stool and fluid in the large bowel may affect the interpretation of the exam and may increase the number of false positives and false negatives. In this regard, the majority of patients having undergone CT colonography state that bowel preparation is the most unpleasant part. Unfortunately, to date no definite consensus has been reached about the ideal bowel preparation technique, and there is great variability in preparation strategies across diagnostic centers. The purpose of this review article is to describe the development and evolution of bowel preparation techniques in order to choose the best approach for optimizing the diagnostic quality of CT colonography in each patient.

  16. Integrating Technology in Teacher Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Koptelov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology plays a large role for teaching and teacher preparation. Integrating technology and core subjects content enhances the learning environment by actively engaging stu-dents. This work includes a statement explaining why integrating technology is an im-portant component for education thus, educator preparation. The following concepts that we include in our teacher preparation program will be introduced and discussed: applications for hand-held devices, the flipped lesson approach and educational game design and development.

  17. Preparing for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Panos Charitos

    2016-01-01

    The second annual meeting of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study took place from 11 to 15 April in Rome.   The participants in the second annual meeting of the FCC design study. (Photo: Vinicio Tullio/INFN) More than 450 scientists, researchers and leaders of high-tech industry gathered in Rome to review the progress of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study. The study was kicked off in 2014 as a response to a statement in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, and today embraces 74 institutes from 26 countries. With the LHC programme well under way, particle physicists are at an exciting juncture. New results from the 13 TeV run could show that we are on the threshold of an eye-opening era that presents new challenges and calls for developments. “To prepare for its future, CERN should continue to develop a vibrant R&D programme that should take advantage of its strengths and uniqueness, pursue design studies for...

  18. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    (Health insurance and wealth and succession planning) During the preparation for retirement seminar in November 2009, the sessions on health insurance in Switzerland and in France unfortunately had to be postponed. Participants in the seminar also expressed interest in an information session on “How to manage your wealth and organize your succession”. The sessions on health insurance will be held on 16 March 2010 and those on managing wealth and succession on 18 March 2010. Programme for Tuesday 16 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 Health insurance in Switzerland by Mr. Sandro Breitenstein, Service de l'Assurance Maladie du Canton de Genève 10:00 Coffee break 10:20 Health insurance in France by Mr. Dominique Curtiaud, Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie de l'Ain Programme for Thursday 18 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 How to manage your wealth and organize your succession in Switzerland by Mr. Jean-Marc W...

  19. Prepared for internship?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abuhusain, H

    2009-03-01

    Preparedness of medical school graduates for the intern year is one of the emphasised objectives of undergraduate medical training. We have evaluated the perceived preparedness of graduates undertaking the intern year in the Republic of Ireland. A 9-page questionnaire was mailed to all 497 interns in Ireland following commencement of the intern year in July 2005. Data obtained included demographics, perceived preparedness and assessment of perceived clinical skills (four sub-domains: core competencies, communication, emergencies, and educational environment). Information on intern induction was also collected. 99 questionnaires were returned (19.9%). Most of the cohort were Irish and worked in large medical school teaching hospitals. The majority of interns felt \\'unprepared\\' for the intern year. Interns perceived themselves \\'poor\\' in all areas of clinical skills assessed. Intern induction was attended by the majority and most stated it was too short. Medical schools are actively seeking innovative methods, through early patient contact and sub-internships, to better prepare undergraduates for the intern year. The deficiencies identified in this study are significant and emphasise the need for continued reform in the undergraduate curriculum.

  20. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Gomide, Henner Alberto; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-01-01

    Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height) was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy) in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front). A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180 degrees around its longitudinal axis and 360 degrees around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies. PMID:18949317

  1. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Soares

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front. A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180° around its longitudinal axis and 360° around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies.

  2. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Gomide, Henner Alberto; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-01-01

    Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height) was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy) in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front). A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180 degrees around its longitudinal axis and 360 degrees around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies.

  3. A Simple Preparation of Hexadeuteriocholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Crossland, Ingolf

    1996-01-01

    26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %.......26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %....

  4. Recent advances in preparative electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Egen, Ned B.; Couasnon, Pascal; Sammons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Various approaches for preparative electrophoresis, and three new instruments for preparative electrophoresis are discussed. Consideration is given to isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis, three gel-based electrophoresis methods. The design, functions, and performance of the Elphor VaP 21 device of Hannig (1982), the shear-stabilized BIOSTREAM separator of Thompson (1983), and the recycling isoelectric focusing device are described.

  5. Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald J.; Grossman, Pamela L.; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2009-01-01

    There are fierce debates over the best way to prepare teachers. Some argue that easing entry into teaching is necessary to attract strong candidates, whereas others argue that investing in high quality teacher preparation is the most promising approach. Most agree, however, that we lack a strong research basis for understanding how to prepare…

  6. 人巨细胞病毒pp65 IgG亲和指数在人巨细胞病毒原发感染小鼠模型中的标志作用%The effect of the human cytomegalovirus pp65 IgG-avidity index for the human cytomegalovirus primary infection in mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 王明丽

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the significance of human cyomeg Movirus(HCMV)pp65 IgG antibody avidity index(AI)for the clinical diagnosis of HCMV primary infection through the experimental model of HCMV primaly infection in BALB/c mice.Methods 6~8 weeks,female,specific-pathogen-free BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups.6 mice in each group. And he mice were injected with 2×106 PFU/m1,2×105 PFU/mi,2×104 PFU/ml,2×103 PFU/ml and 2×102 PFU/ml of HCMV intraperitoneally respectively. Another 6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with the maximum dose of HCMV kept at 56℃ for 30 min as inactivated virus group.And HF negative control group was established at same time. All the mice ere sacrificed to obtain brain and lung tissues for the following experiments after 1 montll.(1)Tissue samples obtained from mice were inoculated in human embryo fibroblasts(HF)monolayers after routine treatment for virus isolation.HCMV specific eytopathie effect(CPE) was observed bv inverted phase-contrast microscopy.HCMV UL83 DNA in the ultures as tested by PCR and pp65 antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence.(2)Extracted mRNA from tissue samples and HCMV pp67 mRNA were analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR(RT-PcR).(3)Immunoglobulin M(IgM)antibody and immunoglobulin G(1gG)antibody avidity Was investigated for their usefulness in distinguishing primary genital HCMV infections rom nonprimary infections with ELISA kit using truncated pp65 protein.ResultsHCMV can be isolated in the tissues from the mice injected with 2×106 PFU/ml and 2×105 PFU/m1.RT- PCR and ELISA showed positive results in the same groups.The infective rates were 100%.The analysis of the low doses groups,inactivated group and HF negative ontrol group all showed negative results.Conclusions BALB/c mice can be infected with HCMV and appeared as primary infection after1 month.Determination of HCMV pp65 IgM and HCMV p065 IgG-AI by ELISA incorporated with virus isolation and RT-PCR are helpful for distinguishing

  7. Preparing for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, M

    1989-01-01

    chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been released in great quantities through their use in aerosol sprays, refrigerator fluids, and insulating foams. We can get rid of CFCs and curb the pollutants generating ozone, but it will be difficult to put the brake on either methane or nitrous oxide. And the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will demand major changes in energy policy as well as action to slow deforestation. It appears that we are already committed to rising temperatures and sea levels. The question is by how much, in which areas? A number of things can be done to prepare for these changes: Governments must recognize that there is a problem; Better models must be worked out, especially to define where the greatest impacts from climate change and sea level rise will hit; Reference scenarios must be developed to see what the impacts are likely to be in ecological, agricultural, social and economic terms; Every country should develop "avoidance strategies" to minimize risk (for example, by not building on land likely to be flooded); We must cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from human activities, by eliminating CFCs and adopting energy conservation programs and other measures to minimize CO2 release; Global agreements to protect the atmosphere are needed. PMID:12285901

  8. Preparing for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, M

    1989-01-01

    chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been released in great quantities through their use in aerosol sprays, refrigerator fluids, and insulating foams. We can get rid of CFCs and curb the pollutants generating ozone, but it will be difficult to put the brake on either methane or nitrous oxide. And the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will demand major changes in energy policy as well as action to slow deforestation. It appears that we are already committed to rising temperatures and sea levels. The question is by how much, in which areas? A number of things can be done to prepare for these changes: Governments must recognize that there is a problem; Better models must be worked out, especially to define where the greatest impacts from climate change and sea level rise will hit; Reference scenarios must be developed to see what the impacts are likely to be in ecological, agricultural, social and economic terms; Every country should develop "avoidance strategies" to minimize risk (for example, by not building on land likely to be flooded); We must cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from human activities, by eliminating CFCs and adopting energy conservation programs and other measures to minimize CO2 release; Global agreements to protect the atmosphere are needed.

  9. Preparation of large monodisperse vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting F Zhu

    Full Text Available Preparation of monodisperse vesicles is important both for research purposes and for practical applications. While the extrusion of vesicles through small pores (approximately 100 nm in diameter results in relatively uniform populations of vesicles, extrusion to larger sizes results in very heterogeneous populations of vesicles. Here we report a simple method for preparing large monodisperse multilamellar vesicles through a combination of extrusion and large-pore dialysis. For example, extrusion of polydisperse vesicles through 5-microm-diameter pores eliminates vesicles larger than 5 microm in diameter. Dialysis of extruded vesicles against 3-microm-pore-size polycarbonate membranes eliminates vesicles smaller than 3 microm in diameter, leaving behind a population of monodisperse vesicles with a mean diameter of approximately 4 microm. The simplicity of this method makes it an effective tool for laboratory vesicle preparation with potential applications in preparing large monodisperse liposomes for drug delivery.

  10. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  11. PrePARe project blog

    OpenAIRE

    PrePARe project team

    2012-01-01

    The JISC-funded PrePARe project aimed to encourage researchers to take an interest and responsibility in digital preservation of their research outputs. This is a preservation copy of the Project blog documenting the project progress.

  12. Alumina supported iridium catalysts - preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the method employed in the preparation of alumina supported iridium catalysts, with metal contents between 30 and 40%, that will be used for hydrazine monopropellant decomposition. (author)

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Man; Zhu Yun; Ji Jia-you; Shen Fan; Wang Shu-lin

    2015-01-01

    The homogeneous-dispersed graphene oxide was prepared by the improved Hummers method, which would be reduced to graphene with the reducing agent called hydrazine hydrate. The X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Transmission electron microscopy were used to analysis the phase, morphology and structure of the graphene and graphene oxide. The results show that the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared via this method, whose degree of oxidation and reduction a...

  14. Preparation of academic nurse educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tracy L; Emerson, Christi J; Hackney, Michele G; Souter, Sharon

    2016-07-01

    Nursing practice is diverse, with nurses serving in both direct and indirect patient care roles. For nurse educators, the realm of nursing practice extends beyond direct patient care to include preparing students for nursing practice. Academic nurse educators must be prepared to serve as educators, researchers, and to have experience in a clinical specialty area. For many nurse educators, advanced academic preparation often relates to a clinical area of practice rather than pedagogical practice. Graduate-level knowledge of evidence-based research and practice, teaching methods, and curriculum design and development form the foundation for academic practice. Because education and nursing are two distinctive disciplines, clinical expertise does not naturally result in teaching expertise. Lack of consensus regarding the educational preparation of nurse educators adds to the complexity of the nursing profession. The purpose of this article is to advocate for pedagogical preparation for academic nurse educators. Additionally, this article contains recommendations for pedagogical competencies indicative of academic nurse educator preparation. PMID:27428693

  15. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  16. Remote preparation of quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, C H; Leung, D W; Shor, P W; Winter, A; Bennett, Charles H; Hayden, Patrick; Leung, Debbie W.; Shor, Peter W.; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Remote state preparation is the variant of quantum state teleportation in which the sender knows the quantum state to be communicated. The original paper introducing teleportation established minimal requirements for classical communication and entanglement but the corresponding limits for remote state preparation have remained unknown until now: previous work has shown, however, that it not only requires less classical communication but also gives rise to a trade-off between these two resources in the appropriate setting. We discuss this problem from first principles, including the various choices one may follow in the definitions of the actual resources. Our main result is a general method of remote state preparation for arbitrary states of many qubits, at a cost of 1 bit of classical communication and 1 bit of entanglement per qubit sent. In this "universal" formulation, these ebit and cbit requirements are shown to be simultaneously optimal by exhibiting a dichotomy. This then yields the exact trade-off c...

  17. Preparing for retirement - new seminars

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2015-01-01

    We would like to take the opportunity to inform you about a new programme related to retirement, organised by the Human Resources Department. Retirement marks the end of a career and the start of a new chapter in life.  In all cases, being well-informed and prepared is necessary to cope successfully with this transition. The programme has been developed for staff members and consists of two seminars: Leaving CERN (half day seminar): short presentations by internal speakers, focusing on what options CERN offers at the end of your career: organised once per year, next session scheduled on 24 November 2015, in the afternoon, enrolment and more information on Indico.   Preparation for retirement (2-day seminar): interactive workshop (in small groups) delivered by external experts, focusing on how to prepare psychologically as well as practically to cope with all the changes retirement brings: organised regularly in 2016, in English or ...

  18. Continuous variable remote state preparation

    CERN Document Server

    Kurucz, Z; Janszky, J; Kis, Z

    2005-01-01

    We extend exact deterministic remote state preparation (RSP) with minimal classical communication to quantum systems of continuous variables. We show that, in principle, it is possible to remotely prepare states of an ensemble that is parameterized by infinitely many real numbers, i.e., by a real function, while the classical communication cost is one real number only. We demonstrate continuous variable RSP in three examples using (i) quadrature measurement and phase space displacement operations, (ii) measurement of the optical phase and unitaries shifting the same, and (iii) photon counting and photon number shift.

  19. Preparation of thin vyns films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication of thin films of VYNS resin (copolymer of chloride and vinyl acetate) of superficial density from 3 to 50 μg/cm2 with solutions in cyclohexanone is presented. Study and discussion of some properties compared with formvar film (polyvinyl formals). It appears that both can be used as source supports but formvar films are prepared more easily and more quickly, in addition they withstand higher temperatures. The main quality of VYNS is that they can be easily separated even several days after their preparation

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Man

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous-dispersed graphene oxide was prepared by the improved Hummers method, which would be reduced to graphene with the reducing agent called hydrazine hydrate. The X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Transmission electron microscopy were used to analysis the phase, morphology and structure of the graphene and graphene oxide. The results show that the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared via this method, whose degree of oxidation and reduction are high; Also obtained a higher well-disperses and less structural imperfection of the graphene that was manufactured in the reducing system that added ammonia reduction

  1. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system. The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.

  2. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; ZhiCai

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system.  The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.  ……

  3. Preparation of a tritiated ginkgolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Suehiro, Makiko; Nakanishi, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgolide B, a constituent of the tree Ginkgo biloba, was radiolabeled with the beta-emitter tritium ([(3)H]) in two steps from ginkgolide C. First, a triflate precursor was prepared utilizing the selective reactivity of 7-OH in ginkgolide C; the triflate was then reduced with sodium borotritide...

  4. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  5. Preparing Teachers for Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Daniel

    This paper examines the potential impact of parent involvement in the formal education of their children and suggests ways that teacher education can be restructured to prepare teachers to work with parents. This paper attempts to answer five questions: (1) Why should parents be involved in the formal education of their children? (2) Why should…

  6. Teacher Preparation for Quality Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Etta R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a holistic practice-based approach, consisting of two parts, to preparing candidates for quality teaching. The first part describes the essential knowledge, skills, and habits of mind for quality teaching. The emphasis is on understanding the learning process as influenced by the cultural and experiential…

  7. Professional Preparation in Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles E.; Fisher, Shirley P.

    1992-01-01

    Colleges and universities must develop curricula to prepare health promotion specialists to work with persons of all ages. Program core should include self-care, consumer awareness, nutrition, weight control, stress management, and substance abuse. Health and physical educators should learn to facilitate change of negative health behaviors into…

  8. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate nanocap

  9. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  10. Preparing Students for Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldoni, Federica

    2015-01-01

    This study is situated in the fields of language education, study abroad (SA) and intercultural communication. The interest in SA is increasing on the part of students, administrators, educators, and business companies for the learning opportunities that it offers. However, SA students are not always prepared to maximize their learning…

  11. Preparing Recombinant Gonad Organ Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Blanche Capel and Jordan Batchvarov Corresponding author ([]()) ### INTRODUCTION It can be useful to assay migration between any two adjacent tissues during development. This protocol assays cell migration between the gonad and mesonephros using tissue recombination between genetically marked and unmarked tissue, combined with an organ culture technique. First, agar blocks are prepared in a custom-built mold. The size and sh...

  12. Preparation for Ignalina NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latest developments of atomic energy in Lithuania, works done to prepare Ignalina NPP for final shutdown and decommissioning are described. Information on decommissioning program for Ignalina NPP unit 1, decommissioning method, stages and funding is presented. Other topics: radiation protection, radioactive waste management and disposal. Key facts related to nuclear energy in Lithuania are listed

  13. Attracting and Preparing Worthy Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Mankichi; Chonan, Mitsuo

    1993-01-01

    Attracting worthy teachers to the compulsory education system in Japan requires attention to three issues: teacher salaries, strengthening initial teacher preparation, and expansion and systemization of teacher training. The one-year beginning teachers' inservice training program began in 1989 in response to the third issue. (IAH)

  14. Preparing for Chinese New Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)

  15. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  16. Teacher Certification/Preparation Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Rita

    1990-01-01

    Presents guidelines for general and theater specialist K-12 teacher certification developed by the American Alliance for Theatre Education and the Speech Communication Association. Advocates that all teachers have preparation in arts and communication and that theater and communication specialists continue to be trained. (SR)

  17. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  18. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the...

  19. Preparation and characterization of YBCO superconductors prepared by melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the problems of the preparation of ETSC by melting are examined. Results of the thermal properties of the total substitution of Y by a rare earth are reported. The process of fabrication of HTSC both textured in thermal gradient or only locally textured for effect of the natural gradient of the furnace is indicated. The results of the physical characteristics of the specimen cooled in the natural gradient of the furnace resulting in only locally textured sample are also reported

  20. Synthesis and bioactivity of MSH4 oligomers prepared by an A2 + B2 strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehigaspitiya, Dilani Chathurika; Navath, Suryakiran; Weber, Craig S.; Lynch, Ronald M.; Mash, Eugene A.

    2014-01-01

    Oligomers incorporating the tetrapeptide MSH4, the minimum active sequence of melanocyte stimulating hormone, were synthesized by an A2 + B2 strategy involving microwave-assisted copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. A2 contained an MSH4 core while B2 contained a (Pro-Gly)3 spacer. Soluble mixtures containing compounds with up to eight MSH4 units were obtained from oligomerizations at high monomer concentrations. The avidities of several oligomeric mixtures were evaluated by means of a competitive binding assay using HEK293 cells engineered to overexpress the melanocortin 4 receptor. When based on total MSH4 concentrations, avidities were only minimally enhanced compared with a monovalent control. The lack of variation in the effect of ligands on probe binding is consistent with high off rates for MSH4 in both monovalent and oligomeric constructs relative to that of the competing probe. PMID:26120211

  1. Preparation of conducting solid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of conducting plastic mixtures to the fundamental problem of radiation dosimetry is briefly reviewed. A particular approach to achieving formulations with the necessary characteristics is described. A number of successful mixtures are defined for a number of different specific dosimetry situations. To obtain high quality stable materials requires intense blending and working of the materials at elevated temperatures. One machine that succeeds in this task is the Shonka plastics mixer-extruder. The Shonka mixer is described in complete detail. The procedures used in preparing representative formulations with this device are presented. A number of properties of successful conducting mixtures so prepared are summarized. The conditions required for molding such material are given. Several special welding methods for specific application with these formulations have been devised and are described

  2. Pomegranate liquor preparation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galego, Ludovina; Leticia M. Estevinho; Silva, José Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) liquor has been produced for several centuries in the south of Portugal, mainly in the mountain areas. The “Assaria” variety is the preferred cultivar due to its organoleptic properties and high arils to peel ratio. Wild pomegranates are also widely distributed but, despite the health benefits that have been associated to the fruits, they continue to be unappreciated for consumption. Liquor preparation is a very good alternative for wild pomegranate fruits...

  3. Discrete Quantum Control - State Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Grice, Jon R.; Meyer, David A.

    2012-01-01

    A discrete-time method for solving problems in optimal quantum control is presented. Controlling the time discretized markovian dynamics of a quantum system can be reduced to a Markov-decision process. We demonstrate this method in this with a class of simple one qubit systems, which are also discretized in space. For the task of state preparation we solve the examples both numerically and analytically with dynamic programming techniques.

  4. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative t...

  5. Microbiological aspects of probiotic preparations

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Krysenko; T. V. Sklyar; A. I. Vinnikov; A. V. Slipetska; S. S. Kudenko

    2010-01-01

    The main stages of the beginning and development of probiotic preparations, the general characteristics of modern probiotics, the scope of their use in medicine and veterinary are presented. The characteristics of microorganisms (bifidus bacteria, lactobacteria and Bacillus bacteria) used in the production of probiotics, the basic requirements that should be met by these organisms, as well as prospects for the development of probiotics are shown.

  6. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  7. Radiation sterilization of pancreatin preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Syojiro (Osaka Coll. of Pharmacy, Matsubara (Japan)); Sako, Michiyo; Kanbashi, Toshitaka; Jo, Hisanobu; Koide, Hiroaki

    1984-11-01

    The enzymatic activities (in detail, amylase-, lipase- and protease-activity) of ..gamma..-irradiated pancreatin powder preparation decrease to 50 - 95% at doses range of 50 kR - 8 MR. The dose-inactivation relation-ships vary depending on every different manufactory lot. In the case of higher moisture content preparation as irradiation sample, amylase activities are more stable, the other side, protease activities are less stable. On the variation of these activities by ..gamma..-irradiation, there are no difference between room temperature and lower temperature (-70/sup 0/C) as irradiation condition. The D/sub 10/ values of contained bacteria and fungus (contamination number: about 1 x 10/sup 3/ cells/g and 9 x 10/sup 2/ spores/g) of a pancreatin preparation are 74C/kg (280 kR) and 60 C/kg(230 kR). Then, these values are corresponded to 645 C/kg (2.5 MR) and 540 C/kg (2.1 MR) as perfect sterilization.

  8. Psychological Preparation for Young Adults Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Susan A.; Feinsod, Fred M.

    1982-01-01

    To prepare the physician, psychologist or guidance counselor for the psychological aspects of pretravel preparation, discusses the characteristics of culture shock, vulnerability to culture shock, and methods of reducing psychological stress associated with leaving and returning home. (Author)

  9. A Simple Preparation Method for Diphosphoimidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.

    1964-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of diphosphoimidazole is presented that involves direct phosphorylation of imidazole by phosphorus oxychloride in alkaline aqueous solution. Details are given on the use of diphosphoimidazole in preparing sodium phosphoramidate and certain phosphorylated amino...

  10. Emergency preparation and maneuver of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the emergency document formation, emergency organization establishment, emergency facilities preparation and emergency accident maneuver onsite of High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR). The result of emergency preparations and maneuver is summarized. (authors)

  11. Polylactide microcapsules and films: preparation and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims at preparation of hollow polylactide (PLA) microcapsules for use as ultrasound contrast agents with controlled size, structure and mechanical and thermal properties. The microcapsules were prepared with multistage premix membrane emulsification. The mechanical and thermal properties

  12. Method of surface preparation of niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Schill, John F.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  13. Rhenium Nanochemistry for Catalyst Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Kessler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The review presents synthetic approaches to modern rhenium-based catalysts. Creation of an active center is considered as a process of obtaining a nanoparticle or a molecule, immobilized within a matrix of the substrate. Selective chemical routes to preparation of particles of rhenium alloys, rhenium oxides and the molecules of alkyltrioxorhenium, and their insertion into porous structure of zeolites, ordered mesoporous MCM matrices, anodic mesoporous alumina, and porous transition metal oxides are considered. Structure-property relationships are traced for these catalysts in relation to such processes as alkylation and isomerization, olefin metathesis, selective oxidation of olefins, methanol to formaldehyde conversion, etc.

  14. METHOD OF PREPARING METAL FLUORIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J.J.; Sheft, I.

    1959-08-11

    A method is presented for preparing the halides of elements which are relatively non-reactive with halogenating agents. The method involves reacting a mixture of an oxygen containing salt of a difficulty halogenated metal with an oxygen containing salt of an easily halogenated metal with a halogenating agent. Accordingly plutonium tetrafluoride is produced by reacting a mixture of plutonium dioxide and uranium octaoxide with bromine trifluoride. The reaction proceeds smoothly at moderate temperatures and the resulting plutonium trifluoride may be readily separated from many impurities which form volatile fluorides by volatilizing these volatile fluorides from the reaction chamber.

  15. Preparation of Manganese Oxide Nanobelts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jisen WANG; Jinquan SUN; Ying BAO; Xiufang BIAN

    2003-01-01

    Oriented nanobelts of manganese oxide have been firstly and successfully prepared by a microemulsion techniqueunder controlled circumstances. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronmicroscope (TEM). Influences of sodium chloride and annealed temperature on the synthesis of Mn3O4 nanobeltswere investigated. It was found that NaCl is the key factor to synthesize oriented Mn3O4 nanobelts and 827 K isoptimum temperature to produce fine nanobelts. Oriented growth mechanism of Mn3O4 nanobelts was discussed.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1538 - Nisin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nisin preparation. 184.1538 Section 184.1538 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1538 Nisin preparation. (a) Nisin preparation is derived from pure culture fermentations of certain strains of Streptococcus lactis Lancefield Group N....

  17. Teachers' Self-Assessed Level of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We asked high school physics teachers to assess their level of preparation across a number of domains. Almost all (98%) reported feeling adequately or well prepared in terms of their basic physics knowledge. The chart presents teachers' responses to their self-assessed level of preparation in six different areas. Almost all feel at least…

  18. Preparation of ferritin national standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The raw material of ferritin is analyzed for preparation of ferritin national standard (NS) for immunoassay. No impure zone is found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein amount is 1.06 g/L and the immunoactivity is 1.015 g/L by RIA, with its dose-response curve being parallel to that of Human Ferritin 2nd International Standard coded 80/578(IS). This shows that the material used is suitable for preparation of ferritin NS. 1.25 mg of raw material diluted in 0.01 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH7.4) containing 1% human serum albumin is distributed into aliquot of 0.8 mL (2 μg per ampoule), lyophilized and assayed by RIA. The mean value of this NS is 1.962 μg per ampoule in terms of IS. Similar values are obtained for the ferritin contents of quality control serum samples at different content levels when either IS or NS is used as the assay calibrator. This indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between the serum sample values at the same levels

  19. The MUSE observation preparation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras, L.; Richard, J.; Bacon, R.; Pecontal, A.; Baksai, Pedro; Vernet, Joel

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is an integral-field spectrograph which will be mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). MUSE is being built for ESO by a European consortium under the supervision of the Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL). In this context, CRAL is responsible for the development of dedicated software to help MUSE users prepare and submit their observations. This software, called MUSE-PS, is based on the ESO SkyCat tool that combines visualization of images and access to catalogs and archive data for astronomy. MUSE-PS has been developed as a plugin to SkyCat to add new features specific to MUSE observations. In this paper, we present the MUSE observation preparation tool itself and especially its specific functionalities: definition of the center of the MUSE field of view and orientation, selection of the VLT guide star for the different modes of operations (Narrow Field Mode or Wide Field Mode, with or without AO). We will also show customized displays for MUSE (zoom on specific area, help with MUSE mosaïcing and generic offsets, finding charts …).

  20. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  1. Preparation and Crystallization of Riboswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselis, Alla; Gao, Ang; Serganov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the majority of biological processes are controlled by noncoding RNAs. Among many classes of noncoding RNAs, metabolite-sensing segments of mRNAs called riboswitches are unique. Discovered over a decade ago in all three kingdoms of life, riboswitches specifically and directly interact with various metabolites and regulate expression of multiple genes, often associated with metabolism and transport of small molecules. Thus, riboswitches do not depend on proteins for binding to small molecules and play a role as both metabolite sensors and effectors of gene control. Riboswitches are typically located in the untranslated regions of mRNAs where they form alternative structures in the presence and absence of the ligand and modulate expression of genes through the formation of regulatory elements. To understand the mechanism of the riboswitch-driven gene control, it is important to elucidate how riboswitches interact with cognate and discriminate against non-cognate ligands. Here we outline the methodology to synthesize riboswitch RNAs and prepare riboswitch-ligand complexes for crystallographic and biochemical studies. The chapter describes how to design, prepare, and conduct crystallization screening of riboswitch-ligand complexes. The methodology was refined on crystallographic studies of several riboswitches and can be employed for other types of RNA molecules.

  2. MUET Preparation Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Li Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students. The instrument used in this study called “MUET Preparation Language Strategy Use Inventory” is an adapted and bilingual questionnaire designed by Cohen, Oxford and Chi (2005 known as Language Strategy Use Inventory. Forty items were analyzed and they comprised of the four skills tested in MUET which is listening, speaking, reading and writing. Data were analyzed by performing frequency analysis. The findings revealed that the listening skill is the most frequently used, while the writing skill is the least frequently used. Only the listening skill has high frequency of use, while the reading, speaking and writing skills fall under the range of moderate frequency of use. There were variations in responses with regard to the use of LLS among Form Six students in secondary schools. The findings had practical implications.

  3. Preparing Mathematical Equations in a Document Preparation Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑民; 卢金鑫

    1994-01-01

    WITS-Math is a mathematical equation formatting tool in WITS,a multilingual document preparation environment.WITS-Math includes a library manager and an equation formatter.The main task of WITS-Math is to format diversities of mathematical equations and organize them into an equation library used by other tools in the WITS environment.WITS-Math is a direct manipulation mathematics editor.It uses syntax directed markup language as the internal representation,and provides an interactive WYSI-WYG interface for users to format equations.WITS-Math provides an equation access mechanism.Other tools can access equations in a library br cross-reference from a source file or through data exchange without knowing the structure of equation libraries.The common data structure and the rendering object in the WITS platform ensure that the formatted equations can be directly used by other tools.

  4. Preparation of High Shrinkage Polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文军; 王华平; 李建梅; 张玉梅

    2001-01-01

    The common PP chips have been used to prepare high shrinkage PP fibers with shrinkage in boiling water higher than 50%. Meanwhile, the process conditions on fiber structure and properties have been discussed in detail. With the increase of drawing temperature, the shrinkage in boiling water of the fiber increases at first,and then decreases in the temperature range from 70℃ to 100℃. The better drawing temperature is from 75℃ to 85℃ according to the melt index of the PP material. The shrinkage in boiling water of PP fiber increases with the increase of pump delivery. The orientation factor and crystallinity increase with the increase of drawing temperature. With an increase in drawing temperature,unit-cell numbers and monomer unit numbers in every crystal nucleus tend to increase, but unit volume crystal nucleus tend to reduce.

  5. Aerosol preparation of intact lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA); Krauss, Ronald M (Berkeley, CA); Blanche, Patricia J (Berkeley, CA)

    2012-01-17

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  6. The multicultural workplace: preparing preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Rogers, S

    1993-01-01

    As we approach the 21st century, the workforce in the United States is becoming more culturally diverse. This is evident in many of our hospitals across the nation. Preceptors, who are trained as role models, communicators, and teachers, are poorly prepared to deal with the cultural diversity of nurses and their clients. The Texas Medical Center Collaborative Preceptor Program uses several methods to explore cultural differences and increase preceptors' sensitivity to people from other cultures. The course assists preceptors in identifying potential conflicts of value systems and cultural differences and enables them to identify methods of facilitating cultural adjustment. Preceptors are given the opportunity to identify their own cultural values and communication techniques and to experience cultural differences firsthand. The class includes lecture/discussion, gaming, role-play, and video. Experiential learning is used to identify cultural differences without being culturally offensive or stereotypical. PMID:8408847

  7. Sonochemical Preparation of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Jin Choi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Thisreview covers sonochemical fabrication of polymer nanocomposites. In addition to its application to the synthesis of various polymeric systems, due to its powerful efficiency, sonochemistry has been widely used not only as the assistant of dispersion for nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT and organophillic clay, but also as a special initiator to enhance polymerization for fabrication of polymer nanocomposites with CNT and metallic nanoparticles. Recent developments in the preparation of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposites with polystyrene and PMMA, magnetic particle/CNT composites and polymer/clay nanocomposites along with their physical characteristics and potential engineering applications will be introduced. Physical characterizations include morphological, thermal, and rheological properties under either an applied electric or magnetic field.

  8. PREPARATION OF REFRACTORY OXIDE MICROSPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, C.C. Jr.

    1963-09-24

    A method is described of preparing thorium oxide in the form of fused spherical particles about 1 to 2 microns in diameter. A combustible organic solution of thorium nitrate containing additive metal values is dispersed into a reflected, oxygen-fed flame at a temperature above the melting point of the resulting oxide. The metal additive is aluminum at a proportion such as to provide 1 to 10 weight per cent aluminum oxide in the product, silicon at the same proportion, or beryllium at a proportion of 12 to 25 weight per cent beryllium oxide in the product. A minor proportion of uranium values may also be provided in the solution. The metal additive lowers the oxide melting point and allows fusion and sphere formation in conventional equipment. The product particles are suitable for use in thorium oxide slurries for nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  9. Microfluidic Sample Preparation for Immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S; Benett, W; Bettencourt, K; Chang, J; Fisher, K; Hamilton, J; Krulevitch, P; Park, C; Stockton, C; Tarte, L; Wang, A; Wilson, T

    2001-08-09

    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are developing means to collect and identify fluid-based biological pathogens in the forms of proteins, viruses, and bacteria. to support detection instruments, they are developing a flexible fluidic sample preparation unit. The overall goal of this Microfluidic Module is to input a fluid sample, containing background particulates and potentially target compounds, and deliver a processed sample for detection. They are developing techniques for sample purification, mixing, and filtration that would be useful to many applications including immunologic and nucleic acid assays. Many of these fluidic functions are accomplished with acoustic radiation pressure or dielectrophoresis. They are integrating these technologies into packaged systems with pumps and valves to control fluid flow through the fluidic circuit.

  10. Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veis, Libor, E-mail: libor.veis@jh-inst.cas.cz; Pittner, Jiří, E-mail: jiri.pittner@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Dolejškova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2014-06-07

    Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in Aspuru-Guzik et al. [Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.

  11. Preparing for Emergencies through Stimulating Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rogage, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Failure in gas infrastructure can impact significantly upon individuals, communities and the environment. Within the UK emergency plans are drawn up in a considered attempt to mitigate the significant consequences of any pipeline failure. The preparing and testing of emergency response plans can contribute to the mitigation of major incidents involving hazardous materials. It has been recognised that simply preparing an emergency plan does not necessarily prepare responders for dealing with i...

  12. Preparation of cotton materials using CORONA discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Noémia; Souto, A. Pedro; Nogueira, C.; Madureira, A.; Krebs, C.; Cooper, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present work concerns the study of preparation processes when this operation is preceded by a CORONA discharge made on dry raw fabrics. The influence in the whiteness degree, hydrophility, starch removal and uniformity of properties of the cellulosic material after preparation is studied. Combined preparation processes are widely used in order to replace solutions where desizing, alkaline boiling and bleaching are individual operations, being a main interest to find the optimal conditi...

  13. Polylactide microcapsules and films: preparation and properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sawalha, H.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims at preparation of hollow polylactide (PLA) microcapsules for use as ultrasound contrast agents with controlled size, structure and mechanical and thermal properties. The microcapsules were prepared with multistage premix membrane emulsification. The mechanical and thermal properties of the microcapsules, and of films that were prepared under similar conditions, were highly dependent on the non-solvent and the liquid used as a template for the hollow core of the microcapsule. ...

  14. Scalable Transcriptome Preparation for Massive Parallel Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Stranneheim, Henrik; Werne, Beata; Sherwood, Ellen; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Background The tremendous output of massive parallel sequencing technologies requires automated robust and scalable sample preparation methods to fully exploit the new sequence capacity. Methodology In this study, a method for automated library preparation of RNA prior to massively parallel sequencing is presented. The automated protocol uses precipitation onto carboxylic acid paramagnetic beads for purification and size selection of both RNA and DNA. The automated sample preparation was comp...

  15. Scalable Transcriptome Preparation for Massive Parallel Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Stranneheim; Beata Werne; Ellen Sherwood; Joakim Lundeberg

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tremendous output of massive parallel sequencing technologies requires automated robust and scalable sample preparation methods to fully exploit the new sequence capacity. METHODOLOGY: In this study, a method for automated library preparation of RNA prior to massively parallel sequencing is presented. The automated protocol uses precipitation onto carboxylic acid paramagnetic beads for purification and size selection of both RNA and DNA. The automated sample preparation was co...

  16. Preparing Citizens for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinec, W.

    1995-05-01

    Introductory astronomy courses are heavily utilized by non-science majors to check off a general degree requirement in science. For a large portion of this population, this course will be their only academic encounter with science. Many of these students have not had successful preparatory experiences. Some individuals exhibit a math/science learned helplessness. These facts coupled with the need for science literacy are proper concerns in designing the educational experience called introductory astronomy. My course has been converted largely to a collaborative environment. A unique feature is an emphasis on science policy and the utilization of structured controversy. I use lecture and some video excerpts to introduce science policy and strategic planning. A specific controversial policy related to astronomy is posed. The students prepare pro and con arguments, debate the issue formally in class and engage in small-group discussions to discover common values and solutions. Personal beliefs and the views of various majors provide fuel for lively discourse. Structured controversy develops social responsibility, intellectual competence, conflict resolution skills and personal confidence. These attributes are essential for the techno-political future.

  17. CMS prepares for new challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    One of the world’s largest physics experiments has just had a change in leadership. This is a chance for the collaboration to take stock of the tremendous work done for LS1 and to prepare for the challenges that lie ahead.   From left to right: Kerstin Borras, Tiziano Camporesi and Paris Sphicas. “The keyword is teamwork. That’s the only way you can effectively manage a large number of extremely talented and motivated people,” says Tiziano Camporesi who took the reins of the CMS collaboration at the beginning of the year. The recipe might seem easier on paper than in practice. However, given his 28 years at CERN, two of which he spent as the head of the DELPHI collaboration, Camporesi has extensive experience in managing large scientific collaborations and success in this respect is well within his reach: “I have learned many lessons from the past and I believe that building consensus is instrumental to successful leadership.” The C...

  18. How to prepare for revalidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Lyn; Llewellyn, Denise

    2016-06-15

    Rationale and key points This is the first in a series of eight articles providing information about the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) revalidation process, which was introduced in April 2016. This article focuses on setting up an online NMC account, preparing for revalidation and understanding revalidation requirements. » Revalidation is a mandatory process for nurses and midwives, enabling them to demonstrate their ability to practise safely and effectively. » Registered nurses and midwives are required to revalidate with the NMC every 3 years. » Revalidation encourages nurses and midwives to stay up to date in their professional practice. Reflective activity How to revalidate articles can help to update your practice and provide information about the revalidation process, including how you can successfully submit your revalidation request to the NMC. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. The strengths of revalidation compared to post-registration education and practice requirements. 2. The revalidation requirements and how these can be met. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27305257

  19. Preparing the ALICE DAQ upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Dénes, E.; Divià, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Kiss, T.; Rauch, W.; Rubin, G.; Simonetti, G.; Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Von Haller, B.

    2012-12-01

    In November 2009, after 15 years of design and installation, the ALICE experiment started to detect and record the first collisions produced by the LHC. It has been collecting hundreds of millions of events ever since with both proton and heavy ion collisions. The future scientific programme of ALICE has been refined following the first year of data taking. The physics targeted beyond 2018 will be the study of rare signals. Several detectors will be upgraded, modified, or replaced to prepare ALICE for future physics challenges. An upgrade of the triggering and readout systems is also required to accommodate the needs of the upgraded ALICE and to better select the data of the rare physics channels. The ALICE upgrade will have major implications in the detector electronics and controls, data acquisition, event triggering and offline computing and storage systems. Moreover, the experience accumulated during more than two years of operation has also lead to new requirements for the control software. We will review all these new needs and the current R&D activities to address them. Several papers of the same conference present in more details some elements of the ALICE online system.

  20. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929 and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.

  1. Dynamized preparations in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunila, Ellanzhiyil Surendran; Kuttan, Ramadasan; Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Girija

    2009-06-01

    Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929) and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties. PMID:18955237

  2. LHC Report: Restart preparations continue

    CERN Multimedia

    Katy Foraz for the LHC team and Julia Trummer for the RP Group

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance and consolidation work has been progressing well in both the machine and the experiments in preparation for the March restart.   A sample material is attached to the LHC (the white bag taped to the green line), to measure the radiation doses. Additional work was required around Point 5 due to the discovery and repair of a problem with the RF fingers at the connection of two beam vacuum chambers in CMS. The repair has been completed successfully and the sector is now under vacuum. In order to avoid rushing the delicate final operations required for closing the detector, the restart of the machine has been postponed by one week, from 7 March to 14 March. In the machine, the first cool-down to 1.9 K has started in several sectors ,and the cool-down of the whole machine is still planned to be finished by 21 February. The time window between 22 February and 14 March will be dedicated to powering and cryogenic tests. Since 12 December, the Radiation Protection (RP) group has been deep...

  3. Preparation of some compounded soup powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Bhatia

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Recipes for the preparation of some compounded soup powders from tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, green peas, dried peas, chicken and mutton using components like corn starch, skim milk powder, hydrogenated groundnut oil, common salt, mixed spices (black pepper, caraway and ginger and monosodium glutamate have been developed. Pretreatment and drying conditions for the preparation of pre-cooked dry bases from tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, green peas, dried peas, chicken and mutton have been determined. Except for tomatoes where vacuum drier is necessary, other bases can be easily prepared in a simple cross flow hot air cabinet drier and used subsequently in the preparation of soup powders.

  4. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, May 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-06-17

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of May, 1958. Manufacturing employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are discussed.

  5. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-08-09

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of July 1957. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  6. Proceedings. Feedstock preparation and quality 1997 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Jan Erik [ed.

    1998-06-01

    The IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Preparation and Quality 1997 Workshop dealt with fuel feedstock quality improvement and methods to determine feedstock properties. It was arranged by the Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences on behalf of the IEA Bioenergy Task XII Activity 4.1 Feedstock Preparation and Quality. This Activity is a 3-year cooperation 1995-1997 between Denmark, Sweden and the USA, mainly based on information exchange. The workshop had two sections: presentations by invited experts, and country reports on recent development in feedstock preparation and quality in the three participating countries. Separate abstracts have been prepared for four of the six papers presented

  7. Firewood preparation devices in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the market situation regarding firewood preparation devices is presented. The information was collected from the answers to a mail questionnaire. The review is assumed to include all the leading manufacturers and importers. Firewood production devices were available from 26 manufacturers. The range of models amounted to over 70. These may be divided into three categories: 1. cutting devices: the most common solution being a cross-cutting circular saw. There were only a few of these on sale as it is quite easy to include a splitting device on the same frame. 2. Splitting devices: e.g. screw splitter and hydraulically powered splitter. About 20 models are available on the markets. Cross cutting and splitting devices: these are the most popular devices. A cross-cutting circular saw with screw or hydraulic splitter is the most common type. There are about 50 models available on the markets. Cross-cutting and splitting devices are often equipped with conveyor for transferring the split wood e.g. into a trailer. Chopping devices are delivered as tractor powered devices, as electric motor powered devices or as combustion engine powered devices. Some of them are equipped with a time saving feeding device enabling the next stem to be lifted into position while the previous one is being chopped. The Finnish Work Efficiency Institute's studies show that when cross-cutting and splitting of stems into pieces of 35-50 cm in length, productivity for one operator varies in between 0.8 - 3.2 m3/h, depending on the device and work method used. (6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  8. Hydrogen PEMFCs prepared by microfabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, D.; Ponath, N.; Mueller, J. [Hamburg Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Micro Systems Technology

    2005-07-01

    In this work, microfabrication of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) produced on Pyrex glass substrates is presented. The PEMFC demonstrators were fabricated with minimized Pt catalyst loadings which were applied by sputter deposition, a standard thin lm deposition process in semiconductor technology. A meander flow field of 1 mm wide channels that are 250 {mu}m deep and spanning 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} was patterned into the glass by wet chemical etching to transport the fuels. A thin film of Cr and Au was deposited on the glass flow fields by sputter deposition to electrically connect the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that was placed between two such patterned substrates. It was assembled from two Pt loaded porous electrodes and a Na on membrane in a hot-bonding process using Na on solution. The Pt catalyst was applied directly on the porous electrodes of 1.2 x 1.2 cm{sup 2} active area by sputter deposition. To evaluate the feasibility to reduce the amount of the Pt catalyst by applying this technique, demonstrators were prepared with different loadings of Pt to investigate their performance. The characterization of the PEMFCs was performed at room temperature, ambient pressure, and under H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} operation with no external humidification. The peak power density for a fuel cell with a catalyst loading of 0.05 mg cm{sup -2} Pt at anode and cathode is 136 mW cm{sup -2}. With respect to their low Pt loading the performance of the presented microfabricated PEMFCs is remarkable when compared to those of other micro fuel cells published. (orig.)

  9. Substrate preparation by contactless mechanochemical polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, S.; Lachish, U.; El-Hanany, U.

    1985-10-01

    A simple, yet effective, polishing technique for substrate preparation is presented. It is contactless chemical polish which does not introduce any defects into the substrate during the process. The method can be readily adopted in all cases where chemical polishing is practical for substrate preparation. Results similar to those obtained by the more sophisticated hydroplaning method can be achieved.

  10. Digital subtraction angiography: patient preparation and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A H

    1987-08-01

    The use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is increasing. Nurses must be prepared to provide quality care to patients who have this relatively new method for radiographically studying the blood vessels. A description of DSA and its applications is provided. Patient preparation, assessment, teaching, and management are described. Complications of the procedure and their management are presented. PMID:2958568

  11. Preparing Instructional Objectives: Agony or Ecstasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…

  12. Praxis and Poiesis in Piano Repertoire Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Regina Antunes Teixeira; Hentschke, Liane

    2011-01-01

    The piano repertoire preparation of three undergraduate students at three different academic levels--the first, fifth and eighth semesters--was followed during an academic semester. A phenomenological approach was used to collect data in three stages: an introductory interview, observations of the repertoire under preparation and a final…

  13. Dissipative preparation of entanglement in optical cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael James; Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme for the preparation of a maximally entangled state of two atoms in an optical cavity. Starting from an arbitrary initial state, a singlet state is prepared as the unique fixed point of a dissipative quantum dynamical process. In our scheme, cavity decay is no longer...

  14. Preparing and correcting extracted BRITE observations

    CERN Document Server

    Buysschaert, B; Neiner, C

    2016-01-01

    Extracted BRITE lightcurves must be carefully prepared and corrected for instrumental effects before a scientific analysis can be performed. Therefore, we have created a suite of Python routines to prepare and correct the lightcurves, which is publicly available. In this paper we describe the method and successive steps performed by these routines.

  15. Effective Preparation Program Features: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Gary M.; Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a summary of a report prepared for the University Council for Educational Administration Program Improvement Project for the Wallace Foundation. This explores the research base for educational leadership preparation programs, specifically examining literature on program features. The review covers context, candidates, faculty,…

  16. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  17. Preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon tin alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnat, M.; Marchal, G.; Piecuch, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a new method to obtain hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor alloys. The method is reactive co-evaporation. Silicon tin hydrogenated alloys are prepared under atomic hydrogen atmosphere. We discuss the influence of various parameters of preparation (hydrogen pressure, tungsten tube temperature, substrate temperature, annealing...) on electrical properties of samples.

  18. Leading Leadership Preparation: 21st Century Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2010-01-01

    As political accountability and economic reality increasingly influence higher education, many leadership preparation programs are seeking cost effective instructional delivery systems that yield highly effective results. Simultaneously, large numbers of graduate students are seeking quality leadership preparation programs that provide both…

  19. Pre-operative antiseptic skin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkin, Claire Elizabeth

    Theatre nurses use antiseptic skin preparation products every day, but little thought seems to be given as to why a surgeon has a particular preference for one antiseptic skin preparation over another - whether it is for its efficacy, safety or application properties. Woodhead et al (2004) states that nurses still work in a ritualistic environment. Rituals are 'any action performed according to custom, without understanding the reasons why it is being practised'. Nursing practice should be evidence-based; nurses should understand the rationale behind the choice of a particular antiseptic, and be knowledgable about the clinical effectiveness of antiseptic's use pre-operatively, to achieve optimum results. This article focuses on the main types of antiseptic skin preparation while highlighting each product's activity and the relevant considerations for choosing the appropriate product for each patient. Theatre staff need to emphasize the importance of skin preparation and the correct application techniques, while educating the scrub team and surgeons with respect to skin preparation.

  20. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Joo Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During video capsule endoscopy (VCE, several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG- based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE.

  1. Intestinal preparation prior to capsule endoscopy administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Pons Beltrán; Cristina Carretero; Bego(n)a Gonzalez-Suárez; I(n)aqui Fernández-Urien; Miguel Mu(n)oz Navas

    2008-01-01

    In order to have an adequate view of the whole small intestine during capsule endoscopy,the preparation recommended consists of a clear liquid diet and an overnight fast.However,visualization of the small bowel during video capsule endoscopy can be impaired by intestinal contents.To improve mucosal visualization,some authors have evaluated different regimens of preparation.There is no consensus about the necessity of intestinal preparation for capsule endoscopy and it should be interesting to develop adequate guidelines to improve its efficacy and tolerability.Moreover,the effect of preparation type (purgative) on intestinal transit time is not clear.Since a bowel preparation cannot definitively improve its visibility (and theoretically the yield of the test),it is not routinely recommended.

  2. Preparation for Family Life. The CCC's Project No. 1: "Preparation for Life."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Klaus

    Part of the Council of Europe's Project Number 1, "Preparation for Life," this report analyzes developments in Austria, Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, and England in the area of preparation for family life. Specifically, the report (1) explains the growing concern in the above countries for the preparation for family life; (2)…

  3. Preparation and Reactions of Octasilsesquioxanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ling-Kang

    2004-01-01

    Because of the length scales involved, nanocomposite materials incorporate extensive interracial interactions that can result in non-linear changes in the composite property. Chemists often start from polymerizable inorganic and organic constituents in the molecule to build organic/inorganic hybrids that combine advantageous properties of disparate components.Silsesquioxanes (RSiO1.5)n, derived from e.g. RSiCl3 or RSi(OEt)3 by hydrolysis/condensation in a sol-gel process, are a class of silicate framework where each Si-atom is linked covalently to an organic radical R that chemically modifies the silicates. In addition to incompletely condensed silsesquioxanes is the completely condensed octasilsesquioxane. These octameric silsesquioxanes are in transition between small molecules and macroscopic materials with skeletal frameworks found in crystalline forms of silica and zeolites. SisO12(CH=CH2)8 1 has a cubic silica like core and 8 olefin functionalities as known for a long time yet with very few reactivity reports. The acidic hydrolytic polycondensation of (vinyl)Si(OEt)3 in the literature, leading to only less than 20% of 1,also suggests a large room for improvement. We have found that the H NMR spectra of mixtures containing 1 and either the Schrock's catalyst or the Grubbs' catalyst never exhibit vinylic 1H peaks attributable to the formation of products from self-metathesis. With a Pt/C catalyst, the H-Si bond of HSiMe2Cl adds to the vinylic double bond of 1, forming 2 that reacts with sufficient CH2=CHCH2OH to give 3. Upon treatment of the Grubbs' catalyst, a ring-closing metathesis occurs on the surface of the cubic Si8O12 framework. The results exhibit a strong proximity effect with which 3 transforms itself to 4. Alternatively 5 has been prepared.The Gmbbs' catalyst allows 5 to isomerize from Z- to E-configuration to produce 4 independentiy, thus demonstrating the ring-closing metathesis reactions of densely populated terminal olefins on Si8O12 surface.

  4. Reach preparation enhances visual performance and appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfs, Martin; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-10-19

    We investigated the impact of the preparation of reach movements on visual perception by simultaneously quantifying both an objective measure of visual sensitivity and the subjective experience of apparent contrast. Using a two-by-two alternative forced choice task, observers compared the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the contrast (higher or lower) of a Standard Gabor and a Test Gabor, the latter of which was presented during reach preparation, at the reach target location or the opposite location. Discrimination performance was better overall at the reach target than at the opposite location. Perceived contrast increased continuously at the target relative to the opposite location during reach preparation, that is, after the onset of the cue indicating the reach target. The finding that performance and appearance do not evolve in parallel during reach preparation points to a distinction with saccade preparation, for which we have shown previously there is a parallel temporal evolution of performance and appearance. Yet akin to saccade preparation, this study reveals that overall reach preparation enhances both visual performance and appearance.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Magnetic Chitosan Microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By dispersing aqueous precipitant in liquid paraffin to prepare a W/O emulsion then adding chitosan (CS solution, CS microcapsules have been successfully prepared. It is a facile way to prepare polymer microcapsules by using aqueous precipitant or nonsolvent as template, which avoids the removal of template and would free from the necessity to cross-link the microcapsule as usual methods to directly form dense shell. The hollow feature of the obtained materials is revealed. The diameter of the microcapsules ranges from several μm to over 100 μm. Magnetic CS microcapsules have been prepared in this way when Fe3+ and Fe2+ were mixed with CS to prepare a mixture starting solution. The appearance and microstructure of the composite microcapsules were studied. The results indicate that the formed Fe3O4 nanoparticles are embedded in the CS matrix evenly due to strong interaction between the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the CS molecules. The Fe3O4 content and the magnetic properties of the composite microcapsule were measured. The composite microcapsules were calcined in air at 700°C to prepare pure inorganic hollow microspheres. It is general to prepare hollow polymeric or composite particles by using this method.

  6. Preparation of naphtalene monocrystals for scintillometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to prepare naphthalene crystals for scintillometers is described. The different methods of preparation and the reasons to choose the Bridgman method are analysed. The thermal curves of the growing furnaces, blister shape, use of curved capillaries and the most convenient growing velocities are studied in detail. Methods of preparation of high purity naphthalene by means of chromatography and zone melting are described. Finally the operations of cutting and polishing of crystal and their most significant physics properties are studied. (Author) 28 refs

  7. Probabilistic remote state preparation by W states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jin-Ming; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider a scheme for probabilistic remote state preparation of a general qubit by using W states. The scheme consists of the sender, Alice, and two remote receivers Bob and Carol. Alice performs a projective measurement on her qubit in the basis spanned by the state she wants to prepare and its orthocomplement. This allows either Bob or Carol to reconstruct the state with finite success probability. It is shown that for some special ensembles of qubits, the remote state preparation scheme requires only two classical bits, unlike the case in the scheme of quantum teleportation where three classical bits are needed.

  8. Preparation of bioabsorbable nerve guide tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, R M; de Carvalho Zavaglia, C A; de Rezende Duek, E A

    2000-03-01

    The use of bioabsorbable polymers in applications as temporary structural function, recovering damage in live tissues, is a promising research area. Membranes of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) may act as support to adhesion and cellular invasion or as devices for guided tissue regeneration (GTR). In this study, the same casting technique used to prepare membranes was used to prepare PLA tubes. These tubes can be used for tests in nerve guided regeneration (NGR). To improve flexibility of the device, a bioabsorbable plasticizer was added to the polymer. The initial results showed that the proposed technique allowed the preparation of flexible tubes that can be used for NGR. PMID:10759642

  9. Modern Endodontic Principles Part 3: Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcey, James; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Jawad, Sarra; Hunter, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of instrumentation is to facilitate irrigation and allow controlled obturation. This article will revisit methods of instrumentation of the root canal system with consideration given to length determination, apical preparation and the concept of patency filing. It will discuss hand instrumentation and rotary preparation looking at emerging technology such as reciprocating systems and the self-adjusting file. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Mechanical preparation of the root canal system is of fundamental importance in achieving success, creating a more easily managed environment from a biological perspective.

  10. Preparing Teachers to Learn From Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马悦

    2012-01-01

    A teacher preparation program is needed to help prospective teacher learn how to teach from studying teaching. The program is composed of four skills. The program is more realistic and brings more promising set of beginning teacher competencies.

  11. Preparing Your Family for a New Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overwhelmed, look to your spouse, other relatives, and friends for support and an extra set of arms. Other ideas to help prepare your very young child for a new sibling include Look at picture books about a new ...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6303 - Initiation preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... well. (c) When using detonating cord to initiate another explosive, a connection shall be prepared with the detonating cord threaded through, attached securely to, or otherwise in contact with the explosive....

  13. Preparing for the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. End of Life Preparing For The End of Life Few of us are comfortable talking about death, ... it at some point. Defining the End of Life The end of life and how people die ...

  14. Preparation of 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone is prepared, on a millimole scale by reacting labelled thiocyanate with hydrazine sulfate in ethanolic medium. The hydrazine thiocyanate so formed is then condensed with aldehyde to form the thiosemicarbazone

  15. Techniques for the Preparation of Porous Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Porous metals have been developed greatly and swiftly in recent years. In this paper, main types of these materials are described briefly, and their preparation methods are related primarily, with the purpose offering some clues for optimizing the producing technology.

  16. Porcelain veneers - preparation design: A retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the preparation of tooth design for porcelain veneers. It follows the literature more than three decades back in the past. From the very beginning, porcelain veneers were placed to no/minimally prepared tooth substance, showing different problems in clinical use. Later, the technique of etching the porcelain and controlling the reduction of tooth structure, presented the great steps forward in porcelain veneers accepting. A special accent concerning the preparative design was placed on variations of incisal edge preparation - the problem, which is still present in current practice. Additionally, the paper emphasizes the extremely demanding protocols in making the porcelain veneers as well as their expanded clinical indications.

  17. Progress involving new techniques for liposome preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of new techniques being used for the preparation of liposomes. A total of 28 publications were examined. In addition to the theories, characteristics and problems associated with traditional methods, the advantages and drawbacks of the latest techniques were reviewed. In the light of developments in many relevant areas, a variety of new techniques are being used for liposome preparation and each of these new technique has particular advantages over conventional preparation methods. However, there are still some problems associated with these new techniques that could hinder their applications and further improvements are needed. Generally speaking, due to the introduction of these latest techniques, liposome preparation is now an improved procedure. These applications promote not only advances in liposome research but also the methods for their production on an industrial scale.

  18. Preparation of a Simple Thermochromic Solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oort, Michiel J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests a laboratory introduction to solid-solid phase transitions, thermochromism, and color changes associated with changes in ligand coordination suitable for undergraduate students in physical and general chemistry. Describes the preparation and analysis of the experiment. (CW)

  19. Rehabilitation Counseling in Transition Planning and Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Edna Mora; King, John

    1989-01-01

    The article addresses the role of rehabilitation counselors in special education transition programs for students with disabilities. It contends that the special training of rehabilitation counselors prepares them to coordinate existing school and community resources into effective transition programs. (DB)

  20. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  1. Preparing Students for the Electronic Cottage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, Sally L.; Burdin, Joel

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on Alvin Toffler's "electronic cottage" concept as a way of helping counselors become aware of futuristic thinking patterns, changing work roles and patterns in society, and techniques for preparing students for these changes. (Author/ABB)

  2. Preparing manuscript: Scientific writing for publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Sawhney, Chhavi

    2016-01-01

    Publication has become a burning issue among Indian medical fraternity owing to certain academic and professional necessities. The large number of submissions to the anaesthesia journals has resulted in accumulation of too much below average scientific material. A properly written manuscript is the dream of every editor and reviewer. The art of preparing a manuscript can be acquired only by following certain basic rules and technical aspects, besides knowledge and skills. Before preparing the manuscript, a target journal should be considered. All the instructions to the authors pertaining to that particular journal should be followed meticulously before preparing the manuscript for submission. The basic structure of the manuscript to be followed can be summarised by the acronym IMRaD (introduction, methods, results and discussion). The current review article aims to highlight all those mandatory and desirable features which should be kept in consideration while preparing a scientific manuscript for publication. PMID:27729696

  3. Semen preparation techniques for intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, C. M.; Heineman, M. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Farquhar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Semen preparation techniques for assisted reproduction, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), were developed to separate the motile morphological normal spermatozoa. Leucocytes, bacteria and dead spermatozoa produce oxygen radicals that negatively influence the ability to fertilize t

  4. Preparing for the next flu pandemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴行

    2005-01-01

    There has not been a worldwide outbreak of in-fluenza (流感) since 1968.Experts say there should have been another by now. They hope to be prepared to limit the effects when the nextone finally happens.

  5. UCL preparations for Federated Access Management

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, M

    2008-01-01

    A case study on UCL's preparations for federated access to electronic library resources using Shibboleth technology. Describes the context of UCL Library Services, the decision-making process, practical considerations, current plans, and the user experience

  6. Preparation and characteristics of porous ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei SHAO; Peiping ZHANG; Liyan MA; Juanjuan LIU

    2007-01-01

    Pyrophyllite is always used for making porous ceramics. In order to design the preparation technics of porous ceramics with pyrophyllite reasonably we must know the classifications, characteristics, properties and applications of porous ceramics. The classification and characteristics of porous ceramics are reviewed in this article; and several common preparations with their advantages and disadvantages are also introduced. The authors discussed the problems existing in researching and developing process for porous ceramics, and forecasted the development prospect of porous ceramics.

  7. Preparation of very pure active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of very pure active carbon is described. Starting from polyvinylidene chloride active carbon is prepared by carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere, grinding, sieving and activation of the powder fraction with CO2 at 9500 to approximately 50% burn-off. The concentrations of trace and major elements are reduced to the ppb and ppm level, respectively. In the present set-up 100 g of carbon grains and approximately 50 g of active carbon powder can be produced weekly

  8. Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing 35S-sulfate. L-S35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

  9. Raman Scattering in Coherently Prepared Atomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fu-Cheng(林福成); Yongjoo Rhee; Jonghoon Yi; Hyunmin Park

    2001-01-01

    Atoms in the coherent superposition state prepared by a pulse pair are used as a novel optical memory material where a single interrogation pulse will produce a new pulse pair preserving the relative amplitudes and phases of the preparing pulse pair. Such a coherent superposition state can also be specially tailored along the propagation path to generate Raman scattering in a relatively short distance with very high efficiency.

  10. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide (227Ac, 227Th, 223Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  11. Catalytic Cracking of Heptane Using Prepared Zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Nsaif; Ahmed Abdulhaq; Ali Farhan; Safa Neamat

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the potential of type Y-zeolite prepared locally from Iraqi Rice Husk (IRH) (which considered as a type of agricultural waste that difficult to discard it in conventional methods in Iraq) on the removal of one heavy metals pollutant which was divalent zinc (Zn+2) ions from industrial wastewater using different design parameters by adsorption process. The design parameters studied to remove (Zn+2) ions using zeolite prepared locally from (IRH) as an ad...

  12. Sample preparations for spark source mass spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods have been developed for the preparation of various materials for spark source mass spectrography. The essential features of these preparations (all which can provide adequate precision in a cost-effective manner) consist in obtaining spark-stable electrode sample pieces, a common matrix, a reduction of anomolous effects in the spark, the incorporation of a suitable internal standard for plate response normalization, and a reduction in time

  13. PREPARATION OF POLYALKYLCYANOACRYLATE NANOPARTICLES WITH VARIOUS MORPHOLOGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-lin Xu; He-xian Li; Guo-chang Wang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various reaction conditions on the preparation of polyalkylcyanoacrylate (PACA) nanoparticles are studied. The PACA nanoparticles with different crosslinking degrees and morphology are prepared. Addition of crosslinkers can not only adjust the particle size, but also change the morphology of PACA nanoparticles. Moreover, the loose network structure of the PACA nanoparticles with “core/shell-like” morphology is investigated by AFM and TEM in detail.

  14. PREPARATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HINGULIYA MANIKYARASA

    OpenAIRE

    Inamdar Mahesh Prabhakar; Patil Ragini Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Rasashastra deals with the preparation of medicines mainly with the help of Mercury, minerals, metals and other herbs. It is our prime duty to develop basic standards at every step of drug preparation. The aim of the present research work was to study pharmaceutical and analytical aspect of Hinguliya Manikyarasa. For Pharmaceutical study the method used was the observations regarding time, temperature, cardinal stages, finished product and consumption of fuel. Temperature range for Hinguliya ...

  15. 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Cuts? 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Prepare ... temporada deportiva 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season If you've ever played competitive sports, ...

  16. [Sigismund Laskowski and his anatomical preparations technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-01-01

    Fixation of the entire bodies or individual organs, and later as well tissues and cellular structures, was and still is often a challenge for anatomists and histologists. Technique that combines extensive knowledge of natural sciences, as well as technical skills, was by those best researchers as Frederik Ruysch, brought to perfection. Preparations, if done with care and talent, are really propelling progress in anatomical studies and determining the quality of education for medical students and young physicians. And as it is true for many of today's medical disciplines and natural sciences, the nineteenth century was in many ways a breaking point for preparatory techniques in the realm of anatomy and histology. Among those who have achieved success, earning notoriety during their lifetime and often going into the annals of European most distinguished scholars were some Polish names: Louis Maurice Hirschfeld, whose preparations of the nervous system earned him well-deserved, international fame, Louis Charles Teichmann, who was the very first so precisely describing the lymphatic system and a creator of unique injection mass, Henry Kadyi, known for his outstanding preparations, especially of vascular system. Henry Frederick Hoyer sen., who was one of the first to use formalin regularly for accurate microscopic preparations, is seen by many as the founder of the Polish histology. In this group of innovators and precursors of modern preparation techniques place should be reserved for Zygmunt (Sigismund) Laskowski, Polish patriot, fighting in January Uprising, later an immigrant, a professor at the university sequentially Paris and Geneva. Acclaimed author of anatomical tables and certainly creator of one of the groundbreaking techniques in anatomical preparations. Based after many years of research on the simple glycerine-phenol mixture achieved excellent results both in fixation of entire bodies and organs or tissues. Quality of those preparations was as high and

  17. Does explicit expectation really affect preparation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin J. Umbach

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT. However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60%, 30%, 10%. Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency. Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.

  18. Preparing the singing voice specialist revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radionoff, Sharon L

    2004-12-01

    In review of singing voice specialist preparation, discussion can be chronicled prior to the establishment of Arts Medicine in 1987. Although discussion began in 1984 (and earlier), no formal academic program currently exists to train the singing voice specialist. The need now is greater than ever for a formal program of study to prepare a person who seeks to be a singing voice specialist. The question of adequate preparation continues to be in need of an appropriate answer because no formal training programs or fellowships are available. It is essential to first define the role of singing voice specialists and the populations that they will encounter. To meet the needs of a diverse population, care of the professional voice demands cross-disciplinary training. Knowledge from the fields of music, science, medicine and communication disorders and experience/observation, clinical preparation, and research would provide for optimal preparation. To meet this need, development of a Masters degree program seems highly desirable. The structure of such a program is proposed, along with specific requirements outlined from the music and singing voice pathology components for a Masters Degree in Arts Medicine with a concentration in voice. PMID:15567052

  19. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile) and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-07-15

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  20. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  1. The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Iron Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Burckhardt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard approaches are not appropriate when assessing pharmacokinetics of iron supplements due to the ubiquity of endogenous iron, its compartmentalized sites of action, and the complexity of the iron metabolism. The primary site of action of iron is the erythrocyte, and, in contrast to conventional drugs, no drug-receptor interaction takes place. Notably, the process of erythropoiesis, i.e., formation of new erythrocytes, takes 3−4 weeks. Accordingly, serum iron concentration and area under the curve (AUC are clinically irrelevant for assessing iron utilization. Iron can be administered intravenously in the form of polynuclear iron(III-hydroxide complexes with carbohydrate ligands or orally as iron(II (ferrous salts or iron(III (ferric complexes. Several approaches have been employed to study the pharmacodynamics of iron after oral administration. Quantification of iron uptake from radiolabeled preparations by the whole body or the erythrocytes is optimal, but alternatively total iron transfer can be calculated based on known elimination rates and the intrinsic reactivity of individual preparations. Degradation kinetics, and thus the safety, of parenteral iron preparations are directly related to the molecular weight and the stability of the complex. High oral iron doses or rapid release of iron from intravenous iron preparations can saturate the iron transport system, resulting in oxidative stress with adverse clinical and subclinical consequences. Appropriate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics analyses will greatly assist our understanding of the likely contribution of novel preparations to the management of anemia.

  2. The relation between aging, aortic NaF avidity and coronary artery NaF avidity: A NaF PET CT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn; Thomassen, Anders; Hildebrandt, Malene;

    2013-01-01

    volunteers without traditional cardiovascular risk factors were prospectively assessed by Sodium 18-Fluoride (Na-18F) PET CT imaging. Global aortic uptake of Na-18F was determined by calculating the average aortic blood pool subtracted maximum standardized uptake value (cSUV) [maximum SUVaorta - mean...... SUVblood pool]. Global uptake of Na-18F in the coronary arteries was determined by calculating the average heart blood pool subtracted maximum SUV [maximum SUVheart - mean SUVblood pool]. Calculating regression and correlation coefficients summarized the data. Results: A strong linear relationship...

  3. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  4. AFFINITY OF LIGNIN PREPARATIONS TOWARDS GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Košíková

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chemicals may be modulated by other chemicals, including those prepared by organic synthesis. Consid-ering the several drawbacks of synthetic compounds vis-a-vis the human organism, the lignin biomass component was examined for this purpose. The binding affinity of lignin samples prepared by chemical and biological modification of lignin products derived from chemical wood treatment towards for N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDA was examined. The protective role of the lignin samples against carcinogenesis was tested on a well-known model carcinogen, N-methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG. The observed ability of a series of lignin preparations to reduce alkylation damage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA on hamster cells in vitro could be explained by their affinity to bind N-nitrosoamines. The results indicate that lignin has potential to protect living organisms against damaging effects of different genotoxicants.

  5. Preparation and characterisation of nevirapine oral nanosuspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare and characterise nevirapine nanosuspensions so as to improve the dissolution rate of nevirapine. Nevirapine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of immunodeficiency virus type-1 and it is poorly water-soluble antiretroviral drug. The low solubility of nevirapine can lead to decreased and variable oral bioavailability. Nanosuspension can overcome the oral bioavailability problem of nevirapine. Nevirapine nanosuspensions were prepared using nanoedge method. The suspensions were stabilised using surfactants Lutrol F 127 or Poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. The nanosuspension was characterised for particle size, polydispersibility index, crystalline state, particle morphology, in vitro drug release and pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration. The results support the claim for the preparation of nanosuspensions with enhanced solubility and bioavailability.

  6. Preparing entangled states by Lyapunov control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-09-01

    By Lyapunov control, we present a protocol to prepare entangled states such as Bell states in the context of cavity QED system. The advantage of our method is of threefold. Firstly, we can only control the phase of classical fields to complete the preparation process. Secondly, the evolution time is sharply shortened when compared to adiabatic control. Thirdly, the final state is steady after removing control fields. The influence of decoherence caused by the atomic spontaneous emission and the cavity decay is discussed. The numerical results show that the control scheme is immune to decoherence, especially for the atomic spontaneous emission from |2rangle to |1rangle . This can be understood as the state staying in an invariant subspace. Finally, we generalize this method in preparation of W state.

  7. Guidance for preparation of safety analysis reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.5, ''Safety of Nuclear Facilities,'' requires the preparation of appropriate safety analyses for each DOE operation and subsequent significant modifications including decommissioning, and independent review of each safety analysis. The purpose of this guide is to assist in the preparation and review of safety documentation for Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) nonreactor facilities and operations. This guide provides a narrative outline of the minimum information needed to prepare safety documentation for ORO moderate or high hazard facilities. Safety documentation is required for new, existing, and modified facilities. The basic purpose of the safety documentation process is to provide assurance that there is no significant increase in risk, as defined in DOE safety policy statements, to people or the environment from operation of ORO facilities

  8. Preparation Methods: past and Potential Methods of Food Preparation for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The logical progression of development of space food systems during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs is outlined. The preparation methods which include no preparation to heating, cooling and freezing are reviewed. The introduction of some new and exciting technological advances is proposed, which should result in a system providing crew members with appetizing, safe, nutritious and convenient food.

  9. Preparation of atomic oxygen resistant polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Victor J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Connell, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Polyphenyl quinoxalines (PPQs) are an important family of high performance polymers that offer good chemical and thermal stability coupled with excellent mechanical properties. These aromatic heterocyclic polymers are potentially useful as films, coatings, adhesives, and composite materials that demand stability in harsh environments. Our approach was to prepare PPQs with pendent siloxane groups using the appropriate chemistry and then evaluate these polymers before and after exposure to simulated atomic oxygen. Either monomer, the bis(o-diamine)s or the bis(alpha-diketone)s can be synthesized with a hydroxy group to which the siloxane chain will be attached. Several novel materials were prepared.

  10. Metabarcoding Marine Sediments: Preparation of Amplicon Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vera G; Lallias, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    The accurate assessment of community composition and ultimately species identification is of utmost importance in any ecological and evolutionary study. Advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the unraveling of levels of biodiversity never imagined before when applied to large-scale environmental DNA studies (also termed metabarcoding/metagenetics/metasystematics/environmental barcoding). Here, we describe a detailed protocol to assess eukaryotic biodiversity in marine sediments, identifying key steps that should not be neglected when preparing Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) amplicon libraries: DNA extraction, multiple PCR amplification of DNA barcode markers with index/ tag-primers, and final Illumina MiSeq sequencing library preparation. PMID:27460378

  11. Preparation of conductive membranes using poly pyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductive membranes show many benefits including fouling reduction for feeds containing ionic species. These membranes may be prepared either by conductive polymers or coating of the surfaces of non-conductive membranes with conductive polymer. In this research, the commercial micro filtration GVHP membrane manufactured from PVDF was coated with poly pyrrole using two different techniques. The conductivity of the prepared membranes was measured. In this paper, effects of various factors including concentration of the solutions, oxidizing agents, time for leaving the support in the solutions, support type and temperature on membrane conductivity were investigated

  12. Controllable preparation of particles with microfluidics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangsheng Luo; Le Du; Yujun Wang; Yangcheng Lu; Jianhong Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development and achievements in controllable preparation of nanoparticles,micron spherical and non-spherical particles,using microfluidics.A variety of synthesis strategies are presented and compared,including single-phase and multiphase microflows.The main structures of microfluidic devices and the fundamental principles of microflows for particle preparation are summarized and identified.The controllability of particle size,size distribution,crystal structure,morphology,physical and chemical properties,is examined in terms of the special features of microfluidic reactors.An outlook on opinions and predictions concerning the future development of powder technology with microfluidics is specially provided.

  13. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Sinha; B P Sharma

    2005-06-01

    High purity fine silver powder with uniform particle morphology was prepared through glycerol process. The process involves reduction of silver nitrate by glycerol under atmospheric conditions at a temperature below 175°C. Glycerol, in this process, acts as a solvent as well as a reducing agent. The powders prepared through this process were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis. The powders were well crystalline and contained oxygen, carbon and hydrogen as impurities. Overall purity was better than 99.9%. The yield of silver powder was better than 99%.

  14. Remote State Preparation for Quantum Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ber, Ran; Zohar, Erez

    2016-07-01

    Remote state preparation is generation of a desired state by a remote observer. In spite of causality, it is well known, according to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem, that it is possible for relativistic quantum field theories, and a "physical" process achieving this task, involving superoscillatory functions, has recently been introduced. In this work we deal with non-relativistic fields, and show that remote state preparation is also possible for them, hence obtaining a Reeh-Schlieder-like result for general fields. Interestingly, in the nonrelativistic case, the process may rely on completely different resources than the ones used in the relativistic case.

  15. Long-acting preparations of exenatide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunpeng; Wei, Liangming; Ma, Liuqing; Huang, Xiwen; Tao, Anqi; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Exenatide has been widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, its short plasma half-life of 2.4 hours has limited its clinical application. The exenatide products on the market, twice-daily Byetta™ and once-weekly Bydureon™ (both Amylin Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA, USA), are still not perfect. Many researchers have attempted to prolong the acting time of exenatide by preparing sustained-release dosage forms, modifying its structure, gene therapies, and other means. This review summarizes recent advances in long-acting exenatide preparations. PMID:24039406

  16. Bone preparation at the KCCAMS laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, Will, E-mail: wbeaumon@uci.ed [Earth System Science Dept., University of California, B321 Croul Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-3100 (United States); Beverly, Robert; Southon, John [Earth System Science Dept., University of California, B321 Croul Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-3100 (United States); Taylor, R.E. [Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Collagen purification by ultrafiltration is becoming widely accepted as a superior {sup 14}C sample preparation method for removing environmental contamination from archaeological bone. We present an overview of bone sample preparation methods used at the KCCAMS laboratory, UC Irvine. Methods development data are also discussed, including results of tests of gelatinization temperature, evaluation of 10 kDa vs. 30 kDa molecular weight (MW) ultrafiltration, improvements to ultrafilter cleaning methods, tests of ultrafilter memory, and ultrafilter glycerin contamination. These tests were not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to show how standard procedures can be validated and improved with relatively little effort.

  17. Distillation method of preparing pure technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt is prepared from MoO3 powder containing 99Mo and an oxide or molybdate of another metal, eg., Cu. The melt containing 99Mo can also be prepared by mixing non-active MoO3 with an oxide or molybdate of another metal and by irradiation in a reactor following melting and cooling. The melt is bubbled with a carrier gas or, alternatively, the carrier gas is passed above the melt and entrains the sup(99m)Tc released which condensates in a condensation vessel. The advantage of the method is separation efficiency exceeding 80%. (J.P.)

  18. Duncan Cites Shortcomings of Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In what had been billed as a major speech on teacher education, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan last week reiterated concerns about the quality of the schools that produce a majority of the nation's teachers. But some observers said that by praising several new teacher-preparation initiatives, he struck a more conciliatory tone toward the…

  19. Assessing the Assessments of Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabeck, Mary M.; Dwyer, Carol Anne; Geisinger, Kurt F.; Marx, Ronald W.; Noell, George H.; Pianta, Robert C.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs have both a desire and a responsibility to demonstrate, with affirmative evidence, that teacher education makes a difference in PreK-12 student learning. Program faculty need good data to make decisions about the progress of students, whom to recommend for state licensure, and how to improve teacher education. This…

  20. Preparation and evaluation of sulphonamide nonionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.

    2010-07-01

    Alkyl (octyl, decyl and dodecyl; C{sub 8}, C{sub 1}0 and C{sub 1}2) benzene sulphonyl chloride was used in the preparation of a novel series of nonionic surfactants (IV-VI)a-c, (VII-IX) a-c and (X-XII)a-c. The preparations were completed by reacting each alkyl (C{sub 8}, C{sub 1}0 and C{sub 1}2) benzene sulphonyl chloride with ethanolamine to give (I-III) respectively. The resulting products were reacted separately with ethylene oxide in the presence of different (base KOH, Lewis acid SnCl4 and k10 clay) catalysts to produce different moles of nonionic surfactants (5, 7 and 9) in sequence corresponding to (IV-VI)a-c, (VII-IX) a-c and (X-XII)a-c respectively. The chemical structures of prepared nonionic surfactants were elucidated by IR and 1HNMR spectra. The surface activity, biodegradability and biological activities of the prepared compounds were investigated. The obtained data show that these compounds have good surface and biological activities as well as reasonable biodegradability properties. (Author) 30 refs.

  1. Student Preparation for the International Environmental Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Meehan, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Many universities have strategies for exposing students to international experiences, but little is reported on their implementation. One example of an implemented activity is the multidisciplinary research project for undergraduate environment students, at RMIT University, that both prepares students to work in the environment profession and…

  2. Infusing Preservice Teacher Preparation with Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briody, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research targeted the impact of service-learning experiences in one course of a teacher preparation program in an urban, private university. Participants chose either an indirect (food or toy drive) or direct (food pantry or homeless shelter) service-learning experience. Twenty-four undergraduate and graduate education majors participated in…

  3. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before the...

  4. L-007: Objectives preparation and Emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture explains the preparation and response in a nuclear and radiological emergency. Must be taken into consideration a program of preparedness, the public health and environment protection, propagation of contamination limit, first aid and treatment radiation damage, the stochastic, psychological and physical effects reduction

  5. Update: Preparation Briefing Meeting for Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On March 9,the preparation briefing meeting for Shanghai World Expo was held in Beijing.Shanghai Mayor Han Zheng,CCPIT Chairman Wan Jifei,Assistant Foreign Minister Liu Jieyi and three deputy directors of Shanghai World Expo Organizing Committee addressed the meeting.

  6. Impact of Teacher Preparation upon Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    A cohort of students in a teacher preparation program completed questionnaires measuring their feelings of teacher self efficacy at three points in the program. Results suggest that pre-service teachers' feelings of self efficacy do improve as a result of their participation in such programs. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table. Teacher Efficacy…

  7. Image analysis software and sample preparation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karl n.; Wenzelides, Knut; Wolf, Guenter; Hufnagl, Peter

    1990-11-01

    Image analysis offers the opportunity to analyse many processes in medicine, biology and engeneering in a quantitative manner. Experience shows that it is only by awareness of preparation methods and attention to software design that full benefit can be reaped from a picture processing system in the fields of cytology and histology. Some examples of special stains for automated analysis are given here and the effectiveness of commercially available software packages is investigated. The application of picture processing and development of related special hardware and software has been increasing within the last years. As PC-based picture processing systems can be purchased at reasonable costs more and more users are confronted with these problems. Experience shows that the quality of commercially available software packages differ and the requirements on the sample preparation needed for successful problem solutions are often underestimated. But as always, sample preparation is still the key to success in automated image analysis for cells and tissues. Hence, a problem solution requires the permanent interaction between sample preparation methods and algorithm development.

  8. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation... interest by keeping its costs to an efficient and effective minimum. (b) No delegation of budget...

  9. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  10. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  11. Preparing for Formal Proofs in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Art

    2009-01-01

    One way in which geometry teachers can help students develop their reasoning is by providing proof-readiness experiences. Blum and Kirsch (1991) suggest that "preformal proofs" can help students develop deductive reasoning. Preformal proofs, which follow the basic principles of deductive reasoning, can help prepare students for formal deduction in…

  12. Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Reflective Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivee, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Preparing teachers to be reflective practitioners is the goal embraced by most teacher education programs. Reflective practitioners infuse personal beliefs and values into a professional identity, resulting in the development of a deliberate code of conduct. They challenge assumptions and expectations that may limit their potential for tolerance…

  13. Marriage Preparation: Factors Associated with Consumer Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mary N.; Lyster, Rosanne Farnden

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated marriage preparation program to determine overall consumer satisfaction with the program, satisfaction with specific content areas, and extent to which consumer characteristics affected satisfaction ratings. Results of survey of 196 couples revealed high overall satisfaction levels, variability in satisfaction by content area, and…

  14. Preparation of Electrically Conductive Polymeric Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas, J. C.; Castillo-Ortega, M. M.; Rodríguez, F.; Castaño, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Cellulose acetate porous membranes, coated with polyaniline, were chemically modified with polyelectrolytes to produce films of varying and controlled porosity and electrical conductivity. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained in membranes prepared with poly(styrene sulfonate) with large pore sizes. The electrical properties as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images are discussed.

  15. Process for preparation of MR contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for the preparation of an MR contrast agent, said process comprising: i) obtaining a solution in a solvent of a hydrogenatable, unsaturated substrate compound and a catalyst for the hydrogenation of said substrate compound; ii) introducing said solution...

  16. Preparation and control of radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidebook covers the work commonly organized as part of the work in the hospital. It does not cover the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals on an industrial scale. The work is characterized by the small scale on which manufacture and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals take place

  17. Preparing Politically Savvy Principals in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Pollock, Katina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to argue that principal preparation programs should help candidates: recognize the political role of the school principal; develop political skills (including the ability to strategically appropriate policy); and understand that the political approach of the principal influences teaching, learning, relationships,…

  18. Preparing for the biggest experiment on earth

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "An international team of over 2'000 scientists, led by Professor Tejinder Virdee from Imperial College London's Department of Physics is stepping up preparations for the world's largest ever physics experiment, starting next year at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland." (1 page)

  19. Preparing Urban School Leaders: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tiedan; Beachum, Floyd D.; White, George P.; Kaimal, Girija; FitzGerald, Anne Marie; Reed, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extant research, though limited in quantity, increasingly demonstrates the critical connection between quality preparation experience, candidates' leadership capacity, and their subsequent instructional and transformation leadership practices. Using mixed methods, this study builds on the current knowledge base and aims to further verify the link…

  20. Batter and method for preparing a pasta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, P.; Linden, van der E.

    2011-01-01

    This invention describes a batter that is suitable for preparing a pasta. The batter comprises water, a starch and a protein, whereby the weight ratio between the protein and the total amount of starch in the batter is represented by the symbol y and whereby the weight percentage of the total amount

  1. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interdisciplinary preparation. 1502.6 Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT...-disciplinary approach which will insure the integrated use of the natural and social sciences and...

  2. Methods for preparation of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakov, Eduard G [D.I. Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-31

    The most important methods of synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes, a new form of material, are described. The prospects for increasing the scale of preparation processes and for more extensive application of nanotubes are evaluated. The bibliography includes 282 references.

  3. Mesoporous mordenite, preparation and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J.C.; Moulijn, J.A.; Perez-Ramirez, J.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the preparation of a mesoporous mordenite, which process comprises subjecting a non-dealuminated mordenite having an atomic ratio of framework Si-to-Al of least, to an alkaline treatment in order to create mesoporosity by removal of silicon, to various meso

  4. A Paradigm for EST Materials Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Edwina S.; Balarbar, Corazon V.

    In many countries, suitable English for special purposes (ESP) textbooks and materials are difficult to find. ESP teachers and program coordinators often must develop their own materials, but preparing such materials requires training. One model that has served as a guide to numerous ESP materials projects is the Hutchinson and Waters' model. This…

  5. Selenium Nanoparticles Prepared from Reverse Microemulsion Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhu LIU; Sheng Yi ZHANG; Yu Hua SHEN; Ming Liang ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Selenium nanoparticles were prepared by a reverse microemulsion system. Sodium selenosulfate was used as selenium source. The results showed that hydrochloric acid concentration and reaction temperature had great influence on the morphology of products. The crystalline selenium nanowires and amorphous selenium nanorods were obtained in given condition.

  6. Preparation of DPPE-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungey, Keenan E.; Muller, David P.; Gunter, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is presented that introduces students to nanotechnology through the preparation of nanoparticles and their visualization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experiment familiarizes the students with nonaqueous solvents, biphasic reactions, phase-transfer agents, ligands to stabilize growing nanoparticles, and bidentate…

  7. Preparation of Uranous Nitrate by Membrane Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    U(Ⅳ) is a main reductant used in the Purex process. Electrochemical method is a sound way to prepare U(Ⅳ) due to it is easy to control and monitor the produce process and not using other additives. However, in traditional electrochemical method, U(Ⅳ) yield is usually between 60%-70%.

  8. Method for preparing hollow metal oxide microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.R.

    1974-02-12

    Hollow refractory metal oxide microspheres are prepared by impregnating resinous microspheres with a metallic compound, drying the impregnated microspheres, heating the microspheres slowly to carbonize the resin, and igniting the microspheres to remove the carbon and to produce the metal oxide. Zirconium oxide is given as an example. (Official Gazette)

  9. 21 CFR 113.81 - Product preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Production and Process Controls § 113.81 Product preparation. (a) Before using raw materials and ingredients susceptible to microbiological contamination, the processor shall ensure that those materials and ingredients... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  10. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y., E-mail: Ildiko.Toth@chem.u-szeged.hu; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2015-04-15

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection.

  11. Perylene Nanoparticles Prepared by Reprecipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI,Xue-Hai(纪学海); FU,Hong-Bing(付红兵); XIE,Rui-Min(谢锐敏); XIAO,De-Bao(肖德宝); YAO,Jian-Nian(姚建年)

    2002-01-01

    Perylene nanoparticles with different sizes were prepared by reprecipitation method. It is found that the nanoparticles show size-dependent optical property. Electron diffraction patterns indicate that all the nanoparticles of different sizes are in crystalline state. The rapid growth of the nanoparticles during the agingg process could be slowed down effectively by the addition of cationic or anionic surfactants.

  12. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before the r...

  13. 7 CFR 1940.320 - Preparing EISs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... brief presentation of why they will not have a significant effect on the human environment or providing... impact statement; and (vii) Indicate the relationship between the timing of the preparation of... of the natural and social sciences and the environmental design arts. The disciplines of...

  14. Spray pyrolysis process for preparing superconductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive film. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi,Sr,Ca and Cu metals in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature of about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate to a third temperature of about 870 degrees-890 degrees C to melt the film; once the film and substrate reach the third temperature, further heat treating the film and substrate; cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature. This patent also describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive films. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi, Ca and Cu metals and fluxing agent in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate at a third temperature about 840 degrees-860 degrees C; and cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature

  15. Looking at Learning as Preparation for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-McDonnell, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the more heated and consequential debates in teacher education today concerns the instructional methods used in preparation programs and the knowledge and skills that teacher candidates should acquire. In this study, I examine looking at learning as a pedagogical approach to transition teacher candidates from the technical conceptions of…

  16. FISHprep: A Novel Integrated Device for Metaphase FISH Sample Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Kwasny, Dorota;

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel integrated device for preparing metaphase chromosomes spread slides (FISHprep). The quality of cytogenetic analysis from patient samples greatly relies on the efficiency of sample pre-treatment and/or slide preparation. In cytogenetic slide preparation, cell cultures are routin...... with minimal handling for metaphase FISH slide preparation....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  18. Sample preparation for x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In my experience over many years it is not uncommon for a geologist to present a suite of rocks or powders for analysis and demand results of high analytical precision which are not warranted for the following reasons: 1. Sample collection is unsatisfactory. 2. Little or no attention has been given to cleaning and splitting the sample. The ultimate aim of the preparation laboratory is to produce a homogeneous, uncontaminated aliquot of the total sample pulverised to a grain size of less than 10 microns. Clearly this is not possible as the grinding equipment will always impart some level of contamination to the sample and there is no grinder available which can produce powders of grain size less than 10 microns without imparting unacceptable levels of contamination to the sample. Modern x-ray spectrometers are extremely stable instruments. Most laboratories run a drift monitor at the start of each shift or when starting analyses requiring a different calibration. Depending on the method of sample preparation errors from this source can be up to two orders of magnitude greater than instrumental errors. For this reason it is imperative that sample preparation methods for a particular analysis are carefully set up and that these procedures are followed implicitly by the sample preparation laboratory. All too often sample preparation is relegated to a secondary role carried out in poorly designed work areas with inappropriate equipment by poorly trained unsupervised staff. Over the past few years staffing reductions and the requirement to crush an increasingly large volume of sample has given the impetus to develop improved jaw crushers. An example of this is the Boyd Crusher which has been designed to minimise these problems, ie this crusher has high throughput, can be easily cleaned and produces minimal contamination. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  19. Case study: Natural bodybuilding contest preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Brandon M; Fitschen, Peter J; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiorespiratory performance was measured by VO(2)peak at baseline, 13 weeks, and 26 weeks. Body weight (88.6 to 73.3 Kg, R(2) = .99) and percent body fat (17.5 to 7.4%) were reduced during preparation. CV measurements including blood pressure (128/61 to 113/54 mmHg), brachial pulse wave velocity (7.9 to 5.8m/s), and measures of wave reflection all improved. Indexed cardiac output was reduced (2.5 to 1.8L/m(2)) primarily due to a reduction in resting heart rate (71 to 44 bpm), and despite an increase in ejection faction (57.9 to 63.9%). Assessment of HRV found a shift in the ratio of low to high frequency (209.2 to 30.9%). Absolute VO2 was minimally reduced despite weight loss resulting in an increase in relative VO2 (41.9 to 47.7 ml/Kg). In general, this prolonged contest preparation technique helped the athlete to improve body composition and resulted in positive CV changes, suggesting that this method of contest preparation appears to be effective in natural male bodybuilders. PMID:24901578

  20. Preparation of Quenchbodies by protein transamination reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinhua; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Quenchbody (Q-body) is an antibody fragment labeled with fluorescent dye(s), which functions as a biosensor via the antigen-dependent removal of the quenching effect on fluorophores. It is based on the principle that the fluorescence of the dye(s) attached to the antibody N-terminal region is quenched primarily by the tryptophan residues present in the variable regions, and this quenching is released when the antigen binds to the antibody, resulting in increased fluorescence intensity. Hence Q-body is utilized in various immunoassays for the rapid and sensitive detection of analytes. So far, Q-bodies have been prepared by using a cell-free translation system or by combining Escherichia coli expression and post-labeling steps. However, the above methods need antibody gene cloning, and are time-consuming. In this study, we report a novel approach to prepare Q-bodies by protein N-terminal transamination. We used the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of an antibody against the bone-Gla-protein (BGP), a biomarker for bone diseases, which was expressed in E. coli. The purified Fab was treated with Rapoport's salt to convert the amino group at the N-terminus to a ketone group, which in turn was allowed to react with fluorescent probes that have aminooxy or hydrazide groups, to prepare a Q-body. The Q-body prepared by this method could detect the BGP-C7 antigen at concentrations as low as 10 nM. Since the approach can label the protein N-terminus directly, it could be applied for preparing Q-bodies from natural antibodies and for the rapid screening of high-performance Q-bodies. PMID:26811222

  1. Case study: Natural bodybuilding contest preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Brandon M; Fitschen, Peter J; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiorespiratory performance was measured by VO(2)peak at baseline, 13 weeks, and 26 weeks. Body weight (88.6 to 73.3 Kg, R(2) = .99) and percent body fat (17.5 to 7.4%) were reduced during preparation. CV measurements including blood pressure (128/61 to 113/54 mmHg), brachial pulse wave velocity (7.9 to 5.8m/s), and measures of wave reflection all improved. Indexed cardiac output was reduced (2.5 to 1.8L/m(2)) primarily due to a reduction in resting heart rate (71 to 44 bpm), and despite an increase in ejection faction (57.9 to 63.9%). Assessment of HRV found a shift in the ratio of low to high frequency (209.2 to 30.9%). Absolute VO2 was minimally reduced despite weight loss resulting in an increase in relative VO2 (41.9 to 47.7 ml/Kg). In general, this prolonged contest preparation technique helped the athlete to improve body composition and resulted in positive CV changes, suggesting that this method of contest preparation appears to be effective in natural male bodybuilders.

  2. Preparation of a 238Pu standard source . II. Source preparation and standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuo, Shinohara; Nobuaki, Kohno

    1988-07-01

    A standard source of 238Pu was prepared for calibrating the counting efficiency of alpha-ray detector. The plutonium was electrodeposited on a platinum or tantalum disk using isopropyl alcohol-hydrochloric acid solution as an electrolyte. The absolute activity was certified by isotope dilution alpha-ray spectrometry. Several types of the source, whose areas 238Pu-deposited are from 2.0 to 25.0 mm in diameter, were also prepared by the method. The overall uncertainties of the certified values for the standard sources prepared are estimated to be within 0.15 to 0.25% (1σ).

  3. Effect of preparation conditions on physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of cobalt ferrite prepared by coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shobaky, G.A., E-mail: elshobaky@yahoo.co [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Turky, A.M.; Mostafa, N.Y.; Mohamed, S.K. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt)

    2010-03-18

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared via thermal treatment of cobalt-iron mixed hydroxides at 400-600 {sup o}C. The mixed hydroxides were coprecipitated from their nitrates solutions using NaOH as precipitating agent. The effects of pH and temperature of coprecipitation and calcination temperature on the physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of the prepared ferrites were studied. The prepared systems were characterized using TG, DTG, DTA, chemical analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) as well as surface and texture properties based on nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The prepared cobalt ferrites were found to be mesoporous materials that have crystallite size ranges between 8 and 45 nm. The surface and catalytic properties of the produced ferrite phase were strongly dependent on coprecipitation conditions of the mixed hydroxides and on their calcination temperature.

  4. Preparation of conducting silver paste with Ag nanoparticles prepared by e-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jong Hwa; Pham, Long Quoc; Kang, Hyun Suk; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kang, Young Soo

    2010-11-01

    Conducting silver paste was prepared by using Ag nanoparticles which were synthesized by e-beam irradiation method (from KAERI); its conductivity was comparatively determined with Ag nanoparticles which were prepared by thermolysis method (commercial). The silver nanoparticles with the diameter of approximately 150 nm size prepared by e-beam irradiation were mixed with glass frit and sintered for 1 h at 500 °C. It is presumably concluded that the wt% of silver nanoparticle, size distribution and homogenous dispersibility of Ag nanoparticles in the pastes are the critical factors for the high conductivity of the paste. Among the various wt% of silver nanoparticle in the conducting silver pastes, silver paste with 90 wt% of silver nanoparticle has the highest conductivity as 1.6×10 4 S cm -1. This conductivity value is 1.6 times higher than the Ag pastes which were prepared with silver nanoparticles obtained by thermolysis method.

  5. Preparation of actinide targets by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Folger, H.

    1989-10-01

    Actinide targets with varying thicknesses on different substrates have been prepared by electrodeposition either from aqueous solutions or from solutions of their nitrates in isopropyl alcohol. With these techniques the actinides can be deposited almost quantitatively on various backing materials within 15 to 30 min. Targets of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and californium with areal densities from almost carrier-free up to 1.4 mg/cm 2 on thin beryllium, carbon, titanium, tantalum and platinum foils have been prepared. In most cases, prior to the deposition, the actinides had to be purified chemically and for some of them, due to the limited amount of material available, recycling procedures were required. Applications of actinide targets in heavy-ion reactions are briefly discussed.

  6. Orodispersible tablets of Lamotrigine: preparation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Patel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to prepare orodispersible tablets of Lamotrigine for applications in epilepsy and convulsion related problems. Fast action onset is highly desirable in the control of this type of disease condition. All tablets were prepared by solid dispersion method using mannitol and synthetic superdisintegrants like Explotab, Cross Povidone and Micro Crystalline Cellulose. The different powder blends were evaluated for pre-formulation parameters. Effect of superdisintegrants on wetting, disintegration and dissolution parameters was studied. The tablets were evaluated for various parameters like wetting time, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and in vitro dissolution. Tablets with Explotab have shown good disintegrating features, also the dispersion not showing any bitter taste; indicate the capability of Vanilla used, as taste masking agents. Almost more than 99% of drug was released from the formulation(F4 within 27 min. Tablets have shown no appreciable changes with respect to physical appearance, drug content, disintegration time, and dissolution profiles.

  7. Design and Preparation of Steel Slag SMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shao-peng; YANG Wen-feng; XUE Yong-jie; LIN Zhen-hua

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the characteristics of high rigidity and excellent friction resistance,a new kind of steel slag SMA (stone matrix asphalt) concrete was designed and prepared.The main processes include aggregate gradation,performance analysis of steel slag before and after aging,preparation methods and properties test of steel slag SMA.The experimental results indicate that the index of steel slag's activation is less than 1 percent,the dynamic stability is 5699 times/mm,and both the residual stability and ratio of frozen splitting strength are more than 80 percent;the friction factor and structure depth are 67.1% and 0.7mm respectively.These results show the steel slag SMA is superior to the common asphalt concrete and SMA that uses common aggregate.

  8. New methods for lipid nanoparticles preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrias, Francesco; Lai, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    Lipid nanoparticles have attracted many researchers during recent years due to the excellent tolerability and advantages compared to liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. High pressure homogenization is the main technique used to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) encapsulating different type of drugs, however this method involves some critical process parameters. For this reason and in order to overcome patented methods, different production techniques for lipid nanoparticles have been widely investigated in recent years (last decade). The paper reviews new methods for lipid nanoparticles preparation, and their recent applications in pharmaceutical field, especially focusing on coacervation, microemulsions templates, supercritical fluid technology, phase-inversion temperature (PIT) techniques. References of the most relevant literature and patents published by various research groups on these fields are provided. PMID:21834772

  9. Preparation of Ni/Cu composite nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ni/Cu composite nanowires were synthesized in an aqueous solution for the first time. The synthetic process consisted of two steps. Firstly, pure nickel nanowires were prepared through chemical reduction in solution under a magnetic field. Secondly, copper was reduced on the surface of the nickel nanowires, during which Ni/Cu composite nanowires with an average length of 80 µm and diameter of about 200 nm were synthesized. The products were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The method has notable advantages: It is template-free, inexpensive, easy-to-operate, and it only needs a short reaction time, which makes it suitable for large-scale preparation.

  10. A novel method for preparing microplastic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic plastic (microplastic, 0.1 µm–5 mm) is a widespread pollutant impacting upon aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Environmental sampling has revealed synthetic fibers are prevalent in seawater, sediments and biota. However, microplastic fibers are rarely used in laboratory studies as they are unavailable for purchase and existing preparation techniques have limited application. To facilitate the incorporation of environmentally relevant microplastic fibers into future studies, new methods are required. Here, a novel cryotome protocol has been developed. Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene fibers (10–28 μm diameter) were aligned, embedded in water-soluble freezing agent, and sectioned (40–100 μm length) using a cryogenic microtome. Microplastic fibers were prepared to specified lengths (P environment, which could ultimately lead to a better understanding of the biological and ecological effects of microplastic debris in the environment. PMID:27694820

  11. Preparation and characterization of porous magnesium materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-qin; LIU Zi-li; ZHANG Xiao-hong; FENG Jun-dong; YU Ta-xi

    2006-01-01

    The proper spacer material and the preparation technology for biological compatible porous magnesium materials were explored by the powder metallurgy method, and microstructures, porosity and mechanical properties of sintered porous magnesium were investigated. The results show that compared with spacer materials of NH4CO3, NH3Cl and carbamide, NH4CO3 is the best one for preparation of sintered porous magnesium, and the worst one is NH3Cl. The isolated blind pores are formed mainly by the particle interval of the magnesium powders. Adding spacer material favors the formation of open pores, while has little contribution to the formation of blind pores. The overall porosity and porosity of open pore of the sintered porous magnesium increase with the increase of added spacer material, while decrease with the increase of the molding stress. The mechanical properties of sintered porous magnesium increase with decreasing addition of spacer material and increasing molding stress.

  12. Macroporous Monolithic Polymers: Preparation and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Inés Alvarez Igarzabal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, macroporous monolithic materials have been introduced as a new and useful generation of polymers used in different fields. These polymers may be prepared in a simple way from a homogenous mixture into a mold and contain large interconnected pores or channels allowing for high flow rates at moderate pressures. Due to their porous characteristics, they could be used in different processes, such as stationary phases for different types of chromatography, high-throughput bioreactors and in microfluidic chip applications. This review reports the contributions of several groups working in the preparation of different macroporous monoliths and their modification by immobilization of specific ligands on the products for specific purposes.

  13. Preparation and Charcterization of Konjac Superabsorbent Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Fatang; LI Wanfen; ZHAN Xiaohui; CHEN Guofeng; ZHOU Jun; HUANG Jing; ZHANG Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    A superabsorbent polymer was prepared by grafting sodium acrylate (SA) onto Konjac flour using potassium persulfate (KPS) and N, N'-methylene bis acrylamide (MBA) as an initiator and crosslinker , respectively. The effect of various preparation conditions on its water absorbency was investigated. When the Konjac Flour content was 3.0 g , the acrylic acid ( AA ) content was 30.0 g, the amount of initiator was 0.150 g, the neutralization degree of monomer was 85% , the reaction temperature was 60 ℃ and the amount of crosslinker was 0.025 g, the polymer's absorbency was 750 times in pure water and 279 times in tap water at ambient temperature. It had also high water retention. The graft efficiency reached 67%. The analyses of FT-IR and SEM indicate that sodium acrylate is grafted on the polysaccharides of Konjac flour.

  14. Preparation of thin carbon films (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon deposits have been prepared on silica glass supports in order to determine more accurately than by weighing the losses liable to occur during oxidation, for example under irradiation in the presence of CO2. Several processes have been studied with a view to obtaining deposits for which the variation in optical density as a function of carbon departure shall be reproducible for each sample. Among the methods used, the most satisfactory is that in which the pyrolytic carbon deposited on a carbon filament is evaporated; however only the samples prepared simultaneously exhibit the required identical behaviour. The carbonaceous deposits have been studied by micro-electronic diffraction. An examination of the photographs shows the presence of graphite monocrystals of about (30 μ)2. (author)

  15. Preparation and nucleation of spherical metallic droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-ge Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and solidification of metallic droplets attract more and more attention for their significance in both engineering and scientific fields. In this paper, the preparation and characterization of Sn-based alloy droplets using different methods such as atomization and consumable electrode direct current arc (CDCA technique are reviewed. The morphology and structure of these droplets were determined by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The solidification behavior of single droplet was systematically studied by means of scanning calorimetry (DSC, and the nucleation kinetics was also calculated. In particular, the development of fast scanning calorimetry (FSC made it possible to investigate the evolution of undercooling under ultrafast but controllable heating and cooling conditions. The combination of CDCA technique and FSC measurements opens up a new door for quantitative studies on droplet solidification, which is accessible to demonstrate some theories by experiments.

  16. Janus nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Chen, Shaowei

    2014-02-01

    In chemical functionalization of colloidal particles, the functional moieties are generally distributed rather homogeneously on the particle surface. Recently, a variety of synthetic protocols have been developed in which particle functionalization may be carried out in a spatially controlled fashion, leading to the production of structurally asymmetrical particles. Janus particles represent the first example in which the two hemispheres exhibit distinctly different chemical and physical properties, which is analogous to the dual-faced Roman god, Janus. Whereas a variety of methods have been reported for the preparation of (sub)micron-sized polymeric Janus particles, it has remained challenging for the synthesis and (unambiguous) structural characterization of much smaller nanometer-sized Janus particles. Herein, several leading methods for the preparation of nanometer-sized Janus particles are discussed and the important properties and applications of these Janus nanoparticles in electrochemistry, sensing, and catalysis are highlighted. Some perspectives on research into functional patchy nanoparticles are also given. PMID:24376180

  17. Preparation of Hydrochlorothiazide Nanoparticles for Solubility Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Vaculikova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles can be considered as a useful tool for improving properties of poorly soluble active ingredients. Hydrochlorothiazide (Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System was chosen as a model compound. Antisolvent precipitation-solvent evaporation and emulsion solvent evaporation methods were used for preparation of 18 samples containing hydrochlorothiazide nanoparticles. Water solutions of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, Tween 80 and carboxymethyl dextran were used in mass concentrations of 1%, 3% and 5%. Acetone and dichloromethane were used as solvents of the model compound. The particle size of the prepared samples was measured by dynamic light scattering. The selected sample of hydrochlorothiazide nanoparticles stabilized with carboxymethyl dextran sodium salt with particle size 2.6 nm was characterized additionally by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the solubility of this sample was 6.5-fold higher than that of bulk hydrochlorothiazide.

  18. Data preparation for asteroseismology with TESS

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Mikkel N; Kjeldsen, Hans; Chaplin, William J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission. Following its scheduled launch in 2017, TESS will focus on detecting exoplanets around the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, for which detailed follow-up observations are possible. TESS will, as the NASA Kepler mission, include a asteroseismic program that will be organized within the TESS Asteroseismic Science Consortium (TASC), building on the success of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). Within TASC data for asteroseismic analysis will be prepared by the TASC Working Group 0 (WG-0), who will facilitate data to the community via the TESS Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (TASOC), again building on the success of the corresponding KASOC platform for Kepler. Here, we give an overview of the steps being taken within WG-0 to prepare for the upcoming TESS mission.

  19. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  20. Materials, preparation, and characterization in thermoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    This book includes updated theoretical considerations which provide an insight into avenues of research most likely to result in further improvements in material performance. It details the latest techniques for the preparation of thermoelectric materials employed in energy harvesting, together with advances in the thermoelectric characterisation of nanoscale material. The book reviews the use of neutron beams to investigate phonons, whose behaviour govern the lattice thermal conductivity and includes a chapter on patents.

  1. Sample preparation method for scanning force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jankov, I R; Szente, R N; Carreno, M N P; Swart, J W; Landers, R

    2001-01-01

    We present a method of sample preparation for studies of ion implantation on metal surfaces. The method, employing a mechanical mask, is specially adapted for samples analysed by Scanning Force Microscopy. It was successfully tested on polycrystalline copper substrates implanted with phosphorus ions at an acceleration voltage of 39 keV. The changes of the electrical properties of the surface were measured by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and the surface composition was analysed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy.

  2. The biocatalyzed stereoselective preparation of polycyclic cyanohydrins

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. Manuel Cruz; Melo, M. Luísa Sá e; Parolin, Marco; Tessaro, Davide; Riva, Sergio; Danieli, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The enzyme-mediated preparation of enantiomerically or diastereomerically enriched polycyclic cyanohydrins has been investigated. Oxynitrilase-catalyzed cyanurations gave excellent results with the bicyclic aldehydes tested. On the other hand, enantio- or diastereoselective acylation, catalyzed by lipase PS or subtilisin, proved to be a more versatile methodology, giving good results even with sterically hindered polycyclic cyanohydrins. Specifically, the steroidal cyanohydrin derivative 4b w...

  3. Tooth Preparation and Pulpal Response: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Dr. Özlem; ERKUT, Doç. Dr. Selim

    2013-01-01

    Pulp tissue reaction to tooth preparation for direct or indirect restorations is one of the major concerns in fixed prosthodontics. Although the sensitivity of dentine to a variety of stimuli is difficult to correlate with morphological and functional observations, hydrodynamic theory was used to explain dental pain mechanism. External stimuli (e.g., thermal, mechanical and dental restorative processes) applied to human tooth cause either an inward (toward the pulp chamber) or outward (away f...

  4. Preparing Children for a Healthy Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi; Budd, Daryl Zadok

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that the principles for preparing youth for future healthy marriage relationships include many of the basic principles of good parenting such as a healthy home environment, modeling healthy relationships, being involved in a child’s life, and encouraging healthy choices. Ultimately, as children progress into adulthood they will make their own choices about relationships; however, by providing healthy role models, encouragement, and support, youth will have the framework nec...

  5. Preparation and application of magnetic microsphere carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; XING Jianmin; LIU Huizhou

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic microsphere carriers have received considerable attention,primarily because of their wide applications in the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering.In this paper,preparation methods,surface modification and application of magnetic carriers are reviewed.Emphasis will be placed on recent biological and biomedical developments and trends such as enzyme immobilization,cell isolation,protein purification,target drugs and DNA separation.

  6. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  7. School administrator preparation in Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    CHARLES L. SLATER; Esparza, Elena; Peña, Rosa M.; Topete, Carlos; Álvarez, Isaías; Cerecedo, Trinidad; García, José María

    2005-01-01

    A team of US and Mexican researchers used focus groups to determine challenges faced by rural school directors who worked in isolated, poor communities. They had no preparation before becoming directors. Their stories express frustration with teachers who do not come to school on time and are not committed to education. Yet the directors throw themselves into their work and persist over the years. They ask for training in how to work with teachers, and they bring qualities of idealism and ...

  8. On-chip Ultrasonic Sample Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Iranmanesh, Ida Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Acoustofluidics has become a well-established technology in the lab-on-a-chip scientific community. The technology involves primarily the manipulation of fluids and/or particles in microfluidic systems. It is used today for variety of applications such as handling, sorting, washing and separation of cells or micro-particles, and for mixing and pumping of fluids. When such manipulation functions are integrated in micro-devices, the technology has been used for clinical sample preparation as we...

  9. Preparation of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Bin; WEI Jinquan; CI Lijie; WU Dehai

    2004-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared using the floating chemical vapor deposition with methane as carbon source and adding small amount of sulfur into the ferrocene catalyst. The optimized technological parameters are: the reaction temperature is 1200℃; the catalyst vapor temperature is 80℃; the flow rate of argon is 2000 SCCM; the flow rate of methane is 5 SCCM. The purified DWNTs under these optimized technological parameters have high purity above 90 wt%.

  10. Anticipating Serendipity. Preparing for the Unexpected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe Thomas J.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Serendipity—using "fortunate accidents" for learning or discovery—is a valued if too infrequent route to progress. Although serendipity cannot be scheduled or relied upon, one can develop skills, flexibility and habits of mind that make the recognition and incorporation of serendipitous discoveries more likely. This paper overviews at a high level a program of activities and concepts aimed at preparing modern professionals and communities to leverage the fortunate occurrences they encounter.

  11. Preparation of a removable polyurethane encapsulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, B.G.

    1976-08-01

    The preparation of polyurethane encapsulants, based on polyether diol/diisocyanate prepolymers and 1,4-butanediol, which are soluble in several organic solvents, was investigated. Since these materials can be easily removed, repair of electronic circuitry found defective in potted units can be readily accomplished. Polyether diols of varying molecular weights were reacted with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and methylene diphenylisocyanate (MDI) to produce stable prepolymers. Several properties of both the isocyanate prepolymers and 1,4-butanediol cured polyurethane encapsulants are presented.

  12. A Primer on Wound Bed Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Gokoo, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    Successful wound closure and healing are a major concern for today's clinician. Determining if the wound will progress or not relies on a comprehensive assessment, recognition of wound characteristics that will promote or impede the healing process and preparing the wound bed such that pathological features are removed allowing the healing cascade to occur. When complications are no longer a roadblock the wound will achieve a stable microenvironment and progress through the normal repairative...

  13. Grasping preparation enhances orientation change detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjerk P Gutteling

    Full Text Available Preparing a goal directed movement often requires detailed analysis of our environment. When picking up an object, its orientation, size and relative distance are relevant parameters when preparing a successful grasp. It would therefore be beneficial if the motor system is able to influence early perception such that information processing needs for action control are met at the earliest possible stage. However, only a few studies reported (indirect evidence for action-induced visual perception improvements. We therefore aimed to provide direct evidence for a feature-specific perceptual modulation during the planning phase of a grasping action. Human subjects were instructed to either grasp or point to a bar while simultaneously performing an orientation discrimination task. The bar could slightly change its orientation during grasping preparation. By analyzing discrimination response probabilities, we found increased perceptual sensitivity to orientation changes when subjects were instructed to grasp the bar, rather than point to it. As a control experiment, the same experiment was repeated using bar luminance changes, a feature that is not relevant for either grasping or pointing. Here, no differences in visual sensitivity between grasping and pointing were found. The present results constitute first direct evidence for increased perceptual sensitivity to a visual feature that is relevant for a certain skeletomotor act during the movement preparation phase. We speculate that such action-induced perception improvements are controlled by neuronal feedback mechanisms from cortical motor planning areas to early visual cortex, similar to what was recently established for spatial perception improvements shortly before eye movements.

  14. Hydrogen preparation system for mass spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas source mass spectrometer has been recently set up at PINSTECH to carry out hydrological mapping of Pakistan by measuring isotopic ratio variations in H2, O2 and CO2 in waters of different origin. For D/H ratio analyses using this mass spectrometer water sample of size 20-25 microliter is to be converted to hydrogen gas. The preparation system developed for this purpose is described. (author)

  15. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil, L.; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P. K.; Gopala Krishna, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with disti...

  16. Preparing for opening of school attendance

    OpenAIRE

    PEKAŘOVÁ, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In the theoretical work I will describe the concept of primary school, now to set start school as a watershed event and describe the child commencing school from the perspective of developmental psychology. In the practical part I will describe how to prepare to start school some nursery schools, with an emphasis on collaboration with parents and primary schools. I use the method of questionnaire and interview.

  17. PREPARATION OF SPHERICAL URANIUM DIOXIDE PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, R.P. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1963-04-30

    This patent relates to the preparation of high-density, spherical UO/sub 2/ particles 80 to 150 microns in diameter. Sinterable UO/sub 2/ powder is wetted with 3 to 5 weight per cent water and tumbled for at least 48 hours. The resulting spherical particles are then sintered. The sintered particles are useful in dispersion-type fuel elements for nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  18. Process for preparing electromagnetic interference shileding materials

    OpenAIRE

    Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Jérôme, Christine; Detrembleur, Christophe; Alexandre, Michaël; Huynen, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for preparing an electromagnetic interference shielding material, or a precursor thereof, comprising a first polymer matrix and carbon conductive loads, said process comprises the steps of: (a) Forming a reaction mixture comprising carbon conductive loads and a polymerizable medium said polymerizable medium comprising one or more monomers dissolved in a solvent, (b) Exposing the reaction mixture to polymerization conditions to polymerize said polymer...

  19. Preparation of 2-deoxyaldoses from aldose phenylhydrazones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea; Pedersen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Acetylation of D-mannose phenylhydrazone gives acetylated D-arabino-1-phenyl-azo-1-(E)-hexene. Subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride produces 2-deoxy-D-arabino-hexose phenylhydrazone which, on hydrolysis, gives 2-deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. By a similar procedure 2-deoxy-D-lyxo-hexose, 2,6-did......,6-dideoxy-L-arabino-hexose, and 2-deoxy-D-erythropentose can be prepared from D-galactose, L-rhamnose, and D-arabinose, respectively....

  20. Preparation and application of streptavidin magnetic particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZhiFeng; ZHU HongLi; TANG YiTong; CUI Ting; GENG TingTing; CHEN Chao; CUI YaLi

    2007-01-01

    Two kinds of streptavidin magnetic particles, namely streptavidin GoldMag particles and streptavidin amino terminal particles were prepared by the methods of physical adsorption and covalent interaction respectively. The streptavidin coated on magnetic particle surface, crucial to many applications, was greatly influenced by the choice of the different buffer. Compared with Dynalbeads(r)M-270 streptavidin, the binding capacity for biotin of different streptavidin magnetic particles was determined by enzyme inhibition method, and the coupling capacity and activity of biotinylated oligonucleotide on their surface were also analyzed. The results indicated that the streptavidin GoldMag particle prepared by physical adsorption was stable in STE (NaCl-Tris-EDTA) buffer that was frequently used in nucleic acid hybridization and detection. The streptavidin amino terminal particles prepared by covalent interaction could be used both in STE buffer and PBS (phosphate buffered saline) buffer. The biotin binding capacity for 1 mg of streptavidin GoldMag particles and streptavidin amino terminal particles was 4950 and 5115 pmol respectively. The capacity of biotinylated oligonucleotide (24 bp) coupled on 1 mg of GoldMag and amino terminal magnetic particles was 2839 and 2978 pmol separately. These data were about 6-7 times higher than those of Dynabeads(r)M-270 streptavidin. The hybridization results with FITC-labeled complementary probe on magnetic particle surface demonstrated that the oligonucleotide coupled on streptavidin magnetic particles had high biological activity.

  1. Preparation and application of streptavidin magnetic particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two kinds of streptavidin magnetic particles,namely streptavidin GoldMag particles and streptavidin amino terminal particles were prepared by the methods of physical adsorption and covalent interaction respectively.The streptavidin coated on magnetic particle surface,crucial to many applications,was greatly influenced by the choice of the different buffer.Compared with DynalbeadsM-270 streptavidin, the binding capacity for biotin of different streptavidin magnetic particles was determined by enzyme inhibition method,and the coupling capacity and activity of biotinylated oligonucleotide on their sur- face were also analyzed.The results indicated that the streptavidin GoldMag particle prepared by physical adsorption was stable in STE(NaCl-Tris-EDTA)buffer that was frequently used in nucleic acid hybridization and detection.The streptavidin amino terminal particles prepared by covalent interaction could be used both in STE buffer and PBS(phosphate buffered saline)buffer.The biotin binding ca- pacity for 1 mg of streptavidin GoldMag particles and streptavidin amino terminal particles was 4950 and 5115 pmol respectively.The capacity of biotinylated oligonucleotide(24 bp)coupled on 1 mg of GoldMag and amino terminal magnetic particles was 2839 and 2978 pmol separately.These data were about 6-7 times higher than those of DynabeadsM-270 streptavidin.The hybridization results with FITC-labeled complementary probe on magnetic particle surface demonstrated that the oligonucleotide coupled on streptavidin magnetic particles had high biological activity.

  2. Electrochemical preparation of technetium hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the liquid chromatographic and electrochemical analysis of electrogenerated technetium hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) complexes, and studies the effectiveness of the resulting bone imaging agents. Anion exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography is used to separate components, and γ emission is used as the detection mode. The reaction mixtures were prepared at a series of reduction potentials and pH values, at both carrier added and no carrier added technetium levels. The results indicate that all three parameters affect the final complex composition to varying degrees. By optimizing the conditions, a preparation was made which results in a high percentage of a Tc-HEDP complex thought to be a very good home imager. This component was isolated chromatographically and injected into female Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparisons were run on the uptake for seven tissue types at two incubation times. Mercury and Reticulated Vitreous Carbon were used as the working electrode materials, and it is shown how reduced technetium will significantly alter the electrode characteristics, where a conditioned electrode will produce different complexes from those produced at fresh electrode material. By employing coulometric analysis as the preparation was reduced, an n value of 4 was calculated for a particular complex. This procedure involved tracking the radioactive technetium species carefully to account for all electrons used in the system. Finally, an electrochemical detection method for HEDP was explored, utilizing the property of mercury complexation. Anodic sweep Differential Pulse Polarography gives an analytical signal for HEDP at +0.250 V vs Ag/AgCl

  3. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BAMBOO NANOCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjiao Yu,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC has many potential applications because of its special properties. In this paper, NCC was prepared from bamboo pulp. Bamboo pulp was first pretreated with sodium hydroxide, followed by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. The concentration of sulfuric acid and the hydrolysis time on the yield of NCC were studied. The results showed that sulfuric acid concentration had larger influence than the hydrolysis time on the yield of NCC. When the temperature was 50oC, the concentration of sulfuric acid was 48wt% and the reaction time was 30 minutes, a high quality of nanocrystalline cellulose was obtained; under these conditions, the length of the nanocrystalline cellulose ranged from 200 nm to 500 nm, the diameter was less than 20 nm, the yield was 15.67wt%, and the crystallinity was 71.98%, which is not only higher than those of cellulose nanocrystals prepared from some non-wood materials, but also higher than bamboo cellulose nanocrystals prepared by other methods.

  4. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw. PMID:26289326

  5. Preparation of composite electroheat carbon film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jin-tong; TU Chuan-jun; LI Yan; HU Li-min; DENG Jiu-hua

    2005-01-01

    A kind of conductive and heating unit, which can reach a high surface electroheat temperature at a low voltage, was developed in view of the traditional electroheat coating which has a low surface electroheat temperature and an insufficient heat resistance of its binder. The coating molded electroheat carbon film(CMECF) was prepared by carbonizing the coating which was prepared by adding modified resin into flake graphite and carbon fiber, coating molded onto the surface of the heat resisting matrix after dried, while the hot pressing molded electroheat thick carbon film(HPMETCF) was prepared by carbonizing the bodies whose powders were hot pressing molded directly.The surface and inner microstructure of the carbon film was characterized and analyzed by SEM and DSC/TG, while electroheat property was tested by voltage-current volume resistivity tester and electrical parameter tester. The results show that, close-packed carbon network configuration is formed within the composite electroheat carbon film film after anti-oxidizable treatment reaches a higher surface electroheat temperature than that of the existing electroheat coatings at a low voltage, and has excellent electroheat property, high thermal efficiency as well as stable physicochemical property. It is found that, at room temperature(19± 2 ℃) and 22 V for 5 min, the surface electroheat temperature of the self-produced CMECF (mfiller/mresin = 1. 8/1) reaches 112 ℃ while HPMETCF (mfiller/mresin = 3. 6/1) reaches 265 ℃.

  6. Curvature-tuned preparation of nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Rükan; Ortiz, Mayreli; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2009-11-01

    Numerous methods have been reported for the preparation of liposomes, many of which, in addition to requiring time-consuming preparative steps and the use of organic solvents, result in heterogeneous liposome populations of incontrollable size. Taking into consideration the phenomenon of spontaneous vesiculation and the theory of curvature, here we present an extremely rapid and simple, solvent-free method for the preparation of monodisperse solutions of highly stable small unilamellar vesicles using both charged and zwitterionic lipids mixed with lyso-palmitoylphosphatidylcholine, exploiting a combination of a rapid pH change followed by a defined period of equilibration. Various experimental parameters and their interactions were evaluated in terms of their effect on resulting liposome size and shape, as well as on liposome stability and size distribution, with transmission electron microscope imaging being used to visualize the formed liposomes, and photon correlation spectroscopy to obtain statistical data on mean diameter and monodispersity of the liposome population. zeta potential measurements also provided information about the interpretation of vesiculation kinetics and liposome stability. The time interval of pH jump, operation temperature, equilibration time, and lipid type were shown to be the determining factors controlling the size, shape, and monodispersity of the liposomes. Buffer type was also found to be important for the long-term storage of the liposomes. Ongoing work is looking at the application of the developed method for encapsulation of bioactive molecules, such as drugs, genetic materials, and enzymes. PMID:19856992

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Danofloxacin Mmesylate Liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dexian; LI Jichang

    2011-01-01

    Five different methods were tested and compared to prepare danofloxacin mesylate liposomes, the ammonium sulfate gradient method with freeze-thawing steps was validated as the best one; the optimal preparation condition confirmed by orthogonal experiment was as follows: EPC-CH ratio was 3 : 2 and 2.6% SA was added to gain the positive electricity; drug-lipoid was 2 : 5, the concentration of ammonium sulfate was 250 mmol·L-1, water-oil ratio was 1:5, and they were incubated at 35℃ for 15 min. The prepared liposome products were ivory white semitransparent suspension, the electron microscope appearance was intact and globular or globular-like vesicles with uniformed distribution; the particle size was centralized from 3 to 7 gm, zeta-electric potential valued+ (15.92+1.49) mV, pH valued 6.02~0.09; HPLC method was established in quantitative analyses of danofloxacin and reverse dialysis with RP-HPLC method was validated for determination of entrapment efficiency. The entrapment efficiency results were all above 90%. They were stored at 4℃ with satisfied stability. Six months later, the appearance, characters and entrapment efficiency were almost with no change

  8. Antimicrobial activity of preparation Bioaron C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Gzella, Anne; Michalak, Anna; Kędzia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of sirupus Bioaron C, a preparation, whose main ingredient is an extract from the leaves of Aloe arborescens, was tested against different microorganisms isolated from patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The experiments were performed on 40 strains: 20 strains of anaerobic bacteria, 13 strains of aerobic bacteria and 7 strains of yeast-like fungi from the genus Candida and on 18 reference strains (ATCC). The antimicrobial activity of Bioaron C (MBC and MFC) was determined at undiluted concentration. Bioaron C proved to be very effective against the microorganisms causing infections. At the concentration recommended by the producer, the preparation showed biocidal activity (MBC, MFC) against the strains of the pathogenic microorganisms, which cause respiratory infections most frequently, including, among others, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Parvimonas micra, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus anginosus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, already after 15 min. The MIC of Bioaron C against most of the tested microorganisms was 5 to 100 times lower than the usually applied concentration. The great antimicrobial activity means that the preparation may be used in the prevention and treatment of infections of the upper respiratory tract. Bioaron C may be an alternative or complement to classical therapy, especially in children. PMID:25362808

  9. Preparing to perform an awake fiberoptic intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, M E

    2012-02-03

    Fiberoptically guided tracheal intubation represents one of the most important advances in airway management to occur in the past thirty years. Perhaps its most important role is in management of the anticipated difficult airway. This is a situation in which the dangers of encountering the life-threatening "can\\'t intubate, can\\'t ventilate" situation can be avoided by placement of an endotracheal tube while the patient is awake. Although skill at the procedure of endoscopy is obviously necessary in this setting, these authors hold that success or failure of the technique frequently depends on the adequacy of preparation. These measures include 1) pre-operative assessment of the patient; 2) careful explanation of what lies in store; 3) "setting the stage"; 4) preparing the equipment to be used; and 5) preparing the patient (antisialogue, sedation, application of topical anesthesia to the upper airway). If these preparatory measures are carried out meticulously, the likelihood of performing a successful and comfortable awake fiberoptic tracheal intubation is greatly increased.

  10. Preparation and characterization of extruded magnetoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Raimon; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Callejas-Fernández, José; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque; Estelrich, Joan

    2008-01-22

    Phospholipid vesicles encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (here after called magnetoliposomes) have been prepared for targeting a drug to a specific organ using a magnetic force, as well as for local hyperthermia therapy. Magnetoliposomes are also an ideal platform for use as contrast agents. We describe the preparation and characterization of liposomes containing magnetite, a ferrimagnetic material. These liposomes were obtained by extrusion. To prevent the aggregation of particles, the magnetite was treated--prior to encapsulation--with a surfactant, resulting in a stable ferrofluid suspension. Once the ferrofluid had been obtained, it was used to hydrate the phospholipid layers. Magnetoliposomes had a diameter of around 200 nm, the same pore size as the membranes used for the extrusion. The encapsulation efficiency was dependent on the initial amount of ferrofluid present at the encapsulation stage, and in the worst case was 19%. This value corresponded to 82.06 mmol of magnetite per mole of phospholipid. Although we have used a determined membrane pore to obtain the magnetoliposomes, the method described here allows to prepare magnetoliposomes of different sizes as well as of different magnetite content. PMID:17692483

  11. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  12. At Arbitration Hearings, Justice Favors the Well Prepared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Arbitration can be a way to settle employee grievances efficiently and fairly. Count on spending five or six hours in preparation for each hour spent with the arbitrator. Presents strategies for meticulous preparation. (MLF)

  13. PRACTICAL PREPARATION OF RESVERATROL 3-O-β-D-GLUCURONIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Jungong, Christian S.; Novikov, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    A practical synthesis of resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucuronide, suitable for preparation of large quantities, was developed using selective deacetylation of resveratrol triacetate with ammonium acetate. A simplified procedure for large scale preparation of resveratrol is also reported.

  14. Preparing Your Child for Visits to the Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Preparing Your Child for Visits to the Doctor KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing Your Child for Visits ... vital to making an informed diagnosis. Choose a Doctor Who Relates Well to Kids Because your doctor ...

  15. A Sequential Preparation of Organic Compounds for Senior Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrigan, Cecilia; Crotty, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    Describes procedures suitable for student preparation of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and ethyl benzoate sequentially from benzyl alcohol. Preparation for benzyl chloride also given. All reagents except benzyl alcohol are common inorganic chemicals. (AL)

  16. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  17. Chitin nanofibers: preparations, modifications, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Chitin nanofibers are prepared from the exoskeletons of crabs and prawns by a simple mechanical treatment after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers have fine nanofiber networks with a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and a high aspect ratio. The method used for chitin-nanofiber isolation is also successfully applied to the cell walls of mushrooms. They form a complex with glucans on the fiber surface. A grinder, a Star Burst atomization system, and a high speed blender are all used in the mechanical treatment to convert chitin to nanofibers. Mechanical treatment under acidic conditions is the key to facilitate fibrillation. At pH 3-4, the cationization of amino groups on the fiber surface assists nano-fibrillation by electrostatic repulsive force. By applying this finding, we also prepared chitin nanofibers from dry chitin powder. Chitin nanofibers are acetylated to modify their surfaces. The acetyl DS can be controlled from 1 to 3 by changing the reaction time. An acetyl group is introduced heterogeneously from the surface to the core. Nanofiber morphology is maintained even in the case of high acetyl DS. Optically transparent chitin nanofiber composites are prepared with 11 different types of acrylic resins. Due to the nano-sized structure, all of the composites are highly transparent. Chitin nanofibers significantly increase the Young's moduli and the tensile strengths and decrease the thermal expansion of all acrylic resins due to the reinforcement effect of chitin nanofibers. Chitin nanofibers show chiral separation ability. The chitin nanofiber membrane transports the d-isomer of glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and lysine from the corresponding racemic amino acid mixtures faster than the corresponding l-isomer. The chitin nanofibers improve clinical symptoms and suppress ulcerative colitis in a DSS-induced mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis. Moreover, chitin nanofibers suppress myeloperoxidase activation in the colon and

  18. Preparation and study of model magnetorheological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Turczyn

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was preparation of the model magnetorheological (MR fluids. Basic properties of prepared MR fluids, as their response to an external magnetic field and their stability, were investigated. Moreover (furthermore few results concerning stabilizing effect of various additives are presented.Design/methodology/approach: Model MR fluid was prepared using three type of carriers: silicone oil OKS 1050, synthetic oil OKS 352, mineral oil OKS 600 mixed with carbonyl iron powder CI HQ. Furthermore, to reduce sedimentation Aerosil 200 and 972, Arsil 1100 and Arabic gum were added as stabilizers. MR effect was measured using device working as Couette’s viscosimeter equipped with coil generating magnetic field. Sedimentation was measured by simply observation of changes in boundary position between clear and turbid part of MR fluid placed into glass tube.Findings: Influence of the additives presence on the MR effect was determined. The presence of additives did not diminish the magnetic effect but even increased the dynamic viscosity in existence of an external magnetic field. The stability of MR fluid was improved by adding additives to the formulation. Moreover, increasing stabilizer concentration further enhanced the MR fluid stability. The best result was achieved in case of Aerosil 9782 at 2 % content.Research limitations/implications: MR fluids with excellent properties can be applied in various fields of civil and safety engineering, transportation and life science. However, due to sedimentation, MR fluid response to magnetic field is restricted and in an extreme situation could lead to the fail that is why further efforts must be still made in order to obtain even better results.Originality/value: This article provides set of new data about improvement of MR fluid stability in the presence of selected stabilizers and contains few remarks how the formulation of MR fluid affect its properties.

  19. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  20. Preparation of Graphene Encapsulated Silicon Nanoball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huijin; So, Deasup; Park, Sungjin; Huh, Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Concerning application of graphene, a lot of efforts have been made to improve performance of nanomaterials in many fields, such as electric and electronic devices. Some examples are preparation of 3-dimension structured nanomaterials like nanoballs by CVD process and hybridizing with silicon. These graphene-based materials are proven to be available for secondary battery, EMI and ACF in electronics. Especially, some research has shown that they were very effective to enhance safety and volumetric capacity when they were used as anode materials of secondary battery. Although graphite and its compound with metal have been used as an anode material due to their high stability and reversibility, it still has lower charge capacity. On the contrary, silicon is known as a material which increases the charge capacity up to four times, compared with carbon-based materials, but it has lower stability and reversibility. For that reason, a few researchers just started to improve the charge capacity by hybridization of carbon-based material with silicon. In this paper, we prepared nanocarbon based material which has a new structure of graphene encapsulated silicon nanoball as an anode material which is applicable to high-capacity secondary battery. In order to form a graphene encapsulated silicon nanoballs, the polystyrene encapsulated silicon nanoballs were prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene monomer with silicon nanoparticles. The resulting nanoballs were immersed in iron chloride solution and then dried. Finally they were treated in high temperature through CVD and etched by hydrogen chloride. Morphology of the graphene encapsulated silicon nanoballs was observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and the field emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM) to search for core-shell structured nanoball. Spherical structure of graphene encapsulated silicon nanoball was investigated by the Raman, the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to

  1. Spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2009-02-01

    Simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the determination of four fluoroquinolone (FQ) drugs, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations. Proposed method is based on the derivatization of FQ with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) in borate buffer of pH 9.0 to yield a yellow product. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 23.5-500 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 28.5-700 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 29.5-800 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 33.5-1000 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin using NBD-Cl reagent, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 7.0 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 8.5 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 9.2 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 9.98 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative mean error values at three different concentrations were determined. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. The method is highly sensitive and specific. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the official and reference method. The results presented in this report show that the applied spectrofluorimetric method is acceptable for the determination of the four FQ in the pharmaceutical preparations. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere with the proposed method.

  2. Psychological preparation of competitive judokas - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 18) on psychological preparation of competitive judokas. These studies were grouped according to the type of study performed - observational, experimental, and case studies. In addition, five psychological categories were identified: (a) imagery, (b) motivation, (c) stress, anxiety, and mood states, (d) eating attitudes and weight control, and (e) coach/athlete interactions. The main findings of this review are that (a) there is a lack of data regarding the use of imagery to improve judo performance; (b) goal involvement states of competitive judokas fluctuate and undergo abrupt changes during actual combat, according to the ecological constraints of the situation; (c) cortisol levels and somatic and cognitive anxiety tend to increase prior to and during a judo combat; (d) weight reduction programs that judokas undergo prior to a judo combat can lead to unpleasant moods, and cultural differences can lead to conflicting results; (e) psychological preparation plans should be tailored to each individual judoka, as there can be significant individual differences among the judokas. Based on the findings of our review, a number of research limitations and methodological concerns are discussed. Key PointsThis article reviews a series of studies (n = 18) examining psychological aspects of judokas who compete at the intermediate level, national team level, and international level, and who hold international titles.Weight reduction programs that judokas undergo prior to a judo combat can lead to unpleasant moods.Psychological preparation plans should be tailored to each individual judoka, as there can be significant individual differences among competitive judokas.An effort should be made to conduct experimental-designed studies in order to assess the effectiveness of psychological interventions in judo. PMID:24149140

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, Aqilah; Rachmawati, Heni

    2010-10-01

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In this study, we prepared and characterized calcium carbonate nanoparticle to improve the solubility by using bottom-up method. The experiment was done by titrating calcium chloride with sodium carbonate with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizer, using ultra-turrax. Various concentrations of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate as well as various speed of stirring were used to prepare the calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Evaluations studied were including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and zeta potential with particle analyzer, surface morphology with scanning electron microscope, and saturated solubility. In addition, to test the ability of PVP to prevent particles growth, short stability study was performed by storing nano CaCO3 suspension at room temperature for 2 weeks. Results show that using 8000 rpm speed of stirring, the particle size tends to be bigger with the range of 500-600 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4) whereas with stirring speed of 4000 rpm, the particle size tends to be smaller with 300-400 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). Stirring speed of 6000 rpm produced particle size within the range of 400-500 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). SEM photograph shows that particles are monodisperse confirming that particles were physically stable without any agglomeration within 2 weeks storage. Taken together, nano CaCO3 is successfully prepared by bottom-up method and PVP is a good stabilizer to prevent the particle growth.

  4. Preparation of Impact and Weather Resistant Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Tao

    2001-01-01

    Synthesis method of the resin is that crosslinked polybutyl acrylate latex is used as base latex. Styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) are grafted onto polybutyl acrylate latex particle and turn into core-shell copolymer. The resin is a good resin's impact modifier. There are study of influence regularity about additive emulsifier, initiator, monomer concentration, the ratio of St to AN, chain transfer to graft polymerization. A kind of core-shell resin used as impact modifier is obtained. (A) Preparation of Crosslinked Butyl Acrylate Rubber Latex  ……

  5. Preparation of Impact and Weather Resistant Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Synthesis method of the resin is that crosslinked polybutyl acrylate latex is used as base latex. Styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) are grafted onto polybutyl acrylate latex particle and turn into core-shell copolymer. The resin is a good resin's impact modifier. There are study of influence regularity about additive emulsifier, initiator, monomer concentration, the ratio of St to AN, chain transfer to graft polymerization. A kind of core-shell resin used as impact modifier is obtained. (A) Preparation of Crosslinked Butyl Acrylate Rubber Latex

  6. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Shimogamo Nakaragi-cyo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishima, Yuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Takenaka, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Yonago National College of Technology, 4448, Hikona-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  7. Preparation of Spherical Microfinc Silicon Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Yong; Zou Jun; LI Bing; TU Mingjing

    2008-01-01

    Under certain conditions of proper temperature and pH value,sodium silicate was hydrolyzed in liquid ammonia chloride,and spherical microfine SiO2 powder in micrometer-size was prepared.In this experiment,the relationship between needed time and proper pH value,temperature,density ofthe solution.and its current capacity were found.The optimum conditions are pH 8.5,70℃,and the concentration of sodium silicate is O.6 mol/L for the density ofthe solution.The structure of spherical microfine silicon was charactetized by SEM andXRD.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Acylated Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-chun; LIU Chao; XIN Mei-hua; ZHAO Huang; WANG Min; FENG Zhen; SUN Xiao-li

    2005-01-01

    Fully acylated chitosan and N, N-diacyl chitosan were prepared. The products were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and 1H NMR. The experimental results indicate that the average degree of acylation depends on the volume ratio of pyridine to chloroform in the reaction medium, the chain length of the acylation agent used, and the molecular weight of chitosan raw materials. The XRD measurements were carried out for pure chitosan, fully acylated chitosan and N, N-diacyl chitosan to verify the crystallinity change caused by the acylation.

  9. Preparation and Conductivity of Triheteropoly Tungstozincoaluminic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ternary undecatungstozincoaluminic heteropoly acid H7[Al(H2O)ZnW11O39]·12H2O was prepared by the ion exchanging-cooling method. The optimal proportion of solutions of the component elements and the pH of the synthesis reaction were given. The product was characterized by chemical analysis, potentiometric titration, IR, UV, XRD and TG-DTA. AC impedance measurement results show that its proton conductivity is S/cm at 18℃.

  10. Preparation and characterization of fractal elastomer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yoshimune; Seino, Eri; Abe, Saya; Mayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The elastomer materials with hierarchical structure and suitable wettability are useful as biological surface model. In the present study, urethane resin and silicone resin elastomers with hierarchical rough surfaces were prepared and referred to as "fractal elastomers". We found a hierarchy of small projections that existed over larger ones on these surfaces. These elastomers were synthesized by transferring a fractal surface structure of alkylketene dimer. The rough structure enhanced the hydrophobicity and weakened friction resistance of the elastomer surfaces. These materials can be useful for artificial skin with biomimetic surface properties. PMID:23985488

  11. Preparation of titanium dioxide photocatalytic hollow spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xue-man; XU Ming-xia; HOU Feng; LI Ming-li

    2006-01-01

    With coaxial nozzle system,TiO2 hollow spheres were prepared and the optimum parameters of forming TiO2 hollow spheres were fix on as follows: acrylamide (AM) was used as monomer up to 30.3%,acetone was used as vesicant,the mass fraction of initiator was 0.4%,the forming temperature was in the range from 90 ℃ to 95 ℃. The photocatalistic performance of TiO2 hollow spheres was characterized by degradation of methyl orange. Compared with nano-TiO2 powders,hollow spheres can be recycled after cleanout and drying,taking on similar efficiency of photocatalistic.

  12. Preparation and characterization of nano hydroxyapatite sol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友法; 闫玉华; 任卫; 曹献英; 李世普

    2004-01-01

    Nano hydroxyapatite has special biological effects when it interacts with cells. The method of preparation of nano hydroxyapatite crystals in water and the stability of hydroxyapatite sol are reported. Nanometer sized hydroxyapatite crystals were synthesized by precipitation with monocalcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide. The size of the crystals is 30 - 50 nm as determined by laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The shape of the crystals particles is either sphere or rod-shaped. Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) micro-probe X-ray fluorescence analysis and TEM analysis reveal that hydroxyapatite crystals can pass human liver cancer cell membrane in the form of particles.

  13. Preparation techniques for ceramic waste form powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuels result in a chloride waste salt requiring geologic disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing ceramic waste forms which can incorporate this waste. Currently, zeolite- or sodalite-glass composites are produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. Powder preparations include dehydration of the raw zeolite powders, hot blending of these zeolite powders and secondary additives. Various approaches are being pursued to achieve adequate mixing, and the resulting powders have been HIPed and characterized for leach resistance, phase equilibria, and physical integrity

  14. Preparation of multi-layer laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the preparation of copper- or gold-Formvar-aluminum-Formvar multi-layer laser targets. First, copper or gold is deposited on a piece of glass, then it is covered with the Formvar film. After the copper or gold layer, together with the Formvar film, is stripped off and fitted in, aluminum is deposited. Because the Formvar is vaporized in the vaporizing chamber only once, the obtained multi-layer target is of high quality and meets the requirements for practical use

  15. Preparation of chitosan nanofiber tube by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Kagata, Go; Kino, Rikako; Tanaka, Junzo

    2007-03-01

    Water-insoluble chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes coated with chitosan-cast film were prepared by electrospinning. When as-spun chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes were immersed in 28% ammonium aqueous solution, they became insoluble in water and showed nanofiber structures confirmed by SEM micrography. Mechanical properties of chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes were improved by coating with chitosan-cast film, which gave them a compressive strength higher than that of crab-tendon chitosan, demonstrating that chitosan nanofiber tubes coated with chitosan-cast film are usable as nerve-regenerative guide tubes.

  16. Preparation of tritiated tetracycline and rifampicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [7-3H] tetracycline with a specific activity of 5 Ci/mM was prepared by catalytic dehalogenation of 7-chloro-tetracycline with gaseous tritium. Rifampicine which has a special importance in oncological studies was hydrogenized catalytically with tritium to aive [18,19-dihydro-3H] rifampicine and [16,17,18,19-tetrahydro-3H]rifampicine. The first compound showed a higher biological activity than even the original rifampicine; the specific activity was 16 Ci/mM

  17. Preparing and evaluating delivery systems for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L; Moeller, E H; van de Weert, M;

    2006-01-01

    From a formulation perspective proteins are complex and therefore challenging molecules to develop drug delivery systems for. The success of a formulation depends on the ability of the protein to maintain the native structure and activity during preparation and delivery as well as during shipping...... and long-term storage of the formulation. Therefore, the development and evaluation of successful and promising drug delivery systems is essential. In the present review, some of the particulate drug delivery systems for parenteral delivery of protein are presented and discussed. The challenge...... for incorporation of protein in particulate delivery systems is exemplified by water-in-oil emulsions....

  18. Optimization of STM-tip preparation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Revenikiotis, Sackis (Athanasios)

    2011-01-01

    The Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) was invented by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer and gave them the Nobel Prize in Physics 1986. STM can give us atomic resolution of a surface by applying a voltage between a very sharp tip (STM-tip) and the surface of a material that we want to examine. The STM-tip is moving over the surface and a computer is collecting the tunnel current in every single point to create a digital image. This diploma work is focused on the preparation of the STM-tip. The...

  19. Preparation and analysis of zirconia oxygen sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-an; XIAO Jian-zhong; XIA Feng

    2006-01-01

    Thimble zirconia oxygen sensors were prepared with yttria stabilized zirconia(YSZ). The surfaces of the electrode,electrolyte and their interface were observed by scanning electron microscope(SEM). The sensor was examined with engine bench test to evaluate the essential performance. The results show that the oxygen sensor has good performance,which can meet the demand of practical applications. Chemical equilibrium theory was introduced to explain electromotive force of the sensors and the influence of temperature on the signals. The educed theoretical model of electromotive force agrees well with testing results.

  20. Preparing Teachers for Anti-oppressive Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baber, Sikunder Ali

    2004-01-01

    While theories and recommendations continue to proliferate in the educational research literature on what it means to teach towards social justice and to prepare teachers for such teaching, so do concerns that these theories and recommendations fail to account for the ways that the contexts...... of teaching cultural contexts, national contexts, political contexts always affect teaching in idiosyncratic, unpredictable and even contradictory ways. Given that much educational research fails to trouble the US-centric nature of prevailing conceptions of social justice and teacher education...

  1. Modelling preparation and consumption of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Arno; Nauta, Maarten; Evers, Eric;

    types of pork are considered: minced meat, pork cuts and dry cured sausages. This particular choice was made because each product represents a clear distinct hazard. Pork cuts are usually cooked well, but there is a chance of cross contamination during cutting and handling of the meat. Minced meat...... is thoroughly mixed, and Salmonellae may be present in the interior of hamburger patties, undercooking may occur, and Salmonellae may survive. Dry cured sausages, including all variations therein like chorizo, salami, etc., are eaten uncooked. Food preparation habits are highly variable and accurate data...

  2. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  3. DNA-Templated Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Byung Wook Jo; Jeong Sun Sohn; Jung Il Jin; Young Wan Kwon

    2011-01-01

    DNA-mediated gold nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction of DNA-Au(III) complex. The DNA-Au(III) was first formed by reacting DNA with HAuCl4 at a pH of 5.6. The complex in solution was reacted with hydrazine reducing Au(III) to Au. The reduced Au formed nanodimensional aggregates. The particle distributions were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This method resulted in a rather uniform dispersion of Au nanoparticles of near-...

  4. Preparation of thoria calcia solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental procedures for the preparation of thoria-calcia solid electrolytes are described. Cold-pressed specimens pre-sintered at 14000C and sintered at 20000C have been used for thermally stimulated depolarization currents measurements in the temperature range 100 K - 300 K as well as for ionic conductivity measurements in the temperature range RT - 900 K. The detection of a relaxation peak probably due to the reorientation of the Ca'' sub(Th) - V sup(..) sub(O) complex shows that solid solution has been attained. Preliminary results of electrical conductivity are also reported. (Author)

  5. Preparation and measurement in quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, James L.; Band, William

    1992-05-01

    To honor Henry Margenau on the occasion of his 90th birthday, we attempt in this essay to integrate certain aspects of the physics, philosophy, and pedagogy of quantum mechanics in a manner very much inspired by Margenau's idealist scientific epistemology. Over half a century ago, Margenau was perhaps the first philosopher of science to recognize and elaborate upon the essential distinction between the preparation of a quantum state and the measurement of an observable associated with a system in that state; yet in contemporary quantum texts that distinction rarely receives adequate emphasis even though, as we demonstrate, it may be explicated through a series of simple illustrations.

  6. Method to prepare nanoparticles on porous mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth, Gabriel M [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-10

    A method to prepare porous medium decorated with nanoparticles involves contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a porous medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.

  7. Preparation of some new coumarin dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Series of coumarins containing heterocyclic substituent in 3-position were prepared.Sulfonyl chloride, a reactive group, was drawn into the heterocycle, and further condensed withamines to give series of new compounds that contain N-alkyl sulfamide. The spectral propertiesand dyeing character of these new dyes are discussed. A bathochromic shift (10 nm), enhancedfastness in light and sublimation (1-2 grade) and larger molar extinction coefficient (increase 104L ·mol-1 ·cm-1) are apparent with these new compounds. In the meantime, larger solubility appearswith these new compounds.

  8. Preparation and Properties of Polyaniline Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-hua

    2002-01-01

    Polyaniline (PAn) was synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization. The conductive polymer doped by camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) and a matrix polymer,polyamide- 66, polyamide - 1010 or polyamide- 11, were dissolved in m-cresol and the blend solution was cast in a glass and dried for preparing polyaniline composite films.Conductivity was from 10 -6 to 10 0Ω-1·cm-1 with different weight fraction of PAn-CSA. The crystallizttion of the films was studied by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The treatment of the composite films in different pH value solution would result in decrease of conductivity, especially in an alkaline solution.

  9. Silica Microcapsules Prepared by Interfacial Reaction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M; Fujiwara; K; Shiokawa; Y; Nakahara

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Silica spherical particles with hollow structure are directly prepared by interfacial reaction methods using W/O/W emulsion (schematic diagram in Fig.1)[1].Fig.1 Silica microcapsule formationThe mixing of W/O emulsion consisting of sodium silicate solution (inner water phase) and n-hexane solution (oil phase) to outer water phase dissolving NH4HCO3 or other salts affords silica microcapsules.The critical feature of this method is the direct formation of hollow structure.Therefore,the core com...

  10. Conductive ceramic composition and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

    1991-04-16

    A ceramic anode composition is formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The anode is prepared as a non-stoichiometric crystalline structure by reaction and conditioning in a hydrogen gas cover containing minor proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The structure exhibits a single phase and substantially enhanced electrical conductivity over that of the corresponding stoichiometric structure. Unexpectedly, such oxides and oxygenates are found to be stable in the reducing anode fuel gas of a molten carbonate fuel cell. 4 figures.

  11. Preparation of nuclear materials for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of highly radioactive and irradiated nuclear fuels and materials for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is conjoined with a set of unique challenges, including but not limited to personnel radiation exposure and contamination. The paper evaluates three specimen preparation techniques for preparation of irradiated materials and determines which technique yields to the most reliable characterization of radiation damage microstructure. Various specimen preparation artifacts associated with each technique are considered and ways of minimizing these artifacts are delineated.

  12. Evolution of Hydrogen Storage Alloys Prepared by Special Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hong; Zhang Ximin; Jing Hai; Li Chengdong; Xu Jun

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure characteristics and electrochemical properties of hydrogen storage alloys prepared by gas atomization, melt spinning and strip casting respectively were outlined.The advantages, disadvantages and research development of the above methods for preparing hydrogen storage alloys were explained.The strip casting is a new special means for preparing AB5 rare earth hydrogen storage alloys of high performance and low cost, and the study of the strip casting for preparing hydrogen storage alloys is presented specially.

  13. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  14. Teachers' Preparation Needs for Integrating Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Barcus C.

    2013-01-01

    School districts across the country are charged with preparing the next generation for competing in a global economy and have spent billions of dollars on technology acquisition and Internet use. However, teachers do not feel prepared to integrate technology in the classroom. To prepare teachers for technology integration, the most common approach…

  15. Preparation and Photocatalytic Characterization of Nanoporous TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nanoporous TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by use of controlled drying method with surfactants. The surface area and porous properties are dependent on the chain length of incorporated surfactant cation. The TiO2 materials prepared in the presence of surfactant molecules during the gel formation exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than that prepared in the absence of surfactants.

  16. Conceptualizing the System of Preparing Future Pedagogues for Innovation Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yurii S. Tyunnikov

    2015-01-01

    Overcoming existing difficulties in the preparation of future pedagogues for innovation activity is associated, among other things, with the issue of conceptualizing it. This article provides a conceptual rationale for preparation for innovation activity. The author describes the preparation as an integral system, defines its educational priorities, functional/role characteristics, educational resources and ways of distributing them, and project scopes for educational technology.

  17. 75 FR 14539 - Furnishing Identifying Number of Tax Return Preparer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI28 Furnishing Identifying Number of Tax Return Preparer... guidance to tax return preparers on furnishing an identifying number on tax returns and claims for refund of tax that they prepare. These proposed regulations provide guidance on the identifying number of...

  18. Preparing for Remarriage: Anticipating the Issues, Seeking Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1989-01-01

    Examined the ways remarried adults with children prepared for remarriage. Asked 100 men and 105 women about their methods of preparing, pre-remarriage concerns, and issues discussed prior to marriage. Primary way subjects prepared for remarriage was by cohabitation. Living together appeared to be more effective for men than for women. (Author/NB)

  19. Preparing Inner-City Adolescents to Transition into High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri L.

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article investigated how academic preparation, career development skills, parental assistance, and social/environmental barriers predicted inner-city adolescents' psychological preparation to transition into high school. Results showed that academic preparation, parents' instrumental assistance, adolescents' career development…

  20. Cultural Competence Development in Health Education Professional Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquis, Raffy; Perez, Miguel; Young, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    To date few studies have been conducted to assess the preparation of health educators in the area of cultural sensitivity and competence. The purpose of this study was to assess efforts and opportunities offered by health education professional preparation programs to prepare health educators in the area of cultural competence. One hundred…

  1. Predicting Marital Success with PREPARE: A Predictive Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowers, Blaine J.; Olson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    Assessed the utility of the premarital inventory, PREPARE, in predicting marital success. Conducted a three-year follow-up study with couples (N=164) who took PREPARE during their engagement. Found that the PREPARE scores from three months before marriage could predict with 80-90% accuracy which couples were separated and divorced from those that…

  2. Encouraging Autonomy and Preparing for IELTS: Mutually Exclusive Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Lennard, Siri

    1997-01-01

    Suggests foreign students in Australia may not be getting preparation needed to integrate successfully into university study. Research is reviewed that indicates these students not only need help preparing for the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) but also with learning at an Australian university. Academic preparation courses…

  3. The contribution of coal preparation to the South African economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsfall, D.

    1991-01-01

    Coal preparation is particularly significant in South Africa, as the coal reserves are, by world standards, of low quality. Without coal preparation, South Africa could not compete on world export markets. The technology used to achieve this competitiveness is briefly described; its introduction and development in South Africa are chronicled and certain major uses stressed. Finally, the future considerable applications of preparation are outlined.

  4. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenaga, Katia K F G; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of bowel contents during surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only. OBJECTIVES: To dete......BACKGROUND: The presence of bowel contents during surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only. OBJECTIVES......: To determine the security and effectiveness of MBP on morbidity and mortality in colorectal surgery. SEARCH STRATEGY: Publications describing trials of MBP before elective colorectal surgery were sought through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and The Cochrane Library; by handsearching relevant medical...... journals and conference proceedings, and through personal communication with colleagues.Searches were performed March 13, 2008. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including participants submitted for elective colorectal surgery. Eligible interventions included any type of MBP compared...

  5. Preparation of biomimetic photoresponsive polymer springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Villemin, Elise; Lancia, Federico; Aβhoff, Sarah-Jane; Fletcher, Stephen P; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Polymer springs that twist under irradiation with light, in a manner that mimics how plant tendrils twist and turn under the effect of differential expansion in different sections of the plant, show potential for soft robotics and the development of artificial muscles. The soft springs prepared using this protocol are typically 1 mm wide, 50 μm thick and up to 10 cm long. They are made from liquid crystal polymer networks in which an azobenzene derivative is introduced covalently as a molecular photo-switch. The polymer network is prepared by irradiation of a twist cell filled with a mixture of shape-persistent liquid crystals, liquid crystals having reactive end groups, molecular photo-switches, some chiral dopant and a small amount of photoinitiator. After postcuring, the soft polymer film is removed and cut into springs, the geometry of which is determined by the angle of cut. The material composing the springs is characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile strength measurements. The springs operate at ambient temperature, by mimicking the orthogonal contraction mechanism that is at the origin of plant coiling. They shape-shift under irradiation with UV light and can be pre-programmed to either wind or unwind, as encoded in their geometry. Once illumination is stopped, the springs return to their initial shape. Irradiation with visible light accelerates the shape reversion. PMID:27583641

  6. Preparation of nanoporous titania spherical nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kota; Sato, Soh; Matsushita, Takayuki; Ogawa, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    Preparation of nanoporous titania particles from well-defined titania-octadecylamine (titania-ODA) hybrid spherical particles with 450 nm in size, which were prepared by the method reported previously (Chem. Commun., 2009, pp. 6851-6853 [39]; RSC Adv., 2012, vol. 2, pp. 1343-1349 [40]), was studied. ODA was removed by solvent extraction with acidic ethanol to obtain nanoporous titania particles and subsequent calcination led to the formation of nanoporous titania particles with the nanopore size ranging from 2 to 4 nm depending on the calcination temperature. The as-synthesized titania was amorphous and was transformed into anatase (at around 300 °C) and rutile (at around 600 °C) by the heat treatment. The phase transition behavior was discussed in comparison with that of as-synthesized titania-ODA particles without ODA removal. Spherical particles of titania-ODA hybrids with 70 nm in size were also transformed into nanoporous titania particles composed of anatase crystallites by the washing and calcination at 500 °C for 1 h.

  7. Long-acting preparations of exenatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Y

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yunpeng Cai,1,2,* Liangming Wei,3,* Liuqing Ma,2 Xiwen Huang,2 Anqi Tao,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan1,2 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai JiaoTong University, 3Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology, Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nanometer Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Exenatide has been widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, its short plasma half-life of 2.4 hours has limited its clinical application. The exenatide products on the market, twice-daily Byetta™ and once-weekly Bydureon™ (both Amylin Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA, USA, are still not perfect. Many researchers have attempted to prolong the acting time of exenatide by preparing sustained-release dosage forms, modifying its structure, gene therapies, and other means. This review summarizes recent advances in long-acting exenatide preparations. Keywords: exendin-4, diabetes mellitus type 2, sustained release, long acting, extended release, microsphere

  8. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  9. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl alcohol microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres, having a size range of ∼150- to 250-μm diameter with 1- to 5-μm wall thickness, have been fabricated using a solution droplet technique. The spheres were developed for possible use on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. PVA, a polymer chosen based on earlier survey work carried out at KMS Fusion, Inc., has good strength, low hydrogen permeability, is optically transparent, and water soluble. The latter property makes it safe and easy to use in our droplet generator system. A unique dual-orifice droplet generator was used to prepare the spheres. The droplet generator operating conditions and the column processing parameters were chosen using results from our 1-D model calculations as a guide. The polymer microsphere model is an extension of the model we developed to support the glass sphere production. After preparation, the spheres were physically characterized for surface quality, sphericity, wall thickness (and uniformity), and size. We also determined the buckling pressure for both uncoated and CH-coated spheres. Radiation stability to beta decay (from tritium) was evaluated by exposing the spheres to a 7-keV electron beam. The results from these and other physical property measurements are presented in this report

  10. Ultrasonic Abrasion: An Alternative for Cavity Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Simone Barrôso VIEIRA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Restorative dentistry aims to repair damages caused by caries disease. Along the years, researchers have developed effective and less invasive methods with the goal of preserving the teeth from caries destruction. Therefore, the improvement of scientific knowledge, auxiliary diagnostic systems, dental materials, and new instruments has changed the approaches and treatments in this field. In addition to conservative removal of carious tissue, patient’s comfort has also become a concern in modern dentistry.Purpose: Considering that ultrasonic abrasion has attracted great interest of dental professionals, this article discusses an alternative technique for cavity preparation by literature review, addressing its indications, contra-indications, advantages and limitations compared to the conventional high-speed method.Conclusion: There are not many studies on this subject. The available studies have demonstrated several qualities of the ultrasonic abrasion system, but some aspects remain unclear. Therefore, it is important to highlight that laboratorial and clinical studies in primary/permanent teeth should be conducted to elucidate questionable issues, such as time of cavity preparation, topography, presence of smear layer and microleakage, in order to offer safety to the extensive use of this new technology for both the professional and the patient. In this context, the dentist should always be attentive to innovations referring to minimally invasive techniques.

  11. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1983-08-23

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO films with two-dimensional structure were successfully prepared via the modified Hummer method. It is proven that redox method is a promising way to synthesize GO films on a large scale. Comprehensive characterizations of the properties of GO films were conducted. TEM and DFM analyses showed that GO sheets prepared in this study had single and double lamellar layer structure and a thickness of 2~3 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD was selected to measure the crystal structure of GO sheet. Fourier-transform infrared spectra analyzer (FT-IR was used to certify the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups in GO films. The tests of UV-VIS spectrometer and TGA analyzer indicated that GO sheet possessed excellent optical response and outstanding thermal stability. Elemental analyzer (EA and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS analyzed the components synthetic material. Simultaneously, chemical structure of GO sheet was described in this study. Discussion and references for further research on graphene are provided.

  13. Preparation of the magnet sub-assemblies

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: On a rotation bench, preparation of the lower half-yoke with the bus bars and the pre-curved shell. The components are put on a dummy half-yoke in view of being rotated upside down. Photo 02: On a rotation bench, preparation of the lower half-yoke with the bus bars and the pre-curved shell. The components are put on a dummy half-yoke in view of being rotated upside down. Photo 03: The half-yoke assembly is made of short packs that are assembled together and locked with 15-m long tie-rods on a dedicated bench. Photo 04: The collared-coils assembly is equipped with magnetic inserts and special shims on a rotation bench in view of its installation in the yoke, operation that is called "yoking". At that stage of the assembly, the collared-coils assembly is equipped with the end plates and the electrical connections between the poles and between dipole I and dipoe II are made.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Phycobiliprotein Mcirocapsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycobiliprotein is a kind of bioactive material that is widely used in the fields of food and medicine. However, the usage of phycobiliprotein is limited by its instability. In this study, we firstly developed a kind of phycobiliprotein microcapsulate by chitosan-sodiumalginate encapsulation method. The preparation conditions, stability and controlled release of phycobiliprotein microcapsule were studied and discussed. The results showed that the optimal conditions for preparing the microcapsulates were 3% sodium alginate, 3% CaCl2 and 0.5% chitosan. After encapsulation, the stabilities of phycobiliprotein to heat, acidity and radiation were greatly improved. Phycobiliprotein in microcapsulate was 5-10 times more endurable than in water solution when heated and 7 times when radiated. Stability under acidity was also improved greatly. It was also found that phycobiliprotein microcapsulate had good stability in the mimic gastric juice and had 90% release rate in the mimic intestinal juice. This suggests that phycobiliprotein microcapsulate can have controlled release and dissolution in intestine.

  15. GES [Ground Engineering System] test site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities are under way at Hanford to convert the 309 containment building and its associated service wing to a nuclear test facility for the Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Conceptual design is about 80% complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system, a test article cell and handing system, control and data handling systems, and safety andl auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 25% complete. Cleanout of some 1000 m3 of equipment from the earlier reactor test in the facility is 85% complete. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and revised to incorporate Department of Energy (DOE) comments. It is now in the DOE approval chain, where a Finding of No Significant Impact is expected. During the next year, definite design will be well advanced, long-lead procurements will be initiated, construction planning will be completed, an operator training plan will be prepared, and the site (preliminary) safety analysis report will be drafted

  16. Preparation and Properties of Cornstarch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cornstarch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cornstarch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cornstarch adhesives increased and then decreased with the increasing of temperature and the maximum value was obtained at 10oC; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared wither cornstarch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cornstarch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF COMPETITIVE JUDOKAS - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ziv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 18 on psychological preparation of competitive judokas. These studies were grouped according to the type of study performed - observational, experimental, and case studies. In addition, five psychological categories were identified: (a imagery, (b motivation, (c stress, anxiety, and mood states, (d eating attitudes and weight control, and (e coach/athlete interactions. The main findings of this review are that (a there is a lack of data regarding the use of imagery to improve judo performance; (b goal involvement states of competitive judokas fluctuate and undergo abrupt changes during actual combat, according to the ecological constraints of the situation; (c cortisol levels and somatic and cognitive anxiety tend to increase prior to and during a judo combat; (d weight reduction programs that judokas undergo prior to a judo combat can lead to unpleasant moods, and cultural differences can lead to conflicting results; (e psychological preparation plans should be tailored to each individual judoka, as there can be significant individual differences among the judokas. Based on the findings of our review, a number of research limitations and methodological concerns are discussed

  18. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion;

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early...... in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose...... of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low...

  19. Polymorphic Variants of LIGHT (TNF Superfamily-14) Alter Receptor Avidity and Bioavailability1

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Timothy C.; Coppieters, Ken; Sanjo, Hideki; Oborne, Lisa M.; Norris, Paula S.; Coddington, Amy; Granger, Steven W.; Elewaut, Dirk; Ware, Carl F.

    2010-01-01

    The TNF superfamily member, LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a key cytokine that activates T cells and dendritic cells, and is implicated as a mediator of inflammatory, metabolic and malignant diseases. LIGHT engages the Lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) and herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM, TNFRSF14), but is competitively limited in activating these receptors by soluble decoy receptor-3 (DcR3, TNFRSF6B). Two variants in the human LIGHT alter the protein at E214K (rs344560) in the receptor-binding domain and S...

  20. Utility of Antibody Avidity for Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Potency and Immunogenicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in sub-Saharan Afr...

  1. The involvement of donor specific CTL in cardiac transplant rejection: relevance of avidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.E.M. van Emmerik (Nancy)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWhen a micro-organism penetrates the body, defensive mechanisms of the non-specific innate immune system come into play, such as soluble chemical factors (bactericidal lysozyme, acute phase proteins, interferons), extracellular killing (NK cells, eosinophils), and phagocytosis (macrophag

  2. Public T cell receptors confer high-avidity CD4 responses to HIV controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Daniela; Galperin, Moran; Lambotte, Olivier; Gras, Stéphanie; Lim, Annick; Mukhopadhyay, Madhura; Nouël, Alexandre; Campbell, Kristy-Anne; Lemercier, Brigitte; Claireaux, Mathieu; Hendou, Samia; Lechat, Pierre; de Truchis, Pierre; Boufassa, Faroudy; Rossjohn, Jamie; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Chakrabarti, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    The rare patients who are able to spontaneously control HIV replication in the absence of therapy show signs of a particularly efficient cellular immune response. To identify the molecular determinants that underlie this response, we characterized the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire directed at Gag293, the most immunoprevalent CD4 epitope in the HIV-1 capsid. HIV controllers from the ANRS CODEX cohort showed a highly skewed TCR repertoire that was characterized by a predominance of TRAV24 and TRBV2 variable genes, shared CDR3 motifs, and a high frequency of public clonotypes. The most prevalent public clonotypes generated TCRs with affinities at the higher end of values reported for naturally occurring TCRs. The high-affinity Gag293-specific TCRs were cross-restricted by up to 5 distinct HLA-DR alleles, accounting for the expression of these TCRs in HIV controllers of diverse genetic backgrounds. Transfer of these TCRs to healthy donor CD4+ T cells conferred high antigen sensitivity and polyfunctionality, thus recapitulating key features of the controller CD4 response. Transfer of a high-affinity Gag293-specific TCR also redirected CD8+ T cells to target HIV-1 capsid via nonconventional MHC II restriction. Together, these findings indicate that TCR clonotypes with superior functions are associated with HIV control. Amplification or transfer of such clonotypes may contribute to immunotherapeutic approaches aiming at a functional HIV cure. PMID:27111229

  3. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  4. Failing to Prepare is Preparing to Fail: The Known, The Known Unknown, and The Unknown Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Curtis G

    2016-01-01

    Cardiothoracic surgery residents often enter their training with fairly limited prior exposure to the field. Obviously, they need to master the essential knowledge and skills of the discipline during their training. In addition to following a didactic curriculum of one sort or another, much of the necessary knowledge and understanding will accrue from their experiences caring for and operating on the patients who will be under their auspices, not only during their formal training but also after they finish their training.  Some of these cases and situations, such as elective cases, allow for careful preparation, while some more urgent or emergent cases require generic, advance preparation in order to be ready to perform optimally in these cases when they arise. And then there will always be cases for which one will not be able to prepare in any meaningful way, and these types of cases will require creativity and innovation "on the fly."  I will describe three cases, which are examples of each of these situations, with suggestions on how to handle each type of situation optimally. I will describe the preparation, such as it was for each, in some detail to help the reader understand how it felt to deal with each of these cases. The technical details of each of these cases resulted in a publication, which will be cited in the references, should the reader want to learn more about them. PMID:27355144

  5. Pathways for Preparation: Locating Suicide Education in Preparing Professionals for Encounters with Suicidal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranahan, Patti

    2013-01-01

    Current suicide prevention strategies often include suicide education based on the premise that education can lead to recognition of those at risk of suicide and others who are prepared can respond and potentially save lives. As suicide is a leading cause of death for young people, it is relevant to explore how suicide education is made available…

  6. The Abacus: Teachers' Preparation and Beliefs about Their Abacus Preservice Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Hong, Sunggye; Amato, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article reports on a study of 196 teachers who shared their experiences and opinions related to how they were taught to use the Cranmer abacus. Methods: In February and March 2012, the participants completed an online survey to gather information about their preparation in using and beliefs about computation with the Cranmer…

  7. Preparing the Workforce: Early Childhood Teacher Preparation at 2- and 4-year Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Diane M.; Winton, Pamela J.

    2001-01-01

    Details investigation of characteristics of early childhood teacher preparation programs at 2- and 4-year institutions through a survey of program chairs or directors. Presents findings on faculty characteristics, including racial makeup; course and practica requirements; comparisons between early childhood programs and the institutions as whole…

  8. Preparing Scientists to be Community Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Many students, especially students from historically under-represented communities, leave science majors or avoid choosing them because scientific careers do not offer enough opportunity to contribute to their communities. Citizen science, or public participation in scientific research, may address these challenges. At its most collaborative, it means inviting communities to partner in every step of the scientific process from defining the research question to applying the results to community priorities. In addition to attracting and retaining students, this level of community engagement will help diversify science, ensure the use and usability of our science, help buttress public support of science, and encourage the application of scientific results to policy. It also offers opportunities to tackle scientific questions that can't be accomplished in other way and it is demonstrably effective at helping people learn scientific concepts and methods. In order to learn how to prepare scientists for this kind of intensive community collaboration, we examined several case studies, including a project on disease and public health in Africa and the professionally evaluated experience of two summer interns in Southern Louisiana. In these and other cases, we learned that scientific expertise in a discipline has to be accompanied by a reservoir of humility and respect for other ways of knowing, the ability to work collaboratively with a broad range of disciplines and people, patience and enough career stability to allow that patience, and a willingness to adapt research to a broader set of scientific and non-scientific priorities. To help students achieve this, we found that direct instruction in participatory methods, mentoring by community members and scientists with participatory experience, in-depth training on scientific ethics and communication, explicit articulation of the goal of working with communities, and ample opportunity for personal reflection were essential

  9. Preparation of PFS coagulant by sectionalized reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The oxidation rate of ferrous sulfate is investigated for the preparation of polyferric sulfate(PFS) coagulant.It is proved that this reaction is zero order with respect to Fe2 +,first order with respect to NO2 (g),and first order with respect to the interface area between gas phase and liquid phase.According to this mechanism,sectionalized reactor(SR) is used in place of traditional reactor(TR),and the liquid of reaction mixture is recycled by pump.As a result,not only the flow path of reaction liquid is prolonged,but also gas-liquid contact area enlarged,and the reaction distinctly accelerated,compared with traditional reactor.The effects of parameters including temperature,acidity and others on the reaction rate are also discussed.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of cilnidipine microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemal Tandel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilnidipine, a calcium channel blocker having neuroprotective action and BCS Class II drug, hence formulating in Microemulsion will increase solubility, absorption and bioavailability. The formulation was prepared using titration method by tocotrienol, tween 20 and transcutol HP as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant and characterized for dilutability, dye solubility, assay (98.39±0.06, pH (6.6±1.5, Viscosity (98±1.0 cps and Conductivity (0.2±0.09 μS/cm. The formulation was optimized on basis of percentage transmittance (99.269±0.23 at 700 nm, Globule size (13.31±4.3 nm and zeta potential (-11.4±2.3 mV. Cilnidipine microemulsion was found to be stable for 3 months.

  11. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous indium oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-zhe; CHENG Zhi-xuan; PAN Qing-yi; DONG Xiao-wen; ZHANG Jian-cheng; PAN Ling-li

    2009-01-01

    Indium oxide nanocrystals with mesoporous structure were successfully synthesized by using triblock copolymer as a template,and characterized by thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC),X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and N2 adsorption.A high EO/PO ratio is thought to be the key point to prepare mesoporous In2O3.The results show that the average pore diameter of the products is 6 nm,the BET surface area is 54.78 m2/g,and the adsorbing pore volume is 0.345 cm3/g.After comparing with normal indium oxide nanoparticles by BET test,mesoporous indium oxide demonstrates a large difference in adsorbing pore volume and average pore diameters from normal ones.

  12. Electrospinning preparation and characterization of polyoxometalate fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol)/K7[SiW11O39Co(H3P2- O7)] hybrid fine fiber mats (PVA/SiW11Co-P2O7) were prepared through electrospinning technique. After calcinations of PVA/SiW11Co-P2O7 at 500℃ for 8 h, pure SiW11Co-P2O7 fine fibers were obtained with the Keggin structure keeping unchanged. The fiber mats were characterized by IR, ESR, PXRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The average diameter of the fibers is about 250 nm. The SiW11Co- P2O7 fibers showed color change when absorbing and desorbing moisture.

  13. Preparation of Metallic Isotope 26Mg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXiaolei; ZhangFuming; GanZaiguo; GuoJunsheng; QinZhi

    2003-01-01

    Some special isotope material is usually used in nuclear experiments. It can be served as ion beam or target. When new superheavy nuclide 265Bh (Z=107) is synthesized, a reaction of 243Am target with 26Mg ion beamis selected to produce new isotope 265Bh. The preparation and production of this rare and extremely expensive isotope 26 Mg used for ion beam substance will be a key problem in synthesizing experiment of 265Bh. Theavailable chemical form of isotope 26Mg in commercial product usually is oxide or other compound, which are not required in our experiment. They need to be transformed to metal form as a proper working substance in ion source.

  14. [Correct preparation of a transfusion: Part 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, E; Henschler, R

    2014-09-01

    The administration of blood products is strictly regulated. Several weeks before the operation the preparation for transfusion begins with optimizing the patient's hematological and hemostaseological situation. In elective surgery blood group testing and antibody screening are performed soon after admission of the patient. The identification of the blood sample is important. Informed consent of the recipient has to be obtained. On the day before the operation a further blood sample is necessary for cross-matching if red blood cells are to be transfused. Usually blood products are issued for immediate administration. Before transfusion begins the blood product has to be checked, the identity of the patient must be controlled and in the case of red blood cell transfusions the AB0 bedside test has to be performed. PMID:25085082

  15. Preparation and Standardization of Polyherbomineral Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Reena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports preparation and standardization of a herbomineral formulation which contains Zingiber officinalis (rhizome, Piper longum (fruit, Piper nigrum (fruit, Emblica officinalis (fruit,seed, Terminalia chebula (mature fruit, Terminalia belerica (pericarp of ripe fruit, Piper retrofractum (stem, Coriander sativum (fruit, Cuminum cyminum (fruit, Mercury, sulphur, loh bhasam, abharak bhasam. This Ayurvedic formulation is used to treat cold and cough. Here we discussed and focused about Morphology, Microscopy, Total ash, Acid insoluble ash, Water soluble and Alcohol soluble extractive value, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index, Hausner ratio, phytochemical tests, and Thin layer chromatography (TLC etc. These parameters are required for authentication of any herbal drug and its Herbo-mineral formulation.

  16. Technological Optimization of the Preparation of Imidacloprid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻建平; 王长林

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce the production cost of imidacloprid, the preparation technology for the direct combination of 2-chloro-5-chloromethylpyridine and 2-nitryliminoglyoxaline has been optimized in a 10L stirred tank reactor with a new solvent, butanone, and a new catalyst, benzyl triethyl-ammonium chloride (BTEAC), which was proved to be more profitable for the production of imidacloprid. Three main affecting factors (the reaction temperature, the molar ratio of BTEAC to 2-nitryliminoglyoxaline and the concentration of 2-nitryliminoglyoxaline) for the production of imidacloprid were investigated and the optimum operating conditions were found. Based on the above technological optimization, an industrial process for imidacloprid with a production capacity of 50 tons per year was put in operation using a 2500 L stirred tank reactor under the same operating conditions. Good yield and purity of imidacloprid was also obtained ia the industrial production.

  17. Preparation of nickel nanoparticles in emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-xian; FU Wen-jie; AN Xue-qin

    2008-01-01

    The nickel nanoparticles with different sizes and spherical shape were prepared by the reduction of nickel sulfate with sodium borohydride in the water-in-oil emulsions of water/SDBS(sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate)/n-pentanol/n-heptane. The effects of aging time, molar ratio of water to SDBS(R) and the concentration of nickel sulfate on the size of particles were studied. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry(ICP). The results show that the average particle size changes from 20 to 40 nm by adjusting aging time (15-30 min) and R (9-11.5). The concentration of nickel sulfate of 1.0 mol/L is the favorite condition.

  18. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  19. Radiation curable resistant coatings and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prepolymer containing unsaturated hydrocarbon groups is prepared and mixed on a roller mill with one or more acrylic ester monomers and various additives to make a coating formulation of a desired viscosity. In general, low viscosity formulations are used for overprint varnishes, on paper or foil, or with pigments, for certain types of printing inks. Higher viscosity formulations are used to apply thick films on panels, tiles, or other bodies. Thin films are cured to hardness by brief exposure to ultraviolet light. Thicker films require more energetic radiation such as plasma arc and electron beam radiation. The prepolymers particularly useful for making such radiation curable coatings are the reaction products of polyether polyols and bis- or polyisocyanates and hydroxy alkenes or acrylic (or methacrylic) hydroxy esters, and, likewise, reactive polyamides modified with dicarboxy alkenes, their anhydrides or esters. A small amount of wax incorporated in the coating formulations results in coatings with release characteristics similar to those of PTFE coatings. 10 claims

  20. Preparation and properties of montmorillonite modified asphalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modified asphalts were prepared by melt blending with different contents of montmorillonite (MMT) and organomodified montmorillonite (OMMT). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the MMT modified asphalt may form an intercalated structure, whereas the OMMT modified asphalt may form an exfoliated structure. The addition of MMT and OMMT to asphalt increases both the softening point and viscosity of the modified asphalts at high temperatures. Furthermore, the modified asphalts exhibited higher complex modulus, lower phase angle. As a consequence, the MMT and OMMT modified asphalts displays enhanced viscoelastic properties, which improve its resistance to rutting at high temperatures. Compared with MMT, OMMT showed better effect in improving softening point and rutting resistance of asphalt, which contributes to the formation of exfoliated structure in OMMT modified asphalt. Storage stability tests disclose that the asphalts modified with MMT or OMMT are very stable when montmorillonite content is less than 3 wt%