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Sample records for avid radioprobes preparation

  1. Mitochondrial avid radioprobes. Preparation and evaluation of 7'(Z)-[125I]iodorotenone and 7'(Z)-[125I]iodorotenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The loss of mitochondrial function has been implicated in a number of maladies such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), cancer and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this research was to develop a radiolabeled mitochondrial probe. Two tracers, 7'-Z-iodorotenol and 7'-Z-iodorotenone, analogs of rotenone a natural product that inhibits Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, have been labeled with iodine-125 in 45-85% yield in a single step from the corresponding tributylstannyl precursor. In vivo distribution in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats for both compounds showed high accumulation in the heart (1.7-3.7 %ID/g at 1 h), a tissue with high mitochondrial content. Z-Iodorotenol did not washout of most tissues between 1 and 2 h postinjection, whereas Z-iodorotenone showed moderate washout (7-26%) over the same period. By 24 h, there was significant loss of both compounds from most tissues including the heart. Heart-to-blood, -lung and -liver ratios for Z-iodorotenone of 28.9, 10.7 and 2.4, respectively, were two- to fourfold higher than the Z-iodorotenol ratios. Compared to the current clinical perfusion tracers, 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin, Z-iodorotenone demonstrates similar 1 h heart accumulation and significantly higher heart-to-lung ratio (P99mTc-sestamibi. 7'-Z-Iodorotenone possesses distribution characteristics of an improved tracer for SPECT perfusion studies

  2. Mitochondrial avid radioprobes. Preparation and evaluation of 7'(Z)-[{sup 125}I]iodorotenone and 7'(Z)-[{sup 125}I]iodorotenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Brocklin, Henry F. [Department of Functional Imaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: hfvanbrocklin@lbl.gov; Hanrahan, Stephen M. [Department of Functional Imaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Enas, Joel D. [Department of Functional Imaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nandanan, Erathodiyil [Department of Functional Imaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); O' Neil, James P. [Department of Functional Imaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The loss of mitochondrial function has been implicated in a number of maladies such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), cancer and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this research was to develop a radiolabeled mitochondrial probe. Two tracers, 7'-Z-iodorotenol and 7'-Z-iodorotenone, analogs of rotenone a natural product that inhibits Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, have been labeled with iodine-125 in 45-85% yield in a single step from the corresponding tributylstannyl precursor. In vivo distribution in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats for both compounds showed high accumulation in the heart (1.7-3.7 %ID/g at 1 h), a tissue with high mitochondrial content. Z-Iodorotenol did not washout of most tissues between 1 and 2 h postinjection, whereas Z-iodorotenone showed moderate washout (7-26%) over the same period. By 24 h, there was significant loss of both compounds from most tissues including the heart. Heart-to-blood, -lung and -liver ratios for Z-iodorotenone of 28.9, 10.7 and 2.4, respectively, were two- to fourfold higher than the Z-iodorotenol ratios. Compared to the current clinical perfusion tracers, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin, Z-iodorotenone demonstrates similar 1 h heart accumulation and significantly higher heart-to-lung ratio (P<.001). Z-Iodorotenone heart-to-liver ratio is equivalent to {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi. 7'-Z-Iodorotenone possesses distribution characteristics of an improved tracer for SPECT perfusion studies.

  3. Distributed leadership practice and the AVID site team as a leadership practice community to prepare all students for college readiness and success in a global society : a multiple case study

    OpenAIRE

    Laughlin, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this descriptive, multiple case study was to examine the leadership practices of the Advancement Via Individual Determination, or AVID site team at three secondary school sites as it performed the work of fulfilling the mission of AVID to prepare all students for college readiness and success in a global society. Three highly distinguished AVID schools were selected to participate in the study. Qualitative data were gathered via one-on-one interviews with four key site ...

  4. Improved assay for surface hydrophobic avidity of Candida albicans cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, K C; LeMelle, W G

    1990-01-01

    A simple method that distinguishes among hydrophobic avidity levels of highly hydrophobic isolates of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is described. This method involves mixing polystyrene microspheres at different concentrations with a constant concentration of yeast cells and plotting the data in accordance with the Langmuir isotherm equation. A 10-fold difference between the C. albicans isolates with the lowest and highest avidity (KH) values was found. This method may also demonstra...

  5. A quantitative comparative analysis of Advancement via Independent Determination (AVID) in Texas middle schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Krystal Astra

    The "Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) program was designed to provide resources and strategies that enable underrepresented minority students to attend 4-year colleges" (AVID Center, 2013, p. 2). These students are characterized as the forgotten middle in that they have high test scores, average-to-low grades, minority or low socioeconomic status, and will be first-generation college students (AVID, 2011). Research indicates (Huerta, Watt, & Butcher, 2013) that strict adherence to 11 program components supports success of students enrolled in AVID, and AVID certification depends on districts following those components. Several studies (AVID Center, 2013) have investigated claims about the AVID program through qualitative analyses; however, very few have addressed this program quantitatively. This researcher sought to determine whether differences existed between student achievement and attendance rates between AVID and non-AVID middle schools. To achieve this goal, the researcher compared eighth-grade science and seventh- and eighth-grade mathematics scores from the 2007 to 2011 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and overall attendance rates in demographically equivalent AVID and non-AVID middle schools. Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) reports from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) were used to obtain 2007 to 2011 TAKS results and attendance information for the selected schools. The results indicated a statistically significant difference between AVID demonstration students and non-AVID students in schools with similar CI. No statistically significant differences were found on any component of the TAKS for AVID economically disadvantaged students. The mean scores indicated an achievement gap between non-AVID and AVID demonstration middle schools. The findings from the other three research questions indicated no statistically significant differences between AVID and non-AVID student passing rates on the seventh- and eighth

  6. Avidity of anti-P aeruginosa antibodies during chronic infection in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Petersen, T D; Jensen, P;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to study the impact on the lung function of patients with cystic fibrosis of the avidity of antipseudomonal antibodies, the avidity of antibodies against the chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) and against the 60-65 kDa heat shock protein of P...... function the avidity of a beta ab was higher than in patients with poor lung function (p = 0.018). No significant difference in the avidity of the anti-GroEL antibodies was observed between the two groups of patients. CONCLUSION: In patients with cystic fibrosis a high avidity of a beta ab could contribute...

  7. AVID: An integrative framework for discovering functional relationships among proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keating Amy E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the functions of uncharacterized proteins is one of the most pressing problems in the post-genomic era. Large scale protein-protein interaction assays, global mRNA expression analyses and systematic protein localization studies provide experimental information that can be used for this purpose. The data from such experiments contain many false positives and false negatives, but can be processed using computational methods to provide reliable information about protein-protein relationships and protein function. An outstanding and important goal is to predict detailed functional annotation for all uncharacterized proteins that is reliable enough to effectively guide experiments. Results We present AVID, a computational method that uses a multi-stage learning framework to integrate experimental results with sequence information, generating networks reflecting functional similarities among proteins. We illustrate use of the networks by making predictions of detailed Gene Ontology (GO annotations in three categories: molecular function, biological process, and cellular component. Applied to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AVID provides 37,451 pair-wise functional linkages between 4,191 proteins. These relationships are ~65–78% accurate, as assessed by cross-validation testing. Assignments of highly detailed functional descriptors to proteins, based on the networks, are estimated to be ~67% accurate for GO categories describing molecular function and cellular component and ~52% accurate for terms describing biological process. The predictions cover 1,490 proteins with no previous annotation in GO and also assign more detailed functions to many proteins annotated only with less descriptive terms. Predictions made by AVID are largely distinct from those made by other methods. Out of 37,451 predicted pair-wise relationships, the greatest number shared in common with another method is 3,413. Conclusion AVID provides

  8. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test

  9. A New Method with General Diagnostic Utility for the Calculation of Immunoglobulin G Avidity

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Maria H.; Brunstein, John; Haario, Heikki; Katnikov, Alexei; Rescaldani, Roberto; Hedman, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    The reference method for immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity determination includes reagent-consuming serum titration. Aiming at better IgG avidity diagnostics, we applied a logistic model for the reproduction of antibody titration curves. This method was tested with well-characterized serum panels for cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, rubella virus, parvovirus B19, and Toxoplasma gondii. This approach for IgG avidity calculation is generally applicable and attains t...

  10. T cell avidity and tumor recognition: implications and therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszkowski Jeffrey J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last two decades, great advances have been made studying the immune response to human tumors. The identification of protein antigens from cancer cells and better techniques for eliciting antigen specific T cell responses in vitro and in vivo have led to improved understanding of tumor recognition by T cells. Yet, much remains to be learned about the intricate details of T cell – tumor cell interactions. Though the strength of interaction between T cell and target is thought to be a key factor influencing the T cell response, investigations of T cell avidity, T cell receptor (TCR affinity for peptide-MHC complex, and the recognition of peptide on antigen presenting targets or tumor cells reveal complex relationships. Coincident with these investigations, therapeutic strategies have been developed to enhance tumor recognition using antigens with altered peptide structures and T cells modified by the introduction of new antigen binding receptor molecules. The profound effects of these strategies on T cell – tumor interactions and the clinical implications of these effects are of interest to both scientists and clinicians. In recent years, the focus of much of our work has been the avidity and effector characteristics of tumor reactive T cells. Here we review concepts and current results in the field, and the implications of therapeutic strategies using altered antigens and altered effector T cells.

  11. Listening to Students: Examining Underlying Mechanisms That Contribute to the AVID Program's Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Jasmín D.; López, Susana A.; Quirk, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine the effects of the Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) program from the student perspective, specifically focusing on factors associated with student resilience. The AVID program aims to close the achievement gap among predominantly minority and low-income students without a family…

  12. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion;

    2012-01-01

    transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM...

  13. Short Communication: Persistence of HIV Antibody Avidity in the Presence of Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kelly A; Price, Krystin Ambrose; Niedzwiedz, Philip; Masciotra, Silvina; Owen, Michele

    2016-06-01

    The effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the performance of HIV incidence assays have been well documented. To improve upon current assay approaches or focus the development of future assays, studies are needed to characterize the effects of ART on all candidate HIV incidence assays. In this study, we compared the performance of three antibody avidity-based HIV incidence assays, the Limiting Antigen (LAg), Bio-Rad Avidity, and HIV-1 Multiplex assays, using a well-defined cohort of recent HIV-1 seroconverters composed of ART-naive HIV-1-infected individuals and those who received ART early or delayed in the course of infection. Differences in the performance of all three avidity-based incidence assays were noted with study subjects who received ART. The LAg assay and Multiplex total antibody measurements (nMFI) exhibited similar kinetics in reactivity, as these assays tended to fluctuate with changes in viral load. In the early ART group, all seven subjects remained recent by both assays at time points >1 year postseroconversion, and assay values declined dramatically postdelayed ART initiation. In contrast, the two-well, antibody-dissociation avidity assays, Bio-Rad Avidity and Multiplex avidity index (AI) measurements, continued to mature in the early ART group, although blunted relative to the ART-naive group, and assay values remained stable after delayed ART initiation. In summary, although the HIV incidence assays evaluated in this study are all designed to measure antibody avidity, each assay is affected differently by ART-induced virus suppression, presumably because of the distinct assay formats and procedures for measuring avidity. PMID:26887862

  14. AVIDITY EVALUATION OF LOCAL IgA ANTIBODIES IN PERSONS IMMUNIZED WITH LIVE INFLUENZA VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Donina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. At present, immunogenicity evaluation of influenza vaccines is performed by quantitative assessment of increased serum antibodies. It was, however, shown that the degree of human defense against influenza is mostly related to their qualitative characteristics, i.e., avidity (functional activity. Leading role of local immunity is demonstrated in protection against influenza. Such immunity is mediated by IgA antibodies from mucosal airways. Meanwhile, the avidity issues for local antibodies still remain open.In present study, an attempt was undertaken to evaluate post-vaccination local immunological memory for influenza A virus, according to IgA antibodies from upper respiratory secretions. Two techniques were used to evaluate antibody avidity, that were previously applied for studying this phenomenon with serum imunoglobulins, i.e., a dynamic test (measurement of antigen-antibody reaction rates, and a test with urea, a chaotropic agent (avidity is determined as a strength of antigen-antibody complex. A total of 202 persons (18 to 20 years old were enrolled into the study.With both tests, a broad range of individual avidity values was observed for the antibodies. A significant cohort (up to 30 per cent of persons immunized with live influenza vaccine, showed sharply increased avidity of secretory IgA antibodies by both methods, along with accumulation of these immunoglobulins after vaccination. A reverse relationship is revealed between avidity levels of these antibodies before vaccination, and increase of this parameter post-immunization. The data present convincing arguments for specific renewal of local humoral immunological memory, as induced by live influenza vaccine. The study substantiates a necessity for application of the both tests in parallel, when determining avidity of secretory IgA antibodies. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 423-430.

  15. Avidity of Antibodies against HSV-2 and Risk to Neonatal Transmission among Mexican Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Herrera-Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine HSV-2 seroprevalence, risk factors, and antibody avidity among a sample of Mexican pregnant women. Material and Methods. The avidity test was standardized with different urea concentrations and incubation times; the cut-off point was calculated to determine the low avidity (early infection. IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected from pregnant and postpartum women from Morelos, Mexico, and the avidity test was performed to positive samples. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was employed to evaluate demographic and sexual behavior characteristics associated with HSV-2 infection. Results. HSV-2 seroprevalence among Mexican women analyzed was 14.5% (333/2300, demographic factors (location of General Hospital, age, education level, and civil status, and risky sexual behaviors (STI self-report and number of sexual partners during last year were associated with HSV-2 infection. Seventeen women were detected with low avidity antibodies (early infection with a cut-off point of 66.1%. Conclusions. HSV-2 infection was common among this group of women from Mexico; the avidity test detected women with recent infections, and these women were more likely to transmit HSV-2 to their neonates. Neonatal herpes has no epidemiological surveillance, the disease could be overlooked, and so more studies are needed to estimate the magnitude of neonatal infection.

  16. Generation of polyclonal antibody with high avidity to rosuvastatin and its use in development of highly sensitive ELISA for determination of rosuvastatin in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Malaq Hamoud A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a polyclonal antibody with high avidity and specificity to the potent hypocholesterolaemic agent rosuvastatin (ROS has been prepared and used in the development of highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for determination of ROS in plasma. ROS was coupled to keyhole limpt hemocyanin (KLH and bovine serum albumin (BSA using carbodiimide reagent. ROS-KLH conjugate was used for immunization of female 8-weeks old New Zealand white rabbits. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct ELISA using ROS-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and avidity to ROS was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by avidity chromatography on protein A column. The purified antibody showed high avidity to ROS; IC50 = 0.4 ng/ml. The specificity of the antibody for ROS was evaluated by indirect ELISA using various competitors from the ROS-structural analogues and the therapeutic agents used with ROS in a combination therapy. The proposed ELISA involved a competitive binding reaction between ROS, in plasma sample, and the immobilized ROS-BSA for the binding sites on a limited amount of the anti-ROS antibody. The bound anti-ROS antibody was quantified with horseradish peroxidase-labeled second anti-rabbit IgG antibody (HRP-IgG and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB as a substrate for the peroxidase enzyme. The concentration of ROS in the sample was quantified by its ability to inhibit the binding of the anti-ROS antibody to the immobilized ROS-BSA and subsequently the color intensity in the assay wells. The assay enabled the determination of ROS in plasma at concentrations as low as 40 pg/ml.

  17. Low avidity IgG antibodies in diagnosis of recent human schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Nahed E; Awad, Adel; Shalaby, Mohsen

    2002-12-01

    One hundred thirty school children from a schistosomiasis endemic area in Sharkia Governorate, were selected on parasitological findings. Seventy persons were negative on the first screen and turned positive after 3 months of the screening (recently infected). Stool examination, ELISA (IgG & IgM), low avid IgG, and circulating antigens were performed for all patients and controls. ELISA detected IgM in all cases. IgG and circulating antigens in 90% of schistosomiasis patients. Low avidity IgG were detected in 85.71% of recent cases. The specificity of ELISA appeared to be >99%. The IgM/IgG ratio was >1 in patients with recent infection. The percentage of fall of O.D. readings of IgG after addition of 6 molar urea was high among cases with recent infection. Low avid lgG appears to be good and valuable in diagnosis of recent schistosomiasis in man. PMID:12512829

  18. The avidity of PR3-ANCA in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis during follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemna, M J; Schlumberger, W; van Paassen, P; Dähnrich, C; Damoiseaux, J G M C; Cohen Tervaert, J W

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether the avidity of proteinase-3-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (PR3-ANCA) changes during follow-up in different subgroups of patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We selected 10 patients with renal relapsing GPA, 10 patients with renal non-relapsing GPA and 10 patients with non-renal relapsing GPA. In all patients, an ANCA rise occurred during remission. The avidity was measured using a chaotropic approach at the time of an ANCA rise and at the time of a relapse in relapsing patients or time-matched during remission in non-relapsing patients. No difference was observed in the avidity at the ANCA rise between renal relapsing patients [26·2% (15·5-47·5)], renal patients without a relapse [39·6% (21·2-63·4)] and non-renal relapsing patients [34·2% (21·6-59·5)]. In renal relapsing patients, the avidity increased significantly from the moment of the ANCA rise to the relapse [difference 6·4% (0·0-17·1), P = 0·0273]. The avidity did not increase after an ANCA rise in renal non-relapsing patients [difference 3·5 (-6·0 to 10·1), P = 0·6250] or in non-renal relapsing patients [difference -3·1% (-8·0 to 5·0), P = 0·5703]. The avidity of PR3-ANCA increases after an ANCA rise during follow-up in renal relapsing patients, but not after an ANCA rise in renal patients who remain in remission or in non-renal relapsing patients. PMID:27009928

  19. Schwannoma Showing Avid Uptake on 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthan, Gowri L; Izard, Michael A; Emmett, Louise; Hsiao, Edward; Schembri, Geoffrey Paul

    2016-09-01

    Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT is a relatively new and highly sensitive imaging modality used in staging metastatic prostate cancer. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with newly diagnosed prostate carcinoma who had a PSMA PET/CT scan for staging of his disease. A PSMA-avid right pelvic mass was identified anterior to the sacrum. Surgical removal and histopathological examination of this lesion revealed the diagnosis of schwannoma. It is important to be aware that schwannoma may also show avid uptake on PSMA PET/CT scan and may potentially lead to an incorrect diagnosis of metastatic prostate carcinoma. PMID:27405039

  20. Who Is the Avid Adolescent Reader in Taiwan? The Role of Gender, Family, and Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Yen

    2008-01-01

    While studies of reluctant adolescent readers generally focus on "what is not working" and suggest having instructional practices more responsive to students' needs, this study on avid secondary school readers centers its attention on "what might have been working" and provides empirical support for the importance of the influence of parents and…

  1. Clinical Evaluation of a Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for Determination of Immunoglobulin G Avidity to Human Cytomegalovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Grazia Revello, Maria; Gorini, Giovanna; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of a novel fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for determination of immunoglobulin G avidity to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) showed 92.8% sensitivity and 84.7% specificity in detecting a recent (≤90 days) primary HCMV infection. The assay appears useful for accurately diagnosing recent primary HCMV infections.

  2. Avidity-dependent programming of autoreactive T cells in T1D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Durinovic-Belló

    Full Text Available Fate determination for autoreactive T cells relies on a series of avidity-dependent interactions during T cell selection, represented by two general types of signals, one based on antigen expression and density during T cell development, and one based on genes that interpret the avidity of TCR interaction to guide developmental outcome. We used proinsulin-specific HLA class II tetramers to purify and determine transcriptional signatures for autoreactive T cells under differential selection in type 1 diabetes (T1D, in which insulin (INS genotypes consist of protective and susceptible alleles that regulate the level of proinsulin expression in the thymus. Upregulation of steroid nuclear receptor family 4A (NR4A and early growth response family genes in proinsulin-specific T cells was observed in individuals with susceptible INS-VNTR genotypes, suggesting a mechanism for avidity-dependent fate determination of the T cell repertoire in T1D. The NR4A genes act as translators of TCR signal strength that guide central and peripheral T cell fate decisions through transcriptional modification. We propose that maintenance of an NR4A-guided program in low avidity autoreactive T cells in T1D reflects their prior developmental experience influenced by proinsulin expression, identifying a pathway permissive for autoimmunity.

  3. IgG avidity antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in high risk females of reproductive age group in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Naushaba; Shujatullah, Fatima; Khan, Haris M; Rabbani, Tamkin; Khan, Parvez A

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that is distributed worldwide. Recently, several tests for avidity of Toxoplasma IgG antibodies have been introduced to help discriminate between recently acquired and distant infections. The study was conducted in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, India from February 2011 to September 2012. Serum specimens were subjected to Toxoplasma IgM ELISA and IgG avidity ELISA test. Out of 48 patients with abortions, 17 (35.4%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 8 (16.6%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Out of 48 patients with other obstetric problems, 23 (47.9%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 17 (35.4%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Combining both groups on avidity test, only 25 of 40 (62.5%) IgM-positive women had low-avidity IgG antibodies suggesting a recent T. gondii infection in these women. More importantly, 15 (37.5%) of the IgM-positive women had high-avidity antibodies suggesting that the infection was acquired before gestation The relation of IgM seropositivity with the following risk factors was not found to be statistically significant; contact with cats (0.13), non-vegetarian food habits (0.05), and low socio-economic status (0.49). While, for IgG avidity ELISA, only contact with cats (0.01) was significantly associated with seropositivity. All other risk factors have P-values of >0.05 (not significant). IgG avidity test when used in combination with IgM test was a valuable assay for diagnosis of ongoing or recently acquired T. gondii infection in India. PMID:25352696

  4. Evaluation of the Toxoplasma gondii IgG Avidity request and results in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Güngör

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii with various clinical outcomes. Serological tests determining IgG and IgM produced against T. gondii are widely used for laboratory diagnosis of the infection. IgG avidity test identifying the infection initiation in diagnosis is required when specific IgM antibodies are not able to be detected in early period of infection, IgM antibodies in patients with reactivation are not increased or especially in pregnant with IgM positivity. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate avidity test results and to determine the algorithmic place of this test in T. gondii infection. Methods: In this study, avidity test results requested from all of the clinics and services from serology laboratory in 1 January 2013-31 December 2013 were included. Totally, 84 anti-T. gondii IgG avidity was requested. The avidity value was researched by ELISA method using anti-T. gondii IgG avidity kit in patients included in this study. Anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibody tests were performed by ELISA method using commercial kit. Results: 61, 13 and 2 requests were evaluated as high avidity 72.6%, low avidity 15.5% and intermediate value 2.4%, respectively, while 8 requests were unnecessary. Conclusion: It was concluded that primarily anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM tests should be performed in suspicious cases in terms of toxoplasmosis and the IgG avidity tests should be requested from only suitable cases after the evaluation of the test results according to clinic table of the patients and/or the week of pregnancy. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 246-249

  5. The relationship between human T-lymphocyte subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies and by avidity differences to sheep erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Heron, I

    1982-01-01

    By E-rosette sedimentation procedures and fluorescence activated cell sorting of monoclonal antibody-coated T lymphocytes, we have investigated the relationship between the human T lymphocyte subsets defined by the monoclonal antibodies against the T4 and T8 antigens and those defined by avidity...... differences to sheep erythrocytes. Through a correlation was demonstrated between the T4+ (inducer) cells and the high avidity ("active") T cells and between the T8+ (suppressor) cells and low avidity T cells, these subsets were far from identical, and it is concluded that the application of monoclonal...

  6. FDG avidity and PET/CT patterns in primary gastric lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radan, Lea [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Fischer, Doron [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Haifa (Israel); Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Israel, Ora [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rambam Health Care Campus and R. and B. Rappaport School of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Dann, Eldad J. [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Hematology, Rambam Health Care Campus, and R. and B. Rappaport School of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Epelbaum, Ron; Haim, Nissim [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Oncology, Rambam Health Care Campus, and R. and B. Rappaport School of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Gaitini, Diana [Rambam Health Care Campus, and R. and B. Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Haifa (Israel)

    2008-08-15

    The use of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) is challenging due to physiologic FDG activity in the stomach and variability in the degree of uptake in various histologic subtypes. This study assesses FDG avidity and PET/CT patterns in newly diagnosed PGL. Sixty-two PET/CT studies of newly diagnosed PGL were reviewed (24 low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT], 38 aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [AGNHL]). FDG avidity, patterns (focal/diffuse), and intensity (visually vs. the liver and SUVmax) were assessed and compared to 27 controls. Gastric CT abnormalities and extragastric sites were recorded. Gastric FDG uptake was found in 55/62 (89%) PGL (71% MALT vs. 100% AGNHL, p < 0.001) and 63% controls. A diffuse pattern was found in 60% PGL (76% MALT vs. 53% AGNHL, p = NS) and 47% controls. FDG uptake higher than liver was found in 82% PGL (58% MALT vs. 97% AGNHL, p < 0.05) and 63% controls. SUVmax in FDG-avid PGLs was 15.3 {+-} 11.7 (5.4 {+-} 2.9 MALT vs. 19.7 {+-} 11.5 AGNHL, p < 0.001) and 4.6 {+-} 1.4 in controls. CT abnormalities were found in 79% PGL (thickening, n = 49; ulcerations, n = 22). Extra-gastric FDG-avid sites were seen in none of MALT, but 61% of AGNHL (nodal, n = 18; nodal and extranodal, n = 5). FDG avidity was present in 89% of PGLs, including all patients with AGNHL but only 71% of MALT. FDG uptake can be differentiated, in particular in AGNHL-PGL, from physiologic tracer activity by intensity but not by pattern. Extragastric foci on PET and structural CT abnormalities are additional parameters that can improve PET/CT assessment of PGL. Defining FDG avidity and PET/CT patterns in AGNHL and a subgroup of MALT-PGL before treatment may be important for further monitoring therapy response. (orig.)

  7. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion; Smith, Joseph D; Pagano, Ian S; Ako, Simon; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM(-)) at delivery. Results showed that PM(-) women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047) and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009) than PM(+) women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI) and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9) and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0) reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria. PMID:22761948

  8. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Lo Tutterrow

    Full Text Available VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4SCN was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+ and those without (PM(- at delivery. Results showed that PM(- women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047 and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009 than PM(+ women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9 and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0 reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria.

  9. The effects of supramolecular network topology on hapten-receptor avidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoski, Jason; Mason, Andrew; La Favors, Jill; Wolfe, Joshua

    2009-03-01

    Antibodies produced in the early stages of the immune response have much lower affinities for a given antigen than those produced later on. Nature compensates for the initial weakness of these associative bonds by synthesizing multivalent antibodies. The total binding strength, represented by the avidity constant, is equal to the product of the affinity constants for the individual hapten/receptor sites. However, under realistic conditions the individual binding sites do not act independently. Factors such as steric hindrance, intramolecular stresses, and competitive binding can significantly alter the relationship between affinity and avidity. We investigate the influence of these factors on a model system consisting of synthetic multifunctional nanoparticles and polymers. Each polymer or nanoparticle is decorated with either multiple antigens (thromboxane B2) or multiple antibodies. We then measure the association and dissociation in real time using Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrometry (SPR). By using synthetic polymers and nanoparticles, we are able to systematically control the degree of functionality, flexibility, and distance between receptor and hapten sites.

  10. METASTATIC RADIOIODINE AVID STRUMA OVARII ASSOCIATED WITH PSEUDO-MEIGS' SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Saima; Bashir, Humayun; Hassan, Aamna; Syed, Aamir Ali; Hussain, Mudassar; Imtiaz, Saba

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of 21 years old lady who presented with ascites, left adnexal mass and elevated CA-125. With suspicion of ovarian malignancy, she underwent left salpingo-oophorectomy with omental biopsy. Histopathology revealed: 'follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii' with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in omental and peritoneal nodules. Patient underwent total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine therapy for metastatic omental and peritoneal disease. Post-therapy whole body scan, revealed extensive I-131 avid disease metastatic disease involving the chest, abdomen, pelvis and the musculoskeletal system. Patient was treated with multiple doses of high dose radioactive iodine. She became symptom free on supra-physiologic doses of oral thyroxin however her high thyroglobulin levels and residual radioiodine avid metastatic disease required further treatment. In literature a few cases of struma ovarii have been reported with elevated CA-125 and associated pseudo-Meigs' syndrome. The treatment for this rare disease is still not standardized and poses a therapeutic challenge. Our case emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach for managing struma ovarii. PMID:26721055

  11. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-08-01

    Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis.Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites.The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016).FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs. PMID:27512840

  12. Cytomegalovirus IgG Level and Avidity in Breastfeeding Infants of HIV-Infected Mothers in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Jeffrey; Chang, Tiffany S.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Amin, Minal M.; Ellington, Sascha; Kayira, Dumbani; van der Horst, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common among infants of HIV-infected mothers in resource-limited settings. We examined the prevalence and timing of infant CMV infection during the first year of life using IgG antibody and avidity among HIV-exposed infants in Malawi and correlated the results with the presence of detectable CMV DNA in the blood. The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study randomized 2,369 mothers and their infants to maternal antiretrovirals, infant nevirapine, or neither for 28 weeks of breastfeeding, followed by weaning. Stored plasma specimens were tested for CMV IgG and antibody avidity from a random subset of infants who had been previously tested with blood CMV PCR and had available specimens at birth and at 24 and 48 weeks of age. Ninety-four of 127 infants (74.0%) tested at 24 weeks of age had CMV IgG of low or intermediate avidity, signifying primary CMV infections. An additional 22 infants (17.3%) had IgG of high avidity; 19 of them had CMV DNA detected in their blood, indicating infant infections. Taken together, these results show that the estimated prevalence of CMV infection at 24 weeks was 88.9%. By 48 weeks of age, 81.3% of infants had anti-CMV IgG; most of them (70.9%) had IgG of high avidity. The CMV serology and avidity testing, combined with the PCR results, confirmed a high rate of primary CMV infection by 6 months of life among breastfeeding infants of HIV-infected mothers. The CMV PCR in blood detected most, but not all, infant CMV infections. PMID:26424831

  13. The Impact of Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) Professional Development on Teacher Perceptions of School Culture and Climate in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery; Mills, Shirley J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines relationships between Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) implementation and school culture and climate and between AVID professional development and teachers' perceptions of whether AVIDhas had an impact on their schools' culture and climate. More than 3,100 teachers attending professional development workshops…

  14. 18F-NaF Positive Bone Metastases of Non 18F-FDG Avid Mucinous Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Çiğdem Soydal; Elgin Özkan; Özlem Nuriye Küçük

    2015-01-01

    Detection of gastric cancer bone metastasis is crucial since its presence is an independent prognostic factor. In this case report, we would like to present 18F-NaF positive bone metastases of non 18F-FDG avid gastric mucinous cancer.

  15. Follicular Lymphoma Showing Avid Uptake on 68Ga PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthan, Gowri L; Coyle, Luke; Kneebone, Andrew; Schembri, Geoffrey Paul; Hsiao, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT is a new imaging technique that is significantly more sensitive to prostate cancer lesions than other conventional imaging modalities. Various other benign and malignant neoplasms may also express PSMA and show uptake on PSMA PET/CT scan. We report a case of 66-year-old man who had a PSMA PET/CT scan for restaging of prostate carcinoma. A PSMA-avid left femoral lymph node was identified. Subsequent biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of follicular lymphoma. It is important to be aware of this possibility to avoid scan misinterpretation. Biopsy of any atypical or clinically unexpected lesions should be considered. PMID:26914565

  16. Characterization of Tumor-Avid Antibody Fragments Genetically Engineered for Mono-Specific Radionuclide Chelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful clinical application of targeted-radiopharmaceuticals depends on the development of molecules that optimize tumor specific radionuclide deposition and minimize non-specific organ irradiation. To this end, this proposal outlines a research effort to identify and evaluate novel antibodies and antibody fragments that bind breast tumors. The tumor-avid antibodies will be investigated for as imaging and therapeutic agents and to gain a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of radiolabeled tumor-avid antibody fragments through the use of site-specifically labeled molecules. Antibodies or antibody fragments, that bind breast carcinoma carbohydrate antigens, will be obtained from hybridoma or bacteriophage library screening. More specifically, antibody fragments that bind the carcinoma-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen will be radiolabeled with 99mTc and 188Re at a natural amino acid chelation site and will be investigated in vivo for their abilities to target human breast tumors. In addition, site-specific radiolabeled antibody fragments will be biosynthesized using misacylated suppressor tRNAs. Homogeneously radiolabeled populations of antibody fragments will be used to investigate the effects of radionuclide location and chelation chemistries on their biodistribution and metabolism. It is hypothesized that site-specifically radiolabeled antibody fragments will possess enhanced tumor imaging and therapeutic properties due to optimal label location and conjugation chemistries. New insights into the factors that govern antibody metabolism in vivo are also expected from this work. Results from these studies should enhance our ability to design and synthesize radiolabeled antibody fragments that have improved pharmacokinetic properties. The studies in this proposal involve basic research into the development of antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals, with the ultimate goal of application in humans. This type of basic nuclear

  17. Characterization of Tumor-Avid Antibody Fragments Genetically Engineered for Mono-Specific Radionuclide Chelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, T.P.

    2003-12-31

    The successful clinical application of targeted-radiopharmaceuticals depends on the development of molecules that optimize tumor specific radionuclide deposition and minimize non-specific organ irradiation. To this end, this proposal outlines a research effort to identify and evaluate novel antibodies and antibody fragments that bind breast tumors. The tumor-avid antibodies will be investigated for as imaging and therapeutic agents and to gain a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of radiolabeled tumor-avid antibody fragments through the use of site-specifically labeled molecules. Antibodies or antibody fragments, that bind breast carcinoma carbohydrate antigens, will be obtained from hybridoma or bacteriophage library screening. More specifically, antibody fragments that bind the carcinoma-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen will be radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re at a natural amino acid chelation site and will be investigated in vivo for their abilities to target human breast tumors. In addition, site-specific radiolabeled antibody fragments will be biosynthesized using misacylated suppressor tRNAs. Homogeneously radiolabeled populations of antibody fragments will be used to investigate the effects of radionuclide location and chelation chemistries on their biodistribution and metabolism. It is hypothesized that site-specifically radiolabeled antibody fragments will possess enhanced tumor imaging and therapeutic properties due to optimal label location and conjugation chemistries. New insights into the factors that govern antibody metabolism in vivo are also expected from this work. Results from these studies should enhance our ability to design and synthesize radiolabeled antibody fragments that have improved pharmacokinetic properties. The studies in this proposal involve basic research into the development of antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals, with the ultimate goal of application in humans. This type of basic

  18. Rubella Antibody Avidity Among Rubella Seropositive Women Attending a Tertiary Care Facility in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherifat Tinuke Suleiman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus antibodies among women of reproductive age group and assess risk factors to rubella infection. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among 285 women aged between 15 and 49 years. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method was used to detect and quantify human immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies with avidity for rubella virus in sera of participants. Socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, along with recent and previous history of fever and rash among others were obtained using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using the program statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 16. Results: Seroprevalence of rubella IgG among women of reproductive age in Ilorin was 92.3% (95% CI: 89.2%-95.4%. Thus susceptibility rate to rubella infection was 7.7%. Majority (87.1% of the IgG seropositive participants had high rubella IgG avidity, implying past rubella infection or re-infections. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among participants from lower educational and socio-economic classes compared with other participants (P=0.035 & 0.023 respectively. There was a negative correlation between age and rubella specific IgG titer (p=0.000. Thus rubella specific IgG titer decreases with increasing age. Conclusion: there is need for vaccination of susceptible women of reproductive age in Ilorin as the rubella susceptibility rate was higher than the 5.0% target set by the World Health Organization (WHO for prevention of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS.

  19. A Miniaturized Glycan Microarray Assay for Assessing Avidity and Specificity of Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C; de Vries, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinins recognize sialic acids on the cell surface as functional receptors to gain entry into cells. Wild waterfowl are the natural reservoir for IAV, but IAV can cross the species barrier to poultry, swine, horses and humans. Avian viruses recognize sialic acid attached to a penultimate galactose by a α2-3 linkage (avian-type receptors) whereas human viruses preferentially recognize sialic acid with a α2-6 linkage (human-type receptors). To monitor if avian viruses are adapting to human type receptors, several methods can be used. Glycan microarrays with diverse libraries of synthetic sialosides are increasingly used to evaluate receptor specificity. However, this technique is not used for measuring avidities. Measurement of avidity is typically achieved by evaluating the binding of serially diluted hemagglutinin or virus to glycans adsorbed to conventional polypropylene 96-well plates. In this assay, glycans with α2-3 or α2-6 sialic acids are coupled to biotin and adsorbed to streptavidin plates, or are coupled to polyacrylamide (PAA) which directly adsorb to the plastic. We have significantly miniaturized this assay by directly printing PAA-linked sialosides and their non PAA-linked counterparts on micro-well glass slides. This set-up, with 48 arrays on a single slide, enables simultaneous assays of 6 glycan binding proteins at 8 dilutions, interrogating 6 different glycans, including two non-sialylated controls. This is equivalent to 18x 96-well plates in the traditional plate assay. The glycan array format decreases consumption of compounds and biologicals and thus greatly enhances efficiency. PMID:27284789

  20. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment

  1. Comparison of immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoglobulin G avidity techniques for screening of anti: Toxoplasma antibodies among single serum sample pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Rajaii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital toxoplasmosis is that pregnant women acquire the infection during gestation; diagnosis of the acute infection during pregnancy is a complex subject of maternal toxoplasmosis. Thus, the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG and/or IgM Toxoplasma antibodies in a single serum sample drawn during gestation cannot be used to define whether the infection was recently acquired or chronic. Materials and Methods: At this cross-sectional descriptive study, sera of 391 pregnant women examined and compared. They were in an age range of 21-35 years, referred by gynecologists and infectious disease specialists, during March 2012-April 2013. They have referred, 215 (54.98%, 102 (26%, 74 (18.92% in the first, second and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. For each of them, a questionnaire was completed and serum samples were prepared in an equal condition, examined according to the procedures of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and IgG Avidity techniques. Results: We have found 111 (28.38% seronegative and 280 (71.61% seropositive cases by IIF and 124 (31.70% seronegative, 267 (68.28% seropositive cases by ELISA. The IgG avidity test confirmed 45 (69.23% and 7 (10.76% doubtful cases of IgM test in IIF and ELISA techniques. Conclusions: This study highlights how to manage pregnant women with toxoplasmosis, especially in a single serum sample condition.

  2. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined

  3. FDG-avid portal vein tumor thrombosis from hepatocellular carcinoma in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Canh Nguyen; Huy Nguyen; Tan Ngo; Simone Maurea

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In this study, we aimed to describe the characteristics of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT), complicating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. Methods: In this retrospective study, 9 HCC patients with FDG-avid PVTT were diagnosed by contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT), which is a combination of dynamic liver CT scan, multiphase imaging, and whole-body PET sca...

  4. Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome is an Avid and Persistent Sodium-Retaining State

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Vitorio; Alexandre Toledo Maciel

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is triggered by many conditions in the intensive care unit, including different types of circulatory shock. One under-recognized characteristic of the SIRS-induced AKI is its avidity for sodium retention, with progressive decreases in urinary sodium concentration (NaU) and its fractional excretion (FENa). This phenomenon occurs in parallel with increases in serum creatinine, being...

  5. Regulatory and Helper Follicular T Cells and Antibody Avidity to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Glycoprotein 120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Matthew J; Zhong-Min, Ma; Caccuri, Francesca; McKinnon, Katherine; Schifanella, Luca; Guan, Yongjun; Gorini, Giacomo; Venzon, David; Fenizia, Claudio; Binello, Nicolò; Gordon, Shari N; Miller, Christopher J; Franchini, Genoveffa; Vaccari, Monica

    2015-10-01

    T follicular regulatory cells (TFR) are a suppressive CD4(+) T cell subset that migrates to germinal centers (GC) during Ag presentation by upregulating the chemokine receptor CXCR5. In the GC, TFR control T follicular helper cell (TFH) expansion and modulate the development of high-affinity Ag-specific responses. In this study, we identified and characterized TFR as CXCR5(+)CCR7(-) "follicular" T regulatory cells in lymphoid tissues of healthy rhesus macaques, and we studied their dynamics throughout infection in a well-defined animal model of HIV pathogenesis. TFR were infected by SIVmac251 and had comparable levels of SIV DNA to CXCR5(-)CCR7(+) "T zone" T regulatory cells and TFH. Contrary to the SIV-associated TFH expansion in the chronic phase of infection, we observed an apparent reduction of TFR frequency in cell suspension, as well as a decrease of CD3(+)Foxp3(+) cells in the GC of intact lymph nodes. TFR frequency was inversely associated with the percentage of TFH and, interestingly, with the avidity of the Abs that recognize the SIV gp120 envelope protein. Our findings show changes in the TFH/TFR ratio during chronic infection and suggest possible mechanisms for the unchecked expansion of TFH cells in HIV/SIV infection. PMID:26297759

  6. Correlation between dengue-specific neutralizing antibodies and serum avidity in primary and secondary dengue virus 3 natural infections in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Puschnik

    Full Text Available Although heterotypic secondary infection with dengue virus (DENV is associated with severe disease, the majority of secondary infections are mild or asymptomatic. The mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection are poorly understood. In 2010, 108 DENV3-positive cases were enrolled in a pediatric hospital-based study in Managua, Nicaragua, with 61 primary and 47 secondary infections. We analyzed DENV-specific neutralization titers (NT50, IgM and IgG avidity, and antibody titer in serum samples collected during acute and convalescent phases and 3, 6, and 18 months post-infection. NT50 titers peaked at convalescence and decreased thereafter. IgG avidity to DENV3 significantly increased between convalescent and 3-month time-points in primary DENV infections and between the acute and convalescent phase in secondary DENV infections. While avidity to DENV2, a likely previous infecting serotype, was initially higher than avidity to DENV3 in secondary DENV infections, the opposite relation was observed 3-18 months post-infection. We found significant correlations between IgM avidity and NT50 in acute primary cases and between IgG avidity and NT50 in secondary DENV infections. In summary, our findings indicate that IgM antibodies likely play a role in early control of DENV infections. IgG serum avidity to DENV, analyzed for the first time in longitudinal samples, switches from targeting mainly cross-reactive serotype(s to the current infecting serotype over time. Finally, serum avidity correlates with neutralization capacity.

  7. Evaluation of an in-house specific immunoglobulin G (IgG avidity ELISA for distinguishing recent primary from long-term human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Silmara de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the standardization and evaluation of an in-house specific IgG avidity ELISA for distinguishing recent primary from long-term human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection. The test was standardized with the commercial kit ETI-CYTOK G Plus (Sorin Biomedica, Italy using 8 M urea in phosphate-buffered saline to dissociate low-avidity antibodies after the antigen-antibody interaction. The performance of the in-house assay was compared to that of the commercial automated VIDAS CMV IgG avidity test (bioMérieux, France. Forty-nine sera, 24 from patients with a recent primary HCMV infection and 25 from patients with a long-term HCMV infection and a sustained persistence of specific IgM antibodies, were tested. Similar results were obtained with the two avidity methods. All 24 sera from patients with recently acquired infection had avidity indices compatible with acute HCMV infection by the VIDAS method, whereas with the in-house method, one serum sample had an equivocal result. In the 25 sera from patients with long-term infection, identical results were obtained with the two methods, with only one serum sample having an incompatible value. These findings suggest that our in-house avidity test could be a potentially useful tool for the immunodiagnosis of HCMV infection.

  8. Identification of BACE2 as an avid ß-amyloid-degrading protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Hay Samer O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases that degrade the amyloid ß-protein (Aß have emerged as key players in the etiology and potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but it is unlikely that all such proteases have been identified. To discover new Aß-degrading proteases (AßDPs, we conducted an unbiased, genome-scale, functional cDNA screen designed to identify proteases capable of lowering net Aß levels produced by cells, which were subsequently characterized for Aß-degrading activity using an array of downstream assays. Results The top hit emerging from the screen was ß-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 2 (BACE2, a rather unexpected finding given the well-established role of its close homolog, BACE1, in the production of Aß. BACE2 is known to be capable of lowering Aß levels via non-amyloidogenic processing of APP. However, in vitro, BACE2 was also found to be a particularly avid AßDP, with a catalytic efficiency exceeding all known AßDPs except insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE. BACE1 was also found to degrade Aß, albeit ~150-fold less efficiently than BACE2. Aß is cleaved by BACE2 at three peptide bonds—Phe19-Phe20, Phe20-Ala21, and Leu34-Met35—with the latter cleavage site being the initial and principal one. BACE2 overexpression in cultured cells was found to lower net Aß levels to a greater extent than multiple, well-established AßDPs, including neprilysin (NEP and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE1, while showing comparable effectiveness to IDE. Conclusions This study identifies a new functional role for BACE2 as a potent AßDP. Based on its high catalytic efficiency, its ability to degrade Aß intracellularly, and other characteristics, BACE2 represents a particulary strong therapeutic candidate for the treatment or prevention of AD.

  9. Radiation Therapy to the Primary and Postinduction Chemotherapy MIBG-Avid Sites in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although it is generally accepted that consolidation therapy for neuroblastoma includes irradiation of the primary site and any remaining metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid metastatic sites, limited information has been published regarding the efficacy of this approach. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with high-risk neuroblastoma were treated at 1 radiation therapy (RT) department after receiving 5 cycles of induction chemotherapy and resection. All patients had at least a partial response after induction therapy, based upon international neuroblastoma response criteria. The primary sites were treated with 24 to 30 Gy whereas the MIBG-avid metastatic sites were treated with 24 Gy. RT was followed by high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue and 6 months of cis-retinoic acid. Results: The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 48% and 59%, respectively. The 5-year locoregional control at the primary site was 84%. There were no differences in locoregional control according to degree of primary surgical resection. The 5-year local control rate for metastatic sites was 74%. The 5-year PFS rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and >3 postinduction MIBG sites were 66%, 57%, 20%, and 0% (P<.0001), respectively, whereas 5-year OS rates were 80%, 57%, 50%, and 0%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: RT to the primary site and postinduction MIBG-positive metastatic sites was associated with 84% and 74% local control, respectively. The number of MIBG-avid sites present after induction chemotherapy and surgery was predictive of progression-free and overall survival

  10. Radiation Therapy to the Primary and Postinduction Chemotherapy MIBG-Avid Sites in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazloom, Ali; Louis, Chrystal U.; Nuchtern, Jed; Kim, Eugene; Russell, Heidi; Allen-Rhoades, Wendy; Krance, Robert; Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@mdanderson.org

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Although it is generally accepted that consolidation therapy for neuroblastoma includes irradiation of the primary site and any remaining metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid metastatic sites, limited information has been published regarding the efficacy of this approach. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with high-risk neuroblastoma were treated at 1 radiation therapy (RT) department after receiving 5 cycles of induction chemotherapy and resection. All patients had at least a partial response after induction therapy, based upon international neuroblastoma response criteria. The primary sites were treated with 24 to 30 Gy whereas the MIBG-avid metastatic sites were treated with 24 Gy. RT was followed by high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue and 6 months of cis-retinoic acid. Results: The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 48% and 59%, respectively. The 5-year locoregional control at the primary site was 84%. There were no differences in locoregional control according to degree of primary surgical resection. The 5-year local control rate for metastatic sites was 74%. The 5-year PFS rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and >3 postinduction MIBG sites were 66%, 57%, 20%, and 0% (P<.0001), respectively, whereas 5-year OS rates were 80%, 57%, 50%, and 0%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: RT to the primary site and postinduction MIBG-positive metastatic sites was associated with 84% and 74% local control, respectively. The number of MIBG-avid sites present after induction chemotherapy and surgery was predictive of progression-free and overall survival.

  11. Favourable outcomes of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy in patients with FDG-avid neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Raghava [Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Kong, Grace; Akhurst, Timothy; Eu, Peter [Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Neuroendocrine Tumour Service, Melbourne (Australia); Michael, Michael [University of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne (Australia); Zannino, Diana [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Neuroendocrine Tumour Service, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-09-11

    Increased glycolytic activity on FDG PET/CT defines a subgroup of patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) with a poor prognosis. A limited range of systemic treatment options exist for more aggressive NET. The role of peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT) in such patients is, however, unclear. This retrospective study assessed the outcomes of patients with FDG-avid NET treated with PRCRT. Clinical, biochemical and imaging response was assessed after completion of induction treatment of PRCRT with 5-fluorouracil in 52 patients selected for treatment on the basis of somatostatin-receptor imaging without spatially discordant FDG-avid disease. Of the cohort, 67 % had received prior chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were also analysed. PRCRT was well tolerated with negligible grade 3/4 toxicities. After a median follow-up period of 36 months, the median OS was not achieved with a median PFS of 48 months. At 3 months after completion of PRCRT 2 % of patients showed a complete anatomical response, 28 % a partial response, 68 % stable disease, and only 2 % progression. On FDG PET/CT, 27 % achieved a complete metabolic response during the follow-up period. A biochemical response (>25 % fall in chromogranin-A levels) was seen in 45 %. PRCRT is an effective treatment in patients with FDG-avid NET, even in patients who have failed conventional therapies. Given apparently higher response rates than with alternative therapeutic options and low toxicity, further research is needed to establish whether PRCRT should be used as a first-line treatment modality in this patient population. (orig.)

  12. FDG-avid portal vein tumor thrombosis from hepatocellular carcinoma in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we aimed to describe the characteristics of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT, complicating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. Methods: In this retrospective study, 9 HCC patients with FDG-avid PVTT were diagnosed by contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT, which is a combination of dynamic liver CT scan, multiphase imaging, and whole-body PET scan. PET and CT DICOM images of patients were imported into the PET/CT imaging system for the re-analysis of contrast enhancement and FDG uptake in thrombus, the diameter of the involved portal vein, and characteristics of liver tumors and metastasis. Results: Two patients with previously untreated HCC and 7 cases with previously treated HCC had FDG-avid PVTT in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. During the arterial phase of CT scan, portal vein thrombus showed contrast enhancement in 8 out of 9 patients (88.9%. PET scan showed an increased linear FDG uptake along the thrombosed portal vein in all patients. The mean greatest diameter of thrombosed portal veins was 1.8 ± 0.2 cm, which was significantly greater than that observed in normal portal veins (P<0.001. FDG uptake level in portal vein thrombus was significantly higher than that of blood pool in the reference normal portal vein (P=0.001. PVTT was caused by the direct extension of liver tumors. All patients had visible FDG-avid liver tumors in contrast-enhanced images. Five out of 9 patients (55.6% had no extrahepatic metastasis, 3 cases (33.3% had metastasis of regional lymph nodes, and 1 case (11.1% presented with distant metastasis. The median estimated survival time of patients was 5 months. Conclusion: The intraluminal filling defect consistent with thrombous within the portal vein, expansion of the involved portal vein, contrast enhancement, and linear increased FDG uptake of the thrombus extended from liver tumor are

  13. Analysis of Mumps Vaccine Failure by Means of Avidity Testing for Mumps Virus-Specific Immunoglobulin G

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Mitsuo; Matsuzono, Yoshihiro; Takekoshi, Yasuo; Yamada, Satoshi; Itakura, Osamu; Kubota, Mitsuru; Kikuta, Hideaki; Togashi, Takehiro

    1998-01-01

    To characterize patients with mumps vaccine failure, avidity testing was performed with the Enzygnost Anti-Parotitis Virus/IgG kit using a single-dilution–6 M urea denaturation method. Five groups of patients were tested. Group 1 consisted of 29 patients with primary mumps infections; group 2 was 20 children and adults with a definite history of natural infection; group 3 was 7 patients with a recent mumps vaccination, 1 of whom developed parotid gland swelling and aseptic meningitis; group 4...

  14. CTL responses of high functional avidity and broad variant cross-reactivity are associated with HIV control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mothe

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses targeting specific HIV proteins, in particular Gag, have been associated with relative control of viral replication in vivo. However, Gag-specific CTL can also be detected in individuals who do not control the virus and it remains thus unclear how Gag-specific CTL may mediate the beneficial effects in some individuals but not in others. Here, we used a 10mer peptide set spanning HIV Gag-p24 to determine immunogen-specific T-cell responses and to assess functional properties including functional avidity and cross-reactivity in 25 HIV-1 controllers and 25 non-controllers without protective HLA class I alleles. Our data challenge the common belief that Gag-specific T cell responses dominate the virus-specific immunity exclusively in HIV-1 controllers as both groups mounted responses of comparable breadths and magnitudes against the p24 sequence. However, responses in controllers reacted to lower antigen concentrations and recognized more epitope variants than responses in non-controllers. These cross-sectional data, largely independent of particular HLA genetics and generated using direct ex-vivo samples thus identify T cell responses of high functional avidity and with broad variant reactivity as potential functional immune correlates of relative HIV control.

  15. Differential expression profiling of circulation microRNAs in PTC patients with non-131I and 131I-avid lungs metastases: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Loss of the ability to concentrate 131I is one of the important causes of radioiodine-refractory disease in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Recent advantages of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) open a new realm of possibilities for noninvasive diagnosis and prognosis of many cancers. The aim of the current study was to identify differential expression profiling of circulation miRNAs in PTC patients with non-131I and 131I-avid lungs metastases. Methods: The expressions of miRNAs were examined using miRNA microarray chip. The most significantly changed miRNAs from microarray were verified by using qRT-PCR. The potential miRNAs regulating target genes and their preliminary biological functions were forecasted by Bioinformatic analysis. Results: Compared to 131I-avid lung metastases, 13 kinds of significantly differential serum miRNAs including 5 upregulated miRNAs (miR-1249, miR-106a, miR-503, miR-34c-5p, miR-1281) and 8 downregulated miRNAs (miR-1915, miR-2861, miR-3196, miR-500, miR-572, miR-33b, miR-554, miR-18a) in PTC patients with non-131 I-avid lung metastases were identified. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that miR-106a was the core miRNA regulating 193 genes in the network. The results of validation confirmed the up-regulation of miR-106a in non-131I-avid lungs metastatic PTC patients. Conclusion: Differentially expressed serum miRNA profiles between PTC patients with non-131I and 131I-avid lungs metastases were analyzed. These findings in our present study could represent new clues for the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy in PTC patients with non-131I-avid metastatic disease

  16. A Peptide Mimetic of 5-Acetylneuraminic Acid-Galactose Binds with High Avidity to Siglecs and NKG2D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Eggink

    Full Text Available We previously identified several peptide sequences that mimicked the terminal sugars of complex glycans. Using plant lectins as analogs of lectin-type cell-surface receptors, a tetravalent form of a peptide with the sequence NPSHPLSG, designated svH1C, bound with high avidity to lectins specific for glycans with terminal 5-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac-galactose (Gal/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc sequences. In this report, we show by circular dichroism and NMR spectra that svH1C lacks an ordered structure and thus interacts with binding sites from a flexible conformation. The peptide binds with high avidity to several recombinant human siglec receptors that bind preferentially to Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal, Neu5Ac(α2,6GalNAc or Neu5Ac(α2,8Neu5Ac ligands. In addition, the peptide bound the receptor NKG2D, which contains a lectin-like domain that binds Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal. The peptide bound to these receptors with a KD in the range of 0.6 to 1 μM. Binding to these receptors was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, which contains multiple glycans that terminate in Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal or Neu5Ac(α2,6Gal, and by sialyllactose. Binding of svH1C was not detected with CLEC9a, CLEC10a or DC-SIGN, which are lectin-type receptors specific for other sugars. Incubation of neuraminidase-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with svH1C resulted in binding of the peptide to a subset of the CD14+ monocyte population. Tyrosine phosphorylation of siglecs decreased dramatically when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 100 nM svH1C. Subcutaneous, alternate-day injections of svH1C into mice induced several-fold increases in populations of several types of immune cells in the peritoneal cavity. These results support the conclusion that svH1C mimics Neu5Ac-containing sequences and interacts with cell-surface receptors with avidities sufficient to induce biological responses at low concentrations. The attenuation of inhibitory receptors suggests that svH1C

  17. A Comparison Study of AVID and GEAR UP 10th-Grade Students in Two High Schools in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery; Lozano, Aliber

    2007-01-01

    This study examines 4 groups of high school students enrolled in 2 college preparatory programs, AVID and GEAR UP. Differences in student educational aspirations, expectations and anticipations, knowledge of college entrance requirements, knowledge of financial aid, and academic achievement in mathematics were examined. Adelman's (1999)…

  18. Central tolerance spares the private high-avidity CD4(+) T-cell repertoire specific for an islet antigen in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, Laurent; Fazilleau, Nicolas; Guerder, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Although central tolerance induces the deletion of most autoreactive T cells, some autoreactive T cells escape thymic censorship. Whether potentially harmful autoreactive T cells present distinct TCRαβ features remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the TCRαβ repertoire of CD4(+) T cells specific for the S100β protein, an islet antigen associated with type 1 diabetes. We found that diabetes-resistant NOD mice deficient for thymus specific serine protease (TSSP), a protease that impairs class II antigen presentation by thymic stromal cells, were hyporesponsive to the immunodominant S100β1-15 epitope, as compared to wild-type NOD mice, due to intrathymic negative selection. In both TSSP-deficient and wild-type NOD mice, the TCRαβ repertoire of S100β-specific CD4(+) T cells though diverse showed a specific bias for dominant TCRα rearrangements with limited CDR3α diversity. These dominant TCRα chains were public since they were found in all mice. They were of intermediate- to low-avidity. In contrast, high-avidity T cells expressed unique TCRs specific to each individual (private TCRs) and were only found in wild-type NOD mice. Hence, in NOD mice, the autoreactive CD4(+) T-cell compartment has two major components, a dominant and public low-avidity TCRα repertoire and a private high-avidity CD4(+) T-cell repertoire; the latter is deleted by re-enforced negative selection. PMID:25884569

  19. Historically aggressive types of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer often have radioactive avid distant metastases: a study of 314 patients with distant metastases at a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tala, H.P.; Rondeau, G.; Fagin, J.A.; Tuttle, R.M. [Endocrinology Division, Department of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Ghossein, R.A. [Pathology Department, Nuclear Medecine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Grewal, R.K.; Larson, S.M. [Radiology Department, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) remains one of the primary treatment options for metastatic, follicular cell derived thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that metastatic lesions arising from one of the aggressive thyroid cancer histologies [tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCV-PTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC)] would demonstrate sufficient RAI avidity for visualization on RAI scanning and therefore could potentially benefit from RAI therapy. The study shows that in patients selected for RAI scanning or therapy at our center, RAI avid lesions can be identified in more than two thirds of the patients with distant metastases arising in the setting of C-PTC, WD-FTC, FV-PTC, TCV-PTC, or PDTC primary tumors. While RAI avidity on a post-therapy scan does not always correlate with clinically significant tumor killing activity, it is likely that some of these patients with RAI avid metastatic disease did obtain a clinical benefit

  20. Usefulness of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1) in an immunoglobulin G avidity test for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietkiewicz, H; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, E; Kur, J;

    2007-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of an acute and recent Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and the newborn child is important before treatment. This study describes a new Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity test based on a combination of recombinant GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1 antigens and shows that this test is use...

  1. ICOS+PD-1+CXCR3+ T follicular helper cells contribute to the generation of high-avidity antibodies following influenza vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Khurana, Surender; Schmitt, Nathalie; Kurup, Parvathi; Mueller, Cynthia; Obermoser, Gerlinde; Palucka, A. Karolina; Albrecht, Randy A.; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Golding, Hana; Ueno, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The immune mechanism leading to the generation of protective antibody responses following influenza trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) vaccinations remains largely uncharacterized. We recently reported that TIV vaccination induced a transient increase of circulating ICOS+PD-1+CXCR3+ T follicular helper (cTfh) cells in blood, which positively correlated with the induction of protective antibody responses measured at day 28. However, whether and how these T cells directly contribute to antibody response remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the changes after TIV vaccination in the amount and the avidity of the polyclonal antibodies specific for the HA1 subunit of the pandemic H1N1 virus, and analyzed the correlation with the increase of ICOS+PD-1+CXCR3+ cTfh cells. We found that both the amount and the avidity of specific antibodies rapidly increased during the first 7 days after TIV. Importantly, the increase of ICOS+PD-1+CXCR3+ cTfh cells strongly correlated with the increase in the avidity of antibodies, particularly in subjects who did not have high affinity antibodies at baseline. We propose that ICOS+PD-1+CXCR3+ Tfh cells directly contribute to the generation of high-avidity antibodies after TIV vaccinations by selectively interacting with high affinity B cells at extrafollicular sites. PMID:27231124

  2. Utility of tumor-avid photosensitizers in developing bifunctional agents for tumor imaging and/or phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Suresh K.; Chen, Yihui; Zawada, Robert H.; Oseroff, Allan; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2006-02-01

    HPPH (a chlorophyll-a analog) was linked with a cyanine dye and the resulting conjugate was found to be an efficient tumor imaging (fluorescence imaging) and photosensitizing agent (PDT). Our preliminary results suggest that tumor-avid porphyrin-based compounds can be used as vehicles for delivering the desired fluorophores to tumor for fluorescence imaging. In an early diagnosis of microscopic lesions in pre-clinical studies (C3H mice implanted with RIF tumors) the HPPH-cyanine dye conjugate showed tumor-imaging capability (λ ex: 780 nm, λ em: 860 nm) at the non- therapeutic doses that are 100 fold lower than those used therapeutically. Compared to the cyanine dye, the corresponding HPPH-conjugate showed enhanced long-term tumor imaging ability.

  3. Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung showing strong FDG avidity on PET scan: Case report and review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Patrini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing Hemangioma is a rare lung tumor with polymorphic histologic features that usually occurs in middle aged women. Based on many immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies, it is most probably derived from undifferentiated respiratory epithelial cells. Symptoms are usually due to enlargement of the tumor and compression of the surrounding tissues. Occurrence of multiple lesions or metastasis is extremely rare although some authors consider sclerosing hemangioma as a potentially low grade malignancy tumor. It usually presents with low to moderate uptake on FDG PET imaging. We present a case of sclerosing hemangioma with strong FDG avidity on PET scan in a 41 year old lady with history of haemoptysis. A full review of the literature on this topic was performed.

  4. The coordination of unprotonated peptide tertiary structure as a metric of pMHC-TCR functional avidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipas, Georgios S E; Germenis, Anastasios E

    2015-12-01

    The coordination difference between the unprotonated tertiary structures of a native (Tax) peptide and a number of its variants - all peptides presented by HLA-A201 and bound to the human A6 T cell receptor-was discovered to constitute a metric of pMHC-TCR functional avidity. Moreover, increasing coordination deviations from the index were found to flag correspondingly weakening immunological outcomes of the variant peptides. The prognostic utility of the coordination difference of unprotonated tertiary structure was established to operate strictly on the peptide scale, seizing to be of relevance either to the immediate peptide environment (i.e. within the realm of peptide short range order, within 7 Å of any peptide atom) or over the entirety of the pMHC-TCR complex. Additionally, the imprint of peptide immunological identity was expressed both by the total coordination as well as by its C-C partial. PMID:26568977

  5. The coordination of unprotonated peptide tertiary structure as a metric of pMHC–TCR functional avidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S.E. Antipas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordination difference between the unprotonated tertiary structures of a native (Tax peptide and a number of its variants – all peptides presented by HLA-A201 and bound to the human A6 T cell receptor-was discovered to constitute a metric of pMHC–TCR functional avidity. Moreover, increasing coordination deviations from the index were found to flag correspondingly weakening immunological outcomes of the variant peptides. The prognostic utility of the coordination difference of unprotonated tertiary structure was established to operate strictly on the peptide scale, seizing to be of relevance either to the immediate peptide environment (i.e. within the realm of peptide short range order, within 7 Å of any peptide atom or over the entirety of the pMHC–TCR complex. Additionally, the imprint of peptide immunological identity was expressed both by the total coordination as well as by its C–C partial.

  6. APPRAISAL OF PRENATAL ANTI-TOXOPLASMA GONDII (IGG+IGM)- IHA/IGM-ELISA SCREENING IN SINGLE SAMPLES VIA IGG AVIDITY TEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bali, Mohammed; Zaglool, Dina A M; Khodari, Yousif A W; Al-Harthi, Saeed A

    2016-04-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with important morbidity and mortality. Since vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii can occur in acute cases, antenatal screening for recent infections is vital. Accurate determination of acute toxoplasmosis requires a combination of immunoassays, usually not routinely applied for screening purposes. This study evaluated the anti-T. gondii (IgG+IgM)/IgM prenatal screening procedure by IgG avidity assay. The routine prenatal screening for (IgG+IgM) anti-T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) in serum samples was done of 2247 pregnant women who attended two hospitals between 2011 and 2013 revealed 487 (21.7%) positive samples. Examination of IHA-positive sera by IgM and IgG/IgG-avidity concurrent ELISA tests revealed 7 positive and 3 border-line IgM-ELISA titers during the initial check-up of 10 women, who were then followed up at 3-4 week-intervals. Among these, 4 (40%) showed simultaneous high avidity IgG antibodies, indicating distant infection by the parasite, and no anti-T. gondii specific IgG could be detected in follow-up sera of two cases (20%), indicating false IgM initial positive results. Only 4 (40%) women showed simultaneous IgM and low avidity IgG antibodies indicating active infections. Avoidance of an over-diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis Anti-T. gondii (IgG+IgM)/IgM prenatal screening must be supplemented by a discriminative test like IgG avidity ELISA. PMID:27363056

  7. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS(®) Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS(®) CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  8. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  9. Studies on the development of 99mTc labelled serotonin receptor avid molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the central nervous system (CNS) receptors, serotonin is reported to be very important with respect to the study of brain disorders. Hence this work focuses on serotonin. A summary of the studies that were carried out is given. These include: (a) standardization of the method of serotonin receptor preparation from rat brains and development of a radioreceptor assay using radio-iodinated serotonin, (b) standardization of the method of radio-iodination of serotonin using a tyrosylmethyl ester derivative of serotonin and the preparation of 14C labelled serotonin, (c) synthesis of the SNS tridentate ligand (following the procedure developed by the Democritos National Centre of Scientific Research (NCSR), Athens) and evaluation of a 99mTc complex formed with the tridentate SNS ligand and thiocresol for use as a CNS receptor imaging agent and (d) evaluation of the 99mTc complex formed with a SNS piperazine based tridentate ligand and a monodentate co-ligand (thiophenol obtained from NCSR). This limited study on brain uptake of the complex in rats showed that more structural modification of the ligand is required for preparation of a complex suitable for CNS receptor imaging. Also included is a design for synthesis of a novel complex based on the reported information on the 5-iodo-2-[(2-dimethyl)aminomethylphynoxy]benzyl alcohol compound, which is reported to have a binding affinity for serotonin re-uptake sites. (author)

  10. Difference of Clinical and Radiological Characteristics According to Radioiodine Avidity in Pulmonary Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dohoon; Jung, Jihoon; Song, Seung Hyun; Kim, Choonyoung; Hong, Chae Moon; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sangwoo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeongcheol [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate differences in clinical, radiological and laboratory findings between pulmonary metastasis with and without radioiodine avidity in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with pulmonary metastasis who underwent high-dose I-131 treatment. A total of 105 DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis (age, 48.7±16.8 years; women/men, 78/27) were included. Clinical characteristics, chest computed tomography (CT), F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET)/CT and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (s-Tg) level were compared between patients with and without radioiodine uptake in metastatic lung lesions. The response to I-131 treatment was evaluated with follow-up study. Eighty-nine patients (84.8 %, whole-body scan positive [WBSP] group) showed radioiodine uptake at pulmonary metastasis on post I-131 treatment whole-body scan (WBS) and 16 patients (15.2 %, WBS negative [WBSN] group) did not show uptake at pulmonary lesions on the WBS. Ninety percent and 87 % of the WBSP group had visible metastatic lesions on CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT; however, all of the patients in the WBSN group showed lesions on CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT. In seven (6.7 %) of 105 patients, CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT could not detect pulmonary lesions, which were diagnosed by post I-131 treatment WBS. Complete disease remission was achieved in six (5.7 %) patients and all of them were in the WBSP group. Metastatic lesion was not visualized on chest CT or F-18 FDG PET/CT in 6.7 % of DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis and the lesion was visualized only on post I-131 treatment WBS. Complete remission was achieved in 5.7 % of DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis and the cured metastases were non-visualizing or micronodular lesions on chest CT and demonstrated radioiodine avidity on post I-131 treatment WBS.

  11. Difference of Clinical and Radiological Characteristics According to Radioiodine Avidity in Pulmonary Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate differences in clinical, radiological and laboratory findings between pulmonary metastasis with and without radioiodine avidity in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with pulmonary metastasis who underwent high-dose I-131 treatment. A total of 105 DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis (age, 48.7±16.8 years; women/men, 78/27) were included. Clinical characteristics, chest computed tomography (CT), F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET)/CT and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (s-Tg) level were compared between patients with and without radioiodine uptake in metastatic lung lesions. The response to I-131 treatment was evaluated with follow-up study. Eighty-nine patients (84.8 %, whole-body scan positive [WBSP] group) showed radioiodine uptake at pulmonary metastasis on post I-131 treatment whole-body scan (WBS) and 16 patients (15.2 %, WBS negative [WBSN] group) did not show uptake at pulmonary lesions on the WBS. Ninety percent and 87 % of the WBSP group had visible metastatic lesions on CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT; however, all of the patients in the WBSN group showed lesions on CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT. In seven (6.7 %) of 105 patients, CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT could not detect pulmonary lesions, which were diagnosed by post I-131 treatment WBS. Complete disease remission was achieved in six (5.7 %) patients and all of them were in the WBSP group. Metastatic lesion was not visualized on chest CT or F-18 FDG PET/CT in 6.7 % of DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis and the lesion was visualized only on post I-131 treatment WBS. Complete remission was achieved in 5.7 % of DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis and the cured metastases were non-visualizing or micronodular lesions on chest CT and demonstrated radioiodine avidity on post I-131 treatment WBS

  12. Lectin-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(vinyldimethyl azlactone) surface supports for high avidity microbial capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a critical and dynamic role in shaping the interactions between microbial community members and their local environment. The capture of targeted microbes using surface immobilized lectins that recognize specific extracellular oligosaccharide moieties offers a non-destructive method for functional characterization based on EPS content. In this report, we evaluate the use of the block co-polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA), as a surface support for lectin-specific microbial capture. Arrays of circular polymer supports ten micron in diameter were generated on silicon substrates to provide discrete, covalent coupling sites for Triticum vulgare and Lens culinaris lectins. These supports promoted microbe adhesion and colony formation in a lectin-specific manner. Silicon posts with similar topography containing only physisorbed lectins showed significantly less activity. These results demonstrate that micropatterned PGMA-b-PVDMA supports provide a unique platform for microbial capture and screening based on EPS content by combining high avidity lectin surfaces with three-dimensional topography.

  13. Extrapulmonary benign and malignant lesions avid for 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose by multivariate regression model identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether extrapulmonary lesions are avid for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) could help to differentiate the benign or malignant lung lesions. In this trial, the 199 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed lung lesions (169 malignant and 36 benign lesions) were imaged by whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT., Histopathology and clinic results served as the reference standard. The malignancy likelihood were conducted by CTscores; the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of lung lesions, and PET on FDG negative or positive, as well as metastasis index (Ml), by PET combined with CT findings. The data were analyzed by stepwise logistic regression and receiver-operating- characteristic. The malignancy predictive probability. (P) was obtained by P=ex/(1+ex), where x=-1.16+0.87 (CTscore) +0.15(SUVmax)+0.27(Ml). The area under curve (AUC) for the fitted logistic model was 0.82±0.04, this was superior and significantly different from SUVmax (AUC, 0.73±0.05) and CTscores (AUC, 0.71±0.05). The fitted logistic model could improve the diagnostic performance. The Ml could help for differential diagnosis. (authors)

  14. Use of IgG avidity ELISA to differentiate acute from persistent infection with Salmonella Dublin in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.R.; Nielsen, L.R.; Lind, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether an immunoglobulin (Ig)G avidity ELISA can be used to differentiate between acute and persistent infection with Salmonella (S.) Dublin in cattle. To determine whether the IgG isotype, IgG(1) and IgG(2) responses in acute and persistent infections differ. Methods and...... calculated for IgG (IgG-AI), IgG(1) (IgG(1)-AI) and IgG(2) (IgG(2)-AI). The mean IgG-AI for suspected carrier animals with either persistently high (group 1) or persistently high to medium high (group 2) antibody levels was significantly (P = 0.003) higher (32.1% and 38.4%) than for acutely infected animals...... (21.7% and 22.3%). The probability of being a suspect carrier was associated with IgG-AI, antibody level in the sample and age. However, the effect of age could be the result of a biased sample selection. Specificities and sensitivities were calculated at a range of cut-off values for IgG-AI and IgG(1...

  15. T-cell receptor affinity and avidity defines antitumor response and autoimmunity in T-cell immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shi; Malecek, Karolina; Johnson, Laura A.; Yu, Zhiya; Vega-Saenz de Miera, Eleazar; Darvishian, Farbod; McGary, Katelyn; Huang, Kevin; Boyer, Josh; Corse, Emily; Shao, Yongzhao; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Osman, Iman; Krogsgaard, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    T cells expressing antigen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) can mediate effective tumor regression, but they often also are accompanied by autoimmune responses. To determine the TCR affinity threshold defining the optimal balance between effective antitumor activity and autoimmunity in vivo, we used a unique self-antigen system comprising seven human melanoma gp100(209–217)-specific TCRs spanning physiological affinities (1–100 μM). We found that in vitro and in vivo T-cell responses are determined by TCR affinity, except in one case that was compensated by substantial CD8 involvement. Strikingly, we found that T-cell antitumor activity and autoimmunity are closely coupled but plateau at a defined TCR affinity of 10 µM, likely due to diminished contribution of TCR affinity to avidity above the threshold. Together, these results suggest that a relatively low-affinity threshold is necessary for the immune system to avoid self-damage, given the close relationship between antitumor activity and autoimmunity. The low threshold, in turn, indicates that adoptive T-cell therapy treatment strategies using in vitro-generated high-affinity TCRs do not necessarily improve efficacy. PMID:23576742

  16. Potential Pitfall in the Assessment of Lung Cancer with FDG-PET/CT: Talc Pleurodesis Causes Intrathoracic Nodal FDG Avidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Talc pleurodesis is a common procedure performed to treat complications related to lung cancer. The purpose of our study was to characterize any thoracic nodal findings on FDG PET/CT associated with prior talc pleurodesis. Materials and Methods. The electronic medical record identified 44 patients who underwent PET/CT between January 2006 and December 2010 and had a history of talc pleurodesis. For each exam, we evaluated the distribution pattern, size, and attenuation of intrathoracic lymph nodes and the associated standardized uptake value. Results. High-attenuation intrathoracic lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients (25%, and all had corresponding increased FDG uptake (range 2–9 mm. Involved nodal groups were anterior peridiaphragmatic (100%, paracardiac (45%, internal mammary (25%, and peri-IVC (18% nodal stations. Seven of the 11 patients (63% had involvement of multiple lymph nodal groups. Mean longitudinal PET/CT and standalone CT followups of 15±11 months showed persistence of both high-attenuation and increased uptake at these sites, without increase in nodal size suggesting metastatic disease involvement. Conclusions. FDG avid, high-attenuation lymph nodes along the lymphatic drainage pathway for parietal pleura are a relatively common finding following talc pleurodesis and should not be mistaken for nodal metastases during the evaluation of patients with history of lung cancer.

  17. Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Secreting Thyroid Hormone and Radioiodine Avid without Stimulation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is an extremely rare case of a patient with metastatic follicular thyroid cancer who continued to produce thyroid hormone and was iodine scan positive without stimulation after thyroidectomy and radioiodine (I-131 therapy. Patient Findings. A 76-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma on lung nodule biopsy. Total thyroidectomy was performed and he was ablated with 160 mCi of I-131 after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH stimulation. Whole body scan (WBS after treatment showed uptake in bilateral lungs, right sacrum, and pelvis. The thyroglobulin decreased from 2,063 to 965 four months after treatment but rapidly increased to 2,506 eleven months after I-131. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH remained suppressed and free T4 remained elevated after I-131 therapy without thyroid hormone supplementation. He was treated with an additional 209 mCi with WBS findings positive in lung and pelvis. Despite I-131, new metastatic lesions were noted in the left thyroid bed and large destructive lesion to the first cervical vertebrae four months after the second I-131 dose. Conclusions. This case is exceptional because of its rarity and also due to the dissociation between tumor differentiation and aggressiveness. The metastatic lesions continued to secrete thyroid hormone and remained radioiodine avid with rapid progression after I-131 therapy.

  18. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  19. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lee, Kwang Man; Choi, Un Jong; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hye Won; Song, Jeong Hoon [College of Medicine, Wonkwnag University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  20. Vesicular monoamine transporter protein expression correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and MIBG avidity in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, William; Mendelsohn, Lori; Nekritz, Erin; Gustafson, W.C.; Matthay, Katherine K. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kim, Grace E. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lin, Lawrence; Giacomini, Kathy [UCSF School of Pharmacy, Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, San Francisco, CA (United States); Naranjo, Arlene; Van Ryn, Collin [University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group Statistics and Data Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yanik, Gregory A. [University of Michigan, CS Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kreissman, Susan G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hogarty, Michael [University of Pennsylvania, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DuBois, Steven G. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporters 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and VMAT2) are thought to mediate MIBG uptake in adult neuroendocrine tumors. In neuroblastoma, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been investigated as the principal MIBG uptake protein, though some tumors without NET expression concentrate MIBG. We investigated VMAT expression in neuroblastoma and correlated expression with MIBG uptake and clinical features. We evaluated VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in neuroblastoma tumors from 76 patients with high-risk metastatic disease treated in a uniform cooperative group trial (COG A3973). All patients had baseline MIBG diagnostic scans centrally reviewed. IHC results were scored as the product of intensity grading (0 - 3+) and percent of tumor cells expressing the protein of interest. The association between VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores and clinical and biological features was tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Patient characteristics were typical of high-risk neuroblastoma, though the cohort was intentionally enriched in patients with MIBG-nonavid tumors (n = 20). VMAT1 and VMAT2 were expressed in 62 % and 75 % of neuroblastoma tumors, respectively. VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores were both significantly lower in MYCN amplified tumors and in tumors with high mitotic karyorrhectic index. MIBG-avid tumors had significantly higher VMAT2 scores than MIBG-nonavid tumors (median 216 vs. 45; p = 0.04). VMAT1 expression did not correlate with MIBG avidity. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are expressed in the majority of neuroblastomas. Expression correlates with other biological features. The expression level of VMAT2 but not that of VMAT1 correlates with avidity for MIBG. (orig.)

  1. Vesicular monoamine transporter protein expression correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and MIBG avidity in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesicular monoamine transporters 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and VMAT2) are thought to mediate MIBG uptake in adult neuroendocrine tumors. In neuroblastoma, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been investigated as the principal MIBG uptake protein, though some tumors without NET expression concentrate MIBG. We investigated VMAT expression in neuroblastoma and correlated expression with MIBG uptake and clinical features. We evaluated VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in neuroblastoma tumors from 76 patients with high-risk metastatic disease treated in a uniform cooperative group trial (COG A3973). All patients had baseline MIBG diagnostic scans centrally reviewed. IHC results were scored as the product of intensity grading (0 - 3+) and percent of tumor cells expressing the protein of interest. The association between VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores and clinical and biological features was tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Patient characteristics were typical of high-risk neuroblastoma, though the cohort was intentionally enriched in patients with MIBG-nonavid tumors (n = 20). VMAT1 and VMAT2 were expressed in 62 % and 75 % of neuroblastoma tumors, respectively. VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores were both significantly lower in MYCN amplified tumors and in tumors with high mitotic karyorrhectic index. MIBG-avid tumors had significantly higher VMAT2 scores than MIBG-nonavid tumors (median 216 vs. 45; p = 0.04). VMAT1 expression did not correlate with MIBG avidity. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are expressed in the majority of neuroblastomas. Expression correlates with other biological features. The expression level of VMAT2 but not that of VMAT1 correlates with avidity for MIBG. (orig.)

  2. High pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and loss of high avidity cross-reactive cytotoxic T-cells during the course of secondary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the most important human diseases transmitted by an arthropod vector and the incidence of dengue virus infection has been increasing - over half the world's population now live in areas at risk of infection. Most infections are asymptomatic, but a subset of patients experience a potentially fatal shock syndrome characterised by plasma leakage. Severe forms of dengue are epidemiologically associated with repeated infection by more than one of the four dengue virus serotypes. Generally attributed to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement, recent observations indicate that T-cells may also influence disease phenotype. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL showing high level cross reactivity between dengue serotypes could be expanded from blood samples taken during the acute phase of secondary dengue infection. These could not be detected in convalescence when only CTL populations demonstrating significant serotype specificity were identified. Dengue cross-reactive CTL clones derived from these patients were of higher avidity than serotype-specific clones and produced much higher levels of both type 1 and certain type 2 cytokines, many previously implicated in dengue pathogenesis. CONCLUSION: Dengue serotype cross-reactive CTL clones showing high avidity for antigen produce higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than serotype-specific clones. That such cells cannot be expanded from convalescent samples suggests that they may be depleted, perhaps as a consequence of activation-induced cell death. Such high avidity cross-reactive memory CTL may produce inflammatory cytokines during the course of secondary infection, contributing to the pathogenesis of vascular leak. These cells appear to be subsequently deleted leaving a more serotype-specific memory CTL pool. Further studies are needed to relate these cellular observations to disease phenotype in a large group of patients. If

  3. The evaluation of rubella and sitomegalovirus IgG avidity tests in pregnants: four-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Uzun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aim to evaluate the retrospective IgG avidity index (AI test results of the pregnant, who have applied to our hospital and had pregnancy screening test and have been asked for rubella and cytomegalovirus antibody tests and IgG AI test in 4 year period. Methods: Anti-rubella IgM, anti-rubella IgG, anti-CMV IgM and anti-CMV antibodies were performed by IMMULITE 2000XPi™ Immunoassay System (Siemens, Germany whereas IgG AI tests were performed by commercial kits of rubella and cytomegalovirus antibody tests (Dia.Pro® Diagnostic, Milano-Italy. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2013, 23 (7.32 % of 314 pregnant women tested rubella IgG AI had low AI, and 266 cases had high AI rate; 14 (17.28% of 81 pregnant women tested CMV IgG AI, had lower AI rate, 52 of them had high AI. 9 out of 23 pregnant women, who were detected low rubella were requested only AI without any IgM and IgG value; the IgG antibody of 13 pregnant was reactive, and IgM antibody was not requested; IgG and IgM antibody of 1 pregnant was detected positive. When 5 pregnant, who were detected low CMV AI were requested AI without IgG and IgM value; the IgG and IgM of 4 was reactive; 4 of them had IgG reactive but IgM negative; 1 had IgG and IgM negative. Conclusion: As a result, our low rubella AI rate has been detected lower than the rates in our country since our study population contains only the pregnant. Our low CMV AI rate varies due to the same reasons as literature data. During pregnancy scanning, performing of AI testing together with specific IgG and IgM will save both time and will be more meaningful in clinical evaluation for pregnant women. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 420-423

  4. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Fakhari; Amir Jalilian; Fariba Johari-daha; Mehdi Shafiee-Ardestani; Ali Khalaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga).Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies,...

  5. Evaluation of the Abbott AxSYM Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Assay in Conjunction with Other CMV IgM Tests and a CMV IgG Avidity Assay

    OpenAIRE

    T. Lazzarotto; Galli, C.; R. Pulvirenti; Rescaldani, R.; Vezzo, R.; La Gioia, A.; C. Martinelli; La Rocca, S.; Agresti, G.; Grillner, L; Nordin, M.; Van Ranst, M.; Combs, B.; Maine, G T; Landini, M P

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of the avidity of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies has been shown by several investigators to be useful in identifying and excluding primary CMV infections in pregnant women. In this work, we examined the diagnostic utility of reflex testing of CMV IgM-positive specimens from pregnant women by using a CMV IgG avidity assay. The utility of this approach was directly dependent on the sensitivity of the CMV IgM assay employed during the initial screen. The ...

  6. TH-E-BRF-11: Dynamic Treatment of Clinical Margins Beyond the PET-Avid Target in Emission Guided Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Patient Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanduri, A; Mazin, S [RefleXion Medical, Burlingame, CA (United States); Fan, Q [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yang, J; Graves, E; Loo, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Yamamoto, T [UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Emission guided radiation therapy (EGRT) is a new modality that uses PET emissions for direct real-time tumor tracking. Radiation beamlets are delivered along PET lines of response (LOR's) by a fast rotating PET-Linac closed ring gantry. In this work, we develop a scheme to treat clinical margins defined proximal to the moving PET-avid tumor, while maintaining EGRT's inherent real-time tracking ability. Methods: The principle of EGRT is to deliver radiation along PET emission paths to concentrate dose in the PET-avid gross tumor volume (GTV). To account for adjacent non- PET avid regions in the clinical volume (CTV) a method was developed that expands the set of radiation beamlet responses to include the effective margin extension from the GTV to the CTV. An LOR detection may now Result in multiple beamlet responses: one along the original LOR, and others that are adjacent to it in the direction of margin extension. Evaluation studies were performed on a 4D digital patient as well as a clinical breast cancer patient with moving lung tumors. Emission data were obtained using GATE and a commercial PET scanner. Dose delivery was simulated using VMC++. For the patient study, Philips Pinnacle was used for planning and Mirada RTx was used for deformable dose registration across multiple breathing phases. Results: Compared with IMRT, the EGRT margin extension method achieved a 25.3% and 9.0% relative increase in dose to 95% of the CTV for the digital and clinical patients, respectively. The corresponding CTV dose increases without margin extension were 9.7% and 1.4%. The organs at risk doses were kept similar or lower for EGRT in both cases, with tumor tracking preserved. Conclusions: With the capability of accurate treatment of the moving CTV, EGRT has the potential to enable a practical and effective implementation of 4D biologically guided radiation therapy. Authors SRM and AN are stockholders of RefleXion Medical.

  7. TH-E-BRF-11: Dynamic Treatment of Clinical Margins Beyond the PET-Avid Target in Emission Guided Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Patient Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Emission guided radiation therapy (EGRT) is a new modality that uses PET emissions for direct real-time tumor tracking. Radiation beamlets are delivered along PET lines of response (LOR's) by a fast rotating PET-Linac closed ring gantry. In this work, we develop a scheme to treat clinical margins defined proximal to the moving PET-avid tumor, while maintaining EGRT's inherent real-time tracking ability. Methods: The principle of EGRT is to deliver radiation along PET emission paths to concentrate dose in the PET-avid gross tumor volume (GTV). To account for adjacent non- PET avid regions in the clinical volume (CTV) a method was developed that expands the set of radiation beamlet responses to include the effective margin extension from the GTV to the CTV. An LOR detection may now Result in multiple beamlet responses: one along the original LOR, and others that are adjacent to it in the direction of margin extension. Evaluation studies were performed on a 4D digital patient as well as a clinical breast cancer patient with moving lung tumors. Emission data were obtained using GATE and a commercial PET scanner. Dose delivery was simulated using VMC++. For the patient study, Philips Pinnacle was used for planning and Mirada RTx was used for deformable dose registration across multiple breathing phases. Results: Compared with IMRT, the EGRT margin extension method achieved a 25.3% and 9.0% relative increase in dose to 95% of the CTV for the digital and clinical patients, respectively. The corresponding CTV dose increases without margin extension were 9.7% and 1.4%. The organs at risk doses were kept similar or lower for EGRT in both cases, with tumor tracking preserved. Conclusions: With the capability of accurate treatment of the moving CTV, EGRT has the potential to enable a practical and effective implementation of 4D biologically guided radiation therapy. Authors SRM and AN are stockholders of RefleXion Medical

  8. A rare case of asymptomatic radioiodine-avid renal and brain metastases 20 years after hemi-thyroidectomy for adenomatous goiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Verma, Roshan Kumar; Lal, Anupam; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old patient, with a history of left hemi-thyroidectomy for adenomatous goiter 20 years previously, was found to have pulmonary lesions on chest X-ray, a brain lesion on computerized tomography (CT), and elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg). While completion thyroidectomy revealed that no pathological evidence of thyroid malignancy, radioiodine-avid pulmonary, brain, and renal and bone lesions were identified on diagnostic as well as posttherapy whole body planar scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography-CT. Subsequent ultrasonography-guided biopsy of a renal nodule showed thyroid follicular cells. This case suggests that metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma should be suspected in asymptomatic patients with incidentally detected lesions, raised serum Tg, and history of thyroid lesions. PMID:26917894

  9. Duration of {sup 18}F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, Anders; Lerberg Nielsen, Anne; Gerke, Oke; Johansen, Allan; Petersen, Henrik [OUH, Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. During December 2009, patients referred for {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans (n = 293) filled in a questionnaire concerning vaccination type (seasonal and/or H1N1v), time and anatomical localization of vaccination. Only injections in deltoid regions were evaluated, thus ensuring that draining lymph nodes were axillary. If more vaccinations had been given, only the latest vaccination was evaluated in each deltoid region. Of all patients who underwent PET/CT scans during December 2009, 26% had been vaccinated with at least one influenza vaccination in the deltoid region. A total of 92 'draining' and 60 'reference' (i.e. contralateral, non-vaccinated) axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in 61 patients (19 of 61 patients were scanned twice). The maximal intensity in FDG uptake (SUV{sub max}) in draining lymph nodes was 5 g/ml body weight (BW), whereas the maximal intensity in reference lymph nodes was 1.9 g/ml BW. The SUV{sub max} was normalized approximately 40 days after vaccination. No significant enlargement of metabolically active draining lymph nodes could be demonstrated on CT scan. Chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs given within 2 weeks from vaccination did not affect SUV{sub max} in the axillary lymph nodes. Influenza vaccination may lead to FDG-avid draining lymph nodes beyond 1 month. (orig.)

  10. Duration of 18F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. During December 2009, patients referred for 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans (n = 293) filled in a questionnaire concerning vaccination type (seasonal and/or H1N1v), time and anatomical localization of vaccination. Only injections in deltoid regions were evaluated, thus ensuring that draining lymph nodes were axillary. If more vaccinations had been given, only the latest vaccination was evaluated in each deltoid region. Of all patients who underwent PET/CT scans during December 2009, 26% had been vaccinated with at least one influenza vaccination in the deltoid region. A total of 92 'draining' and 60 'reference' (i.e. contralateral, non-vaccinated) axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in 61 patients (19 of 61 patients were scanned twice). The maximal intensity in FDG uptake (SUVmax) in draining lymph nodes was 5 g/ml body weight (BW), whereas the maximal intensity in reference lymph nodes was 1.9 g/ml BW. The SUVmax was normalized approximately 40 days after vaccination. No significant enlargement of metabolically active draining lymph nodes could be demonstrated on CT scan. Chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs given within 2 weeks from vaccination did not affect SUVmax in the axillary lymph nodes. Influenza vaccination may lead to FDG-avid draining lymph nodes beyond 1 month. (orig.)

  11. Differentiation of FDG-avid loco-regional recurrent and compromised benign lesions after surgery for breast cancer with dual-time point F-18-fluorodeoxy-glucose PET/CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of dual-time point F-18-fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans to differentiate FDG-avid loco-regional recurrent and compromised benign lesions after surgery for breast cancer. A total of 64 FDG-avid recurrent lesions (local tumor recurrence or lymph node metastases) in 52 patients and 38 FDG-avid compromised benign lesions after surgery in 37 patients were included in the study. FDG PET/CT study was performed at 60 and 120 min after intravenous injection of 3.5 MBq/kg FDG. The maximum SUV (SUVmax) on the early and delayed scans and the percent change of SUVmax (%ΔSUVmax) between the two time points were measured. The optimal differential parameter was determined by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. The average early SUVmax, delayed SUVmax and ΔSUVmax% were 4.9±2.6, 6.0±3.6 and 18.2%±18.8 in FDG-avid recurrent lesions, and 2.1±0.8, 1.8±1.0 and -17.8%±21.3 in FDG-avid benign lesions, respectively. Delayed SUVmax was significantly increased compared with early SUVmax in recurrent lesions (P2.5 and %ΔSUVmax>0%, with a sensitivity of 90.6%, specificity of 81.5%, accuracy of 87.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 89.2%, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 83.7%, which were better than the respective values obtained with the use of delayed SUVmax>2.5 alone or %ΔSUVmax>0% alone (P2.5 (P<0.005). This approach with SUVmax estimation appears to improve the differentiation between FDG-avid loco-regional recurrent of breast cancer and compromised benign lesions after surgery, since delayed scanning significantly enhances the difference in FDG uptake between these lesions. (author)

  12. Ultrastructural visualization of the transmembranous and cytomatrix-related part of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of frog motor endplate by means of an immunochemical avidity of IgG for d-tubocurarine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Tsuji

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fine ultrastructural localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR was attempted, using d-tubocurarine (d-TC, a quaternary ammonium compound binding to nAChR. The localization was based on the binding avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG for acetylcholine (ACh and other quaternary ammonium compounds, such as d-TC. d-TC was applied to the frog neuromuscular preparation and caused a blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Then, d-TC was rendered insoluble in situ by silicotungstic acid (STA, a precipitating agent of soluble proteins and quaternary ammonium compounds. After tissue fixation, a normal rabbit serum was applied to the fine precipitate of the insoluble salt of d-TC silicotungstate (quaternary ammonium radical of d-TC to form the immunochemical complex d-TC- rabbit IgG at ACh binding sites. The IgG of the complex was revealed by means of the conventional immunoperoxidase procedure used for ultrastructural localization. Under the electron microscope, fine diaminobenzidine (DAB precipitates appeared as regular rod-like structures oriented to cytoplasmic side of the horizontal part (crest of the postsynaptic membrane (between the junctional folds which is known to be endowed with nAChR. The rod-like precipitates were not observed in the postsynaptic junctional folds which are devoid of nAChR. The distance separating the rods each other was rather constant (12 - 15 nm, while the length of the rods was variable and exceeded the usual length of nAChR. The present work indicates that the rod-like structures, already observed in association with sarcoplasmic side of the postsynaptic membrane, did correspond to the intramembranous and intracytoplasmic part of nAChR and related proteins. These cytochemical results confirm that d-TC binds to ACh binding sites in the pore of nAChR, and raise the question of DAB staining of cytoskeletal proteins related to the nAChR complex.

  13. Evaluation of Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and IgG Avidity Assays Using a Protein A-Peroxidase Conjugate for Serological Distinction between Brucella abortus S19-Vaccinated and -Infected Cows ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pajuaba, Ana C. A. M.; Deise A O Silva; Mineo, José R.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of protein A-peroxidase (horseradish peroxidase [HRPO]) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISAs) and IgG avidity assays for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Four groups were analyzed: GI, 41 nonvaccinated seropositive cows; GII, 79 S19-vaccinated heifers analyzed at 3 months postvaccination; GIII, 105 S19-vaccinated cows analyzed after 24 months of age; and GIV, 278 nonvaccinated seronegati...

  14. Label-free Fab and Fc affinity/avidity profiling of the antibody complex half-life for polyclonal and monoclonal efficacy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    A unified approach to affinity screening for Fab and Fc interactions of an antibody for its antigen and FcγR receptor has been developed. An antigen array is used for the Fab affinity and cross-reactivity screening and protein A/G proxy is the FcγR receptor. The affinities are derived using a simple 1:1 binding model with a consistent error analysis. The association and dissociation kinetics are measured over optimised times for accurate determination. The Fab/Fc affinities are derived for ten antibodies: mAb-actin (mouse), pAb-BSA (sheep), pAb-collagen V (rabbit), pAb-CRP (goat), mAb-F1 (mouse), mAbs (mouse) 7.3, 12.3, 29.3, 36.3 and 46.3 raised against LcrV in Yersinia pestis. The rate of the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes relates directly to their immunological function as does the Fc-FcγR complex and a new half-life plot has been defined with a Fab/Fc half-life range of 17-470 min. The upper half-life value points to surface avidity. Two antibodies that are protective as an immunotherapy define a Fab half-life >250 min and an Fc half-life >50 min as characteristics of ideal interactions which can form the basis of an antibody screen for immunotherapy. PMID:26187320

  15. Use of an in vivo FTA assay to assess the magnitude, functional avidity and epitope variant cross-reactivity of T cell responses following HIV-1 recombinant poxvirus vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danushka K Wijesundara

    Full Text Available Qualitative characteristics of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs are important in measuring the effectiveness of CTLs in controlling HIV-1 infections. Indeed, in recent studies patients who are naturally resistant to HIV-1 infections have been shown to possess CTLs that are of high functional avidity and have a high capacity to recognize HIV epitope variants, when compared to HIV-1 infection progressors. When developing efficacious vaccines, assays that can effectively measure CTL quality specifically in vivo are becoming increasingly important. Here we report the use of a recently developed high-throughput multi-parameter technique, known as the fluorescent target array (FTA assay, to simultaneously measure CTL killing magnitude, functional avidity and epitope variant cross-reactivity in real time in vivo. In the current study we have applied the FTA assay as a screening tool to assess a large cohort of over 20 different HIV-1 poxvirus vaccination strategies in mice. This screen revealed that heterologous poxvirus prime-boost vaccination regimes (i.e., recombinant fowlpox (FPV-HIV prime followed by a recombinant vaccinia virus (VV-HIV booster were the most effective in generating high quality CTL responses in vivo. In conclusion, we have demonstrated how the FTA assay can be utilized as a cost effective screening tool (by reducing the required number of animals by >100 fold, to evaluate a large range of HIV-1 vaccination strategies in terms of CTL avidity and variant cross-reactivity in an in vivo setting.

  16. Evaluation of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and IgG avidity assays using a protein A-peroxidase conjugate for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuaba, Ana C A M; Silva, Deise A O; Mineo, José R

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of protein A-peroxidase (horseradish peroxidase [HRPO]) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISAs) and IgG avidity assays for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Four groups were analyzed: GI, 41 nonvaccinated seropositive cows; GII, 79 S19-vaccinated heifers analyzed at 3 months postvaccination; GIII, 105 S19-vaccinated cows analyzed after 24 months of age; and GIV, 278 nonvaccinated seronegative cows. IgG levels and avidity to B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) were determined using anti-bovine IgG-HRPO or protein A-HRPO conjugates. Similar levels of IgG anti-S-LPS were found with GI using both conjugates. Lower IgG levels were detected with GII, GIII, and GIV using protein A-HRPO. Both conjugates showed high performance in discriminating GI from GIII, with high sensitivity (Se; 97.6%) and specificity (Sp; 97.1%). Protein A-HRPO was better in distinguishing GI from GIV (Se, 97.6%; Sp, 94.6%) and GI from GII (Se, 80.5%; Sp, 94.9%). Protein A-HRPO excluded a higher number of positive samples with GII and GIV. IgG avidity showed that protein A-HRPO, but not anti-IgG-HRPO, was able to distinguish nonvaccinated from vaccinated cattle, showing a higher avidity index (AI) with GI than with GII, with 78% of serum samples in GII showing an AI of abortus S-LPS antigen and protein A-HRPO conjugate for preferential detection of the IgG2 subclass was shown to be suitable for serological distinction between S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Also, antibodies generated after vaccination showed lower avidity, suggesting a role for the IgG2 subclass as an antibody of higher-affinity maturation after infection, constituting an additional tool for differentiating vaccinated from infected cattle. PMID:20147498

  17. Proinsulin Expression Shapes the TCR Repertoire but Fails to Control the Development of Low-Avidity Insulin-Reactive CD8+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, James A; Thayer, Terri C; McLaren, James E; Ladell, Kristin; De Leenheer, Evy; Phillips, Amy; Davies, Joanne; Kakabadse, Dimitri; Miners, Kelly; Morgan, Peter; Wen, Li; Price, David A; Wong, F Susan

    2016-06-01

    NOD mice, a model strain for human type 1 diabetes, express proinsulin (PI) in the thymus. However, insulin-reactive T cells escape negative selection, and subsequent activation of the CD8(+) T-cell clonotype G9C8, which recognizes insulin B15-23 via an αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) incorporating TRAV8-1/TRAJ9 and TRBV19/TRBJ2-3 gene rearrangements, contributes to the development of diabetes. In this study, we used fixed TRAV8-1/TRAJ9 TCRα-chain transgenic mice to assess the impact of PI isoform expression on the insulin-reactive CD8(+) T-cell repertoire. The key findings were: 1) PI2 deficiency increases the frequency of insulin B15-23-reactive TRBV19(+)CD8(+) T cells and causes diabetes; 2) insulin B15-23-reactive TRBV19(+)CD8(+) T cells are more abundant in the pancreatic lymph nodes of mice lacking PI1 and/or PI2; 3) overexpression of PI2 decreases TRBV19 usage in the global CD8(+) T-cell compartment; 4) a biased repertoire of insulin-reactive CD8(+) T cells emerges in the periphery regardless of antigen exposure; and 5) low-avidity insulin-reactive CD8(+) T cells are less affected by antigen exposure in the thymus than in the periphery. These findings inform our understanding of the diabetogenic process and reveal new avenues for therapeutic exploitation in type 1 diabetes. PMID:26953160

  18. Gu-4 suppresses affinity and avidity modulation of CD11b and improves the outcome of mice with endotoxemia and sepsis.

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    TingTing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic leukocyte activation and disseminated leukocyte adhesion will impair the microcirculation and cause severe decrements in tissue perfusion and organ function in the process of severe sepsis. Gu-4, a lactosyl derivative, could selectively target CD11b to exert therapeutic effect in a rat model of severe burn shock. Here, we addressed whether Gu-4 could render protective effects on septic animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On a murine model of endotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, we found that the median effective dose (ED50 of Gu-4 was 0.929 mg/kg. In vivo treatment of Gu-4 after LPS challenge prominently attenuated LPS-induced lung injury and decreased lactic acid level in lung tissue. Using the ED50 of Gu-4, we also demonstrated that Gu-4 treatment significantly improved the survival rate of animals underwent sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. By adhesion and transwell migration assays, we found that Gu-4 treatment inhibited the adhesion and transendothelial migration of LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. By flow cytometry and microscopy, we demonstrated that Gu-4 treatment inhibited the exposure of active I-domain and the cluster formation of CD11b on the LPS-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Western blot analyses further revealed that Gu-4 treatment markedly inhibited the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Gu-4 improves the survival of mice underwent endotoxemia and sepsis, our in vitro investigations indicate that the possible underlying mechanism might involve the modulations of the affinity and avidity of CD11b on the leukocyte. Our findings shed light on the potential use of Gu-4, an interacting compound to CD11b, in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock.

  19. A comparative analysis of HIV-specific mucosal/systemic T cell immunity and avidity following rDNA/rFPV and poxvirus-poxvirus prime boost immunisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Charani; Eyers, Fiona; Stambas, John; Boyle, David B; Ramshaw, Ian A; Ramsay, Alistair J

    2011-04-01

    In this study we have firstly compared a range of recombinant DNA poxvirus prime-boost immunisation strategies and shown that combined intramuscular (i.m.) 2× DNA-HIV/intranasal (i.n.) 2× FPV-HIV prime-boost immunisation can generate high-level of HIV-specific systemic (spleen) and mucosal (genito-rectal nodes, vaginal tissues and lung tissues) T cell responses and HIV-1 p24 Gag-specific serum IgG1, IgG2a and mucosal IgG, SIgA responses in vaginal secretions in BALB/c mice. Data indicate that following rDNA priming, two rFPV booster immunisations were necessary to generate good antibody and mucosal T cell immunity. This data also revealed that mucosal uptake of recombinant fowl pox (rFPV) was far superior to plasmid DNA. To further evaluate CD8+ T cell immunity, i.m. 2× DNA-HIV/i.n. 1× FPV-HIV immunisation strategy was directly compared with single shot poxvirus/poxvirus, i.n. FPV-HIV/i.m. VV-HIV immunisation. Results indicate that the latter strategy was able to generate strong sustained HIV-specific CD8+ T cells with higher avidity, broader cytokine/chemokine profiles and better protection following influenza-K(d)Gag(197-205) challenge compared to rDNA poxvirus prime-boost strategy. Our findings further substantiate the importance of vector selection/combination, order and route of delivery when designing effective vaccines for HIV-1. PMID:21352941

  20. Optimal field of ionosphere radio-probing for underground nuclear explosions identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For option of ionosphere radio probing optimal conditions at remote monitoring of underground nuclear explosions it is necessary the attainments of ionosphere disturbances spatial sizes induced by explosions. In the paper experimental data obtained during 13 underground nuclear explosions conducted on the Semipalatinsk test site for 1987-1989 have been analyzed. Doppler radio probing of ionosphere has been carried out at 29 inclined radio directions. The largest length of radio direction was equal to 1320 km (Novosibirsk- Almaty). To interpret of the experimental results the coordinates and waves height reflection the point have been calculated. In the experiments the ionosphere disturbances have been observed at the latitudes from 97 to 290 km. Maximal registered size of ionosphere disturbance field in the described experiments made up: toward the south 99 km, toward the north 39 km, toward the west 73 km

  1. Diversity of radioprobes targeted to tumor angiogenesis on molecular functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular functional imaging could visualize, characterize, and measure the bio- logical processes including tumor angiogenesis at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems. The molecular probes labeled by a variety of radionuclide used in the field of the nuclear medicine play pivotal roles in molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. However, the regulatory role of different probes in tumor angiogenesis has not been systematically illustrated. The current status of tumor angiogenesis imaging with radiolabeled probes of peptide, monoclonal antibody as well as its fragment, especially nanoparticle-based probes to gain insights into the robust tumor angiogenesis development were summarized. It was recognized that only the probes such as nanoparticle-based probes, which truly target the tumor vasculature rather than tumor cells because of poor extravasation, are really tumor angiogenesis imaging agent. The research of molecular probe targeted to angiogenesis would meet its flourish just after the outstanding improvements in the in vivo stability and biocompatibility, tumor-targeting efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of tumor angiogenesis imaging probes are made. Translation to clinical applications will also be critical for the maximize benefits of these novel agents. The future of tumor angiogenesis imaging lies in liable imaging probes and multiple imaging modalities, imaging of protein-protein interactions, and quantitative molecular imaging. (authors)

  2. Avidity-controlled hydrogels for injectable co-delivery of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells and growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyasasmita, Widya; Cai, Lei; Dewi, Ruby E; Jha, Arshi; Ullmann, Sabrina D; Luong, Richard H; Huang, Ngan F; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2014-10-10

    To translate recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell biology to clinical regenerative medicine therapies, new strategies to control the co-delivery of cells and growth factors are needed. Building on our previous work designing Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogels (MITCHs) from engineered proteins, here we develop protein-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid hydrogels, MITCH-PEG, which form physical gels upon mixing for cell and growth factor co-delivery. MITCH-PEG is a mixture of C7, which is a linear, engineered protein containing seven repeats of the CC43 WW peptide domain (C), and 8-arm star-shaped PEG conjugated with either one or two repeats of a proline-rich peptide to each arm (P1 or P2, respectively). Both 20kDa and 40kDa star-shaped PEG variants were investigated, and all four PEG-peptide variants were able to undergo a sol-gel phase transition when mixed with the linear C7 protein at constant physiological conditions due to noncovalent hetero-dimerization between the C and P domains. Due to the dynamic nature of the C-P physical crosslinks, all four gels were observed to be reversibly shear-thinning and self-healing. The P2 variants exhibited higher storage moduli than the P1 variants, demonstrating the ability to tune the hydrogel bulk properties through a biomimetic peptide-avidity strategy. The 20kDa PEG variants exhibited slower release of encapsulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), due to a decrease in hydrogel mesh size relative to the 40kDa variants. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs) adopted a well-spread morphology within three-dimensional MITCH-PEG cultures, and MITCH-PEG provided significant protection from cell damage during ejection through a fine-gauge syringe needle. In a mouse hindlimb ischemia model of peripheral arterial disease, MITCH-PEG co-delivery of hiPSC-ECs and VEGF was found to reduce inflammation and promote muscle tissue regeneration compared to a saline control. PMID

  3. Dual testing algorithm of BED-CEIA and AxSYM Avidity Index assays performs best in identifying recent HIV infection in a sample of Rwandan sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Braunstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the performance of BED-CEIA (BED and AxSYM Avidity Index (Ax-AI assays in estimating HIV incidence among female sex workers (FSW in Kigali, Rwanda. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Eight hundred FSW of unknown HIV status were HIV tested; HIV-positive women had BED and Ax-AI testing at baseline and ≥12 months later to estimate assay false-recent rates (FRR. STARHS-based HIV incidence was estimated using the McWalter/Welte formula, and adjusted with locally derived FRR and CD4 results. HIV incidence and local assay window periods were estimated from a prospective cohort of FSW. At baseline, 190 HIV-positive women were BED and Ax-AI tested; 23 were classified as recent infection (RI. Assay FRR with 95% confidence intervals were: 3.6% (1.2-8.1 (BED; 10.6% (6.1-17.0 (Ax-AI; and 2.1% (0.4-6.1 (BED/Ax-AI combined. After FRR-adjustment, incidence estimates by BED, Ax-AI, and BED/Ax-AI were: 5.5/100 person-years (95% CI 2.2-8.7; 7.7 (3.2-12.3; and 4.4 (1.4-7.3. After CD4-adjustment, BED, Ax-AI, and BED/Ax-AI incidence estimates were: 5.6 (2.6-8.6; 9.7 (5.0-14.4; and 4.7 (2.0-7.5. HIV incidence rates in the first and second 6 months of the cohort were 4.6 (1.6-7.7 and 2.2 (0.1-4.4. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusted incidence estimates by BED/Ax-AI combined were similar to incidence in the first 6 months of the cohort. Furthermore, false-recent rate on the combined BED/Ax-AI algorithm was low and substantially lower than for either assay alone. Improved assay specificity with time since seroconversion suggests that specificity would be higher in population-based testing where more individuals have long-term infection.

  4. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Brazilian subtype B variant showed an increasing avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies over time compared to the subtype B US/European strain in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casseb Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 subtype B, (serotype B"-GWGR, has a tryptophan replacing the proline in position 328 the HIV-1 envelope. A longer median time period from infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS for serotype B (B"-GWGR infected subjects compared to the B-GPGR US/European strain was reported. In a cohort study, in São Paulo city, 10 B"-GWGR patients had a statistically significant increased avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies, from 79% ± 33% to 85% ± 75%, versus from 48% ± 59% to 32% ± 17% for the 10 B-GPGR subjects (p = 0.02. The T CD4+ cells showed a mean increase of + 0.45 cells/month for the B-GPGR subjects and for B"-GWGR the slope was + 1.24 cells/month (p = 0.06, for 62 and 55 months of follow up, respectively. RNA plasma viral load decreased from 3.98 ± 1.75 to 2.16 ± 1.54 log10 in the B"-GWGR group while B-GPGR patients showed one log10 reduction in viral load from 4.09 ± 0.38 to 3.17 ± 1.47 log10 over time (p = 0.23, with a decreasing slope of 0.0042 ± log10,/month and 0.0080 ± log10/month, for B-GPGR and B"-GWGR patients, respectively (p = 0.53. Neither group presented any AIDS defining events during the study, according to Center for Diseases Control criteria. Although the sample size is small, these results may indicate that differences in the pathogenicity of the 2 HIV-1 B serotypes which co-circulate in Brazil may be correlated to the avidity of anti-V3 antibodies.

  6. The value of rubella IgG avidity test in the diagnosis of recent rubella infection%风疹病毒IgG抗体亲和力检测对近期感染诊断的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊梅; 李进香; 郭振欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of rubella IgG avidity test in the diagnosis of recent rubella infection.Methods We detected the rubella IgG avidity of three groups of serum samples:48 acute infection samples from BIOMEX seroconversion panels RP-001,RP-014 and RP-011,38 rubella IgM positive samples,978 past infection samples (IgG positive IgM negative).Results All the acute infection samples from BIOMEX seroconversion panels RP-001 (50 days after infection),RP-014 (42 days after infection),RP-011 (71 days after infection) show IgG low avidity.Of the 38 rubella IgM positive samples,24 samples show IgG low avidity,9 samples show IgG high avidity,6 samples show grey zone.Of the 978 past infection samples,963 samples show IgG high avidity,9 samples show IgG low avidity,6 samples show grey zone.Conclusions Rubella IgG avidity test can be used to rapidly distinguish between past and acute infection.Of the rubella IgM positive samples,about 25% show IgG high avidity,indicate past infection,so it is important to detect IgG avidity for this population.%目的 评价风疹病毒IgG抗体亲和力检测对近期感染诊断的应用价值.方法 对三个人群样本进行了风疹病毒IgG抗体亲和力检测,包括近期感染样本:BIOMEX公司风疹病毒血清转化盘RP-001、RP-014、RP-011共计48份;风疹病毒IgM阳性样本38份;风疹病毒既往感染(IgM阴性IgG阳性)样本978份.结果 三个BIOMEX公司血清转化盘RP-001(至感染后第50天)、RP-014(至感染后第42天)、RP-011(至感染后第71天),检测均为低亲和力;38份风疹病毒IgM阳性样本中有24份检测为低亲和力,9份检测为高亲和力;978份既往感染人群样本,有963份检测为高亲和力,9份检测为低亲和力,6份检测为灰区.结论 IgG抗体亲和力的检测对于区分近期感染和既往感染具有较高的诊断价值,对于IgM阳性的人群,其中约有25%检测为高亲和力,提示对该人群进行抗体亲和力的检测尤为重要.

  7. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fakhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga.Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5 at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats.Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320GBq/mmol after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a logP value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65% was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (

  8. Preparation and Biological Study of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Ashraf; Jalilian, Amir R.; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Khalaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA-conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga). Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95° C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation, biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats. Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320 GBq/mmol) after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a log P value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65%) was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (<1%) at 30 min after the injection. The data were also confirmed by sequential imaging at 30-90 min following the intravenous injection. Conclusion: The high solubility and anionic properties of the complex led to major renal excretion and low hydroxyapatite uptake; therefore, the complex failed to demonstrate bone imaging behaviors. PMID:27408898

  9. Study on the preparation of methylene diphosphonate (MDP) labeling with 99mTc for bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 99mTc-MDP kit was prepared by using aseptic technique. The composition of MDP invivo kit including 5 mg MDP, 0.5 mg stannous chloride, 0.5 mg ascorbic acid and 5 mg sodium chloride. The kit produces 99mTc-MDP with more than 95% labelling efficiency at pH 6-7 when mixed with requisite amount of 99mTc-pertechnetate. The preparation has been found sterity, pyrogen free, to be sufficiency stable invitro as well as invivo, blood clearance. After intravenous administrations abound 50% of the dose is accumulated and retained by the skeleton. The kit provides quality product in high yield, more stable than other phosphonate kit, high bone uptake. High avidity of 99mTc-MDP for bone imaging makes it a promising agent for the detection of bone diseases. (author)

  10. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.103. 2 claims

  11. Thesis Preparation Manual

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    "This Thesis Preparation Manual has been written to provide you with format and procedure guidance for preparing and processing your thesis at the Naval Postgraduate School. It covers both unclassified and classified theses. All theses and thesis technical reports must be prepared in accordance with these guidelines. Please note that this manual is not written in the thesis format." form the Foreword

  12. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  13. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  14. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

  15. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... about the procedure to 5 or 10 minutes. Toddlers have a short attention span. Any preparation should ...

  16. Preparation of tritiated TNT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritiated TNT was prepared by catalytic exchange in tritiated aqueous medium. The tritiated water of high activity was prepared from micro amount of T2 and PdO/BaSO4. The crude product was purified by silica gel loaded paper chromatography. The radiochemical purity and specific activity are 90% and 54 mCi/mmol respectively

  17. Documents preparation and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignalina Safety Analysis Group takes active role in assisting regulatory body VATESI to prepare various regulatory documents and reviewing safety reports and other documentation presented by Ignalina NPP in the process of licensing of unit 1. The list of main documents prepared and reviewed is presented

  18. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Anjanappa; Arjun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganism...

  19. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Povidone iodine (I odophors and chlorhexidine are most often used antiseptics for pre - operative skin preparation. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and in combination with antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine in preoperative skin p reparation by taking swab culture. (2 To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups. METHODS: One hundred patients (fifty in each group undergoing clean elective surgery with no focus of infection on the body were included in th e study. The pre - operative skin preparation in each group is done with the respective antiseptic regimen. In both the groups after application of antiseptics , sterile saline swab culture was taken immediately from site of incision. In cases which showed gr owth of organisms , the bacteria isolated were identified by their morphological and cultural characteristics. Grams staining , coagulase test and antibiotic sensitivity test were done wherever necessary and difference in colonization rates was determined as a measure of efficacy of antiseptic regimen. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that when compared to povidone iodine alone , using a combination of povidone iodine and alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine , the colonization rates of the site of incisi on were reduced significantly. As for the rate of post - operative wound infection , it is also proven that wound infections are also

  20. Test Preparation: Your Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... could be asked to follow certain procedures to transport the specimen from home to the lab. Examples of some common laboratory tests that require advance preparation include: Glucose tolerance, fasting, and two-hour post-prandial blood ...

  1. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  2. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future

  3. Surface preparation of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any discussion of surface preparation for superconducting rf-surfaces is certainly connected with the question what is the best recipe for achieving high Q-values and high break-down fields. Since the break-down in a cavity is not understood so far and because several mechanisms play a role, it also is not possible to give one recipe which always works. Nevertheless in the past certain preparation techniques for niobium surfaces have been developed and certain rules for preparation can be applied. In the following the to-days state of the art will be described and it is attempted to give a short description of the surface in conjunction with the methods of surface treatments, which generally can be applied to niobium cavities. (orig./WTR)

  4. Preparation of americium amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of NGR-spectroscopy with the aid of 241Am isotope chemical state of transuranium elements in the volume and on the surface of amalgams is studied. Amalgam preparation was realized in a simplified electrolytic cell. It is shown that in the process of amalgam preparation the first order of reaction as to actinide is observed; americium is distributed gradually over the volume and it is partially sorbed by the surface of glass capillary. NGR spectrum of dry residue after mercury distillation at 200 deg C points to the presence of americium-mercury intermetal compounds

  5. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  6. Preparing Global Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Welch, Lucas; Al-Khanji, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Global citizens are those who are aware of, demonstrate respect for, and are comfortable engaging across cultural boundaries. This article explores why preparing global citizens is important and how positive psychology can inform our understanding of those who engage comfortably in today's complicated world. Soliya's Connect program is described…

  7. Preparing for CLIC tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Canon 5 undergoes first brazing for preparation in the CLIC study at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2). This will test injection for a proposed linear collider that will further explore discoveries made at the LHC. Electric fields in the canon will boost electrons into the acceleration fields of the collider.

  8. Preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkybromides are ones of the main organic precursors for fatty acids and alcohols labelling with Carbon 1-14. In this work the preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane by bromodescarboxylation of 1-octacosanoic acid is described. The synthesis yielded 80.5% of final product and more than 97% of chemical purity. Clean-up procedure modifications and spectral data bromoheptacosane are also reported

  9. Teaching Preparation Program (TPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Geography.

    Because most graduate geography students will engage in professional teaching activities, the Teaching Preparation Program of UCLA's department of geography is viewed as an important part of graduate training. The program, co-directed by a graduate student and faculty member, is available to all graduate students on a voluntary basis and consists…

  10. Preparation of UFsub(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) has been prepared via a single step reduction of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) with hydrogen and fluorine gases in the cold wall reactor. The tap density and shape of dense UF4 power are largely dependent on the nozzles used, either concentric nozzle or the nozzle separated. The round shape of dense UF4 power are obtained by adding of hydrogen gas and UF6-F2 gaseous mixture through the nozzle separated. Feeding rate, ratio of three gases and preheating temperature have also a marked effect upon the its density and particle size. The specification of the UF4 product obtained using the nozzle separated in the cold wall reactor are well met on the preparation of uranium metal using UF4 and magnesium powder. (Author)

  11. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  12. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  13. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  14. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  15. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cryopreservation; evaluation of semen in the andrology laboratory; genetic aspects of male reproduction; emerging techniques and future development of semen evaluation and handling and applied androlo...

  16. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  17. Preparation for painting

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "The aesthetic qualities of a painted work of art are determined by composition, the colours used and the application method. Equally important are the support and its preparation. Preparatory layers are fundamental to the creative process and to the perception of the work: they influence the final surface texture, the paints' luminosity and the durability of a painting. For centuries painters were well aware of these facts and took great care in this stage of the process." "These papers were...

  18. TORIS Data Preparation Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, H.; Remson, D.

    1999-03-11

    The objective of this manual is to present guidelines and procedures for the preparation of new data for the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) data base. TORIS is an analytical system currently maintained by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Bartlesville Project Office. It uses an extensive field- and reservoir-level data base to evaluate the technical and economic recovery potential of specific crude oil reservoirs.

  19. Overview of Site Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Cadarache as the host of ITER is organised at a double level: Europe, since the beginning of the candidature in 2001, is coordinating the so-called European ITER Site Studies; France, as the host country, has put in place a dedicated structure at a decisional level (close to the government), and operational level in the PACA region with two entities: The Agency Iter France (AIF), inside the CEA, interlocutor of international and European entities, in charge of site preparation and fund recollection; An accompanying prefectoral mission, in charge mainly of road adaptation and the international school. The paper will cover all the aspects related to the preparation of the implementation of ITER: Technical aspects: the progress of site preparation itself, its servicing (water supply, electrical supply, Internet...), the road adaptation between the large harbour of Fos-sur-mer and Cadarache, etc. will be detailed. Regulatory procedures: in the framework of the delegation that the ITER partners gave to the CEA/AIF on 14th September 2005, two main large files are in progress: The public debate, organised by an independent authority, informs the population of the challenges and impacts of ITER in Provence; The safety documents: the writing of the preliminary safety report, which will be submitted to the Nuclear Safety Authority and the files submitted to the public during the public enquiries are ongoing. Socioeconomic aspects: the welcome of ITER staff and their families is operational, via a dedicated Welcome Office; the location of an international school in Manosque leads now to its pre-figuration. The overall organisation will be described, as well as all planning forecast for the coming years, leading to the start of construction. (author)

  20. Preparation of americium amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a method for the electrochemical preparation of an americium amalgam from americium dioxide and americium 241 and 243 for use in determining the physicochemical properties of the alloy. Moessbauer spectra were made using neptunium dioxide, in the neptunium 237 form, as an absorber. Results show that electrolysis produces a homogeneous amalgam that gives an unoxidized product on vacuum distillation at 200 degrees C

  1. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  2. Preparation to exceptional operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation to special maintenance operations requires a specific approach according to the considered intervention type. Replacement of vapor generators is representative of a kind of intervention where technics is generally only an adaptation to the power plant context of processes already in application in construction, and where methodology, planning and organization have an important role because of the variety and the quantity of taskworks to be done, the involved manpower, the dosimetry and time lag requirements

  3. Preparing for ERP Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Karkio, Antti

    2014-01-01

    This Thesis develops a proposal for Operations and the local management in the case company how to prepare for ERP implementation and ensure successful implementation. ERP implementation can be considered successful when the ERP system has been in effective use after a certain period of time after implementation. The objective of this Thesis is to create recommendations and action points how to ensure the efficient implementation of ERP. The Thesis is focused on the pre-implementation ph...

  4. Preparation of chitosan gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerge S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  5. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  6. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-06-08

    Waste Processing Technology personnel routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  7. Seismic Network Deployment Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Husker; Igor Stubailo; Monica Kohler; Paul Davis

    2003-01-01

    Technological and scientific preparations are occurring for the development of a multi-hop radio-linked seismic array (MHRLSA) of 50 broadband stations (GURALP 3ts) and its first few deployments. A ruggedized data relay device (DRD) is being fabricated using Intel’¡Çs new low power, small form factor stargate motherboard. A DRD will be placed at each node of the array and configured as a local area network (LAN) with station spacing up to 10 km. The objective is to use protocols that have bee...

  8. Preparation of tungsten oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulian, Christopher J.; Dye, Robert C.; Son, Steven F.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Perry, W. Lee

    2009-09-22

    Tungsten trioxide hydrate (WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O) was prepared from a precursor solution of ammonium paratungstate in concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid. The precursor solution was rapidly added to water, resulting in the crash precipitation of a yellow white powder identified as WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O nanosized platelets by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Annealing of the powder at 200.degree. C. provided cubic phase WO.sub.3 nanopowder, and at 400.degree. C. provided WO.sub.3 nanopowder as a mixture of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases.

  9. Preparation of tritiated lysine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritiated L-lysine is used to study the function and metabolism of lysine in vivo. Therefore, it is an important tracer in biochemical research. The precursor, chloro-lysine was obtained by the reaction of L-lysine hydrochloride with chlorine gas in concentrated hydrochloric acid medium under uv light radiation. Then tritiated L-lysine was prepared by catalysed halogen-tritium exchange. The specific activity of L(β, γ-3H) lysine was 5.9 TBq/mmol (∼16 Ci/mmol). The radiochemical purity was over 95%

  10. KANJI: AN AYURVEDIC FERMENTATIVE PREPARATION

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh B; Jadar P. G.; Nageswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Kanji – A unique Ayurvedic fermentative preparation was prepared as per the textual reference Rasayanasara which is mainly indicated for the Shodhana (purification) of Metals and also for various mercurial processing. But Kanji by this reference is rarely prepared and used. Hence, the pharmaceutical and preliminary physico-chemical findings of this Kanji are reported in this paper. The fermentation process started on 7th day and completed on 31st day. The prepared Kanji was golden brown color...

  11. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Kehlet, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...... preparation has significant adverse physiologic effects, which may be attributed to dehydration. The majority of these findings is small and may not be of clinical relevance in otherwise healthy patients undergoing bowel preparation and following recommendations for oral fluid intake....

  12. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests. PMID:24261146

  13. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against cardiac myosin and some radiolabelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against myosin, a specific indicator of myocardial infarction and labelled with 125I and 99mTc. Human cardiac myosin was isolated from normal human heart and was used for raising the monoclonal antibodies by the hybridoma technique. Antibody producing clones were identified by ELISA and cloning was done by the limiting dilution technique. Of the 13 clones obtained, 4 were deemed suitable for further studies. The antibodies were grown in ascites, purified, isotyped and their cross reactions with other forms of myosin were estimated. All the clones showed negligible cross reaction with rabbit myosin, but reacted to different extents with bovine skeletal myosin. The most avid antibody Mab-4G4 was chosen for further labelling studies. Mab-4G4 was labelled with 125I using different oxidising agents such as iodogen, chloramine-T and lactoperoxidase. Purified radioiodinated antibody with radiochemical purity >95% could be obtained by gel filtration. Immunoreactivity was retained as tested by binding to myosin immobilised on a solid support. Mab-4G4 was also labelled with 99mTc using stannous tartrate as the reducing agent. Radiolabelling yield was ∼60%, the purity was >95% and the immunoreactivity was retained. Both the labelled preparations were tested for bio-distribution in normal and infarcted rats. The activity accumulation in the infarcted region was ∼ 1.5 and 3.5 times as that in normal heart muscle for 125I and 99mTc labelled Mab-4G4 respectively. The major problem with the iodinated antibody was the in vivo deiodination resulting in very high percentage of activity in the thyroid. Although the fraction of the total activity associated with the infarcted heart is not very impressive, the fact that the activities with the infarcted and normal hearths are significantly different is heartening. With further optimisation of labelling and use of F(ab)'2 fragments, better delineation of the infarct sites is aspired. (author)

  14. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  15. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...

  16. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...

  17. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources is organising a preparation for retirement seminar which will take place on the four successive afternoons of 2 to 5 October 2007. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of one’s working life and the start of a new period of life. This period of transition and change is experienced differently from one individual to another. In any case, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above as well as those who have retired during the year have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of th...

  18. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

      The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Indico. &a...

  19. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  20. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  1. Importance of SPECT imaging in the assessment of tumour viability: Evaluation of an indigenous preparation of 99mTc-glucarate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    breast tumours. However an ideal tumour imaging radiopharmaceutical should not only be helpful in detecting tumour but more importantly it should be able to assess the therapeutic response functionally but also be helpful in prognostication. A baseline study is required to assess the tumour avidity of the radiopharmaceutical. We have been able to achieve good tumour concentration of 99mTc-Glucarate and the findings so far indicate that it could be used to assess therapeutic response as well. Conclusion: 99mTc-Glucarate is an easy to prepare radiopharmaceutical showing avid tumour concentration in lung and head neck malignancies. The results obtained so far suggests that 99mTc-glucarate is a potential tumour imaging agent with high sensitivity. The sensitivity was more with SPECT images providing better clarity, more confidence in interpretation and better comparison with morphological imaging This can be used for detection as well as assessing therapeutic response in malignancy. Clinical trial involving larger number of patients and potential comparison with FDG PET is underway. (author)

  2. Laser Prepared Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Wegener; Claus, Dold; Marcel, Henerichs; Christian, Walter

    Laser pulses with a pulsewidth of a few picoseconds have recently received a lot of attention, solving the problem of manufacturing tools for new materials of superior mechanical properties. Processing thermally sensitive material, such as diamond and CBN structures, can be done without major material deterioration effects. The breakthrough of this new technology becomes possible, if the accuracy and life time requirements of those tools are met. The paper shows in three applications the potential of laser manufacturing of cutting tools. Manufacturing of cutting edges for CFRP cutting needs sharp and stable cutting edges, which are prepared in PCD tools by laser sources in the picosecond pulsewidth regime. Profiling of hybrid bond grinding wheels yields geometric flexibility, which is impossible by mechanical treatment so far. Touch dressing of grinding wheels substantially reduces cutting forces.

  3. Preparing Students for Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences with...... positive influence on number of our partnership agreements with other European universities. Globalisation makes it necessary to cooperate on an international platform. At the IHK we have more than 50 active Erasmus agreements. We also have bilateral agreements with many non-European countries, for example......: USA, China, Korea, Mexico, Chile and others. We describe our experiences of working on industrial projects with international teams and analyse the development and trends in student mobility. The growing popularity of these programmes and the increasing number of the students joining our international...

  4. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  5. Preparing Students for Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    international students studying at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering (in short - IHK); in particular students coming for one semester exchange program under Erasmus-programme. IHK's participation in EU-supported programmes like EIE-Surveyor and ELLEIEC, both ERASMUS thematic networks, have the......A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences with......: USA, China, Korea, Mexico, Chile and others. We describe our experiences of working on industrial projects with international teams and analyse the development and trends in student mobility. The growing popularity of these programmes and the increasing number of the students joining our international...

  6. Hospital preparation and drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss how effective management of radiation accidents requires a large amount of preparation and thought. In addition, training of the staff is absolutely essential. This is best accomplished through annual drills, but also may be accomplished through the use of videotapes. The critical points to be remembered in the handling of such accidents and in writing the procedures is that treatment of non-radiation-related injuries and medical stabilization are paramount. The second point is that it is important to be able to distinguish between a patient who has been irradiated from an external radiation source and one who is contaminated with radioactive materials. The handling of these two types of accidents is entirely different and this distinction needs to be made early. All of the items outlined in this chapter concern the care of the severely injured and radioactively contaminated

  7. Preparing for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Brendan

    2002-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the tight job market for Ph.D. recipients in physics led to a reexamination of graduate programs by some departments. The speaker participated in this reanalysis at his graduate institution and arranged presentations of alternative careers to the physics graduate student body. What became clear was that diverse options were open; job seekers just needed flexible expectations. However, there are a number of additions or modifications to graduate programs which could further help to prepare Ph.D. recipients as they move into non-traditional roles, such as additional and more formal experience in communicating science to a wide range of audiences. In particular, it would be advantageous to learn how to explain the role that basic scientific research projects play in the larger public policy arena. Examples from the speaker's experience of working as a staff member in the U.S. Congress will be presented to illustrate the skills needed in that environment.

  8. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers. PMID:6660233

  9. Integrating Technology in Teacher Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Koptelov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology plays a large role for teaching and teacher preparation. Integrating technology and core subjects content enhances the learning environment by actively engaging stu-dents. This work includes a statement explaining why integrating technology is an im-portant component for education thus, educator preparation. The following concepts that we include in our teacher preparation program will be introduced and discussed: applications for hand-held devices, the flipped lesson approach and educational game design and development.

  10. Preparing for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Panos Charitos

    2016-01-01

    The second annual meeting of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study took place from 11 to 15 April in Rome.   The participants in the second annual meeting of the FCC design study. (Photo: Vinicio Tullio/INFN) More than 450 scientists, researchers and leaders of high-tech industry gathered in Rome to review the progress of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study. The study was kicked off in 2014 as a response to a statement in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, and today embraces 74 institutes from 26 countries. With the LHC programme well under way, particle physicists are at an exciting juncture. New results from the 13 TeV run could show that we are on the threshold of an eye-opening era that presents new challenges and calls for developments. “To prepare for its future, CERN should continue to develop a vibrant R&D programme that should take advantage of its strengths and uniqueness, pursue design studies for...

  11. Prepared for internship?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abuhusain, H

    2009-03-01

    Preparedness of medical school graduates for the intern year is one of the emphasised objectives of undergraduate medical training. We have evaluated the perceived preparedness of graduates undertaking the intern year in the Republic of Ireland. A 9-page questionnaire was mailed to all 497 interns in Ireland following commencement of the intern year in July 2005. Data obtained included demographics, perceived preparedness and assessment of perceived clinical skills (four sub-domains: core competencies, communication, emergencies, and educational environment). Information on intern induction was also collected. 99 questionnaires were returned (19.9%). Most of the cohort were Irish and worked in large medical school teaching hospitals. The majority of interns felt \\'unprepared\\' for the intern year. Interns perceived themselves \\'poor\\' in all areas of clinical skills assessed. Intern induction was attended by the majority and most stated it was too short. Medical schools are actively seeking innovative methods, through early patient contact and sub-internships, to better prepare undergraduates for the intern year. The deficiencies identified in this study are significant and emphasise the need for continued reform in the undergraduate curriculum.

  12. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    (Health insurance and wealth and succession planning) During the preparation for retirement seminar in November 2009, the sessions on health insurance in Switzerland and in France unfortunately had to be postponed. Participants in the seminar also expressed interest in an information session on “How to manage your wealth and organize your succession”. The sessions on health insurance will be held on 16 March 2010 and those on managing wealth and succession on 18 March 2010. Programme for Tuesday 16 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 Health insurance in Switzerland by Mr. Sandro Breitenstein, Service de l'Assurance Maladie du Canton de Genève 10:00 Coffee break 10:20 Health insurance in France by Mr. Dominique Curtiaud, Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie de l'Ain Programme for Thursday 18 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 How to manage your wealth and organize your succession in Switzerland by Mr. Jean-Marc W...

  13. Preparing for Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk management is one of the most complex project management processes, requiring rigorous management and discipline. Unfortunately, for many organizations, the risk management process has become contaminated by poor management practices, an absence of meaningful risk assessments, meaningless risk event descriptions, incomplete and vague risk impact analyses, poor follow through on risk mitigation activities and a general lack of attention to accuracy, completeness and quality. At this point, the risk register, instead of being a key tool used by the organization to systematically identify and eliminate risk, while exploiting opportunities, has become a list of pre-prepared excuses based on the repeat of failures encountered on past projects. However, organizations are not condemned to repeat past failures. By returning to the basics of risk management, and through the application of some basic management guidelines, the risk register-instead of being an 'Excuse Register' - can become the cornerstone of a comprehensive risk management program to promote a systematic, pro-active approach within an organization that will result in accomplishing mitigation activities, reducing risk and gaining advantage through opportunities. (authors)

  14. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Soares

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front. A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180° around its longitudinal axis and 360° around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies.

  15. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Gomide, Henner Alberto; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-01-01

    Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height) was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy) in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front). A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180 degrees around its longitudinal axis and 360 degrees around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies. PMID:18949317

  16. Hurricanes : get prepared !

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauroy, Maëlle

    2013-04-01

    Living in France, near Paris, we have the chance not to be exposed to natural hazards. But on TV we can see, almost every year, geological disasters affecting people from all around the world. Sometimes it also affects us indirectly. For example, the Icelandic volcanic eruption of 2010 prevented some of my students to go on holidays because of the air travel disruption. Since then, every year, we study a natural disaster that has just made the headlines. This topic is of great interest for students because it is connected with their everyday life, with what they see on the news at that time. This year, they were amazed that a city as New York could be struck so violently by a hurricane. Understanding the formation of a hurricane and the consequences of such an event made them think about how to educate people and warn them in case of a hurricane. As a matter of fact, history teaches that a lack of hurricane awareness and preparation are common threads among all major hurricane disasters. By knowing the vulnerability and what actions people should take, it is possible to reduce the effects of a hurricane disaster. They designed posters, showing how a hurricane form, the risks and what to do in case of a hurricane alert. They used TV news broadcasts and educational videos as well as videos from the National Hurricane Center [of the United-States]. Later, they tried to model the formation of a hurricane and the consequences of storm surge, high winds and inland flooding on a coastal area. They filmed their experiments in order to create an interactive exhibition on hurricanes, to be displayed in the school library for other students.

  17. Recent advances in preparative electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Egen, Ned B.; Couasnon, Pascal; Sammons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Various approaches for preparative electrophoresis, and three new instruments for preparative electrophoresis are discussed. Consideration is given to isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis, three gel-based electrophoresis methods. The design, functions, and performance of the Elphor VaP 21 device of Hannig (1982), the shear-stabilized BIOSTREAM separator of Thompson (1983), and the recycling isoelectric focusing device are described.

  18. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  19. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Kehlet, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    , plasma and extracellular volume, balance function, and biochemical parameters were measured. RESULTS: Bowel preparation led to a significant decrease in exercise capacity (median, 9 percent) and weight (median, 1.2 kg). Plasma osmolality was significantly increased from 287 to 290 mmol kg(-1), as well as...... healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...... increased phosphate and urea concentrations, whereas calcium and potassium concentrations decreased significantly after bowel preparation. No differences in plasma or extracellular volumes were seen. Orthostatic tolerance and balance function did not change after bowel preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Bowel...

  20. Preparing for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, M

    1989-01-01

    chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been released in great quantities through their use in aerosol sprays, refrigerator fluids, and insulating foams. We can get rid of CFCs and curb the pollutants generating ozone, but it will be difficult to put the brake on either methane or nitrous oxide. And the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will demand major changes in energy policy as well as action to slow deforestation. It appears that we are already committed to rising temperatures and sea levels. The question is by how much, in which areas? A number of things can be done to prepare for these changes: Governments must recognize that there is a problem; Better models must be worked out, especially to define where the greatest impacts from climate change and sea level rise will hit; Reference scenarios must be developed to see what the impacts are likely to be in ecological, agricultural, social and economic terms; Every country should develop "avoidance strategies" to minimize risk (for example, by not building on land likely to be flooded); We must cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from human activities, by eliminating CFCs and adopting energy conservation programs and other measures to minimize CO2 release; Global agreements to protect the atmosphere are needed. PMID:12285901

  1. 人巨细胞病毒pp65 IgG亲和指数在人巨细胞病毒原发感染小鼠模型中的标志作用%The effect of the human cytomegalovirus pp65 IgG-avidity index for the human cytomegalovirus primary infection in mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 王明丽

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the significance of human cyomeg Movirus(HCMV)pp65 IgG antibody avidity index(AI)for the clinical diagnosis of HCMV primary infection through the experimental model of HCMV primaly infection in BALB/c mice.Methods 6~8 weeks,female,specific-pathogen-free BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups.6 mice in each group. And he mice were injected with 2×106 PFU/m1,2×105 PFU/mi,2×104 PFU/ml,2×103 PFU/ml and 2×102 PFU/ml of HCMV intraperitoneally respectively. Another 6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with the maximum dose of HCMV kept at 56℃ for 30 min as inactivated virus group.And HF negative control group was established at same time. All the mice ere sacrificed to obtain brain and lung tissues for the following experiments after 1 montll.(1)Tissue samples obtained from mice were inoculated in human embryo fibroblasts(HF)monolayers after routine treatment for virus isolation.HCMV specific eytopathie effect(CPE) was observed bv inverted phase-contrast microscopy.HCMV UL83 DNA in the ultures as tested by PCR and pp65 antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence.(2)Extracted mRNA from tissue samples and HCMV pp67 mRNA were analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR(RT-PcR).(3)Immunoglobulin M(IgM)antibody and immunoglobulin G(1gG)antibody avidity Was investigated for their usefulness in distinguishing primary genital HCMV infections rom nonprimary infections with ELISA kit using truncated pp65 protein.ResultsHCMV can be isolated in the tissues from the mice injected with 2×106 PFU/ml and 2×105 PFU/m1.RT- PCR and ELISA showed positive results in the same groups.The infective rates were 100%.The analysis of the low doses groups,inactivated group and HF negative ontrol group all showed negative results.Conclusions BALB/c mice can be infected with HCMV and appeared as primary infection after1 month.Determination of HCMV pp65 IgM and HCMV p065 IgG-AI by ELISA incorporated with virus isolation and RT-PCR are helpful for distinguishing

  2. PrePARe project blog

    OpenAIRE

    PrePARe project team

    2012-01-01

    The JISC-funded PrePARe project aimed to encourage researchers to take an interest and responsibility in digital preservation of their research outputs. This is a preservation copy of the Project blog documenting the project progress.

  3. Preparation of large monodisperse vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting F Zhu

    Full Text Available Preparation of monodisperse vesicles is important both for research purposes and for practical applications. While the extrusion of vesicles through small pores (approximately 100 nm in diameter results in relatively uniform populations of vesicles, extrusion to larger sizes results in very heterogeneous populations of vesicles. Here we report a simple method for preparing large monodisperse multilamellar vesicles through a combination of extrusion and large-pore dialysis. For example, extrusion of polydisperse vesicles through 5-microm-diameter pores eliminates vesicles larger than 5 microm in diameter. Dialysis of extruded vesicles against 3-microm-pore-size polycarbonate membranes eliminates vesicles smaller than 3 microm in diameter, leaving behind a population of monodisperse vesicles with a mean diameter of approximately 4 microm. The simplicity of this method makes it an effective tool for laboratory vesicle preparation with potential applications in preparing large monodisperse liposomes for drug delivery.

  4. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  5. Alumina supported iridium catalysts - preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the method employed in the preparation of alumina supported iridium catalysts, with metal contents between 30 and 40%, that will be used for hydrazine monopropellant decomposition. (author)

  6. Experimental evolution of prepared learning

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlap, Aimee S.; Stephens, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Learning is one of the most basic phenomena in the behavioral sciences. Animals learn some things better than others, and understanding what constrains this basic process is fundamental to our understanding of learning. Our paper applies an evolutionary approach to this question. We offer a simple model that considers the fitness of value of “prepared learning,” and we test this model using experimental evolution. In doing so, we created different lines of Drosophila that are prepared to lear...

  7. Pre-natal Aquatic Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Frias, Ana; Serra, Célia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Water, a source of well-being, peace, fullness, freedom and harmony. For quite some time now, water is sought after for its renowned benefits in terms of relieving the physical and emotional changes which commonly occur during pregnancy. Objectives: 1) Describe the process of intervention, arising from the use of the aquatic environment in prenatal preparation 2) Relate the gains in health from prenatal preparation aquatica Method: Descriptive creating and applying a prep...

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Man; Zhu Yun; Ji Jia-you; Shen Fan; Wang Shu-lin

    2015-01-01

    The homogeneous-dispersed graphene oxide was prepared by the improved Hummers method, which would be reduced to graphene with the reducing agent called hydrazine hydrate. The X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Transmission electron microscopy were used to analysis the phase, morphology and structure of the graphene and graphene oxide. The results show that the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared via this method, whose degree of oxidation and reduction a...

  9. Preparation of academic nurse educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tracy L; Emerson, Christi J; Hackney, Michele G; Souter, Sharon

    2016-07-01

    Nursing practice is diverse, with nurses serving in both direct and indirect patient care roles. For nurse educators, the realm of nursing practice extends beyond direct patient care to include preparing students for nursing practice. Academic nurse educators must be prepared to serve as educators, researchers, and to have experience in a clinical specialty area. For many nurse educators, advanced academic preparation often relates to a clinical area of practice rather than pedagogical practice. Graduate-level knowledge of evidence-based research and practice, teaching methods, and curriculum design and development form the foundation for academic practice. Because education and nursing are two distinctive disciplines, clinical expertise does not naturally result in teaching expertise. Lack of consensus regarding the educational preparation of nurse educators adds to the complexity of the nursing profession. The purpose of this article is to advocate for pedagogical preparation for academic nurse educators. Additionally, this article contains recommendations for pedagogical competencies indicative of academic nurse educator preparation. PMID:27428693

  10. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  11. Preparing for retirement - new seminars

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2015-01-01

    We would like to take the opportunity to inform you about a new programme related to retirement, organised by the Human Resources Department. Retirement marks the end of a career and the start of a new chapter in life.  In all cases, being well-informed and prepared is necessary to cope successfully with this transition. The programme has been developed for staff members and consists of two seminars: Leaving CERN (half day seminar): short presentations by internal speakers, focusing on what options CERN offers at the end of your career: organised once per year, next session scheduled on 24 November 2015, in the afternoon, enrolment and more information on Indico.   Preparation for retirement (2-day seminar): interactive workshop (in small groups) delivered by external experts, focusing on how to prepare psychologically as well as practically to cope with all the changes retirement brings: organised regularly in 2016, in English or ...

  12. Continuous variable remote state preparation

    CERN Document Server

    Kurucz, Z; Janszky, J; Kis, Z

    2005-01-01

    We extend exact deterministic remote state preparation (RSP) with minimal classical communication to quantum systems of continuous variables. We show that, in principle, it is possible to remotely prepare states of an ensemble that is parameterized by infinitely many real numbers, i.e., by a real function, while the classical communication cost is one real number only. We demonstrate continuous variable RSP in three examples using (i) quadrature measurement and phase space displacement operations, (ii) measurement of the optical phase and unitaries shifting the same, and (iii) photon counting and photon number shift.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Man

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous-dispersed graphene oxide was prepared by the improved Hummers method, which would be reduced to graphene with the reducing agent called hydrazine hydrate. The X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Transmission electron microscopy were used to analysis the phase, morphology and structure of the graphene and graphene oxide. The results show that the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared via this method, whose degree of oxidation and reduction are high; Also obtained a higher well-disperses and less structural imperfection of the graphene that was manufactured in the reducing system that added ammonia reduction

  14. Preparation of thin vyns films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication of thin films of VYNS resin (copolymer of chloride and vinyl acetate) of superficial density from 3 to 50 μg/cm2 with solutions in cyclohexanone is presented. Study and discussion of some properties compared with formvar film (polyvinyl formals). It appears that both can be used as source supports but formvar films are prepared more easily and more quickly, in addition they withstand higher temperatures. The main quality of VYNS is that they can be easily separated even several days after their preparation

  15. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; ZhiCai

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system.  The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.  ……

  16. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system. The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.

  17. Heterocyclic compounds based on N6-substituted adenine, methods of their preparation, their use for preparation of drugs, cosmetic preparations and growth regulators, pharmaceutical preparations, cosmetic preparations and growth regulators containing these compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Zatloukal, M.; Lenobel, R.; Holub, J.; Doležal, K. (Karel); Werbrouck, S.; Popa, I.; M. Strnad

    2011-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds based on N6 -substituted adenine, methods of their preparation, their use for preparation of drugs, cosmetic preparations and growth regulators, pharmaceutical preparations, cosmetic preparations and growth regulators containing these compounds New heterocyclic derivatives based on N6-substituted adenine, having anticancer, mitotic, imunosuppressive and antisenescent properties for plant, animal and human cells and methods of their preparation. Included are also pharmac...

  18. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  19. Teacher Preparation for Quality Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Etta R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a holistic practice-based approach, consisting of two parts, to preparing candidates for quality teaching. The first part describes the essential knowledge, skills, and habits of mind for quality teaching. The emphasis is on understanding the learning process as influenced by the cultural and experiential…

  20. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate nanocap

  1. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  2. Preparing Recombinant Gonad Organ Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Blanche Capel and Jordan Batchvarov Corresponding author ([]()) ### INTRODUCTION It can be useful to assay migration between any two adjacent tissues during development. This protocol assays cell migration between the gonad and mesonephros using tissue recombination between genetically marked and unmarked tissue, combined with an organ culture technique. First, agar blocks are prepared in a custom-built mold. The size and sh...

  3. Preparing Sustainability-Literate Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: This article explores sustainability as an emerging paradigm for preservice preparation of teachers. Sustainability education, which is rooted in Deweyan ideas about the fundamental social purposes of schooling, attends to the tensions created by the interconnectedness of environmental, economic, and social equity systems.…

  4. Preparing Teachers for Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Daniel

    This paper examines the potential impact of parent involvement in the formal education of their children and suggests ways that teacher education can be restructured to prepare teachers to work with parents. This paper attempts to answer five questions: (1) Why should parents be involved in the formal education of their children? (2) Why should…

  5. Preparation for Ignalina NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latest developments of atomic energy in Lithuania, works done to prepare Ignalina NPP for final shutdown and decommissioning are described. Information on decommissioning program for Ignalina NPP unit 1, decommissioning method, stages and funding is presented. Other topics: radiation protection, radioactive waste management and disposal. Key facts related to nuclear energy in Lithuania are listed

  6. Preparing Students for Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldoni, Federica

    2015-01-01

    This study is situated in the fields of language education, study abroad (SA) and intercultural communication. The interest in SA is increasing on the part of students, administrators, educators, and business companies for the learning opportunities that it offers. However, SA students are not always prepared to maximize their learning…

  7. Preparation of a tritiated ginkgolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Suehiro, Makiko; Nakanishi, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgolide B, a constituent of the tree Ginkgo biloba, was radiolabeled with the beta-emitter tritium ([(3)H]) in two steps from ginkgolide C. First, a triflate precursor was prepared utilizing the selective reactivity of 7-OH in ginkgolide C; the triflate was then reduced with sodium borotritide...

  8. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  9. Teacher Certification/Preparation Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Rita

    1990-01-01

    Presents guidelines for general and theater specialist K-12 teacher certification developed by the American Alliance for Theatre Education and the Speech Communication Association. Advocates that all teachers have preparation in arts and communication and that theater and communication specialists continue to be trained. (SR)

  10. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals preparation following hygienic rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rules of radiation protection are essential in a service of nuclear medicine. A sensitization to hygiene in hospital in front of the fresh outbreak of nosocomial infections is useful in order to optimize the quality approach. In this context, the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals in the structure of nuclear medicine deserves a specific reflection. (N.C.)

  12. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the...

  13. Preparation and characterization of YBCO superconductors prepared by melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the problems of the preparation of ETSC by melting are examined. Results of the thermal properties of the total substitution of Y by a rare earth are reported. The process of fabrication of HTSC both textured in thermal gradient or only locally textured for effect of the natural gradient of the furnace is indicated. The results of the physical characteristics of the specimen cooled in the natural gradient of the furnace resulting in only locally textured sample are also reported

  14. Synthesis and bioactivity of MSH4 oligomers prepared by an A2 + B2 strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehigaspitiya, Dilani Chathurika; Navath, Suryakiran; Weber, Craig S.; Lynch, Ronald M.; Mash, Eugene A.

    2014-01-01

    Oligomers incorporating the tetrapeptide MSH4, the minimum active sequence of melanocyte stimulating hormone, were synthesized by an A2 + B2 strategy involving microwave-assisted copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. A2 contained an MSH4 core while B2 contained a (Pro-Gly)3 spacer. Soluble mixtures containing compounds with up to eight MSH4 units were obtained from oligomerizations at high monomer concentrations. The avidities of several oligomeric mixtures were evaluated by means of a competitive binding assay using HEK293 cells engineered to overexpress the melanocortin 4 receptor. When based on total MSH4 concentrations, avidities were only minimally enhanced compared with a monovalent control. The lack of variation in the effect of ligands on probe binding is consistent with high off rates for MSH4 in both monovalent and oligomeric constructs relative to that of the competing probe. PMID:26120211

  15. Preparation of conducting solid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of conducting plastic mixtures to the fundamental problem of radiation dosimetry is briefly reviewed. A particular approach to achieving formulations with the necessary characteristics is described. A number of successful mixtures are defined for a number of different specific dosimetry situations. To obtain high quality stable materials requires intense blending and working of the materials at elevated temperatures. One machine that succeeds in this task is the Shonka plastics mixer-extruder. The Shonka mixer is described in complete detail. The procedures used in preparing representative formulations with this device are presented. A number of properties of successful conducting mixtures so prepared are summarized. The conditions required for molding such material are given. Several special welding methods for specific application with these formulations have been devised and are described

  16. Preparation of 172Lu generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working generator is suggested to produce 172Lu preparations regularly and for a long period of time. 172Hf, that served as a source of 172Lu, has been obtained by irradiation of a tantalum target by protons and a subsequent extractional purification using TTA in benzene. For the generator production an extraction-chromatography column with silica gel filler, preliminarily impregnated with HDEHP solution in toluene was used. 172Hf adsorbed on it has the activity of approximately 10 MBq. To wash out 95% 172Lu from the column, from 5 to 75 free volumes of 4-8 mol/l HCl were required. 172Lu preparation contained less than 0.1% 172Hf

  17. Saccade Preparation Reshapes Sensory Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Human observers make large rapid eye movements-saccades-to bring behaviorally relevant information into the fovea, where spatial resolution is high. In some visual tasks [1-4], performance at the location of a saccade target improves before the eyes move. Although these findings provide evidence that extra-retinal signals evoked by saccades can enhance visual perception, it remains unknown whether and how presaccadic modulations change the processing of feature information and thus modulate visual representations. To answer this question, one must go beyond the use of methods that only probe performance accuracy (d') in different tasks. Here, using a psychophysical reverse correlation approach [5-8], we investigated how saccade preparation influences the processing of orientation and spatial frequency-two building blocks of early vision. We found that saccade preparation selectively enhanced the gain of high spatial frequency information and narrowed orientation tuning at the upcoming saccade landing position. These modulations were time locked to saccade onset, peaking right before the eyes moved (-50-0 ms). Moreover, merely deploying covert attention within the same temporal interval without preparing a saccade did not alter performance. The observed presaccadic tuning changes may correspond to the presaccadic enhancement [9-11] and receptive field shifts reported in neurophysiological studies [12-14]. Saccade preparation may support transaccadic integration by reshaping the representation of the saccade target to be more fovea-like just before the eyes move. The presaccadic modulations on spatial frequency and orientation processing illustrate a strong perception-action coupling by revealing that the visual system dynamically reshapes feature selectivity contingent upon eye movements. PMID:27265397

  18. Pomegranate liquor preparation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galego, Ludovina; Leticia M. Estevinho; Silva, José Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) liquor has been produced for several centuries in the south of Portugal, mainly in the mountain areas. The “Assaria” variety is the preferred cultivar due to its organoleptic properties and high arils to peel ratio. Wild pomegranates are also widely distributed but, despite the health benefits that have been associated to the fruits, they continue to be unappreciated for consumption. Liquor preparation is a very good alternative for wild pomegranate fruits...

  19. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Girija Kuttan; Korengath Chandran Preethi; Ramadasan Kuttan; Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila

    2009-01-01

    Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929) and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The ...

  20. Philippines; Preparations for Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Piyabha Kongsamut

    2001-01-01

    The Philippines is planning to shift toward adoption of an inflation targeting framework in 2001. This paper reviews key policy issues in this context, describes various operational and technical preparations, and presents an empirical analysis of the factors driving inflation. Among the key policy requirements, while central bank independence appears assured, the exchange rate has been allowed to fluctuate largely freely, and the authorities are embarking on a medium-term plan for fiscal con...

  1. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative t...

  2. Microbiological aspects of probiotic preparations

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Krysenko; T. V. Sklyar; A. I. Vinnikov; A. V. Slipetska; S. S. Kudenko

    2010-01-01

    The main stages of the beginning and development of probiotic preparations, the general characteristics of modern probiotics, the scope of their use in medicine and veterinary are presented. The characteristics of microorganisms (bifidus bacteria, lactobacteria and Bacillus bacteria) used in the production of probiotics, the basic requirements that should be met by these organisms, as well as prospects for the development of probiotics are shown.

  3. SLAC Linac Preparations for FACET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.; Bentson, L.; Kharakh, D.; Owens, A.; Schuh, P.; Seeman, J.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stanek, M.; Wittmer, W.; Yocky, G.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2011-02-07

    The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been cut at the two-thirds point to provide beams to two independent programs. The last third provides the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), leaving the first two-thirds available for FACET, the new experimental facility for accelerator science and test beams. In this paper, we describe this separation and projects to prepare the linac for the FACET experimental program.

  4. Condensed Guidelines for Manuscript Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2006-01-01

    The Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada (Brazilian Research in Pediatric Dentistry and Clinic Journal), published three times a year, has an international circulation. Before writing and sending your article, please ensure that you have read, "Information and Instructions for Authors. "Ask for the instructions by mail, or at: http://www.uepb.edu.br/eduep/pboci. Additional help for manuscript preparation can be found at: www. icmje.org . Any manuscript that does not foll...

  5. Discrete Quantum Control - State Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Grice, Jon R.; Meyer, David A.

    2012-01-01

    A discrete-time method for solving problems in optimal quantum control is presented. Controlling the time discretized markovian dynamics of a quantum system can be reduced to a Markov-decision process. We demonstrate this method in this with a class of simple one qubit systems, which are also discretized in space. For the task of state preparation we solve the examples both numerically and analytically with dynamic programming techniques.

  6. Getting Ready: Preparation for Exporting

    OpenAIRE

    Iacovone, Leonardo; Javorcik, Beata

    2012-01-01

    This study examines developments at the plant-product level preceding an expansion into foreign markets. It relies on very detailed Mexican data for 1994-2004, a period of liberalization in US trade policy vis a vis Mexico, mandated by the North American Free Trade Agreement. Our approach is novel in that we focus on quality, proxied by domestic price premium, of current and future export products. Our findings are consistent with quality upgrading taking place in preparation for entry into e...

  7. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  8. Radiation sterilization of pancreatin preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enzymatic activities (in detail, amylase-, lipase- and protease-activity) of γ-irradiated pancreatin powder preparation decrease to 50 - 95% at doses range of 50 kR - 8 MR. The dose-inactivation relation-ships vary depending on every different manufactory lot. In the case of higher moisture content preparation as irradiation sample, amylase activities are more stable, the other side, protease activities are less stable. On the variation of these activities by γ-irradiation, there are no difference between room temperature and lower temperature (-700C) as irradiation condition. The D10 values of contamined bacteria and fungus (contamination number: about 1x103 cells/g and 9x102 spores/g) of a pancreatin preparation are 74C/kg (280 kR) and 60 C/kg(230 kR). Then, these values are corresponded to 645 C/kg (2.5 MR) and 540 C/kg (2.1 MR) as perfect sterilization. (author)

  9. FFTF operations procedures preparation guide. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    The Guide is intended to provide guidelines for the initial preparation of FFTF Operating Procedures. The Procedures Preparation Guide was developed from the plan presented and approved in the FFTF Reactor Plant Procedures Plan, PC-1, Revision 3.

  10. Psychological Preparation for Young Adults Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Susan A.; Feinsod, Fred M.

    1982-01-01

    To prepare the physician, psychologist or guidance counselor for the psychological aspects of pretravel preparation, discusses the characteristics of culture shock, vulnerability to culture shock, and methods of reducing psychological stress associated with leaving and returning home. (Author)

  11. Emergency preparation and maneuver of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the emergency document formation, emergency organization establishment, emergency facilities preparation and emergency accident maneuver onsite of High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR). The result of emergency preparations and maneuver is summarized. (authors)

  12. Polylactide microcapsules and films: preparation and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims at preparation of hollow polylactide (PLA) microcapsules for use as ultrasound contrast agents with controlled size, structure and mechanical and thermal properties. The microcapsules were prepared with multistage premix membrane emulsification. The mechanical and thermal properties

  13. A Simple Preparation Method for Diphosphoimidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.

    1964-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of diphosphoimidazole is presented that involves direct phosphorylation of imidazole by phosphorus oxychloride in alkaline aqueous solution. Details are given on the use of diphosphoimidazole in preparing sodium phosphoramidate and certain phosphorylated amino...

  14. Method of surface preparation of niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Schill, John F.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  15. Caustic magnesite - preparation and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plešingerová Beáta

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the selected results of the thermal decomposition of natural magnesite for preparation of active MgO. At the temperature of selective decomposition of magnesite intermediate phases exhibiting enhanced reactivity and low mechanical stability are formed. Evolution of carbon dioxide is accompanied by decrepitation of active magnesia. The selective decomposition and the accompanying decrepitation of the solid may be conveniently used as a way of enriching the chemically active magnesia by simple screening. Magnesia is accumulated in the undersize fraction, whereas undecomposed calcium carbonate and silica remain in the oversize fractions.

  16. TFTR DT preparation project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, E.D.; Dudek, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the DT Preparation Project on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is to provide the capability required to perform a sequence of deuterium-tritium experiments in a manner which is consistent with DOE orders and the Environmental, Safety and Health requirements of DOE and PPPL. These experiments will include the study of confinement and heating of DT plasmas, determining the effects of alpha particles, demonstration of DT technical capability and the demonstration of DT power production. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  17. Polyacrolein microspheres: preparation and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrolein microspheres can be prepared by means of ionizing radiation. Acrolein polymerized quite readily under cobalt 60 radiation. The irradiation dose of 0.5 Mrad was found to be sufficient to obtain over 90% conversion. The polymer is obtained in the form of a stable dispersion of cross-linked microspheres. The size of the spheres can be controlled by the type of surfactant, surfactant concentration, monomer concentration, and radiation dosage rate. A Fourier transform spectrophotometer and solid-phase NMR equipped with cross-polarization magic angle was employed to elucidate the structure difference

  18. Rhenium Nanochemistry for Catalyst Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Kessler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The review presents synthetic approaches to modern rhenium-based catalysts. Creation of an active center is considered as a process of obtaining a nanoparticle or a molecule, immobilized within a matrix of the substrate. Selective chemical routes to preparation of particles of rhenium alloys, rhenium oxides and the molecules of alkyltrioxorhenium, and their insertion into porous structure of zeolites, ordered mesoporous MCM matrices, anodic mesoporous alumina, and porous transition metal oxides are considered. Structure-property relationships are traced for these catalysts in relation to such processes as alkylation and isomerization, olefin metathesis, selective oxidation of olefins, methanol to formaldehyde conversion, etc.

  19. Preparation of Manganese Oxide Nanobelts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jisen WANG; Jinquan SUN; Ying BAO; Xiufang BIAN

    2003-01-01

    Oriented nanobelts of manganese oxide have been firstly and successfully prepared by a microemulsion techniqueunder controlled circumstances. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronmicroscope (TEM). Influences of sodium chloride and annealed temperature on the synthesis of Mn3O4 nanobeltswere investigated. It was found that NaCl is the key factor to synthesize oriented Mn3O4 nanobelts and 827 K isoptimum temperature to produce fine nanobelts. Oriented growth mechanism of Mn3O4 nanobelts was discussed.

  20. Does Explicit Expectation Really Affect Preparation?

    OpenAIRE

    Umbach, Valentin J.; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectation...

  1. Preparation of metallic terbium and terbium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of metallic terbium preparation is described. The method consists in vacuum thermolysis of terbium hydride prepared as a result of terbium chloride interaction with lithium hydride. The prepared modification of terbium hydride demonstrates a high stability in the air. It is pointed out that problems arising from direct hydridation of the metal are responsible for certain advantages of the terbium hydride preparation method described

  2. Teaching Food Preparation with Video Flash Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jan F.; Cason, Katherine; Cherry, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Food preparation skills are needed to prepare low-cost, nutritious meals that meet current dietary recommendations. Research indicates that many youth and adults can read a recipe for ingredients, but they often do not know basic food preparation techniques such as how to broil, fold, dredge, baste and other cooking methods. To address the need to…

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Preparation of invoices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of invoices. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping... FOLLOWED BY GENERAL AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 3 Preparation of invoices. (a) Pursuant to Article 4 of the Service...

  4. Teachers' Self-Assessed Level of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We asked high school physics teachers to assess their level of preparation across a number of domains. Almost all (98%) reported feeling adequately or well prepared in terms of their basic physics knowledge. The chart presents teachers' responses to their self-assessed level of preparation in six different areas. Almost all feel at least…

  5. Preparation methodology of radiation - curable resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of unsaturated polyester have been prepared according to normal alkyd methods of preparation. In this work the emphasis has been given to the preparation methodology of unsaturated polyesters in styrene. Their molecule weight distributions fall between normal alkyd's i.e. 2500 to 3500. (author)

  6. Quantum state preparation using dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We investigate the possibility of using a dissipative process to prepare a quantum system in a desired state. We derive for any multipartite pure state a dissipative process for which this state is the unique stationary state and solve the corresponding master equation analytically. For certain states, like the cluster states, we use this process to show that the jump operators can be chosen quasi-locally, i.e. they act non-trivially only on a few, neighboring qubits. We demonstrate the general formalism by considering MPS-PEPS states. In particular, we show that the ground state of the AKLT-model can be prepared employing a quasi-local dissipative process. Furthermore, we discuss a dissipatively driven Bose-Einstein condensate, where for non-interacting atoms a pure state exhibiting long range order is generated as the steady state by quasi-local coupling to an environment with finite correlation length. Applying standard linearization schemes in the weakly interacting situations, allows us to determine the solution of the master equation, revealing a steady state with properties similar to bosons in thermal contact to a heat bath. Furthermore, we consider a special class of states, called locally maximally entangleable states and discuss their applications for quantum information tasks. The generation of those states using either dissipative processes, or unitary evolutions is presented. (author)

  7. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  8. The MUSE observation preparation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras, L.; Richard, J.; Bacon, R.; Pecontal, A.; Baksai, Pedro; Vernet, Joel

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is an integral-field spectrograph which will be mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). MUSE is being built for ESO by a European consortium under the supervision of the Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL). In this context, CRAL is responsible for the development of dedicated software to help MUSE users prepare and submit their observations. This software, called MUSE-PS, is based on the ESO SkyCat tool that combines visualization of images and access to catalogs and archive data for astronomy. MUSE-PS has been developed as a plugin to SkyCat to add new features specific to MUSE observations. In this paper, we present the MUSE observation preparation tool itself and especially its specific functionalities: definition of the center of the MUSE field of view and orientation, selection of the VLT guide star for the different modes of operations (Narrow Field Mode or Wide Field Mode, with or without AO). We will also show customized displays for MUSE (zoom on specific area, help with MUSE mosaïcing and generic offsets, finding charts …).

  9. Explosive double salts and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Howard H.; Lee, Kien-yin

    1984-01-01

    Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

  10. Preparation of ferritin national standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The raw material of ferritin is analyzed for preparation of ferritin national standard (NS) for immunoassay. No impure zone is found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein amount is 1.06 g/L and the immunoactivity is 1.015 g/L by RIA, with its dose-response curve being parallel to that of Human Ferritin 2nd International Standard coded 80/578(IS). This shows that the material used is suitable for preparation of ferritin NS. 1.25 mg of raw material diluted in 0.01 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH7.4) containing 1% human serum albumin is distributed into aliquot of 0.8 mL (2 μg per ampoule), lyophilized and assayed by RIA. The mean value of this NS is 1.962 μg per ampoule in terms of IS. Similar values are obtained for the ferritin contents of quality control serum samples at different content levels when either IS or NS is used as the assay calibrator. This indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between the serum sample values at the same levels

  11. Preoperative preparation of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likić-Lađević Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available All the elective surgeries are to be avoided during pregnancy and pregnant women should undergo only emergency surgical interventions. Pregnancy is associated with different physiological changes in the organism, which should be taken into account in preparative preparation of the pregnant women. Expanded body fluid volume leads to dilutional anemia, however other hematological disorders may be present as well. Extreme obesity is a frequent comorbidity, while hypertension is associated with the highest risks since it may lead to a life-threatening complication - eclampsia. As for other coexisting diseases, urinary tract infections and gestational diabetes are the most common as well as hyperthyroidism and other diseases that may also develop. The type and severity of the acute surgical disease, extensiveness of the planned surgery as well as the type of planned anesthesia to be applied, occasionally necessitate, depending on the gestational age, termination of pregnancy to be considered. Gynecological-obstetric consultations are mandatory in all surgical interventions planned in pregnant women.

  12. MUET Preparation Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Li Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students. The instrument used in this study called “MUET Preparation Language Strategy Use Inventory” is an adapted and bilingual questionnaire designed by Cohen, Oxford and Chi (2005 known as Language Strategy Use Inventory. Forty items were analyzed and they comprised of the four skills tested in MUET which is listening, speaking, reading and writing. Data were analyzed by performing frequency analysis. The findings revealed that the listening skill is the most frequently used, while the writing skill is the least frequently used. Only the listening skill has high frequency of use, while the reading, speaking and writing skills fall under the range of moderate frequency of use. There were variations in responses with regard to the use of LLS among Form Six students in secondary schools. The findings had practical implications.

  13. Preparing Mathematical Equations in a Document Preparation Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑民; 卢金鑫

    1994-01-01

    WITS-Math is a mathematical equation formatting tool in WITS,a multilingual document preparation environment.WITS-Math includes a library manager and an equation formatter.The main task of WITS-Math is to format diversities of mathematical equations and organize them into an equation library used by other tools in the WITS environment.WITS-Math is a direct manipulation mathematics editor.It uses syntax directed markup language as the internal representation,and provides an interactive WYSI-WYG interface for users to format equations.WITS-Math provides an equation access mechanism.Other tools can access equations in a library br cross-reference from a source file or through data exchange without knowing the structure of equation libraries.The common data structure and the rendering object in the WITS platform ensure that the formatted equations can be directly used by other tools.

  14. Preparation of isolated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Carbon nanotubes are of great interest for a large range of applications from physical chemistry, solid state physics to molecular quantum optics. We propose the preparation of molecular beams of isolated carbon nanotubes for future matter wave experiments, as well as for applications in the material sciences and spectroscopy. Carbon nanotubes may be particularly interesting for quantum experiments because of their low ionization threshold, high mechanical stability and high polarizability. This is expected to facilitate the cooling, coherent manipulation and efficient detection of such molecular beams. For this purpose we are investigating different methods of solvation, isolation and shortening of carbon nanotubes from commercial bundles. Length and diameter distributions are recorded by SPM whereas the unbundling of the tubes is determined by absorption spectroscopy. Established methods from physical chemistry, such as laser desorption are currently being modified and studied as potential tools for generating beams of nanotubes in the mass range of around 50.000-100.000 amu. (author)

  15. Preparation of High Shrinkage Polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文军; 王华平; 李建梅; 张玉梅

    2001-01-01

    The common PP chips have been used to prepare high shrinkage PP fibers with shrinkage in boiling water higher than 50%. Meanwhile, the process conditions on fiber structure and properties have been discussed in detail. With the increase of drawing temperature, the shrinkage in boiling water of the fiber increases at first,and then decreases in the temperature range from 70℃ to 100℃. The better drawing temperature is from 75℃ to 85℃ according to the melt index of the PP material. The shrinkage in boiling water of PP fiber increases with the increase of pump delivery. The orientation factor and crystallinity increase with the increase of drawing temperature. With an increase in drawing temperature,unit-cell numbers and monomer unit numbers in every crystal nucleus tend to increase, but unit volume crystal nucleus tend to reduce.

  16. PREPARATION OF REFRACTORY OXIDE MICROSPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, C.C. Jr.

    1963-09-24

    A method is described of preparing thorium oxide in the form of fused spherical particles about 1 to 2 microns in diameter. A combustible organic solution of thorium nitrate containing additive metal values is dispersed into a reflected, oxygen-fed flame at a temperature above the melting point of the resulting oxide. The metal additive is aluminum at a proportion such as to provide 1 to 10 weight per cent aluminum oxide in the product, silicon at the same proportion, or beryllium at a proportion of 12 to 25 weight per cent beryllium oxide in the product. A minor proportion of uranium values may also be provided in the solution. The metal additive lowers the oxide melting point and allows fusion and sphere formation in conventional equipment. The product particles are suitable for use in thorium oxide slurries for nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  17. Aerosol preparation of intact lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M; Blanche, Patricia J

    2012-01-17

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  18. The multicultural workplace: preparing preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Rogers, S

    1993-01-01

    As we approach the 21st century, the workforce in the United States is becoming more culturally diverse. This is evident in many of our hospitals across the nation. Preceptors, who are trained as role models, communicators, and teachers, are poorly prepared to deal with the cultural diversity of nurses and their clients. The Texas Medical Center Collaborative Preceptor Program uses several methods to explore cultural differences and increase preceptors' sensitivity to people from other cultures. The course assists preceptors in identifying potential conflicts of value systems and cultural differences and enables them to identify methods of facilitating cultural adjustment. Preceptors are given the opportunity to identify their own cultural values and communication techniques and to experience cultural differences firsthand. The class includes lecture/discussion, gaming, role-play, and video. Experiential learning is used to identify cultural differences without being culturally offensive or stereotypical. PMID:8408847

  19. Microfluidic Sample Preparation for Immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S; Benett, W; Bettencourt, K; Chang, J; Fisher, K; Hamilton, J; Krulevitch, P; Park, C; Stockton, C; Tarte, L; Wang, A; Wilson, T

    2001-08-09

    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are developing means to collect and identify fluid-based biological pathogens in the forms of proteins, viruses, and bacteria. to support detection instruments, they are developing a flexible fluidic sample preparation unit. The overall goal of this Microfluidic Module is to input a fluid sample, containing background particulates and potentially target compounds, and deliver a processed sample for detection. They are developing techniques for sample purification, mixing, and filtration that would be useful to many applications including immunologic and nucleic acid assays. Many of these fluidic functions are accomplished with acoustic radiation pressure or dielectrophoresis. They are integrating these technologies into packaged systems with pumps and valves to control fluid flow through the fluidic circuit.

  20. Sonochemical Preparation of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Jin Choi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Thisreview covers sonochemical fabrication of polymer nanocomposites. In addition to its application to the synthesis of various polymeric systems, due to its powerful efficiency, sonochemistry has been widely used not only as the assistant of dispersion for nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT and organophillic clay, but also as a special initiator to enhance polymerization for fabrication of polymer nanocomposites with CNT and metallic nanoparticles. Recent developments in the preparation of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposites with polystyrene and PMMA, magnetic particle/CNT composites and polymer/clay nanocomposites along with their physical characteristics and potential engineering applications will be introduced. Physical characterizations include morphological, thermal, and rheological properties under either an applied electric or magnetic field.

  1. Preparing for Emergencies through Stimulating Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rogage, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Failure in gas infrastructure can impact significantly upon individuals, communities and the environment. Within the UK emergency plans are drawn up in a considered attempt to mitigate the significant consequences of any pipeline failure. The preparing and testing of emergency response plans can contribute to the mitigation of major incidents involving hazardous materials. It has been recognised that simply preparing an emergency plan does not necessarily prepare responders for dealing with i...

  2. Negotiation Planning and Preparation in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholst, Morten

    2014-01-01

    While scholars agree that planning and preparation is key to a negotiation’s effectiveness, negotiation research has largely focused solely on what happens at the negotiation table and little is known about what occurs in preparation for a negotiation meeting. This paper aims to redress the balance by clarifying which preparation and planning activities are undertaken to conduct a complex business negotiation compared to the recommendations found in the literature. In contrast to the majority...

  3. Scalable Transcriptome Preparation for Massive Parallel Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Stranneheim; Beata Werne; Ellen Sherwood; Joakim Lundeberg

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tremendous output of massive parallel sequencing technologies requires automated robust and scalable sample preparation methods to fully exploit the new sequence capacity. METHODOLOGY: In this study, a method for automated library preparation of RNA prior to massively parallel sequencing is presented. The automated protocol uses precipitation onto carboxylic acid paramagnetic beads for purification and size selection of both RNA and DNA. The automated sample preparation was co...

  4. Scalable Transcriptome Preparation for Massive Parallel Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Stranneheim, Henrik; Werne, Beata; Sherwood, Ellen; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Background The tremendous output of massive parallel sequencing technologies requires automated robust and scalable sample preparation methods to fully exploit the new sequence capacity. Methodology In this study, a method for automated library preparation of RNA prior to massively parallel sequencing is presented. The automated protocol uses precipitation onto carboxylic acid paramagnetic beads for purification and size selection of both RNA and DNA. The automated sample preparation was comp...

  5. Polylactide microcapsules and films: preparation and properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sawalha, H.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims at preparation of hollow polylactide (PLA) microcapsules for use as ultrasound contrast agents with controlled size, structure and mechanical and thermal properties. The microcapsules were prepared with multistage premix membrane emulsification. The mechanical and thermal properties of the microcapsules, and of films that were prepared under similar conditions, were highly dependent on the non-solvent and the liquid used as a template for the hollow core of the microcapsule. ...

  6. Preparation of cotton materials using CORONA discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Noémia; Souto, A. Pedro; Nogueira, C.; Madureira, A.; Krebs, C.; Cooper, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present work concerns the study of preparation processes when this operation is preceded by a CORONA discharge made on dry raw fabrics. The influence in the whiteness degree, hydrophility, starch removal and uniformity of properties of the cellulosic material after preparation is studied. Combined preparation processes are widely used in order to replace solutions where desizing, alkaline boiling and bleaching are individual operations, being a main interest to find the optimal conditi...

  7. Preparation of irregular mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irregular mesoporous hydroxyapatite (meso-HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is successfully prepared from Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and NH4H2PO4 using surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results reveal that the positive head of CTAB is assembled on the surface precipitated HA and much NH4+ is enclosed in precipitated HA before calcination. Field scanning electron microscope (FSEM) reveals that there exist many interconnected pores throughout the HA reticular skeleton. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiment exhibits a mesoporous material type IV curve, and pore size distribution calculated from the desorption branch of the isotherms based on Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model shows that most pores throughout the HA reticular skeleton are sized at about 40 nm, but the pores are not uniform on the whole, owning to decomposition of the 'organic' CTAB templating structures and ammonium salt enclosed in the precipitated HA. The specific surface area of irregular meso-HA is calculated to be 37.6 m2/g according to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation. Moreover, after polylactic acid/meso-HA (PLA/meso-HA) composites degraded 12 weeks in normal saline at 37 deg. C, the interconnected pores throughout the HA skeleton were enlarged and sized in micron degree, which resemble trabecular bone structure very much

  8. Process for preparing thermoplastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for preparing novel graft polymers of acrolein is provided. The process comprises immersing a polymer of ethylenic monomer into a mixture of acrolein, CCl4 and an alcohol to let the polymer swell to a small extent, followed by irradiating it by the use of isotopes, accelerators or a reactor (absorbed dose 1.0 to 1.5 Mrad). Aldehyde/ether ratio in the side chain can be controlled by varying the concentration of CCl4. The maximum graft ratio attainable is about 20%. No acrolein homopolymer is formed. The product exhibits a very high adhesive strength to glass. In one example, a polystyrene film (20μ in thickness, 150 mg) was sealed into an evacuated glass ampoule together with ethanol (13 cc), acrolein (1 cc) and CCl4 (1 cc) and irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays (1.1 x 104R/hr, 198 hrs). Graft ratio was 11.2%. Gel fraction (extraction with benzene) 0%. Aldehyde structure in the side chain 22%. Adhesive strength to glass: more than 50 kg/cm2. (Kaichi, S.)

  9. Preparing the ALICE DAQ upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Dénes, E.; Divià, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Kiss, T.; Rauch, W.; Rubin, G.; Simonetti, G.; Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Von Haller, B.

    2012-12-01

    In November 2009, after 15 years of design and installation, the ALICE experiment started to detect and record the first collisions produced by the LHC. It has been collecting hundreds of millions of events ever since with both proton and heavy ion collisions. The future scientific programme of ALICE has been refined following the first year of data taking. The physics targeted beyond 2018 will be the study of rare signals. Several detectors will be upgraded, modified, or replaced to prepare ALICE for future physics challenges. An upgrade of the triggering and readout systems is also required to accommodate the needs of the upgraded ALICE and to better select the data of the rare physics channels. The ALICE upgrade will have major implications in the detector electronics and controls, data acquisition, event triggering and offline computing and storage systems. Moreover, the experience accumulated during more than two years of operation has also lead to new requirements for the control software. We will review all these new needs and the current R&D activities to address them. Several papers of the same conference present in more details some elements of the ALICE online system.

  10. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929 and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.

  11. CMS prepares for new challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    One of the world’s largest physics experiments has just had a change in leadership. This is a chance for the collaboration to take stock of the tremendous work done for LS1 and to prepare for the challenges that lie ahead.   From left to right: Kerstin Borras, Tiziano Camporesi and Paris Sphicas. “The keyword is teamwork. That’s the only way you can effectively manage a large number of extremely talented and motivated people,” says Tiziano Camporesi who took the reins of the CMS collaboration at the beginning of the year. The recipe might seem easier on paper than in practice. However, given his 28 years at CERN, two of which he spent as the head of the DELPHI collaboration, Camporesi has extensive experience in managing large scientific collaborations and success in this respect is well within his reach: “I have learned many lessons from the past and I believe that building consensus is instrumental to successful leadership.” The C...

  12. LHC Report: Restart preparations continue

    CERN Multimedia

    Katy Foraz for the LHC team and Julia Trummer for the RP Group

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance and consolidation work has been progressing well in both the machine and the experiments in preparation for the March restart.   A sample material is attached to the LHC (the white bag taped to the green line), to measure the radiation doses. Additional work was required around Point 5 due to the discovery and repair of a problem with the RF fingers at the connection of two beam vacuum chambers in CMS. The repair has been completed successfully and the sector is now under vacuum. In order to avoid rushing the delicate final operations required for closing the detector, the restart of the machine has been postponed by one week, from 7 March to 14 March. In the machine, the first cool-down to 1.9 K has started in several sectors ,and the cool-down of the whole machine is still planned to be finished by 21 February. The time window between 22 February and 14 March will be dedicated to powering and cryogenic tests. Since 12 December, the Radiation Protection (RP) group has been deep...

  13. How to prepare for revalidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Lyn; Llewellyn, Denise

    2016-06-15

    Rationale and key points This is the first in a series of eight articles providing information about the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) revalidation process, which was introduced in April 2016. This article focuses on setting up an online NMC account, preparing for revalidation and understanding revalidation requirements. » Revalidation is a mandatory process for nurses and midwives, enabling them to demonstrate their ability to practise safely and effectively. » Registered nurses and midwives are required to revalidate with the NMC every 3 years. » Revalidation encourages nurses and midwives to stay up to date in their professional practice. Reflective activity How to revalidate articles can help to update your practice and provide information about the revalidation process, including how you can successfully submit your revalidation request to the NMC. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. The strengths of revalidation compared to post-registration education and practice requirements. 2. The revalidation requirements and how these can be met. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27305257

  14. Process for preparing energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA; , Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Swansiger, Rosalind W. (Livermore, CA); Fox, Glenn A. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-12-13

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  15. Preparation of some compounded soup powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Bhatia

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Recipes for the preparation of some compounded soup powders from tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, green peas, dried peas, chicken and mutton using components like corn starch, skim milk powder, hydrogenated groundnut oil, common salt, mixed spices (black pepper, caraway and ginger and monosodium glutamate have been developed. Pretreatment and drying conditions for the preparation of pre-cooked dry bases from tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, green peas, dried peas, chicken and mutton have been determined. Except for tomatoes where vacuum drier is necessary, other bases can be easily prepared in a simple cross flow hot air cabinet drier and used subsequently in the preparation of soup powders.

  16. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, May 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-06-17

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of May, 1958. Manufacturing employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are discussed.

  17. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, February 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-03-19

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of February, 1958. Manufacturing employee relations, process development, plant improvements and financial operations are described.

  18. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-08-09

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of July 1957. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  19. Proceedings. Feedstock preparation and quality 1997 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Jan Erik [ed.

    1998-06-01

    The IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Preparation and Quality 1997 Workshop dealt with fuel feedstock quality improvement and methods to determine feedstock properties. It was arranged by the Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences on behalf of the IEA Bioenergy Task XII Activity 4.1 Feedstock Preparation and Quality. This Activity is a 3-year cooperation 1995-1997 between Denmark, Sweden and the USA, mainly based on information exchange. The workshop had two sections: presentations by invited experts, and country reports on recent development in feedstock preparation and quality in the three participating countries. Separate abstracts have been prepared for four of the six papers presented

  20. Hydrogen PEMFCs prepared by microfabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, D.; Ponath, N.; Mueller, J. [Hamburg Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Micro Systems Technology

    2005-07-01

    In this work, microfabrication of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) produced on Pyrex glass substrates is presented. The PEMFC demonstrators were fabricated with minimized Pt catalyst loadings which were applied by sputter deposition, a standard thin lm deposition process in semiconductor technology. A meander flow field of 1 mm wide channels that are 250 {mu}m deep and spanning 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} was patterned into the glass by wet chemical etching to transport the fuels. A thin film of Cr and Au was deposited on the glass flow fields by sputter deposition to electrically connect the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that was placed between two such patterned substrates. It was assembled from two Pt loaded porous electrodes and a Na on membrane in a hot-bonding process using Na on solution. The Pt catalyst was applied directly on the porous electrodes of 1.2 x 1.2 cm{sup 2} active area by sputter deposition. To evaluate the feasibility to reduce the amount of the Pt catalyst by applying this technique, demonstrators were prepared with different loadings of Pt to investigate their performance. The characterization of the PEMFCs was performed at room temperature, ambient pressure, and under H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} operation with no external humidification. The peak power density for a fuel cell with a catalyst loading of 0.05 mg cm{sup -2} Pt at anode and cathode is 136 mW cm{sup -2}. With respect to their low Pt loading the performance of the presented microfabricated PEMFCs is remarkable when compared to those of other micro fuel cells published. (orig.)

  1. Radiochemical stability of radiopharmaceutical preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Patricia de A.; Silva, Jose L. da; Ramos, Marcelo P.S.; Oliveira, Ideli M. de; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Herrerias, Rosana; Zapparoli Junior, Carlos L.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The 'in vitro' stability studies of the radiopharmaceutical preparations are an essential requirement for routine practice in nuclear medicine and are an important parameter for evaluating the quality, safety and efficacy required for the sanitary registration of pharmaceutical products. Several countries have published guidelines for the evaluation of pharmaceutical stability. In Brazil, the stability studies should be conducted according to the Guide for Conducting Stability Studies published in the Resolution-RE n. 1, of 29th July 2005. There are also for radiopharmaceutical products, two specific resolutions: RDC-63 regulates the Good Manufacturing Practices for Radiopharmaceuticals and RDC-64 provides the Registration of Radiopharmaceuticals, both published on the 18th December 2009. The radiopharmaceutical stability is defined as the time during which the radioisotope can be safely used for the intended purpose. The radiochemical stability can be affected by a variety of factors, including storage temperature, amount of radioactivity, radioactive concentration, presence or absence of antioxidants or other stabilizing agents. The radiochemical stability studies must be established under controlled conditions determined by the effective use of the product. The aim of this work was to evaluate the radiochemical stability of labeled molecules with {sup 131}I, {sup 123}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 18}F, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 111}In as well as {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl radiopharmaceuticals. Radiochemical purity was evaluated after production and in the validity period, with the maximum activity and in the recommended storage conditions. The analyses were carried out by thin-layer silica gel plate, paper chromatography and gel chromatography. The experimental results showed to be in accordance with the specified limits for all the analysed products. (author)

  2. Firewood preparation devices in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the market situation regarding firewood preparation devices is presented. The information was collected from the answers to a mail questionnaire. The review is assumed to include all the leading manufacturers and importers. Firewood production devices were available from 26 manufacturers. The range of models amounted to over 70. These may be divided into three categories: 1. cutting devices: the most common solution being a cross-cutting circular saw. There were only a few of these on sale as it is quite easy to include a splitting device on the same frame. 2. Splitting devices: e.g. screw splitter and hydraulically powered splitter. About 20 models are available on the markets. Cross cutting and splitting devices: these are the most popular devices. A cross-cutting circular saw with screw or hydraulic splitter is the most common type. There are about 50 models available on the markets. Cross-cutting and splitting devices are often equipped with conveyor for transferring the split wood e.g. into a trailer. Chopping devices are delivered as tractor powered devices, as electric motor powered devices or as combustion engine powered devices. Some of them are equipped with a time saving feeding device enabling the next stem to be lifted into position while the previous one is being chopped. The Finnish Work Efficiency Institute's studies show that when cross-cutting and splitting of stems into pieces of 35-50 cm in length, productivity for one operator varies in between 0.8 - 3.2 m3/h, depending on the device and work method used. (6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  3. Praxis and Poiesis in Piano Repertoire Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Regina Antunes Teixeira; Hentschke, Liane

    2011-01-01

    The piano repertoire preparation of three undergraduate students at three different academic levels--the first, fifth and eighth semesters--was followed during an academic semester. A phenomenological approach was used to collect data in three stages: an introductory interview, observations of the repertoire under preparation and a final…

  4. Final Report BW Sample Collection& Preparation Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, R P; Belgrader, P; Meyer, G; Benett, W J; Richards, J B; Hadley, D R; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-01-31

    The objective of this project was to develop the technique needed to prepare a field collected sample for laboratory analysis and build a portable integrated biological detection instrument with new miniaturized and automated sample purification capabilities. The device will prepare bacterial spores, bacterial vegetative cells, and viral particles for PCR amplification.

  5. Effective Preparation Program Features: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Gary M.; Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a summary of a report prepared for the University Council for Educational Administration Program Improvement Project for the Wallace Foundation. This explores the research base for educational leadership preparation programs, specifically examining literature on program features. The review covers context, candidates, faculty,…

  6. Preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon tin alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnat, M.; Marchal, G.; Piecuch, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a new method to obtain hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor alloys. The method is reactive co-evaporation. Silicon tin hydrogenated alloys are prepared under atomic hydrogen atmosphere. We discuss the influence of various parameters of preparation (hydrogen pressure, tungsten tube temperature, substrate temperature, annealing...) on electrical properties of samples.

  7. Leading Leadership Preparation: 21st Century Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2010-01-01

    As political accountability and economic reality increasingly influence higher education, many leadership preparation programs are seeking cost effective instructional delivery systems that yield highly effective results. Simultaneously, large numbers of graduate students are seeking quality leadership preparation programs that provide both…

  8. Dissipative preparation of entanglement in optical cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael James; Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme for the preparation of a maximally entangled state of two atoms in an optical cavity. Starting from an arbitrary initial state, a singlet state is prepared as the unique fixed point of a dissipative quantum dynamical process. In our scheme, cavity decay is no longer...

  9. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  10. Effectiveness of an Online Graduate Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Brittany; Neimeyer, Greg J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a controlled examination of the effectiveness of an online graduate preparation program, the Virtual Advisor. The effects of the Virtual Advisor were compared to a website preparation group and a wait-list control group. Results indicated that, compared to the control group, students who utilized the…

  11. Well-Prepared Teachers Inspire Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecheone, Raymond L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This is an era of transformation in the preparation, induction, and assessment of prospective teachers. The tension between local and state control is at the heart of the debate. States should be responsible for establishing performance standards that ensure that new teachers are well-prepared, competent, and ready to teach. This is why the…

  12. Intestinal preparation prior to capsule endoscopy administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Pons Beltrán; Cristina Carretero; Bego(n)a Gonzalez-Suárez; I(n)aqui Fernández-Urien; Miguel Mu(n)oz Navas

    2008-01-01

    In order to have an adequate view of the whole small intestine during capsule endoscopy,the preparation recommended consists of a clear liquid diet and an overnight fast.However,visualization of the small bowel during video capsule endoscopy can be impaired by intestinal contents.To improve mucosal visualization,some authors have evaluated different regimens of preparation.There is no consensus about the necessity of intestinal preparation for capsule endoscopy and it should be interesting to develop adequate guidelines to improve its efficacy and tolerability.Moreover,the effect of preparation type (purgative) on intestinal transit time is not clear.Since a bowel preparation cannot definitively improve its visibility (and theoretically the yield of the test),it is not routinely recommended.

  13. Heterocyclic compounds based on N6-substituted adenine, methods of their preparation, their use for preparation of drugs, cosmetic preparations and growth regulators, pharmaceutical preparations, cosmetic preparations and growth regulators containing these compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, I.; Holub, J.; Lenobel, R.; Werbrouck, S.; Doležal, K. (Karel); M. Strnad; Zatloukal, M.; Massino, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic derivatives based on N6-substituted adenine, having anticancer, mitotic, immunosuppressive and antisenescent properties for plant, animal and human cells and methods of their preparation. Included are also pharmaceutical compositions, cosmetic preparations and growth regulators, which contain these derivatives as active compound and the use of these derivatives for the preparation of drugs, cosmetic preparations, in biotechnological processes, in cosmetics and in agriculture.

  14. Preparation of naphtalene monocrystals for scintillometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to prepare naphthalene crystals for scintillometers is described. The different methods of preparation and the reasons to choose the Bridgman method are analysed. The thermal curves of the growing furnaces, blister shape, use of curved capillaries and the most convenient growing velocities are studied in detail. Methods of preparation of high purity naphthalene by means of chromatography and zone melting are described. Finally the operations of cutting and polishing of crystal and their most significant physics properties are studied. (Author) 28 refs

  15. Fundamentals of preparative and nonlinear chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL; Felinger, Attila [ORNL; Katti, Anita [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shirazi, Dean G [unknown

    2006-02-01

    The second edition of Fundamentals of Preparative and Nonlinear Chromatography is devoted to the fundamentals of a new process of purification or extraction of chemicals or proteins widely used in the pharmaceutical industry and in preparative chromatography. This process permits the preparation of extremely pure compounds satisfying the requests of the US Food and Drug Administration. The book describes the fundamentals of thermodynamics, mass transfer kinetics, and flow through porous media that are relevant to chromatography. It presents the models used in chromatography and their solutions, discusses the applications made, describes the different processes used, their numerous applications, and the methods of optimization of the experimental conditions of this process.

  16. Probabilistic remote state preparation by W states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jin-Ming; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider a scheme for probabilistic remote state preparation of a general qubit by using W states. The scheme consists of the sender, Alice, and two remote receivers Bob and Carol. Alice performs a projective measurement on her qubit in the basis spanned by the state she wants to prepare and its orthocomplement. This allows either Bob or Carol to reconstruct the state with finite success probability. It is shown that for some special ensembles of qubits, the remote state preparation scheme requires only two classical bits, unlike the case in the scheme of quantum teleportation where three classical bits are needed.

  17. 30 CFR 56.6303 - Initiation preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... well. (c) When using detonating cord to initiate another explosive, a connection shall be prepared with the detonating cord threaded through, attached securely to, or otherwise in contact with the explosive....

  18. Preparing for the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. End of Life Preparing For The End of Life Few of us are comfortable talking about death, ... it at some point. Defining the End of Life The end of life and how people die ...

  19. Techniques for the Preparation of Porous Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Porous metals have been developed greatly and swiftly in recent years. In this paper, main types of these materials are described briefly, and their preparation methods are related primarily, with the purpose offering some clues for optimizing the producing technology.

  20. Preparation of targets by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors are described which are involved in target preparation by direct ion implantation and the limitations and pitfalls of the method are emphasized. Examples are given of experiments for which ion implanted targets are well suited. (author)

  1. Preparing Teachers to Learn From Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马悦

    2012-01-01

    A teacher preparation program is needed to help prospective teacher learn how to teach from studying teaching. The program is composed of four skills. The program is more realistic and brings more promising set of beginning teacher competencies.

  2. Preparing Your Family for a New Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overwhelmed, look to your spouse, other relatives, and friends for support and an extra set of arms. Other ideas to help prepare your very young child for a new sibling include Look at picture books about a new ...

  3. Sample preparation for single molecule localization microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John R; Ross, Stephen T; Davidson, Michael W

    2013-11-21

    Single molecule localization-based optical nanoscopy was introduced in 2006, surpassing traditional diffraction-limited resolutions by an order of magnitude. Seven years later, this superresolution technique is continuing to follow a trend of increasing popularity and pervasiveness, with the proof-of-concept work long finished and commercial implementations now available. However one important aspect that tends to become lost in translation is the importance of proper sample preparation, with very few resources addressing the considerations that must be made when preparing samples for imaging with single molecule level sensitivity. Presented here is a an in-depth analysis of all aspects of sample preparation for single molecule superresolution, including both live and fixed cell preparation, choice of fluorophore, fixation and staining techniques, and imaging buffer considerations. PMID:24084850

  4. Preparation of 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone is prepared, on a millimole scale by reacting labelled thiocyanate with hydrazine sulfate in ethanolic medium. The hydrazine thiocyanate so formed is then condensed with aldehyde to form the thiosemicarbazone

  5. The preparation of states in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Jürg; Schubnel, Baptiste

    2016-04-01

    The important problem of how to prepare a quantum mechanical system, S, in a specific initial state of interest—e.g., for the purposes of some experiment—is addressed. Three distinct methods of state preparation are described. One of these methods has the attractive feature that it enables one to prepare S in a preassigned initial state with certainty, i.e., the probability of success in preparing S in a given state is unity. This method relies on coupling S to an open quantum-mechanical environment, E, in such a way that the dynamics of S∨E pulls the state of S towards an "attractor," which is the desired initial state of S. This method is analyzed in detail.

  6. Preparation of a Simple Thermochromic Solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oort, Michiel J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests a laboratory introduction to solid-solid phase transitions, thermochromism, and color changes associated with changes in ligand coordination suitable for undergraduate students in physical and general chemistry. Describes the preparation and analysis of the experiment. (CW)

  7. Rehabilitation Counseling in Transition Planning and Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Edna Mora; King, John

    1989-01-01

    The article addresses the role of rehabilitation counselors in special education transition programs for students with disabilities. It contends that the special training of rehabilitation counselors prepares them to coordinate existing school and community resources into effective transition programs. (DB)

  8. Preparation of methyl-3H labelled dimethylnitrosamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium labelled dimethylamine was prepared from benzalmethylimine in reaction with methyl-3H iodide followed by hydrolysis. The product was converted with sodium nitrite in glacial acetic acid into labelled dimethylnitrosamine. The radiochemical yield was 85%. (author)

  9. BIPR7 library preparation by HELIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of diffusion data for BIPR7 and PERMAK programs by spectral code HELIOS is described. Calculation sequence and HELIOS calculation tuning are characterised. Characteristics of the calculations are presented. Short comparison with Kurchatov institute results is given (Author)

  10. Preparing for the next flu pandemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴行

    2005-01-01

    There has not been a worldwide outbreak of in-fluenza (流感) since 1968.Experts say there should have been another by now. They hope to be prepared to limit the effects when the nextone finally happens.

  11. UCL preparations for Federated Access Management

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, M

    2008-01-01

    A case study on UCL's preparations for federated access to electronic library resources using Shibboleth technology. Describes the context of UCL Library Services, the decision-making process, practical considerations, current plans, and the user experience

  12. Astronaut Virgil Grissom preparing for centrifuge training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom, wearing the new Mercury pressure suit, is preparing for centrifuge training. He is talking with Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper and two others before the training session.

  13. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS IN COTTON PREPARATION SPINNING

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Barbu; Adina Bucevschi; Alexandru Popa

    2011-01-01

    In this work are presented the latest achievements in the field of cotton spinning. All in preparation for spinning cotton equipment are aspects of automation, robotics and aggregatisation which led to increased quality of products and increasing labor productivity.

  14. Thermochemical evaluation and preparation of cesium uranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of cesium uranates, Cs2UO4 and Cs2U2O7, which are predicted by thermochemical estimation to be formed in irradiated oxide fuels, were prepared from U3O8 and Cs2CO3 for measurements of the thermal expansions and thermal conductivities. In advance of the preparation, thermochemical calculations for the formation and decomposition of these cesium uranates were performed by Gibbs free energy minimizer. The preparation temperatures for Cs2UO4 and Cs2U2O7 were determined from the results of the thermochemical calculations. The prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, which showed that the single phases of Cs2UO4 and Cs2U2O7 were formed. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were also performed on these samples, and the decomposition temperatures were evaluated. The experimental results were in good agreement with those of the thermochemical calculations. (author)

  15. Semen preparation techniques for intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, C. M.; Heineman, M. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Farquhar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Semen preparation techniques for assisted reproduction, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), were developed to separate the motile morphological normal spermatozoa. Leucocytes, bacteria and dead spermatozoa produce oxygen radicals that negatively influence the ability to fertilize t

  16. Porcelain veneers - preparation design: A retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the preparation of tooth design for porcelain veneers. It follows the literature more than three decades back in the past. From the very beginning, porcelain veneers were placed to no/minimally prepared tooth substance, showing different problems in clinical use. Later, the technique of etching the porcelain and controlling the reduction of tooth structure, presented the great steps forward in porcelain veneers accepting. A special accent concerning the preparative design was placed on variations of incisal edge preparation - the problem, which is still present in current practice. Additionally, the paper emphasizes the extremely demanding protocols in making the porcelain veneers as well as their expanded clinical indications.

  17. Process for the preparation of organoclays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing organoclays for use as rheological control agents and in the preparation of nanocomposites. Typically, the clay is dispersed in water, and a specific amount of polymeric hydrotrope, ranging from 0.1 to 15 weight percent relative to the weight of the clay, is adsorbed onto the clay surface. Quaternary amine exchange is also performed on the clay to modify the surface hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) of the clay.

  18. PREPARATION OF LIPOSOMES CONTAINING WHEY PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Suha Yalçın; Murat Türkoğlu

    2010-01-01

    Aim: In recent years, it has been shown that whey and its components have a number of health-promoting effects. We aimed to isolate fractions containing whey proteins using chromatography and then to prepare antioxidant liposomes in order to obtain a gel suitable for cosmetic preparations.Methods: Fractionation of whey proteins was achieved by extraction, filtration and centrifugation followed by liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activities of the fractions was determined by their copper...

  19. Innovative methods for inorganic sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures and guidelines are given for the dissolution of a variety of selected materials using fusion, microwave, and Parr bomb techniques. These materials include germanium glass, corium-concrete mixtures, and zeolites. Emphasis is placed on sample-preparation approaches that produce a single master solution suitable for complete multielement characterization of the sample. In addition, data are presented on the soil microwave digestion method approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Advantages and disadvantages of each sample-preparation technique are summarized

  20. ADDITIONAL QUALIFICATION OF PREPARATIONS FOR A CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Mikhailovich ZATSEPIN

    2015-01-01

    The author of the article considers the additional qualifi-cation of preparations for a crime. The literal interpreta-tion of the law, in our opinion, implies the adjustment or adaptation of devices and instruments of the crime. At the same time, adaptation of devices may indicate to the improvement of respective capabilities. Qualification of preparations for a crime as preischemia of accomplices involves identification of the signs of preischemia and accomplices of the crime. In relevant li...

  1. Catalytic Cracking of Heptane Using Prepared Zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Nsaif; Ahmed Abdulhaq; Ali Farhan; Safa Neamat

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the potential of type Y-zeolite prepared locally from Iraqi Rice Husk (IRH) (which considered as a type of agricultural waste that difficult to discard it in conventional methods in Iraq) on the removal of one heavy metals pollutant which was divalent zinc (Zn+2) ions from industrial wastewater using different design parameters by adsorption process. The design parameters studied to remove (Zn+2) ions using zeolite prepared locally from (IRH) as an ad...

  2. Preparation of very pure active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of very pure active carbon is described. Starting from polyvinylidene chloride active carbon is prepared by carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere, grinding, sieving and activation of the powder fraction with CO2 at 9500 to approximately 50% burn-off. The concentrations of trace and major elements are reduced to the ppb and ppm level, respectively. In the present set-up 100 g of carbon grains and approximately 50 g of active carbon powder can be produced weekly

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Shampoo Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; S. Nayak

    2004-01-01

    Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a st...

  4. Specimen Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Microscopy Laboratory We recommend consultation with one of the lab directors before preparing specimens. The methods presented here provide an overview of preparation techniques for a variety of specimens. - **Conductive Specimens** (such as metallic objects): Usually, these specimens do not have to be sputter coated. Simply mount the specimen on a SEM stub using conductive paint or putty. - **Non-conductive Dry Specimens** (ex: ceramics, polymers): Mount on...

  5. Methods of preparing polymeric gradient composites

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dybowska; J. Stabik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this work is to introduce basic methods of preparing polymeric gradient materials, which allow to join two different components to ensure the required properties and structure of the functionally gradient materials.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper few of methods of preparing functionally gradient polymeric materials are briefly described which were successful employed in many investigations performed during last few years.Findings: It was noticed that the knowle...

  6. Career Concern and Tax Preparer Fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Liansheng Wu; Xianhui Bo

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of career concern on fraud among tax return preparers. A two-stage model is built to ascertain whether the propensity of tax preparers to cooperate with taxpayers in underpaying tax can be decreased if the revealed fraud behavior increases the probability of being audited by the tax agency in the following period. After solving the unique SPNE, this effect is shown to exist.

  7. Return on investment (ROI) proposal preparation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ROI Proposal Preparation Guide is a tool to assist Hanford waste generators in preparing ROI proposal forms for submittal to Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE/RL) for funding. The guide describes the requirements for submitting an ROI proposal and provides examples of completed ROI forms. The intent is to assist waste generators in identifying projects that meet the criteria, provide information necessary to complete the ROI forms, and submit a proposal that is eligible to receive funding

  8. Sample preparations for spark source mass spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods have been developed for the preparation of various materials for spark source mass spectrography. The essential features of these preparations (all which can provide adequate precision in a cost-effective manner) consist in obtaining spark-stable electrode sample pieces, a common matrix, a reduction of anomolous effects in the spark, the incorporation of a suitable internal standard for plate response normalization, and a reduction in time

  9. PREPARATION OF POLYALKYLCYANOACRYLATE NANOPARTICLES WITH VARIOUS MORPHOLOGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-lin Xu; He-xian Li; Guo-chang Wang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various reaction conditions on the preparation of polyalkylcyanoacrylate (PACA) nanoparticles are studied. The PACA nanoparticles with different crosslinking degrees and morphology are prepared. Addition of crosslinkers can not only adjust the particle size, but also change the morphology of PACA nanoparticles. Moreover, the loose network structure of the PACA nanoparticles with “core/shell-like” morphology is investigated by AFM and TEM in detail.

  10. PREPARATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HINGULIYA MANIKYARASA

    OpenAIRE

    Inamdar Mahesh Prabhakar; Patil Ragini Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Rasashastra deals with the preparation of medicines mainly with the help of Mercury, minerals, metals and other herbs. It is our prime duty to develop basic standards at every step of drug preparation. The aim of the present research work was to study pharmaceutical and analytical aspect of Hinguliya Manikyarasa. For Pharmaceutical study the method used was the observations regarding time, temperature, cardinal stages, finished product and consumption of fuel. Temperature range for Hinguliya ...

  11. Preparing graduate students to be educators

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Edward; Finkelstein, Noah

    2006-01-01

    We present two programs that address needs to better prepare graduate students for their roles as professional physicists, particularly in the areas of teaching and education research. The two programs, Preparing Future Physicists (PFP) and a course, Teaching and Learning Physics, are designed to be mutually supportive, address these broader graduate roles, and support the development of the field of physics education research. While voluntary, PFP has attracted the participation of roughly h...

  12. Spectrophotometric analysis of Cabergoline in pharmaceutical preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, Demet; Dogan, Aysegul; Basci, Nursabah E.

    2011-01-01

    Cabergoline (CAB) is a synthetic ergoline dopamine agonist with high affinity to D2 receptors, thus used for the treatment of Parkinson's patients and hyperprolactinemia disorders. In this study, simple, fast, reliable and validated UV-VIS and 2nd order derivative spectrophotometric methods for determination of CAB in pharmaceutical preparations were developed without any previous sample preparation step. Determination of CAB was performed at 280 nm wavelength by UV-VIS spectrophotometry and ...

  13. Monolysocardiolipin: improved preparation with high yield

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, JunHwan; Charles L. Hoppel

    2011-01-01

    A simple, high-yielding preparation of monolysocardiolipin (MLCL) by phospholipase A2 hydrolysis of cardiolipin (CL) in methanol on a semi-preparative scale is described. In methanol, phospholipase A2 preferentially hydrolyzes CL to MLCL. This selectivity results in ∼80% yield of MLCL. The synthesized MLCL and dilysocardiolipin were characterized by NMR and ESI-MS/MS. Only the sn-2 position of CL was hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2 in methanol.

  14. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide (227Ac, 227Th, 223Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  15. Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing 35S-sulfate. L-S35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

  16. Raman Scattering in Coherently Prepared Atomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fu-Cheng(林福成); Yongjoo Rhee; Jonghoon Yi; Hyunmin Park

    2001-01-01

    Atoms in the coherent superposition state prepared by a pulse pair are used as a novel optical memory material where a single interrogation pulse will produce a new pulse pair preserving the relative amplitudes and phases of the preparing pulse pair. Such a coherent superposition state can also be specially tailored along the propagation path to generate Raman scattering in a relatively short distance with very high efficiency.

  17. Antigenic contents of Treponema pallidum preparations.

    OpenAIRE

    Wos, S M; Wicher, K

    1986-01-01

    In investigations of syphilis various Treponema pallidum antigens are used to study the immune responses of naturally or experimentally infected hosts. In the past these antigen preparations have rarely been examined for their antigenic contents and activity. In the present study, supernatant, sediment, and solubilised preparations of T pallidum Nichols strain (20 X 10(9) organisms/ml) and T phagedenis biotype Reiter were examined by modified counterimmunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting fo...

  18. Preparing pipe ends prior to welding operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipe welds must meet more and more stringent quality requirements. Pipe end preparation is an ideal way for welds to meet such ambitious demands. High-precision stationary and portable preparation machines are employed in repair, construction or mass production in almost all branches of industry. Customized solutions are offered in special-purpose machine building. In particular in sensitive areas of industry, such as nuclear power plants, the quality of welds is a factor of outstanding importance. Weld preparation is a basis of excellent results. Remotely operated machines are available for specialized applications of this kind (controlled areas in nuclear facilities, areas posing potential health hazards to operators or work under water). Whether in planning, chamfering, cutting or internal preparation of pipe ends - equipment designed for the mechanical preparation of pipe ends is of inestimable value. The preparation process furnishes exact, reproducible results, even with different shapes of end profiles, and can be carried out quickly and reliably. The choice among stationary or portable machines depends on the scope of work to be performed, the point of use, and the working speed. The range of machine features is a function of the requirements to be met by the weld. This constitutes an interesting potential for industries to optimize their quality and, thus, their market position. (orig.)

  19. Preparation of kits for 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication details preparation under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) of thirteen widely used 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals and their quality assurance practices. The objective of this document is to present to those who intend to launch a kit preparation programme a set of preparation procedures and other relevant information gathered during kit production over a period of more than a decade, to serve as a good starting point. The manuals and monographs included in the document are based on the experience gained in two major centres. The publication of this material is intended to give a typical example, and not the only possible procedure for preparing the kits. Following the essentials of these kit preparation procedures, it is always possible to make alterations to the composition of the kits. The kits described here concern widely used 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals which do not require a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) camera. These examples of the ''first generation'' of kits are not very intricate to prepare. Although it is advisable to have only one agent for a given intended use, a few agents for each purpose, e.g. EHDP and MDP for bone imagining, have been included in the document so that the reader can have some flexibility in selecting a particular kit. 24 refs, 2 figs

  20. Does explicit expectation really affect preparation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin J. Umbach

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT. However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60%, 30%, 10%. Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency. Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.

  1. [Sigismund Laskowski and his anatomical preparations technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-01-01

    Fixation of the entire bodies or individual organs, and later as well tissues and cellular structures, was and still is often a challenge for anatomists and histologists. Technique that combines extensive knowledge of natural sciences, as well as technical skills, was by those best researchers as Frederik Ruysch, brought to perfection. Preparations, if done with care and talent, are really propelling progress in anatomical studies and determining the quality of education for medical students and young physicians. And as it is true for many of today's medical disciplines and natural sciences, the nineteenth century was in many ways a breaking point for preparatory techniques in the realm of anatomy and histology. Among those who have achieved success, earning notoriety during their lifetime and often going into the annals of European most distinguished scholars were some Polish names: Louis Maurice Hirschfeld, whose preparations of the nervous system earned him well-deserved, international fame, Louis Charles Teichmann, who was the very first so precisely describing the lymphatic system and a creator of unique injection mass, Henry Kadyi, known for his outstanding preparations, especially of vascular system. Henry Frederick Hoyer sen., who was one of the first to use formalin regularly for accurate microscopic preparations, is seen by many as the founder of the Polish histology. In this group of innovators and precursors of modern preparation techniques place should be reserved for Zygmunt (Sigismund) Laskowski, Polish patriot, fighting in January Uprising, later an immigrant, a professor at the university sequentially Paris and Geneva. Acclaimed author of anatomical tables and certainly creator of one of the groundbreaking techniques in anatomical preparations. Based after many years of research on the simple glycerine-phenol mixture achieved excellent results both in fixation of entire bodies and organs or tissues. Quality of those preparations was as high and

  2. 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Cuts? 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Prepare ... temporada deportiva 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season If you've ever played competitive sports, ...

  3. Preparing the singing voice specialist revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radionoff, Sharon L

    2004-12-01

    In review of singing voice specialist preparation, discussion can be chronicled prior to the establishment of Arts Medicine in 1987. Although discussion began in 1984 (and earlier), no formal academic program currently exists to train the singing voice specialist. The need now is greater than ever for a formal program of study to prepare a person who seeks to be a singing voice specialist. The question of adequate preparation continues to be in need of an appropriate answer because no formal training programs or fellowships are available. It is essential to first define the role of singing voice specialists and the populations that they will encounter. To meet the needs of a diverse population, care of the professional voice demands cross-disciplinary training. Knowledge from the fields of music, science, medicine and communication disorders and experience/observation, clinical preparation, and research would provide for optimal preparation. To meet this need, development of a Masters degree program seems highly desirable. The structure of such a program is proposed, along with specific requirements outlined from the music and singing voice pathology components for a Masters Degree in Arts Medicine with a concentration in voice. PMID:15567052

  4. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile) and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-07-15

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  5. PREPARATION OF LIPOSOMES CONTAINING WHEY PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suha Yalçın

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In recent years, it has been shown that whey and its components have a number of health-promoting effects. We aimed to isolate fractions containing whey proteins using chromatography and then to prepare antioxidant liposomes in order to obtain a gel suitable for cosmetic preparations.Methods: Fractionation of whey proteins was achieved by extraction, filtration and centrifugation followed by liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activities of the fractions was determined by their copper ion reducing capacity. Gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the proteins. Liposomes were made by the thin film hydration method.Results and Conclusion: Using Sephadex G-50 chromatography, two fractions were obtained. The first fraction contained major whey proteins, while the second fraction had small peptides. We have then determined the antioxidant activities of these fractions. The first fraction had the highest antioxidant activity. We prepared liposomes containing whey protein fractions and analyzed their sizes. Then, we investigated the liposome structures under a light microscope, electron microscope and atomic force microscope. Finally, we prepared a cosmetic formula from liposomes containing the whey fractions. We believe that preparing antioxidant liposomes containing whey proteins will be an important contribution to the cosmetic formulas for dermal applications.

  6. The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Iron Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Burckhardt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard approaches are not appropriate when assessing pharmacokinetics of iron supplements due to the ubiquity of endogenous iron, its compartmentalized sites of action, and the complexity of the iron metabolism. The primary site of action of iron is the erythrocyte, and, in contrast to conventional drugs, no drug-receptor interaction takes place. Notably, the process of erythropoiesis, i.e., formation of new erythrocytes, takes 3−4 weeks. Accordingly, serum iron concentration and area under the curve (AUC are clinically irrelevant for assessing iron utilization. Iron can be administered intravenously in the form of polynuclear iron(III-hydroxide complexes with carbohydrate ligands or orally as iron(II (ferrous salts or iron(III (ferric complexes. Several approaches have been employed to study the pharmacodynamics of iron after oral administration. Quantification of iron uptake from radiolabeled preparations by the whole body or the erythrocytes is optimal, but alternatively total iron transfer can be calculated based on known elimination rates and the intrinsic reactivity of individual preparations. Degradation kinetics, and thus the safety, of parenteral iron preparations are directly related to the molecular weight and the stability of the complex. High oral iron doses or rapid release of iron from intravenous iron preparations can saturate the iron transport system, resulting in oxidative stress with adverse clinical and subclinical consequences. Appropriate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics analyses will greatly assist our understanding of the likely contribution of novel preparations to the management of anemia.

  7. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  8. Substitution derivatives of N.sup-6-benzyladenosine, methods of their preparation, their use for preparation of drugs, cosmetic preparations and growth regulators, pharmaceutical preparations, cosmetic preparations and growth regulators containing these compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Doležal, K. (Karel); Popa, I.; Zatloukal, M.; Lenobel, R.; Hradecká, D.; Vojtešek, B.; Uldrijan, S.; Mlejnek, P.; Werbrouck, S.; M. Strnad

    2012-01-01

    The invention concerns novel substitution derivatives of N-6-benzyladenosine having anticancer, mitotic, immunosuppressive and antisenescent properties for plant, animal and human cells. This invention also relates to the methods of preparation of these N.sup.6-benzyladenosine derivatives and their use as drugs, cosmetic preparations and growth regulators comprising these derivatives as active compound and use of these derivatives for preparation of pharmaceutical compositions, in biotechnolo...

  9. Preparation and characterisation of nevirapine oral nanosuspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare and characterise nevirapine nanosuspensions so as to improve the dissolution rate of nevirapine. Nevirapine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of immunodeficiency virus type-1 and it is poorly water-soluble antiretroviral drug. The low solubility of nevirapine can lead to decreased and variable oral bioavailability. Nanosuspension can overcome the oral bioavailability problem of nevirapine. Nevirapine nanosuspensions were prepared using nanoedge method. The suspensions were stabilised using surfactants Lutrol F 127 or Poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. The nanosuspension was characterised for particle size, polydispersibility index, crystalline state, particle morphology, in vitro drug release and pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration. The results support the claim for the preparation of nanosuspensions with enhanced solubility and bioavailability.

  10. Guidance for preparation of safety analysis reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.5, ''Safety of Nuclear Facilities,'' requires the preparation of appropriate safety analyses for each DOE operation and subsequent significant modifications including decommissioning, and independent review of each safety analysis. The purpose of this guide is to assist in the preparation and review of safety documentation for Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) nonreactor facilities and operations. This guide provides a narrative outline of the minimum information needed to prepare safety documentation for ORO moderate or high hazard facilities. Safety documentation is required for new, existing, and modified facilities. The basic purpose of the safety documentation process is to provide assurance that there is no significant increase in risk, as defined in DOE safety policy statements, to people or the environment from operation of ORO facilities

  11. AFFINITY OF LIGNIN PREPARATIONS TOWARDS GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Košíková

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chemicals may be modulated by other chemicals, including those prepared by organic synthesis. Consid-ering the several drawbacks of synthetic compounds vis-a-vis the human organism, the lignin biomass component was examined for this purpose. The binding affinity of lignin samples prepared by chemical and biological modification of lignin products derived from chemical wood treatment towards for N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDA was examined. The protective role of the lignin samples against carcinogenesis was tested on a well-known model carcinogen, N-methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG. The observed ability of a series of lignin preparations to reduce alkylation damage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA on hamster cells in vitro could be explained by their affinity to bind N-nitrosoamines. The results indicate that lignin has potential to protect living organisms against damaging effects of different genotoxicants.

  12. Preparative electrophoresis of industrial fission product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the development of the continuous electrophoresis technique while studying its application in the preparative electrophoresis of industrial fission product solutions. The apparatus described is original. It was built for the purposes of the investigation and proved very reliable in operation. The experimental conditions necessary to maintain and supervise the apparatus in a state of equilibrium are examined in detail; their stability is an important factor, indispensable to the correct performance of an experiment. By subjecting an industrial solution of fission products to preparative electrophoresis it is possible, according to the experimental conditions, to prepare carrier-free radioelements of radiochemical purity (from 5 to 7 radioelements): 137Cs, 90Sr, 141+144Ce, 91Y, 95Nb, 95Zr, 103+106Ru. (author)

  13. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  14. Are We Preparing Gifted Children for College...Or Preparing Them for Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, James T.

    2013-01-01

    During the last several years, the author has become increasingly concerned with the question, "Are we preparing gifted children for college? Or are we preparing them for Life?" Parents and educators want their children to be successful. But what does that mean? At the outset, the author wants to credit Lisa Rivero, a Board member of Supporting…

  15. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Sinha; B P Sharma

    2005-06-01

    High purity fine silver powder with uniform particle morphology was prepared through glycerol process. The process involves reduction of silver nitrate by glycerol under atmospheric conditions at a temperature below 175°C. Glycerol, in this process, acts as a solvent as well as a reducing agent. The powders prepared through this process were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis. The powders were well crystalline and contained oxygen, carbon and hydrogen as impurities. Overall purity was better than 99.9%. The yield of silver powder was better than 99%.

  16. Preparation of TSH national standard for immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first national standard of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) for immunoassay is prepared. The highly pure TSH from Sigma Co, are purchased and immuno activity of this material is 7 kIU/g. The batch of ampoules coded 0530-9412, is prepared according to the procedures used for international biological standard. The ampoule's potency are calibrated by 8 immunoassay systems including RIA, IRMA and ELISA. The mean potency of the first national standard of TSH for immunoassay is 525 μIU per ampoule

  17. Preparing for thesis and viva: some practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy-Jane

    2010-01-01

    Presenting a thesis and then undertaking the viva is challenging even for the most experienced of researchers. This paper offers stylistic practicalities, reflects on thesis and viva preparation, and discusses the research regulations and submission requirements of higher education institutions (HEIs). Issues such as the use of the first person, how best to locate research in the professional setting, research regulations and codes of practice are discussed, along with some guiding principles to enable effective viva preparation. It is derived from experience as a doctoral student, supervisor and examiner, and focuses on questions most frequently asked by doctoral students. PMID:20450089

  18. Remote State Preparation for Quantum Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ber, Ran; Zohar, Erez

    2016-03-01

    Remote state preparation is generation of a desired state by a remote observer. In spite of causality, it is well known, according to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem, that it is possible for relativistic quantum field theories, and a "physical" process achieving this task, involving superoscillatory functions, has recently been introduced. In this work we deal with non-relativistic fields, and show that remote state preparation is also possible for them, hence obtaining a Reeh-Schlieder-like result for general fields. Interestingly, in the nonrelativistic case, the process may rely on completely different resources than the ones used in the relativistic case.

  19. Preparation of americium source for smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the method developed for the preparation of 241Am source for smoke detector. Americium was electrodeposited from iso-propyl alcohol medium on silver backing. Thin layer of gold (few hundred micro gram thick) was plated on the americium source to make it safe for handling. The thickness of plated gold was such that the alpha radiations from the 241Am source could escape out of the gold layer and cause ionisation in the surrounding air. The performance of the prepared sources were checked in a smoke detector and was found to be satisfactory and comparable to the imported sources. (author). 1 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Long-acting preparations of exenatide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunpeng; Wei, Liangming; Ma, Liuqing; Huang, Xiwen; Tao, Anqi; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Exenatide has been widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, its short plasma half-life of 2.4 hours has limited its clinical application. The exenatide products on the market, twice-daily Byetta™ and once-weekly Bydureon™ (both Amylin Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA, USA), are still not perfect. Many researchers have attempted to prolong the acting time of exenatide by preparing sustained-release dosage forms, modifying its structure, gene therapies, and other means. This review summarizes recent advances in long-acting exenatide preparations. PMID:24039406

  1. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. PMID:26773228

  2. Preparation of conductive membranes using poly pyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductive membranes show many benefits including fouling reduction for feeds containing ionic species. These membranes may be prepared either by conductive polymers or coating of the surfaces of non-conductive membranes with conductive polymer. In this research, the commercial micro filtration GVHP membrane manufactured from PVDF was coated with poly pyrrole using two different techniques. The conductivity of the prepared membranes was measured. In this paper, effects of various factors including concentration of the solutions, oxidizing agents, time for leaving the support in the solutions, support type and temperature on membrane conductivity were investigated

  3. Distillation method of preparing pure technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt is prepared from MoO3 powder containing 99Mo and an oxide or molybdate of another metal, eg., Cu. The melt containing 99Mo can also be prepared by mixing non-active MoO3 with an oxide or molybdate of another metal and by irradiation in a reactor following melting and cooling. The melt is bubbled with a carrier gas or, alternatively, the carrier gas is passed above the melt and entrains the sup(99m)Tc released which condensates in a condensation vessel. The advantage of the method is separation efficiency exceeding 80%. (J.P.)

  4. Preparation of honey sample for tritium monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of preparation of honey sample for tritium monitoring was described. The equipments consist of an air and honey supply system, a quartz combustor with CM-type monolithic combustion catalyst and a condensation system. In the equipments, honey sample was converted into cooling water by the distilling, cracking and carbonizing procedures for tritium counting. The recovery ratio is 99.0 ± 4.5 percent for tritiated water and 96.0 ± 2.0 for tritiated organic compounds. It is a feasible preparing method for the total tritium monitoring in honey sample

  5. Controllable preparation of particles with microfluidics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangsheng Luo; Le Du; Yujun Wang; Yangcheng Lu; Jianhong Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development and achievements in controllable preparation of nanoparticles,micron spherical and non-spherical particles,using microfluidics.A variety of synthesis strategies are presented and compared,including single-phase and multiphase microflows.The main structures of microfluidic devices and the fundamental principles of microflows for particle preparation are summarized and identified.The controllability of particle size,size distribution,crystal structure,morphology,physical and chemical properties,is examined in terms of the special features of microfluidic reactors.An outlook on opinions and predictions concerning the future development of powder technology with microfluidics is specially provided.

  6. Preparation of atomic oxygen resistant polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Victor J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Connell, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Polyphenyl quinoxalines (PPQs) are an important family of high performance polymers that offer good chemical and thermal stability coupled with excellent mechanical properties. These aromatic heterocyclic polymers are potentially useful as films, coatings, adhesives, and composite materials that demand stability in harsh environments. Our approach was to prepare PPQs with pendent siloxane groups using the appropriate chemistry and then evaluate these polymers before and after exposure to simulated atomic oxygen. Either monomer, the bis(o-diamine)s or the bis(alpha-diketone)s can be synthesized with a hydroxy group to which the siloxane chain will be attached. Several novel materials were prepared.

  7. Precise and automated microfluidic sample preparation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Robert W.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Mosier, Bruce P.; Harnett, Cindy K.

    2004-07-01

    Autonomous bio-chemical agent detectors require sample preparation involving multiplex fluid control. We have developed a portable microfluidic pump array for metering sub-microliter volumes at flowrates of 1-100 {micro}L/min. Each pump is composed of an electrokinetic (EK) pump and high-voltage power supply with 15-Hz feedback from flow sensors. The combination of high pump fluid impedance and active control results in precise fluid metering with nanoliter accuracy. Automated sample preparation will be demonstrated by labeling proteins with fluorescamine and subsequent injection to a capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) chip.

  8. Assessing the Assessments of Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabeck, Mary M.; Dwyer, Carol Anne; Geisinger, Kurt F.; Marx, Ronald W.; Noell, George H.; Pianta, Robert C.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs have both a desire and a responsibility to demonstrate, with affirmative evidence, that teacher education makes a difference in PreK-12 student learning. Program faculty need good data to make decisions about the progress of students, whom to recommend for state licensure, and how to improve teacher education. This…

  9. Plasmachemical preparation of lead-tungstate bronze

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Janča, J.; Eliáš, M.

    Praha : MAXDORF,s.r.o, 2004, s. 13-14. ISBN 80-7345-032-1. [Joint Seminar Development in Material Science Research and Education/14th./. Lednice (CZ), 31.08.2004-03.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : tungsten bronzes, plasmachemical preparation, RF-discharge Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  10. Preparation and evaluation of sulphonamide nonionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.

    2010-07-01

    Alkyl (octyl, decyl and dodecyl; C{sub 8}, C{sub 1}0 and C{sub 1}2) benzene sulphonyl chloride was used in the preparation of a novel series of nonionic surfactants (IV-VI)a-c, (VII-IX) a-c and (X-XII)a-c. The preparations were completed by reacting each alkyl (C{sub 8}, C{sub 1}0 and C{sub 1}2) benzene sulphonyl chloride with ethanolamine to give (I-III) respectively. The resulting products were reacted separately with ethylene oxide in the presence of different (base KOH, Lewis acid SnCl4 and k10 clay) catalysts to produce different moles of nonionic surfactants (5, 7 and 9) in sequence corresponding to (IV-VI)a-c, (VII-IX) a-c and (X-XII)a-c respectively. The chemical structures of prepared nonionic surfactants were elucidated by IR and 1HNMR spectra. The surface activity, biodegradability and biological activities of the prepared compounds were investigated. The obtained data show that these compounds have good surface and biological activities as well as reasonable biodegradability properties. (Author) 30 refs.

  11. Mesoporous mordenite, preparation and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J.C.; Moulijn, J.A.; Perez-Ramirez, J.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the preparation of a mesoporous mordenite, which process comprises subjecting a non-dealuminated mordenite having an atomic ratio of framework Si-to-Al of least, to an alkaline treatment in order to create mesoporosity by removal of silicon, to various meso

  12. Preparing for Formal Proofs in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Art

    2009-01-01

    One way in which geometry teachers can help students develop their reasoning is by providing proof-readiness experiences. Blum and Kirsch (1991) suggest that "preformal proofs" can help students develop deductive reasoning. Preformal proofs, which follow the basic principles of deductive reasoning, can help prepare students for formal deduction in…

  13. Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Reflective Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivee, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Preparing teachers to be reflective practitioners is the goal embraced by most teacher education programs. Reflective practitioners infuse personal beliefs and values into a professional identity, resulting in the development of a deliberate code of conduct. They challenge assumptions and expectations that may limit their potential for tolerance…

  14. Advanced Standards in Gifted Education Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Gifted Children, 2013

    2013-01-01

    After mastering initial standards for the preparation of teachers of the gifted, many educators in gifted education continue their professional growth toward mastery of advanced professional standards at the post baccalaureate levels. For some this means deepening their understandings and expertise and adding new responsibilities for leadership…

  15. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Olshavsky, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

  16. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before the...

  17. Preparing College Administrators: Fact and Fancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalcup, Robert J.; Wilson, Jerry L.

    The universality of administrative functions and tasks is sufficiently established to make special preparation programs for any one group of higher education administrators unjustifiable. This thesis is based on research undertaken to determine if significant differences existed in the functions or tasks performed by presidents, vice-presidents of…

  18. MIBI: preparation and evaluation of lyophilization kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lyophilization kits of MIBI- 99m Tc were obtained by its own synthesis. The quality control showing the high stability of kits was mentioned. the bio-distribution, evaluated in dogs, was identical to that presented by the radiopharmaceutical with the import kit. The obtained results, allowing the prepare of lyophilization kits for medical use were also presented. (C.G.C.)

  19. Preparation of Electrically Conductive Polymeric Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas, J. C.; Castillo-Ortega, M. M.; Rodríguez, F.; Castaño, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Cellulose acetate porous membranes, coated with polyaniline, were chemically modified with polyelectrolytes to produce films of varying and controlled porosity and electrical conductivity. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained in membranes prepared with poly(styrene sulfonate) with large pore sizes. The electrical properties as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images are discussed.

  20. Process for preparation of MR contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for the preparation of an MR contrast agent, said process comprising: i) obtaining a solution in a solvent of a hydrogenatable, unsaturated substrate compound and a catalyst for the hydrogenation of said substrate compound; ii) introducing said solution...

  1. Preparing Urban School Leaders: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tiedan; Beachum, Floyd D.; White, George P.; Kaimal, Girija; FitzGerald, Anne Marie; Reed, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extant research, though limited in quantity, increasingly demonstrates the critical connection between quality preparation experience, candidates' leadership capacity, and their subsequent instructional and transformation leadership practices. Using mixed methods, this study builds on the current knowledge base and aims to further verify the link…

  2. Preparation and evaluation of microcapsules of Indomethacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indomethacin microcapsules with a coat consisting of alginate and muco adhesive polymer such as sodium carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose,Carbopol or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were prepared by two methods namely emulsification-ionic gelation and orifice -ionic gelation methods and were investigated with a view to develop mucoadhesive microcapsules of controlled release .The resulting microcapsules were discrete,free flowing, spherical and multi nucleate monolithic type. Microencapsulation efficiency was in the range 41-70 % in case of emulsification and 53-89 % in case of orifice methods.The microcapsules exhibited good mucoadhesive property in the in vitro wash-off test .Indomethacin release from these mucoadhesive microcapsules was slow and extended over long period of time and depended on the type of mucoadhesive polymer in the coat ,method of preparation ,core :coat ratio and size of the microcapsules. Drug release was diffusion controlled and followed first order kinetic.With all mucoadhesive polymers , microcapsules prepared by orifice method gave more slow release of the contained drug when compared to those prepared by emulsification method .Indomethacin release from some of the microcapsules fulfilled the official (USP23) drug release test 2 requirement of indomethacin extended release capsules.These mucoadhesive microcapsules were found suitable for oral controlled release for twice a day or once a day administration. (author)

  3. Return on investment (ROI) proposal preparation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section I: Background Return on Investment (ROI) Proposal Preparation Guide-- Over $1.9M is available to fund fiscal year (FY) 2000 waste minimization projects on the Hanford Site. This money was allocated by the US. Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ). The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations (RL) and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) are currently seeking pollution prevention proposals from across the Hanford Site that provide a high return-on-investment (ROI) by reducing waste and associated management costs. Purpose of ROI Training The ROI Proposal Preparation Guide is a tool to assist Hanford waste generators in preparing ROI proposal forms for submittal to RL for funding. The guide describes the requirements for submitting an ROI proposal and provides examples of completed ROI forms. The intent is to assist waste generators in identifying projects that meet the criteria, provide information necessary to complete the ROI forms, and submit a proposal that is eligible to receive funding. This guide accompanies the one-hour training workshop on how to prepare and submit an ROI proposal

  4. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before the r...

  5. Preparation and characterisation of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated carbon was prepared from Agricultural wastes, such as coconut shell, Palm oil Shell and mangrove trunk by destructive distillation under vakuum. Chemical and Physical properties of the activated carbon were studied and some potentially useful application in the fields of chemistry was also carried out

  6. Update: Preparation Briefing Meeting for Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On March 9,the preparation briefing meeting for Shanghai World Expo was held in Beijing.Shanghai Mayor Han Zheng,CCPIT Chairman Wan Jifei,Assistant Foreign Minister Liu Jieyi and three deputy directors of Shanghai World Expo Organizing Committee addressed the meeting.

  7. L-007: Objectives preparation and Emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture explains the preparation and response in a nuclear and radiological emergency. Must be taken into consideration a program of preparedness, the public health and environment protection, propagation of contamination limit, first aid and treatment radiation damage, the stochastic, psychological and physical effects reduction

  8. Adhesive Preparation - a Comparsion of Various Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubalíková, L.; Neděla, Vilém; Poleník, P.

    Berlin : SOLA, 2007. s. 41. [Laser Congress 2007 - Congress of the International Society for Oral Laser Applications SOLA /4./. 16.05.2007-19.05.2007, Bruges] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : tooth * preparation * SEM * VP-SEM Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  9. Preparation and control of radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidebook covers the work commonly organized as part of the work in the hospital. It does not cover the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals on an industrial scale. The work is characterized by the small scale on which manufacture and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals take place

  10. How Not to Prepare School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen H.; Leon, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Instead of focusing on how principals should be trained, an contrarian view is offered, grounded upon theoretical perspectives of experiential learning, and in particular, upon the theory of andragogy. A brief parable of the DoNoHarm School of Medicine is used as a descriptive analog for many principal preparation programs in America. The…

  11. Preparing Politically Savvy Principals in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Pollock, Katina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to argue that principal preparation programs should help candidates: recognize the political role of the school principal; develop political skills (including the ability to strategically appropriate policy); and understand that the political approach of the principal influences teaching, learning, relationships,…

  12. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interdisciplinary preparation. 1502.6 Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT...-disciplinary approach which will insure the integrated use of the natural and social sciences and...

  13. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  14. Preparing for an Agritourism Event: A Checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Y. Mainville; Mundy, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This factsheet provides a checklist for agritourism firms to use to ensure that key aspects of preparation for the event are addressed. The publication is intended to help an existing operation host a special event - it is not intended as a resource for starting an agritourism business.

  15. Method for preparing hollow metal oxide microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.R.

    1974-02-12

    Hollow refractory metal oxide microspheres are prepared by impregnating resinous microspheres with a metallic compound, drying the impregnated microspheres, heating the microspheres slowly to carbonize the resin, and igniting the microspheres to remove the carbon and to produce the metal oxide. Zirconium oxide is given as an example. (Official Gazette)

  16. Preparation of Structured Catalysts for VOC Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ludvíková, Jana; Jirátová, Květa; Kovanda, F.

    - : -, 2014, s. 155-156. ISBN N. [International Symposium on the Scientific Bases for the Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts /11./. Louvain-la-Neuve (BE), 06.07.2014-10.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : structured catalysts * transition metal oxides * VOC oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  17. Impact of Teacher Preparation upon Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    A cohort of students in a teacher preparation program completed questionnaires measuring their feelings of teacher self efficacy at three points in the program. Results suggest that pre-service teachers' feelings of self efficacy do improve as a result of their participation in such programs. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table. Teacher Efficacy…

  18. Perylene Nanoparticles Prepared by Reprecipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI,Xue-Hai(纪学海); FU,Hong-Bing(付红兵); XIE,Rui-Min(谢锐敏); XIAO,De-Bao(肖德宝); YAO,Jian-Nian(姚建年)

    2002-01-01

    Perylene nanoparticles with different sizes were prepared by reprecipitation method. It is found that the nanoparticles show size-dependent optical property. Electron diffraction patterns indicate that all the nanoparticles of different sizes are in crystalline state. The rapid growth of the nanoparticles during the agingg process could be slowed down effectively by the addition of cationic or anionic surfactants.

  19. Marriage Preparation: Factors Associated with Consumer Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mary N.; Lyster, Rosanne Farnden

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated marriage preparation program to determine overall consumer satisfaction with the program, satisfaction with specific content areas, and extent to which consumer characteristics affected satisfaction ratings. Results of survey of 196 couples revealed high overall satisfaction levels, variability in satisfaction by content area, and…

  20. 21 CFR 740.19 - Suntanning preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suntanning preparations. 740.19 Section 740.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... exposure of unprotected skin while tanning may increase the risk of skin aging, skin cancer, and...

  1. Preparation of DPPE-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungey, Keenan E.; Muller, David P.; Gunter, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is presented that introduces students to nanotechnology through the preparation of nanoparticles and their visualization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experiment familiarizes the students with nonaqueous solvents, biphasic reactions, phase-transfer agents, ligands to stabilize growing nanoparticles, and bidentate…

  2. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget...

  3. HYPERFILTRATION FOR TEXTILE PREPARATION CAUSTIC DISCHARGE REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study, joining a hyperfiltration (HF) system with an operating caustic scour and preparation range in an integrated textile dye and finishing plant. (HF is a membrane separation technique widely used in desalination of natural water and in some indus...

  4. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y., E-mail: Ildiko.Toth@chem.u-szeged.hu; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2015-04-15

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection.

  5. Sandtray Therapy, Reflectivity and Leadership Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Clifford; Mayes, Pamela Blackwell; Williams, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The present study is a follow-up study to the initial study that appeared in "International Journal of Leadership in Education", 7(3), 257-284. In this second study, the authors compared the standtrays of the students in the first study with the sandtrays that they did at the end of their one-year program in BYU's Leadership Preparation Program…

  6. Graphene preparation in an alkaline environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Bludská, Jana; Ecorchard, Petra; Schelonka, Darina

    Stow cum Quy : Zing Conferences, 2014. s. 50. [Nanocrystals Conference. 13.6.2014–16.6.2014, Punta Cana] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED3.1.00/14.0328 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : graphene * graphene preparation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  7. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  8. Duncan Cites Shortcomings of Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In what had been billed as a major speech on teacher education, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan last week reiterated concerns about the quality of the schools that produce a majority of the nation's teachers. But some observers said that by praising several new teacher-preparation initiatives, he struck a more conciliatory tone toward the…

  9. Spray pyrolysis process for preparing superconductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive film. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi,Sr,Ca and Cu metals in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature of about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate to a third temperature of about 870 degrees-890 degrees C to melt the film; once the film and substrate reach the third temperature, further heat treating the film and substrate; cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature. This patent also describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive films. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi, Ca and Cu metals and fluxing agent in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate at a third temperature about 840 degrees-860 degrees C; and cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature

  10. Preparing cytotoxic agents in an isolator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, M; Hansel, S; Bressolle, F

    1993-11-01

    The design of an isolator and its use by an oncology satellite pharmacy for preparing cytotoxic drugs are described. The isolator (Iso Concept, Boulogne, France) is a totally enclosed ventilated biological-safety cabinet of class III polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with positive air pressure, a half-suit with a rotating seal, and attached neoprene gloves. There are three work-stations, one for the half-suit and two along one side of the isolator. The ventilation and air filtration system consists of one entry pipe with a full ventilation-filtration box fitted with one prefilter, one blower, one ball valve, one high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, one airtight nipple connected to an automatic sterilizer, alarms, and one exhaust pipe protected by a HEPA filter. The air lock consists of a rigid, transparent Plexiglas pass-through. The chamber is sterilized with heated compressed air mixed with 3.5% peracetic acid. Maintenance includes regular changing of gloves and HEPA filters; checking of the integrity of the PVC, half-suit, and gloves; and washing and decontamination procedures. Preparation of cytotoxics is planned in advance with prescription data and manufacturing sheets. In the half-suit, a pharmacy technician reads the label, supervises preparation of the sterile admixture, and writes a label. The operators on the side of the unit read the manufacturing sheet and prepare the dose identified by the label.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8266957

  11. Selenium Nanoparticles Prepared from Reverse Microemulsion Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhu LIU; Sheng Yi ZHANG; Yu Hua SHEN; Ming Liang ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Selenium nanoparticles were prepared by a reverse microemulsion system. Sodium selenosulfate was used as selenium source. The results showed that hydrochloric acid concentration and reaction temperature had great influence on the morphology of products. The crystalline selenium nanowires and amorphous selenium nanorods were obtained in given condition.

  12. The relation between aging, aortic NaF avidity and coronary artery NaF avidity: A NaF PET CT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn; Thomassen, Anders; Hildebrandt, Malene;

    2013-01-01

    volunteers without traditional cardiovascular risk factors were prospectively assessed by Sodium 18-Fluoride (Na-18F) PET CT imaging. Global aortic uptake of Na-18F was determined by calculating the average aortic blood pool subtracted maximum standardized uptake value (cSUV) [maximum SUVaorta - mean...... SUVblood pool]. Global uptake of Na-18F in the coronary arteries was determined by calculating the average heart blood pool subtracted maximum SUV [maximum SUVheart - mean SUVblood pool]. Calculating regression and correlation coefficients summarized the data. Results: A strong linear relationship was...

  13. Avidity of IgG₁ antibodies to tetanus toxoid : development of an isothiocyanate elution assay and assessment of avidity distribution in a population of healthy children

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Nicolas Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Dans l'évaluation des réponses vaccinales, la détermination de l'affinité/avidité des anticorps pourrait renseigner sur la maturation des réponses lymphocytaires B, chez des sujets sains ou immunodéficients. L'objectif de ce travail a été de développer un test de mesure de l'avidité des anticorps plasmatiques IgG₁ contre le tétanos toxoïde (TT), basé sur l'utilisation d'un agent chaotropique (isothiocyanate) et de l'appliquer à 90 serums d'enfants en bonne santé. Après optimisation, ce test s...

  14. Avidity of IgG₁ antibodies to tetanus toxoid: development of an isothiocyanate elution assay and assessment of avidity distribution in a population of healthy children

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Nicolas Ulrich; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2004-01-01

    Dans l'évaluation des réponses vaccinales, la détermination de l'affinité/avidité des anticorps pourrait renseigner sur la maturation des réponses lymphocytaires B, chez des sujets sains ou immunodéficients. L'objectif de ce travail a été de développer un test de mesure de l'avidité des anticorps plasmatiques IgG₁ contre le tétanos toxoïde (TT), basé sur l'utilisation d'un agent chaotropique (isothiocyanate) et de l'appliquer à 90 serums d'enfants en bonne santé. Après optimisation, ce test s...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  16. 28 CFR 571.13 - Institution release preparation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institution release preparation program... PROGRAMS AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Preparation Program § 571.13 Institution release preparation program. (a) The institution release preparation program shall be administered by the...

  17. Sample preparation for x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In my experience over many years it is not uncommon for a geologist to present a suite of rocks or powders for analysis and demand results of high analytical precision which are not warranted for the following reasons: 1. Sample collection is unsatisfactory. 2. Little or no attention has been given to cleaning and splitting the sample. The ultimate aim of the preparation laboratory is to produce a homogeneous, uncontaminated aliquot of the total sample pulverised to a grain size of less than 10 microns. Clearly this is not possible as the grinding equipment will always impart some level of contamination to the sample and there is no grinder available which can produce powders of grain size less than 10 microns without imparting unacceptable levels of contamination to the sample. Modern x-ray spectrometers are extremely stable instruments. Most laboratories run a drift monitor at the start of each shift or when starting analyses requiring a different calibration. Depending on the method of sample preparation errors from this source can be up to two orders of magnitude greater than instrumental errors. For this reason it is imperative that sample preparation methods for a particular analysis are carefully set up and that these procedures are followed implicitly by the sample preparation laboratory. All too often sample preparation is relegated to a secondary role carried out in poorly designed work areas with inappropriate equipment by poorly trained unsupervised staff. Over the past few years staffing reductions and the requirement to crush an increasingly large volume of sample has given the impetus to develop improved jaw crushers. An example of this is the Boyd Crusher which has been designed to minimise these problems, ie this crusher has high throughput, can be easily cleaned and produces minimal contamination. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  18. Case study: Natural bodybuilding contest preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Brandon M; Fitschen, Peter J; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiorespiratory performance was measured by VO(2)peak at baseline, 13 weeks, and 26 weeks. Body weight (88.6 to 73.3 Kg, R(2) = .99) and percent body fat (17.5 to 7.4%) were reduced during preparation. CV measurements including blood pressure (128/61 to 113/54 mmHg), brachial pulse wave velocity (7.9 to 5.8m/s), and measures of wave reflection all improved. Indexed cardiac output was reduced (2.5 to 1.8L/m(2)) primarily due to a reduction in resting heart rate (71 to 44 bpm), and despite an increase in ejection faction (57.9 to 63.9%). Assessment of HRV found a shift in the ratio of low to high frequency (209.2 to 30.9%). Absolute VO2 was minimally reduced despite weight loss resulting in an increase in relative VO2 (41.9 to 47.7 ml/Kg). In general, this prolonged contest preparation technique helped the athlete to improve body composition and resulted in positive CV changes, suggesting that this method of contest preparation appears to be effective in natural male bodybuilders. PMID:24901578

  19. Preparation of Quenchbodies by protein transamination reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinhua; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Quenchbody (Q-body) is an antibody fragment labeled with fluorescent dye(s), which functions as a biosensor via the antigen-dependent removal of the quenching effect on fluorophores. It is based on the principle that the fluorescence of the dye(s) attached to the antibody N-terminal region is quenched primarily by the tryptophan residues present in the variable regions, and this quenching is released when the antigen binds to the antibody, resulting in increased fluorescence intensity. Hence Q-body is utilized in various immunoassays for the rapid and sensitive detection of analytes. So far, Q-bodies have been prepared by using a cell-free translation system or by combining Escherichia coli expression and post-labeling steps. However, the above methods need antibody gene cloning, and are time-consuming. In this study, we report a novel approach to prepare Q-bodies by protein N-terminal transamination. We used the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of an antibody against the bone-Gla-protein (BGP), a biomarker for bone diseases, which was expressed in E. coli. The purified Fab was treated with Rapoport's salt to convert the amino group at the N-terminus to a ketone group, which in turn was allowed to react with fluorescent probes that have aminooxy or hydrazide groups, to prepare a Q-body. The Q-body prepared by this method could detect the BGP-C7 antigen at concentrations as low as 10 nM. Since the approach can label the protein N-terminus directly, it could be applied for preparing Q-bodies from natural antibodies and for the rapid screening of high-performance Q-bodies. PMID:26811222

  20. Preparation of a 238Pu standard source . II. Source preparation and standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuo, Shinohara; Nobuaki, Kohno

    1988-07-01

    A standard source of 238Pu was prepared for calibrating the counting efficiency of alpha-ray detector. The plutonium was electrodeposited on a platinum or tantalum disk using isopropyl alcohol-hydrochloric acid solution as an electrolyte. The absolute activity was certified by isotope dilution alpha-ray spectrometry. Several types of the source, whose areas 238Pu-deposited are from 2.0 to 25.0 mm in diameter, were also prepared by the method. The overall uncertainties of the certified values for the standard sources prepared are estimated to be within 0.15 to 0.25% (1σ).

  1. Investigating homeopathic preparations with light spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Baumgartner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Several series of experiments from our research group have shown ultraviolet (UV light transmission of homeopathic preparations to slightly but significantly differ from controls. We now investigated whether visible and near infrared spectroscopy were also useful for exploring properties of homeopathic preparations. Materials and methods Homeopathic preparations of copper sulfate (CuSO4, hypericum and sulfur (S8 were produced in 30 sequential steps of 1:100 dilutions (c-preparations. As controls, succussed potentization medium was used. Transmission of the samples from 190-1100nm was measured 4 times on 5 days with a double beam Shimadzu UV PC 1601 spectrophotometer. To correct for the daily variations of the spectrophotometer, transmission of the samples at each nm was divided by the average transmission of the controls. Median transmissions of the samples were calculated for the ranges of 190-340nm (near and middle UV, 340-640nm (visible light without red, and 640-1100nm (red and near infrared. Differences in the median transmission between potency levels from 6c to 30c were determined using Kruskal-Wallis and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests. Results Differences in transmissions of the various potency levels were more pronounced in the UV range than in the visible or red/near infrared range. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences for homeopathic preparations of CuSO4, hypericum and S8 in the UV range (p=0.032, 0.008, 0.009, respectively and of S8 in the visible range (p=0.026. Jonckheere's test showed a tendency towards ascending medians with ascending potency levels for CuSO4 in the UV range (p=0.080. Significant trends were revealed for hypericum in the visible range (p=0.042, descending medians and S8 in the UV range (p=0.015, ascending medians. Conclusion UV spectroscopy seemed to be more suitable for investigating homeopathic preparations than visible or near infrared spectroscopy, since

  2. Medication errors in oral dosage form preparation for neonates: The importance of preparation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Sousan; Rasekhi, Mehri; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Asadollahi, Malihe; Hamishehkar, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Considering the inability of neonates to swallow oral drugs in the form of solid tablets, the lack of appropriate dosage forms for infants, and the necessity to prepare some pills for neonates, the current study investigated dosage accuracy in drugs for neonates prepared from tablets by analyzing the concentrations of final products. Methods: Captopril and spironolactone, oral dosage forms that are not suitable for infants, were chosen as the drug model for this study. Demographic ...

  3. Preparation of actinide targets by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Folger, H.

    1989-10-01

    Actinide targets with varying thicknesses on different substrates have been prepared by electrodeposition either from aqueous solutions or from solutions of their nitrates in isopropyl alcohol. With these techniques the actinides can be deposited almost quantitatively on various backing materials within 15 to 30 min. Targets of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and californium with areal densities from almost carrier-free up to 1.4 mg/cm 2 on thin beryllium, carbon, titanium, tantalum and platinum foils have been prepared. In most cases, prior to the deposition, the actinides had to be purified chemically and for some of them, due to the limited amount of material available, recycling procedures were required. Applications of actinide targets in heavy-ion reactions are briefly discussed.

  4. Nanocomposite thermite powders prepared by cryomilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive nanocomposite materials have been recently prepared by Arrested Reactive Milling (ARM), a method based on mechanical milling of component powders to form micron-sized composite particles where components are mixed on a scale of about 100 nm. The milling temperature affects both the refinement rate and the final product properties. In this paper we report an effort to prepare Al-CuO reactive nanocomposite powders at cryogenic temperatures. The material was processed in a liquid nitrogen bath using steel vials and balls of different sizes as milling media. The number and dimensions of the milling balls as well as the milling time were systematically varied. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal characteristics were studied using a custom wire-ignition setup and differential scanning calorimetry. Results show that the uniformity of mixing and reactivity of the nanocomposite powders can be improved using milling at cryogenic temperatures.

  5. Preparation and quality control of ECD kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ECD Kit for brain imaging after labeling with technetium 99m was prepared according to an optimum conditions, Each vial contains 1 mg of ECD and 0.155 mg of stannous chloride anhydrous SnCl2, 24 mg of Mannitol and 0.5 mg of Na2Ca EDTA, The prepared kit showed high quality satisfying the requirements of international pharmacopoeias from the points of physical, chemical, radiochemical and biological purities, and its validity for human injection. And the labeling yield exceeded 95 % with average value of about 97.63 ± 0.89% for 2mCi /2ml radioactivity , This study also showed that each vial content can be labeled with maximum activity of 99mTc of about 50 mCi (Authors)

  6. Orodispersible tablets of Lamotrigine: preparation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Patel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to prepare orodispersible tablets of Lamotrigine for applications in epilepsy and convulsion related problems. Fast action onset is highly desirable in the control of this type of disease condition. All tablets were prepared by solid dispersion method using mannitol and synthetic superdisintegrants like Explotab, Cross Povidone and Micro Crystalline Cellulose. The different powder blends were evaluated for pre-formulation parameters. Effect of superdisintegrants on wetting, disintegration and dissolution parameters was studied. The tablets were evaluated for various parameters like wetting time, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and in vitro dissolution. Tablets with Explotab have shown good disintegrating features, also the dispersion not showing any bitter taste; indicate the capability of Vanilla used, as taste masking agents. Almost more than 99% of drug was released from the formulation(F4 within 27 min. Tablets have shown no appreciable changes with respect to physical appearance, drug content, disintegration time, and dissolution profiles.

  7. Preparation of nonradioactive substitutes for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the difficulties in obtaining and working with actual radioactive waste, most experiments involving development of ceramic materials for nuclear waste fixation are performed using simulated wastes. Procedures for preparing simulated nuclear wastes that exhibit physical and chemical properties similar to those of actual wastes are given in this report. The synthetic wastes were formulated using conditions similar to those defined in the original process flowsheets. Recipes suitable for laboratory-scale or pilot-scale preparation are given for wastes found at the Savannah River Plant, Hanford Site, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Western New York Nuclear Service Center facility. Recipes are also given for waste that is likely to be generated from future reprocessing of spent commercial nuclear fuels

  8. Reliable quantum certification of photonic state preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aolita, Leandro; Gogolin, Christian; Kliesch, Martin; Eisert, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Quantum technologies promise a variety of exciting applications. Even though impressive progress has been achieved recently, a major bottleneck currently is the lack of practical certification techniques. The challenge consists of ensuring that classically intractable quantum devices perform as expected. Here we present an experimentally friendly and reliable certification tool for photonic quantum technologies: an efficient certification test for experimental preparations of multimode pure Gaussian states, pure non-Gaussian states generated by linear-optical circuits with Fock-basis states of constant boson number as inputs, and pure states generated from the latter class by post-selecting with Fock-basis measurements on ancillary modes. Only classical computing capabilities and homodyne or hetorodyne detection are required. Minimal assumptions are made on the noise or experimental capabilities of the preparation. The method constitutes a step forward in many-body quantum certification, which is ultimately about testing quantum mechanics at large scales. PMID:26577800

  9. Janus nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Chen, Shaowei

    2014-02-01

    In chemical functionalization of colloidal particles, the functional moieties are generally distributed rather homogeneously on the particle surface. Recently, a variety of synthetic protocols have been developed in which particle functionalization may be carried out in a spatially controlled fashion, leading to the production of structurally asymmetrical particles. Janus particles represent the first example in which the two hemispheres exhibit distinctly different chemical and physical properties, which is analogous to the dual-faced Roman god, Janus. Whereas a variety of methods have been reported for the preparation of (sub)micron-sized polymeric Janus particles, it has remained challenging for the synthesis and (unambiguous) structural characterization of much smaller nanometer-sized Janus particles. Herein, several leading methods for the preparation of nanometer-sized Janus particles are discussed and the important properties and applications of these Janus nanoparticles in electrochemistry, sensing, and catalysis are highlighted. Some perspectives on research into functional patchy nanoparticles are also given. PMID:24376180

  10. New methods for lipid nanoparticles preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrias, Francesco; Lai, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    Lipid nanoparticles have attracted many researchers during recent years due to the excellent tolerability and advantages compared to liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. High pressure homogenization is the main technique used to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) encapsulating different type of drugs, however this method involves some critical process parameters. For this reason and in order to overcome patented methods, different production techniques for lipid nanoparticles have been widely investigated in recent years (last decade). The paper reviews new methods for lipid nanoparticles preparation, and their recent applications in pharmaceutical field, especially focusing on coacervation, microemulsions templates, supercritical fluid technology, phase-inversion temperature (PIT) techniques. References of the most relevant literature and patents published by various research groups on these fields are provided. PMID:21834772

  11. Preparation of Ni/Cu composite nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ni/Cu composite nanowires were synthesized in an aqueous solution for the first time. The synthetic process consisted of two steps. Firstly, pure nickel nanowires were prepared through chemical reduction in solution under a magnetic field. Secondly, copper was reduced on the surface of the nickel nanowires, during which Ni/Cu composite nanowires with an average length of 80 µm and diameter of about 200 nm were synthesized. The products were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The method has notable advantages: It is template-free, inexpensive, easy-to-operate, and it only needs a short reaction time, which makes it suitable for large-scale preparation.

  12. Preparation and nucleation of spherical metallic droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-ge Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and solidification of metallic droplets attract more and more attention for their significance in both engineering and scientific fields. In this paper, the preparation and characterization of Sn-based alloy droplets using different methods such as atomization and consumable electrode direct current arc (CDCA technique are reviewed. The morphology and structure of these droplets were determined by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The solidification behavior of single droplet was systematically studied by means of scanning calorimetry (DSC, and the nucleation kinetics was also calculated. In particular, the development of fast scanning calorimetry (FSC made it possible to investigate the evolution of undercooling under ultrafast but controllable heating and cooling conditions. The combination of CDCA technique and FSC measurements opens up a new door for quantitative studies on droplet solidification, which is accessible to demonstrate some theories by experiments.

  13. Preparation and characterization of nano rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Xiaoyan; Lu Nianduan; Liu Xuemei; Lu Qingmei; Zhang Jiuxing; Zhou Meiling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Chinese Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Sun Lixian [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Rettenmayr, Markus [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Yin Fuxing [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: xysong@bjut.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    Rare earth (RE) nanoparticles with single-crystal structure and controllable size, and RE nanocrystalline bulks with ultrafine grain sizes (3-8 nm), were prepared with a home-configured 'oxygen-free' in situ synthesis system. Systematic investigations revealed the characteristic structures and properties of the nano REs. As compared with the conventional polycrystalline REs, the prepared ultrafine nanocrystalline REs show remarkably different physical, thermal and mechanical properties, which are of broad scientific and engineering interest. The series of structure and property characterizations are significant to further develop the fundamental database for the nano REs. As a particular contribution to the characterization of the RE family on the nanoscale, this work implements a clear guideline for the composition design and the scale control in the development of advanced nano RE functional and structural materials.

  14. Preparation and characterization of nano rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth (RE) nanoparticles with single-crystal structure and controllable size, and RE nanocrystalline bulks with ultrafine grain sizes (3-8 nm), were prepared with a home-configured 'oxygen-free' in situ synthesis system. Systematic investigations revealed the characteristic structures and properties of the nano REs. As compared with the conventional polycrystalline REs, the prepared ultrafine nanocrystalline REs show remarkably different physical, thermal and mechanical properties, which are of broad scientific and engineering interest. The series of structure and property characterizations are significant to further develop the fundamental database for the nano REs. As a particular contribution to the characterization of the RE family on the nanoscale, this work implements a clear guideline for the composition design and the scale control in the development of advanced nano RE functional and structural materials

  15. Preparation and Charcterization of Konjac Superabsorbent Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Fatang; LI Wanfen; ZHAN Xiaohui; CHEN Guofeng; ZHOU Jun; HUANG Jing; ZHANG Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    A superabsorbent polymer was prepared by grafting sodium acrylate (SA) onto Konjac flour using potassium persulfate (KPS) and N, N'-methylene bis acrylamide (MBA) as an initiator and crosslinker , respectively. The effect of various preparation conditions on its water absorbency was investigated. When the Konjac Flour content was 3.0 g , the acrylic acid ( AA ) content was 30.0 g, the amount of initiator was 0.150 g, the neutralization degree of monomer was 85% , the reaction temperature was 60 ℃ and the amount of crosslinker was 0.025 g, the polymer's absorbency was 750 times in pure water and 279 times in tap water at ambient temperature. It had also high water retention. The graft efficiency reached 67%. The analyses of FT-IR and SEM indicate that sodium acrylate is grafted on the polysaccharides of Konjac flour.

  16. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  17. Preparation and toxicological evaluation of methyl pyranoanthocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Wu, Nao; Kuang, Minjie; Lamikanra, Olusola; Liu, Gang; Li, Shuyi; He, Jingren

    2015-09-01

    Anthocyanins are increasingly valued in the food industry for their functional properties and as food colorants. The broadness of their applications has, however, been limited by the lack of stability of these natural pigment extracts in a number of food systems. The potential application of pyranoanthocyanins, anthocyanin derivatives with better stability conferred by the added pyran ring, as a food ingredient was determined. Methylpyranoanthocyanin (MPA) was prepared from reaction of acetone and anthocyanin extracts from red grapes. Reaction products were sequentially purified with polyamide resin, TSK gel resin and semi-preparative HPLC to a purity level >98%. Cytoprotective influence tests of the purified MPA indicated its significant protective effect against H2O2 induced MRC-5 cell damage. Results of evaluations of possible acute toxicity effects on MPA-fed mice, including macro and microscopic assessments, support the conclusion of a non-toxic effect of MPA, and its potential safe use as a food additive. PMID:26028581

  18. Preparation of thin carbon films (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon deposits have been prepared on silica glass supports in order to determine more accurately than by weighing the losses liable to occur during oxidation, for example under irradiation in the presence of CO2. Several processes have been studied with a view to obtaining deposits for which the variation in optical density as a function of carbon departure shall be reproducible for each sample. Among the methods used, the most satisfactory is that in which the pyrolytic carbon deposited on a carbon filament is evaporated; however only the samples prepared simultaneously exhibit the required identical behaviour. The carbonaceous deposits have been studied by micro-electronic diffraction. An examination of the photographs shows the presence of graphite monocrystals of about (30 μ)2. (author)

  19. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF LORNOXICAM NIOSOMAL GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singla Kapil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of contemporary study was to project nonionic surfactant vesicles having Lornoxicam with different spans. The vesicles known as niosomes with a minor particle size and good sphericity were prepared by thin film hydration method. Lornoxicam niosomes were analyzed for their morphological aspects, vesicle size and drug entrapment efficiency. Transdermal permeation of Lornoxicam through rat abdominal skin was determined by Franz diffusion cell. The in-vitro permeation profile of optimized formulation was compared with that of Lornoxicam solution. Superior CAP/cm2 (8.57 was observed in span 60(1:1 niosomes. Further stability studies were carried out at 4ºC for a period of 8 weeks. The results of physicochemical characterization and in-vitro permeation studies of the prepared vesicles were promising to formulate transdermal drug delivery system.

  20. Preparation and characterization of porous magnesium materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-qin; LIU Zi-li; ZHANG Xiao-hong; FENG Jun-dong; YU Ta-xi

    2006-01-01

    The proper spacer material and the preparation technology for biological compatible porous magnesium materials were explored by the powder metallurgy method, and microstructures, porosity and mechanical properties of sintered porous magnesium were investigated. The results show that compared with spacer materials of NH4CO3, NH3Cl and carbamide, NH4CO3 is the best one for preparation of sintered porous magnesium, and the worst one is NH3Cl. The isolated blind pores are formed mainly by the particle interval of the magnesium powders. Adding spacer material favors the formation of open pores, while has little contribution to the formation of blind pores. The overall porosity and porosity of open pore of the sintered porous magnesium increase with the increase of added spacer material, while decrease with the increase of the molding stress. The mechanical properties of sintered porous magnesium increase with decreasing addition of spacer material and increasing molding stress.

  1. Radioactive preparation of defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major areas of interest in solid state physics is the study of defects in nearly perfect crystals. The controlled formation of such defects is thus an important aspect of these studies. Chemical additions and radiation damage are among the techniques which have been widely used to make such defects. In the present work some possibilities have been examined of using radioactive decay to form defects in solids. The technique is simply to make as perfect a material as possible but with some of the host crystal atoms radioactive. When these atoms decay the daughter product essentially forms the defect. As a simple means of testing the feasibility of this technique, it was used to prepare tritium atoms trapped in a crystal of solid molecular tritium. The experiments indicate that the technique is feasible and should have particular application to the preparation of free radicals in organic materials which are fairly resistant to radiation damage. (author)

  2. Preparation of high-temperature superconducting ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared samples of the family ABa2Cu3Ox (A=Y, Gd, Eu, Dy, Sm, Er). The powdered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction at room temperature. We have also studied the effect of Fe impurities in YBa2Cu3Ox and EuBa2Cu3Ox. Moreover, single crystals of YBa2Cu3Ox and La(1-x)SrxCuO4 were grown using cooper oxide flux. (Author)

  3. Tooth Preparation and Pulpal Response: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Dr. Özlem; ERKUT, Doç. Dr. Selim

    2013-01-01

    Pulp tissue reaction to tooth preparation for direct or indirect restorations is one of the major concerns in fixed prosthodontics. Although the sensitivity of dentine to a variety of stimuli is difficult to correlate with morphological and functional observations, hydrodynamic theory was used to explain dental pain mechanism. External stimuli (e.g., thermal, mechanical and dental restorative processes) applied to human tooth cause either an inward (toward the pulp chamber) or outward (away f...

  4. The biocatalyzed stereoselective preparation of polycyclic cyanohydrins

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. Manuel Cruz; Melo, M. Luísa Sá e; Parolin, Marco; Tessaro, Davide; Riva, Sergio; Danieli, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The enzyme-mediated preparation of enantiomerically or diastereomerically enriched polycyclic cyanohydrins has been investigated. Oxynitrilase-catalyzed cyanurations gave excellent results with the bicyclic aldehydes tested. On the other hand, enantio- or diastereoselective acylation, catalyzed by lipase PS or subtilisin, proved to be a more versatile methodology, giving good results even with sterically hindered polycyclic cyanohydrins. Specifically, the steroidal cyanohydrin derivative 4b w...

  5. Preparing Teachers for Anti-oppressive Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baber, Sikunder Ali

    2004-01-01

    important to learn about the unique as well as shared challenges facing teacher educators around the globe. In this article, teacher educators from Asia, Africa, North America and South America offer a sampling of initiatives in anti-oppressive teacher education; that is, initiatives to prepare teachers to...... teach various subject matters to various age groups, addressing various forms of oppression in various cultural and community contexts....

  6. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a process for the preparation of hydrocarbons, wherein a feed comprising methanol is contacted at reaction conditions with a catalyst. It comprises: a porous carrier material selected from the group comprising silica, alumina, a mixtures thereof; cobalt as a metal component deposited on the porous carrier; and a promoter selected from the group comprising zirconium, titanium, chromium, ruthenium, iron, magnesium, zinc, thorium and uranium

  7. Preparing Children for a Healthy Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi; Budd, Daryl Zadok

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that the principles for preparing youth for future healthy marriage relationships include many of the basic principles of good parenting such as a healthy home environment, modeling healthy relationships, being involved in a child’s life, and encouraging healthy choices. Ultimately, as children progress into adulthood they will make their own choices about relationships; however, by providing healthy role models, encouragement, and support, youth will have the framework nec...

  8. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  9. Preparation of Pectin–ZnO Nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Shi L.; Gunasekaran S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Pectin–ZnO nanocomposite was prepared in the aqueous solution condition at room temperature. The Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements confirmed the nanoscaled structure of pectin–ZnO composite. According to the TEM observation, the average composite granules size was about 150 nm and the embedded ZnO nanoparticles were uniform with an average diameter of 70 nm.

  10. Preparation of Pectin-ZnO Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2008-12-01

    Pectin-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared in the aqueous solution condition at room temperature. The Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements confirmed the nanoscaled structure of pectin-ZnO composite. According to the TEM observation, the average composite granules size was about 150 nm and the embedded ZnO nanoparticles were uniform with an average diameter of 70 nm.

  11. Hydrogen preparation system for mass spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas source mass spectrometer has been recently set up at PINSTECH to carry out hydrological mapping of Pakistan by measuring isotopic ratio variations in H2, O2 and CO2 in waters of different origin. For D/H ratio analyses using this mass spectrometer water sample of size 20-25 microliter is to be converted to hydrogen gas. The preparation system developed for this purpose is described. (author)

  12. Method for preparation of superconductor powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for preparing ceramic superconducting powder. It comprises: providing a pourable slurry having 15% to 50% by volume of solids and composed of superconducting precursors, a binder, a dispersant, and a solvent; granulating the slurry by freezing; drying the granules; providing a bed of the granules; calcining the granules while percolating through the bed an atmosphere composed of not more than 20% oxygen and the remainder being an inert gas; and grinding the calcined granules into a powder

  13. Preparation of azo compounds with solid catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Corma, Avelino; García Gómez, Hermenegildo; Grirrane, Abdessamad

    2008-01-01

    [EN] The present invention refers to a procedure for preparing azo compounds comprising a reaction between at least: one amine or polyamine, molecular oxygen, a catalyst comprising at least one support selected fkom at least a metal oxide of one of the elements of the groups 3,4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11 and 13, silica, an anionic laminar compound of hydrotalcite type or its derivatives, active carbon or an organic polymer. In addition, said catalyst may contain nanoparticles of gold.

  14. On-chip Ultrasonic Sample Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Iranmanesh, Ida Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Acoustofluidics has become a well-established technology in the lab-on-a-chip scientific community. The technology involves primarily the manipulation of fluids and/or particles in microfluidic systems. It is used today for variety of applications such as handling, sorting, washing and separation of cells or micro-particles, and for mixing and pumping of fluids. When such manipulation functions are integrated in micro-devices, the technology has been used for clinical sample preparation as we...

  15. Sample preparation method for scanning force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jankov, I R; Szente, R N; Carreno, M N P; Swart, J W; Landers, R

    2001-01-01

    We present a method of sample preparation for studies of ion implantation on metal surfaces. The method, employing a mechanical mask, is specially adapted for samples analysed by Scanning Force Microscopy. It was successfully tested on polycrystalline copper substrates implanted with phosphorus ions at an acceleration voltage of 39 keV. The changes of the electrical properties of the surface were measured by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and the surface composition was analysed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy.

  16. Anticipating Serendipity. Preparing for the Unexpected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe Thomas J.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Serendipity—using "fortunate accidents" for learning or discovery—is a valued if too infrequent route to progress. Although serendipity cannot be scheduled or relied upon, one can develop skills, flexibility and habits of mind that make the recognition and incorporation of serendipitous discoveries more likely. This paper overviews at a high level a program of activities and concepts aimed at preparing modern professionals and communities to leverage the fortunate occurrences they encounter.

  17. Preparation of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Bin; WEI Jinquan; CI Lijie; WU Dehai

    2004-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared using the floating chemical vapor deposition with methane as carbon source and adding small amount of sulfur into the ferrocene catalyst. The optimized technological parameters are: the reaction temperature is 1200℃; the catalyst vapor temperature is 80℃; the flow rate of argon is 2000 SCCM; the flow rate of methane is 5 SCCM. The purified DWNTs under these optimized technological parameters have high purity above 90 wt%.

  18. Automated preparation of DNA sequences for publication.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, M B; Senapathy, P

    1986-01-01

    A computer program which draws DNA sequences is described. A simple method is used which enables the user to highlight or annotate specific parts of a sequence. The sizes of the characters in the sequence to be drawn are specified by the user. In addition, vertical spacing between lines and horizontal spacing between characters can be specified. Sequences can be prepared and high quality output produced on a plotter in a short period of time, making the program advantageous to use over typing...

  19. Preparation of a removable polyurethane encapsulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, B.G.

    1976-08-01

    The preparation of polyurethane encapsulants, based on polyether diol/diisocyanate prepolymers and 1,4-butanediol, which are soluble in several organic solvents, was investigated. Since these materials can be easily removed, repair of electronic circuitry found defective in potted units can be readily accomplished. Polyether diols of varying molecular weights were reacted with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and methylene diphenylisocyanate (MDI) to produce stable prepolymers. Several properties of both the isocyanate prepolymers and 1,4-butanediol cured polyurethane encapsulants are presented.

  20. Preparing for opening of school attendance

    OpenAIRE

    PEKAŘOVÁ, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In the theoretical work I will describe the concept of primary school, now to set start school as a watershed event and describe the child commencing school from the perspective of developmental psychology. In the practical part I will describe how to prepare to start school some nursery schools, with an emphasis on collaboration with parents and primary schools. I use the method of questionnaire and interview.

  1. Preparation and application of magnetic microsphere carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; XING Jianmin; LIU Huizhou

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic microsphere carriers have received considerable attention,primarily because of their wide applications in the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering.In this paper,preparation methods,surface modification and application of magnetic carriers are reviewed.Emphasis will be placed on recent biological and biomedical developments and trends such as enzyme immobilization,cell isolation,protein purification,target drugs and DNA separation.

  2. PREPARATION OF SPHERICAL URANIUM DIOXIDE PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, R.P. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1963-04-30

    This patent relates to the preparation of high-density, spherical UO/sub 2/ particles 80 to 150 microns in diameter. Sinterable UO/sub 2/ powder is wetted with 3 to 5 weight per cent water and tumbled for at least 48 hours. The resulting spherical particles are then sintered. The sintered particles are useful in dispersion-type fuel elements for nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  3. Preparing kids for the new baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, G B; Robinson, P

    1998-03-01

    Sibling prenatal classes are a natural extension of nursing's interest and expertise in childbirth preparation for expectant couples. From parents' perspective, these classes have the potential to decrease sibling rivalry and facilitate parental coping with older children's concerns about a new baby. From a nurse educator's perspective, sibling prenatal classes offer a rich learning experience for students by providing an opportunity to integrate knowledge about pregnancy and birth with communication skills and child development knowledge. PMID:9633319

  4. School administrator preparation in Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    CHARLES L. SLATER; Esparza, Elena; Peña, Rosa M.; Topete, Carlos; Álvarez, Isaías; Cerecedo, Trinidad; García, José María

    2005-01-01

    A team of US and Mexican researchers used focus groups to determine challenges faced by rural school directors who worked in isolated, poor communities. They had no preparation before becoming directors. Their stories express frustration with teachers who do not come to school on time and are not committed to education. Yet the directors throw themselves into their work and persist over the years. They ask for training in how to work with teachers, and they bring qualities of idealism and ...

  5. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil, L.; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P. K.; Gopala Krishna, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with disti...

  6. Grasping preparation enhances orientation change detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjerk P Gutteling

    Full Text Available Preparing a goal directed movement often requires detailed analysis of our environment. When picking up an object, its orientation, size and relative distance are relevant parameters when preparing a successful grasp. It would therefore be beneficial if the motor system is able to influence early perception such that information processing needs for action control are met at the earliest possible stage. However, only a few studies reported (indirect evidence for action-induced visual perception improvements. We therefore aimed to provide direct evidence for a feature-specific perceptual modulation during the planning phase of a grasping action. Human subjects were instructed to either grasp or point to a bar while simultaneously performing an orientation discrimination task. The bar could slightly change its orientation during grasping preparation. By analyzing discrimination response probabilities, we found increased perceptual sensitivity to orientation changes when subjects were instructed to grasp the bar, rather than point to it. As a control experiment, the same experiment was repeated using bar luminance changes, a feature that is not relevant for either grasping or pointing. Here, no differences in visual sensitivity between grasping and pointing were found. The present results constitute first direct evidence for increased perceptual sensitivity to a visual feature that is relevant for a certain skeletomotor act during the movement preparation phase. We speculate that such action-induced perception improvements are controlled by neuronal feedback mechanisms from cortical motor planning areas to early visual cortex, similar to what was recently established for spatial perception improvements shortly before eye movements.

  7. Materials, preparation, and characterization in thermoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    This book includes updated theoretical considerations which provide an insight into avenues of research most likely to result in further improvements in material performance. It details the latest techniques for the preparation of thermoelectric materials employed in energy harvesting, together with advances in the thermoelectric characterisation of nanoscale material. The book reviews the use of neutron beams to investigate phonons, whose behaviour govern the lattice thermal conductivity and includes a chapter on patents.

  8. Irradiation study of industrial glucoamylase preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes of properties for industrial glucoamylase preparation (IGP) irradiated by gamma-rays were studied. The experimental results showed that the preservation period because longer and the hygienic quality was improved when the IGP was irradiated by gamma-rays with dose under 2 kGy. The irradiation does not have obvious poor effects on properties of IGP. Therefore the irradiated IGP could be used normally

  9. Preparation and structural properties of Graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphene, as an ideal realization of two-dimensional crystals, has a promising future due to its unique electronic and physical properties. Many methods have been exploited to prepare high quality Graphene. Three main methods are reviewed, including the thermal decomposition of SiC (carbide) crystal surfaces, catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbon molecules on noble metal crystal surfaces, and chemically modified dispersion/reduction. The characteristics, recent development, and application prospects of each method are also discussed. (authors)

  10. Process for preparing polymer reinforced silica aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Capadona, Lynn A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Process for preparing polymer-reinforced silica aerogels which comprises a one-pot reaction of at least one alkoxy silane in the presence of effective amounts of a polymer precursor to obtain a silica reaction product, the reaction product is gelled and subsequently subjected to conditions that promotes polymerization of the precursor and then supercritically dried to obtain the polymer-reinforced monolithic silica aerogels.

  11. Microsample preparation by dielectrophoresis: isolation of malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoyne, Peter; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; WATCHARASIT, PIYAJIT; Becker, Frederick F.

    2002-01-01

    An important enabling factor for realising integrated micro fluidic analysis instruments for medical diagnostics purposes is front-end sample preparation. Dielectrophoresis is a method that offers great potential for cell discrimination and isolation for sample processing, and here we have applied it to the problem of isolating malaria-infected cells from blood. During development of the malarial pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum, increases occur in the ionic permeability of the plasma membrane...

  12. Process for preparing electromagnetic interference shileding materials

    OpenAIRE

    Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Jérôme, Christine; Detrembleur, Christophe; Alexandre, Michaël; Huynen, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for preparing an electromagnetic interference shielding material, or a precursor thereof, comprising a first polymer matrix and carbon conductive loads, said process comprises the steps of: (a) Forming a reaction mixture comprising carbon conductive loads and a polymerizable medium said polymerizable medium comprising one or more monomers dissolved in a solvent, (b) Exposing the reaction mixture to polymerization conditions to polymerize said polymer...

  13. ADDITIONAL QUALIFICATION OF PREPARATIONS FOR A CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikhailovich ZATSEPIN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article considers the additional qualifi-cation of preparations for a crime. The literal interpreta-tion of the law, in our opinion, implies the adjustment or adaptation of devices and instruments of the crime. At the same time, adaptation of devices may indicate to the improvement of respective capabilities. Qualification of preparations for a crime as preischemia of accomplices involves identification of the signs of preischemia and accomplices of the crime. In relevant literature, search of accomplices is considered as selection and search of other individuals for committing a crime. Sometimes the circle of other persons is to be specified and we mean the recruitment of perpetrators and accomplices or seek-ing acquaintance with potential partners, encouraging them to participate in a particular crime, discussing the roles of each accomplice etc. According to T. Poniatovskaya, search of accomplices implies persuad-ing them to commit a crime. On the one hand, it seems to us that specifically finding accomplices is not possible in the course of preparations for a crime. The thing is, that “complicity in a crime is an intentional joint participation of two or more persons in committing a deliberate crime" (article 32 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federa-tion. Accordingly, untill there is no deliberate joint par-ticipation of two or more persons in committing a delib-erate crime, there is no an accomplice.

  14. Preparation of single phase molybdenum boride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Formation of Mo and a mixture of molybdenum boride phases take place in preparation of molybdenum borides. → It is intricate to prepare single phase molybdenum borides. → Formation of single phase MoB from MoO3 + B2O3 + Mg mixtures has not been reported previously. → Single phase MoB was successfully prepared through a combination of mechanochemical synthesis and annealing process. - Abstract: The formation of MoB through volume combustion synthesis (VCS), and through mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) followed by annealing has been investigated. MoO3, B2O3 and Mg were used as reactants while MgO and NaCl were introduced as diluents. Products were leached in dilute HCl solution and were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations. Mo was the major phase component in the VCS products under all the experimental conditions. Mo2B, MoB, MoB2 and Mo2B5 were found as minor phases. Products of MCS contained a mixture of Mo2B, MoB, MoB2 and Mo. After annealing the MCS product at 1400 deg. C for 3 h, single phase α-MoB was obtained.

  15. Preparing to perform an awake fiberoptic intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, M E

    2012-02-03

    Fiberoptically guided tracheal intubation represents one of the most important advances in airway management to occur in the past thirty years. Perhaps its most important role is in management of the anticipated difficult airway. This is a situation in which the dangers of encountering the life-threatening "can\\'t intubate, can\\'t ventilate" situation can be avoided by placement of an endotracheal tube while the patient is awake. Although skill at the procedure of endoscopy is obviously necessary in this setting, these authors hold that success or failure of the technique frequently depends on the adequacy of preparation. These measures include 1) pre-operative assessment of the patient; 2) careful explanation of what lies in store; 3) "setting the stage"; 4) preparing the equipment to be used; and 5) preparing the patient (antisialogue, sedation, application of topical anesthesia to the upper airway). If these preparatory measures are carried out meticulously, the likelihood of performing a successful and comfortable awake fiberoptic tracheal intubation is greatly increased.

  16. Curvature-tuned preparation of nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Rükan; Ortiz, Mayreli; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2009-11-01

    Numerous methods have been reported for the preparation of liposomes, many of which, in addition to requiring time-consuming preparative steps and the use of organic solvents, result in heterogeneous liposome populations of incontrollable size. Taking into consideration the phenomenon of spontaneous vesiculation and the theory of curvature, here we present an extremely rapid and simple, solvent-free method for the preparation of monodisperse solutions of highly stable small unilamellar vesicles using both charged and zwitterionic lipids mixed with lyso-palmitoylphosphatidylcholine, exploiting a combination of a rapid pH change followed by a defined period of equilibration. Various experimental parameters and their interactions were evaluated in terms of their effect on resulting liposome size and shape, as well as on liposome stability and size distribution, with transmission electron microscope imaging being used to visualize the formed liposomes, and photon correlation spectroscopy to obtain statistical data on mean diameter and monodispersity of the liposome population. zeta potential measurements also provided information about the interpretation of vesiculation kinetics and liposome stability. The time interval of pH jump, operation temperature, equilibration time, and lipid type were shown to be the determining factors controlling the size, shape, and monodispersity of the liposomes. Buffer type was also found to be important for the long-term storage of the liposomes. Ongoing work is looking at the application of the developed method for encapsulation of bioactive molecules, such as drugs, genetic materials, and enzymes. PMID:19856992

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Danofloxacin Mmesylate Liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dexian; LI Jichang

    2011-01-01

    Five different methods were tested and compared to prepare danofloxacin mesylate liposomes, the ammonium sulfate gradient method with freeze-thawing steps was validated as the best one; the optimal preparation condition confirmed by orthogonal experiment was as follows: EPC-CH ratio was 3 : 2 and 2.6% SA was added to gain the positive electricity; drug-lipoid was 2 : 5, the concentration of ammonium sulfate was 250 mmol·L-1, water-oil ratio was 1:5, and they were incubated at 35℃ for 15 min. The prepared liposome products were ivory white semitransparent suspension, the electron microscope appearance was intact and globular or globular-like vesicles with uniformed distribution; the particle size was centralized from 3 to 7 gm, zeta-electric potential valued+ (15.92+1.49) mV, pH valued 6.02~0.09; HPLC method was established in quantitative analyses of danofloxacin and reverse dialysis with RP-HPLC method was validated for determination of entrapment efficiency. The entrapment efficiency results were all above 90%. They were stored at 4℃ with satisfied stability. Six months later, the appearance, characters and entrapment efficiency were almost with no change

  18. Ergonomic analysis of radiopharmaceuticals samples preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doses of radioisotopes to be administrated in patients for diagnostic effect or therapy are prepared in the radiopharmacological sector. The preparation process adopts techniques that are aimed to reduce the exposition time of the professionals and the absorption of excessive doses for patients. The ergonomic analysis of this process contributes in the prevention of occupational illnesses and to prevent risks of accidents during the routines, providing welfare and security to the involved users and conferring to the process an adequate working standard. In this context it is perceived relevance of studies that deal with the analysis of factors that point with respect to the solution of problems and for establishing proposals that minimize risks in the exercise of the activities. Through a methodology that considers the application of the concepts of Ergonomics, it is searched the improvement of the effectiveness or the quality and reduction of the difficulties lived for the workers. The work prescribed, established through norms and procedures codified will be faced with the work effectively carried through, the real work, shaped to break the correct appreciation, with focus in the activities. This work has as objective to argue an ergonomic analysis of samples preparation process of radioisotopes in the Setor de Radiofarmacia do Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). (author)

  19. Preparation of composite electroheat carbon film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jin-tong; TU Chuan-jun; LI Yan; HU Li-min; DENG Jiu-hua

    2005-01-01

    A kind of conductive and heating unit, which can reach a high surface electroheat temperature at a low voltage, was developed in view of the traditional electroheat coating which has a low surface electroheat temperature and an insufficient heat resistance of its binder. The coating molded electroheat carbon film(CMECF) was prepared by carbonizing the coating which was prepared by adding modified resin into flake graphite and carbon fiber, coating molded onto the surface of the heat resisting matrix after dried, while the hot pressing molded electroheat thick carbon film(HPMETCF) was prepared by carbonizing the bodies whose powders were hot pressing molded directly.The surface and inner microstructure of the carbon film was characterized and analyzed by SEM and DSC/TG, while electroheat property was tested by voltage-current volume resistivity tester and electrical parameter tester. The results show that, close-packed carbon network configuration is formed within the composite electroheat carbon film film after anti-oxidizable treatment reaches a higher surface electroheat temperature than that of the existing electroheat coatings at a low voltage, and has excellent electroheat property, high thermal efficiency as well as stable physicochemical property. It is found that, at room temperature(19± 2 ℃) and 22 V for 5 min, the surface electroheat temperature of the self-produced CMECF (mfiller/mresin = 1. 8/1) reaches 112 ℃ while HPMETCF (mfiller/mresin = 3. 6/1) reaches 265 ℃.

  20. Preparation and characterization of extruded magnetoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Raimon; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Callejas-Fernández, José; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque; Estelrich, Joan

    2008-01-22

    Phospholipid vesicles encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (here after called magnetoliposomes) have been prepared for targeting a drug to a specific organ using a magnetic force, as well as for local hyperthermia therapy. Magnetoliposomes are also an ideal platform for use as contrast agents. We describe the preparation and characterization of liposomes containing magnetite, a ferrimagnetic material. These liposomes were obtained by extrusion. To prevent the aggregation of particles, the magnetite was treated--prior to encapsulation--with a surfactant, resulting in a stable ferrofluid suspension. Once the ferrofluid had been obtained, it was used to hydrate the phospholipid layers. Magnetoliposomes had a diameter of around 200 nm, the same pore size as the membranes used for the extrusion. The encapsulation efficiency was dependent on the initial amount of ferrofluid present at the encapsulation stage, and in the worst case was 19%. This value corresponded to 82.06 mmol of magnetite per mole of phospholipid. Although we have used a determined membrane pore to obtain the magnetoliposomes, the method described here allows to prepare magnetoliposomes of different sizes as well as of different magnetite content. PMID:17692483

  1. Preparing health students for interprofessional placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sandra; McLeod, Gopi; Streckfuss, Julie; Ingram, Lissa; Morgan, Annette

    2016-03-01

    Clinical education increasingly includes opportunities for interprofessional (IP) placements but few opportunities for students and supervisors to adequately prepare for such placements. The aim of this project was to further develop and evaluate an online multidisciplinary resource that was originally designed to prepare students for single-discipline placements. The revised resource aimed to prepare health students and their supervisors for IP placements. The resource was trialled in host organisations with participants from naturopathy, nursing, osteopathy and pharmacy. The resource used language that was common to all participants and comprised activities that had broad relevance such as orientating students to specific placements, developing learning plans, clarifying roles, rights and responsibilities, and clinical scenarios that raised ethical and professional issues. The effectiveness of the resource as an IP learning tool was evaluated using an E-survey, focus groups and feedback from the project team. According to participants, the resource afforded insights into what other disciplines do and opportunities for cross-disciplinary interactions, which helped break down stereotypes and misconceptions. Cross-disciplinary commonalities such as those pertaining to patient care, communication and ethics became evident. Collaborative projects involving academics, clinical supervisors and students from multiple disciplines provided an opportunity for culture change in an education organisation from single discipline to a more collaborative interdisciplinary one. PMID:27038083

  2. Hot cells preparation of testing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important in nuclear waste repository development that testing be done with materials containing a radionuclide spectrum representative of actual wastes. To meet the need for such materials, the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) has prepared simulated high-level waste (HLW) glasses with radionuclides representative of about 10-, 300- and 100-year-old waste. A quantity of well characterized spent fuel also has been acquired for the same purpose. Glasses containing 10- and 300-year-old wastes, and the spent fuel specimens, must be fabricated in a hot cell. Hot cell conditions (high radiation field, remote operation, and difficulty of repairs) require that procedures and equipment normally used in materials preparation out-of-cell be modified for hot cell applications. This paper discusses the fabrication of two glasses, and the preparation of test specimens of these glasses and spent fuel. One of the glasses is a 76-68 composition, which is fully loaded with actual commercial reactor fission product waste. The other glass contains simulated Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant waste, doped with different combinations of fission products and actinides. The spent fuel is a 10-year-old PWR material. Special techniques have been used to achieve high quality, well characterized testing materials, including specimens in the form of segments, wafers, cylinders, and powders of these materials

  3. Electrochemical preparation of technetium hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the liquid chromatographic and electrochemical analysis of electrogenerated technetium hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) complexes, and studies the effectiveness of the resulting bone imaging agents. Anion exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography is used to separate components, and γ emission is used as the detection mode. The reaction mixtures were prepared at a series of reduction potentials and pH values, at both carrier added and no carrier added technetium levels. The results indicate that all three parameters affect the final complex composition to varying degrees. By optimizing the conditions, a preparation was made which results in a high percentage of a Tc-HEDP complex thought to be a very good home imager. This component was isolated chromatographically and injected into female Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparisons were run on the uptake for seven tissue types at two incubation times. Mercury and Reticulated Vitreous Carbon were used as the working electrode materials, and it is shown how reduced technetium will significantly alter the electrode characteristics, where a conditioned electrode will produce different complexes from those produced at fresh electrode material. By employing coulometric analysis as the preparation was reduced, an n value of 4 was calculated for a particular complex. This procedure involved tracking the radioactive technetium species carefully to account for all electrons used in the system. Finally, an electrochemical detection method for HEDP was explored, utilizing the property of mercury complexation. Anodic sweep Differential Pulse Polarography gives an analytical signal for HEDP at +0.250 V vs Ag/AgCl

  4. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw. PMID:26289326

  5. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  6. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  7. Preparation and study of model magnetorheological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Turczyn

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was preparation of the model magnetorheological (MR fluids. Basic properties of prepared MR fluids, as their response to an external magnetic field and their stability, were investigated. Moreover (furthermore few results concerning stabilizing effect of various additives are presented.Design/methodology/approach: Model MR fluid was prepared using three type of carriers: silicone oil OKS 1050, synthetic oil OKS 352, mineral oil OKS 600 mixed with carbonyl iron powder CI HQ. Furthermore, to reduce sedimentation Aerosil 200 and 972, Arsil 1100 and Arabic gum were added as stabilizers. MR effect was measured using device working as Couette’s viscosimeter equipped with coil generating magnetic field. Sedimentation was measured by simply observation of changes in boundary position between clear and turbid part of MR fluid placed into glass tube.Findings: Influence of the additives presence on the MR effect was determined. The presence of additives did not diminish the magnetic effect but even increased the dynamic viscosity in existence of an external magnetic field. The stability of MR fluid was improved by adding additives to the formulation. Moreover, increasing stabilizer concentration further enhanced the MR fluid stability. The best result was achieved in case of Aerosil 9782 at 2 % content.Research limitations/implications: MR fluids with excellent properties can be applied in various fields of civil and safety engineering, transportation and life science. However, due to sedimentation, MR fluid response to magnetic field is restricted and in an extreme situation could lead to the fail that is why further efforts must be still made in order to obtain even better results.Originality/value: This article provides set of new data about improvement of MR fluid stability in the presence of selected stabilizers and contains few remarks how the formulation of MR fluid affect its properties.

  8. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Extemporaneously Prepared Herbal Mouthwashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Kamal; Sheshala, Ravi; Al-Waeli, Haider A; Gupta, Gauarv; Chellappan, Dinesh K

    2015-01-01

    Natural products like plants and its components have been in use for treatment and cure of diseases all around the globe from ancient times much before the discovery of the current modern drugs. These substances from the nature are well known to contain components which have therapeutic properties and can also behave as precursors for the synthesis of potential drugs. The beneficial results from herbal drugs are well reported where their popularity in usage has increased across the globe. Subsequently developing countries are now recognizing the many positive advantages from their use which has engaged the expansion of R & D from herbal research. The flow on effect from this expansion has increased the awareness to develop new herbal products and the processes, throughout the entire world. Mouth washes and mouth rinses which have plant oils, plant components or extracts have generated particular attention. High prevalence of gingival inflammation and periodontal diseases, suggests majority of the patients practice inadequate plaque control. Of the currently available mouthwashes in the market, Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) has been investigated on a larger scale with much detail. CHX is associated with side effects like staining of teeth when used daily as well as the bitter taste of the mouthwash which leads to patient incompliance. The present research encompasses the antibacterial activity of extemporaneously prepared herbal mouthwash using natural herbs and therefore allows for the potential commercialization with in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries. Also, the present research article reviewed details of various existing patents of herbal mouthwashes which shows the trend of existing market and significance of emerging mouthwashes in both pharmaceutical and herbal industries. The antimicrobial activity of prepared mouthwashes was found to be effective against various strains of bacteria. It also suggests that the prepared herbal mouthwashes may provide

  9. Spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2009-02-01

    Simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the determination of four fluoroquinolone (FQ) drugs, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations. Proposed method is based on the derivatization of FQ with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) in borate buffer of pH 9.0 to yield a yellow product. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 23.5-500 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 28.5-700 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 29.5-800 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 33.5-1000 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin using NBD-Cl reagent, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 7.0 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 8.5 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 9.2 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 9.98 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative mean error values at three different concentrations were determined. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. The method is highly sensitive and specific. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the official and reference method. The results presented in this report show that the applied spectrofluorimetric method is acceptable for the determination of the four FQ in the pharmaceutical preparations. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere with the proposed method.

  10. Psychological preparation of competitive judokas - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 18) on psychological preparation of competitive judokas. These studies were grouped according to the type of study performed - observational, experimental, and case studies. In addition, five psychological categories were identified: (a) imagery, (b) motivation, (c) stress, anxiety, and mood states, (d) eating attitudes and weight control, and (e) coach/athlete interactions. The main findings of this review are that (a) there is a lack of data regarding the use of imagery to improve judo performance; (b) goal involvement states of competitive judokas fluctuate and undergo abrupt changes during actual combat, according to the ecological constraints of the situation; (c) cortisol levels and somatic and cognitive anxiety tend to increase prior to and during a judo combat; (d) weight reduction programs that judokas undergo prior to a judo combat can lead to unpleasant moods, and cultural differences can lead to conflicting results; (e) psychological preparation plans should be tailored to each individual judoka, as there can be significant individual differences among the judokas. Based on the findings of our review, a number of research limitations and methodological concerns are discussed. Key PointsThis article reviews a series of studies (n = 18) examining psychological aspects of judokas who compete at the intermediate level, national team level, and international level, and who hold international titles.Weight reduction programs that judokas undergo prior to a judo combat can lead to unpleasant moods.Psychological preparation plans should be tailored to each individual judoka, as there can be significant individual differences among competitive judokas.An effort should be made to conduct experimental-designed studies in order to assess the effectiveness of psychological interventions in judo. PMID:24149140

  11. Preparation of Graphene Encapsulated Silicon Nanoball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huijin; So, Deasup; Park, Sungjin; Huh, Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Concerning application of graphene, a lot of efforts have been made to improve performance of nanomaterials in many fields, such as electric and electronic devices. Some examples are preparation of 3-dimension structured nanomaterials like nanoballs by CVD process and hybridizing with silicon. These graphene-based materials are proven to be available for secondary battery, EMI and ACF in electronics. Especially, some research has shown that they were very effective to enhance safety and volumetric capacity when they were used as anode materials of secondary battery. Although graphite and its compound with metal have been used as an anode material due to their high stability and reversibility, it still has lower charge capacity. On the contrary, silicon is known as a material which increases the charge capacity up to four times, compared with carbon-based materials, but it has lower stability and reversibility. For that reason, a few researchers just started to improve the charge capacity by hybridization of carbon-based material with silicon. In this paper, we prepared nanocarbon based material which has a new structure of graphene encapsulated silicon nanoball as an anode material which is applicable to high-capacity secondary battery. In order to form a graphene encapsulated silicon nanoballs, the polystyrene encapsulated silicon nanoballs were prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene monomer with silicon nanoparticles. The resulting nanoballs were immersed in iron chloride solution and then dried. Finally they were treated in high temperature through CVD and etched by hydrogen chloride. Morphology of the graphene encapsulated silicon nanoballs was observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and the field emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM) to search for core-shell structured nanoball. Spherical structure of graphene encapsulated silicon nanoball was investigated by the Raman, the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to

  12. Preparing Your Child for Visits to the Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Preparing Your Child for Visits to the Doctor KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing Your Child for Visits ... vital to making an informed diagnosis. Choose a Doctor Who Relates Well to Kids Because your doctor ...

  13. At Arbitration Hearings, Justice Favors the Well Prepared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Arbitration can be a way to settle employee grievances efficiently and fairly. Count on spending five or six hours in preparation for each hour spent with the arbitrator. Presents strategies for meticulous preparation. (MLF)

  14. Preparation and measurement in quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, James L.; Band, William

    1992-05-01

    To honor Henry Margenau on the occasion of his 90th birthday, we attempt in this essay to integrate certain aspects of the physics, philosophy, and pedagogy of quantum mechanics in a manner very much inspired by Margenau's idealist scientific epistemology. Over half a century ago, Margenau was perhaps the first philosopher of science to recognize and elaborate upon the essential distinction between the preparation of a quantum state and the measurement of an observable associated with a system in that state; yet in contemporary quantum texts that distinction rarely receives adequate emphasis even though, as we demonstrate, it may be explicated through a series of simple illustrations.

  15. Tracer preparate and method for its production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injectable tracer preparate for investigations to determine the blood flow in organs or the effect of drugs on the blood flow consists of a core of ion exchanger resin coated with polyfuran or a polymer which is the reaction product of a monomer catalysable by acid or base. The nuclei have a diameter of 10 to 200 micron, the coating thickness is between 1 and 3 micron. Ions of Ce 141, Cr 51, Sr 85, Sr 46 or Co 57 of strength 0.1-100 millicurie are adsorbed on the nucleus. (DG)

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Acylated Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-chun; LIU Chao; XIN Mei-hua; ZHAO Huang; WANG Min; FENG Zhen; SUN Xiao-li

    2005-01-01

    Fully acylated chitosan and N, N-diacyl chitosan were prepared. The products were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and 1H NMR. The experimental results indicate that the average degree of acylation depends on the volume ratio of pyridine to chloroform in the reaction medium, the chain length of the acylation agent used, and the molecular weight of chitosan raw materials. The XRD measurements were carried out for pure chitosan, fully acylated chitosan and N, N-diacyl chitosan to verify the crystallinity change caused by the acylation.

  17. Preparation of NPP Dukovany periodic safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukovany NPP in Czech Republic performs a periodic safety review for the second time after approximately 20 years of operation. The history of the Safety Report and its transformation into an internationally accepted form complying with IAEA standards is described. The deterministic and probabilistic assessment of the plant's safety-related design and state is applied to determine whether and to what extend the relevant protective goals are fulfilled by the existing plant design. A description of the step-by-step process is presented together with the creation of methods and criteria for PSR evaluation prepared by Nuclear Research Institute Rez

  18. Preparation and characterization of fractal elastomer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yoshimune; Seino, Eri; Abe, Saya; Mayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The elastomer materials with hierarchical structure and suitable wettability are useful as biological surface model. In the present study, urethane resin and silicone resin elastomers with hierarchical rough surfaces were prepared and referred to as "fractal elastomers". We found a hierarchy of small projections that existed over larger ones on these surfaces. These elastomers were synthesized by transferring a fractal surface structure of alkylketene dimer. The rough structure enhanced the hydrophobicity and weakened friction resistance of the elastomer surfaces. These materials can be useful for artificial skin with biomimetic surface properties. PMID:23985488

  19. Silica Microcapsules Prepared by Interfacial Reaction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M; Fujiwara; K; Shiokawa; Y; Nakahara

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Silica spherical particles with hollow structure are directly prepared by interfacial reaction methods using W/O/W emulsion (schematic diagram in Fig.1)[1].Fig.1 Silica microcapsule formationThe mixing of W/O emulsion consisting of sodium silicate solution (inner water phase) and n-hexane solution (oil phase) to outer water phase dissolving NH4HCO3 or other salts affords silica microcapsules.The critical feature of this method is the direct formation of hollow structure.Therefore,the core com...

  20. Preparation of tritiated tetracycline and rifampicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [7-3H] tetracycline with a specific activity of 5 Ci/mM was prepared by catalytic dehalogenation of 7-chloro-tetracycline with gaseous tritium. Rifampicine which has a special importance in oncological studies was hydrogenized catalytically with tritium to aive [18,19-dihydro-3H] rifampicine and [16,17,18,19-tetrahydro-3H]rifampicine. The first compound showed a higher biological activity than even the original rifampicine; the specific activity was 16 Ci/mM