WorldWideScience

Sample records for aviation safety

  1. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  2. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodo

  3. Microwave Radiometer for Aviation Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SBIR Phase I Project proposes a new passive microwave airborne sensor for in flight icing hazard detection, Microwave Radiometer for Aviation Safety. A feasibility...

  4. Proactive Management of Aviation System Safety Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviation safety systems have undergone dramatic changes over the past fifty years. If you take a look at the early technology in this area, you'll see that there...

  5. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  6. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... aviation legislation, (2) specific operating regulations, (3) organization structure ] and safety oversight... International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The FAA maintains and publishes a country-by-country...

  7. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the following…

  8. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  9. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety...-20, 2012 in Washington, DC. The event, ``General Aviation Safety: Climbing to the Next Level,''...

  10. ANALYZING AVIATION SAFETY REPORTS: FROM TOPIC MODELING TO SCALABLE MULTI-LABEL CLASSIFICATION

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ANALYZING AVIATION SAFETY REPORTS: FROM TOPIC MODELING TO SCALABLE MULTI-LABEL CLASSIFICATION AMRUDIN AGOVIC*, HANHUAI SHAN, AND ARINDAM BANERJEE Abstract. The...

  11. [Safety in intensive care medicine. Can we learn from aviation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, J; Pump, S; Maas, W; Stüben, U

    2012-05-01

    Safety is of extraordinary value in commercial aviation. Therefore, sophisticated and complex systems have been developed to ensure safe operation. Within this system, the pilots are of specific concern: they form the human-machine interface and have a special responsibility in controlling and monitoring all aircraft systems. In order to prepare pilots for their challenging task, specific selection of suitable candidates is crucial. In addition, for every commercial pilot regulatory requirements demand a certain number of simulator training sessions and check flights to be completed at prespecified intervals. In contrast, career choice for intensive care medicine most likely depends on personal reasons rather than eligibility or aptitude. In intensive care medicine, auditing, licensing, or mandatory training are largely nonexistent. Although knowledge of risk management and safety culture in aviation can be transferred to the intensive care unit, the diversity of corporate culture and tradition of leadership and training will represent a barrier for the direct transfer of standards or procedures. To accomplish this challenging task, the analysis of appropriate fields of action with regard to structural requirements and the process of change are essential. PMID:22526119

  12. Bayesian Network Assessment Method for Civil Aviation Safety Based on Flight Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flight delays and safety are the principal contradictions in the sound development of civil aviation. Flight delays often come up and induce civil aviation safety risk simultaneously. Based on flight delays, the random characteristics of civil aviation safety risk are analyzed. Flight delays have been deemed to a potential safety hazard. The change rules and characteristics of civil aviation safety risk based on flight delays have been analyzed. Bayesian networks (BN have been used to build the aviation operation safety assessment model based on flight delay. The structure and parameters learning of the model have been researched. By using BN model, some airline in China has been selected to assess safety risk of civil aviation. The civil aviation safety risk of BN model has been assessed by GeNIe software. The research results show that flight delay, which increases the safety risk of civil aviation, can be seen as incremental safety risk. The effectiveness and correctness of the model have been tested and verified.

  13. Aviation and healthcare: a comparative review with implications for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Narinder; Parand, Anam; Soukup, Tayana; Reader, Tom; Sevdalis, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Safety in aviation has often been compared with safety in healthcare. Following a recent article in this journal, the UK government set up an Independent Patient Safety Investigation Service, to emulate a similar well-established body in aviation. On the basis of a detailed review of relevant publications that examine patient safety in the context of aviation practice, we have drawn up a table of comparative features and a conceptual framework for patient safety. Convergence and divergence of safety-related behaviours across aviation and healthcare were derived and documented. Key safety-related domains that emerged included Checklists, Training, Crew Resource Management, Sterile Cockpit, Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Organisational Culture. We conclude that whilst healthcare has much to learn from aviation in certain key domains, the transfer of lessons from aviation to healthcare needs to be nuanced, with the specific characteristics and needs of healthcare borne in mind. On the basis of this review, it is recommended that healthcare should emulate aviation in its resourcing of staff who specialise in human factors and related psychological aspects of patient safety and staff wellbeing. Professional and post-qualification staff training could specifically include Cognitive Bias Avoidance Training, as this appears to play a key part in many errors relating to patient safety and staff wellbeing. PMID:26770817

  14. Automating the aviation command safety assessment survey as an Enterprise Information System (EIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Held, Jonathan S.; Mingo, Fred J.

    1999-01-01

    The Aviation Command Safety Assessment (ACSA) is a questionnaire survey methodology developed to evaluate a Naval Aviation Command's safety climate, culture, and safety program effectiveness. This survey was a manual process first administered in the fall of 1996. The primary goal of this thesis is to design, develop, and test an Internet-based, prototype model for administering this survey using new technologies that allow automated survey submission and analysis. The result of this thesis i...

  15. Sensors and Systems to Enhance Aviation Safety Against Weather Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Pravas R; Zrnic, Dusan S

    1991-01-01

    Weather-related factors are among major causes of aviation hazards, passenger discomfort, poor airline schedule-keeping, and poor operating economy. A variety of new high-technology electronic sensors and systems for aviation weather are being developed and installed across the US. The aviation weather monitoring system of the future will be centered around Doppler weather radars which offer the best combination of coverage, resolution, and agility for this purpose, and are able to detect and...

  16. Discovering Anomalous Aviation Safety Events Using Scalable Data Mining Algorithms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The worldwide civilian aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems created. Most modern commercial aircraft have onboard flight data recorders that...

  17. Selling safety: the use of celebrities in improving awareness of safety in commercial aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesworth, Brett R C; Seneviratne, Dimuth; Burgess, Marion

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influential power of a celebrity to convey key safety messages in commercial aviation using a pre-flight safety briefing video. In addition, the present research sought to examine the effectiveness of subtitles in aiding the recall of these important messages as well as how in-cabin aircraft noise affects recall of this information. A total of 101 participants were randomly divided into four groups (no noise without subtitles, no noise with subtitles, noise without subtitles and noise with subtitles) and following exposure to a pre-recorded pre-flight safety briefing video were tested for recall of key safety messages within that video. Participants who recognised and recalled the name of the celebrity in the safety briefing video recalled significantly more of the messages than participants who did not recognise the celebrity. Subtitles were also found to be effective, however, only in the presence of representative in-cabin aircraft noise. Practitioner Summary: Passenger attention to pre-flight safety briefings on commercial aircraft is poor. Utilising the celebrity status of a famous person may overcome this problem. Results suggest that celebrities do increase the recall of safety-related information.

  18. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  19. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  20. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  1. Integrated Framework for Understanding Relationship Between Human Error and Aviation Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锡东

    2009-01-01

    Introducing a framework for understanding the relationship between human error and aviation safety from mul-tiple perspectives and using multiple models. The first part of the framework is the perspective of individual operator using the information processing model. The second part is the group perspective with the Crew Re-source Management (CRM) model. The third and final is the organization perspective using Reason's Swiss cheese model. Each of the perspectives and models has been in existence for a long time, but the integrated framework presented allows a systematic understanding of the complex relationship between human error and aviation safety, along with the numerous factors that cause or influence error. The framework also allows the i-dentification of mitigation measures to systematically reduce human error and improve aviation safety.

  2. A critical analysis of airline safety management with reference to pilots and aviation authority officers

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Li-Chi

    1996-01-01

    When we consider regional differences in air safety, a call for regional solutions is needed. This research probes the current situation in Taiwan and part of Asia from a regional perspective, aiming to better understand safety management in this region. Data was drawn from an extensive survey involving both airline pilots and aviation authority officers. The research investigated respondents' perceptions in airline safety management, and examined at their opinions about the ro...

  3. Aviation Trends Related to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project Technical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Evans, Joni K.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Current and future aviation safety trends related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project's three technical challenges (engine icing characterization and simulation capability; airframe icing simulation and engineering tool capability; and atmospheric hazard sensing and mitigation technology capability) were assessed by examining the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database (1989 to 2008), incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accident/incident database (1989 to 2006), and literature from various industry and government sources. The accident and incident data were examined for events involving fixed-wing airplanes operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91 for atmospheric conditions related to airframe icing, ice-crystal engine icing, turbulence, clear air turbulence, wake vortex, lightning, and low visibility (fog, low ceiling, clouds, precipitation, and low lighting). Five future aviation safety risk areas associated with the three AEST technical challenges were identified after an exhaustive survey of a variety of sources and include: approach and landing accident reduction, icing/ice detection, loss of control in flight, super density operations, and runway safety.

  4. Projected Impact of Compositional Verification on Current and Future Aviation Safety Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    The projected impact of compositional verification research conducted by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies on aviation safety risk was assessed. Software and compositional verification was described. Traditional verification techniques have two major problems: testing at the prototype stage where error discovery can be quite costly and the inability to test for all potential interactions leaving some errors undetected until used by the end user. Increasingly complex and nondeterministic aviation systems are becoming too large for these tools to check and verify. Compositional verification is a "divide and conquer" solution to addressing increasingly larger and more complex systems. A review of compositional verification research being conducted by academia, industry, and Government agencies is provided. Forty-four aviation safety risks in the Biennial NextGen Safety Issues Survey were identified that could be impacted by compositional verification and grouped into five categories: automation design; system complexity; software, flight control, or equipment failure or malfunction; new technology or operations; and verification and validation. One capability, 1 research action, 5 operational improvements, and 13 enablers within the Federal Aviation Administration Joint Planning and Development Office Integrated Work Plan that could be addressed by compositional verification were identified.

  5. Safety engineering in handling fuels and lubricants in civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protoereiskii, Aleksandr Stepanovich

    The book is concerned with methods of improving working conditions, work hygiene, safety engineering, and fire and explosion prevention during the storage and handling of petroleum products at fuel and lubricant storage facilities. The discussion covers methods of protection against static and atmospheric discharges, lightning protection, safety engineering in fuel and lubricant laboratories, and methods of fire prevention and fire extinction. Attention is also given to methods for administering first aid in case of accidents and poisoning.

  6. Multiple Kernel Learning for Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection: Algorithm and Aviation Safety Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Matthews, Bryan L.; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems ever developed and is generating data at an extremely rapid rate. Most modern commercial aircraft record several hundred flight parameters including information from the guidance, navigation, and control systems, the avionics and propulsion systems, and the pilot inputs into the aircraft. These parameters may be continuous measurements or binary or categorical measurements recorded in one second intervals for the duration of the flight. Currently, most approaches to aviation safety are reactive, meaning that they are designed to react to an aviation safety incident or accident. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach based on the theory of multiple kernel learning to detect potential safety anomalies in very large data bases of discrete and continuous data from world-wide operations of commercial fleets. We pose a general anomaly detection problem which includes both discrete and continuous data streams, where we assume that the discrete streams have a causal influence on the continuous streams. We also assume that atypical sequence of events in the discrete streams can lead to off-nominal system performance. We discuss the application domain, novel algorithms, and also discuss results on real-world data sets. Our algorithm uncovers operationally significant events in high dimensional data streams in the aviation industry which are not detectable using state of the art methods

  7. Assessing Knowledge Retention of an Immersive Serious Game vs. a Traditional Education Method in Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca; Buttussi, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Thanks to the increasing availability of consumer head-mounted displays, educational applications of immersive VR could now reach to the general public, especially if they include gaming elements (immersive serious games). Safety education of citizens could be a particularly promising domain for immersive serious games, because people tend not to pay attention to and benefit from current safety materials. In this paper, we propose an HMD-based immersive game for educating passengers about aviation safety that allows players to experience a serious aircraft emergency with the goal of surviving it. We compare the proposed approach to a traditional aviation safety education method (the safety card) used by airlines. Unlike most studies of VR for safety knowledge acquisition, we do not focus only on assessing learning immediately after the experience but we extend our attention to knowledge retention over a longer time span. This is a fundamental requirement, because people need to retain safety procedures in order to apply them when faced with danger. A knowledge test administered before, immediately after and one week after the experimental condition showed that the immersive serious game was superior to the safety card. Moreover, subjective as well as physiological measurements employed in the study showed that the immersive serious game was more engaging and fear-arousing than the safety card, a factor that can contribute to explain the obtained superior retention, as we discuss in the paper. PMID:26357103

  8. Integrating Safety in the Aviation System: Interdepartmental Training for Pilots and Maintenance Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Marifran; Petrin, Donald A.; Young, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The study of human factors has had a decisive impact on the aviation industry. However, the entire aviation system often is not considered in researching, training, and evaluating human factors issues especially with regard to safety. In both conceptual and practical terms, we argue for the proactive management of human error from both an individual and organizational systems perspective. The results of a multidisciplinary research project incorporating survey data from professional pilots and maintenance technicians and an exploratory study integrating students from relevant disciplines are reported. Survey findings suggest that latent safety errors may occur during the maintenance discrepancy reporting process because pilots and maintenance technicians do not effectively interact with one another. The importance of interdepartmental or cross-disciplinary training for decreasing these errors and increasing safety is discussed as a primary implication.

  9. THE CONCEPTION OF FLIGHT SAFETY MANAGEMENT FOR CIVIL AVIATION AIRPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    S.S. Devyatkina

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of mathematical approach are: the higher accuracy, clearness and the possibility to reduce risk level at every stage of its creation. This mathematical approach requires the creation of mathematic models of risks for take-off, taxiing, final approach and landing. These models consider all potential safety hazards may be created by each aerodrome departments. The transparency of these risks models provides the possibility of development the defense at every necessary stage o...

  10. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.; Hall, R.; Martinez, G.; Uryasev, S.

    1996-03-13

    This work explores the hypothesis that Service Difficulty Reports (SDR - primarily inspection reports) are related to Accident Incident Data System (AIDS - reports primarily compiled from National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigations). This work sought and found relations between equipment operability reported in the SDR and aviation safety reported in AIDS. Equipment is not the only factor in aviation accidents, but it is the factor reported in the SDR. Two approaches to risk analysis were used: (1) The conventional method, in which reporting frequencies are taken from a data base (SDR), and used with an aircraft reliability block diagram model of the critical systems to predict aircraft failure, and (2) Shape analysis that uses the magnitude and shape of the SDR distribution compared with the AIDS distribution to predict aircraft failure.

  11. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  12. Applying decision trial and evaluation laboratory as a decision tool for effective safety management system in aviation transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyichukwu Ebubechukwu Onyegiri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in the aviation industry, the weak engineering controls and lapses associated with safety management systems (SMSs are responsible for the seemingly unprecedented disasters. A previous study has confirmed the difficulties experienced by safety managers with SMSs and the need to direct research to this area of investigation for more insights and progress in the evaluation and maintenance of SMSs in the aviation industry. The purpose of this work is to examine the application of Decision Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL to the aviation industry in developing countries with illustration using the Nigerian aviation survey data for the validation of the method. The advantage of the procedure over other decision making methods is in its ability to apply feedback in its decision making. It also affords us the opportunity of breaking down the complex aviation SMS components and elements which are multi-variate in nature through the analysis of the contributions of the diverse system criteria from the perspective of cause and effects, which in turn yields easier and yet more effective aviation transportation accident pre-corrective actions. In this work, six revised components of an SMS were identified and DEMATEL was applied to obtain their direct and indirect impacts and influences on the overall SMS performance. Data collection was by the survey questionnaire, which served as the initial direct-relation matrix, coded in Matlab software for establishing the impact relation map (IRM. The IRM was then plotted in MS Excel spread-sheet software. From our results, safety structure and regulation has the highest impact level on an SMS with a corresponding positive relation level value. In conclusion, the results agree with those of previous researchers that used grey relational analysis. Thus, DEMATEL serves as a great tool and resource for the safety manager.

  13. Learning from Aviation to Improve Safety in the Operating Room - a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. G. L. Wauben

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lessons learned from other high-risk industries could improve patient safety in the operating room (OR. This review describes similarities and differences between high-risk industries and describes current methods and solutions within a system approach to reduce errors in the OR. PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant articles written in the English language published between 2000 and 2011. In total, 25 articles were included, all within the medical domain focusing on the comparison between surgery and aviation. In order to improve safety in the OR, multiple interventions have to be implemented. Additionally, the healthcare organization has to become a ‘learning organization’ and the OR team has to become a team with shared responsibilities and flat hierarchies. Interpersonal and technical skills can be trained by means of simulation and can be supported by implementing team briefings, debriefings and cross-checks. However, further development and research is needed to prove if these solutions are useful, practical, and actually increase safety.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis for Safety Design Verification of General Aviation Reciprocating Aircraft Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jiaokun; DING Shuiting

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an application of global sensitivity analysis for system safety analysis of reciprocating aircraft engine.Compared with local sensitivity analysis results,global sensitivity analysis could provide more information on parameter interactions,which are significant in complex system safety analysis.First,a deterministic aviation reciprocating engine thermodynamics model is developed and parameters of interest are defined as random variables.Then,samples are generated by Monte Carlo method for the parameters used in engine model on the basis of definition of factor distribution.Eventually,results from engine model are generated and importance indices are calculated.Based on the analysis results,design is improved to satisfy the airworthiness requirements.The results reveal that by using global sensitivity analysis,the parameters could be ranked with respect to their importance,including first order indices and total sensitivity indices.By reducing the uncertainty of parameters and adjusting the range of inputs,safety criteria would be satisfied.

  15. A study of influences of the workers' compensation and injury management regulations on aviation safety at a workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devinder K; Nikraz, Hamid; Chen, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    As the aviation industries developed, so too did the recognition that there must be an effective regulatory framework to address issues related to the workers' compensation and rehabilitation. All employees would like to work and return home safely from their workplace. Therefore, the efficient management of workplace injury and disease reduces the cost of aviation operations and improves flight safety. Workers' compensation and injury management laws regulate a majority of rehabilitation and compensation issues, but achieving an injury-free workplace remains a major challenge for the regulators. This paper examines the clauses of the workers' compensation and injury management laws of Western Australia related to workplace safety, compensation, and rehabilitations of the injured workers. It also discusses various provisions of common law under the relevant workers' health injury management legislations.

  16. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  17. Multiple Kernel Learning for Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection: Algorithm and Aviation Safety Case Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The world-wide aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems ever developed and is generating data at an extremely rapid rate. Most modern commercial...

  18. An Integrated Framework for Fostering Human Factor Sustainability and Increased Safety in Aviation Ramp Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, Sarah M; Lopp, Denver

    2015-01-01

    The aviation work environment has one of the highest accident rates of any industry sector in the United States, resulting in significant costs for both employee injuries and equipment damage. In fact, injury rates exceed rates found in areas that are widely recognized as hazardous, such as construction and mining, and it is estimated that aircraft ground damage costs are as high as 5 billion to 10 billion dollars per year. Purdue University’s Aviation Technology Department has conducted nume...

  19. Safety Management and Risk Modelling in Aviation: The challenge of quantifying management influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aviation accidents result from a combination of many different causal factors ( human errors, technical failures, environmental and organisational influences). Increasing interest over the past two decades in causal modelling of organisational factors has been motivated by the desire to understand t

  20. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Hall, R.E.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Uryasev, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sampath, S.G. [Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City, NJ (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A synthetic model of scheduled-commercial U.S. aviation fatalities was constructed from linear combinations of the time-spectra of critical systems reporting using 5.5 years of Service Difficulty Reports (SDR){sup 2} and Accident Incident Data System (AIDS) records{sup 3}. This model, used to predict near-future trends in aviation accidents, was tested by using the first 36 months of data to construct the synthetic model which was used to predict fatalities during the following eight months. These predictions were tested by comparison with the fatality data. A reliability block diagram (RBD) and third-order extrapolations also were used as predictive models and compared with actuality. The synthetic model was the best predictor because of its use of systems data. Other results of the study are a database of service difficulties for major aviation systems, and a rank ordering of systems according to their contribution to the synthesis. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  2. 根植于航空安全文化的内隐安全态度的预测效应%Predictive Effect of Implicit Safety Attitudes on Safety Performance in Aviation Safety Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏碧华; 姬鸣; 赵小军; 屠金路; 游旭群

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental feature of safety culture is represented by safety attitudes. In terms of measuring safety cultures, many researchers have mainly focused on explicit safety attitudes and generally relied on specific survey instruments. It is questionable, however, whether self-report measures can capture all aspects of organizational safety culture. Instead of getting direct answers, it is necessary to introduce implicit measures and the implicit safety attitudes test into safety culture evaluation. The basic hypothesis of this study was that while various enterprises share different safety culture, the structure and intensity of implicit and explicit safety attitudes differ for employees. The present study was aimed at investigating the complete model of aviation safety culture and the importance of implicit safety attitudes by detecting the relationship between explicit and implicit safety attitudes as well as the prediction effect of implicit safety attitudes. The Flight Management Attitudes Questionnaire (FMAQ 2.0, international version) was adopted in this study which was based on the work characteristics of modern airlines pilots. With the purpose of evaluating explicit safety attitudes under the background of aviation safety culture, FMAQ 2.0 is comprised of three subscales, including basic organizational attitudes, cockpit work attitudes, and flight automation attitudes. Moreover, Evaluative Implicit Association Test and Affective Implicit Association Test were developed for aviatic implicit safety attitudes test. 134 pilots were involved in the investigation, 126 valid cases were obtained. Safety performance were obtained from airline company The results showed that (1) IAT of aviation safety attitudes indicated a high effect value, aviation safety led to more positive evaluation and feelings while flight risk and adventure were more connected with negative evaluation and emotion. (2) on four dimensions, including safety regulation, flight style, flight

  3. 基于物联网技术的航卒装备维修安伞管理%Aviation equipment maintenance safety management based on IOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓坤; 魏思东; 王平; 周广森

    2012-01-01

    对物联网和航空装备维修安全管理作了研究和分析,给出了应用物联网技术进行航空装备维修安全管理的具体对策,该策略对加快航空装备维修安全管理的信息化进程,提升航空装备维修安全管理效能具有重要意义。%After the research on and the analyses of the IOT and the aviation equipment maintenance security, specific measures for applying the IOT in aviation equipment maintenance safety management is proposed in this paper. The article has an important significance upon accelerating up the process of information and enhancing the management efficiency of the aviation equipment maintenance safety management.

  4. Application of space and aviation technology to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear power plant operations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report investigates various technologies that have been developed and utilized by the aerospace community, particularly the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the aviation industry, that would appear to have some potential for contributing to improved operational safety and reliability at commercial nuclear power plants of the type being built and operated in the United States today. The main initiator for this study, as well as many others, was the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant in March 1979. Transfer and application of technology developed by NASA, as well as other public and private institutions, may well help to decrease the likelihood of similar incidents in the future

  5. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... which the determination is issued in the “Brief of Accident” format, except that the Office Director... cause(s) when (1) any Board Member so requests, (2) it appears to the Office Director that, because of... the Independent Safety Board Act of 1974, as amended (49 U.S.C. 1131(a)) and the Appendix to this Part....

  6. Aviation Safety: Modeling and Analyzing Complex Interactions between Humans and Automated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha; Brat, Guillaume; Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Raimondi, Franco; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The on-going transformation from the current US Air Traffic System (ATS) to the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) will force the introduction of new automated systems and most likely will cause automation to migrate from ground to air. This will yield new function allocations between humans and automation and therefore change the roles and responsibilities in the ATS. Yet, safety in NextGen is required to be at least as good as in the current system. We therefore need techniques to evaluate the safety of the interactions between humans and automation. We think that current human factor studies and simulation-based techniques will fall short in front of the ATS complexity, and that we need to add more automated techniques to simulations, such as model checking, which offers exhaustive coverage of the non-deterministic behaviors in nominal and off-nominal scenarios. In this work, we present a verification approach based both on simulations and on model checking for evaluating the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation. Models are created using Brahms (a multi-agent framework) and we show that the traditional Brahms simulations can be integrated with automated exploration techniques based on model checking, thus offering a complete exploration of the behavioral space of the scenario. Our formal analysis supports the notion of beliefs and probabilities to reason about human behavior. We demonstrate the technique with the Ueberligen accident since it exemplifies authority problems when receiving conflicting advices from human and automated systems.

  7. 民航空管安全文化建设探析%Establishment of the safety culture in civil aviation air traffic control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 宋祥波; 王万乐

    2012-01-01

    Based on the objective law of civil aviation safety development, it is necessary to establish and sustain-ably improve effective means and measures on safety culture construction in civil aviation air traffic control for ensuring the continuous safety of civil aviation in China, with consideration of synthetically requirement of carrying out continuous safety concept for ATM, the requirement of reducing human errors in air traffic control and the requirement of building ATM safety management system. In-depth exploration is launched on the safety culture construction pathways, and relevant suggestions and measures are put forwarded, such as developing cultural and entertaining activities, establishing psychological training and counseling mechanism for air traffic controllers, enhancing air traffic controllers adaptability to ATM new technology. ATM safety culture establishment is the strong backing of ATC development, and effective means and measures promoting construction will become the strong safeguard of a-viation operation safety.%根据民航空管安全发展的客观规律,在综合考虑践行空管持续安全理念、减少空管人为差错、建设空管安全管理体系的基础上,提出要实现我国民航的持续安全,就要构建并不断完善空管安全文化建设的有效手段和途径.对空管安全文化建设的途径展开了深入探索,并提出了相关建议和措施,包括开展技能竞赛等文化娱乐活动、建立管制员心理培训与辅导机制、提升管制员新技术适应能力等.空管安全文化的建设是空管发展的坚强后盾,有效手段和措施建设的推进将成为航空运行安全的有力保障.

  8. 基于差错的民航机务系统安全分析%Analysis for Safety of Civil Aviation Maintenance Based on Error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帅; 王华伟; 王祥

    2015-01-01

    为实现对民航机务系统更科学的安全分析和评价,在传统“人-机-环-管”理论基础上,通过研究大量事故报告和民航规章,结合REASON模型和SHELLO模型,构建了基于差错管理的民航机务系统安全评价指标体系,用模糊层次分析法( FAHP)计算指标权重,用模糊理论量化定性指标,通过模糊综合评价( FCE)计算系统安全度,可以直观地看到评价结果及机务系统的薄弱环节和主要影响因素。通过实例和对比分析证明,提出的方法是科学合理的。%In order to research on safety analysis and evaluation for civil aviation maintenance system more scientific,on the basis of theory of man-machine-environment-management,a civil aviation mainte-nance system safety evaluation index system is established through a research on civil aviation accident reports and standards ,and the REASON and SHELLO model .The weights of indexes are calculated by fuzzy analytic hierarchy process ( FAHP) ,and the qualitative indexes are quantified by fuzzy theory .Then we can see the weak links and the main factors of civil aviation maintenance system by calculating the de -gree of safety using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCE).Finally,example and compare show that the method is scientific and reasonable .

  9. 通用航空的飞行安全与人的因素%General aviation flight safety and human factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 郑晓惠; 吴铨; 周晴霖; 吴飞飞; 黄亚萍; 马月欣; 王志翔

    2014-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively analyze the general aviation flight accidents,and the related role of human factors such as pilot's gender,age,flight experience,etc.that played in flight accident as well as to provide constructive advices to China general aviation flight safety.Literature resource and selection Relevant literatures on flight safety of general aviation and human factors published at home and abroad.Literature quotation Thirty-eight published literatures were cited.Literature synthesis U.S.general aviation accident and prevention researches in this area were reviewed,and the roles of pilot's gender,age,flight experience and combination of factors in the general aviation accidents were analyzed,and the advices for China general aviation flight safety were put forward.Human factors were accounted as the first factor in U.S.general aviation accidents.More male pilots were involved in fatal accidents than female pilots because of the nature adventure reason; older pilots' flight experiences might partially compensate their work ability reduction due to physiological and psychological shortages,but with the increased risk potential in flying mission,flight management should be further perfected.In addition,weather and environment conditions,pilot's alcohol taking,drug abuse and other factors could contribute to general aviation accidents.Conclusions General aviation of China is about to usher in a stage of rapid development.Learning from domestic and international existing research results and experiences in aviation medicine,specifying medical examination standards and mechanism for general aviation pilots,strengthening the education and training of pilots and establishing a sound system of accident investigation would be fully helpful to reduce China general aviation flying accidents that caused by human factors in future and to improve flight safety level.%目的 回顾分析国外通用航空飞行事故的概况,及其与飞行员性别、年龄、飞

  10. Impacts of market restructuring and deregulation on nuclear safety: lessons learned from rail, aviation, and the British experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive list of possible consequences of electricity deregulation that could affect the safety of nuclear power plants. In particular, the study addressed not only the effects of deregulation on safety-related equipment failures and human errors, but also the effects on other variables that are believed to affect safety, such as financial pressures and corporate culture. (author)

  11. Aviation Safety Modeling and Simulation (ASMM) Propulsion Fleet Modeling: A Tool for Semi-Automatic Construction of CORBA-based Applications from Legacy Fortran Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Janche

    2003-01-01

    Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, NASA GRC participates in the Modeling and Simulation Project called ASMM. NASA GRC s focus is to characterize the propulsion systems performance from a fleet management and maintenance perspective by modeling and through simulation predict the characteristics of two classes of commercial engines (CFM56 and GE90). In prior years, the High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) program funded, NASA Glenn in developing a large scale, detailed simulations for the analysis and design of aircraft engines called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Three major aspects of this modeling included the integration of different engine components, coupling of multiple disciplines, and engine component zooming at appropriate level fidelity, require relatively tight coupling of different analysis codes. Most of these codes in aerodynamics and solid mechanics are written in Fortran. Refitting these legacy Fortran codes with distributed objects can increase these codes reusability. Aviation Safety s modeling and simulation use in characterizing fleet management has similar needs. The modeling and simulation of these propulsion systems use existing Fortran and C codes that are instrumental in determining the performance of the fleet. The research centers on building a CORBA-based development environment for programmers to easily wrap and couple legacy Fortran codes. This environment consists of a C++ wrapper library to hide the details of CORBA and an efficient remote variable scheme to facilitate data exchange between the client and the server model. Additionally, a Web Service model should also be constructed for evaluation of this technology s use over the next two- three years.

  12. The monitoring and forecasting system of Etna volcanic plumes for reinforcement of the aviation safety on the central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltelli, M.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1979 explosive activity of Etna volcano produced many short-lived and two long-lived ash plume forming eruptions that disrupted the operations of Catania and Reggio Calabria airports and create difficulties to the air traffic in the central Mediterranean region. National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) is charged of the monitoring of Etna eruptive phenomena. It cooperates with the National Civil Protection Department, the Agency for Civil Aviation (ENAC), the Air Traffic Control company (ENAV) and the Italian Air Force for warning continuously the aviation authorities about the occurring of the ash cloud on Sicilian airspace and the ash fallout on Catania airport. The objective of INGV is to develop and implement a system for monitoring and forecasting volcanic plumes of Etna. Monitoring is based at present on multispectral infrared satellite imagery received at high-rate from METEOSAT, ground-based visual and thermal cameras, a Doppler Radar for volcanic-jet monitoring and some ash fallout detectors. Forecasting is using a multi-model approach that is performed every day through a fully automatic procedures for: i) downloading weather forecast data from meteorological mesoscale models; ii) running models of tephra dispersal, iii) plotting hazard maps of volcanic ash dispersal and deposition for certain scenarios and, iv) publishing the results on a web-site dedicated to the Civil Protection. Simulations are based on eruptive scenarios obtained by analysing of field data collected from recent Etna eruptions. Forecasting is, hence, supported by plume observations carried out by the monitoring network. The monitoring and forecasting system was tested successfully on some explosive events occurred during 2006 and 2007, and will be tested again during the Volcanic Ash Exercise of ICAO EUR/NAT in November 2009.

  13. Aviation Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi; Sakthi, D Sri

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of the airline industry in all sectors, dentists should pay special attention to crews and frequent flyers, due to change of pressure in-flight, that cause different types of oro-facial pain. Aviation dentistry deals with evaluation, principles of prevention, treatment of diseases, disorders or conditions which are related to oral cavity and maxillofacial area or adjacent and associated structures and their impact on people who travel or on aircrew members and flight restrictions. Dentists should prevent the creation of in-flight hazards when they treat aircrew members and frequent flyers. PMID:24783162

  14. Research on dynamics mechanism and mode of general aviation safety management system self-organizing evolvement%通用航空安全体系自组织演化动力学机制与模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红军; 田俊改

    2012-01-01

    建立符合通用航空发展规律的通用航空安全管理理论体系,是通用航空发展的前提.本文以通用航空发展特点为基础,应用自组织理论对通用航空发展的组织特性进行了分析,研究了通用航空安全体系自组织生成模式的前提条件和动因,剖析了通用航空安全体系自组织演化的内外部动力因素,以及其相互作用方式和过程,从而解构出通用航空安全体系自组织演化的动力学机制—涨落机制、创新机制、选择机制和学习机制,在此基础上,构建了通用航空安全体系自组织演化动力学模型.最后,结合实际对我国通用航空安全管理体系建设提出了相应的建议.%To establish a comprehensive and effective safety management system is a prerequisite for sustainable development of general aviation. In this paper,based on self-organizing theory, the organization characters of general aviation were analyzed. Then, the prerequisite for general aviation safety management system evolvement was studied and the exterior and interior dynamics factors which drive the self-organizing evolvement of general aviation safety management system were analyzed, as well as their interaction mechanism and process, thereby the dynamics mechanism of the general aviation safety management system evolvement were deconstructed which included fluctuating mechanism, invocation mechanism, choosing mechanism and learning mechanism. Finally, some suggestions were put forward to develop the general aviation safety management system.

  15. Aviation Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, A. R.; Lee, S.

    Aviation lubricants must be extremely reliable, withstand high specific loadings and extreme environmental conditions within short times. Requirements are critical. Piston engines increasingly use multi-grade oils, single grades are still used extensively, with anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives for some classes of engines. The main gas turbine lubricant problem is transient heat exposure, the main base oils used are synthetic polyol esters which minimise thermal degradation. Aminic anti-oxidants are used together with anti-wear/load-carrying, corrosion inhibitor and anti-foam additives. The majority of formulation viscosities are 5 cSt at 100°C. Other considerations are seal compatibility and coking tendency.

  16. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chirara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau

    2013-01-01

    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico’s most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene–Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl’s reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the “Ochre Pumice” Plinian eruption (4965 14C

  17. Aviation Expo Taking off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen; Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 12nd Beijing Aviation Expo(Aviation Expo/China 2007) was held this September 19-22 at the China International Exhibition Center.Beijing Aviation Expo is the ONLY aviation exhibition (Civil & Military,including Airport & Air Traffic Control) organized in Beijing,taking place every two years.It is also the most influential aviation exhibition with the longest history in China.

  18. Understanding Aviation English as a Lingua Franca: Perceptions of Korean Aviation Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Elder, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Researchers exploring the use of language use in radiotelephony communication have tended to focus on the limitations of the non-native English user and the threats which their limited control of English may pose for aviation safety (e.g. Atsushi, 2003, 2004). Hence the recent International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) policy places the onus…

  19. Development and registration of safety-critical system. What can the automotive industry learn from the railway and aviation; Entwicklung und Zulassung von sicherheitskritischen Systemen. Was kann die Automobilbranche von Bahnen und Luftfahrt lernen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlfeld, Bernhard [ICS AG, Ulm (Germany); Hipp, Udo; Linder, Paul [ICS AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Techniques for analysis, development, examination, and certification of safety critical systems have a long tradition in railways and aviation. These techniques are often defined by standards. A similar standard is being introduced in the automotive industry. Section 2 of this paper presents the standards mentioned and shows their similarities and differences. An essential requirements of the standards is the analysis of the technical system under consideration w.r.t. malfunctioning. Resulting endangerments have to be analysed also and appropriate countermeasures have to be identified. Section 3 deals with this topic. Section 4 of the paper illustrates the software development for safety critical systems. Special emphasis is on 'model-based development' and 'code generation' in the context of safety critical systems. (orig.)

  20. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  1. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    aspects of Fire Prevention under NASA's Aviation Safety Program.

  2. Human error and crew resource management failures in Naval aviation mishaps: a review of U.S. Naval Safety Center data, 1990-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, D A; Shappell, S A

    1999-12-01

    The present study examined the role of human error and crew-resource management (CRM) failures in U.S. Naval aviation mishaps. All tactical jet (TACAIR) and rotary wing Class A flight mishaps between fiscal years 1990-1996 were reviewed. Results indicated that over 75% of both TACAIR and rotary wing mishaps were attributable, at least in part, to some form of human error of which 70% were associated with aircrew human factors. Of these aircrew-related mishaps, approximately 56% involved at least one CRM failure. These percentages are very similar to those observed prior to the implementation of aircrew coordination training (ACT) in the fleet, suggesting that the initial benefits of the program have not persisted and that CRM failures continue to plague Naval aviation. Closer examination of these CRM-related mishaps suggest that the type of flight operations (preflight, routine, emergency) do play a role in the etiology of CRM failures. A larger percentage of CRM failures occurred during non-routine or extremis flight situations when TACAIR mishaps were considered. In contrast, a larger percentage of rotary wing CRM mishaps involved failures that occurred during routine flight operations. These findings illustrate the complex etiology of CRM failures within Naval aviation and support the need for ACT programs tailored to the unique problems faced by specific communities in the fleet. PMID:10596766

  3. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  4. Research on the framework of safety recommendations for human factor in aviation accident investigation%航空事故调查中人的因素安全建议框架研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍志勤; 谢孜楠; 张永一

    2011-01-01

    Unsafe acts of human in aviation accidents were analyzed systemically. The errors were classified into sense and perceptual errors, memory error, decision-making error and skill error. Violation were classified into routine and exceptional violation. The dimensions for human factor intervention were organization and management,human/team, technology, task and the environment. After preliminary recommendations were made to various unsafe acts, they were necessary to be assessed comprehensively and chosen in accordance with the feasibility, acceptability, cost and effectiveness. Practical study showed that human factors intervention matrix provides an effective tool for developing the proposed safety recommendations and the frame on aviation accident investigation has excellent adaptability.%对航空事故中人的不安全行为进行了系统分析,将失误划分为感知失误、记忆失误、决策失误、技能失误4个类别,将违章划分为习惯性违章和偶然性违章.将人的因素干预维度确定为组织管理、人/团队、技术、任务和环境.针对不安全行为制定相应的初步改进措施后,还需从措施的可行性、可接受性、经济性和有效性4个方面进行综合评估和取舍.实证研究表明,人的因素干预矩阵是制定安钱建议的有效工具,该框架具备良好的适用性.

  5. An analysis of students' perceptions to Just Culture in the aviation industry: A study of a Midwest aviation training program (case study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Lazo Akram

    The research will focus on the discussion of the ways in which the top-down nature of Safety Management Systems (SMS) can be used to create `Just Culture' within the aviation industry. Specific focus will be placed on an aviation program conducted by an accredited university, with the institution in focus being the midwest aviation training program. To this end, a variety of different aspects of safety culture in aviation and aviation management will be considered. The focus on the implementation strategies vital for the existence of a `Just Culture' within the aviation industry in general, and particularly within the aforementioned institution's aerospace program. Some ideas and perspectives will be subsequently suggested and designed for implementation, within the institution's program. The aspect of enhancing the overall safety output gained, from the institution, as per standards set within the greater American Aviation industry will be examined. Overall, the paper will seek to showcase the vital importance of implementing the SMS standardization model in the institution's Aerospace program, while providing some areas of concern. Such concerns will be based on a number of issues, which are pertinent to the overall enhancement of the institution's observance of aviation safety. This will be both in general application of an SMS, as well as personalized/ specific applications in areas in need of improvement. Overall, through the paper, the author hopes to provide a better understanding of the institution's placement, with regard to not only aviation safety, but also the implementation of an effective `Just Culture' within the program.

  6. Towards sustainable aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upham, Paul; Maughan, Janet; Raper, David; Thomas, Callum (eds.)

    2003-02-15

    Aviation is integral to the global economy but it is also one of the main obstacles to environmentally sustainable development. It is one of the world's fastest growing - and most polluting - industries. What can be done to retain the economic and other benefits it brings, without the associated pollution, noise, congestion and loss of countryside? In this volume, industry, policy and research experts examine how to address the problems, and what it would take to achieve genuinely sustainable aviation - looking at technological, policy and demand-management options. Without far-reaching changes the problems caused by aviation can only multiply and worsen. This work seeks to take an important step in diagnosing the problems and in pointing towards their solutions. Contents: Part 1: Trends and Issues - Introduction - Organizational and growth trends in air transport - Social and economic benefits - Human health impacts - Global atmospheric impacts - Aircraft noise, community relations and stakeholder involvement. Part 2: Mitigations and Potential Solutions - Environmental management and the aviation industry - The potential for modal substitution - Airfreight and global supply chains - The potential offered by aircraft and engine technologies - Climate policy for civil aviation. Part 3: Multi-sector commentaries. (Author)

  7. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Alvarez Nieves

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2 or sulphuric acid (H2SO4 aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ± 40 mrad (2.3° angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the

  8. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2 or sulphuric acid (H2SO4 aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3° angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the

  9. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado, Granados H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lubcke, P.; Alvarez, Nieves J.M.; Cardenas, Gonzales L.; Platt, U.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized 5 since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in 10 volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to vol- 15 canic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3◦) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to 25 the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection

  10. General Aviation Pilots' Perceived Usage and Valuation of Aviation Weather Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorella, Kara; Lane, Suzanne; Garland, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Aviation suffers many accidents due to the lack of good weather information in flight. Existing aviation weather information is difficult to obtain when it is most needed and is not well formatted for in-flight use. Because it is generally presented aurally, aviation weather information is difficult to integrate with spatial flight information and retain for reference. Efforts, by NASA's Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) team and others, to improve weather information accessibility, usability and decision aiding will enhance General Aviation (GA) pilots' weather situation awareness and decision-making and therefore should improve the safety of GA flight. Consideration of pilots' economic concerns will ensure that in-flight weather information systems are financially accessible to GA pilots as well. The purpose of this survey was to describe how aviation operator communities gather and use weather information as well as how weather related decisions are made between flight crews and supporting personnel. Pilots of small GA aircraft experience the most weather-related accidents as well as the most fatal weather related accident. For this reason, the survey design and advertisement focused on encouraging participation from GA pilots. Perhaps as a result of this emphasis, most responses, 97 responses or 85% of the entire response set, were from GA pilots, This paper presents only analysis of these GA pilots' responses. The insights provided by this survey regarding GA pilots' perceived value and usage of current aviation weather information. services, and products provide a basis for technological approaches to improve GA safety. Results of this survey are discussed in the context of survey limitations and prior work, and serve as the foundation for a model of weather information value, guidance for the design of in-flight weather information systems, and definition of further research toward their development.

  11. Federal Aviation Administration Curriculum Guide for Aviation Magnet Schools Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and its predecessor organizations, Civil Aeronautics Agency (CAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) have pioneered the use of aviation education in working with schools and colleges of the nation to attain their objectives. This publication includes: a brief history of the role of aviation in…

  12. Politics of aviation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  13. Aviation environmental technology and science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanzhong

    2008-01-01

    Expatiating on the impact of aviation on the environment and aviation environmental protection projects are ex- pounded, and analyzing on the atmosphere pollution and effects on the aviation noise of aircraft discharge. Researching the approach to control aircraft exhaust pollution and noise pollution, and proposing the technology and management measures to reduce air pollution.

  14. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  15. Guidelines for Federal Aviation Administration Regional Aviation Education Coordinators and Aviation Education Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This publication is designed to provide both policy guidance and examples of how to work with various constituencies in planning and carrying out appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation education activities. Information is provided on the history of aerospace/aviation education, FAA educational materials, aerospace/aviation…

  16. 马航 MH17事件与保障民航安全的国家责任%Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 and State Responsibility for Civil Aviation Safety and Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟民

    2015-01-01

    The downed Malaysia Airlines Flight MH 17 is a human tragedy .The top priority of air transport develop-ment is to ensure flight safety and security .There should be unified technical standard for aircraft operation and uni-form rules for air traffic which should be subject to uniform air traffic control .Laws and regulations for air navigation safety and security have been established systematically .Still there are many things that need to be done .Internation-al society is composed of sovereign states .In the international aviation relations , sovereign states play an important role.The “legalization” of international relations has become a general trend .The international rule of law needs to be strengthened and any state who dares to violate peremptory norm of international law should bear state responsibili -ties in order to prevent the tragedy from happening again .Thus the safety and security of air navigation can be effec-tively safeguarded .%马航MH17航班被击落事件是人间悲剧,震惊世界,深受谴责。航空运输必须大力发展,保障空中航行安全是首要任务。航空器运行必须统一技术标准,空中交通必须统一规则,服从统一的空中交通管制。保障空中航行安全法规已成一定体系,保障空中航行安全技术措施成效显著,但应总结经验教训,进一步完善。国际社会是主权国家组成的社会。在国际航空关系中,主权国家发挥着重要作用。国际关系“法治化”已是大势所趋。应加强国际法治,凡违反强制性法律规范的不法行为,应承担国家责任,以杜绝民航飞机被击落悲剧的再次发生,切实保障空中航行安全。

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  18. Aviation risk management

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ashry, A.E.M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Risk management is considered to be an application of general concepts in scientific management of a particular problem of exposure to risk of loss. It is concerned with identifying objectives, analysing the data regarding the nature of the problem, evaluating the pure risks deriving from the nature of the business and choosing or finding the most suitable method or methods of handling these risks; aiming to control them and their effects as well as minimizing the cost. The field of aviation ...

  19. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  20. Classification of Aeronautics System Health and Safety Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most complex aerospace systems have many text reports on safety, maintenance, and associated issues. The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) spans several...

  1. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct,...

  2. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  3. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  4. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...

  5. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports Development Office,...

  6. COPRA Aviation Security Research Roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasberg, M.P.; Leisman, L.; Voorde, I. van de; Weissbrodt, J.

    2013-01-01

    The EU funded project COPRA (Comprehensive European Approach to the Protection of Civil Aviation) developed a roadmap for future research activities, which could lead to a more resilient, flexible and comprehensive approach. Tackling 70 existing and potential threats to aviation (security) identifie

  7. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  8. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Game changing advances come about by the introduction of new technologies at a time when societal needs create the opportunity for new market solutions. A unique opportunity exists for NASA to bring about such a mobility revolution in General Aviation, extendable to other aviation markets, to maintain leadership in aviation by the United States. This report outlines the research carried out so far under NASA's leadership towards developing a new mobility choice, called Zip Aviation1,2,3. The feasibility, technology and system gaps that need to be addressed, and pathways for successful implementation have been investigated to guide future investment. The past decade indicates exciting trends in transportation technologies, which are quickly evolving. Automobiles are embracing automation to ease driver tasks as well as to completely control the vehicle with added safety (Figure 1). Electric propulsion is providing zero tail-pipe emission vehicles with dramatically lower energy and maintenance costs. These technologies have not yet been applied to aviation, yet offer compelling potential benefits across all aviation markets, and in particular to General Aviation (GA) as an early adopter market. The benefits of such an adoption are applicable in the following areas: ?? Safety: The GA market experiences accident rates that are substantially higher than automobiles or commercial airlines, with 7.5 fatal accidents per 100 million vehicle miles compared to 1.3 for automobiles and.068 for airlines. Approximately 80% of these accidents are caused by some form of pilot error, with another 13% caused by single point propulsion system failure. ?? Emissions: Environmental constraints are pushing for the elimination of 100Low Lead (LL) fuel used in most GA aircraft, with aviation fuel the #1 source of lead emissions into the environment. Aircraft also have no emission control systems (i.e. no catalytic converters etc.), so they are gross hydrocarbon polluters compared to

  9. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  10. FedEx Express Safety and Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Molin, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Aviation Safety: Just Culture | Just Culture is a safety framework that balances responsibility for people’s mistakes and a systematic process for accountability. The presenter is experienced with safety in both air operations and maintenance.

  11. Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) for Aviation Accident Modeling and Technology Portfolio Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    The concern for reducing aviation safety risk is rising as the National Airspace System in the United States transforms to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The NASA Aviation Safety Program is committed to developing an effective aviation safety technology portfolio to meet the challenges of this transformation and to mitigate relevant safety risks. The paper focuses on the reasoning of selecting Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) as the technique and commercial software for the accident modeling and portfolio assessment. To illustrate the benefits of OOBN in a large and complex aviation accident model, the in-flight Loss-of-Control Accident Framework (LOCAF) constructed as an influence diagram is presented. An OOBN approach not only simplifies construction and maintenance of complex causal networks for the modelers, but also offers a well-organized hierarchical network that is easier for decision makers to exploit the model examining the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies through technology insertions.

  12. Present and potential security threats posed to civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav SZABO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft presents ideal object for terrorist attack. Apart from the risks posed by possible terrorist attacks on airborne aircraft, air terrorism includes the threats to general aviation on the ground, including airports and surrounding infrastructure. Air oriented terrorism in all of its forms can undermine public confidence in the safety of air travel, which could result in negative effects for certain airlines and other firms in aviation industry due to decline in passenger travel and cargo shipment. This article is giving an overview about the redoubtable present and potential future threats posed to in-flight security, and possibilities and solutions how to mitigate the risks on acceptable level.

  13. 民航空管质量安全监察人员胜任能力模型研究%Study on competency model of quality & safety supervisor in air traffic management department of civil aviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 罗云

    2011-01-01

    以空管政事分离改革后民航空管质量安全监察人员胜任事业单位内部质量安全监察职责为目标,从教育、培训、技能和经验四个方面分析构成民航空管质量安全监察人员胜任能力的因素,并构建了胜任能力指标体系.运用网络分析法(ANP)构建了民航质量安全监察人员胜任能力的网络结构模型;利用三角模糊数(FUZZY)对网络结构模型中各个因素进行重要度比较,得到权重向量.鉴于评价指标之间存在的较强的关联性,利用非线性加权综合法,构建了民航空管质量安全监察人员胜任能力模型,该模型对评价指标中取值较小的指标反应灵敏,能够更好地体现不同监察人员之间胜任能力的差异.利用该模型对某空管单位来自于不同背景的5名监察人员进行评价,结果与上一年度该空管单位的绩效考核结果一致,证明了模型的合理性.%In the air traffic management department of civil aviation, the competency index system of quality & safety supervisor was built by analyzing the four factors which affected the supervisor's competency from their education, training history, personal skill and work experience. It aimed at testing the supervisor's competency of their responsibility after the reform of the air traffic management department separating from the government. There was a network model of demonstrating the competency of the supervisor which was built by analytic network process ( ANP) , in which, the weight vector could be deducted from the comparison of all the factors' importance by application of Triangular Fuzzy Numbers (FUZZY). As regarding to the close association among the evaluation index, the supervisor competency model was then established by employing the Non-linear Weighted Summation Method. This model reflected accurately the difference performance of the supervisors' competency. To make a proof of that, this model was applied to assess the performance of

  14. Aviation and Remote Sensing Programs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Efficiency and effectiveness of aerial photograph acquisition by the Region 3 Aviation Program will be improved with use of newly purchased upgrades for the...

  15. 76 FR 17353 - Aviation Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; suspension of effectiveness. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications...

  16. China Gradually Deregulates Aviation Fuels Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China will gradually deregulate the aviation fuels market to allow the oil and petrochemical enterprises to become shareholders of China Aviation Fuels Corporation (CAFC) so that the aviation fuels suppliers can operate at a lower cost. Deregulation of the air fuels market aims at reduction of aviation fuels price to spur development of China's air transportation industry.

  17. Aviation Systems Test and Integration Lab (AvSTIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aviation Systems Test and Integration Laboratory offers an innovative approach to aviation system and subsystem testing by fully immersing aviation platforms in...

  18. Job Satisfaction among Turkish Business Aviation Technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Uyar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most applicable models in safety management put the human factors, employers’ attitudes and behaviors at the center. This study reports an investigation of job satisfaction among business aviation technicians. A demographic information form and Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS were used to collect data from 44 individuals. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Our results show that there is significant difference in total job satisfaction levels with regard to marital status while other personal factors are not related to the total job satisfaction levels. However several sub dimensions of job satisfaction are affected by the workers’ military or civilian origin, their training background, types of companies they work in or their license category. No difference is found in age and position groups. Secondly, study shows that technicians are the most satisfied from the nature of their work, while they are the least satisfied by operational procedures.

  19. SHM reliability and implementation - A personal military aviation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Eric A.

    2016-02-01

    Structural Health Monitoring has been proposed as a solution to address the needs of military aviation to reduce the time and cost to perform nondestructive inspections. While the potential to realize significant benefits exist, there are considerations that have to be addressed before such systems can be integrated into military platforms. Some considerations are pervasive to all aviation, such as how to assess the reliability and reproducible capability of these systems. However, there are other challenges unique to military aviation that must be overcome before these types of systems can be used. This presentation and paper are intended as a complement to the review of the outcome of the SAE G-11 SHM committee special workshop on SHM reliability in April of 2015. It will address challenges unique to military aviation that stem from different approaches to managing structural integrity (i.e. safety), frequency of use, design differences, various maintenance practices, and additional descriptions addressing differences in the execution of inspections. The objective of this presentation is to improve the awareness of the research and development community to the different and unique requirements found in military aviation, including the differences between countries, services, and aircraft type. This information should assist the research and development community in identifying and attacking key challenges. It is not intended to be comprehensive overview of all stakeholders' perspectives, but to serve as a launch point for additional discussion and exploration of opportunities to realize the potential of Structural Health Monitoring to assist in the management of military aviation assets. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government.

  20. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... of October 23, 2012 (77 FR 64836) would require placement of fill on submerged lands jointly managed... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  1. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special...

  2. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  3. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  4. Active Fluid Borne Noise Reduction for Aviation Hydraulic Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Waitschat, Arne; Thielecke, Frank; Behr, Robert M.; Heise, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The aviation environment holds challenging application constraints for efficient hydraulic system noise reduction devices. Besides strong limits on component weight and size, high safety and reliability standards demand simple solutions. Hence, basic silencers like inline expansion chambers and Helmholtz-Resonators are state-of-the-art aboard commercial aircrafts. Unfortunately, they do not meet today’s noise attenuation aims regarding passenger comfort and equipment durability. Significant a...

  5. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901...

  6. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore.

  7. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore. PMID:21633764

  8. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  9. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  10. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.

  11. Wind energy and aviation interests - interim guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The impact on aviation of increasing the number of wind farms in the United Kingdom is discussed by the Wind Energy, Defence and Civil Aviation Interests Working Group, comprising the Department of Trade and Industry, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Ministry of Defence, and the British Wind Energy Association. The report offers guidance to wind farm developers, local authorities and statutory consultees within the aviation community: the main thrust of the guidelines is to support the UK Government's wind energy targets. Although the document does not contain in-depth technical discussions, it does provide references to such information.

  12. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  13. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  14. Current concepts of oral and maxillofacial rehabilitation and treatment in aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Esra; Koçer, Gulperi; Çini, Turan Atila

    2016-01-01

    Aerospace medicine is the medical discipline responsible for assessing and conserving the health, safety, and performance of individuals involved in air and space travel. With the upward trend in airline travel, flight-related oral conditions requiring treatment have become a source of concern for aircrew members. Awareness and treatment of any potential physiological problems for these aircrews have always been critical components of aviation safety. In a flight situation, oral and maxillofacial problems may in fact become life-threatening clinical conditions. The unusual nature of aerospace medicine requires practitioners to have unique expertise. Special attention to aerospace medicine will open the way for professionals to develop and apply their skills and capabilities. Both dentists and aviators should be aware of the issues involved in aviation dentistry. This article presents the principles of prevention, treatment guidelines, and dental-related flight restrictions. PMID:27599281

  15. PROSPECTS OF COOPERATION OF UKRAINE International aviation organizations

    OpenAIRE

    О.Т. ПОЛТОРАЦЬКА

    2013-01-01

    Analyzed the classification of international aviation organizations and offered suggestions on the State Comprehensive program of aviation industry of Ukraine for the period until 2010, in accordance with the method, which is recommended by international aviation organizations.

  16. The Politics of Aviation English Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Association has developed a set of Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs) and a Language Proficiency Rating Scale, which seeks to define proficiency in the language needed for aviation purposes at six different levels. Pilots, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators are required to achieve at…

  17. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  18. Overview on application of eye-movement technology in the safety of civil aviation%眼动技术在飞行安全中的应用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓全; 刘畅

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, eye-movement technique has been widely applied in transportation, advertisement design and the study of eye-movement pattern of pilots in military aircraft. In this paper the current application status of worldwide eye-movement technique was introduced, then the research status and application prospects of flight safety were analyzed from four aspects, including the human-computer interface design in aircraft cockpit, the airport road environment design, the pilot training and the safety of flight. This paper provides good reference for the application study of eye-movement in flight.%近年来,眼动技术开始广泛应用在道路交通、广告设计、军用飞机飞行员眼动模式的研究中.本文介绍了国内外眼动技术的应用现状,从飞机驾驶舱人机界面设计、机场道路环境建设、飞机驾驶员培训和飞机驾驶安全等四个方面阐述了眼动技术在民航飞行领域中的研究现状及应用前景,为眼动技术在民航飞行领域的应用研究提供借鉴.

  19. 国际民航安全法律--基于马航MH370事件和MH17事件的分析%International Civil Aviation Safety Law:Based on Analysis of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 and MH17

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董念清

    2015-01-01

    马来西亚航空公司MH370事件和MH17事件的发生,暴露出了国际航空安全法律机制存在两大缺陷或漏洞:一是在航空器运行信息的提供和分享上,缺乏强有力的法律保障;二是在武装冲突地区安全风险的防范上,没有建立起安全风险评估制度与预警机制。基于国际条约达成的漫长性、条约内容的原则性、执行上的非强制性等原因,试图通过国际法来弥补或完善这两方面的缺陷,不具有可行性。因此,完善航空适航法律制度,明确航空器制造商、发动机制造商和航空器运营人各自提供航空器运营信息的责任、义务、范围,通过国内法建立起安全风险评估制度与预警机制,将有助于保障国际航空安全,避免类似事故的再次发生。%The missing Malaysia Airlines Flight MH 370 and the downed Malaysia Airlines Flight MH 17 shows that in-ternational aviation safety legal mechanism has two major defects .The first is the lack of legal protection on how air-craft operators and manufactures provide and share the information of aircraft operation .The second is the lack of safety risk assessment system and early warning mechanism in the areas of armed conflicts .It is not practicable to im-prove the defects by international law , for it is very difficult to sign an international treaty among states in the first place, then the ambiguity of the treaty makes it difficult to implement , let alone the non-mandatory in execution . Therefore, to ensure international aviation safety and avoid similar accidents from happening again , it is necessary to improve the domestic legal system of aircraft airworthiness , specifying the responsibility of aircraft manufacturers , en-gine manufacturers and aircraft operators on the publicity and sharing of information of aircraft operation .At the same time, it is also very important to establish the safety risk assessment system and early warning

  20. Augmented reality application utility for aviation maintenance work instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcho, John Bryan

    Current aviation maintenance work instructions do not display information effectively enough to prevent costly errors and safety concerns. Aircraft are complex assemblies of highly interrelated components that confound troubleshooting and can make the maintenance procedure difficult (Drury & Gramopadhye, 2001). The sophisticated nature of aircraft maintenance necessitates a revolutionized training intervention for aviation maintenance technicians (United States General Accounting Office, 2003). Quite simply, the paper based job task cards fall short of offering rapid access to technical data and the system or component visualization necessary for working on complex integrated aircraft systems. Possible solutions to this problem include upgraded standards for paper based task cards and the use of integrated 3D product definition used on various mobile platforms (Ropp, Thomas, Lee, Broyles, Lewin, Andreychek, & Nicol, 2013). Previous studies have shown that incorporation of 3D graphics in work instructions allow the user to more efficiently and accurately interpret maintenance information (Jackson & Batstone, 2008). For aircraft maintenance workers, the use of mobile 3D model-based task cards could make current paper task card standards obsolete with their ability to deliver relevant, synchronized information to and from the hangar. Unlike previous versions of 3D model-based definition task cards and paper task cards, which are currently used in the maintenance industry, 3D model based definition task cards have the potential to be more mobile and accessible. Utilizing augmented reality applications on mobile devices to seamlessly deliver 3D product definition on mobile devices could increase the efficiency, accuracy, and reduce the mental workload for technicians when performing maintenance tasks (Macchiarella, 2004). This proposal will serve as a literary review of the aviation maintenance industry, the spatial ability of maintenance technicians, and benefits of

  1. Advocating System Safety Concept in Preventing Airline Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chien-tsung; Wetmore, Michael; Smith, John

    2005-01-01

    System safety was conceptualized by the aerospace industry in the late 1940s in the United States (U.S.). Traditionally, users of system safety applied analysis to identify operational hazards and subsequently provide countermeasures before or after an accident. Unfortunately, very few aviation safety researches from the airlines had utilized it to promote aviation safety. To enrich this knowledge and contribute interest from academia, this paper adopted the inductive techniques of system saf...

  2. First Shanghai International Aviation Symposium Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Shanghai held its first international aviation symposium at its Portman Ritz-Carlton from April 28 to 30 in order to promote the sustainable development of the civil aviation industry in East China and the Yangtze Delta. The forum was also considered as an accelerating effort to build Shanghai into an international air hub. CAAC Minister Yang Yuanyuan and Shanghai Mayor Han Zheng delivered opening speeches.Yang said: "Priority should be given to the human spirit when we step up effort to build the city into an air hub. We aim to let more common people benefit from the development of civil aviation."

  3. An evaluation of the effectiveness of U.S. Naval Aviation Crew Resource Management training programs a reassessment for the twenty-first century operating environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis describes a multi-faceted evaluation of the U.S. Naval Aviation Crew Resource Management (CRM) program. CRM training is used to instruct naval aviators in safety critical, non-technical behaviors. Reactions were evaluated by using a single item from command safety climate questionnaires (n=51, 570 observations over nine years). Attitudes were assessed using a 37-item survey (364 responses). Knowledge was evaluated using a 10-i...

  4. Global Simulation of Aviation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok Kwan; Li, Jinhua; Sheth, Kapil; Morando, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and analysis of global air traffic is limited due to a lack of simulation tools and the difficulty in accessing data sources. This paper provides a global simulation of aviation operations combining flight plans and real air traffic data with historical commercial city-pair aircraft type and schedule data and global atmospheric data. The resulting capability extends the simulation and optimization functions of NASA's Future Air Traffic Management Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) to global scale. This new capability is used to present results on the evolution of global air traffic patterns from a concentration of traffic inside US, Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean to a more diverse traffic pattern across the globe with accelerated growth in Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. The simulation analyzes seasonal variation in the long-haul wind-optimal traffic patterns in six major regions of the world and provides potential time-savings of wind-optimal routes compared with either great circle routes or current flight-plans if available.

  5. 76 FR 39884 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... customer satisfaction TSA is engendering across affected constituencies. This committee has experience... TSA to gather customer and stakeholder input concerning the effectiveness of security actions and... aviation security measures to the Administrator of TSA. The committee will meet approximately twice...

  6. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  7. Cooperative Demonstration Program To Train Aviation Maintenance Technicians. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama Aviation and Technical Coll., Ozark.

    The Alabama Aviation and Technical College, working with representatives of the aviation industry, the military, the Alabama Department of Aeronautics, and the Federal Aviation Administration, developed a training program for aviation maintenance technicians. The program also aimed to emphasize and expand opportunities for minorities, females, and…

  8. World experience in aviation companies staffing executive and administrative personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Shkoda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Leading international aviation companies experience in staffing executive and administrative personnel is considered in the article. The author analyzes staffing specifics of such aviation companies as Southwest Airlines, Lufthansa AG, and work of such staffing agencies as Aeropeople Aerotek in this direction. It is defined that Ukrainian aviation companies should use world leading aviation companies experience.

  9. Study on Efficiency in Open-box Safety Inspection in Freight Transportation:In the Case of Certain Aviation Logistics Enterprise Based in Shanghai%货运安检开箱检查效率研究-以上海某航空物流有限公司为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宏春

    2016-01-01

    在航空物流中,对货物进行安检是必不可少的环节,而安检中的开箱检查效率则直接影响到物流服务水平,因此提高开箱检查效率成为当务之急。以上海某航空物流有限公司为例,详细介绍了该公司开箱检查的基本流程,并分析了导致其开箱检查效率低下的主要因素,在此基础上有针对性地提出了提高开箱检查效率的一系列策略,包括:重视员工培训、增加开箱工具、引入奖惩机制、加强宣传力度、净化仓库环境等。%In this paper, in the case of a certain aviation logistics enterprise based in Shanghai, we introduced in detail its basic procedure of open-box safety inspection, analyzed the major factors interfering with the efficiency of the process, and then on such basis, proposed a series of strategies to improve the efficiency of the process, including employee training, increasing open-box tools, introducing a merit/penalty mechanism, reinforcing publicity, and purifying the warehouse environment, etc.

  10. Aviation, Carbon, and the Clean Air Act

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the policy options available to the United States for regulating greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft under existing law: the Clean Air Act (CAA). Europe has unilaterally and controversially moved to include aviation emissions in its Emissions Trading System. The United States can, however, allow its airlines to escape this requirement by imposing “equivalent” regulation. U.S. aviation emissions rules could also have significant environmental benefits and would limit dom...

  11. Global Commercial Aviation Emissions Inventory for 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J.; Balasubramanian, S.; Malwitz, A.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A.; Lele, S.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, the global commercial aircraft fleet included more than 13,000 aircraft flying over 30 billion km, burning more than 100 million tons of fuel. All this activity incurs substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products at the cruise altitude within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that could potentially affect the atmospheric composition and climate. These emissions; such as CO, CO2, PM, NOx, SOx, are not distributed uniformly over the earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Previous studies for specific years have shown that nearly all activity occurs in the northern hemisphere, and most is within mid-latitudes. Simply scaling older data by the annual global industry growth of 3-5 percent may provide emission trends which are not representative of geographically varying growth in aviation sector that has been noted over the past years. India, for example, increased its domestic aviation activity recently by 46 percent in one year. Therefore, it is important that aircraft emissions are best characterized and represented in the atmospheric models for impacts analysis. Data containing all global commercial flights for 2004 was computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) and provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global aviation footprint for 2004, and provides temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents.

  12. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III

    1999-01-01

    wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that comprise ASAC. This report describes an Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model (CBM) that meets these requirements. The ASAC CBM is distinguished from many of the aviation cost-benefit models by its exclusive focus on commercial air carriers. The model considers such benefit categories as time and fuel savings, utilization opportunities, reliability and capacity enhancements, and safety and security improvements. The model distinguishes between benefits that are predictable and those that occur randomly. By making such a distinction, the model captures the ability of air carriers to reoptimize scheduling and crew assignments for predictable benefits. In addition, the model incorporates a life-cycle cost module for new technology, which applies the costs of nonrecurring acquisitions, recurring maintenance and operation, and training to each aircraft equipment type independently.

  13. GASP- GENERAL AVIATION SYNTHESIS PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The General Aviation Synthesis Program, GASP, was developed to perform tasks generally associated with the preliminary phase of aircraft design. GASP gives the analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner during preliminary design efforts. During the development of GASP, emphasis was placed on small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying from a single piston engine with a fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/turbofan systems as employed in business or transport type aircraft. The program is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines of design, integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedures. GASP provides a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, and performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies. By utilizing GASP, the impact of various aircraft requirements and design factors may be studied in a systematic manner, with benefits being measured in terms of overall aircraft performance and economics. The GASP program consists of a control module and six "technology" submodules which perform the various independent studies required in the design of general aviation or small transport type aircraft. The six technology modules include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, weight and balance, mission analysis, and economics. The geometry module calculates the dimensions of the synthesized aircraft components based on such input parameters as number of passengers, aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angles, and thickness of wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamics module calculates the various lift and drag coefficients of the synthesized aircraft based on inputs concerning configuration geometry, flight conditions, and type of high lift device. The propulsion module determines the engine size and performance for the synthesized aircraft

  14. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  15. International Civil Aviation Co-operation Reinforced Wu Nianzu attends Asia Aviation Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Wu Nianzu, chairman and president of the Shanghai Airport (Group) Company, was invited by Huang Wenliang, director of Singapore Civil Aviation Administration, to attend 2004 Asia Aviation Exhibition held in Singapore on February 22 to 28. His party included Wang Guangdi, vice president of the company.They attended the opening ceremony, visited the

  16. Analysis of trends in aviation maintenance risk: An empirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety is paramount in the airline industry. A significant amount of effort has been devoted to reducing mechanical failures and pilot errors. Recently, more attention has been devoted to the contribution of maintenance to accidents and incidents. This study investigates and quantifies the contribution of maintenance, both in terms of frequency and severity, to passenger airline risk by analyzing three different sources of data from 1999 to 2008: 769 NTSB accident reports, 3242 FAA incident reports, and 7478 FAA records of fines and other legal actions taken against airlines and associated organizations. We analyze several safety related metrics and develop an aviation maintenance risk scorecard that collects these metrics to synthesize a comprehensive track record of maintenance contribution to airline accidents and incidents. We found for example that maintenance-related accidents are approximately 6.5 times more likely to be fatal than accidents in general, and that when fatalities do occur, maintenance accidents result in approximately 3.6 times more fatalities on average. Our analysis of accident trends indicates that this contribution to accident risk has remained fairly constant over the past decade. Our analysis of incidents and FAA fines and legal actions also revealed similar trends. We found that at least 10% of incidents involving mechanical failures such as ruptured hydraulic lines can be attributed to maintenance, suggesting that there may be issues surrounding both the design of and compliance with maintenance plans. Similarly 36% of FAA fines and legal actions involve inadequate maintenance, with recent years showing a decline to about 20%, which may be a reflection of improved maintenance practices. Our results can aid industry and government in focusing resources to continue improving aviation safety.

  17. Aviation Weather Observations for Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS) and Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS). Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides instructions for observing, identifying, and recording aviation weather at Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS) and Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS). Official technical definitions, meteorological and administrative procedures are outlined. Although this publication is intended for use…

  18. Automated Radiation Measurements for Aviation Safety (ARMAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The existing state-of-the-art for physics-based, data-driven, climatological specification of the global radiation environment is the capability embodied by Nowcast...

  19. Workshop on IVHM and Aviation Safety: Invited Speakers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Confirmed Speakers from the United States Ashok N. Srivastava, NASA Ames Research Center Robert Mah, NASA Ames Research Center Gary Hunter, NASA Glenn Research...

  20. Discovering Precursors to Aviation Safety Incidents: KDD 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern aircraft are producing data at an unprecedented rate with hundreds of parameters being recorded on a second by second basis. The data can be used for...

  1. Fleet Level Anomaly Detection of Aviation Safety Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the purposes of this paper, the National Airspace System (NAS) encompasses the operations of all aircraft which are subject to air traffic control procedures....

  2. Automated Radiation Measurements for Aviation Safety (ARMAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Commercial aircrew members and frequent flyers face radiation hazards from the effects of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. During significant solar...

  3. Errors in Aviation Decision Making: Bad Decisions or Bad Luck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Martin, Lynne; Davison, Jeannie; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Despite efforts to design systems and procedures to support 'correct' and safe operations in aviation, errors in human judgment still occur and contribute to accidents. In this paper we examine how an NDM (naturalistic decision making) approach might help us to understand the role of decision processes in negative outcomes. Our strategy was to examine a collection of identified decision errors through the lens of an aviation decision process model and to search for common patterns. The second, and more difficult, task was to determine what might account for those patterns. The corpus we analyzed consisted of tactical decision errors identified by the NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board) from a set of accidents in which crew behavior contributed to the accident. A common pattern emerged: about three quarters of the errors represented plan-continuation errors, that is, a decision to continue with the original plan despite cues that suggested changing the course of action. Features in the context that might contribute to these errors were identified: (a) ambiguous dynamic conditions and (b) organizational and socially-induced goal conflicts. We hypothesize that 'errors' are mediated by underestimation of risk and failure to analyze the potential consequences of continuing with the initial plan. Stressors may further contribute to these effects. Suggestions for improving performance in these error-inducing contexts are discussed.

  4. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XV: Alertness Management in General Aviation Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Cannon, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Regional operations encompass a broad range of pilots and equipment. This module is intended to help all those involved in regional aviation, including pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, maintenance technicians, policy makers, and others, to understand the physiological factors underlying fatigue, how flight operations affect fatigue, and what can be done to counteract fatigue and maximize alertness and performance in their operations. The overall purpose of this module is to promote aviation safety, performance, and productivity. It is intended to meet three specific objectives: (1) to explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue; (2) to demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improving flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness; and (3) to offer strategies for alertness management. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NISH) reports are used throughout this module to demonstrate that fatigue is a safety issue in the regional operations community. The appendices at the end of this module include the ASRS reports used for the examples contained in this publication, brief introductions to sleep disorders and relaxation techniques, summaries of relevant NASA publications, and a list of general readings on sleep, sleep disorders, and circadian rhythms.

  5. Practical Patient Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Reynard, John; Stevenson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Following recent high profile cases of surgical error in the UK and USA, patient safety has become a key issue in healthcare, now placed at heart of junior doctor's training. Errors made by doctors are very similar to those made in other high risk organisations, such as aviation, nuclear and petrochemical industries. Practical Patient Safety aims to demonstrate how core principles of safety from these industries can be applied in surgical and medical practice, in particular throughtraining for health care professionals and healthcare managers.Whilst theoretical aspects of risk management form

  6. Selected supplies prognosis problems of aviation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żurek, J.; Czapla, R.

    2016-06-01

    Aviation technology, i.e. aircraft, control and airfield infrastructure wear out, become defective and need servicing. It seems indispensible to maintain facilities and spare parts at a level necessary to keep the technology in commission. The paper discusses the factors influencing spare parts supply requirements to secure air operations. Aviation technology has been classified with regard to various criteria, which influence the choice of supply management strategies, along with availability and aircraft exploitation cost. The method of optimization of the stock for a complex system characterized by series reliability structure according to the wear-out and cost criteria assuming Poisson's process of demand has been presented.

  7. Computer technology forecast study for general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacord, C. L.; Vaughn, D.

    1976-01-01

    A multi-year, multi-faceted program is underway to investigate and develop potential improvements in airframes, engines, and avionics for general aviation aircraft. The objective of this study was to assemble information that will allow the government to assess the trends in computer and computer/operator interface technology that may have application to general aviation in the 1980's and beyond. The current state of the art of computer hardware is assessed, technical developments in computer hardware are predicted, and nonaviation large volume users of computer hardware are identified.

  8. Analysis of admissibility of central tendency measures to estimate aviation operator progress

    OpenAIRE

    Борсук, Сергій Павлович

    2015-01-01

    Human role in ensuring flight safety in the system " flight crew – aircraft – medium – air traffic service unit" is considered. The possibility of the training process modeling using stochastic models is shown. The components of the stationary stochastic model of the aviation operator training process were determined. Eleven central tendency measures: arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, three previous measures using weight coefficients, median, mode, Tukey's test, trimmed mean, Wi...

  9. Determinants of Customers’ Satisfaction in the Nigerian Aviation Industry Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Model

    OpenAIRE

    B. E A. Oghojafor; Adebola Glorious Adekoya

    2014-01-01

    The aviation industry in Africa‟s most populous nation has been experiencing an explosive growth in recent years with older domestic operators fighting competing new players. The expansion has given Nigerians a wider choice of airlines, many of them flying with new or recently refurbished aircraft, which have helped reverse the country‟s situation for air safety in the wake of a spate of crashes six years ago. This paper applied the Analytic Hierarchy Process to identify the deter...

  10. Determinants of Customers’ Satisfaction in the Nigerian Aviation Industry Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Model

    OpenAIRE

    B. E A. Oghojafor

    2014-01-01

    The aviation industry in Africa?s most populous nation has been experiencing an explosive growth in recent years with older domestic operators fighting competing new players. The expansion has given Nigerians a wider choice of airlines, many of them flying with new or recently refurbished aircraft, which have helped reverse the country?s situation for air safety in the wake of a spate of crashes six years ago. This paper applied the Analytic Hierarchy Process to identify the determinants of c...

  11. Adjust the method of the FMEA to the requirements of the aviation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej FELLNER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a summary of current methods used in aviation and rail transport. It also contains a proposal to adjust the method of the FMEA to the latest requirements of the airline industry. The authors suggested tables of indicators Zn, Pr and Dt necessary to implement FMEA method of risk analysis taking into account current achievements aerospace and rail safety. Also proposed acceptable limits of the RPN number which allows you to classify threats.

  12. Formation of communication skills of aviation specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Коваленко, Ольга Олександрівна

    2012-01-01

    Culture of the professional communication is the basis of the professional activity. It is spoken about the process of formation of the professional communication culture, where communication, professionalism of the communication are foundation of it in personal oriented studying by means of creative technologies; examined about peculiarities, and defined conditions of formation of professional oral skills culture of future aviation specialists.

  13. Impact of aviation upon the atmosphere. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J. [Comite Avion-Ozone, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The commercial air traffic, either for business or for tourism will induce a special increase of long haul flights, with cruising altitudes of about 10 to 12 km. These altitudes correspond to the upper troposphere for the low latitudes (tropical zones) and to the lower stratosphere for middle and high latitudes. The prospect of a world air traffic multiplied by a factor 2 within the next fifteen years, with an increasing part of the long-haul flights, raises the problem of the impact of aircraft emissions on the upper troposphere and on the lower stratosphere. The air traffic growth which is forecast for the next two decades as well as for long term will be larger than the GDP growth. But technical progress concerning airframes, engines, navigation systems and improvements of air traffic control and airports will keep the aircraft emissions growth at a rate which will not exceed the GDP growth rate. The aviation`s share of global anthropogenic emissions will remain lower than 3 percent. The regulations related to NO{sub x} emissions from aircraft will reduce the aviation`s share of nitrogen oxides from human sources at a level of 1 percent. (R.P.)

  14. Aviation Structural Mechanic H1 & C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual and nonresident career course presents materials for individualized study that will assist Aviation Structural Mechanics in Hydraulics (AMH) in meeting the occupational requirements of their rating. The study materials seek to improve job skills among Navy petty officers in conjunction with their on-the-job training as…

  15. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  16. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  17. Improving Fuel Statistics for Danish Aviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.

    Islands, obtained with the NERI model. In addition a complete overview of the aviation fuel use from the two latter areas is given, based on fuel sale information from Statistics Greenland and Statistics Faroe Islands, and fuel use data from airline companies. The fuel use figures are presented on a level...

  18. Airport Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airports. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers at airports, while the main part of the booklet outlines the following nine job categories: airport director, assistant airport director, engineers, support personnel,…

  19. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... prepares for the International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's)...

  20. SafetyNet. Human factors safety training on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Pedrali, M.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes user requirements to an Internet based distance learning system of human factors training, i.e. the SafetyNet prototype, within the aviation (pilots and air traffic control), maritime and medical domains. User requirements totraining have been elicited through 19 semi...

  1. 76 FR 11308 - Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... on health and welfare; noise in national parks and wilderness; aircraft noise modeling; and costs of... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting AGENCY: Federal... interested persons that the First Annual Meeting of the Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap will be held on...

  2. Absolute cross-section of turbojet aviation engine calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabokon, Evgen

    2012-01-01

    The calculation method of three-dimensional model of turbojet aviation engine is offered, thus the form of turbine vanes with spiralling is described like parametric surface. The method allows make the calculation of absolute cross-section (ACS) of turbojet aviation engines with different geometrical parameters. The calculation results of ACS of aviation engine are presented.

  3. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...

  4. An Exploratory Study: Correlations Between Occupational Stressors, Coping Mechanisms, and Job Performance Among Chinese Aviation Maintenance Technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Keller, Julius C.; Huang, Chenyu; Fanjoy, Richard O.

    2016-01-01

    Aviation maintenance technicians play a vital role in air transportation. These workers are responsible for keeping aircraft airworthy and executing safety responsibilities. Undesirable stress levels may have a negative impact on work performance (Mowday, Porter, & Steers, 2013). Poor work performance may manifest in safety violations, absenteeism, turnover, and disengagement. These outcomes may disrupt an organization’s operation and negatively impact the financial bottom line. This mixed-me...

  5. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies. PMID:18419661

  6. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies.

  7. Collaborative Aviation Weather Statement - An Impact-based Decision Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Historically, convection causes the highest number of air traffic constraints on the United States National Air Space (NAS). Increased NAS predictability allows traffic flow managers to more effectively initiate, amend or terminate planned or active traffic management initiatives, resulting in more efficient use of available airspace. A Collaborative Aviation Weather Statement (CAWS) is an impact-based decision support tool used for the timely delivery of high-confidence, high-relevance aviation convective weather forecasts to air traffic managers. The CAWS is a graphical and textual forecast produced by a collaborative team of meteorologists from the Aviation Weather Center (AWC), Center Weather Service Units, and airlines to bring attention to high impact areas of thunderstorms. The CAWS addresses thunderstorm initiation or movement into the airports having the highest volume of traffic or into traffic sensitive jet routes. These statements are assessed by planners at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Air Route Traffic Control Centers and are used for planning traffic management initiatives to balance air traffic flow across the United States. The FAA and the airline industry use the CAWS to plan, manage, and execute operations in the NAS, thereby improving the system efficiency and safety and also saving dollars for industry and the traveling public.

  8. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  9. An Updated Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the technical challenges within the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies (AEST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program was to "improve and expand remote sensing and mitigation of hazardous atmospheric environments and phenomena"1. In 2012, the author performed an analysis comparing various characteristics of accidents associated with different types of atmospheric hazard environments2. This document reports an update to that analysis which was done in preparation for presenting these findings at the 2015 annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Specifically, an additional three years of data were available, and a time-trend analysis was added.

  10. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  11. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Bushnell, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, aviation alone uses 85 to 95 billion gallons of nonrenewable fossil fuel per year (2008). General transportation fueling can accommodate several different fuels; however, aviation fuels have very specific requirements. Biofuels have been flight demonstrated, are considered renewable, have the capacity to become "drop-in" replacements for Jet-A fuel, and solve the CO2 climate change problem. The major issue is cost; current biomass biofuels are not economically competitive. Biofuel feedstock sources being researched are halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, weeds-to-crops, wastes with contingent restraints on use of crop land, freshwater, and climate change. There are five major renewable energy sources: solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, drilled geothermal and biomass, each of which have an order of magnitude greater capacity to meet all energy needs. All five address aspects of climate change; biomass has massive potential as an energy fuel feedstock.

  12. Risk Assessment Techniques for Civil Aviation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Demichela, Micaela

    2011-01-01

    Following the 9/11 terrorists attacks a strong economical effort was made to improve and adapt aviation security, both in infrastructures as in airplanes. National and international guidelines were promptly developed with the objective of creating a security management system able to supervise the identification of risks and the definition and optimisation of control measures. Risk assessment techniques are thus crucial in the above process, since an incorrect risk identification and quantifi...

  13. Full Throttle: Reforming Canada's Aviation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Dachis

    2014-01-01

    Federal government policies are a major cause of high costs throughout the aviation supply chain, often leading Canadians to waste time and money by seeking lower fares at nearby US airports, or not travel at all. High fuel taxes and onerous foreign ownership and airline-specific policies are harming the competitiveness of airlines. Meanwhile, airports have been transformed from the rundown state they were in when operated by the federal government to become world leaders in customer service ...

  14. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. B. Cortez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  15. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  16. 75 FR 73014 - Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 61 Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... to improve the Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI) biennial renewal process to enhance the safety...

  17. SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT – OPTIMIZATION OF EXISTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Valenta Grebenšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving aviation safety has always been a priority for the aviation industry. While in recent decades the reliability of machinery and computers dramatically improved the reliability of the people and the organizational aspect of safety did not change much. Many of air accident investigations have shown that one of the causal factors, which increase the probability and severity of accidents, is exactly poor safety culture. The purpose of this paper is to present the concept of safety culture assessment and the overview and review of different methods of measuring the safety culture in aviation. This research provides the suggestion that by use of different methods of assessment (evaluation of the results, more credible insight into the level of safety culture in the organization can be obtained. It also provides an understanding of how measurement systems in order to guide future performance can be used proactively.

  18. An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

  19. Workload management and geographic disorientation in aviation incidents: A review of the ASRS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Henry P.; Tham, Mingpo; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident reports are reviewed in two related areas: pilots' failures to appropriately manage tasks, and breakdowns in geographic orientation. Examination of 51 relevant reports on task management breakdowns revealed that altitude busts and inappropriate runway usee were the most frequently reported consequences. Task management breakdowns appeared to occur at all levels of expertise, and prominent causal factors were related to breakdowns in crew communications, over-involvement with the flight management system and, for small (general aviation) aircraft, preoccupation with weather. Analysis of the 83 cases of geographic disorientation suggested that these too occurred at all levels of pilot experience. With regard to causal factors, a majority was related to poor cockpit resource management, in which inattention led to a loss of geographic awareness. Other leading causes were related to poor weather and poor decision making. The potential of the ASRS database for contributing to research and design issues is addressed.

  20. Symbology Development for General Aviation Synthetic Vision Primary Flight Displays for the Approach and Missed-Approach Modes of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Hughes, Monica F.; Wong, Douglas T.; Takallu, Mohammad A.

    2004-01-01

    Spatial disorientation induced by inadvertent flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) continues to be a leading cause of fatal accidents in general aviation. The Synthetic Vision Systems General Aviation (SVS-GA) research element, an integral part of NASA s Aviation Safety and Security Program (AvSSP), is investigating a revolutionary display technology designed to mitigate low visibility events such as controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and low-visibility loss of control (LVLoC). The integrated SVS Primary Flight Display (SVS-PFD) utilizes computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain augmented with flight path guidance symbology. This unique combination will provide GA pilots with an accurate representation of their environment and projection of their flight path, regardless of time of day or out-the-window (OTW) visibility. The initial Symbology Development for Head-Down Displays (SD-HDD) simulation experiment examined 16 display configurations on a centrally located high-resolution PFD installed in NASA s General Aviation Work Station (GAWS) flight simulator. The results of the experiment indicate that situation awareness (SA) can be enhanced without having a negative impact on flight technical error (FTE), by providing a general aviation pilot with an integrated SVS display to use when OTW visibility is obscured.

  1. Aviation graduates' competencies, 2000--2007: Perceptions of aviation educators and industry representatives in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridewell, John B.

    This study surveyed the perceptions of collegiate aviation educators, collegiate aviation institution representatives, and aviation industry stakeholders who were members of the University Aviation Association as of February 5, 2007. Survey forms were sent to 353 prospective participants and there was an overall response rate of 47.6%. The survey consisted of a list of 16 knowledge and skill competencies with Likert-type responses for each participant to indicate the level of importance each placed upon those competencies for collegiate aviation graduates and of the level of satisfaction each had that collegiate aviation graduates actually possessed those competencies upon graduation. Two open-ended questions pertained to the strengths and weaknesses of collegiate aviation programs or their graduates. Another allowed for general comments. The statistical analyses indicated that all three groups were most satisfied with graduates' technical skills and least satisfied with communications skills. Analyses indicated that a balance of technical skills and a liberal education was essential for program success. All knowledge and skill competencies were shown to have high to very high importance levels, but only medium to high satisfaction levels. Results indicated that graduates were perceived to possess all stated competencies, but to a lesser degree than desired. Successful collegiate aviation programs existed, but there was room for improvement. Success was program or graduate speck, with no ubiquitous definition of what constituted a successful collegiate aviation program. Aviation industry needs must be addressed by academia for any collegiate aviation program to be successful, but results indicated that the aviation industry needs to take a larger role in the development and refinement of collegiate aviation programs. Finances for institutions, programs, and students were a major concern for the foreseeable future. Administrators should consider how their actions

  2. Naval aviation aging wiring: prognostic and diagnostic solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Navy and Marine Corps provide key forward-presence, crisis response and war-fighting capabilities to our nation's leaders and joint commanders. Naval Aviation plays a central role in every naval mission. Unfortunately, the tools of naval aviation's power, its aircraft, are becoming alarmingly old. The average age of the naval aviation inventory is in excess of eighteen years old. The nerve center of today's sophisticated aircraft, ...

  3. Recent trends in aviation turbine fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R.

    1982-01-01

    Plots and tables, compiled from Department of Energy (and predecessor agency) inspection reports from 1969 to 1980, present ranges, averages, extremes, and trends for most of the 22 properties of Jet A aviation turbine fuel. In recent years, average values of aromatics content, mercaptan sulfur content, distillation temperature of 10 percent recovered, smoke point, and freezing point show small but recognizable trends toward their specification limits. About 80 percent of the fuel samples had at least one property near specification, defined as within a standard band about the specification limit. By far the most common near-specification properties were aromatics content, smoke point, and freezing point.

  4. Aviation security x-ray detection challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a review of the background and some drivers are provided for X-ray screening for aviation security. Some of the key considerations are highlighted along with impacts of the image-based approaches and signature approaches. The role of information theory is discussed along with some recent work that may influence the technical direction by posing the question: "what measurements, parameters and metrics should be considered in future system design?" A path forward should be based on information theory, however electronic machines will likely interface with humans and be dollar-cost driven, so ultimately solutions must consider additional parameters other than only technical performance factors.

  5. A psychologist's view of validating aviation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Earl S.; Wagner, Dan

    1994-01-01

    All systems, no matter what they are designed to do, have shortcomings that may make them less productive than was hoped during the initial development. Such shortcomings can arise at any stage of development: from conception to the end of the implementation life cycle. While systems failure and errors of a lesser magnitude can occur as a function of mechanical or software breakdown, the majority of such problems, in aviation are usually laid on the shoulders of the human operator and, to a lesser extent, on human factors. The operator bears the responsibility and blame even though, from a human factors perspective, error may have been designed into the system. Human factors is not a new concept in aviation. The name may be new, but the issues related to operators in the loop date back to the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century and certainly to the aviation build-up for World War I. During this first global confrontation, military services from all sides discovered rather quickly that poor selection and training led to drastically increased personnel losses. While hardware design became an issue later, the early efforts were primarily focused on increased care in pilot selection and on their training. This actually involved early labor-intensive simulation, using such devices as sticks and chairs mounted on rope networks which could be manually moved in response to control input. The use of selection criteria and improved training led to more viable person-machine systems. More pilots survived training and their first ten missions in the air, a rule of thumb arrived at by experience which predicted ultimate survival better than any other. This rule was to hold through World War II. At that time, personnel selection and training became very sophisticated based on previous standards. Also, many psychologists were drafted into Army Air Corps programs which were geared towards refining the human factor. However, despite the talent involved in these programs

  6. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Osman, Mohammed; Godso, David; King, Brent; Ricciardi, Michael

    1998-01-01

    In this technical document, we describe the design developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA) Proof of Concept (POC). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, and describe the design process and the results of the ASAC EA POC system design. We also describe the evaluation process and results for applicable COTS software. The document has six chapters, a bibliography, three appendices and one attachment.

  7. Global, regional and local health impacts of civil aviation emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Lee, Gideon L.; Lee, In Hwan; Allroggen, Florian; Ashok, Akshay; Caiazzo, Fabio; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Aviation emissions impact surface air quality at multiple scales—from near-airport pollution peaks associated with airport landing and take off (LTO) emissions, to intercontinental pollution attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Previous studies have quantified aviation’s air quality impacts around a specific airport, in a specific region, or at the global scale. However, no study has assessed the air quality and human health impacts of aviation, capturing effects on all aforementioned scales. This study uses a multi-scale modeling approach to quantify and monetize the air quality impact of civil aviation emissions, approximating effects of aircraft plume dynamics-related local dispersion (˜1 km), near-airport dispersion (˜10 km), regional (˜1000 km) and global (˜10 000 km) scale chemistry and transport. We use concentration-response functions to estimate premature deaths due to population exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and ozone, finding that aviation emissions cause ˜16 000 (90% CI: 8300-24 000) premature deaths per year. Of these, LTO emissions contribute a quarter. Our estimate shows that premature deaths due to long-term exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and O3 lead to costs of ˜21 bn per year. We compare these costs to other societal costs of aviation and find that they are on the same order of magnitude as global aviation-attributable climate costs, and one order of magnitude larger than aviation-attributable accident and noise costs.

  8. Aviation Accidents and Stock Market Reaction: Evidence from Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Demir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance literature shows that a variety of mood variables affect the stock prices. Aviation accidents are uncommon that generally cause a high number of casualties. Therefore, they have a strong social repercussion in the country. This negative sentiment driven by bad mood might affect the investment decisions of investors. This study examines the effect of aviation accidents on Borsa Istanbul Index and Borsa Istanbul Transportation Index. Turkish aviation companies had only 5 serious accidents from 1990 to 2013. On the contrary to the previous findings, it is found that the aviation disasters do not have any effect on the stock market.

  9. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  10. A first step toward understanding patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety has become an important policy agenda in healthcare systems since publication of the 1999 report entitled "To Err Is Human." The paradigm has changed from blaming the individual for the error to identifying the weakness in the system that led to the adverse events. Anesthesia is one of the first healthcare specialties to adopt techniques and lessons from the aviation industry. The widespread use of simulation programs and the application of human factors engineering to clinical practice are the influences of the aviation industry. Despite holding relatively advanced medical technology and comparable safety records, the Korean health industry has little understanding of the systems approach to patient safety. Because implementation of the existing system and program requires time, dedication, and financial support, the Korean healthcare industry is in urgent need of developing patient safety policies and putting them into practice to improve patient safety before it is too late.

  11. An investigation of aviator problem-solving skills as they relate to amount of total flight time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilkey, James Elwood, Jr.

    As aircraft become increasingly more reliable, safety issues have shifted towards the human component of flight, the pilot. Jensen (1995) indicated that 80% of all General Aviation (GA) accidents are the result, at least in part, of errors committed by the aviator. One major focus of current research involves aviator decision making (ADM). ADM combines a broad range of psychological factors including personality, attitude, and motivation. This approach fails to isolate certain key components such as aviator problem-solving (APS) which are paramount to safe operations. It should be noted that there is a clear delineation between problem-solving and decision making and not assume that they are homogenous. For years, researchers, industry, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have depended on total flight hours as the standard by which to judge aviator expertise. A pilot with less than a prescribed number of hours is considered a novice while those above that mark are considered experts. The reliance on time as a predictor of performance may be accurate when considering skills which are required on every flight (i.e., takeoff and landing) but we can't assume that this holds true for all aspects of aviator expertise. Complex problem-solving for example, is something that is rarely faced during the normal course of flying. In fact, there are a myriad of procedures and FAA mandated regulations designed to assist pilots in avoiding problems. Thus, one should not assume that aviator problem-solving skills will increase over time. This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving skills of general aviation pilots and total number of flight hours. It was discovered that flight time is not a good predictor of problem-solving performance. There were two distinct strategies that were identified in the study. The first, progressive problem solving (PPS) was characterized by a stepwise method in which pilots gathered information, formulated hypotheses, and

  12. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., multiple copies of the first producer's report should be made at the stage that the aviation fuel is... with respect to taxed aviation fuel that is held by a registered aviation fuel producer. No credit... the aviation fuel was paid to the government by an importer or producer (the first producer) and...

  13. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../accident response. 91.1021 Section 91.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety reporting.... (b) Each program manager must establish procedures to respond to an aviation incident/accident....

  14. 76 FR 30232 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... associated with suborbital space flight. The reduced gravity levels are: --0.00 g 0.05 g for 17 continuous... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notification of criteria used...

  15. Psychophysiological Sensing and State Classification for Attention Management in Commercial Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Liles, Charles; Stephens, Chad L.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-related human performance limiting states (AHPLS) can cause pilots to lose airplane state awareness (ASA), and their detection is important to improving commercial aviation safety. The Commercial Aviation Safety Team found that the majority of recent international commercial aviation accidents attributable to loss of control inflight involved flight crew loss of airplane state awareness, and that distraction of various forms was involved in all of them. Research on AHPLS, including channelized attention, diverted attention, startle / surprise, and confirmation bias, has been recommended in a Safety Enhancement (SE) entitled "Training for Attention Management." To accomplish the detection of such cognitive and psychophysiological states, a broad suite of sensors has been implemented to simultaneously measure their physiological markers during high fidelity flight simulation human subject studies. Pilot participants were asked to perform benchmark tasks and experimental flight scenarios designed to induce AHPLS. Pattern classification was employed to distinguish the AHPLS induced by the benchmark tasks. Unimodal classification using pre-processed electroencephalography (EEG) signals as input features to extreme gradient boosting, random forest and deep neural network multiclass classifiers was implemented. Multi-modal classification using galvanic skin response (GSR) in addition to the same EEG signals and using the same types of classifiers produced increased accuracy with respect to the unimodal case (90 percent vs. 86 percent), although only via the deep neural network classifier. These initial results are a first step toward the goal of demonstrating simultaneous real time classification of multiple states using multiple sensing modalities in high-fidelity flight simulators. This detection is intended to support and inform training methods under development to mitigate the loss of ASA and thus reduce accidents and incidents.

  16. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous...-HazMat@faa.gov . Please include your name, organization, email address, and indicate whether you...

  17. 77 FR 14856 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Draft Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C199 Establishing the Minimum... Administration (DOT). ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)...

  18. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section..., Air Force Stock Fund and DPSC Assigned Item Procedures, 5 purchase of Air Force fuel and oil may be... AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  19. Taking Flight: Education and Training for Aviation Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janet S., Ed.; Oster, Clinton V., Jr., Ed.

    This book reports on a study of education and training for civilian aviation careers. Following an overview of the study in chapter 1, chapter 2 provides the context for the analysis by first sketching the evolution of the aviation industry, then describing the key characteristics of the current industry and its workforce. Among the issues…

  20. 78 FR 55327 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Office of the Secretary Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer.... Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., Washington, DC 20590; 202-366-9342 (phone),...

  1. 77 FR 43137 - Aviation Environmental and Energy Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... to air quality-related health effects, as do emissions from all combustion processes, and are causing... progress in energy efficiency and pioneering advances in sustainable alternative aviation fuels will be key... issue for general aviation since more than 200,000 piston-engine aircraft rely on leaded AvGas for...

  2. Private Airlines to Appear in Civil Aviation Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Exposed by North China Aviation Bureau, Dazhong and Aokai, two airlines based on private capitals, have handed in their establishment applications to the North China Aviation Bureau, along with the reports on feasibility study.At present, they have passed the preliminary examination of the Bureau and are waiting for the reply from CAAC. Private airlines with low operation costs are expected

  3. Introduction of Enhanced Vision System and its Application for General Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Matyáš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced Vision System (EVS technology has been developing since 1980s. The research itself has been mainly focused on controlling Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. In this area, some methods were successfully tested, from take-off to landing. This paper is meant to be an introduction for further research and testing within general aviation area for use of EVS technology by high experienced as well as low experienced pilots in order to increase the level of safety during critical stages of flight.

  4. 75 FR 32508 - Harris Stratex Networks Corporation, Currently Known As Aviat U.S., Inc., dba Aviat Networks, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Harris Stratex Networks Corporation, Currently Known As Aviat U.S., Inc., dba Aviat Networks, Inc., Production Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, Green Resources and Volt Technical Resources, San Antonio, TX; Amended Certification...

  5. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. SWAFEA. Sustainable Way for Alternative Fuels and Energy in Aviation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the aviation sector uses petroleum derived liquid fuels as the energy carrier of choice for flight. In light the present environmental, economical and political concerns as to the sustainability of this energy source, the question of which alternatives the aviation sector should pursue in

  6. Urgent epidemic control mechanism for aviation networks

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2011-01-01

    In the current century, the highly developed transportation system can not only boost the economy, but also greatly accelerate the spreading of epidemics. While some epidemic diseases may infect quite a number of people ahead of our awareness, the health care resources such as vaccines and the medical staff are usually locally or even globally insufficient. In this research, with the network of major aviation routes as an example, we present a method to determine the optimal locations to allocate the medical service in order to minimize the impact of the infectious disease with limited resources. Specifically, we demonstrate that when the medical resources are insufficient, we should concentrate our efforts on the travelers with the objective of effectively controlling the spreading rate of the epidemic diseases. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  8. Russian Aviation Business: Critical Areas For Benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vepreva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Russian aviation business has faced a challenge. There are only two ways to proceed - either to change quickly and effectively or stay and slowly loose positions. Best practices of production systems creation from 3 world famous production companies were analyzed in order to come to the result, which is a basic fundament for production system. Fundament consists of four major columns living under major ideologies: first, supply chain management, production and internal logistics processes with supplier-customer ideology, second, human resources management process with deployed function of personnel development, third, quality management process serving and steering the production process and forth, management structure adjusted according to the process value-based approach.

  9. Potential global jamming transition in aviation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear transport model for an aviation network. The takeoff rate from an airport is characterized by the degree of ground congestion. Due to the effect of "surface congestion," the performance of an airport deteriorates because of inefficient configurations of waiting aircraft on the ground. Using a simple transport model, we performed simulations on a U. S. airport network and found a global jamming transition induced by local surface congestion. From a physical perspective, the mechanism of the transition is studied analytically and the resulting aircraft distribution is discussed considering system dynamics. This study shows that the knowledge of the relationship between a takeoff rate and a congestion level on the ground is vital for efficient air traffic operations.

  10. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region

  11. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a) (1) The applicant must analyze the engine, including the control system, to assess the...

  12. 14 CFR 21.261 - Equivalent safety provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equivalent safety provisions. 21.261 Section 21.261 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....261 Equivalent safety provisions. The manufacturer shall obtain the Administrator's concurrence on...

  13. 76 FR 20070 - Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria... received, a safety approval for the ability of its Space Training System: Model 400 (STS-400) to replicate....19 (a)(4). NASTAR's ] STS-400 suborbital space flight simulator (a multi-axis centrifuge) is...

  14. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at http://www.ofcm.gov/p35-nvaopa/pdf/FCM-P35-2007-NVAOPA.pdf. While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  15. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly smaller in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx with regional peaks over the populated land masses of North America, Europe, and East Asia. For CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution

  16. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly lower in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx while for CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution of emissions in certain regions for the Aero2k dataset.

  17. NASA atmospheric effects of aviation projects: Status and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesoky, Howard L.; Thompson, Anne M.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project is developing a scientific basis for assessment of the atmospheric impact of subsonic and supersonic aviation. Issues addressed include predicted ozone changes and climatic impact, and related uncertainties. A primary goal is to assist assessments of United Nations scientific organizations and, hence, consideration of emission standards by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Project focus is on simulation of atmospheric processes by computer models, but studies of aircraft operations, laboratory studies, and remote and in situ observations of chemical, dynamic, and radiative processes are also included.

  18. Toward a Concept of Operations for Aviation Weather Information Implementation in the Evolving National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdaragh, Raymon M.

    2002-01-01

    The capacity of the National Airspace System is being stressed due to the limits of current technologies. Because of this, the FAA and NASA are working to develop new technologies to increase the system's capacity which enhancing safety. Adverse weather has been determined to be a major factor in aircraft accidents and fatalities and the FAA and NASA have developed programs to improve aviation weather information technologies and communications for system users The Aviation Weather Information Element of the Weather Accident Prevention Project of NASA's Aviation Safety Program is currently working to develop these technologies in coordination with the FAA and industry. This paper sets forth a theoretical approach to implement these new technologies while addressing the National Airspace System (NAS) as an evolving system with Weather Information as one of its subSystems. With this approach in place, system users will be able to acquire the type of weather information that is needed based upon the type of decision-making situation and condition that is encountered. The theoretical approach addressed in this paper takes the form of a model for weather information implementation. This model addresses the use of weather information in three decision-making situations, based upon the system user's operational perspective. The model also addresses two decision-making conditions, which are based upon the need for collaboration due to the level of support offered by the weather information provided by each new product or technology. The model is proposed for use in weather information implementation in order to provide a systems approach to the NAS. Enhancements to the NAS collaborative decision-making capabilities are also suggested.

  19. Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air transportation, one of the most important modes of transportation, is also one of the safest. Nevertheless, the public demands that safety levels continuously...

  20. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  1. Risk management of aviation maintenance%机务维修风险管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓全; 曹钧; 于露

    2012-01-01

    Aviation maintenance was vital for the safety of flight. With the continuing development of civil aviation, the lack of aviation maintenance ability was increasingly serious, so it was necessary to carry out risk management. The SHELL model was taken as the risk identification tool at first. The aviation maintenance risk factors were classified and analyzed in accordance with life (L) factors/Life and life (L-L) factors/ Life and Software (L-S) factors/ Life and Hardware ( L-H) factors/ Life and Environmental factors ( L-E) factors to get the muster of risk factors. Then the fuzzy analytic network process was applied as the tool of risk assessment to quantitatively analyze the importance of risk factors according to the characteristic that risk factors influence each other. Based on the results of risk assessment, the corresponding risk control measures were put forward such as reinforcing maintenance resources management; making the just safety culture; perfecting the construction of the aviation maintenance technicians ; improving the aviation maintenance condition. The result indicated that the study was significant for the aviation maintenance risk management because it could help to systemically identify risk factors, scientifically assess risk factors and make reasonable risk control measures.%机务维修是影响飞行安全的重要环节,随着我国民航业的不断发展,机务维修能力不足的问题日益严重,急需进行风险管理研究.首先选择SHELL模型进行风险因素识别,从人员(L)、人员与人员(L-L)、人员与软件(L-S)、人员与硬件(L-H)、人员与环境(L-E)方面系统的识别出机务维修风险因素;在此基础上,针对机务维修风险因素相互影响的特点,选择模糊网络分析法进行风险评价,得出权重排序;针对评价结果,提出相应的风险控制措施:加强维修资源管理、建立良好的安全文化、强化维修队伍建设、改善维修工作条件.最终结果

  2. Independent safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted a study on the need and feasibility of an independent organization to investigate significant safety events for the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, USNRC. The study consists of three parts: the need for an independent organization to investigate significant safety events, alternative organizations to conduct investigations, and legislative requirements. The determination of need was investigated by reviewing current NRC investigation practices, comparing aviation and nuclear industry practices, and interviewing a spectrum of representatives from the nuclear industry, the regulatory agency, and the public sector. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative independent organizations were studied, namely, an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) of NRC; an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the NRC Commissioners; a multi-member NTSB-type Nuclear Safety Board independent of the NRC. The costs associated with operating a Nuclear Safety Board were also included in the study. The legislative requirements, both new authority and changes to the existing NRC legislative authority, were studied. 134 references

  3. Human factors in safety and business management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  4. Application of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-03-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) the authors have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. They have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. They are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. The primary vehicle the authors have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. They are currently adapting their methods and tools of human error analysis to the domain of air traffic management (ATM) systems. Under the NASA-sponsored Advanced Air Traffic Technologies (AATT) program they are working to address issues of human reliability in the design of ATM systems to support the development of a free flight environment for commercial air traffic in the US. They are also currently testing the application of their human error analysis approach for space flight operations. They have developed a simplified model of the critical habitability functions for the space station Mir, and have used this model to assess the affects of system failures and human errors that have occurred in the wake of the collision incident last year. They are developing an approach so that lessons learned from Mir operations can be systematically applied to design and operation of long-term space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the manned Mars mission.

  5. Flight plan: taking responsibility for aviation emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimber, Hugo

    2007-07-01

    Aviation emissions make up less than 2 per cent of the world total, but are rising fast. These environmental costs must be balanced with development gains, however: air travel can hugely benefit poor countries' economies. The good news is that much can be done to curb emissions while keeping those benefits on board. Workable tools and guidelines for passengers, travel providers, government and airlines are waiting in the wings. A vital area for improvement is the way emissions are reported and calculated. Airlines, travel providers and carbon companies currently report emissions using a hotchpotch of methods, all producing varying results. Basing reports on fuel usage will make standardised ecolabelling possible. With an informed choice, passengers can buy tickets strategically and so encourage airlines to use more efficient technology. Airports can integrate ways of limiting emissions into their daily operations, while governments can invest in better air traffic control. Collective responsibility — and action — could make flying a much more sustainable means of travel.

  6. Sustainability Reporting in the Aviation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Miles Hill [Global Reporting Initiative (Netherlands)

    2008-09-30

    The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G3 Guidelines are the de-facto standard for sustainability reporting. Thousands of organizations around the world base their annual sustainability report on the GRI G3 Guidelines, including many within the aviation sector, including leading airports, aerospace manufacturers and airlines. The Guidelines are principles based and contain Disclosures on Management Approach and Performance Indicators. To report on the performance indicators a company needs to measure and manage its entities. By doing so targets can be set to improve performance over the years, on sustainability topics ranging from community investment to CO{sub 2} emissions. Each company is different and therefore each company needs to conduct a materiality test to assess which indicators to use, based on Stakeholder Assessments and Decisions and Significance of Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts. Using the Guidelines means that you have a tool for clear and comparable communication with your stakeholders and measuring your performance on sustainability topics like CO{sub 2} emissions. By measuring CO{sub 2} emissions overtime in a uniform way and publishing the emissions in your sustainability report, your stakeholders will appreciate your honesty and better understand when you experience difficulties in meeting your targets to limit the emissions. Additionally it will allow you to be able to benchmark your company against other companies in your sector.

  7. Failure Analysis of Aviation Torsional Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Weiguo; ZHANG Weifang; LIU Xiao; WANG Zongren; DING Meili

    2011-01-01

    Cracks and fractures occur during the assembly process to a type of torsional springs used in the aviation mechanism.Besides visual examination,other experimental techniques used for the investigation are:1) fracture characteristics,damage morphology and ffactography by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),2) spectrum analysis of covering,3) metallographic observation of cracks and 4) hydrogen content testing.The results are obtained through the analysis of manufacture process and experimental data.Since no changes of microstructure are found,failures are irrelevant to the material.The cracks and fractures initiate on the inner surface,cracks initiate before the cadmium plating and after the winding.No obvious stress corrosion cracks are found near the crack source region.The opening direction of cracks is consistent with the residual tensile stress of the spring inner surface,and the springs are easy to contact hydrogen media between the spring winding and the cadmium plating.The cracks are caused by hydrogen-induced delayed cracking under the action of the residual tensile stress and hydrogen.

  8. INFORMATION SECURITY AS PART OF CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY.

    OpenAIRE

    Золотар, О.О.

    2010-01-01

    In the article problems concerning understanding of the main point of information security of civil aviation field are investigated, and also suggestions for the field's law improvement are worked out.

  9. Greener Aviation with Virtual Sensors: A Case Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The environmental impact of aviation is enormous given the fact that in the US alone there are nearly 6 million flights per year of commercial aircraft. This...

  10. Estimated revenues of VAT and fuel tax on aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteland, M.; Faber, J.

    2013-07-15

    International aviation is exempt from VAT, both on their inputs (e.g. on fuel or aircraft) and on their revenues (e.g. on tickets). In the EU, aviation fuel is also exempt from the minimum fuel excise tariffs. This report calculates the potential revenues of VAT on tickets and fuel tax on jet fuel. If VAT were to be levied on tickets while other aviation taxes were simultaneously abolished, this would yield revenues in the order of EUR 7 billion. Excise duty on jet fuel would raise revenues in the order of EUR 20 billion. These figures do not take into account the impact of the cost increases on demand for aviation into account. Since higher costs will reduce demand, the estimates can be considered an upper bound.

  11. Multi-function Fiber Laser Kinetic Aviation Hazard Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes a multi-function, high energy, eye-safe 1550 nm band pulsed fiber-laser lidar system for airborne sensing of various kinetic aviation hazards. The...

  12. The Participation of Ukrainian Companies in Building the Mechanisms for Naval Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey I. Kharuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main program for the development and production of equipment for naval aviation, carried out in Ukraine in 1910 - 1980. The author comes to the conclusion that naval aviation has never been a priority area for the Ukrainian aviation industry. However, throughout its history, the aircrafts intended for naval aviation, developed and in some cases introduced into serial production.

  13. Pilot Designed Aircraft Displays in General Aviation: An Exploratory Study and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Cody R.

    From 2001-2011, the General Aviation (GA) fatal accident rate remained unchanged (Duquette & Dorr, 2014) with an overall stagnant accident rate between 2004 and 2013. The leading cause, loss of control in flight (NTSB, 2015b & 2015c) due to pilot inability to recognize approach to stall/spin conditions (NTSB, 2015b & 2016b). In 2013, there were 1,224 GA accidents in the U.S., accounting for 94% of all U.S. aviation accidents and 90% of all U.S. aviation fatalities that year (NTSB, 2015c). Aviation entails multiple challenges for pilots related to task management, procedural errors, perceptual distortions, and cognitive discrepancies. While machine errors in airplanes have continued to decrease over the years, human error still has not (NTSB, 2013). A preliminary analysis of a PC-based, Garmin G1000 flight deck was conducted with 3 professional pilots. Analyses revealed increased task load, opportunities for distraction, confusing perceptual ques, and hindered cognitive performance. Complex usage problems were deeply ingrained in the functionality of the system, forcing pilots to use fallible work arounds, add unnecessary steps, and memorize knob turns or button pushes. Modern computing now has the potential to free GA cockpit designs from knobs, soft keys, or limited display options. Dynamic digital displays might include changes in instrumentation or menu structuring depending on the phase of flight. Airspeed indicators could increase in size to become more salient during landing, simultaneously highlighting pitch angle on Attitude Indicators and automatically decluttering unnecessary information for landing. Likewise, Angle-of-Attack indicators demonstrate a great safety and performance advantage for pilots (Duquette & Dorr, 2014; NTSB, 2015b & 2016b), an instrument typically found in military platforms and now the Icon A5, light-sport aircraft (Icon, 2016). How does the design of pilots' environment---the cockpit---further influence their efficiency and

  14. Risk-based Aviation Security Diffusion and Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Beech, George M.

    2012-01-01

    The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is continually under public pressure to improve aviation security screening for air passengers while simultaneously protecting the public from all perceived threats to commercial aviation. Applying acceptance models to predict passengers intentions to use voluntary security programs could lead to more efficient deployment of technology and procedures or the termination of a security program before significant government resources are dedicated ...

  15. Environmental impact assessment and optimisation of commercial aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The aviation industry represents approximately 3% of global greenhouse gas emissions, however with significant growth expected over the coming decades this proportion is expected to increase. Continued governmental and social pressure to reduce global emissions is posing a challenging question to the industry; how to improve environmental efficiency and reduce emissions with increasing industry growth. The environmental impact of aviation globally is discussed, examining the...

  16. Perception of ethics in the Icelandic Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This Master’s thesis deals with perception of ethics in the Icelandic aviation sector. It offers a qualitative study to answer the following central research questions: what is the perception of the ethical environment in the aviation sector of Iceland by its top-managers? To introduce the study, a literature review presents an overview of the concepts of ethics, corruption and bribery as well as culture and corporate social responsibility. A special focus is proposed on the different school ...

  17. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  18. Software in military aviation and drone mishaps: Analysis and recommendations for the investigation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software plays a central role in military systems. It is also an important factor in many recent incidents and accidents. A safety gap is growing between our software-intensive technological capabilities and our understanding of the ways they can fail or lead to accidents. Traditional forms of accident investigation are poorly equipped to trace the sources of software failure, for instance software does not age in the same way that hardware components fail over time. As such, it can be hard to trace the causes of software failure or mechanisms by which it contributed to accidents back into the development and procurement chain to address the deeper, systemic causes of potential accidents. To identify some of these failure mechanisms, we examined the database of the Air Force Accident Investigation Board (AIB) and analyzed mishaps in which software was involved. Although we have chosen to focus on military aviation, many of the insights also apply to civil aviation. Our analysis led to several results and recommendations. Some were specific and related for example to specific shortcomings in the testing and validation of particular avionic subsystems. Others were broader in scope: for instance, we challenged both the investigation process (aspects of) and the findings in several cases, and we provided recommendations, technical and organizational, for improvements. We also identified important safety blind spots in the investigations with respect to software, whose contribution to the escalation of the adverse events was often neglected in the accident reports. These blind spots, we argued, constitute an important missed learning opportunity for improving accident prevention, and it is especially unfortunate at a time when Remotely Piloted Air Systems (RPAS) are being integrated into the National Airspace. Our findings support the growing recognition that the traditional notion of software failure as non-compliance with requirements is too limited to capture the

  19. Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model for Safety Technology Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) develops and advances methodologies and technologies to improve air transportation safety. The Safety Analysis and Integration Team (SAIT) conducts a safety technology portfolio assessment (PA) to analyze the program content, to examine the benefits and risks of products with respect to program goals, and to support programmatic decision making. The PA process includes systematic identification of current and future safety risks as well as tracking several quantitative and qualitative metrics to ensure the program goals are addressing prominent safety risks accurately and effectively. One of the metrics within the PA process involves using quantitative aviation safety models to gauge the impact of the safety products. This paper demonstrates the role of aviation safety modeling by providing model outputs and evaluating a sample of portfolio elements using the Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) model. The model enables not only ranking of the quantitative relative risk reduction impact of all portfolio elements, but also highlighting the areas with high potential impact via sensitivity and gap analyses in support of the program office. Although the model outputs are preliminary and products are notional, the process shown in this paper is essential to a comprehensive PA of NASA's safety products in the current program and future programs/projects.

  20. Aviation and programmatic analyses; Volume 1, Task 1: Aviation data base development and application. [for NASA OAST programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A method was developed for using the NASA aviation data base and computer programs in conjunction with the GE management analysis and projection service to perform simple and complex economic analysis for planning, forecasting, and evaluating OAST programs. Capabilities of the system are discussed along with procedures for making basic data tabulations, updates and entries. The system is applied in an agricultural aviation study in order to assess its value for actual utility in the OAST working environment.

  1. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. SWAFEA. Sustainable Way for Alternative Fuels and Energy in Aviation.

    OpenAIRE

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R. E. E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; E Joubert; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the aviation sector uses petroleum derived liquid fuels as the energy carrier of choice for flight. In light the present environmental, economical and political concerns as to the sustainability of this energy source, the question of which alternatives the aviation sector should pursue in the future has emerged. Among these concerns, the environmental impact of fossil fuel use on global warming and air quality is of major importance, while the impact of volatile oil prices and the ...

  2. Determination of service life of aviation lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V.G.; Novosartov, G.T.; Echin, A.I.; Bakunin, V.N.

    1985-11-01

    A method of evaluating the quality of expensive lubricants was developed based on determination of thermo-oxidative stability on a TSM-1 apparatus. This allowed measurement of the content of additives and qualitative properties associated with them during oxidation under laboratory conditions. By developing graphs showing dependence of operating properties sharply degrade was determined. This minimum additive content became the criterion for assessing the working capability of the lubricant and determining the limiting length of its service. Thus, for lubricant B-3V, the most important operating characteristics are thermooxidative stability and critical loading. Samples were tested for the additives PODFA and kaptaks and for indicators of antioxidative and antiseizing properties. Experiments showed little change in characteristics during 10 h of oxidation. Laboratory tests showed that the critical loading began to drop when the kaptaks level fell below 0.2%, so this was taken as the minimal acceptable level. Similarly, for lubricant IPM-10, the most important operating property is its thermo-oxidative stability. Tests showed that indicators of thermo-oxidative stability all began to fall when the antioxidative additive fell below 0.1%. This approach allows rapid determination of service criteria for any aviation lubricant with critical additives. In a practical test, B-3V lubricant had been changed in the MI-8 helicopter every 200-300 h, although its kaptaks level was still 0.65%; even at 900 hours it had fallen to only 0.36%. This would allow the service life to be tripled, a conclusion verified by determination of physicochemical and operating properties of the lubricant at that point. 4 references, 2 figures.

  3. 航空产品精益生产模式下的质量控制%Quality Control in Lean Production Mode of Aviation Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会召

    2016-01-01

    航空产品精益生产不仅要降低生产成本,重要的是追求质量稳定与不断提高,以满足航空产品更高的安全性要求。本文阐述了航空产品精益生产模式下质量控制的基本思想,提出了航空产品设计开发和生产制造过程中适应精益制造模式的质量控制,并针对主要内容和要点进行了研究。本文对提高航空产品生产控制体系有借鉴作用。%Lean production of aviation products not only to reduce the production cost, important to pursue stable quality and improve, to meet the requirements of aviation products of higher quality and safety, the aviation product system control put forward higher requirements. This paper expounds the basic idea of aviation products under the lean production mode in quality control, the aviation product design development and manufacturing process, to meet the needs of quality control of lean manufacturing mode, according to the main content and main points were studied.

  4. Applications of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-07-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) we have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. We have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. We are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. These applications lead to different requirements when compared with HR.As performed as part of a PSA. For example, because the analysis will begin early during the design stage, the methods must be usable when only partial design information is available. In addition, the ability to perform numerous ''what if'' analyses to identify and compare multiple design alternatives is essential. Finally, since the goals of such human error analyses focus on proactive design changes rather than the estimate of failure probabilities for PRA, there is more emphasis on qualitative evaluations of error relationships and causal factors than on quantitative estimates of error frequency. The primary vehicle we have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. The first NASA-sponsored project had the goal to evaluate human errors caused by advanced cockpit automation. Our next aviation project focused on the development of methods and tools to apply human error analysis to the design of commercial aircraft. This project was performed by a consortium comprised of INEEL, NASA, and Boeing Commercial Airplane Group. The focus of the project was aircraft design and procedures that could lead to human errors during

  5. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  6. Sustainable development – the key for green aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MRAZOVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has always been seeking the technological progress that will optimise the economic, operational and environmental way of flying. In the first part of this study the author describes the impact of the CO2 emissions on the climate change. Also, the author emphasises the fact that once again the aviation environment is asking for new breakthroughs to face the challenge of the aviation’s sustainable growth. Airbus and its approach with the least possible impact on environment are introduced in the last part of this paper. Additionally, the environmental way of greener aviation is illustrated by examples of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions measurements made for several selected airlines.

  7. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  8. Examination of commercial aviation operational energy conservation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    Forty-seven fuel conservation strategies are identified for commercial aviation and the fuel saving potential, costs, constraints, and current implementation levels of these options are examined. This assessment is based on a comprehensive review of published data and discussions with representatives from industry and government. Analyses were performed to quantify the fuel saving potential of each option, and to assess the fuel savings achieved to date by the airline industry. Those options requiring further government support for option implementation were identified, rated, and ranked in accordance with a rating methodology developed in the study. Finally, recommendations are made for future government efforts in the area of fuel conservation in commercial aviation.

  9. General aviation design synthesis utilizing interactive computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.; Smith, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Interactive computer graphics is a fast growing area of computer application, due to such factors as substantial cost reductions in hardware, general availability of software, and expanded data communication networks. In addition to allowing faster and more meaningful input/output, computer graphics permits the use of data in graphic form to carry out parametric studies for configuration selection and for assessing the impact of advanced technologies on general aviation designs. The incorporation of interactive computer graphics into a NASA developed general aviation synthesis program is described, and the potential uses of the synthesis program in preliminary design are demonstrated.

  10. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  11. Auto Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Auto Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Auto Safety Print A A ... by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats Using a child safety seat (car seat) ...

  12. 75 FR 11552 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Aviation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... surveying travelers to measure customer satisfaction of aviation security in an effort to more efficiently... Collection of Information: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey...; Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey. TSA, with OMB's...

  13. Analysis of eighty-four commercial aviation incidents - Implications for a resource management approach to crew training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    A resource management approach to aircrew performance is defined and utilized in structuring an analysis of 84 exemplary incidents from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System. The distribution of enabling and associated (evolutionary) and recovery factors between and within five analytic categories suggests that resource management training be concentrated on: (1) interpersonal communications, with air traffic control information of major concern; (2) task management, mainly setting priorities and appropriately allocating tasks under varying workload levels; and (3) planning, coordination, and decisionmaking concerned with preventing and recovering from potentially unsafe situations in certain aircraft maneuvers.

  14. IT interdependence and the economic fairness of cyber-security regulations for civil aviation.

    OpenAIRE

    De Gramatica, M.; Massacci, F.; Shim, W.; Tedeschi, A.; Williams, J.

    2015-01-01

    Interviews about emerging cybersecurity threats and a cybersecurity public policy economic model for civil aviation illustrate stakeholders' concerns: interdependency issues can lead to aviation regulations that put smaller airports at a disadvantage.

  15. 78 FR 15110 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements... and assess the adequacy of certain portions of the existing engine bird ingestion requirements. This... bird ingestion type certification standards for aircraft turbine engines to better address the...

  16. 75 FR 73158 - Executive Committee of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Executive Committee of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee... (PIWG) c. Charter Renewal d. ``One Stop Shopping'' Web Site e. Committee Manual Revisions 2. Issue...

  17. 75 FR 29567 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... March 11, 2010. 75 FR 11552. The collection involves surveying travelers to measure customer... OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey AGENCY...; Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey. TSA, with OMB's...

  18. 78 FR 46594 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... May 30, 2013, 78 FR 32416. The collection involves surveying travelers to measure customer... OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey AGENCY.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance...

  19. Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, U.; Orasanu, J.; Davison, J.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Communication is essential to safe flight, as evidenced by several accidents in which crew communicates was found to have contributed to the accidents. This chapter documents the essential role of explicit efficient communication to flight safety with a global context. It addresses communication between flight crews and air traffic controllers in regions a the world where pilots and controllers speak different native languages, as well as cases in which crew members within the flight deck represent different native languages and cultures. It also addresses problems associated with "exporting" crew resource management training programs to parts of the world which values and norms differ from those of the United States, where these programs were initially developed. This chapter is organized around several central questions: (1) What are various kinds of communication failures and what are their consequences; (2) What are the causes of communication failure; (3) What are features of effective crew communication; (4) What can be done to enhance communication success? To explore a wider range of communication failures than available from accident reports, we examined a set of incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. These could be classified into three major categories: those in which language actually interfered with transmission of a message; those in which transmission was adequate but the context was not expressed unambiguously and thus the message received was not the same as the message intended; and those in which the message was received as intended, but was not adequately understood or acted upon, mainly because of cultural factors. The consequences of failed communication can be flight errors (such as when a clearance is not received correctly), loss of situation awareness, or failure of crew members (or ATC and pilots) to build a shared understanding of a situation. Causes of misunderstanding can be traced to a number of sources, often

  20. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H.L.; Friedl, R.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  1. Lessons of History: Organizational Factors in Three Aviation Mishaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines organizational factors that contributed to three aircraft mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. Three historical aviation mishaps were studied from a human factors perspective, and organizational factors identified and analyzed. These case studies provide valuable lessons for understanding the interaction of people with aircraft systems and with each other during flight operations.

  2. A STEM-Based, High School Aviation Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surra, Alex; Litowitz, Len S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a vocational training course that was developed to give more than just an overview of how aircraft work, or a course on how to fly. This training course was a half-year course in aviation technology. Powered flight is an area of interest for many students, and the intent of creating a curriculum rich with science, technology,…

  3. Travel, speed and entertainment in cinema territories and aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Jesus Fernandes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Book review and critical reading of a book that crosses cinema and the aviation transport, a work that understands the latter as a territory of cinema diffusion. The films shown in the aircraft are designed to entertain the passengers, keep them calm, but also to promote marketing campaigns and lifestyles.

  4. NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, James M.; Jennings, Francis T.; Adanich, Emery; Del Rosario, Ruben; Felder, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Center Director Free is providing the Keynote at the Disruptive Propulsion Conference, sponsored by Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, England in November. Director Free will be presenting a PowerPoint presentation titled, NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights at both the conference and a meeting at the Royal Aeronautical Society.

  5. Measurement of doses to aviator pilots using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the development of their work, the aviator pilots are exposed at high levels of natural radiation of bottom caused mainly by the cosmic radiation of galactic origin and lot. For such reason, the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and the Union Association of Aviator Pilots (ASPA), subscribed an agreement with the purpose of to measure the doses of ionizing radiation received by the aviator pilots of diverse air companies that man different types of airships and to determine if these doses surpass the one limit of 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the public in general; and if therefore, these workers should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. In this work the obtained results when measuring the absorbed dose received by Mexican civil aviator pilots during the development of their work, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF:Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national production are presented. The obtained results during the years of 2001 and 2002 show that the monthly doses received by the pilots surpass the one it limits established for the public in general, for what they should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  6. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  7. Sustainability, Organizational Learning, and Lessons Learned from Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourdehnad, John; Smith, Peter A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: While the importance of organizational learning for sustainability has been stressed by a number of authors in the literature, the practicalities of how organizational leaders might foster such learning are seldom treated. This paper seeks to demonstrate that there is much that could be learned from the aviation industry about…

  8. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume IV - General Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    The central task of a 1980 workshop on the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in aeronautics was to examine the relationship of NASA's research capabilities to the state of U.S. aviation and to make recommendations about NASA's future role in aeronautics. The findings and recommendations of the Panel on General…

  9. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume II - Military Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    The central task of a 1980 workshop on the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in aeronautics was to examine the relationship of NASA's research capabilities to the state of U.S. aviation and to make recommendations about NASA's future role in aeronautics. The findings and recommendations of the Panel on Military…

  10. 78 FR 29669 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... fire, either in an engine or the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) or the rear compartment, possibly resulting... manufacturing batch number for the charge indicator installed on each engine and auxiliary power unit (APU)...

  11. Strategic Management as a Key to Educating the New Aviation Professional

    OpenAIRE

    Dostaler, Isabelle; Flouris, Triant

    2007-01-01

    Differences and similarities between management and strategic management are discussed in this article and a framework for the aviation strategic management process is proposed. The steps of the aviation strategic management process include 1) scanning the aviation environment, 2) analyzing the aviation organization, 3) formulating the corporate strategy, 4) formulating the business strategy, and 5) implementing the corporate and business strategies through the formulation of functional strat...

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and allocation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is part of the outcome of a project funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA). The project was initiated to update DEPA on ongoing developments in the field of air transport and environment. The background for starting up such a project is that aviation, due to the prospects for future growth in demand for air travel and freight volumes, may become a more significant source of emissions of greenhouse gases in the future. Another reason for DEPA to take up the subject is that DEPA needs an update on why the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have not yet been able to agree upon a methodology to allocate emissions of greenhouse gases from international aviation between countries. Only emissions from domestic air transport are included in the national inventories on annual national greenhouse gas emissions reported by Parties to the UNFCCC while emissions associated with fuel used for international aviation activities are to be reported separately. Consequently, emissions from international aviation are not included under the so-called Kyoto Protocol that sets out targets for reductions of national emissions of greenhouse gases to be fulfilled by the period 2008-2012. Parties to the UNFCCC and the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) have been discussing different possibilities for allocating emissions from international aviation to Parties, but so far no agreement has been reached on this subject. A main problem seems to be that if emissions are allocated to the country where the fuel is sold some Parties that have large sales of fuel for transit passengers will have to bear a larger burden than countries with no large hub airports. The basic problem seems to be that an airline registered in one country can carry passengers and freight originating from another country to a third country. Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol states that 'the Parties included in

  13. Enhancing Safety at Airline Operations Control Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Řasa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a new term of Safety Management System (SMS has been introduced into aviation legislation. This system is being adopted by airline operators. One of the groundbased actors of everyday operations is Operations Control Centre (OCC. The goal of this article has been to identify and assess risks and dangers which occur at OCC and create a template for OCC implementation into SMS.

  14. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108 of... Aviation fuel, oil, services, and supplies are not sold to civil aircraft in competition with...

  15. 76 FR 47423 - Aviation Fuel and Oil Operating Limitations; Policy Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Aviation Fuel and Oil Operating Limitations; Policy Memorandum AGENCY: Federal... the issuance of policy memorandum for Aviation Fuel and Oil Operating Limitations. This policy... (ECO) when evaluating compliance with the standards for aviation fuel and oil operating...

  16. 77 FR 27538 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-Continuing a Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... (ARAC)--New Task (76 FR 21936). The March 2012 ARAC Executive Committee meeting included a discussion of... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--Continuing a Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of continuing a task assignment for the...

  17. CAOHC RESTRUCTURE AVIATION OIL CORPORATION WITH BIG-TWO OIL GIANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec) and China Aviation Oil Holding Company (CAOHC)signed a framework agreement in Beijing on November 8, 2004 to establish a limited aviation oil company on the basis of China Aviation Oil Supply Corporation, one of CAOHC's core companies. The new company is expected to be set up in 2005.

  18. 14 CFR 243.11 - Transmission of information after an aviation disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... aviation disaster. 243.11 Section 243.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... of information after an aviation disaster. (a) Each covered airline shall inform the Managing... upon learning of an aviation disaster involving a covered flight segment operated by that carrier....

  19. The Status of Women Faculty in Four-Year Aviation Higher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the status of women's participation in full-time, non-engineering aviation baccalaureate programs in the United States. In addition, the involvement of women in academic aviation leadership positions (such as chair, dean, or director) was evaluated. Of 353 full-time aviation faculty members employed at 60…

  20. 77 FR 53250 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... regard to Annex 6 6.5: Coordination with international organizations (e.g. UPU) Agenda Item 7: Other... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO)...

  1. Mapping automotive like controls to a general aviation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Christopher G.

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop fly-by-wire control laws enabling a general aviation aircraft to be flown with automotive controls, i.e. a steering wheel and gas/brake pedals. There was a six speed shifter used to change the flight mode of the aircraft. This essentially allows the pilot to have control over different aspects of the flight profile such as climb/descend or cruise. A highway in the sky was used to aid in the navigation since it is not intuitive to people without flight experience how to navigate from the sky or when to climb and descend. Many believe that general aviation could become as widespread as the automobile. Every person could have a personal aircraft at their disposal and it would be as easy to operate as driving an automobile. The goal of this thesis is to fuse the ease of drivability of a car with flight of a small general aviation aircraft. A standard automotive control hardware setup coupled with variably autonomous control laws will allow new pilots to fly a plane as easily as driving a car. The idea is that new pilots will require very little training to become proficient with these controls. Pilots with little time to stay current can maintain their skills simply by driving a car which is typically a daily activity. A human factors study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the applied control techniques. Pilot performance metrics were developed to compare candidates with no aviation background and experienced pilots. After analyzing the relative performance between pilots and non-pilots, it has been determined that the control system is robust and easy to learn. Candidates with no aviation experience whatsoever can learn to fly an aircraft as safely and efficiently as someone with hundreds of hours of flight experience using these controls.

  2. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend

  3. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  4. Patient safety: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional approach to patient safety in health care has ranged from reticence to outward denial of serious flaws. This undermines the otherwise remarkable advances in technology and information that have characterized the specialty of medical practice. In addition, lessons learned in industries outside health care, such as in aviation, provide opportunities for improvements that successfully reduce mishaps and errors while maintaining a standard of excellence. This is precisely the call in medicine prompted by the 1999 Institute of Medicine report ''To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System.'' However, to effect these changes, key components of a successful safety system must include: (1) communication, (2) a shift from a posture of reliance on human infallibility (hence ''shame and blame'') to checklists that recognize the contribution of the system and account for human limitations, and (3) a cultivation of non-punitive open and/or de-identified/anonymous reporting of safety concerns, including close calls, in addition to adverse events. (orig.)

  5. Patient safety: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagian, James P. [National Center for Patient Safety, Department of Veterans Affairs, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The traditional approach to patient safety in health care has ranged from reticence to outward denial of serious flaws. This undermines the otherwise remarkable advances in technology and information that have characterized the specialty of medical practice. In addition, lessons learned in industries outside health care, such as in aviation, provide opportunities for improvements that successfully reduce mishaps and errors while maintaining a standard of excellence. This is precisely the call in medicine prompted by the 1999 Institute of Medicine report ''To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System.'' However, to effect these changes, key components of a successful safety system must include: (1) communication, (2) a shift from a posture of reliance on human infallibility (hence ''shame and blame'') to checklists that recognize the contribution of the system and account for human limitations, and (3) a cultivation of non-punitive open and/or de-identified/anonymous reporting of safety concerns, including close calls, in addition to adverse events. (orig.)

  6. Safety Assurance Process for FRMS: eJcase Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, S.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Barton, P.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 6: Safety Assurance Process for FRMS - eJcase Implementation The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and m

  7. Aircrew physical training is the component of flight safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov F.I.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The components and elements of aviation system for aircraft accidents prevention are realized in the article. The role and meaning of flying hours aircrew physical training in accordance with military and professional activity specification, system reliability "aircraft - pilot - environment" and its effective utilization in the training and combat activity conditions and flight safety improvement were developed in this article.

  8. Non-Technical Skills (NTS) for enhancing patient safety: achievements and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Kodate, Naonori; Ross, Anthony; Anderson, Janet E.; Flin, R

    2012-01-01

    Problems in team communication and decision making have been implicated in accidents in high risk industries such as aviation, off shore oil processing, nuclear power generation. Recognition of the role that breakdowns in communication and teamwork play in patient safety incidents has led to a plethora of studies in the area of what has come to be widely known as non-technical skills (NTS); a term initially used in European aviation (1). This has led to increasing interest in i...

  9. Air - traffic safety in legal regulations and practice in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pícka, Libor

    2011-01-01

    This thesis mainly deals with the legislation outlining the issues of air safety in this country but also in an international context, especially its focus grounded in the law on civil aviation, international treaties, regulations, codes and other standards on the issue. It also includes an analysis of aviation law rules contained in European Community law and its impact on law and implementation into national law applicable to a consideration of law de lege ferenda. The practical part is foc...

  10. 78 FR 43091 - Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... under the T-SAP, established in Notice JO 7210.807 which will be incorporated in FAA Order JO 7200.20... voluntarily provide information to the FAA under the T-SAP and ATSAP, so the FAA can learn about and...

  11. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  12. Safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, L.J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  13. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe Z.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Arnold, Steve R.; Borman, Duncan J.; Mann, Graham W.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Monks, Sarah A.; Reddington, Carly L.; Benduhn, François; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine E.; Butt, Edward W.; Yoshioka, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 µm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in ˜ 3600 [95 % CI: 1310-5890] annual premature mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC = 15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by ˜ 620 [95 % CI: 230-1020] mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0 and 6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases aviation-induced mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (CAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced CAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced CAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at

  14. Wind turbines and aviation interests - European experience and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jago, P.; Taylor, N.

    2002-07-01

    The approach of other European countries to the effects of wind turbines on civil and military aviation has been studied in order to determine the applicability of these experiences to UK stakeholders. The background to the study is traced, and the restriction on the siting of turbines due to the hazards posed to aviation and defence interests, and the potential effects on radar for air traffic control, defence and low flying aircraft are examined. The planning and siting issues in different European countries, the planning system in the UK, and the safeguarding of aerodromes and military sites are discussed along with issues involved in low flying aircraft and search and rescue operations, and the marking and illumination of wind farms.

  15. Data and Models Needed to Support Civil Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsager, Terrance; Biesecker, D. A.; Berger, Thomas; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The effective utilization of existing data and models is an important element in advancing the goals of the COSPAR/ILWS space weather roadmap. This is recommended to be done through innovative approaches to data utilization, including data driving, data assimilation, and ensemble modeling. This presentation will focus on observations and models needed to support space weather services for civil aviation and commercial space transportation. The service needs for aviation will be discussed, and an overview will be given of some of the existing data and models that can provide these services. Efforts underway to define the requirements for real-time data and to assess current modeling capabilities will be described. Recommendations will be offered for internationally coordinated activities that could identify priorities and further the roadmap goals.

  16. Modern Communication Devices in the General Aviation Aircraft Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Novák

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to design a software that enables an integration of modern communication devices in the process of general aviation aircraft maintenance. The theoretical part deals with the legislative requirements of both maintenance and management processes for continuing airworthiness. The practical part focusses on software design and automation of the processes. An important part of the article is a chapter about economic evaluation based on the proposal of the solution.

  17. Visual analysis of orthokeratology on myopia reduction for aviators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Iwane

    2005-04-01

    Ortho-K was indicated for sixty eyes of thirty aviators, twenty-one pilots and nine flight attendants, with age of 34.5 on the average. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was originally 20/30 or worse in all cases. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) was -3.69 Diopters (D). The same ophthalmologist designed full costumed reverse geometry Advanced Orthokeratology lenses for each patient. All the patients were followed at least two years wearing of Advanced Ortho-K lenses. The follow up examinations on auto-refraction, auto-keratometry, uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, corneal endothelial cells, corneal thickness and curve, and corneal shape were performed in the morning, 10am to 12am. 94% of the patients improved in UCVA up to 20/20 or better, 87% of them improved up to 20/15 or better, and 67% of them improved up to 20/10. The mean SEs improved to -1.90+/-1.00D during six months, -1.49+/-1.03D during one year, and -0.73+/-0.94D during two years. Astigmatism slightly increased by 0.38D on the average, however, it did not cause any serious problems for aviation tasks even during night. Intraocular pressure did not increase and corneal endothelial cells did not decrease. Other ophthalmologic examinations showed normal conditions and any complications were not observed throughout the period. Advanced Ortho-K was evaluated to be safe and effective enough for also aviators with myopia. It can be recommended one of the options of reduction of myopia for aviators. Evaluations on night vision and night glare are planned for further studies.

  18. Cognitive aging and flight performances in general aviation pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Causse, Mickael; Dehais, Frédéric; Arexis, Mahé; Pastor, Josette

    2011-01-01

    International audience Unlike professional pilots who are limited by the FAA's age rule, no age limit is defined in general aviation. Our overall goal was to examine how age-related cognitive decline impacts piloting performance and weather-related decision-making. This study relied on three components: cognitive assessment (in particular executive functioning), pilot characteristics (age and flight experience), and flight performance. The results suggest that in comparison to chronologica...

  19. Analysis of Lean Initiatives in the Production of Naval Aviators

    OpenAIRE

    Prebula, Albert J., III

    2012-01-01

    The Department of the Navy is dealing with shrinking budgets and increased training requirements for the production of Naval Aviators for 4th and 5th generation Navy aircraft. Lean and Six Sigma strategies are routinely used in todays manufacturing processes. The U.S. military is saving billions of dollars by implementing quality improvement methods such as Lean Six Sigma, and these savings could grow even faster as the Department of Defense takes steps to expand these initiatives throughout ...

  20. Oxygen extended sooting index of FAME blends with aviation kerosene

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas Lois, Alberto; Canoira López, Laureano

    2013-01-01

    The use of biofuels in the aviation sector has economic and environmental benefits. Among the options for the production of renewable jet fuels, hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) have received predominant attention in comparison with fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), which are not approved as additives for jet fuels. However, the presence of oxygen in methyl esters tends to reduce soot emissions and therefore particulate matter emissions. This sooting tendency is quantified in this ...

  1. Science in Support of Aviation-Risk Management since the April 2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mastin, L. G.; Schneider, D. J.; Tupper, A.

    2010-12-01

    The nearly week-long airspace closure over large parts of Europe and the North Atlantic in April 2010 that resulted from dispersion of ash from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull prompted a shift from the accepted global policy of strict avoidance by aircraft of ash-contaminated airspace to one of allowing flight through zones of dilute ash under some circumstances. This shift was made in a crisis environment of rapidly mounting economic losses and social disruptions extending well beyond the European region. To get the global air transportation system moving again, European aviation authorities and associated meteorological offices created a new type of advisory product depicting forecasted zones of low ash concentrations in Eyjafjallajökull’s clouds that could be transited with expectation of no or minimal risk of aircraft damage, under the condition of more frequent aircraft inspections and enhanced risk management by airlines. Preliminary data of the European Aviation Safety Agency indicate that transit through Eyjafjallajökull’s dilute ash clouds caused some wear (primarily abrasion) to a few aircraft, but not to the severity of degraded engine performance in flight; after inspections the aircraft were returned to service and continued to operate without problems. Following the crisis, recognizing that such a fundamental shift in risk management requires sound scientific and engineering bases, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) formed an International Volcanic Ash Task Force that, in conjunction with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), will incorporate advice and recommendations from scientific, aviation, and engineering experts worldwide about ways to improve (1) situational awareness to aviation users of impending volcanic eruptions, (2) characterization of critical eruption source parameters for incorporation in forecast modeling, (3) detection and characterization of volcanic clouds, (4) accuracy of volcanic ash transport

  2. Maintenance and ramp line operations safety assessment (M&R LOSA: using a tested approach for risk management and safety enhancement = Avaliação de segurança nas operações de linha em serviços de rampa e de manutenção (M&R LOSA: utilizando uma abordagem testada para gerenciamento de riscos e aumento da segurança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma, Jiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry is maturing in its preference for proactive intervention over post-accident remediation in potentially hazardous circumstances. Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA adopts a truly proactive and predictive strategy to address aviation safety. As a voluntary safety program, LOSA collects safety data during normal airline operations through peer observations in strict non-jeopardy conditions. Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA, an M&R LOSA project was launched in October 2008 to capitalize on the successes of flight deck LOSA and extend it to aviation maintenance and ramp operations. The project delivered an array of open source tools, including observation data collection forms, procedures, program manuals, scenario-based training, and databases. The M&R LOSA programs are expected to positively leverage peer pressure to enforce behavior change and allow subunits of an organization to build in some flexibility to address their key problems and assure the effectiveness of safety recommendations

  3. Costs of IQ Loss from Leaded Aviation Gasoline Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Philip J; Giang, Amanda; Ashok, Akshay; Selin, Noelle E; Barrett, Steven R H

    2016-09-01

    In the United States, general aviation piston-driven aircraft are now the largest source of lead emitted to the atmosphere. Elevated lead concentrations impair children's IQ and can lead to lower earnings potentials. This study is the first assessment of the nationwide annual costs of IQ losses from aircraft lead emissions. We develop a general aviation emissions inventory for the continental United States and model its impact on atmospheric concentrations using the community multi-scale air quality model (CMAQ). We use these concentrations to quantify the impacts of annual aviation lead emissions on the U.S. population using two methods: through static estimates of cohort-wide IQ deficits and through dynamic economy-wide effects using a computational general equilibrium model. We also examine the sensitivity of these damage estimates to different background lead concentrations, showing the impact of lead controls and regulations on marginal costs. We find that aircraft-attributable lead contributes to $1.06 billion 2006 USD ($0.01-$11.6) in annual damages from lifetime earnings reductions, and that dynamic economy-wide methods result in damage estimates that are 54% larger. Because the marginal costs of lead are dependent on background concentration, the costs of piston-driven aircraft lead emissions are expected to increase over time as regulations on other emissions sources are tightened. PMID:27494542

  4. Airborne volcanic ash; a global threat to aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; Guffanti, Marianne C.

    2010-01-01

    The world's busy air traffic corridors pass over or downwind of hundreds of volcanoes capable of hazardous explosive eruptions. The risk to aviation from volcanic activity is significant - in the United States alone, aircraft carry about 300,000 passengers and hundreds of millions of dollars of cargo near active volcanoes each day. Costly disruption of flight operations in Europe and North America in 2010 in the wake of a moderate-size eruption in Iceland clearly demonstrates how eruptions can have global impacts on the aviation industry. Airborne volcanic ash can be a serious hazard to aviation even hundreds of miles from an eruption. Encounters with high-concentration ash clouds can diminish visibility, damage flight control systems, and cause jet engines to fail. Encounters with low-concentration clouds of volcanic ash and aerosols can accelerate wear on engine and aircraft components, resulting in premature replacement. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with national and international partners, is playing a leading role in the international effort to reduce the risk posed to aircraft by volcanic eruptions.

  5. COURSES IN THE FIELD OF CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr UCHROŃSKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polish accession to the EU and which consequently adapt Polish law to EU standards drew attention to the aviation community on the need for training and improvement of the quality of work people employed at the airport. Similarly, the subject was developed in the protection of civil aviation. Here, however, the direct stimulus for the formation of all kinds of regulations were the events in the USA 11.09.2001 r. It was then that apart from the obvious need to introduce more restrictive rules related to the security control of passengers and their luggage, it was also noted for staff training, their skills, threat detection and appropriate response to all types of custom passenger behavior. Then also placed special emphasis on quality control work, which is reflected in even the National Training Programme and the National Quality Control Programme, which are designed, on the one hand, professional prepare of the screeners for the implementation of the their statutory tasks, on the other hand, has created a tool to supervise the quality of the work done by this group of workers. Awareness of the human factor as an element that could significantly affect the level of airport security makes this factor is particularly treated in the protection of civil aviation. The consequences of human error, resulting from an act of conscious or unintentional, may in fact be catastrophic for the airport, the carrier and passengers.

  6. Including International Aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, Fredrik

    2011-07-01

    Starting on January 1 st, 2012, the international aviation sector will be included into the already existing EU ETS. All air crafts departing and arriving within the European Union will be obliged to hold permits corresponding to their total emissions of CO{sub 2} for those routes. Since emissions from the international aviation sector are not included under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Commission has decided to introduce a trading barrier between the sectors in order not to jeopardize the Kyoto targets. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential loss in cost-effectiveness of introducing such a trading barrier between two sectors taking into account that damage from emissions is not necessarily uniform. A theoretical model is developed to address the question and it is found that, at least for the case with linking the international aviation sector to the stationary sources within the EU ETS, the trading barrier might be unwarranted as it might lead to higher damage from emissions as compared to alternative ways to link the trading sectors. However, it should be stressed that this finding is not general and caution should be taken in the future when linking emission trading schemes as, depending on the heterogeneity of emission damage, a trading barrier might very well be justified

  7. Potential Carbon Negative Commercial Aviation through Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a carbon sink. Similar carbon sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root carbon sinking, it is possible to provide carbon neutral U.S. commercial aviation using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by carbon credits for properly managed soils and plant rooting, becoming carbon neutral for carbon sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass fuel crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel fuel. If all this fuel were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. aviation industry to become carbon negative (carbon negative commercial aviation through carbon credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.

  8. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhaus C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Neuhaus,1,2 Jochen Hinkelbein2,31Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue Working Group, German Society of Aviation and Space Medicine (DGLRM, Munich, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and to show relevant implications for aviation training. A principal element of hypoxia-awareness training is the intentional evocation of hypoxia symptoms during specific training sessions within a safe and controlled environment. Repetitive training should enable pilots to learn and recognize their personal hypoxia symptoms. A time span of 3–6 years is generally considered suitable to refresh knowledge of the more subtle and early symptoms especially. Currently, there are two different technical approaches available to induce hypoxia during training: hypobaric chamber training and reduced-oxygen breathing devices. Hypoxia training for aircrew is extremely important and effective, and the hypoxia symptoms should be emphasized clearly to aircrews. The use of tight-fitting masks, leak checks, and equipment checks should be taught to all aircrew and reinforced regularly. It is noteworthy that there are major differences in the required quality and quantity of hypoxia training for both military and civilian pilots.Keywords: cognitive response, aviation training, pilot, hypoxia, oxygen, loss of consciousness

  9. Low-energy gamma ray attenuation characteristics of aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Ping; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1990-01-01

    Am241 (59.5 keV) gamma ray attenuation characteristics were investigated in 270 aviation fuel (Jet A and Jet A-1) samples from 76 airports around the world as a part of world wide study to measure the variability of aviation fuel properties as a function of season and geographical origin. All measurements were made at room temperature which varied from 20 to 27 C. Fuel densities (rho) were measured concurrently with their linear attenuation coefficients (mu), thus providing a measure of mass attenuation coefficient (mu/rho) for the test samples. In 43 fuel samples, rho and mu values were measured at more than one room temperature, thus providing mu/rho values for them at several temperatures. The results were found to be independent of the temperature at which mu and rho values were measured. It is noted that whereas the individual mu and rho values vary considerably from airport to airport as well as season to season, the mu/rho values for all samples are constant at 0.1843 + or - 0.0013 cu cm/gm. This constancy of mu/rho value for aviation fuels is significant since a nuclear fuel quantity gauging system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation will be viable throughout the world.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF RUNWAY ACCIDENT HAZARDS IN NIGERIA AVIATION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabilistic risk assessment. The six categories of runway accident hazards are runway surface conditions, weather conditions, collision risk, aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures and human factors. The Fault Tree developed is a system of OR-gates and the weights for each hazard were derived through a domain/expert opinion. The estimated probability of occurrence of runway accident which is the top event of the Fault Tree model is 0.2624. Fault Tree Analysis; thus, identifies the most likely root causes of runway accident through importance measures. The results of the analysis show close relationship of runway accidents in Nigeria aviation sector with aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures, human factor, weather conditions and collision risk.

  11. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Kapadia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of 2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in 3597 (95 % CI: 1307–5888 annual mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb of non-CO2 aviation emissions as −13.3 mW m−2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC =15 ppm has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by 624 (95 % CI: 227–1021 mortalities a−1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m−2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0–6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases annual mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (aCAE. We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced aCAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced aCAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at aviation cruise altitudes combined with ULSJ fuel at lower altitudes result in reduced aviation-induced mortality and increased

  12. Aeronautics and Aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texter, P. Cardie

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration funded project, Aeronautics and Aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities has been in operation since July, 1995. This project operated as a collaboration with Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications, the Federal Aviation Administration, Bridgewater State College and four targeted "core sites" in the greater Boston area. In its first and second years, a video series on aeronautics and aviation science was developed and broadcast via "live, interactive" satellite feed. Accompanying teacher and student supplementary instructional materials for grades 6-9 were produced and disseminated by the Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications (MCET). In the MCET grant application it states that project Take Off! in its initial phase would recruit and train teachers at "core" sites in the greater Boston area, as well as opening participation to other on-line users of MCET's satellite feeds. "Core site" classrooms would become equipped so that teachers and students might become engaged in an interactive format which aimed at not only involving the students during the "live" broadcast of the instructional video series, but which would encourage participation in electronic information gathering and sharing among participants. As a Take Off! project goal, four schools with a higher than average proportion of minority and underrepresented youth were invited to become involved with the project to give these students the opportunity to consider career exploration and development in the field of science aviation and aeronautics. The four sites chosen to participate in this project were: East Boston High School, Dorchester High School, Randolph Junior-Senior High School and Malden High School. In year 3 Dorchester was unable to continue to fully participate and exited out. Danvers was added to the "core site" list in year 3. In consideration of Goals 2000, the National Science Foundation

  13. Reassessing the position of Aviation English: from a special language to English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Aiguo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available “Aviation English” is not only confined to pilots and air traffic controllers (ATC, it also refers to English on general terms in aeronautical and/or aviation universities. It can be designed as integrated ESP (English for Specific Purposes curricula for students in the fields of aeronautics and/or aviation. Learners of ESP are supposed to master the vocabulary in their specific discipline as well as the English language skills. This paper explores the possibility of establishing Aviation English as an ESP specialty in aeronautical and/or aviation colleges and universities. Needs analysis has been made and curricula designed for an integrated course of study in the Chinese context, so that learners of ESP can learn the target language more effectively and meet the standards set by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It reconsiders the ESP theories and aims to develop a possible approach to ESP teaching more suitable for the Chinese learners.

  14. A human error analysis and model of naval aviation maintenance related mishaps

    OpenAIRE

    Schmorrow, Dylan D.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Naval Aviation is in the midst of a major transformation as it attempts to come to terms with the demands of maintaining operational readiness in the face of diminishing budgets and reduced manning. Diminishing operating and procurement budgets mean that Naval Aviation is for the most part "making do" with existing aircraft. Over the past decade, one in four Naval Aviation mishaps were partially attributable to maintenance err...

  15. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH OF THE COMMERCIAL AVIATION INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA USING A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, B. S.; Yap, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of the commercial aviation industry for an emerging economy like Malaysia is under-studied. The focus on the subject has thus far concentrated either on non geographical performance of the aviation industry or technical performance of aircrafts and that leaves the sustainability of the commercial aviation industry for an economy, or more specifically, an emerging economy least understood. Hence, this paper aims to investigate the sustainability of the growth of the...

  16. Happy Landings: The Aviation Life of Purdue University’s Ralph S. Johnson

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Purdue University has enjoyed a rich and vibrant association with aviation, ranging from the work of Amelia Earhart to the achievements of Neil Armstrong. Through their dedication, its graduates have become the engineers, the aviators, and the astronauts who have helped to make American history. One such graduate who worked tirelessly to improve aviation was Ralph S. Johnson. A native of Goodland, Indiana, Johnson graduated from Purdue with a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering in 193...

  17. Features of the mechanism of administrative and legal regulation of the civil aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Хом’яченко, Світлана Іванівна; Єряшов, Євген Кузьмович

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to research of features of mechanism of administrative and law regulations of civil aviation activity. The vision of author on this type of the branch regulations is also given through the norms of the Air Code of Ukraine. English abstract S. Khomiachenko, Ye. Yeriashov Features of the mechanism of administrative and legal regulation of the civil aviation The article is devoted to research of features of mechanism of administrative and law regulations of civil aviation ...

  18. Globalisation and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  19. Globalisation and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  20. Evidence of impact of aviation on cirrus cloud formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zerefos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines changes in cirrus cloud cover in possible association with aviation activities at congested air corridors. The analysis is based on the latest version of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 data set and covers the period 1984&ndash1998. Over areas with heavy air traffic, the effect of large-scale modes of natural climate variability such as ENSO, QBO and NAO as well as the possible influence of the tropopause variability, were first removed from the cloud data set in order to calculate long-term changes of observed cirrus cloudiness. The results show increasing trends in cirrus cloud coverage, between 1984 and 1998, over the high air traffic corridors of North America, North Atlantic and Europe, which in the summertime only over the North Atlantic are statistically significant at the 99.5% confidence level (2.6% per decade. In wintertime however, statistically significant changes at the 95% confidence level are found over North America, amounting to +2.1% per decade. Statistically significant increases at the 95% confidence level are also found for the annual mean cirrus cloud coverage over the North Atlantic air corridor (1.2% per decade. Over adjacent locations with lower air traffic, the calculated trends are statistically insignificant and in most cases negative both during winter and summer in regions studied. Moreover, it is shown that the longitudinal distribution of decadal changes in cirrus cloudiness along the latitude belt centered at the North Atlantic air corridor, parallels the spatial distribution of fuel consumption from highflying air traffic, providing an independent test of possible impact of aviation on contrail cirrus formation. Results from this study are compared with other studies and different periods of records and it appears as evidenced in this and in earlier studies that there exists general agreement on the aviation effect on high cloud trends.

  1. Suppression of chlorine activation on aviation-produced volatile particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Meilinger

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effect of nm-sized aircraft-induced aqueous sulfuric acid (H2SO4/H2O particles on atmospheric ozone as a function of temperature. Our calculations are based on a previously derived parameterization for the regional-scale perturbations of the sulfate surface area density due to air traffic in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC and a chemical box model. We confirm large scale model results that at temperatures T > 210 K additional ozone loss -- mainly caused by hydrolysis of BrONO2 and N2O5 -- scales in proportion with the aviation-produced increase of the background aerosol surface area. However, at lower temperatures (< 210 K we isolate two effects which efficiently reduce the aircraft-induced perturbation: (1 background particles growth due to H2O and HNO3 uptake enhance scavenging losses of aviation-produced liquid particles and (2 the Kelvin effect efficiently limits chlorine activation on the small aircraft-induced droplets by reducing the solubility of chemically reacting species. These two effects lead to a substantial reduction of heterogeneous chemistry on aircraft-induced volatile aerosols under cold conditions. In contrast we find contrail ice particles to be potentially important for heterogeneous chlorine activation and ozone depletion. These features have not been taken into consideration in previous global studies of the atmospheric impact of aviation. Therefore, to parameterize them in global chemistry and transport models, we propose the following parameterisation: scale the hydrolysis reactions by the aircraft-induced surface area increase, and neglect heterogeneous chlorine reactions on liquid plume particles but not on ice contrails and aircraft induced ice clouds.

  2. Suppression of chlorine activation on aviation-produced volatile particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Meilinger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effect of nanometer-sized aircraft-induced aqueous sulfuric acid (H2SO4/H2O particles on atmospheric ozone as a function of temperature. Our calculations are based on a previously derived parameterization for the regional-scale perturbations of the sulfate surface area density due to air traffic in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC and a chemical box model. We confirm large scale model results that at temperatures T>210 K additional ozone loss -- mainly caused by hydrolysis of BrONO2 and N2O5 -- scales in proportion with the aviation-produced increase of the background aerosol surface area. However, at lower temperatures (2O and HNO3 uptake enhance scavenging losses of aviation-produced liquid particles and (2 the Kelvin effect efficiently limits chlorine activation on the small aircraft-induced droplets by reducing the solubility of chemically reacting species. These two effects lead to a substantial reduction of heterogeneous chemistry on aircraft-induced volatile aerosols under cold conditions. In contrast we find contrail ice particles to be potentially important for heterogeneous chlorine activation and reductions in ozone levels. These features have not been taken into consideration in previous global studies of the atmospheric impact of aviation. Therefore, to parameterize them in global chemistry and transport models, we propose the following parameterisation: scale the hydrolysis reactions by the aircraft-induced surface area increase, and neglect heterogeneous chlorine reactions on liquid plume particles but not on ice contrails and aircraft induced ice clouds.

  3. Recent technical advances in general purpose mobile Satcom aviation terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, John T.

    1990-01-01

    A second general aviation amplitude companded single sideband (ACSSB) aeronautical terminal was developed for use with the Ontario Air Ambulance Service (OAAS). This terminal is designed to have automatic call set up and take down and to interface with the Public Service Telephone Network (PSTN) through a ground earth station hub controller. The terminal has integrated RF and microprocessor hardware which allows such functions as beam steering and automatic frequency control to be software controlled. The terminal uses a conformal patch array system to provide almost full azimuthal coverage. Antenna beam steering is executed without relying on aircraft supplied orientation information.

  4. Take Off! Aeronautics and Aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Funded by National Aeronautic and Space Administration's High Performance Computing and Communications/ Learning Technologies Project (HPCC/LTP) Cooperative Agreement, Aeronautics and aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities was operative from July 1995 through July 1998. This project operated as a collaboration with Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications, the Federal Aviation Administration, Bridgewater State College and four targeted "core sites" in the greater Boston area: Dorchester, Malden, East Boston and Randolph. In its first and second years, a video series with a participatory website on aeronautics and aviation science was developed and broadcast via "live, interactive" satellite feed. Accompanying teacher and student supplementary instructional materials for grades 6-12 were produced and disseminated by the Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications (MCET). In year three, the project team redesigned the website, edited 14 videos to a five part thematic unit, and developed a teacher's guide to the video and web materials supplement for MAC and PC platforms, aligned with national standards. In the MCET grant application it states that project Take Off! in its initial phase would recruit and train teachers at "core" sites in the greater Boston area, as well as opening participation to other on-line users of MCET's satellite feeds. "Core site" classrooms would become equipped so that teachers and students might become engaged in an interactive format which aimed at not only involving the students during the "live" broadcast of the instructional video series, but which would encourage participation in electronic information gathering and sharing among participants. As a Take Off! project goal, four schools with a higher than average proportion of minority and underrepresented youth were invited to become involved with the project to give these students the opportunity to consider career exploration and development

  5. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  6. JOHN WESTON, THE "GRANDFATHER OF AVIATION IN SOUTH AFRICA"

    OpenAIRE

    J.J. Oberholzer

    2012-01-01

    In "Militaria" 2/1 (1970) mention was made of M. J. L. Weston, D.Sc., F.R.G.S., F.R.S.A., A.I.E.E. in relation to the training of our first military aircraft pilots and the proposed establishment of a South African Air Force as well as a South African Flying School (p. 14 et seq). He was a consulting engineer and one of the foremost stalwarts in the field of civil and military aviation and the manufacture of aircraft in our country. Dr. Weston directed a request at the beginning of 1913, as m...

  7. Quality Training and Learning in Aviation: Problems of Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Phillip J.; Lehrer, Henry R.; Telfer, Ross A.

    2001-01-01

    The challenge of producing training programs that lead to quality learning outcomes is ever present in aviation, especially when economic and regulatory pressures are brought into the equation. Previous research by Telfer & Moore (1997) indicates the importance of appropriate alignment of beliefs about learning across all levels of an organization from the managerial level, through the instructor/check and training level, to the pilots and other crew. This paper argues for a central focus on approaches to learning and training that encourage understanding, problem solving and application. Recent research in the area is emphasized as are methods and techniques for enhancing deeper learning.

  8. 78 FR 21700 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting...) Transportation Airplane and Engine (TAE) Subcommittee to discuss transport airplane and engine issues. DATES:...

  9. 77 FR 40699 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Teleconference on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public... Committee (ARAC) to discuss transport airplane and engine (TAE) issues. DATES: The teleconference...

  10. 78 FR 57672 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting...) Transport Airplane and Engine (TAE) Subcommittee to discuss TAE issues. DATES: The meeting is scheduled...

  11. 76 FR 60115 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting...) to discuss transport airplane and engine (TAE) issues. DATES: The meeting is scheduled for...

  12. 76 FR 14115 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting... ] (ARAC) to discuss transport airplane and engine (TAE) issues. DATES: The meeting is scheduled...

  13. 77 FR 24759 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting...) to discuss transport airplane and engine (TAE) issues. DATES: The meeting is scheduled for...

  14. Dynamically Scaled Modular Aircraft for Flight-Based Aviation Safety Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Area-I, Incorporated personnel have led the design, fabrication, and flight testing of twelve unmanned aircraft and one manned aircraft. Partnered with NASA and...

  15. Second language speech comprehension in noise: A hazard to aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchgrevink, H. M.

    1981-06-01

    Simple Norwegian and English sentences were read by a bilingual adult, tape recorded and presented individually to bilingual adults with English or Norwegian as their first language and good command of the other. Each 65 dB sentence was first presented in so strong background USASI noise (75dB) that it could not be perceived, and was repeated with the noise level progressively reduced in 2 dB steps from presentation to presentation until the sentence was adequately repeated by the subject. The results demonstrated that for both groups the first (native) language sentences were correctly repeated after fewer presentations, that is at a lower signal-to-noise ratio, than the second language sentences. The difference between the first (native) language comprehension threshold and the second language comprehension threshold was statistically significant for both the Norwegian and the English subject groups.

  16. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  17. ITER safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the series of publications by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this document describes the ITER safety analyses. It contains an assessment of normal operation effluents, accident scenarios, plasma chamber safety, tritium system safety, magnet system safety, external loss of coolant and coolant flow problems, and a waste management assessment, while it describes the implementation of the safety approach for ITER. The document ends with a list of major conclusions, a set of topical remarks on technical safety issues, and recommendations for the Engineering Design Activities, safety considerations for siting ITER, and recommendations with regard to the safety issues for the R and D for ITER. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. SAFETY FIRST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring safety while peacefully utilizing nuclear energy is a top priority for China A fter a recent earthquake in Japan caused radioactive leaks at a nuclear power plant in Tokyo, the safety of nuclear energy has again aroused public attention.

  19. Safety matters

    OpenAIRE

    Gelder, P. van

    1999-01-01

    Several events have transpired recently to underscore yet again how important the issue of safety is for the local construction industry. This month regular contributor J.A. McInnis takes a look at how some of these events relate to one major area of site safety: safety whilst working at a height.

  20. ARMD Strategic Thrust 6: Assured Autonomy for Aviation Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark; Holbrook, Jon; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with the external community and other government agencies, NASA will develop enabling technologies, standards, and design guidelines to support cost-effective applications of automation and limited autonomy for individual components of aviation systems. NASA will also provide foundational knowledge and methods to support the next epoch. Research will address issues of verification and validation, operational evaluation, national policy, and societal cost-benefit. Two research and development approaches to aviation autonomy will advance in parallel. The Increasing Autonomy (IA) approach will seek to advance knowledge and technology through incremental increases in machine-based support of existing human-centered tasks, leading to long-term reallocation of functions between humans and machines. The Autonomy as a New Technology (ANT) approach seeks advances by developing technology to achieve goals that are not currently possible using human-centered concepts of operation. IA applications are mission-enhancing, and their selection will be based on benefits achievable relative to existing operations. ANT applications are mission-enabling, and their value will be assessed based on societal benefit resulting from a new capability. The expected demand for small autonomous unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) provides an opportunity for development of ANT applications. Supervisory autonomy may be implemented as an expansion of the number of functions or systems that may be controlled by an individual human operator. Convergent technology approaches, such as the use of electronic flight bags and existing network servers, will be leveraged to the maximum extent possible.

  1. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Longitudinal Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control difference airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control throttle position and another to control elevator position. These two controllers were used to control flight path angle and airspeed for both a piston powered single engine airplane simulation and a business jet simulation. Overspeed protection and stall protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic longitudinal controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very difference characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes including configuration changes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle lever travel, etc.). The controllers also handled configuration changes without mode switching or knowledge of the current configuration. This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  2. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  3. Future directions of fuel efficiency in aviation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MRAZOVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A major goal for the aviation community is reducing fuel consumption. Nowadays we can see so much effort to design a modern aircrafts that offer weight and low fuel burn savings. This study could help to understand the long way during the production of the efficient engine such as PurePower and it shows us many advantages in fuel economy. In the second part of this study the author describes technological enhancements and inevitable measures for the improvement of fuel economy. Current fuel efficient engines and future innovations in aircraft designs are introduced in the third part of the thesis. It also shows a great vision in improving aircraft performance and reducing fuel consumption. Anyway, it is too early to say which of many researching ways will lead to viable solutions, but the air transport industry is committed to support advanced technological innovations. Also, technologies are constantly being deployed and researched by the aviation industry to continuously increase performance. But we cannot forget that our effort to achieve an increased efficiency in terms of fuel consumption is still pushing the industry further.

  4. Pedagogical Strategies for Training Future Technicians in American Aviation Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazyura Natalia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the question of improvement of quality and efficiency of professional training of future technicians in aviation industry in the American educational establishments. Main attention is paid to the studies of pedagogical technologies, which are used for the sake of qualitative and efficient training of specialists of aviation industry. The main purpose of vocational education and training is to help students to develop a way of thinking that would enable them in understanding the technical systems and master learning at the conceptual level. It is a well known fact that researches of pedagogical technologies are aimed at the development of mental models. They are important because: first - they make possible a reduction of time for training.That is rather essential taking into account the fact how much time the “transformation” of a student’s level of knowledge from a novice to an experienced worker takes. The researches of pedagogical technologies help to find a optimum ways for acquisition of expert type of thinking. Secondly, pedagogical technologies help to cut down expenses on training. This is especially topical during professional training of technicians, who are to better understand structural, functional, behavioral aspects of technical systems. In addition, they must effectively operate in troubleshooting in the system which also shortens financial expenses on the maintenance of equipment.

  5. Safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's Safety Handbook is to outline simply the fundamental procedures and safety precautions which provide an appropriate framework for safe working with any potential hazards, such as fire and explosion, welding, cutting, brazing and soldering, compressed gases, cryogenic liquids, chemicals, ionizing radiations, non-ionising radiations, sound and vibration, as well as safety in the office. It also specifies the organisation for safety at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories and the responsibilities of individuals and committees. It also defines the procedures for the scrutiny and review of all operations and the resultant setting of safety rules for them. ills

  6. Identification of Federal Aviation Administration regulations and procedures that impact fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckinly, J.B.

    1979-10-01

    The impact of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) on fuel conservation in the air-transportation system. To date there exist over 89 identifiable fuel-conservation program and research areas. Operational constraints in the areas of FARs and Air Traffic Control (ATC), which hinder further fuel savings in any of the 89 program and research areas, are identified. The nature of this investigation presents an update of analyses from previous FAA, DOE, and NASA publications from a DOE viewpoint. The short duration and cost constraints of this study did not allow an assessment of safety, social, or any of the broader impacts of the regulations. However, this study was not intended to solve all of the regulatory problems. Rather, this was a cursory review of the FARs intended to pinpoint those fuel inefficient regulations which could be changed to improve the overall fuel-conservation effort in the air transportation industry. The program and research areas identified as being negatively impacted by FARs were analyzed to quantify the fuel savings available through revision or removal of those constraints. A recommended list of new R and D initiatives are proposed in order to improve fuel efficiency of the FARs in the air-transportation industry.

  7. An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2013-01-01

    The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.

  8. Operator modeling in commerical aviation: Cognitive models, intelligent displays, and pilot's assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, T.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the goals of the National Aviation Safety/Automation program is to address the issue of human-centered automation in the cockpit. Human-centered automation is automation that, in the cockpit, enhances or assists the crew rather than replacing them. The Georgia Tech research program focused on this general theme, with emphasis on designing a computer-based pilot's assistant, intelligent (i.e, context-sensitive) displays, and an intelligent tutoring system for understanding and operating the autoflight system. In particular, the aids and displays were designed to enhance the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew in coordinating the autoflight system resources. The activities of this grant included: (1) an OFMspert to understand pilot navigation activities in a 727 class aircraft; (2) an extension of OFMspert to understand mode control in a glass cockpit, Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS); (3) the design of a training system to teach pilots about the vertical navigation portion of the flight management system -VNAV Tutor; and (4) a proof-of-concept display, using existing display technology, to facilitate mode awareness, particularly in situations in which controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) is a potential.

  9. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  10. Aviation Model: A Fine-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction System for Aviation Applications at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kin Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO is planning to implement a fine-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model for supporting the aviation weather applications at the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA. This new NWP model system, called Aviation Model (AVM, is configured at a horizontal grid spacing of 600 m and 200 m. It is based on the WRF-ARW (Advance Research WRF model that can have sufficient computation efficiency in order to produce hourly updated forecasts up to 9 hours ahead on a future high performance computer system with theoretical peak performance of around 10 TFLOPS. AVM will be nested inside the operational mesoscale NWP model of HKO with horizontal resolution of 2 km. In this paper, initial numerical experiment results in forecast of windshear events due to seabreeze and terrain effect are discussed. The simulation of sea-breeze-related windshear is quite successful, and the headwind change observed from flight data could be reproduced in the model forecast. Some impacts of physical processes on generating the fine-scale wind circulation and development of significant convection are illustrated. The paper also discusses the limitations in the current model setup and proposes methods for the future development of AVM.

  11. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  12. 77 FR 46147 - Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending June 30, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending June 30, 2012 The following Agreements were filed with the Department of Transportation under the Sections 412 and 414 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended (49...

  13. 78 FR 39435 - Aviation Proceedings, Agreements filed the week ending May 25, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Aviation Proceedings, Agreements filed the week ending May 25, 2013 The following Agreements were filed with the Department of Transportation under the Sections 412 and 414 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended (49...

  14. 78 FR 33466 - Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending May 11, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending May 11, 2013 The following Agreements were filed with the Department of Transportation under the Sections 412 and 414 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended (49...

  15. 77 FR 31421 - Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending May 12, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending May 12, 2012 The following Agreements were filed with the Department of Transportation under the Sections 412 and 414 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended (49...

  16. 75 FR 32835 - Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending May 29, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending May 29, 2010 The following Agreements were filed with the Department of Transportation under the sections 412 and 414 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended (49...

  17. 76 FR 21419 - Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending April 2, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending April 2, 2011 The following Agreements were filed with the Department of Transportation under the Sections 412 and 414 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended (49...

  18. 76 FR 38265 - Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending June 4, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending June 4, 2011 The following Agreements were filed with the Department of Transportation under the Sections 412 and 414 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended (49...

  19. 76 FR 42762 - Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending July 9, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending July 9, 2011 The following Agreements were filed with the Department of Transportation under the Sections 412 and 414 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended (49...

  20. 77 FR 72252 - Airworthiness Directives; Reims Aviation S.A. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ...: stephan.lapagne@reims-aviation.fr ; Internet: www.geciaviation.com/en/f406.html . You may review copies of... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... 57; email: stephan.lapagne@reims-aviation.fr ; Internet: www.geciaviation.com/en/f406.html . You...

  1. Unweathered and weathered aviation kerosine: Chemical characterization and effects on hatching success of duck eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Gay, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of weathered aviation kerosine from a pipeline rupture in northern Virginia on mallard egg hatchability. Artificially-incubated mallard eggs were exposed by eggshell application to several amounts of weathered and unweathered aviation kerosine on day 6 of incubation. Measured hatching success of eggs and characterized the kerosine according to 14 aliphatic and 9 aromatic compounds.

  2. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  3. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  4. Perceived Leadership Styles and Effectiveness of Aviation Program Leaders: A Four-Frame Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The aviation industry and higher education environments are ever-changing due to a multitude of economic and external variables. The leaders of aviation higher education programs must successfully lead their organization and followers in preparing student graduates for the industry that awaits them upon graduation. This study examined the…

  5. Liquid explosives. The threat to civil aviation and the European response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, C.J. de; Lemmens, O.M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the specific group of homemade liquid high explosives in relation to aviation security. The sudden and irrefutable focus on homemade explosives and liquid explosives in particular after the 2006 defeated attacks in London, made the aviation security community realize that the s

  6. 78 FR 275 - Airworthiness Directives; REIMS Aviation S.A. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; REIMS Aviation S.A. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a...

  7. 76 FR 8892 - Removal of Expired Federal Aviation Administration Regulations and References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...-28, 183-14] Removal of Expired Federal Aviation Administration Regulations and References AGENCY... Special Federal Aviation Regulations (SFARs) and cross-references, as well as other expired or obsolete..., 135.153, 183.61(a)(1), 183.63, and corresponding references. The following tables are presented...

  8. On safety management and nuclear safety - A frame of reference for studies of safety management with examples from non-nuclear contects of relevance for nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, O.; Allwin, P. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Salo, I. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    The report includes three case studies of safety management. The studies are presented as chapters, but are written in a format that makes them easy to read separately. Two of the studies cover regulators (the Swedish Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Luftfartsinspektionen) and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) and one a regulated activity/industry (a car manufacturer, Volvo Car). The introduction outlines a living system framework and relates this to concepts used in organizational management. The report concludes with some findings with potential relevance for safety management in the nuclear power domain. In the next phase of the work, the regulated counterparts of the regulators here will be investigated in addition to a fourth case study of a regulated activity/industry. (au)

  9. On safety management and nuclear safety - A frame of reference for studies of safety management with examples from non-nuclear contects of relevance for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report includes three case studies of safety management. The studies are presented as chapters, but are written in a format that makes them easy to read separately. Two of the studies cover regulators (the Swedish Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Luftfartsinspektionen) and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) and one a regulated activity/industry (a car manufacturer, Volvo Car). The introduction outlines a living system framework and relates this to concepts used in organizational management. The report concludes with some findings with potential relevance for safety management in the nuclear power domain. In the next phase of the work, the regulated counterparts of the regulators here will be investigated in addition to a fourth case study of a regulated activity/industry. (au)

  10. THUNDERSTORMS-RISK FACTORS IN AVIATION. CASE STUDY: AREA OF RESPONSABILITY OF THE BUCHAREST-OTOPENI AERODROME ON 30.06.2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. ŞCHIOPU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thunderstorms are always dangerous weather phenomena for flight safety and, irrespective of their nature, they have a negative impact on all aviation activities. Thunderstorm clouds can generate severe and rapid changes of various meteorological elements (visibility, cloudiness and cloud lower base, wind, sometimes to such a great extent that landing may become impossible. Thunderstorms are serious weather hazards in aviation and may produce great damage and even casualties. One such unfortunate aviation event took place in the vicinity of the Bucharest-Otopeni Aerodrome, on 30.06.2009, when a military aircraft, which was operating a training flight in the responsibility area of the Bucharest - Otopeni military aerodrome, was struck by lightning at local hour 18:20. The present study actually makes an inventory of the extremely hazardous flying conditions, by thoroughly analyzing the relevant weather reports and data, as well as visual and synoptic messages from that very day. All these materials showed that the airdrome of destination was under the influence of an anti-cyclonic ridge, which accounted for the very poor meteorological conditions. On such severe weather, although the crew members tried to avoid the Cumulonimbus clouds in which a severe thunderstorm was developing, the flight was put in danger since the aircraft was struck by lightning, which simply blurred out the radar system and, therefore, landmarks orientation became almost impossible, thus creating false perceptions to the pilots trying hard to stabilize the plane.

  11. Icing – A Risk Factor in Aviation.Case Study: the Plane Crash in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania on 20.01.2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şchiopu Cosmin-Liviu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Icing - a risk factor in aviation. Case study: The plane crash in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania on 20.01.2014. Icing is a potentially harmful weather phenomenon for flight safety. Icing, irrespective of its forms, has a negative impact on all aviation activities since it severely impedes the aerodynamic properties of an aircraft, sometimes to such an extent that flying and landing may become impossible. Icing is a serious weather threat to aviation and may ultimately lead to deadly events. One such unfortunate event took place in the Western (Apuseni Mountains on the 20.01.2014, when an aircraft which was transporting a medical team on a humanitarian mission, simply crashed down in the area of the Western (Apuseni Mountains, at around 4:00 pm local time. The present study actually makes an inventory of the extremely hazardous flying conditions, by thoroughly analyzing the weather reports and data, as well as visual and synoptic messages or official elements and information from that very day. All these materials show that the flight route and the airdrome of destination were under the influence of a front which accounted for very poor meteorological conditions. On such bad weather, the flight was practically doomed to failure since low snow and sleet-bearing clouds were hanging down over the mountaintops. Flying straight through these clouds made any landmarks impossible to be seen and, furthermore, lack of orientation created false perceptions which led to fatal misjudgements and errors.

  12. Practices to Perfect Aviation Physiological Training for the Pilot%完善飞行人员航空生理训练的做法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿昌

    2011-01-01

    To adapt to the airplane pilot's strategy transform, aviation weapon's rapid development and modem logistic construction, the aviation physiology training should be enhanced which will take more and more important roles in ensuring the fly safety, and developing troops fighting strength.In this article, a new idea, measures and opinions were proposed to construct our medical support system of military aviation pilots.%为适应我军飞行员战略转型、航空武器装备快速发展和现代后勤建设的形势要求,充分发挥航空生理训练保障在确保飞行安全、巩固和提高部队战斗力的重要作用;本文探讨我军飞行员航空医学保障新体系建设的新思路、新举措及建设性意见.

  13. New Safety Model for the Commercial Human Spaceflight Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, A.; Bond, S.; Maropoulos, P.

    2012-01-01

    The aviation and space domains have safety guidelines and recommended practices for Design Organisations (DOs) and Operators alike. In terms of Aerospace DOs there are certification criteria to meet and to demonstrate compliance there are Advisory Circulars or Acceptable Means of Compliance to follow. Additionally there are guidelines such as Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARP), Military Standards (MIL-STD 882 series) and System Safety Handbooks to follow in order to identify and manage failure conditions. In terms of Operators there are FAA guidelines and a useful ARP that details many tools and techniques in understanding Operator Safety Risks. However there is currently no methodology for linking the DO and Operator safety efforts. In the space domain NASA have provided safety standards and guidelines to follow and also within Europe there are European Co-operation of Space Standardization (ECSS) to follow. Within the emerging Commercial Human Spaceflight Industry, the FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation has provided hazard analysis guidelines. However all of these space domain safety documents are based on the existing aerospace methodology and once again, there is no link between the DO and Operator's safety effort. This paper addresses the problematic issue and presents a coherent methodology of joining up the System Safety effort of the DOs to the Operator Safety Risk Management such that a 'Total System' approach is adopted. Part of the rationale is that the correct mitigation (control) can be applied within the correct place in the accident sequence. Also this contiguous approach ensures that the Operator is fully aware of the safety risks (at the accident level) and therefore has an appreciation of the Total System Risk. The authors of this paper contend that it is better practice to have a fully integrated safety model as opposed to disparate requirements or guidelines. Our methodology is firstly to review 'best practice' approaches from

  14. Evidence of impact of aviation on cirrus cloud formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zerefos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines changes in cirrus cloud cover (CCC in possible association with aviation activities at congested air corridors. The analysis is based on the latest version of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 data set and covers the period 1984-1998. Over the studied areas, the effect of large-scale modes of natural climate variability such as ENSO, QBO and NAO as well as the possible influence of the tropopause variability, were first removed from the cloud data set in order to calculate long-term changes of observed cirrus cloudiness. The results show increasing trends in (CCC between 1984 and 1998 over the high air traffic corridors of North America, North Atlantic and Europe. Of these upward trends, only in the summertime over the North Atlantic and only in the wintertime over North America are statistically significant (exceeding +2.0% per decade. Over adjacent locations with low air traffic, the calculated trends are statistically insignificant and in most cases negative both during winter and summer in the regions studied. These negative trends, over low air traffic regions, are consistent with the observed large scale negative trends seen in (CCC over most of the northern middle latitudes and over the tropics. Moreover, further investigation of vertical velocities over high and low air traffic regions provide evidence that the trends of opposite signs in (CCC over these regions, do not seem to be caused by different trends in dynamics. It is also shown that the longitudinal distribution of decadal changes in (CCC along the latitude belt centered at the North Atlantic air corridor, parallels the spatial distribution of fuel consumption from highflying air traffic, providing an independent test of possible impact of aviation on contrail cirrus formation. The correlation between the fuel consumption and the longitudinal variability of (CCC is significant (+0.7 over the middle latitudes but not over the tropics

  15. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test

  16. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH OF THE COMMERCIAL AVIATION INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA USING A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. TAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of the commercial aviation industry for an emerging economy like Malaysia is under-studied. The focus on the subject has thus far concentrated either on non geographical performance of the aviation industry or technical performance of aircrafts and that leaves the sustainability of the commercial aviation industry for an economy, or more specifically, an emerging economy least understood. Hence, this paper aims to investigate the sustainability of the growth of the commercial aviation industry in Malaysia and its impact upon the environment using a system dynamics approach. VENSIM is employed to model the commercial aviation industry in Malaysia as a dynamic system to evaluate the CO2 emitted from each component within the industry in order to forecast its overall CO2 emission. Results from the analysis show that sustainable growth can be affected by adopting short and long term strategies identified in this study.

  17. International aviation emissions to 2025. Can emissions be stabilised without restricting demand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International aviation is growing rapidly, resulting in rising aviation greenhouse gas emissions. Concerns about the growth trajectory of the industry and emissions have led to calls for market measures such as emissions trading and carbon levies to be introduced to restrict demand and prompt innovation. This paper provides an overview of the science on aviation's contribution to climate change, analyses key trends in the industry since 1990, projects international civil aviation emissions to 2025 and analyses the emission intensity improvements that are necessary to offset rising international demand. The findings suggest international aviation carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will increase by more than 110 per cent between 2005 and 2025 (from 416 Mt to between 876 and 1013 Mt) and that it is unlikely emissions could be stabilised at levels consistent with risk averse climate targets without restricting demand. (author)

  18. The Development of the Carrier Aviation Support System Architecture Using DoDAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Do Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a development of aircraft carrier aviation support system architecture using DoDAF. The aircraft carrier, warship doing role of mobile sea airbase in offensive and defensive mission, is super system that is comprised of carrier itself and carrier-based air wing. Performing critical role in step with aviation operations in carrier-air wing interactions, the aviation support system of aircraft carrier is also system of systems. It is required to complex and integrated approach based on systems engineering in establishing concept of this complex systems. In this view, this study established an operational scenario and derived operational requirements by identifying aviation operations environment on deck of aircraft carrier. It is presented the operational architecture of the carrier aviation support system by using DoDAF and CASE tool CORE.

  19. JOHN WESTON, THE "GRANDFATHER OF AVIATION IN SOUTH AFRICA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Oberholzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In "Militaria" 2/1 (1970 mention was made of M. J. L. Weston, D.Sc., F.R.G.S., F.R.S.A., A.I.E.E. in relation to the training of our first military aircraft pilots and the proposed establishment of a South African Air Force as well as a South African Flying School (p. 14 et seq. He was a consulting engineer and one of the foremost stalwarts in the field of civil and military aviation and the manufacture of aircraft in our country. Dr. Weston directed a request at the beginning of 1913, as mentioned in this publication, to the then Under Secretary for Defence, with a view to acquiring the authority to train military aircraft pilots, but without success.

  20. FLYING DOWN TO RIO: AMERICAN COMMERCIAL AVIATION, THE GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY AND WORLD WAR TWO, 1939-45

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Benson

    2001-01-01

    This article will address the role of American commercial aviation in the Good Neighbor policy during the period of World War Two. The Good Neighbor was a complex policy, and American commercial aviation both reflected and augmented this complexity. Through the early years of thew orld war, American commercial aviation proved to be a valuable instrument for promoting hemispheric unity. Yet as the war progressed, commercial aviation became a catalyst for conflict and an indicator of the demise...

  1. Safety; Avertissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  2. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  3. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Stratton, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hileman, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Malwitz, A. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Balasubramanian, S. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  4. Visit safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Experiment areas, offices, workshops: it is possible to have co-workers or friends visit these places.     You already know about the official visits service, the VIP office, and professional visits. But do you know about the safety instruction GSI-OHS1, “Visits on the CERN site”? This is a mandatory General Safety Instruction that was created to assist you in ensuring safety for all your visits, whatever their nature—especially those that are non-official. Questions? The HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Write to safety-general@cern.ch.   The HSE Unit

  5. Medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  6. Modeling of preventive maintenance changes influence upon flight safety indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.В. Гончаренко

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available  It is considered a simplified model of connection between the catastrophic events flow frequency and both preventive maintenance changes periodicity and diagnosis depth of aviation equipment. It is deduced specific formulas for computing the changes and diagnostics parameters influence upon the values of both the catastrophic events flow frequency and technical-economical control factor criterion of flight safety levels.

  7. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Healthy Jobs - Prevention through Design Hierarchy of Controls Industry and Occupation Coding and Support Logging Safety Machine Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Motor-Vehicle Safety of Law Enforcement Officers Nail Gun Safety National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) Noise and ...

  8. 75 FR 11921 - Heritage Aviation, Ltd., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Global Technical Services and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... the Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7033). At the request of the State Agency, the... Employment and Training Administration Heritage Aviation, Ltd., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Global... workers of Heritage Aviation, including on-site leased workers from Heritage Aviation, Ltd, including...

  9. Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic

  10. Communication Research in Aviation and Space Operations: Symptoms and Strategies of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The day-to-day operators of today's aerospace systems work under increasing pressures to accomplish more with less. They work in operational systems which are complex, technology-based, and high-risk; in which incidents and accidents have far-reaching and costly consequences. For these and other reasons, there is concern that the safety net formerly built upon redundant systems and abundant resources may become overburdened. Although we know that human ingenuity can overcome incredible odds, human nature can also fail in unpredictable ways. Over the last 20 years, a large percentage of aviation accidents and incidents have been attributed to human errors rather than hardware or environmental factors alone. A class of errors have been identified which are not due to a lack of individual, technical competencies. Rather, they are due to the failure of teams to utilize readily available resources or information in a timely fashion. These insights began a training revolution in the aviation industry called Cockpit Resource Management, which later became known as Crew Resource Management (CRM) as its concepts and applications extended to teams beyond the flightdeck. Then, as now, communication has been a cornerstone in CRM training since crew coordination and resource management largely resides within information transfer processes--both within flightcrews, and between flightcrews and the ground operations teams that support them. The research I will describe takes its roots in CRM history as we began to study communication processes in order to discover symptoms of crew coordination problems, as well as strategies of effective crew management. On the one hand, communication is often the means or the tool by which team members manage their resources, solve problems, maintain situational awareness and procedural discipline. Conversely, it is the lack of planning and resource management, loss of vigilance and situational awareness, and non-standard communications that are

  11. Developing a Safety Management System for Fatigue Related Risks in easyJet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, S.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Turner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 5: Developing a Safety Management System for Fatigue Related Risks in easyJet The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factor

  12. International Fatigue Risk Management Forum: Safety Promotion and Feedback in FRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, S.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 8: International Fatigue Risk Management Forum - Safety Promotion and Feedback in FRMS The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using hum

  13. Evaluation of safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to being used in aviation, alternative fuels have to be tested thoroughly to ensure safe operation. At Delft University of Technology, a test programme was performed to evaluate the safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends. During test preparations, compatibility of the synth

  14. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems. 91.107 Section 91.107 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... was approved by the FAA through Type Certificate or Supplemental Type Certificate. (iv) That the...

  15. A Safety-Case Regime for Commercial Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgobba, T.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Currently the commercial human spaceflight community seems to be embracing the obsolete design principles of "fly-fix-fly", and betting on public acceptance of risks comparable to those of the early times of aviation industry. The nascent space tourism industry maintains that early safety regulations (apart public safety) would kill industry and that such regulations could be developed only later when substantial operational experience is gained. Truly, most of current commercial aviation safety regulations are based on prescriptive requirements (i.e. explicitly required design solution for an implicit goal), which have been incrementally developed over more than a half century of mass transportation by air, and cannot be in general directly applied to innovative systems. However modern complex safety-critical systems cannot risk catastrophic failures while their operational experience is being accumulated, for such reason they are developed through the so called safety-case regime. ESA is currently drafting a safety standard for its future human rated transportation systems that is based on such regime. Such standard can be easily tailored with few modifications and applied to the development of a sub-orbital commercial space vehicle. In any case, because the safety-case regime makes extensive use of generically formulated requirements, the support of skilled safety engineers fully integrated into the design team is required since the very beginning. Furthermore the safety certification team needs also to be experienced in the review of safety-case based designs. Finally a quantitative safety target needs to be included and verified as the ultimate "prove of goodness" of system design.

  16. Safety Instructions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Instructions N0 37 rev. 3 (IS 37 rev. 3) entitled ""LEVEL-3" SAFETY ALARMS AND ALARM SYSTEMS" Is available on the web at the following URL: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335802 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch TIS Secretariat

  17. Research of Control and Sterillization Measures of the Aviation Kerosene Microbial%航空煤油微生物的控制及杀菌措施的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雨翔; 刘子鹏; 蹇欣

    2015-01-01

    通过研究了解航煤微生物的种类以及腐蚀机制,运用多次重复独立实验,最终找出能够抑制航煤微生物生长的最优化方法,解决当前航空煤油管道腐蚀和飞机燃油系统亟待改进的问题.此项目通过几种方法分开探索其作用,我们可以通过从天然植物中提取绿色的杀菌剂,比较化学杀菌剂,合理的物理解决方案,以及跟踪检测微生物污染情况,最终保障航空交通运输过程中的安全性.%To understand the types and corrosion mechanism of aviation kerosene microbial, the paper uses of repeated independent experiments to find out the optimization method which can inhibit the growth of aviation kerosene microbial, meanwhile, solve the problems of aviation kerosene pipeline corrosion and aircraft fuel system. This project through several methods to separate and explore its role, it can through the green bactericide extracted from natural plants, comparison of chemical bactericide, reasonable physical solutions, and the tracking and detection of microorganism contamination, ultimately ensure the safety of aviation transportation.

  18. Auction theory and its potential use in the Army aviation bonus system

    OpenAIRE

    Verenna, Tony Koplin.

    2007-01-01

    The United States Army is increasing its force by 65,000 troops over the next few years. Included in this increase are Army aviators. Retention of the current soldiers in uniform is becoming very difficult as the deployment schedule of the current Global War on Terrorism wears down the individual aviator. Army Aviation is included in this build up of forces, yet it must also compete with the amount of jobs becoming available as the baby boomer generation retires and leaves gaps in both the c...

  19. Ethics Education in University Aviation Management Programs in the US. Part 1; The Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderman, Dale B.

    2002-01-01

    This three-part study examines how four-year universities in the United States with baccalaureate programs in aviation management include ethics instruction in their curricula. Based on a literature review, no research exists to describe the current status of teaching ethics to aviation students. Yet concurrently, unethical activities reported in the media involving the aviation industry indicates the need for such programs. Part One of this study justifies the need for ethics education and develops a series of hypotheses to evaluate the current status of ethics instruction, which was investigated and will be reported on in Parts Two and Three of this study, respectively.

  20. Safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  1. Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Cancer Home Sun Safety Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in ...

  2. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handler, B.H. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Hunnum, W.H. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Smith, D.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  3. Thermal cracking of aviation kerosene for scramjet applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Thermal cracking of China No.3 aviation kerosene was studied experimentally and analytically under supercritical conditions relevant to regenerative cooling system for Mach-6 scramjet applications. A two-stage heated tube system with cracked products collection/analysis was used and it can achieve a fuel temperature range of 700―1100 K,a pressure range of 3.5―4.5 MPa and a residence time of ap-proximately 0.5―1.3 s. Compositions of the cracked gaseous products and mass flow rate of the kerosene flow at varied temperatures and pressures were obtained experimentally. A one-step lumped model was developed with the cracked mixtures grouped into three categories:unreacted kerosene,gaseous products and residuals including liquid products and carbon deposits. Based on the model,fuel conversion on the mass basis,the reaction rate and the residence time were estimated as functions of temperature. Meanwhile,a sonic nozzle was used for the control of the mass flow rate of the cracked kerosene,and correlation of the mass flow rate gives a good agreement with the measurements.

  4. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  5. Flying Wings. A New Paradigm for Civil Aviation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martinez-Val

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 50 years, commercial aviation has been mainly based what is currently called the conventional layout, characterized by a slender fuselage mated to a high aspect ratio wing, with aft-tail planes and pod-mounted engines under the wing. However, it seems that this primary configuration is approaching an asymptote in its productivity and performance characteristics. One of the most promising configurations for the future is the flying wing in its distinct arrangements: blended-wing-body, C-wing, tail-less aircraft, etc. These layouts might provide significant fuel savings and, hence, a decrease in pollution. This configuration would also reduce noise in take-off and landing. All this explains the great deal of activity carried out by the aircraft industry and by numerous investigators to perform feasibility and conceptual design studies of this aircraft layout to gain better knowledge of its main characteristics: productivity, airport compatibility, passenger acceptance, internal architecture, emergency evacuation, etc. The present paper discusses the main features of flying wings, their advantages over conventional competitors, and some key operational issues, such as evacuation and vortex wake intensity. 

  6. Psychophysiological Assessment of Fatigue in Commercial Aviation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Norma; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to improve our understanding of crew work hours, workload, sleep, fatigue, and performance, and the relationships between these variables on actual flight deck performance. Specifically, this study will provide objective measures of physiology and performance, which may benefit investigators in identifying fatigue levels of operators in commercial aviation and provide a way to better design strategies to limit crew fatigue. This research was supported by an agreement between NASA Ames Research Center and easyJet Airline Company, Ltd., Luton, UK. Twenty commercial pilots volunteered to participant in the study that included 15 flight duty days. Participants wore a Zephyr Bioharness ambulatory physiological monitor each flight day, which measured their heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, activity and posture. In addition, pilots completed sleep log diaries, self-report scales of mood, sleepiness and workload, and a Performance Vigilance Task (PVT). All data were sent to NASA researchers for processing and analyses. Heart rate variability data of several subjects were subjected to a spectral analysis to examine power in specific frequency bands. Increased power in low frequency band was associated with reports of higher subjective sleepinesss in some subjects. Analyses of other participants data are currently underway.

  7. Relevant Market in Commercial Aviation of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kociubiński

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the issue of definition of relevant market in civil aviation within the European Union. The liberalization of the market since the early 1990s has led to a rapid increase in the number of airlines operating in the EU. The increase in the competitiveness of the market has brought many positive changes for passengers, such as lower fares and a better network of connections. At the same time it has created a risk that the airlines, in order to gain a competitive edge, would infringe the rules of competition. This is especially important in the context of the phenomenon that is the development of the airline alliances, which could lead to an abuse of a dominant position. A clear definition of the relevant market is a first step in an assessment of whether such an abuse occurred. This paper focus on the elements that Internal Market regulator, the European Commission, takes into consideration when defining relevant market in the airline industry.

  8. 75 FR 47311 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... security costs and information reasonably necessary to complete an audit. This requirement includes... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Infrastructure Fee Records Retention AGENCY: Transportation...

  9. 78 FR 4856 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... carrier's calendar year 2000 security costs and information reasonably necessary to complete an audit... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Infrastructure Fee Records Retention AGENCY: Transportation...

  10. 76 FR 62321 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... certain Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) traffic alert and collision avoidance system...) traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) units with part numbers identified in ACSS...

  11. 49 CFR 1511.7 - Remittance of Aviation Security Infrastructure Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fees of $1,000 or more must be remitted by electronic funds transfer. (2) Aviation Security Infrastructure Fees under $1,000 may be remitted by electronic funds transfer, check, money order, wire...

  12. Research on thermal stability of aviation bio-fuel%航空生物燃料热稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯; 夏祖西; 孙婷

    2012-01-01

    航空生物燃料作为环境友好的可替代燃料应用于民用航空器上应满足适航标准的要求。航空燃料的热氧化稳定性是航空油料质量控制的重要指标,建立严格的质量控制体系对确保航空飞行安全有着重大意义。文章对航空生物燃料的热氧化机理、氧化稳定性影响因素生物燃料原料来源、储存条件及金属种类、含量及利用抗氧化剂改进其热稳定性的方法进行了综述,并对现有的航空生物燃料热氧化稳定性评价方法馏分加速氧化法、JFTOT方法、TGA方法进行了详细阐述。%Being an environmental friendly alternative fuel the aviation bio-fuel must satisfy the airworthiness standard before being applied to the aircraft. The thermal and oxidation stability of aviation bio-fuel is an important indicator of aviation fuel quality control and it is necessary to build strict quality control system to ensure the safety of aircraft flight. The pa- per reviewed the aviation bio-fuel oxidation mechanism, the factors impacting the thermal stability such as the sources of bio-fuel, the storage conditions and the types and contents of metal contained in the fuel, and the methods used to improve the stability as adding antioxidants. Further discussions were done on the aviation bio-fuel thermal and oxidation stability evaluation methods such as distillate accelerated oxidation method, JFTOT method and TGA method.

  13. Safety first!

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Among the many duties I assumed at the beginning of the year was the ultimate responsibility for Safety at CERN: the responsibility for the physical safety of the personnel, the responsibility for the safe operation of the facilities, and the responsibility to ensure that CERN acts in accordance with the highest standards of radiation and environmental protection.   The Safety Policy document drawn up in September 2014 is an excellent basis for the implementation of Safety in all areas of CERN’s work. I am happy to commit during my mandate to help meet its objectives, not least by ensuring the Organization makes available the necessary means to achieve its Safety objectives. One of the main objectives of the HSE (Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection) unit in the coming months is to enhance the measures to minimise CERN’s impact on the environment. I believe CERN should become a role model for an environmentally-aware scientific research laboratory. Risk ...

  14. The Dunning-Kruger Effect and SIUC University’s Aviation Students

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel, Samuel R.; Robertson, Michael F.; Harrison, Bryan T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a two-part study on the Dunning-Kruger effect in SIUC University’s aviation students. The Dunning-Kruger effect indicates that individuals with lower skill or knowledge levels have unrealistic positive images of their capabilities compared to their peers. Results indicate that the Dunning-Kruger effect is present in SIUC aviation students. Students scoring lower on both a grammar test and a pilot knowledge test grossly overestimated their ability, while higher scoring stu...

  15. The Aviation Certification Requirements And 16g Advanced Dynamic Crash Test

    OpenAIRE

    Özlü, Özgür; AYHAN, Vezir; Cesur, İdris

    2013-01-01

    Companies aspiring to serve in international air space are liable to ensure various security criteria. Therefore, they have to put air vehicles or vehicle equipments they have produced through various tests according to requirements and they have to finalize certification process. In aviation industry, success criterion is specified by ensuring air worthiness; in other words maximizing human security. In aviation businness, seat certification is evaluated in terms of its competency in withsta...

  16. Assessing the Severity of Color Vision Loss with Implications for Aviation and other Occupational Environments

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUEZ-CARMONA, M.; O'Neill-Biba, M.; Barbur, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Ishihara Test (IT) is arguably the most sensitive and commonly used color vision test within aviation and other occupational environments, but when no errors are allowed; 20% of normal trichromats fail the test. The number of allowed errors varies in different occupations and sometimes within the same environment (such as aviation) in order to reflect the difficulties of the color-related tasks. The implicit assumption is that the plates can be ranked in order of difficulty....

  17. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  18. Deploying contrail forecasting service to reduce the impact of aviation on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Chhajed, Tejashree Rakumar

    2016-01-01

    The principal objective of this thesis is to propose a Contrail forecasting Service for Aviation(ConSA) and a ConSA client to demonstrate the service. The subject is motivated by the fact that Contrails have a very harmful effect on the environment and it has been researched thoroughly by scientists. But still we do not have an infrastructure to include these researches in the Aviation industry. This thesis has been conducted at Airbus Defence and Space, Friedrichshafen, Germany. The ...

  19. Workload Influence on Fatigue Related Psychological and Physiological Performance Changes of Aviators

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Ma; Ru-Meng Ma; Xi-Wen Liu; Ka Bian; Zhi-Hong Wen; Xiao-Jing Li; Zuo-Ming Zhang; Wen-Dong Hu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated a variety of non-invasive physiological technologies and a series of test approaches for examination of aviator performances under conditions of mental workload in order to provide a standard real-time test for physiological and psychological pilot fatigue assessments. METHODS: Twenty-one male aviators were selected for a simulated flight in a hypobaric cabin with artificial altitude conditions of 2400 meter above sea level. The simulated flight lasted for 1.5 h, and w...

  20. Evaluating alternative network configurations and resource allocations for deployed Marine Corps aviation logistics units

    OpenAIRE

    Jabin, Joshua M.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis develops a model and performs analysis to estimate the operational effectiveness of the Marine Aviation Logistics Support Program II (MALSP II) under different system configurations and resource allocation policies. MALSP II is designed to protect the aviation logistics system from uncertain, possibly high variance, demand that could have a significant detrimental impact on the material readiness of deployed aircraft. Altho...

  1. The impact of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme on US aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Malina, Robert; McConnachie, Dominic; Winchester, Niven Stewart; Wollersheim, Christoph; Paltsev, Sergey; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    We estimate the economic impacts on US airlines that may arise from the inclusion of aviation in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme from 2012 to 2020. We find that the Scheme would only have a small impact on US airlines and emissions, and that aviation operations would continue to grow. If carriers pass on all additional costs, including the opportunity costs associated with free allowances, to consumers, profits for US carriers will increase. Windfall gains from free allowances may...

  2. Alternative bio-based fuels for aviation: the clean airports program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has been designated as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. The U.S. Dept. of Energy (US DOE) conferred this designation in March 1996. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. The two major fuels used in aviation are the current piston engine aviation gasoline and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation gasoline (100LL), currently used in the general aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the U.S. today. Turbine engine fuel (jet fuel) produces two major environmental impacts: a local one, in the vicinity of the airports, and a global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinity of airports, through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles. (author)

  3. Temporal and spatial variability in the aviation NOx-related O3 impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviation NOx emissions promote tropospheric ozone formation, which is linked to climate warming and adverse health effects. Modeling studies have quantified the relative impact of aviation NOx on O3 in large geographic regions. As these studies have applied forward modeling techniques, it has not been possible to attribute O3 formation to individual flights. Here we apply the adjoint of the global chemistry–transport model GEOS-Chem to assess the temporal and spatial variability in O3 production due to aviation NOx emissions, which is the first application of an adjoint to this problem. We find that total aviation NOx emitted in October causes 40% more O3 than in April and that Pacific aviation emissions could cause 4–5 times more tropospheric O3 per unit NOx than European or North American emissions. Using this sensitivity approach, the O3 burden attributable to 83 000 unique scheduled civil flights is computed individually. We find that the ten highest total O3-producing flights have origins or destinations in New Zealand or Australia. The top ranked O3-producing flights normalized by fuel burn cause 157 times more normalized O3 formation than the bottom ranked ones. These results show significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental impacts of aviation NOx emissions. (letter)

  4. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  5. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  6. Visualization and Nowcasting for Aviation using online verified ensemble weather radar extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenboeck, Rudolf; Kerschbaum, Markus; Hennermann, Karin; Mayer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Nowcasting of precipitation events, especially thunderstorm events or winter storms, has high impact on flight safety and efficiency for air traffic management. Future strategic planning by air traffic control will result in circumnavigation of potential hazardous areas, reduction of load around efficiency hot spots by offering alternatives, increase of handling capacity, anticipation of avoidance manoeuvres and increase of awareness before dangerous areas are entered by aircraft. To facilitate this rapid update forecasts of location, intensity, size, movement and development of local storms are necessary. Weather radar data deliver precipitation analysis of high temporal and spatial resolution close to real time by using clever scanning strategies. These data are the basis to generate rapid update forecasts in a time frame up to 2 hours and more for applications in aviation meteorological service provision, such as optimizing safety and economic impact in the context of sub-scale phenomena. On the basis of tracking radar echoes by correlation the movement vectors of successive weather radar images are calculated. For every new successive radar image a set of ensemble precipitation fields is collected by using different parameter sets like pattern match size, different time steps, filter methods and an implementation of history of tracking vectors and plausibility checks. This method considers the uncertainty in rain field displacement and different scales in time and space. By validating manually a set of case studies, the best verification method and skill score is defined and implemented into an online-verification scheme which calculates the optimized forecasts for different time steps and different areas by using different extrapolation ensemble members. To get information about the quality and reliability of the extrapolation process additional information of data quality (e.g. shielding in Alpine areas) is extrapolated and combined with an extrapolation

  7. Alternate Communications Spectrum Study (ACSS) for Aviation Data Links (ADL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolak, David W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work was to identify the key factors involved in the use of alternate spectrum in various bands for a future integrated CNS data link. The study focused on systems and spectral bands that can deliver VDL-or-higher data rates in a two-way communication setting (including air-ground, ground-air, and air-air modes of operation), with multiple platforms (aircraft) operating in the same local environment. We begin with a review of the initial task list, and the final task list. The final task list contained a focus upon spectral availability and related systems that could be affected by the deployment of a new aviation data link (ADL) system. Most of this addresses the lower few layers of the communications protocol stack. A brief review of current related efforts in the aeronautical community is then provided, in which we describe several systems and programs of interest. Participation in some of these efforts is recommended. We also delineate several of the advantages and disadvantages of these system/efforts, in view of anticipated requirements of a new ADL. Desired attributes of a new ADL system are then discussed, and a connection with existing systems is made. The need to consider a wider set of alternative systems and technologies is described, and the beneficial aspects of a particular transmission technique- spread spectrum-are discussed. We then discuss in more detail several potential spectral regions, in terms of propagation conditions, available technology, spectrum availability, and waveform selection. Some comments on the need for standardization are also provided. We note that none of the existing systems described will likely meet the full range of desired features of a new ADL, but that several systems and spectral regions offer promise in terms of one or more characteristics. A system design and analysis approach is then provided. In this, we again focus on the lower few layers of the protocol stack, and aim to capture the main features

  8. FORMING MANAGEMENT IMPACTS IN AVIATION COMPANIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Prokhorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or

  9. Navigating safety necessary compromises and trade-offs : theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Amalberti, René

    2013-01-01

    Managing safety in a professional environment requires constant negotiation with other competitive dimensions of risk management (finances, market and political drivers, manpower and social crisis). This is obvious, although generally not said in safety manuals. The book provides a unique vision of how to best find these compromises, starting with lessons learnt from natural risk management by individuals, then applying them to the craftsman industry, complex industrial systems (civil aviation, nuclear energy) and public services (like transportation and medicine). It offers a unique, illustrated, easy to read and scientifically based set of original concepts and pragmatic methods to revisit safety management and adopt a successful system vision. As such, and with illustrations coming from many various fields (aviation, fishing, nuclear, oil, medicine), it potentially covers a broad readership.

  10. Operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PNL Safety, Standards and Compliance Program contributed to the development and issuance of safety policies, standards, and criteria; for projects in the nuclear and nonnuclear areas. During 1976 the major emphasis was on developing criteria, instruments and methods to assure that radiation exposure to occupational personnel and to people in the environs of nuclear-related facilities is maintained at the lowest level technically and economically practicable. Progress in 1976 is reported on the preparation of guidelines for radiation exposure; Pu dosimetry studies; the preparation of an environmental monitoring handbook; and emergency instrumentation preparedness

  11. PATIENT SAFETY IN SURGERY: THE QUALITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF PATIENT SAFETY CHECKLISTS IN A REGIONAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karyadinata

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patient safety and the avoidance of inhospital adverse events is a key focus of clinical practice and medical audit. A large of proportion of medical errors affect surgical patients in the peri-operative setting. Safety checklists have been adopted by the medical profession from the aviation industry as a cheap and reliable method of avoiding errors which arise from complex or stressful situations. Current evidence suggests that the use of periooperative checklists has led to a decrease in surgical morbidity and hospital costs. Aim. To assess the quality of implementation of a modified patient safety checklist in a UK district general hospital. Methods. An observational tool was designed to assess in real time the peri-operative performance of the surgical safety checklist in patients undergoing general surgical, urological or orthopaedic procedures. Initiation of the checklist, duration of performance and staff participation were audited in real time. Results. 338 cases were monitored. Nurses were most active in initiating the safety checklist. The checklist was performed successfully in less than a minute in most cases. 11-24% of staff (according to professional group present in the operating room did not participate in the checklist. Critical safety checks (patient identity and procedure name were performed in all cases across all specialties. Variations were noted in checking other categories, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT prophylaxis or patient warming. Conclusions. There is still a potential for improving the practice and culture of surgical patient safety activities. Staff training and designation of patient safety leadership roles is needed in increasing compliance and implementation of patient safety mechanism, such as peri-operative checklists. There is significant data to advocate the need to implement patient safety surgical checklists internationally

  12. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 – Part 2: Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Righi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications to simulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a previous study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation results in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in aviation traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, the aviation effect on particle mass concentration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m-3, about one order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the relatively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm-3, mostly affecting the northern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7–12 km. This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which results also in significant climate effects due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth's radiation budget is simulated in the future: The aviation-induced RF in 2030 is more than doubled with respect to the year 2000 value of −15 mW m-2, with a maximum value of −63 mW m-2 simulated for RCP2.6.

  13. SAFETY BULLETIN

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Bulletin no 4 (TIS 2002-04) entitled 'KNOW THE RISKS' is available on the web. Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, e-mail: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch TIS Secretariat

  14. Operational specification and forecasting advances for Dst, LEO thermospheric densities, and aviation radiation dose and dose rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    Space weather’s effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun’s photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the magnetosphere, thermosphere, and even troposphere are key regions that are affected. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has developed and is producing innovative space weather applications. Key operational systems for providing timely information about the effects of space weather on these domains are SET’s Magnetosphere Alert and Prediction System (MAPS), LEO Alert and Prediction System (LAPS), and Automated Radiation Measurements for Aviation Safety (ARMAS) system. MAPS provides a forecast Dst index out to 6 days through the data-driven, redundant data stream Anemomilos algorithm. Anemomilos uses observational proxies for the magnitude, location, and velocity of solar ejecta events. This forecast index is used by satellite operations to characterize upcoming geomagnetic storms, for example. In addition, an ENLIL/Rice Dst prediction out to several days has also been developed and will be described. LAPS is the SET fully redundant operational system providing recent history, current epoch, and forecast solar and geomagnetic indices for use in operational versions of the JB2008 thermospheric density model. The thermospheric densities produced by that system, driven by the LAPS data, are forecast to 72-hours to provide the global mass densities for satellite operators. ARMAS is a project that has successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on aircraft to capture the real-time radiation environment due to Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The dose and dose-rates are captured on aircraft, downlinked in real-time via the Iridium satellites, processed on the ground, incorporated into the most recent NAIRAS global radiation climatology data runs, and made available to end users via the web and

  15. Job satisfaction among United States Navy and Marine Corps Aviation Officers - a study of the impact on career retention

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    United States Naval Aviation Officer retention has been identified by senior-level personnel managers as one of the largest challenges faced by the services in recent years. In robust economic times all branches of the armed forces face the challenge of retaining sufficient highly-trained volunteers. The aviation community is disproportionately affected due to the long lead time associated with aviation officer training and the potential for long-term lucrative civilian job opportunities comp...

  16. 66 Years of the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation - New Trends in the International Law of the Air

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnicka, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The international law of aviation (law of the air) is one of the most dynamic fields of public international law. The Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation dates back to 1944, and is still the fundamental set of rules regarding the use of air territory of the states. However, a growing number of bilateral, multilateral and regional agreements dedicated to the civil aviation, especially international air transportation, must be taken into account. What used to be called a “Chicago...

  17. History of Turkish Air Force Aviation School and the Process of Transition to Air Force Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman YALÇIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish aviation has started as a military entity. The foundation of ‘’Tayyare Komisyonu’’ (Airplane Comission in June 1, 1911 has been accepted as the official starting point. The organization of aviation includes pilot training, airplane supply, fondation of aviation school, establishment of combatant units, and building the air vehicles with local and national endeavour. Later, air defense systems, meteorology, training observers, machine specialist and technicians has gained importance as well. Turkish aviation has been built upon the ruins of the last wars of Ottoman Empire. After the invasion of the British and the French, Ottoman aviators moved to Maltepe and then to various parts of Anatolia eventually. During the Independence War, aviation school was founded in Eskişehir, moved to Adana, Konya, and came back to Adana again. After the Greek forces were expelled from Anatolia via İzmir, aviation school was moved to İzmir. In 1925, it was brought back to Eskişehir on October 1, 1951. After WWII, the duration of training in order to be a pilot was six years. In 1929, aviation school turned out to be an academic institution as well. On October 1, 1951, Air Force Academy was established in Eskişehir. Due to high sound of jet air planes, the academy was moved to İzmir in 1954. Education and training were restructured there and the quality was raised. In 1967, Air Force Academy was moved back to Yeşilköy where Turkish aviation was born some 47 years ago. Due to academic diversity and rich culture heritage, a productive period has started in Istanbul. Air Force Academy has been an institution offering BA level education since 2001 whose process goes back to 1990s. Around 90 civilian and 50 military academicians conduct education and research per year. Military training including Yalova encampment site, affective domain training, and sports activities are also conducted as well. With a 103 years history and around 16.000 graduates

  18. 75 FR 54939 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Labor and World-Class Workforce...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... dignity and respect in the workplace; and (3) the impact of Next Generation Air Transportation System on... Human Resources, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC...

  19. FLYING DOWN TO RIO: AMERICAN COMMERCIAL AVIATION, THE GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY AND WORLD WAR TWO, 1939-45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Benson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will address the role of American commercial aviation in the Good Neighbor policy during the period of World War Two. The Good Neighbor was a complex policy, and American commercial aviation both reflected and augmented this complexity. Through the early years of thew orld war, American commercial aviation proved to be a valuable instrument for promoting hemispheric unity. Yet as the war progressed, commercial aviation became a catalyst for conflict and an indicator of the demise of the Good Neighbor policy.

  20. Aviation Weather Information Communications Study (AWIN). Phase 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J. W.; Herron, R. G.; Nozawa, E. T.; Thomas, E. A.; Witchey, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    This two part study examines the communication requirements to provide weather information in the cockpit as well as public and private communication systems available to address the requirements. Ongoing research projects combined with user needs for weather related information are used to identify and describe potential weather products that address decision support in three time frames: Far-Term Strategic, Near-Term Strategic and Tactical. Data requirements of these future products are identified and quantified. Communications systems and technologies available in the public as well as private sector are analyzed to identify potential solutions. Recommendations for further research identify cost, performance, and safety benefits to justify the investment. The study concludes that not all weather information has the same level of urgency to safety-of-flight and some information is more critical to one category of flight than another. Specific weather products need to be matched with communication systems with appropriate levels of reliability to support the criticality of the information. Available bandwidth for highly critical information should be preserved and dedicated to safety. Meanwhile, systems designed for in-flight-entertainment and other passenger/crew services could be used to support less critical information that is used only for planning and economic decision support.

  1. Safety Note

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Note no 29 (NS 29) entitled 'Fire Prevention for Insulating Core (Sandwich) Panel Structures for Inside Use Guidelines for Selection, Installation and Use' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/475438/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit secretariat, e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  2. Legal environment and operation of general aviation aerodromes – the overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk JAFERNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of general aviation aerodromes in Poland are regulated by more than 20 national and international legal acts. Knowledge about air law and its application ensures safe operations and flights at aerodromes and airfields. This paper summarizes source of law for general aviation and associated with its development strategies and reports. In the development of general aviation important role play small aerodromes, which are a “meeting point” for air transport sector and local economy, increase investments and tourism attractiveness of the region as well as are "meaningful way for the development of the region". Despite this, there is no legal act comprehensively regulating the issue of financial support for investment at important local aerodromes.

  3. Developing Quantum Dot Phosphor-Based Light-Emitting Diodes for Aviation Lighting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbing Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the feasibility of employing quantum dot (QD phosphor-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs in aviation applications that request Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS compliance. Our studies suggest that the emerging QD phosphor-based LED technology could potentially be superior to conventional aviation lighting technology by virtue of the marriage of tight spectral control and broad wavelength tunability. This largely arises from the fact that the optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystal QDs can be tailored by varying the nanocrystal size without any compositional changes. It is envisioned that the QD phosphor-based LEDs hold great potentials in cockpit illumination, back light sources of monitor screens, as well as the LED indicator lights of aviation panels.

  4. EU Accession and Civil Aviation Regimes: Malta and Cyprus as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Andreas; Busuttil, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Aviation deregulation is usually a challenging and demanding task and accession to the European Union requires that all candidate states should harmonize their legislation in the context of the European Common Aviation Area. Malta and Cyprus, the small Mediterranean island-states to join the EU in 2004, will have to abandon any protectionist policies in favour of their flag-carriers and let them survive in a liberal framework. The paper discusses the implications of this regime change for civil aviation in Malta and Cyprus and in addition to the airline industry, it examines the impacts on the complementary tourism sector. Unless carrying capacity limits are understood, the islands may become victims of successful airline liberalisation. The paper concludes by stressing the need for sustainable development and active policy making. Keywords: carrying capacity, Cyprus, air transport deregulation, Malta, tourism

  5. BASICS OF FORMATION FOR A CONTROLLING SYSTEMS AT THE ENTERPRISES OF THE AVIATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglova Irina Sergeevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to present the need for the introduction of elements system of controlling of large industrial plants, particularly in the aviation sector, as at this stage there is a need for understanding the most modern management techniques. Research in this area is based on the practical experience of individual aviation companies, as well as their work in cooperation, the general trend of industrial corporations to understand the need for the introduction of innovative control systems. The article provides a stepwise algorithm for setting the controlling system as a strategic structure to integrate all areas of life of the enterprise for the purpose of providing information in any necessary form. The results of this work may be useful to specialists in the field of management, changing as well as the financial and economic services industry aviation sector.

  6. Investigation of aviation emission impacts on global tropospheric chemistry and climate using a size-resolved aerosol-chemistry model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Borman, Duncan; Mann, Graham; Pringle, Kirsty; Monks, Sarah; Reddington, Carly; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Aviation is responsible for 3% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but 2-14% of anthropogenic induced climate warming due to contributions from short lived climate forcers. The global civil aviation fleet is projected to double by 2026 in relation to a 2006 baseline and so will play a substantial role in future climate change. Uncertainty in the net impact of aviation on climate is largely due to uncertainty in the impacts of aviation emissions on ozone and aerosol. To study the impact of aviation emissions we use the GLOMAP-mode global aerosol microphysics model coupled to the 3-D chemical transport model TOMCAT. GLOMAP-mode has been extended to include treatment of nitrate aerosol. We include a full suite of non-CO2 aviation emissions (including NOX, SO2, HCs, BC and OC) in the model. We combined the simulated changes in ozone and aerosol with a 3D radiative transfer model to quantify the radiative effect due to aviation non-CO2 emissions. We find that aviation emissions increase O3 concentrations by up to 5.3% in the upper troposphere (UT), broadly matching previous studies. Black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations increase by 26.5% and 14.6% respectively in the UT, whereas nitrate aerosol is reduced in some regions due to co-emission of NOX and SO2 In the UT, aviation emissions increase both total aerosol number as well as the concentration of particles greater than 70 nm diameter (N70). Entrainment of these particles into the free troposphere results in aviation emissions also increasing N70 in the boundary layer, causing a cooling through the first aerosol indirect effect. We explore differences in these responses compared with those simulated when using the recommended aviation emissions from CMIP5 (5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project), which only include NOX and BC emissions. Our results suggest that aviation emissions of SO2 and HCs neglected by CMIP5 produce important effects on ozone, aerosol number, and N70. We suggest CMIP5

  7. Personal traits and a sense of job-related stress in a military aviation crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accelerated technological and organizational changes in numerous professions lead to increase in jobrelated stress. Since these changes are particularly common in military aviation, this study examined the way military aviation crew experiences job-related stress during a regular aviation drill, depending on particular social-demographic factors and personal traits. Methods. The modified Cooper questionnaire was used to examine the stress related factors at work. The questionnaire was adapted for the aviation crew in the army environment. Personal characteristics were examined using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory. The study included 50 examinees (37 pilots and 13 other crew members employed in the Serbian Army. The studies were performed during routine physical examinations at the Institute for Aviation Medicine during the year 2007. Statistical analysis of the study results contained descriptive analysis, one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Results. It was shown that army aviation crew works under high stress. The highest stress value had the intrinsic factor (AS = 40.94 and role in organisation (AS = 39.92, while the lowest one had the interpersonal relationship factor (AS = 29.98. The results also showed that some social-demographic variables (such as younger examinees, shorter working experience and neuroticism as a personality trait, were in correlation with job-related stress. Conclusion. Stress evaluation and certain personality characteristics examination can be used for the devalopment of the basic anti-stress programs and measures in order to achieve better psychological selection, adaptation career leadership and organization of military pilots and other crew members.

  8. Brigadier General Theodore C Lyster [correction of Lister], MD: father of American aviation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, J; O'Leary, J P

    2000-07-01

    Aviation medicine came into existence as a recognized entity when certain standards were established during and shortly after World War I. During this time, accident rates were high. In fact, a larger number of pilots were dying in accidents than in combat. Figures from Great Britain's casualty list at the close of the first year of World War I indicated that for every 100 aviators killed, 60 died as a result of some individual physical defect, 30 from some form of recklessness or careless behavior, 8 as a result of some mechanical defect in the airplane, and only 2 at the hands of the enemy. Aviators were found to be in poor physical condition. Because there were no established regulations with regard to workloads, aviators were frequently found to have been flying to a point beyond exhaustion. Because of workload, chronic fatigue, and emotional stress, aviators were constantly called upon to perform superhuman feats when not in peak physical condition. Errors in judgement were common. The majority of pilots lost weight as a somatic sign of stress. This was recognized by Theodore Lyster [corrected] who had recently been appointed as the Chief Surgeon, Aviation Section of the U.S. Army. Such problems were not diagnosed by medical officers because they were not trained to recognize them. Theodore Charles Lyster [corrected] was the son of Captain William J. and Martha Doughty Lyster [corrected]. He was an Army "brat" who entered the world on July 10, 1875. His childhood was spent in various posts around the country. At the age of 7, Lyster [corrected] contracted yellow fever while living in Fort Brown, TX. The boy was treated by William Gorgas, a young post surgeon. Gorgas was credited with the young boy's recovery. Later, Gorgas was to marry Lyster's [corrected] aunt making Lyster [corrected] his nephew by marriage. Having survived the yellow fever infection, young Lyster [corrected] had a lifelong immunity to the disease. PMID:10917489

  9. A revolutionary approach to composite construction and flight management systems for small, general aviation airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Jan; Wenninger, ED

    1992-01-01

    The design studies for two composite general aviation airplanes are presented. The main consideration for both of the designs was to avoid the typical 'metal replacement' philosophy that has hindered the widespread use of composites in general aviation aircraft. The first design is for a low wing aircraft based on the Smith Aircraft Corporation GT-3 Global Trainer. The second aircraft is a composite version of the Cessna 152. The project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in aeronautics. The results obtained from the Fall semester of 1991 and the Spring semester of 1992 are presented.

  10. [Specific individual characteristics of aviation specialists of small professional groups with different levels of psychological compatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tret'iakov, N V

    1990-01-01

    Professional interaction of members of small groups of aviation operators was subject to psychophysiological analysis. Using the study of professional interaction of operators and the theory of operational mediation of personality relations, the major parameters characterizing psychological compatibility were determined. The practical application of these characteristics helped select small groups of aviation specialists, who differed largely in their psychological compatibility, compare them in terms of a great number of personality parameters, and define their various combinations. The list of variants presented may help better describe and predict psychological compatibility of members of small professional groups.

  11. Design study of a low cost civil aviation GPS receiver system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnossen, R.; Gilbert, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost Navstar receiver system for civil aviation applications was defined. User objectives and constraints were established. Alternative navigation processing design trades were evaluated. Receiver hardware was synthesized by comparing technology projections with various candidate system designs. A control display unit design was recommended as the result of field test experience with Phase I GPS sets and a review of special human factors for general aviation users. Areas requiring technology development to ensure a low cost Navstar Set in the 1985 timeframe were identified.

  12. Industry Issue Paper: The United States—European Union Open Aviation Area: The American Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Christian; Dresner, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of current United States–European Union (U.S.–E.U.) aviation relations. Following a brief historical review, the proposed North-Atlantic Open Aviation Area is discussed. Specifically, the associated economic benefits are assessed, and the causes of the current deadlock in U.S.–E.U. negotiations are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the interests and actions of U.S. stakeholders, most notably U.S. airlines, labor organizations, the Departmen...

  13. A method for monitoring the variability in nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1988-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  14. Developing an ICAO Criteria Aviation English Proficiency Test for CAAC Pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Since the ICAO new aviation language requirement comes into being in 2003, several tester organizations try to develop tests for pilots. Recently CAAC has tried to develop ICAO criteria Aviation English Proficiency Test for Pilots. But, does Chinese pilots' language proficiency satisfy the ICAO requirements? How to test a pilot's language ability? How to develop ICAO standard test? To explore the keys to these questions, the paper has applied the theoretical framework in development of the test, in construction of the tests and in scoring.

  15. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS: an online service for near real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brenot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases in the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, http://sacs.aeronomie.be, which is a free online service initiated by ESA for the near real-time (NRT satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from two UV-visible (OMI, GOME-2 and two infrared (AIRS, IASI spectrometers. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic plumes, running since April 2012, is based on the detection of SO2 and is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. The system shows successful results with 95% of our notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity.

  16. Philosophy of safety assurance after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. From views of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge incorporating meetings were held to exchange views of experts in order to learn respective safety concept and philosophy of safety assurance except nuclear area, how should be prepared for beyond expectation and what was needed to build social credibility, and how to upgrade safety measures of nuclear power station after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Meeting had been held twice a year since FY2012 and two lecturers were invited at each meeting to give a lecture on the specified theme such as safety assurance in aviation area and chemical plants, and 'safety target of engineering system'. Common or different views on safety assurance between nuclear and other areas were identified, and risk concept and sincere attitude of explaining engineer were mentioned quite important for preparation for beyond expectation and building social credibility. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Scale development of safety management system evaluation for the airline industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Shu-Chuan

    2012-07-01

    The airline industry relies on the implementation of Safety Management System (SMS) to integrate safety policies and augment safety performance at both organizational and individual levels. Although there are various degrees of SMS implementation in practice, a comprehensive scale measuring the essential dimensions of SMS is still lacking. This paper thus aims to develop an SMS measurement scale from the perspective of aviation experts and airline managers to evaluate the performance of company's safety management system, by adopting Schwab's (1980) three-stage scale development procedure. The results reveal a five-factor structure consisting of 23 items. The five factors include documentation and commands, safety promotion and training, executive management commitment, emergency preparedness and response plan and safety management policy. The implications of this SMS evaluation scale for practitioners and future research are discussed.

  18. A Product Safety Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Anne Symons

    1975-01-01

    The article offers an overview of the product safety issue and offers ideas for helping students develop product safety awareness. The role of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and safety legislation are discussed. (MW)

  19. Delivering safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  20. SAFETY NOTES

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  1. Safety training

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    Habilitation électrique A course entitled "Habilitation électrique pour personnel de laboratoire" (electrical safety qualification for laboratory personnel) will be held on 22 and 23 June. Registration by e-mail to isabelle.cusato@cern.ch. Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases A course entitled "Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases" given in French will be held on 18-19 June 2009. This course is obligatory for all FGSOs at CERN, and it is recommended for anyone handling flammable gas or solvents. To sign up please visit this page. For more information please contact Isabelle Cusato, tel. 73811.

  2. Safety Arguments for Next Generation, Location Aware Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns over accuracy, availability, integrity, and continuity have limited the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) for safety-critical applications. More recent augmentation systems, such as the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) and the North American Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) have begun to address these concerns. Augmentation architectures build on the existing GPS/GLONASS infrastructures to support location based services in Safety of Life (SoL) applications. Much of the technical development has been directed by air traffic management requirements, in anticipation of the more extensive support to be offered by GPS III and Galileo. WAAS has already been approved to provide vertical guidance for aviation applications. During the next twelve months, the full certification of EGNOS for SoL applications is expected. This paper discusses similarities and differences between the safety assessment techniques used in Europe and North America.

  3. Nordic perspectives on safety management in high reliability organizations: Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapters in this volume are written on a stand-alone basis meaning that the chapters can be read in any order. The first 4 chapters focus on theory and method in general with some applied examples illustrating the methods and theories. Chapters 5 and 6 are about safety management in the aviation industry with some additional information about incident reporting in the aviation industry and the health care sector. Chapters 7 through 9 cover safety management with applied examples from the nuclear power industry and with considerable validity for safety management in any industry. Chapters 10 through 12 cover generic safety issues with examples from the oil industry and chapter 13 presents issues related to organizations with different internal organizational structures. Although the many of the chapters use a specific industry to illustrate safety management, the messages in all the chapters are of importance for safety management in any high reliability industry or risky activity. The interested reader is also referred to, e.g., a document by an international NEA group (SEGHOF), who is about to publish a state of the art report on Systematic Approaches to Safety Management (cf., CSNI/NEA/SEGHOF, home page: www.nea.fr). (au)

  4. Nordic perspectives on safety management in high reliability organizations: Theory and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Ola; Salo, I.; Sjerve, A.B.; Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The chapters in this volume are written on a stand-alone basis meaning that the chapters can be read in any order. The first 4 chapters focus on theory and method in general with some applied examples illustrating the methods and theories. Chapters 5 and 6 are about safety management in the aviation industry with some additional information about incident reporting in the aviation industry and the health care sector. Chapters 7 through 9 cover safety management with applied examples from the nuclear power industry and with considerable validity for safety management in any industry. Chapters 10 through 12 cover generic safety issues with examples from the oil industry and chapter 13 presents issues related to organizations with different internal organizational structures. Although the many of the chapters use a specific industry to illustrate safety management, the messages in all the chapters are of importance for safety management in any high reliability industry or risky activity. The interested reader is also referred to, e.g., a document by an international NEA group (SEGHOF), who is about to publish a state of the art report on Systematic Approaches to Safety Management (cf., CSNI/NEA/SEGHOF, home page: www.nea.fr). (au)

  5. 77 FR 18297 - Air Traffic Noise, Fuel Burn, and Emissions Modeling Using the Aviation Environmental Design Tool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Noise, Fuel Burn, and Emissions Modeling Using the Aviation... one airport, or includes actions above 3,000 feet , noise modeling will be conducted using [the Noise... required tool for noise, fuel burn, and emissions modeling of air traffic airspace and procedure...

  6. Aircraft Landing Gear, Ice and Rain Control Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame):9067.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with operation, inspection, troubleshooting, and repair of aircraft landing gear, ice and rain control systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe…

  7. 78 FR 32416 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Aviation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... travelers to measure customer satisfaction of aviation security in an effort to more efficiently manage... for the first time. The new questions will allow TSA to better measure customer satisfaction with Risk... Collection of Information: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger...

  8. Flying with doctors: Experiences with the application of 6 techniques from aviation industry in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F. de Korne (Dirk); U.F. Hiddema (Frans); F.G. Bleeker (Fred); N.S. Klazinga (Niek)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntoduction. Aviation industry is often put forward as an example in creating safer health care. Comparing aviation and health care, there are similarities in using technology, working with highly specialized professional teams and the need for dealing with risk and uncertainties (Sexton

  9. Remote sensing and GIS analyses for emergency manouvering and forced landing areas definition as a support for general aviation flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skocki, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    This paper summarizes the preliminary analyses of using existing remote sensing data, medium and high-resolution satellite and airborne data to define safe emergency landing and maneuvering areas to be used by small aircrafts operating from small airports and airfields in Poland. The pilots need to know such places in the interest of safe flight operations. In common practice, flying instructors typically show the student pilot fields around the airfield supposed to be suitable for emergency or precautionary landing (or ditching) in the initial phase of the training. Although it looks to cover the most basic needs, the problem still exists in relation to guest pilots. To fill this gap, the unified safety map document covering the safe emergency areas around the airfields is proposed in this research. Use of satellite high resolution data, as well as aerial photos, infrastructure information, with use of GIS tools (like buffer zones, distance, equal-time circles or position lines) enable to check the terrain around selected airfields and define possible areas suitable for emergency operations. In the second phase of work, selected areas will be described in terms of easy navigation, possible infrastructure around them, rescue possibilities, radio signal coverage, and others. The selected areas should be also checked for typical cover and surface hardness and stability (eg. with use of moisture estimation on the base of middle-resolution satellite data). Its planned to prepare one combined and separate sheets of the final map for various aircraft characteristics (`classes' of small Cessna-related, big Cessna-related, fast low-wing Diamond-like, two-engine Piper-like). The presented concept should highly increase the safety operations for small aviation in secondary airports and airfields, where the information available is limited. There is also a possibility to make a similar maps for `cruise', which means the areas with dense traffic between the airports/airfields.

  10. Safety first

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Safety is a priority for CERN. That is a message I conveyed in my New Year’s address and that I reiterated at one of the first Enlarged Directorate meetings of 2012 when I outlined five key safety objectives for the year, designed and implemented according to accepted international standards.   As we move from spring to summer, it’s time to take stock of how we are doing. Objective number one for 2012, which overarches everything else, is to limit the number of incidents in the workplace. That means systematically investigating and acting on every incident that involves work stoppage, along with all the most frequent workplace accidents: falls, trips and slips. The performance indicator we set ourselves is the percentage of investigations and follow-ups completed. Year on year, these figures are rising but we can never be complacent, and must strive to reach and sustain 100% follow-up. The second objective is to improve hazard control, with a focus in 2012 on chemical ha...

  11. High Reliability Organizations--Medication Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Luke; Farmer, Brenna

    2015-06-01

    High reliability organizations (HROs), such as the aviation industry, successfully engage in high-risk endeavors and have low incidence of adverse events. HROs have a preoccupation with failure and errors. They analyze each event to effect system wide change in an attempt to mitigate the occurrence of similar errors. The healthcare industry can adapt HRO practices, specifically with regard to teamwork and communication. Crew resource management concepts can be adapted to healthcare with the use of certain tools such as checklists and the sterile cockpit to reduce medication errors. HROs also use The Swiss Cheese Model to evaluate risk and look for vulnerabilities in multiple protective barriers, instead of focusing on one failure. This model can be used in medication safety to evaluate medication management in addition to using the teamwork and communication tools of HROs. PMID:25812532

  12. Key Strategies for Safety-of-Life Receiver Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cuntz, Manuel; Buchner, Georg; Denks, Holmer; Greda, Lukasz; Heckler, Marcos; Hornbostel, Achim; Konovaltsev, Andriy; Dreher, Achim; Meurer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    It is well known from the open literature that interference is a serious threat for the new Galileo services especially in the E5 and E6 bands. In particular for the Safety-of–Life (SoL) applications like aviation high power pulsed radars and DMEs are a major concern. To cope with such interference it is essential for the development of a SoL receiver to consider the impact of interference on each part of the receiving chain. For this reason a new project was launch...

  13. [Visual tests and their score for selection of candidates to higher aviation schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okovitov, V V

    1996-01-01

    In the majority of countries the requirements to refraction and visual acuity into the distance of candidates to aviation schools are extremely high. However, despite rigorous selection the number of students expelled from aviation schools for the reason of myopia remains impressive and even tends to rise. Aside from high incidence of myopia, this is the consequence of considerable visual loading of students and low-informative methods of examination. Simple and easy accommodation tests, the so-called visual loading tests, were applied to 628 candidates to aviation students. Analysis of results showed high informative merits of two procedures, i.e. Evaluation of stability of the visual acuity into the distance (VAD), and Determination of VAD recovery time following preliminary accommodation loading. Subjects with hypermetropia of up to 2.0 dioptres had the best VAD stability. This index was slightly lower in emmetrops; the least VAD stability margin was found in myopathic subjects. After accommodation loading, the VAD recovery time increased by more than 0.75 dioptres in the myopathic subjects and 2.0 dioptres in the hypermetropic subjects. Hence, the visual loading tests show promise as procedures worthy to be included into the program of medical selection of candidates to aviation students. PMID:8974605

  14. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that are subject to the requirements of 14 CFR parts 119, 121, or 135, each person who deviates from... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77 Aeronautics and... No. 77—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq 1....

  15. Indirect economic drivers for end-of-life handling in the aviation sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Brito, M.P.; Van der Laan, E.A.; Moleveld, M.

    2009-01-01

    An important issue that is getting increasing attention in the aviation sector is the handling of end-of-life aircraft. Traditionally, retired aircraft are parked in the desert waiting for a buyer, but more attractive options are available. There is some literature on direct economic factors influen

  16. 78 FR 60995 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of rescheduled public... Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Transport Airplane and Engine (TAE) Subcommittee to discuss TAE issues. A number of issues have arisen that may affect the Committee's ability to have an effective...

  17. 77 FR 60005 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Airplane and Engine Issues'' (77 FR 59243), in FR Doc. 2012-23709, that published on September 26, 2012... Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting...) to discuss transport airplane and engine (TAE) issues. It also withdraws the notice...

  18. Armed Service Vocational Aptitude Battery Scores and Aviation Electrician's Mate Class "A" School Attrition Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hershel M.

    A study investigated the use of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) subtests and combinations of subtest composites as placement qualifiers for the Aviation Electrician's Mate AEA(A1) school. It examined the relationship of the independent variables Arithmetic Reasoning; Math Knowledge; General Science; and Composite ASVAB score…

  19. 75 FR 57546 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Environment Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... be held at InterContinental Chicago O'Hare Hotel, Field Room, 5300 North River Road, Rosemont, IL... Transportation to ensure the competitiveness of the U.S. aviation industry and its capability to manage... held at the InterContinental Chicago O'Hare Hotel, Field Room, 5300 North River Road, Rosemont,...

  20. A Comparison of the Preferred Teaching Styles of Oklahoma Aviation Maintenance Instructors and Flight Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Deann Marie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the preferred teaching styles of Oklahoma aviation maintenance instructors and flight instructors. The scope of this study included maintenance instructors in CareerTech schools (Part 147 programs) and ground/flight instructors in Part 141 flight schools in Oklahoma. The methodology included administering…

  1. Epidemiological Survey of Dyslipidemia in Civil Aviators in China from 2006 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfu Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to analyze blood lipid levels, temporal trend, and age distribution of dyslipidemia in civil aviators in China. Methods. The 305 Chinese aviators were selected randomly and followed up from 2006 to 2011. Their total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were evaluated annually. Mean values for each parameter by year were compared using a linear mixed-effects model. The temporal trend of borderline high, high, and low status for each index and of overall borderline high, hyperlipidemia, and dyslipidemia by year was tested using a generalized linear mixed model. Results. The aviators' TC (F=4.33, P<0.01, HDL-C (F=23.25, P<0.01, and LDL-C (F=6.13, P<0.01 values differed across years. The prevalence of dyslipidemia (F=5.53, P<0.01, borderline high (F=6.52, P<0.01, and hyperlipidemia (F=3.90, P<0.01 also differed across years. The prevalence rates for hyperlipidemia and dyslipidemia were the highest in the 41–50-year-old and 31–40-year-old groups. Conclusions. Civil aviators in China were in high dyslipidemia and borderline high level and presented with dyslipidemia younger than other Chinese populations.

  2. A Study of EL2 Pilots' Radio Communication in the General Aviation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estival, Dominique; Molesworth, Brett

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary stages of a project designed to investigate communication problems in General Aviation and assess the utility of language technologies as a means of mitigation. The study presented in this paper is the first of a three-part study, in which we aim to investigate the extent to which the English language…

  3. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..

  4. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, G.; Heemink, A.; Lu, S.; Segers, A.; Weber, K.; Lin, H.X.

    2016-01-01

    The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain,

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR parts 119, 121, or 135, each person who deviates from this rule must, within 10 days of the... the Territory and Airspace of Somalia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 107 Aeronautics... Regulation No. 107—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia...

  6. Ethics Education in University Aviation Management Programs in the US: Part One--The Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderman, Dale B.

    2002-01-01

    Examines how universities in the United States offering degrees in aviation management include ethics instruction in their curricula. Discusses the first part of a study that justifies the need for ethics education and develops hypotheses to evaluate the current status of ethics instruction, which will be reported on in subsequent parts of the…

  7. Descriptive and analytical epidemiology of accidents in five categories of sport aviation aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, R.R.A.; de Voogt, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports and compares causes of, and factors contributing to, 2,118 documented accidents of sport aviation represented by diverse aircraft types including balloons and blimps, gliders, gyroplanes, and ultralights. For the 26-year period, accidents were aircraft-specific regarding da

  8. Thermodynamic properties of three component solutions aviation kerosene-oil-H-hexane depending on temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental-theoretical studies of thermodynamic properties of three component solutions aviation kerosene-oil-H-hexane depending on temperature at atmospheric pressure are given. On the basis of law of corresponding states the empirical equation is obtained. By using the empirical equation the thermodynamic properties of studied solutions could be defined.

  9. Challenges of Using Audio-Visual Aids as Warm-Up Activity in Teaching Aviation English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Sule, St.; Seçer, Y. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find out the challenges encountered in the use of video as audio-visual material as a warm-up activity in aviation English course at high school level. This study is based on a qualitative study in which focus group interview is used as the data collection procedure. The participants of focus group are four instructors teaching…

  10. 75 FR 14652 - Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending March 13, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Office of the Secretary Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending March 13, 2010 The...: DOT-OST-2010-0060. Date Filed: March 8, 2010. Parties: Members of the International Air Transport... South West Pacific (Memo 1364). Intended effective date: for travel on/after: 1 June 2010. Docket...

  11. 78 FR 11978 - Airworthiness Directives; Reims Aviation S.A. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ...: stephan.lapagne@reims-aviation.fr ; Internet: www.geciaviation.com/en/f406.html . You may review copies of... was published in the Federal Register on December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72252). That NPRM proposed to correct.... We received no comments on the NPRM (77 FR 72252, December 5, 2012) or on the determination of...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene. 48.4082-6 Section 48.4082-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... model certificate provided in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, and contains all information...

  13. ASEAN SINGLE AVIATION MARKET AND INDONESIA - WILL IT SURVIVE AGAINST THE GIANTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruwantissa Indranath Abeyratne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available  To say that Indonesia is an enigma in air transport is an understatement.  On the one hand,  the  demand for air transport in Indonesia is higher in proportion to its GDP per capita.  Its economy can be expected to grow 6% to 10% annually. A single aviation market could add another 6% to 10% growth in sheer demand.  It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world, being the 16th richest country currently, and, according to an Airbus forecast,   will be the 7th richest in 2030.  Yet its airports are badly in need of expansion, its infrastructure is bursting at its seems, and above all, its airlines are strongly resisting liberalization of air transport in the region for fear of being wiped out by stronger contenders in the region.  Against this backdrop, it is incontrovertible that Indonesia's civil aviation is intrinsically linked to regional and global considerations.  Indonesia's archipelagic topography makes its people heavily reliant on safe, regular and reliable air services that may connect them not only internally but also to the outside world.A single aviation market in the ASEAN region will bring both benefits to Indonesia and challengers to its air transport sector. This article discusses the economic and regulatory challenges that Indonesia faces with the coming into effect of the ASEAN Single Aviation market in 2015.

  14. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  15. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  16. Adaptation of CRM training for the railway industry: Operational safety benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, M.T.S.; Hörmann, H.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In aviation, Crew Resource Management (CRM) was developed to address safety issues derived from accident and incident investigations. As CRM has proven its effectiveness by improving teamwork, communication and staff responses to operational hazards, there have been many attempts to expand this concept into other high-risk sectors such as medical, nuclear, or military. Although some work was also conducted to modify CRM for the railway industry, no such experiences yet existed in China or Hon...

  17. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  18. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  19. Fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  20. Linking Safety Analysis to Safety Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    the same system model and that this model is formalized in a real-time, interval logic, based on a conventional dynamic systems model with a state over time. The three safety analysis techniques are interpreted in this model and it is shown how to derive safety requirements for components of a system.......Software for safety critical systems must deal with the hazards identified by safety analysistechniques: Fault trees, event trees,and cause consequence diagrams can be interpreted as safety requirements and used in the design activity. We propose that the safety analysis and the system design use...