WorldWideScience

Sample records for avian-wind power planning

  1. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  2. Proceedings of national avian-wind power planning meeting II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was the second in a series. The purposes of this meeting were to: (1) provide information on avian/wind power interactions that will help meet the needs of regulators, researchers, and other stakeholders concerned with responsible development and permitting of wind plants; (2) create dialogue among regulators, researchers and other stakeholders to help all parties understand the role that research can play in responsible development and permitting of wind plants, and allow researchers to understand the relevance of their research to the process; and (3) propose research projects and the appropriate sponsorship. The meeting began with oral presentations and discussions of nine White Papers on the theory and methods for studying and understanding impacts. The Proceedings include the written version of each of the nine White Papers, plus a summary of the oral discussion associated with each paper. The second part of the meeting consisted of four working group sessions: (1) site evaluation and pre-permit research and planning; (2) operational monitoring; (3) modeling and forecasting, including population dynamics models; and (4) avian behavior and mortality reduction. The Proceedings includes a summary of the discussions on these topics, including each working group's recommendations for future research or associated activities. A final plenary session drew together the main recommendations

  3. Planning for Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Victor A.; Birk, Thomas A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the electrical power problems that can arise when schools try to integrate educational technology components into an existing facility, and how to plan the electrical power design to avoid power failures. Examines setting objectives, evaluating current electrical conditions, and developing the technology power design. (GR)

  4. Philippines revises power plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.

    1988-02-01

    Following an unexpected surge in electricity demand the Philippines has revised its medium term power development programme. The sharp increase in electricity consumption follows three years of slack demand due to civil disturbances before the end of the Macros administration and the election of Corazon Aquino as President in 1986. Originally, the Aquino government's medium term power development plans called for about 500MW of generating capacity to be installed between 1986 and 1992. The three proposed plants were scheduled for commissioning in 1991 and 1992. However, a spurt in power demand growth during the past nine months has caused concern among industrialists that power shortages could occur by the end of the decade. So additional capacity will be installed to prevent an anticipated shortfall in electricity supplies by the early 1990s.

  5. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Giebel, Gregor; Nielsen, T. S.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This poster presents the current state of the public service obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464, with the working title "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project commenced October 1, 2011, and the goal is to integrate a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with purely...... resolution. With regard to the latter, one such simulation tool has been developed at the Wind Energy Division, Risø DTU, intended for long term power system planning. As part of the PSO project the inferior NWP model used at present will be replaced by the state-of-the-art Weather Research & Forecasting...

  6. The development of an avian wind sensitivity map for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retief, Ernst; Anderson, M. D.; Harebottle, D.; Jenkins, A.; Simmons, R.; Smit, H.A.; Rooyen, C. Van; Smallie, J.

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Wind energy is a relative new industry in South Africa. This provides South Africans with the opportunity to ensure that wind farms are placed in areas that are of low sensitivity to birds. With this in mind two environmental NGOs, BirdLife South Africa and the Endangered Wildlife Trust, designed an Avian Wind Sensitivity Map to provide guidance to the wind farm industry about the location of wind turbines. The map is the first of its kind in Africa. The purpose of the map is to provide an indication of the geographic areas in South Africa where the possible establishment of wind farms might have a negative impact on birds. Such a map will identify areas of bird sensitivity, i.e. sites where threatened, endemic and vulnerable bird species occur. The map was designed using a variety of data sources, specifically data acquired through citizen science projects - such as the Southern African Bird Atlas Project 2 and the Coordinated Waterbird Counts Project. The data were analysed using data priority scores based on the conservation concern of each species as well as the risk associated with a species to fly into wind turbines and associated infrastructures. The formal protection status of a geographic area was also taken into account. Extensive use was made of GIS tools to collate, analyse and present the data. A number of African countries are considering establishing wind farms. The lessons learnt during the design process can be used by other African countries as the basis for similar maps which can serve as a mitigation measure against the loss of vulnerable species. (Author)

  7. Nuclear power programme planning: An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published material on different policy considerations in the introduction of nuclear power, primarily addressed to top level decision makers in government and industry in Member States. Several Member States and experts recommended to the IAEA to address the aspects of an integrated approach to nuclear power programme planning and to serve as guidance to those countries wishing to embark on a nuclear power programme. As a follow-up, the present publication is primarily intended to serve as guidance for executives and managers in Member States in planning for possible introduction of nuclear power plants in their electricity generating systems. Nuclear power programme planning, as dealt with in this publication, includes all activities that need to be carried out up to a well-founded decision to proceed with a project feasibility study. Project implementation beyond this decision is not in the scope of this publication. Although it is possible to use nuclear energy as a heat source for industrial processes, desalination and other heat applications, it is assumed in this publication that the planning is aimed towards nuclear power for electricity generation. Much of the information given would, however, also be relevant for planning of nuclear reactors for heat production. The publication was prepared within the framework of the IAEA programme on nuclear power planning, implementation and performance as a joint activity of the Nuclear Power Engineering Section and the Planning and Economic Studies Section (Division of Nuclear Power)

  8. Mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the specific mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning projects. It follows up on suggestions in planning literature about directing focus at the relational level in the assessment of power, rather than on who has power and who doesn't. The paper argues that in such an...... assessment of power it is needed also to drawn in the social context because different social contexts will be more or less vulnerable to different mechanisms of power. The paper takes the stand the rural settings are especially vulnerable to dis-engagement of local citizens, sub-ordination of the rural by...... the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis of...

  9. Offshore Wind Power Planning in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Chul Soo; Cha, Seung-Tae; Park, Sang Ho;

    2012-01-01

    Wind power generation is globally recognized as the most universal and reliable form of renewable energy. Korea is currently depending mostly on coal and petroleum to generate electrical power and is now trying to replace them with renewable energy such as offshore wind power generation. To make...... this possible, Korea has announced the National offshore power roadmap and is now in pursuit. However, large scale offshore wind farms can incur many problems, such as power quality problems, when connecting to a power system.[1][2] Thus, KEPCO is on the process of a research study to evaluate the...... effects that connecting offshore wind power generation to a power system has on the power system. This paper looks over offshore wind power planning in Korea and describes the development of impact assessment technology of offshore wind farms....

  10. Nuclear power infrastructure and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several stages in the process of introducing nuclear power in a country. These include feasibility studies; technology evaluation; request for proposals and proposal evaluation; project and contracts development and financing; supply, construction, and commissioning; and finally operation. The IAEA is developing guidance directed to provide criteria for assessing the minimum infrastructure necessary for: a) a host country to consider when engaging in the implementation of nuclear power, or b) a supplier country to consider when assessing that the recipient country would be in an acceptable condition to begin the implementation of nuclear power. There are Member States that may be denied the benefits of nuclear energy if the infrastructure requirements are too large or onerous for the national economy. However if co-operation could be achieved, the infrastructure burden could be shared and economic benefits gained by several countries acting jointly. The IAEA is developing guidance on the potential for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure among countries adopting or extending nuclear power programme

  11. Nuclear power and energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources such as coal and oil and the growing world demand for energy the question of how to provide the extra energy needed in the future is addressed. Relevant facts and figures are presented. Coal and oil have disadvantages as their burning contributes to the greenhouse gases and they will become scarcer and more expensive. Renewable sources such as wind and wave power can supply some but not all future energy requirements. The case made for nuclear power is that it is the only source which offers the long term prospect of meeting the growing world energy demand whilst keeping energy costs close to present levels and which does not add to atmospheric pollution. Reassurance as to the safety of nuclear power plants and the safe disposal of radioactive wastes is given. (UK)

  12. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Nielsen, T. S.; Madsen, Henrik; Giebel, Gregor; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    term power variation from off shore wind farms, as well as to conduct forecast error assessment studies in preparation for later implementation of such a feature in an existing simulation model. The addition of a forecast error estimation feature will further increase the value of this tool, as it...

  13. WASP in Nuclear Power Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main modules of WASP are presented in details in the introduction paragraph. The authors have emphasized on the probabilistic simulation used in WASP for evaluating different costs of the objective function and the Bellman principle for finding the optimal trajectory in dynamic programming. In the second paragraph the principal results obtained by the Nuclear Power Dept. of VINATOM are enumerated: a/the most cost-effective solution for Vietnam is to introduce a nuclear power capacity of 800-1200 MW by around the year 2010; b/ different types of reactors for the first NPP are ranked according to their economic criteria; c/ the sensitivity analysis is also carried out with respect to discount rates, LOLP (loss of load probability), ENS (energy non served), construction cost. (author). 4 figs, 7 tabs

  14. Nuclear power planning and feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture will review the basic steps associated with planning the introduction of nuclear power. Areas covered will include power market surveys, energy resources evaluations, potential alternative strategies, organisational factors and implementational requirements. The lecture will then consider the implications and requirements associated with establishing the feasibility of a nuclear project. Among others, aspects of power systems integration, site selection reactor type evaluation, cost and economic analysis, influence of contracting strategies, comparison with alternative power generation solutions, financial impact, etc. will be discussed and reviewed. (HK)

  15. Combination of AC Transmission Expansion Planning and Reactive Power Planning in the restructured power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► To overcome the disadvantages of DC model in Transmission Expansion Planning, AC model should be used. ► The Transmission Expansion Planning associated with Reactive Power Planning results in fewer new transmission lines. ► Electricity market concepts should be considered in Transmission Expansion Planning problem. ► Reliability aspects should be considered in Transmission Expansion Planning problem. ► Particle Swarm Optimization is a suitable optimization method to solve Transmission Expansion Planning problem. - Abstract: Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP) is an important issue in power system studies. It involves decisions on location and number of new transmission lines. Before deregulation of the power system, the goal of TEP problem was investment cost minimization. But in the restructured power system, nodal prices, congestion management, congestion surplus and so on, have been considered too. In this paper, an AC model of TEP problem (AC-TEP) associated with Reactive Power Planning (RPP) is presented. The goals of the proposed planning problem are to minimize investment cost and maximize social benefit at the same time. In the proposed planning problem, in order to improve the reliability of the system the Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS) index of the system is limited by a constraint. For this purpose, Monte Carlo simulation method is used to determine the EENS. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is used to solve the proposed planning problem which is a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem. Simulation results on Garver and RTS systems verify the effectiveness of the proposed planning problem for reduction of the total investment cost, EENS index and also increasing social welfare of the system.

  16. Workforce Planning for New Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An appropriate infrastructure is essential for the efficient, safe, reliable and sustainable use of nuclear power. The IAEA continues to be encouraged by its Member States to provide assistance to those considering the introduction of nuclear power. Its response has been to increase technical assistance, organize more missions and hold workshops, as well as to issue new and updated publications in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power, an IAEA Nuclear Energy Series publication (NG-G-3.1), provides detailed guidance on a holistic approach to national nuclear infrastructure development involving three phases. Nineteen issues are identified in this guide, ranging from development of a government's national position on nuclear power to planning for procurement related to the first nuclear power plant. One of these 19 issues upon which each of the other 18 depend is suitable human resources development. As a growing number of Member States begin to consider the nuclear power option, they ask for guidance from the IAEA on how to develop the human resources necessary to launch a nuclear power programme. The nuclear power field, comprising industry, government authorities, regulators, R and D organizations and educational institutions, relies on a specialized, highly trained and motivated workforce for its sustainability and continued success, quite possibly more than any other industrial field. This report has been prepared to provide information on the use of integrated workforce planning as a tool to effectively develop these resources for the spectrum of organizations that have a stake in such nuclear power programmes. These include, during the initial stages, a nuclear energy programme implementing organization (NEPIO), as well as the future operating organization, nuclear regulatory body, government authorities and technical support organizations if a decision is made to initiate a nuclear power

  17. Standard metrics and methods for conducting Avian/wind energy interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.L. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States); Davis, H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Kendall, W. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The awareness of the problem of avian fatalities at large scale wind energy developments first emerged in the late 1980`s at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA) in Central California. Observations of dead raptors at the Altamont Pass WRA triggered concern on the part of regulatory agencies, environmental/conservation groups, resource agencies, and wind and electric utility industries. This led the California Energy Commission staff, along with the planning departments of Alameda, Contra Costa, and Solano counties, to commission a study of bird mortality at the Altamont Pass WRA. In addition to the Altamont Pass WRA, other studies and observations have established that windplants kill birds. Depending upon the specific factors, this may or may not be a serious problem. The current level of scrutiny and caution exhibited during the permitting of a new windplant development in the United States results in costly delays and studies. This is occurring during a highly competitive period for electrical production companies in the USA. Clarification of the bird fatality issue is needed to bring it into perspective. This means standardizing metrics, defining terms, and recommending methods to be used in addressing or studying wind energy/bird interactions.

  18. MI high power operation and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourbanis, Ioanis; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing both the beam intensity and power. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the near future plans.

  19. Transmission Expansion Planning in Deregulated Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oloomi Buygi, Majid

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to present a centralized static approach for transmission expansion planning in deregulated power systems. Restructuring and deregulation have unbundled the roles of network stakeholders. They exposed transmission planner to the new objectives and uncertainties. Unbundling the roles has brought new challenges for stakeholders. In these environments, stakeholders have different desires and expectations from the performance and expansion of the system. Therefore,...

  20. Strategic planning for power system restorations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hententyck, Pascal [BROWN UNIV.; Coffrin, Carleton [BROWN UNIV.

    2010-10-12

    This paper considers the power system restoration planning problem (PSRPP) for disaster recovery, a fundamental problem faced by all populated areas. PSRPPs are complex stochastic optimization problems that combine resource allocation, warehouse location, and vehicle routing considerations. Furthermore, electrical power systems are complex systems whose behavior can only be determined by physics simulations. Moreover, these problems must be solved under tight runtime constraints to be practical in real-world disaster situations. This work is three fold: (1) it formalizes the specification of PSRPPs; (2) introduces a simple optimization-simulation hybridization necessary for solving PSRPPs; and (3) presents a complete restoration algorithm that utilizes the strengths of mixed integer programming, constraint programming, and large neighborhood search. This paper studied a novel problem in the field of humanitarian logistics, the Power System Restoration Problem (PSRPP). The PSRPP models the strategic planning process for post disaster power system recovery. The paper proposed a multi-stage stochastic hybrid optimization algorithm that yields high quality solutions to real-world benchmarks provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The algorithm uses a variety of technologies, including MIP, constraint programming, and large neighborhood search, to exploit the structure of each individual optimization subproblem. The experimental results on hurricane disaster benchmarks indicate that the algorithm is practical from a computational standpoint and produce significant improvements over existing relief delivery procedures.

  1. Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit Flight Support Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirl, Robert; Munroe, James; Scott, Walter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of an integrated Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and Improved APU (IAPU) Flight Suuport Plan. The plan identifies hardware requirements for continued support of flight activities for the Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Each Orbiter vehicle has three APUs that provide power to the hydraulic system for flight control surface actuation, engine gimbaling, landing gear deployment, braking, and steering. The APUs contain hardware that has been found over the course of development and flight history to have operating time and on-vehicle exposure time limits. These APUs will be replaced by IAPUs with enhanced operating lives on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis during scheduled Orbiter modification periods. This Flight Support Plan is used by program management, engineering, logistics, contracts, and procurement groups to establish optimum use of available hardware and replacement quantities and delivery requirements for APUs until vehicle modifications and incorporation of IAPUs. Changes to the flight manifest and program delays are evaluated relative to their impact on hardware availability.

  2. Nuclear power in Asia: Experience and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asian countries have developed ambitious energy supply programs to expand their energy supply systems to meet the growing needs of their rapidly expanding economies. Most of their new electrical generation needs will be met by coal, oil and gas. However, the consideration of growing energy demand, energy security, environmental conservation, and technology enhancement is inducing more Asian countries toward the pursuit of nuclear power development. At present, nuclear power provides about 30% of electricity in Japan, and about 40% of electricity in Korea. These and other Asian countries are presumed to significantly increase their nuclear power generation capacities in coming years. Korea's nuclear power generation facilities are projected to grow from 12 gigawatt in 1998 to 16.7 gigawatt by 2004. On the other hand, China and India have now installed nuclear capacities of about 2 gigawatt, respectively, which will increase by a factor of two or more by 2004. The installed nuclear capacity in the Asian region totalled 67 gigawatt as of the end of 1997, representing about sixteen percent of the world capacity of 369 gigawatt. Looking to the year 2010, it is anticipated that most of the world's increase in nuclear capacity will come from Asia. It is further forecasted that Asian nations will continue to expand their nuclear capacity as they move into the 21st century. For example, China plans to develop additional 18 gigawatt of nuclear power plants by the year 2010. Nuclear power is also of particular interest to a number of emerging Asian countries in view of environmental conservation and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in particular. Nuclear power appeals to some countries because of its high technology content. The strength in an advanced technology, such as the technological capability related to nuclear power, contributes to the overall development of the corresponding country's engineering base, enhancement of industrial infrastructure and expansion of

  3. Solar power deployment: Forecasting and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Mohana

    The rapid growth of Photovoltaic (PV) technology has been very visible over the past decade. Recently, the penetration of PV plants to the existing grid has significantly increased. Such increase in the integration of solar energy has brought attention to the solar irradiance forecasting. This thesis presents a thorough research of PV technology, how solar power can be forecasted, and PV planning under uncertainty. Over the last decade, the PV was one of the fastest growing renewable energy technologies. However, the PV system output varies based on weather conditions. Due to the variability and the uncertainty of solar power, the integration of the electricity generated by PV system is considered one of the challenges that have confronted the PV system. This thesis proposes a new forecasting method to reduce the uncertainty of the PV output so the power operator will be able to accommodate its variability. The new forecasting method proposes different processes to be undertaken before the data is fed to the forecasting model. The method converts the data sets included in the forecasting from non-stationary data to a stationary data by applying different processes including: removing the offset, removing night time solar values, and normalization. The new forecasting method aims to reduce the forecasting error and analyzes the error effect on the long term planning through calculating the payback period considering different errors.

  4. Reactive power planning incorporating voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, D. [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Management; Chakrabarti, B.B. [Transpower New Zealand Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand). Network Planning Group

    2002-03-01

    This paper addresses some of the modeling and economic issues pertaining to reactive power planning. We present a new VAR planning model, propose an efficient solution algorithm, and discuss the economic issues. A contingency constrained OPF-based model incorporating (static) voltage stability constraints is developed to analyze VAR support decisions. DICOPT++, a state-of-the-art non-linear mixed integer programming (MINLP) algorithm, is proposed to solve the model efficiently. The sensitivity information elicited from the optimization model may also provide useful aid to network planning that are discussed. The VAR support cost allocation issue is addressed next. The Shapley value criterion of cooperative gaming is proposed to allocate VAR support costs among the loads contributing to voltage instability. The VAR planning model is implemented for the AEP 14-bus test system. The implications of the sensitivity information are discussed using the test system results. The result of the optimization approach is compared with two existing methods viz., Eigen Value (Modal) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) methods. Further, we discuss how the outcome of the Modal analysis could be integrated in the optimization model to form a hybrid approach. A numerical example of calculation of Shapley value is provided and, we also compare it with the conventional method of proportional allocation to gain better insight about this criterion. (Author)

  5. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986

  6. Options for Bulgaria power system extension planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the existing transition to market economy in Bulgaria, the planning of development of electricity generation is among the priorities of the national policy of restructuring and renovation of electricity system in the country. Optimal plans for development of the generation capacity are worked out by means of optimization procedure part of ENPEP package (ELECTRIC module) based on the dynamic programming technique. The optimal plans study three main strategies for development of energy capacities, which have to do with the priority of some type of natural resources--Coal, Natural Gas and Nuclear Energy. The Hydro Power Plant construction and loading schedule for each scenario is different and it harmonized with the maneuverability of other capacities. Coal scenario emphasizes the opportunities for the maximizing of local coal mining, substitution of black coal (energy and coke) import by mining of local coal fields and implementation of efficient and environmentally sound technologies when constructing new thermal power plants. Gas scenario envisages natural gas consumption within the limit of existing capacities of the national and transit pipelines. In this connection, the share of the new generating capacities using combined cycle increases their share. Nuclear scenario assumes increased share of the nuclear units at the expense of local coal mining and natural gas. This is due to the rehabilitation of 1,000 MW units in NPP Kozloduy, completion of a 1,000 MW unit in new NPP and construction of 1--2 new units 600 MW after 2010. The data obtained outlines the perspectives for development of energy generation capacities in Bulgaria for the period 2000--2020, tendencies in the generation structure and the share of each different type of generation units in the structure of electricity generation system. Output information serves as a sound base for conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the three strategies

  7. Supply disruption cost for power network planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the method of approach to calculate the total annual socio-economic cost of power supply disruption and non-supplied energy, included the utilities' cost for planning. The total socio-economic supply disruption cost is the sum of the customers' disruption cost and the utilities' cost for failure and disruption. The mean weighted disruption cost for Norway for one hour disruption is NOK 19 per kWh. The customers' annual disruption cost is calculated with basis in the specific disruption cost referred to heavy load (January) and dimensioning maximum loads. The loads are reduced by factors taking into account the time variations of the failure frequency, duration, the loads and the disruption cost. 6 refs

  8. Improving acceptance in wind power planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammarlund, K. [University of Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Social and Economic Geography

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents important factors and planning procedures for public acceptance of wind power. Opinion surveys in Sweden show that acceptance is connected to the concept of utility rather than the aesthetic values. If wind turbines are confined by the authorities to marginal areas they will not earn their rightful place in the landscape by being of use. A positive attitude in general promotes positive experience of the effects of wind turbines. It is therefore essential to establish a sense of cooperation between the project management and the public. An open dialogue and continuous information will increase the possibilities for acceptance of future development. We must establish new codes of practice in permit processing because policies today contains idealogical and practical contradictions between the development and preservation of landscapes. (author)

  9. Improving acceptance in wind power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents important factors and planning procedures for public acceptance of wind power. Opinion surveys in Sweden show that acceptance is connected to the concept of utility rather than the aesthetic values. If wind turbines are confined by the authorities to marginal areas they will not earn their rightful place in the landscape by being of use. A positive attitude in general promotes positive experience of the effects of wind turbines. It is therefore essential to establish a sense of cooperation between the project management and the public. An open dialogue and continuous information will increase the possibilities for acceptance of future development. We must establish new codes of practice in permit processing because policies today contains idealogical and practical contradictions between the development and preservation of landscapes. (author)

  10. Modern planning and manufacturing methods in power plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high availabilities in power plants are the outcome of special efforts taken in planning, construction and operation relying on a systematic evaluation of experience, on the standardization and up-dating of technology and on the application of up-to-date planning and manufacturing methods. These methods are discussed and demonstrated by pipework planning and manufacturing in power plant engineering. (orig.)

  11. Problems of Planning for Power Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jingru; Chen Jianbo; Chu Xue

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of summing up the development of electric power industry in the 10th Five-Year Plan period, the idea of electric power development planning from 2006 to 2020 is presented. The authors analyzed ten main problems that existed in electric development during the 10th Five-Year Plan period, forecasted the electricity generation from 2006 to 2020, put forward the development strategy of power industry, discussed the component and development program of hydropower, thermal power, nuclear power, natural gas power and renewable power, outlined the present situations of six regional power grids, power transmission from western to eastern regions, UHV AC/DC power transmission and nationwide power grid interconnections, and finally gave out seven suggestions about electric power development in the future.

  12. Overhead power lines. Planning, design, construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, F.; Nefzger, P.; Nolasco, J.F.; Kaintzyk, U. [Siemens AG, Power Transmission and Distribution, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The basic elements of overhead power line technology have been known for many years. However, this technology has continuously developed, for example, to adjust design of the lines to new transmission needs, to available rights-of-way, and to accommodate environmental concerns or resources. Since many existing overhead line installations are approaching the end of their economic and technical lifetime, strategies for maintenance to extending their operational life are needed. Also, because fo the introduction of new standards and deregulation, the basis of design and verification for all aspects and steps in overhead line planning and construction has changed. The industry, therefore, requires a publication reflecting these developments and changes. Overhead Power Lines presents not only the scientific and engineering basis for the electric and mechanical design, but also comprehensively describes all aspects of most recent technology, including the selection and design of components such as conductors, insulators, fittings, supports and foundations. The chapters on line survey, construction and maintenance address updated requirements and solutions. In addition, the book carefully considers the changing economic and technical environment of the overhead power line business. This publication is intended to introduce students and beginners to the full range of relevant topics of line design and implementation and to serve as a valuable reference to engineers and technicians employed by overhead line operators, contractors and consulting companies to carry out their daily tasks. The book also supplies everyone else in the electric-energy supply industry, including design, maintenance, and construction engineers, with a ready reference. This first English-language edition is based on the 5th German-language edition and incorporates the latest international standards edited by Cigre, the International Council of Large Electric Systems, IEC and CENELEC. The authors are

  13. Plan for the radioactive residual products of the nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the first account of the nuclear power utilities of Sweden about the plans for the final disposal of the radioactive waste products of the nuclear power. Part 1 decsribes the general background, the plans for research and development, including the necessary facilities. The time schedule and the calculated costs of the operations are presented. (G.B.)

  14. Power plant construction. Plan, build, repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern thermal power plants can now convert up to 90 % of the energy input into electricity. This increase in efficiency has been made possible through technological progress, but also through improvements in power plant construction. Despite a distinct rise in the proportion of renewable energies in electricity supplies, traditional power stations are still responsible for guaranteeing a large share of our energy supplies. Air pollution control, noise control, protection of natural waters and soils plus careful use of resources are the key themes in the design, construction and maintenance of power plants. Publishing house Ernst and Sohn provides competent, up-to-date information for civil and structural engineers entrusted with such challenging engineering tasks. The special issue ''Power Plant Construction'' brings together the appropriate articles from the journals ''Bautechnik'', ''Stahlbau'', ''Beton- und Stahlbetonbau'' and ''Geomechanics and Tunnelling''. The themes in this compendium cover a wide range of topics, including analysis and design of power plant installations, power station refurbishment and maintenance, special structures such as cooling towers, chimneys and boiler house frames plus the engineering aspects of coal-fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power stations. Reports on current products and projects complement the technical papers. (orig.)

  15. Energy and nuclear power planning study for Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy and Nuclear Power Planning (ENPP) study for Armenia has been conducted under the technical cooperation programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The objective of the study was to analyze the electricity demand as part of the total final energy demand in various scenarios of Armenian socioeconomic and technological development, and to develop economically optimized electric generating system expansion plans for meeting the electric power demand, and to assess the role that nuclear energy could play within these optimal programs. The specific objectives of this study were: to define the role that nuclear power could play in the future electricity supply in Armenia, based on a least-cost expansion planning analysis of the country's power system; to analyze the environmental impacts of such a nuclear power development; to evaluate the financial viability of the envisaged nuclear power development program; to train a group of Armenian experts in the use of the IAEA's energy models

  16. Planning and preparedness for radiological emergencies at nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program was created after the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) assists state and local governments in reviewing and evaluating state and local REP plans and preparedness for accidents at nuclear power plants, in partnership with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which evaluates safety and emergency preparedness at the power stations themselves. Argonne National Laboratory provides support and technical assistance to FEMA in evaluating nuclear power plant emergency response exercises, radiological emergency plans, and preparedness

  17. Language Revitalisation Planning Within a Power/Solidarity Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggington, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Locates the success or failure of language revitalization programs in a framework of solidarity and power. Focuses on the implementation of the language revitalization program within language-in-education planning. (Author/VWL)

  18. Nuclear power planning study for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects of application of nuclear energy for production of electricity and desalinated water in the Kingdom are evaluated. General economic development of the country and data on reserves, production and consumption of oil and natural gas are reviewed. Electrical power system is described with data on production and consumption. Estimates of future power demand are made using Aoki method. Costs of production of electricity from 600 MW, 900 MW and 1200 MW nuclear and oil-fired power plants are calculated along with the costs of production of desalinated water from dual purpose nuclear and oil-fired plants. The economic analysis indicates that the cost of production of electricity and desalinated water are in general cheaper from the nuclear power plants. Suggests consideration of the use of nuclear energy for production of both electricity and desalinated water from 1415 H. Further detailed studies and prepartory organizational steps in this direction are outlined. 38 Ref

  19. Power requirements in an electrodialysis desalination plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrolysis is a desalination technique employing cation and anion selective membranes to remove the salt ions under the influence of electrical energy. Direct current (DC) based power is required to desalinate the feed stream of saline water. An alternate current (AC) is to be there to pump the feed water through the plant and to maintain proper flow through an electrodialysis plant. Both the types of power segments have been determined as a function of feed stream velocity (3 to 15 cm/s) The DC power required for a 0.2 mgd plant is in the order of 5Kwt. Hr per 1000 gallons of product water for a salt removal of 1000 PPM at a solution velocity of 9.24cm/s,. The Pumping power requirement for this has been estimated to be 3Kwt. hr per 1000 gallons of product water. (author)

  20. Nonlinear integrated resource strategic planning model and case study in China's power sector planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we expand the IRSP (integrated resource strategic planning) model by including the external cost of TPPs (traditional power plants) and popularization cost of EPPs (efficiency power plants) with nonlinear functions. Case studies for power planning in China during 2011–2021 are conducted to show the efficacy of the model. Scenarios are compiled to compare the pathways of power planning under different policies. Results show that: 1) wind power will become competitive with technical learning, but its installation is undesirable when the external cost of coal power is not internalized; 2) the existence of popularization cost will hinder EPPs' (efficiency power plants) deployment and pure market mechanism is not enough to deliver EPPs at socially desirable scale; 3) imposition of progressive emission tax on coal power at an average of 0.15–0.20 RMB/KWh can remedy the market distortion and promote the development of wind power by a significant margin; 4) nuclear power will grow stably when its external cost is set no more than 0.187 RMB per KWh, or 87% of its internal cost. The proposed model can serve as a useful tool for decision support in the process of power planning and policy formulation for national government. - Highlights: • Improve IRSP model by adding nonlinear external and popularization cost. • The model is used to conduct China's power sector planning in 2011–2021. • Simulate the impacts of alternative energy policies on planning results. • The model can be used for joint power sector planning and policy design

  1. Planning and Optimization of Smibelg Hydro Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Endries, Yesuf Esleman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis report was to workout optimum solution plan for Smibelg Hydro power project. The project is located in Lurøy and RODOY regions of Norway. This thesis mainly involves reconnaissance site investigation followed by alternative layout planning design and optimization of the project scheme components using the theoretical knowledge acquired during the course of the masters programme. Simulation of energy production from the power plant has been done using nMag2004 m...

  2. 384 Power plant waste water sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the 384 Power House Sampling and Analysis Plan. The Plan describes sampling methods, locations, frequency, analytes, and stream descriptions. The effluent streams from 384, were characterized in 1989, in support of the Stream Specific Report (WHC-EP-0342, Addendum 1)

  3. Power up rate plan of NPP PAKS units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAKS investigates the way to up rate the power of units to the 108% of the original nominal level. This thermal power level makes possible to reach the 500 MW (gross) electric power production. Present paper shows the main features of new nominal state. To help the evaluation of power up rate from fuel side, a 2-step fuel modernization procedure is planned. In the 1st step a slightly modified fuel with increased pin pitch and Hf layer in followers planned to be introduced, in the 2nd step geometrically modified fuel with higher enrichment and burnable poison. The article also contains the description of the planned transient and equilibrium cycles. During the transient cycles the nominal power and the fuel also will change (Authors)

  4. Planning Mechanisms for Regional Electric Power Supply System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Key problems of the regional electric power supply systems are examined. These problems result from a lack of regulated interaction mechanisms for uniting the different entities’ resources aimed at the realization of investment activities. One of the main problems of the power supply industry is physical and moral aging of both generating and networking equipment. In the article, the necessity of management system formation to control the development of power sector has been proved. The deficiencies of the modern investment procedure in power companies are described. The absence of continuity between the regional and local strategic planning documents and investment planning of a power company has been found out. The possibility to develop a new mechanism for attracting investment has been proposed. The regulation of joint activities to implement the development program for the regional power supply industry has been proposed. The management system to develop the Russian power industry has been proposed. The comparative analysis of generating capacity development mechanisms has been carried out, such as capacity supply agreement (CSA, investment support mechanism (ISM, and long-term power market (LPM. The interaction procedure of the planning of the power supply infrastructure development has been described. The mechanism connecting the state sectoral and regional planning and corporate planning of power supply infrastructure development has been proposed. The regional aspects of industrial policy and its legislative support have been considered. To successfully implement the public-private-partnership (PPP projects, it is necessary to create the effective PPP model within the federal and regional legislation framework; to develop the financial model providing the recoverability of investments; to provide a mutually beneficial cooperation between executive bodies and private investors. The possibility to apply the PPP mechanism for regional

  5. Construction plan of Sendai Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Sendai nuclear power station, the construction of Unit 1 was started in January, 1979, to start the operation from July, 1984, and that of Unit 2 in May, 1981, to start the operation from March, 1986. Both plants are of PWR type, each with 890 MWe. In the design of the PWR plant, the national improved standard PWR model, as well as the experiences with existing LWR plants are fully incorporated. The purpose is to raise the reliability and safety, to improve the operation and maintenance and to reduce personnel radiation exposure. First, the siting and construction process of the nuclear power station is explained. Then, the features of the reactor power plants are described as follows: aseismic design, condensers, turbines, steam generators, reactor protection, reactor vessels, etc. (J.P.N.)

  6. Short Term Hydro Power Planning Coordinated with Wind Power in Areas with Congestion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a day-ahead planning algorithm for a multi-reservoir hydropower system coordinated with wind power is developed. Coordination applies to real situations, where wind power and hydropower are owned by different utilities, sharing the same transmission lines, though hydropower has priority for transmission capacity. Coordination is thus necessary to minimize wind energy curtailments during congestion situations. The planning algorithm accounts for the uncertainty of wind power forecasts and power market price uncertainty. Planning for the spot market and the regulating market is considered in the algorithm. The planning algorithm is applied to a case study and the results are summarized in the paper. Index Terms wind power production, hydro power production, wind forecast uncertainty, power market, stochastic optimization.

  7. Planning for decommissioning power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Junji (Research Association for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, Tokaimura, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    The first decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant in Japan is not expected before the early 2000s, but the technology and regulations needed are being developed now. Valuable technical experience is being gained from three current projects. These are the decommissioning of the Japan Reprocessing Test Facility, the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor and the nuclear ship Mutsu. Improving and commercialising the technology are seen as essential for the future to reduce occupational radiation exposure, the amount of waste and costs. International cooperation and information exchange are of increasing importance for developing technology and regulations. (U.K.).

  8. Emergency plans for nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents an evaluation of an exercise of emergency services during a simulated accident at the nuclear power plant of Barsebaeck, Sweden. The aim of the exercise was to test Swedish and Danish organizations and various collaborative co-ordinations. Recommendations for future exercises are given. (G.B.)

  9. Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, S.

    2009-05-15

    India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Methods and Algorithms for Economic MPC in Power Production Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil

    This thesis concerns methods and algorithms for power production planning in contemporary and future power systems. Power production planning is a task that involves decisions across different time scales and planning horizons. Hours-ahead to days-ahead planning is handled by solving a mixed...... variance. Simulations show that MV-EMPC reduces cost and risk compared to CE-EMPC. The simulations also show that the economic performance of CE-EMPC can be much improved using a constraint back-off heuristic. Efficient solution of the optimal control problems (OCPs) that arise in EMPC is important, as the...... OCPs are solved online. We present special-purpose algorithms for EMPC of linear systems that exploit the high degree of structure in the OCPs. A Riccati-based homogeneous and self-dual interior-point method is developed for the special case, where the OCP objective function is a linear function. We...

  11. Station planning and design incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, PC

    1991-01-01

    The planning and design of new power stations can involve complex interaction between the many engineering disciplines involved as well as environmental, planning, economical, political and social pressures. This volume aims to provide a logical review of the procedures involved in power station development. The engineering aspects are outlined in detail, with examples, showing the basis of the relationships involved together with ""non-engineering"" factors so that the engineer can draw on the information provided for specific projects. The civil engineering and building of power stations are

  12. Nuclear power planning study for Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimum capacity for nuclear power plants that might be built in Venezuela in the period 1985-2000 and the best time for incorporating them into the electric system is defined. The most recent forecasts regarding growth of the population and demand, and of the economy in general, and the taking into account the costs for the fossil-fuel and hydroelectric resources known to exist in Venezuela, as compared with the costs of importing uranium, are discussed

  13. Power generation planning: a survey from monopoly to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last two decades electric power generation industry in many countries and regions around the world has undergone a significant transformation from being a centrally coordinated monopoly to a deregulated liberalized market. In the majority of those countries, competition has been introduced through the adoption of a competitive wholesale electricity spot market. Short-term efficiency of power generators under competitive environment has attracted considerable effort from researchers, while long-term investment performance has received less attention. In this context, the paper aims to serve as a comprehensive review basis for generation planning methods applied in a competitive electric power generation market. The traditional modeling techniques developed for generation expansion planning under monopoly are initially presented in an effort to assess the evolution of generation planning according to the evolution of the structure of the electric power market. (author)

  14. Fujian electric system analysis and nuclear power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study is to conduct a long term electric expansion planning and nuclear power planning for Fujian Province. The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III) is used to optimize the electric system. Probabilistic Simulation is one of the most favorite techniques for middle and long term generation and production cost planning of electric power system. The load duration curve is obtained by recording the load data of a time interval into a monotone non-increasing sense. Polynomial function is used to describe the load duration curve (LDC), and this LDC is prepared for probabilistic simulation in WASP-III. WASP-III is a dynamic optimizing module in the area of supply modelling. It could find out the economically optimal expansion plan for a power generating system over a period of up to thirty years, with the constraints given by the planners. The optimum is evaluated in terms of minimum discounted total costs. Generating costs, amount of energy not served and reliability of the system are analyzed in the system expansion planning by using the probabilistic simulation method. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. Hydro electricity is the cheapest one of all available technologies and resources. After the large hydro station is committed at the end of 1995, more base load power plants are needed in the system. Coal-fired power plants with capacity of 600 MWe will be the most competitive power plants in the future of the system. At the end of the studying period, about half of the stalled capacity will be composed of these power plants. Nuclear power plants with capacity of 600 MWe are suitable for the system after the base load increases to a certain level. Oil combustion units will decrease the costs of the system. (12 tabs., 6 figs.)

  15. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume I. Phase II program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a 238PuO2-fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Phase II of the overall 3-phase KIPS program is described. This volume presents a program plan for qualifying the organic Rankine power system for flight test in 1982. The program plan calls for the design and fabrication of the proposed flight power system; conducting a development and a qualification program including both environmental and endurance testing, using an electrical and a radioisotope heat source; planning for flight test and spacecraft integration; and continuing ground demonstration system testing to act as a flight system breadboard and to accumulate life data

  16. Reagan Energy plan: a major power failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current Reagan energy policy is reviewed and discussed. The present administration's policy emphasizes increasing energy supplies through: (1) greater reliance on nuclear fission; (2) accelerating and subsidizing the production of fossil-based fuels; (3) truncating federal support for renewable energy resources and energy-efficiency measures; and (4) cutting back energy-assistance programs for middle and low income consumers. Nuclear power is discussed with emphasis on regulatory problems, reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the breeder reactor program and disposal of radioactive wastes. Arguments are presented for curtailing the nuclear energy program and providing greater support for solar energy, other renewable energy sources, and energy conservation programs. Financial incentive programs for the petroleum, gas, and nuclear energy industries are criticized; arguments are presented for greater financial incentives for solar installations, solar information sources, photovoltaics, etc. With proper funding, it is proposed that renewable energy sources could meet 20 to 30% of energy needs by the year 2000

  17. THE AGS HIGH POWER UPGRADE PLAN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WENG,W.T.; ROSER,T.

    2002-04-08

    BNL could provide a Megawatt class neutrino beam from the AGS for very long baseline neutrino experiments. We have studied two possible approaches to upgrade the AGS to 1.0 MW beam power. The first is the linac option, comprising a new superconducting linac injector of 1.2 GeV, accelerating 9 x 10{sup 3} proton per pulse in the AGS to 28 GeV at 2.5 Hz. The second option is to extend the existing 200 MeV linac to 400 MeV. ramp the Booster to 2.5 GeV at 6 Hz. add a new 2.5 GeV accumulator ring in the AGS tunnel. and finally ramp the AGS to 28 GeV at 2.5 Hz. Due to the simplicity of the linac approach and minimum interference with the on going research program. the linac option is the preferred one.

  18. Expansion planning for electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity is so basic to the world economy that certain electricity indices are used to express a country's economic standing (consumption or production of electricity per capita) and the standard of living enjoyed by a people (per capita electricity consumption in the domestic sector). Moreover, electricity supply has special characteristics which make the service unique as compared to other types of industry. The end product has to be delivered instantaneously and automatically upon the consumer's demand; except for pumped storage plants and electric batteries, technologies do not exist that can produce it economically at uniform rates, hold it in storage in large quantities, and deliver it under convenient schedules; insufficient capacity (shortage) or excessive capacity (idle capacity) have negative effects on the economy; the close inter-relation with economic and social factors imposes labour, environmental, financial and other constraints on the problem. Careful planning of the electric sector is therefore of great importance since the decisions to be taken involve the commitment of large resources, with potentially serious economic risks for the electrical utility and the economy as a whole

  19. Economic market design and planning for electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mili, Lamine

    2010-01-01

    Discover cutting-edge developments in electric power systems. Stemming from cutting-edge research and education activities in the field of electric power systems, this book brings together the knowledge of a panel of experts in economics, the social sciences, and electric power systems. In ten concise and comprehensible chapters, the book provides unprecedented coverage of the operation, control, planning, and design of electric power systems. It also discusses:. A framework for interdisciplinary research and education;. Modeling electricity markets;. Alternative economic criteria and proactiv.

  20. Integrated resource strategic planning and power demand-side management

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Zhaoguang; Wen, Quan

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Resource Strategic Planning and Power Demand-Side Management elaborates two important methods - Integrated Resource Strategic Planning (IRSP) and Demand Side Management (DSM) - in terms of methodology modeling, case studies and lessons learned. This book introduces a prospective and realistic theory of the IRSP method and includes typical best practices of DSM for energy conservation and emission reduction in different countries. It can help energy providers and governmental decision-makers formulate policies and make plans for energy conservation and emission reduction, and can hel

  1. Integrating Climate Model Data into Power System Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Debabrata; Rhonda L. Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Significant multiyear and multi decade variations in intermittent renewable resources hold major implications for power system investments. They have been using extensive hydrology data for many years to represent hydrological risks in their planning. Climate model data are particularly suited for the assessment of longer-term variability. A good grasp of seasonal, multiyear, and multi dec...

  2. Planning construction of integrative schedule management for nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the planning construction of integrative schedule management for Nuclear Power Project. It details schedule management system and the requirement of schedulers and the mode of three schedule management flats. And analysis it combing with the implementation of construction water and all special schedules before FCD to further propose the improving and researching direction for the integrative schedule management. (authors)

  3. Electric power system planning issues, algorithms and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Seifi, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    The present book addresses the long- term power system planning issues for professionals as well as senior level and postgraduate students. The book is written as a self-reading book. Back-up materials are provided in appendices of the book. The readers can use the numerous examples presented in the chapters bodies and problems at the end of the chapters to make sure that the materials are adequately followed up. Based on what ""Matlab"" provides as a powerful package for students and professional, in terms of both power system studies and mathematical aspects, the examples and problems are so

  4. New Brunswick Power Corporation: Business plan, 1994-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first publicly available business plan for the New Brunswick Power Corp. is presented. The five-year plan provides an overview of the Corporation's performance and directions, including possible future rate increases. A review of the corporate history of the utility is followed by a description of the strategic framework under which the Corporation conducts its business operations. The information presented includes customer requirements, power generation and transmission, system operations, personnel management, environmental protection, and external factors affecting operations. This overview demonstrates the complex issues facing the utility, the choices made in the past, and the matters that will have to be faced in the future. The business overview is followed by focused business plans in six key functional areas (facilities, operations, personnel, technology, environment, and finances) and comprehensive financial forecasts that outline a commitment to maintain competitive rates for customers. The reasoning behind the forecasts is explained and a glossary is included. 21 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Does health plan generosity enhance hospital market power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P

    2015-12-01

    We test whether the generosity of employer-sponsored health insurance facilitates the exercise of market power by hospitals. We construct indices of health plan generosity and the price and volume of hospital services using data from Truven MarketScan for 601 counties from 2001 to 2007. We use variation in the industry and union status of covered workers within a county over time to identify the causal effects of generosity. Although OLS estimates fail to reject the hypothesis that generosity facilitates the exercise of hospital market power, IV estimates show a statistically significant and economically important positive effect of plan generosity on hospital prices in uncompetitive markets, but not in competitive markets. Our results suggest that most of the aggregate effect of hospital market structure on prices found in previous work may be coming from areas with generous plans. PMID:26402570

  6. Green power: A renewable energy resources marketing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green power is electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as power generated from the sun, the wind, the heat of the earth, and biomass. Green pricing is the marketing strategy to sell green power to customers who voluntarily pay a premium for it. Green pricing is evolving from the deregulation of the electric industry, the need for clean air, reflected in part as concern over global warming, and technology advances. The goal of the renewable energy marketing plan is to generate enough revenues for a utility to fund power purchase agreements (PPAs) with renewable energy developers or construct its own renewable facilities. Long-term, fixed price PPAs enable developers to obtain financing to construct new facilities, sometimes taking technological risks which a utility might not take otherwise. The marketing plan is built around different rate premiums for different categories of ratepayers, volunteer customer participation, customer participation recognition, and budget allocations between project costs and power marketing costs. Green prices are higher than those for conventional sources, particularly prices from natural gas fired plants. Natural gas is abundant relative to oil in price per British thermal unit (Btu). Green pricing can help bridge the gap between the current oversupply of gas and the time, not far off, when all petroleum prices will exceed those for renewable energy. The rapid implementation of green pricing is important. New marketing programs will bolster the growing demand for renewable energy evidenced in many national surveys thus decreasing the consumption of power now generated by burning hydrocarbons. This paper sets forth a framework to implement a green power marketing plan for renewable energy developers and utilities working together

  7. Energy and nuclear power planning study for Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, conducted jointly by a team of engineers and economists from the Sonelgaz company and the IAEA, had three objectives: (1) To perform a preliminary economic study aimed at initiating thinking on the role that nuclear power could play in Algeria's long-term energy structure and to suggest reasonable hypotheses on what share of the energy market nuclear power might supply. (2) To train a team of Algerian engineers and economists in long-term economic planning techniques. Once the team has gained a basic knowledge through this preliminary study, it will be in a position to continue the process, to perform other, more detailed independent analyses and to review the entire process should economic conditions change. (3) To introduce in Algeria the computer techniques and facilities needed to carry out such energy investment planning studies for electricity production. The main aim throughout the studies was to train a team of Algerian engineers in energy planning rather than to come to definitive conclusions on the problem of introducing nuclear power in Algeria. Two successive analyses were performed. The first consisted in evaluating the final energy requirements which will result in the medium and long term (by 2015) from the implementation of the economic development policies in the Five Year Plan (up to 1984) and in the proposals for the next decade (up to 1990) being studied by the Algerian Ministry of Planning. The second part is concerned only with the results regarding future electricity requirements, which are used as input data in studying the optimization of Algeria's future electricity generating system. Various methods of generation are analysed and included in an econometric model in order to make a sequential determination of the most economic composition of power generating capacity

  8. Long-Term Planning in Restructured Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the development of three decision support models for long-term investment planning in restructured power systems. The model concepts address the changing conditions for the electric power industry, with the introduction of more competitive markets, higher uncertainty and less centralised planning. Under these circumstances there is an emerging need for new planning models, also for analyses of the power system in a long-term perspective. The thesis focuses particularly on how dynamic and stochastic modelling can contribute to the improvement of decision making in a restructured power industry. We argue that the use of such modelling approaches has become more important after the introduction of competitive power markets, due to the participants' increased exposure to price fluctuations and economic risk. Our models can be applied by individual participants in the power system to evaluate investment projects for new power generation capacity. The models can also serve as a decision support tool on a regulatory level, providing analyses of the long-term performance of the power system under different regulations and market designs. In Chapter 1, we give a brief introduction to the ongoing development towards restructuring and liberalisation of the electrical power system. A discussion of the operation and organisation of restructured power systems is also provided. In Chapter 2, we look more specifically at different modelling approaches for expansion planning in electrical power systems. We also discuss how the contributions in this thesis compare to previous work in the field of decision support models for long-term planning in both regulated and competitive power systems. In Chapter 3, we develop a power market simulation model based on system dynamics. The advantages and limitations of using descriptive system dynamics models for long-term planning purposes in this context are also discussed. Chapter 4 is devoted to a novel optimisation

  9. Nuclear power plant thermal-hydraulic performance research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this program plan is to present a more detailed description of the thermal-hydraulic research program than that provided in the NRC Five-Year Plan so that the research plan and objectives can be better understood and evaluated by the offices concerned. The plan is prepared by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) with input from the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and updated periodically. The plan covers the research sponsored by the Reactor and Plant Systems Branch and defines the major issues (related to thermal-hydraulic behavior in nuclear power plants) the NRC is seeking to resolve and provides plans for their resolution; relates the proposed research to these issues; defines the products needed to resolve these issues; provides a context that shows both the historical perspective and the relationship of individual projects to the overall objectives; and defines major interfaces with other disciplines (e.g., structural, risk, human factors, accident management, severe accident) needed for total resolution of some issues. This plan addresses the types of thermal-hydraulic transients that are normally considered in the regulatory process of licensing the current generation of light water reactors. This process is influenced by the regulatory requirements imposed by NRC and the consequent need for technical information that is supplied by RES through its contractors. Thus, most contractor programmatic work is administered by RES. Regulatory requirements involve the normal review of industry analyses of design basis accidents, as well as the understanding of abnormal occurrences in operating reactors. Since such transients often involve complex thermal-hydraulic interactions, a well-planned thermal-hydraulic research plan is needed

  10. Planning of a Quadgeneration power plant for Jammerbugt energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Hoffmann, Jessica; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    heating energy technology into a Quadgeneration energy system at Jammerbugt municipality in the north of Denmark in a creative and innovative manner that can reduce CO2 emission and fuel limitations, whilst not compromising security of delivering heat and power to the local resident. So, it is essential......Quadgeneration is the simultaneous production of power, heat and cooling and different fuels from flexible feedstocks such as biomass, waste, refinery residue etc. In order to accommodate more renewable energy into the energy system, it is extremely necessary to develop new flexible power plants...... of some equipments in the Quadgeneration power plant. This paper presents two models for the investment planning of a Quadgeneration energy system in Jammerbugt municipality, and uses these models for different case studies addressing the system for production of heat, cooling, liquid fuels and...

  11. Coal Power Systems strategic multi-year program plans; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), through the Coal and Power Systems (C and PS) program, funds research to advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide new and improved energy technologies; to eliminate any detrimental environmental effects of energy production and use; and to maintain US leadership in promoting the effective use of US power technologies on an international scale. Further, the C and PS program facilitates the effective deployment of these technologies to maximize their benefits to the Nation. The following Strategic Plan describes how the C and PS program intends to meet the challenges of the National Energy Strategy to: (1) enhance American's energy security; (2) improve the environmental acceptability of energy production and use; (3) increase the competitiveness and reliability of US energy systems; and (4) ensure a robust US energy future. It is a plan based on the consensus of experts and managers from FE's program offices and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)

  12. Nuclear power: a strategic option in the Philippine energy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The energy sector continues to play a vital role as the Philippines moves ahead in realizing its vision of becoming a newly industrialized economy by the turn of the century. To keep pace with the country's accelerated economic growth towards the fulfilment of the Philippines 2000 vision, the energy sector has firmed up plans and programs based on sound and mandated policies as spelled out clearly under the Department of Energy Act of 1992 or Republic Act 7638. Philippine energy plan, 1996-2025: This paper presents nuclear power as a strategic option in meeting long-term energy requirements of the country under the Philippine energy Plan drawn by the Department of Energy (DOE)

  13. Dungeness Power Station off-site emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This off-site Emergency Plan in the event of an accidental release of radioactivity at the Dungeness Nuclear power station sets out the necessary management and coordination processes between Nuclear Electric, operators of the site, the emergency services and relevant local authorities. The objectives promoting the aim are identified and the activities which will be undertaken to protect the public and the environment in the event of an emergency are outlined. (UK)

  14. Planning of emergency medical treatment in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical staffs and health physicists have shown deep concerning at the emergency plans of nuclear power plants after the TMI nuclear accident. The most important and basic countermeasure for accidents was preparing appropriate and concrete organization and plans for treatment. We have planed emergency medical treatment for radiation workers in a nuclear power plant institute. The emergency medical treatment at institute consisted of two stages, that is on-site emergency treatment at facility medical service. In first step of planning in each stage, we selected and treatment at facility medical service. In first step of planning in each stage, we selected and analyzed all possible accidents in the institute and discussed on practical treatments for some possible accidents. The manuals of concrete procedure of emergency treatment for some accidents were prepared following discussion and facilities and equipment for medical treatment and decontamination were provided. All workers in the institute had periodical training and drilling of on-site emergency treatment and mastered technique of first aid. Decontamination and operation rooms were provided in the facillity medical service. The main functions at the facility medical service have been carried out by industrial nurses. Industrial nurses have been in close co-operation with radiation safety officers and medical doctors in regional hospital. (author)

  15. Offshore wind power policy and planning in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the role of policy support schemes and planning systems for inducing offshore wind power development in Sweden. Specifically, it highlights the different types of economic, political and planning-related conditions that face offshore wind power investors in Sweden, and provides brief comparisons to the corresponding investment conditions in Denmark, Norway and the UK. The analysis shows that in Sweden existing policy incentives are generally too weak to promote a significant development of offshore wind power, and the paper provides a discussion about a number of political and economic aspects on the choice between different support schemes for offshore wind in the country. Swedish permitting and planning procedures, though, appear favorable to such a development, not the least in comparison to the corresponding processes in the other major offshore wind countries in Europe (e.g., the UK). On a general level the paper illustrates that the success and failure stories of national offshore wind policies and institutions cannot be easily transferred across country borders, and the analysis shows that both the political and the legal frameworks governing the investment situation for offshore wind farms in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK differ significantly.

  16. Planning and development of the Spanish nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyses the Spanish nuclear power programme from its inception to the present time, doing so within the context of the country, characterized by the fairly rapid change from a basically agricultural economy to an economy in which industry and services play an important part and the transformation of which took place mainly during the decade prior to the energy crisis 1973. Reference is made to the early establishment of the Junta de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Energy Board) (JEN), which was set up as a research body even before nuclear energy became competitive with other sources for the production of electric power and which, by adapting its structure and programmes to the different phases in the development and utilization of nuclear energy in the country, contributed the necessary scientific, technical and legal infrastructure. There is also an analysis of the most striking features of the Spanish energy system and an account of the planning and construction of the first three Spanish nuclear power stations. A further subject of discussion is the energy planning and development projects devised by the Government which gave rise to the second generation of nuclear power plants, some of which are already in operation and the remainder in an advanced state of construction. Emphasis is placed on the action taken by the Spanish Government to increase the participation of Spanish industry in the construction of nuclear power plants and in the supply of equipment and services required for their operation. Reference is made to the experimental changes which have been made in the institutional infrastructure in order to adapt it to the phase of development which has been reached and to the objectives subsequently laid down in the planning: establishment of ENUSA (the national uranium enterprise), the Equipos Nucleares corporation and the Nuclear Safety Council, and also the changes made in the JEN

  17. Severe accident countermeasure plan (draft) for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants should be designed, constructed, and operated properly so that the likelihood of occurrence of a severe accident and its consequence may be minimized. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been reviewing the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement and the preceding severe accident countermeasure plan and prepared a new draft plan in order to provide a reasonable regulatory position for severe accidents. This plan has been prepared by taking into account the different reactor types and the characteristics of operating plants, new plants using the existing design, and new ones including the next generation plants. The major elements included in the plan are: establishment and application of the safety goal, performance of the probabilistic safety assessment and establishment of countermeasure plans for the vulnerabilities, provisions for severe accidents prevention and mitigation capability, set-up of a severe accident management program implementation system. Each element has been set up to move progressively toward an upgrading in safety of currently operating plants and future ones

  18. Guidance for emergency planning in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringhals has been a model for this study, but the purpose has been to make the report applicable at all nuclear power plants in Sweden. The work has been done in close co-operation with the Swedish nuclear power plants and Rescue Services in the nuclear power municipalities Oesthammar, Oskarshamn, and Varberg. The internal fire brigade at the nuclear power plants has also been involved. A document will also be published as a further guidance at efforts of the type fires, which are mentioned in the enclosed document. After a fire in a switchgear room in 2005 the need of making the existing effort planning more effective at nuclear power plants was observed. The idea with the planning is to plan the effort in order to give the operational and emergency staff a good and actual support to come to a decision and to start the mission without delay. The risk information is showed by planning layouts, symbols and drawings as basis, give risk information and effort information. The effort information shows outer arrangements, manual action points, fire installations, passive fire safety etc. The risk information is shown by risk symbols. Their purpose is to give a fast overview of the existing risks. Reactor safety effects is the ruling influence if an effort has to be done in order to secure safety for a third person. In order to make an effort in an area personal risks for rescue staff, such as electricity risks, radiological risks, chemicals and gas bottles with compressed gases, has to be eliminated. For complicated missions detailed instructions are needed in order to handle specific risks. In a group discussion different people with pertinent knowledge has to value which problematic efforts need detailed instruction. Missions that have to be analyzed in a work group as above are: fire may affect the reactor safety, fire that may threaten the structural integrity, chemical discharge with big consequence on environment/third person and handling of gas system (compressed

  19. Planning and architectural safety considerations in designing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve optimum safety and to avoid possible hazards in nuclear power plants, considering architectural design fundamentals and all operating precautions is mandatory. There are some planning and architectural precautions should be considered to achieve a high quality design and construction of nuclear power plant with optimum safety. This paper highlights predicted hazards like fire, terrorism, aircraft crash attacks, adversaries, intruders, and earthquakes, proposing protective actions against these hazards that vary from preventing danger to evacuating and sheltering people in-place. For instance; using safeguards program to protect against sabotage, theft, and diversion. Also, site and building well design focusing on escape pathways, emergency exits, and evacuation zones, and the safety procedures such as; evacuation exercises and sheltering processes according to different emergency classifications. In addition, this paper mentions some important codes and regulations that control nuclear power plants design, and assessment methods that evaluate probable risks. (author)

  20. Pulsed Power: Sandia's Plans for the New Millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed power science and engineering activities at Sandia National Laboratories grew out of a programmatic need for intense radiation sources to advance capabilities in radiographic imaging and to create environments for testing and certifying the hardness of components and systems to radiation in hostile environments. By the early 1970s, scientists in laboratories around the world began utilizing pulsed power drivers with very short (10s of nanoseconds) pulse lengths for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments. In the United States, Defense Programs within the Department of Energy has sponsored this research. Recent progress in pulsed power, specifically fast-pulsed-power-driven z pinches, in creating temperatures relevant to ICF has been remarkable. Worldwide developments in pulsed power technologies and increased applications in both defense and industry are contrasted with ever increasing stress on research and development tiding. The current environment has prompted us at Sandia to evaluate our role in the continued development of pulsed power science and to consider options for the future. This presentation will highlight our recent progress and provide an overview of our plans as we begin the new millennium

  1. Air quality analysis for the Western Area Power Administration's 2004 Power Marketing Plan Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets and transmits electric power throughout 15 western states. Western's Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region (Sierra Nevada Region) markets approximately 1,480 megawatts (MW) of firm power (plus 100 MW of seasonal peaking capacity) from the Central Valley Project (CVP) and other resources. Western's mission is to sell and deliver electricity generated from these resources. Western's capacity and energy sales must be in conformance with the laws that govern its sale of electrical power. Further, Western's hydropower operations at each facility must comply with minimum and maximum flows and other constraints set by other regulatory agencies. The Sierra Nevada Region proposes to develop a marketing plan that defines the products and services it would offer beyond the year 2004 and the eligibility and allocation criteria for its electric power resources. Because determining levels of long-term firm power resources to be marketed and subsequently entering into contracts for the delivery of related products and services could be a major Federal action with potentially significant impacts to the human environment, the 2004 Power Marketing Plan Environmental Impact Statement (2004 EIS) is being prepared. Decisions made by the Sierra Nevada Region on how and when to supply power to its customers would influence the operation of power plants within the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC). If the resources affected are thermal resources, this could in turn affect the amount, timing, and location of pollutant emissions to the air at locations throughout the western United States. This report has been produced in conjunction with the 2004 EIS to provide a more detailed discussion of the air quality implications of the 2004 power marketing plan

  2. Indicators for management of planned outages in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outages considered within the scope of this publication are planned refuelling outages (PWR and BWR nuclear power plants) and planned outages associated with major maintenance, tests and inspections (PHWR and LWGR nuclear power plants). The IAEA has published some valuable reports providing guidance and assistance to operating organizations on outage management. This TECDOC outlines main issues to be considered in outage performance monitoring and provides guidance to operating organizations for the development and implementation of outage programmes which could enhance plant safety, reliability and economics. It also complements the series of reports published by the IAEA on outage management and on previous work related to performance indicators developed for monitoring different areas of plant operation, such as safety, production, reliability and economics. This publication is based upon the information presented at a technical meeting to develop a standardized set of outage indicators for outage optimization, which was organised in Vienna, 6-9 October 2003. At this meeting, case studies and good practices relating to performance indicator utilization in the process of planned outage management were presented and discussed

  3. Using Monte Carlo Simulations to Determine Power and Sample Size for Planned Missing Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemann, Alexander M.; Miller, Patrick; Pornprasertmanit, Sunthud; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Planned missing data designs allow researchers to increase the amount and quality of data collected in a single study. Unfortunately, the effect of planned missing data designs on power is not straightforward. Under certain conditions using a planned missing design will increase power, whereas in other situations using a planned missing design…

  4. Planning of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major stages of the planning of the first Hungarian nuclear power plant following the Soviet - Hungarian agreement in 1966 concerning the complete transfer of 4 blocks of WWER-type reactor by the Soviet partner are reviewed. The original standard project was modified in 1973 due to some basic variations on the reactor type to reduce environmental contamination risks. In addition to the evident planning difficulties arising from the modification of the reactor type and the changing of the national circumstances, standards, methods of design, etc., co-operational problems in the design due to misunderstandings between the partners, frequent modifications of the delivered components relative to the scecified ones, insufficiencies in the specifications can be responsible for the postponement of the deadline of commissioning. (V.N.)

  5. Energy and nuclear power planning study for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes the study conducted in co-operation with several agencies and organizations from Thailand and covers the energy and electricity requirements and the optimal expansion plans for the power generating system for this country up to year 2011. It is emphasized that the study was carried out by a team of experts from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), the National Energy Administration (NEA) and the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), who were fully responsible for all phases of the study, including the production of the present report. The IAEA's responsibility was to provide overall co-ordination and general guidance during the conduct of the study, as well as training and assistance in the implementation and use of the IAEA's computerized planning methodologies on the computer facilities of Thailand. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Application of reliability worth concepts in power system operational planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J.C.O. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.M. Leite da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, M.V.F. [Power System Research (PSR), Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes the application of a new methodology for calculating total system interruption costs in power system operational planning. Some important operational aspects are discussed: chronological load curves, customer damage functions for each consumer class, maintenance scheduling and non-exponential repair times. It is also presented the calculation of the probability distribution of the system interruption cost to improve the decision making process associated with alternative operational strategies. The Brazilian Southeastern system is used to illustrate all previous applications. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. New developments in planning of reactive power compensation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to compensate reactive-power is highlighted by the well-known problem that arises when starting up very powerful nuclear plants, sometimes located very far away from the areas of consumption. Since the EHV network is very expanded and highly meshed, such need varies considerably as a function of the availability of the generating units and the grid. To tackle this problem, the authors have drawn up a new, basically probabilistic, method which accounts for the great many different situations characterizing a large meshed network (1000 nodes) while providing reasonably safe operating conditions in case of n-1 contingency. It is today an operational method. The authors illustrate it with the results of a recent study on compensation device-planning on the EHV EDF network by 1990

  8. Case study : power distribution PBR plans of National Grid USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This power point presentation described the progressive approach taken by the Northeastern United States towards electric power restructuring and performance based ratemaking (PBR) with reference to National Grid USA and the NEES tradition of pursuing regulatory matters. The catalyst for change was the NEES acquisition of EUA (and National Grid USA acquisition of NEES). Another catalyst for change was the desire to merge operating companies and consolidate rates. This paper described the settlement negotiations of the New England Process with reference to meeting the customer's desire for lower electricity prices and rate stability.The paper also described a multi-year PBR-based plan proposed for Niagara Mohawk which offers incentives for both cost efficiency and service quality. It was concluded that PBR is a sound basis for optimizing customer and shareholder benefits. It was emphasized that while PBR has universal application, detailed implementation must be sensitive to local issues and priorities. tabs., figs

  9. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  10. The management plan preparation activities nuclear power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility Study that has been updated show that two nuclear power units with each unit of power up to 1000 MWe can represent decently an economical alternative energy supply. It added that the available time schedule was quite tight so that the preparation for the development must be starting first. This paper will discuss the preparation of plans of the first nuclear power plant which includes program activities, the structure of contracts, schedules of activities and funding. From the information obtained to date that in addition to a candidate site that is ready to be built in Muria peninsula is still required another potential alternative site besides to search other complete data information. This site investigation activities completed within the time schedule was passed ''critical path'', so that these activities should be carried out intensively and obey the time. This paper describes the steps that need to be prepared to welcome the first nuclear power plant, after reviewing the various input above and apply the reality in Indonesia as the initial conditions. (author)

  11. Planning the nuclear contribution to the Brazilian power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo-electric power in Brazil accounts for less than 20% of the total generating capacity. Brazil's power is essentially generated hydraulically, which ensures the growing development. The electric energy consumption keeps growing, with an annual average rate of 13% over the last five years. The present installed capacity is 20,000MW(e) and 185,000MW(e) are forecast for the year 2000. Most of the hydraulic resources are located in remote areas of the country very far from the consumption centres. In addition to the American-made nuclear power station under construction in Angra dos Reis with a power capacity of 626MW(e), the agreement signed in June 1975 between the Federal Republic of Germany and Brazil covers two more units, each of 1245MW(e) capacity, to be erected at the same site and planned to come into operation in 1982 and 1983. Several joint German-Brazilian companies will be established in the country for reactor and fuel manufacture. The Brazilian state holding nuclear company, Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S A (Nuclebras), will participate in the formation of all joint companies with at least 51% of the capital investment. During the period of the agreement the Brazilian Government will encourage the development of technology and reduce the dependence on energy imports. Brazil's target is full independence in nuclear technology in about 15 years. (author)

  12. Optimal electric power generation planning with environmental constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    evaluating the trade-off among conflict objectives and identifying plans which represent good compromises. Simulations are then presented on the Lebanese Electric Power System in both operation and expansion planning. Finally, the thesis concludes on the results of the efficacy of the developed program and presents some recommendations concerning the Lebanese system. (author)

  13. Coal Power Systems strategic multi-year program plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), through the Coal and Power Systems (C and PS) program, funds research to advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide new and improved energy technologies; to eliminate any detrimental environmental effects of energy production and use; and to maintain US leadership in promoting the effective use of US power technologies on an international scale. Further, the C and PS program facilitates the effective deployment of these technologies to maximize their benefits to the Nation. The following Strategic Plan describes how the C and PS program intends to meet the challenges of the National Energy Strategy to: (1) enhance American's energy security; (2) improve the environmental acceptability of energy production and use; (3) increase the competitiveness and reliability of US energy systems; and (4) ensure a robust US energy future. It is a plan based on the consensus of experts and managers from FE's program offices and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  14. Integrating Photovoltaic Systems in Power System: Power Quality Impacts and Optimal Planning Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Fazliana Abdul Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of some of the main issues in photovoltaic based distributed generation (PVDG. A discussion of the harmonic distortion produced by PVDG units is presented. The maximum permissible penetration level of PVDG in distribution system is also considered. The general procedures of optimal planning for PVDG placement and sizing are also explained in this paper. The result of this review shows that there are different challenges for integrating PVDG in the power systems. One of these challenges is integrated system reliability whereas the amount of power produced by renewable energy source is consistent. Thus, the high penetration of PVDG into grid can decrease the reliability of the power system network. On the other hand, power quality is considered one of the challenges of PVDG whereas the high penetration of PVDGs can lead to more harmonic propagation into the power system network. In addition to that, voltage fluctuation of the integrated PVDG and reverse power flow are two important challenges to this technology. Finally, protection of power system with integrated PVDG is one of the most critical challenges to this technology as the current protection schemes are designed for unidirectional not bidirectional power flow pattern.

  15. Shippingport Atomic Power Station Operating Experience, Developments and Future Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and evaluates five years of operation and test of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station and discusses the current technical developments and future plans of the Shippingport programme. This programme is directed towards development of the basic technology of light-water reactors to provide the basis for potential reduction in the costs of nuclear power. The Shippingport reactor plant has operated for over five years and has been found to integrate readily into a utility system either as a base load or peak load unit. Plant component performance has been reliable. There have been no problems in contamination or waste disposal. Access to primary coolant components for maintenance has been good, demonstrating the integrity of fuel elements. Each of the three refuelling operations performed since start-up of Shippingport has required successively less time to accomplish. Recently, the third seed was refuelled in 32 working days, about one quarter the time required for the first refuelling. The formal requirements of personnel training, written administrative procedures, power plant manuals, etc., which have been a vital factor in the successful implementation of the Shippingport programme, are described. The results obtained from the comprehensive test programme carried out at Shippingport are compared with calculations, and good agreement has been obtained. Reactor core performance, plant stability, and response to load changes, fuel element and control rod performance, long-term effects such as corrosion and radiation level build-up, component performance, etc., are discussed in this paper. The principal objective of the current and future programmes of the Shippingport Project in advancing the basic technology of water-cooled reactors is discussed. This programme includes the continued operation of the Shippingport plant, and the development, design, manufacture and test operation of a long-life, highpower density second core - Core 2. At its

  16. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Planning and Potential Future Systems Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, June F.; Woerner, Dave F.; Cairns-Gallimore, Dirk; Johnson, Stephen G.; Qualls, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet the needs of the missions. To meet this goal, the RPS Program, working closely with the Department of Energy, performs mission and system studies (such as the recently released Nuclear Power Assessment Study), assesses the readiness of promising technologies to infuse in future generators, assesses the sustainment of key RPS capabilities and knowledge, forecasts and tracks the Program's budgetary needs, and disseminates current information about RPS to the community of potential users. This process has been refined and used to determine the current content of the RPS Program's portfolio. This portfolio currently includes an effort to mature advanced thermoelectric technology for possible integration into an enhanced Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generator (eMMRTG), sustainment and production of the currently deployed MMRTG, and technology investments that could lead to a future Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). This paper describes the program planning processes that have been used, the currently available MMRTG, and one of the potential future systems, the eMMRTG.

  17. Power plans seek funds [in Indo-China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conference in Vietnam on the Power Sector in Indochina and Myanmar in September 1995 is reported. The current power scenario in Vietnam and future government hopes and plans were outlined. In 1994 Vietnam had a total installed capacity of 4470 MW, of which 63% was hydropower. By 2010 it is hoped to increase total capacity to 18,000 MW with the hydropower contribution reduced to 50%. It is hoped to attract the US$20bn required to finance this development from investment by international organizations and private operators. However, problems exist in the form of uncertainties in Vietnamese law with respect to foreign investment and Vietnam's non-convertible currency. Vietnam is keen to attract hard currency but reluctant to let it out of the country as foreign companies would wish to do with their profits. Myanmar has been further to go than Vietnam in developing its huge hydropower resources to meet growing demand for electric power. About 40% of the country's peak demand of 550 MW is generated by hydropower but this represents only 1% of the total hydropower resource. Demand is expected to rise to 1500 MW by 2000. Again foreign investment is being sought. As in Vietnam, though, the question of an inconvertible currency arises. In addition, the subsidised low tariff in Myanmar promises only a low rate of return and the country is fighting high inflation. (U.K.)

  18. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  19. West African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines a ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested with assistance from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Initial results from the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Planning (EREP) model for continental ECOWAS countries show that the share of renewable technologies in the region could increase from the current 22% of electricity generation to as much as 52% in 2030, provided that the cost of these technologies continues to fall and fossil fuel prices continue to rise. In this scenario, nearly half of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 would be with renewable technologies. Analysis using EREP – along with a similar model developed for Southern Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  20. Institutional plan -- Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The US nuclear electric utility industry established the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in 1979 to promote the highest levels of safety and reliability -- to promote excellence -- in the operation of its nuclear plants. After its formation, the Institute grew from a handful of on-loan personnel in late 1979 to an established work force of more than 400 permanent and on-loan personnel. INPO`s early years were marked by growth and evolution of its programs and organization. The Institute now focuses primarily on the effectiveness and enhancement of established programs and activities. For INPO to carry out its role, it must have the support of its members and participants and a cooperative but independent relationship with the NRC. A basis for that support and cooperation is an understanding of INPO`s role. This Institutional Plan is intended to provide that understanding by defining the Institute`s role and its major programs. This plan considers the existing and projected needs of the industry and the overall environment in which INPO and its members and participants operate.

  1. Institutional plan -- Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US nuclear electric utility industry established the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in 1979 to promote the highest levels of safety and reliability -- to promote excellence -- in the operation of its nuclear plants. After its formation, the Institute grew from a handful of on-loan personnel in late 1979 to an established work force of more than 400 permanent and on-loan personnel. INPO's early years were marked by growth and evolution of its programs and organization. The Institute now focuses primarily on the effectiveness and enhancement of established programs and activities. For INPO to carry out its role, it must have the support of its members and participants and a cooperative but independent relationship with the NRC. A basis for that support and cooperation is an understanding of INPO's role. This Institutional Plan is intended to provide that understanding by defining the Institute's role and its major programs. This plan considers the existing and projected needs of the industry and the overall environment in which INPO and its members and participants operate

  2. Stochastic Methods for Planning and Operating Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind and Solar Power: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; O' Malley, M.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar generators differ in their generation characteristics than conventional generators. The variable output and imperfect predictability of these generators face a stochastic approach to plan and operate the power system without fundamentally changing the operation and planning problems. This paper overviews stochastic modeling challenges in operations, generation planning, and transmission planning, with references to current industry and academic work. Different stochastic problem formulations, including approximations, are also discussed.

  3. Review of Power System Expansion Planning in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Mario

    2008-01-01

    This report assesses current energy expansion planning practices in Vietnam. This assessment comprises both technical aspects (methodology, planning criteria, construction of scenarios, sensitivity analysis and others) and evaluation of recent planning studies. In addition to an assessment of planning practices, it includes proposing a number of scenarios for the local consultant to carry ...

  4. Local power system plans - Results of the inquiry of 1997; Lokale kraftsystemplaner - resultater av spoerreundersoekelse 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trengereid, Frode

    1997-11-03

    In this report, NVE (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration) presents a survey of how many electric utility companies in Norway that have worked out local power system plans, ie plans for the distribution grid. An inquiry was made among over 200 Norwegian utilities in order to clarify the status of such planning per 1997. So far NVE is not authorized to require that anybody shall take up local power system planning, but the goal is to provide local motivation for such planning. NVE has also wanted to focus on some of the problems connected with local power planning. In 1997, a project will be done on end-user measures and local power system planning. Power- and energy reducing end-user measures may be efficient ways of reducing grid investments in a supply region and should be more strongly incorporated into grid planning. 39% of the utilities already have local power system plans, 15% did not answer the inquiry, 16% did not at present want to work out such plans, 9% are already working out plans and 21% intend to do it

  5. 76 FR 30147 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing... Criteria) published in the Federal Register on December 28, 1984 (49 FR 50582), are available at http://www... Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE),...

  6. Planning maintenance during the first outage and refuelling of Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To take an example in the equipment maintenance of the primary circuit and auxiliary systems, this paper sums up the first outage and refuelling planning maintenance of Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit. It concludes the guiding principle and preparatory treatment. Some suggestions are put forward. These suggestions provide active function for improving planning maintenance and management of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

  7. 76 FR 81487 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing...-2017 marketing efforts, the Energy Management and Planning Program (Program), and the Conformed General...) published in the Federal Register on December 28, ] 1984 (49 FR 50582), are available at...

  8. 76 FR 74630 - Making Changes to Emergency Plans for Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 RIN 3150-AI10 Making Changes to Emergency Plans for Nuclear Power Reactors... Emergency Plans for Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers... (DG)-1237 was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2009 (74 FR 23220), for a 60 day...

  9. 76 FR 15307 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning Committee Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of its staff may attend the meeting of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Strategic Planning Committee (SPC), as...

  10. Modern power station practice, incorporating modern power system practice. Volume A: station planning and design; 3rd. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.C.; Hannah, I.W. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    The planning and design of new power stations can involve complex interaction between the many engineering disciplines involved as well as environmental, planning, economical, political and social pressures. This volume aims to provide a logical review of the procedures involved in power station development. The engineering aspects are outlined in detail, with examples, showing the basis of the relationships involved together with `non-engineering` factors so that the engineer can draw on the information provided for specific projects. The civil engineering and building of power stations are also treated, from the earliest planning and site selection studies, through estimating, finance and quantity surveying, to final landscaping. Main chapter headings are: power station siting and site layout; station design and layout; and civil engineering and building works. The book draws on experience gained by the CEGB through the commissioning of its large modern power stations in the United Kingdom. 216 figs.

  11. Real Plan impact on the electric power residential consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994 are verified increments in the electricity consumption rates in the Brazilian residential sector. At the same time the Brazilian government implanted a economic plan denominated Real Plan which caused prices stability and stimulated long terms financing. In this context, the aim of the work was to demonstrate the relationship between the increments in the electricity consumption rates in the Brazilian residential sector and the economic plan

  12. Implications of sustainability assessment for electricity system design: The case of the Ontario Power Authority's integrated power system plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the results and implications of an illustrative application of a sustainability assessment framework in the design and evaluation of a major integrated power system plan. The paper examines the integrated power system plan developed by the Ontario Power Authority in 2007. The basic framework rests on a generic set of evaluation criteria reflecting basic requirements for progress towards sustainability that was adopted, reinterpreted and applied by the Authority in support of its proposed plan. In response to evident deficiencies in the Authority's work, the authors and colleagues undertook a re-examination using a more fully elaborated sustainability assessment framework, specified for application to power system planning. The results point to a plan and plan components substantially different from those proposed by the Authority. More generally, the results highlight three advantages of applying such a sustainability assessment framework: comprehensive coverage of key requirements for progress towards sustainability while ensuring careful attention to the context and concerns of the sector; emphasis on identifying plan options that avoid major trade-offs among the sustainability criteria and recognition of interactions among the social, ecological, economic and technological realms favouring options that offer multiple, mutually reinforcing and lasting benefits.

  13. Innovative insurance plan promises to leverage green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article explains the gap between customers of green power signing short term (1-2 year) contracts and the banks wanting power purchase agreements for ten or more years before lending on new projects. Details are given of a new initiative from the US green power industry for a green premium for green power marketeers with the idea of an insurance product to take some of the risk and bridge the gap. Examples of coverage under the green power insurance proposal are discussed, and the funding and implementation of the scheme, and the effect of the insurance are considered

  14. Innovative insurance plan promises to leverage green power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edge, Gordon

    1999-08-01

    This article explains the gap between customers of green power signing short term (1-2 year) contracts and the banks wanting power purchase agreements for ten or more years before lending on new projects. Details are given of a new initiative from the US green power industry for a green premium for green power marketeers with the idea of an insurance product to take some of the risk and bridge the gap. Examples of coverage under the green power insurance proposal are discussed, and the funding and implementation of the scheme, and the effect of the insurance are considered.

  15. Analysis and planning of the utilization of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization coefficient as one of the characteristics of availability of nuclear power plants and the operation results (like maximum power, block number, and electric energy generation) are investigated by different statistic methods for several nuclear power plants with PWR type reactors and compared with those of WWER 440-type reactors. By means of linear many-parameter regression analysis the utilization coefficient is studied in dependence on block power and time after reactor commissioning. Forecastings of mean utilization coefficients are presented for the power of WWER 1000-type reactors

  16. Planning and licensing two replacement nuclear power plants in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switzerland is facing the challenges of steadily rising electricity consumption and an aging pool of power plants. Its electricity mix of roughly 60% hydroelectric power and 40% nuclear power is the reason for its excellent carbon balance in electricity production. Consequently, replacement must be found for the oldest nuclear power plants and for future electricity import contracts. Security of supply, environmental protection, and economic performance must be taken into account in equal proportions. For the overarching strategic project of a ''replacement nuclear power plant'', 2 of the big Swiss electricity utilities, Axpo and BKW, in 2008 jointly founded a project development company, Resun AG. Performing the project design work in a joint effort allows synergies to be exploited and expenses to be focused. The 2003 Nuclear Power Act (KEG) of Switzerland provides a 3-stage plant licensing procedure. In addition, the political system in Switzerland offers a number of possibilities for involvement and participation at various stages in the licensing procedure of new nuclear power plants. The political debate about the future energy policy of Switzerland was triggered for good when the framework applications for approval of the replacement nuclear power plants were submitted. Construction of the replacement nuclear power plants corresponds to the political strategy, communicated by the Federal Council, to ensure future energy supply also by building new large power plants. (orig.)

  17. Integrating Renewable and Nonrenewable Energies in Power Plant Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib H. Al-Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Electricity can be generated from different type of technologies such as fossil and non-fossil power plants. Among these technologies, coal-fired power plants have been a major route for electricity generation. Recently, environmental constraints were imposed over the coal power plant operations in order to reduce their emissions. Besides, renewable energy power plants such as hydroelectric, wind, solar and geothermal have emerged with a potential of low impact on the environment. Approach: In this study, coal-fired power plants with a mix of low emission power plants were analyzed from the viewpoint of coal power plant emission reductions while supplying electricity demand. Electricity capacity expansion was also included within the problem to insure sufficient electricity supply in circumstances of emission reduction constraints. Results: Pollutants such as Nitrogen Oxides (NOx, Sulfur Oxides (SOx and mercury (Hg were assumed to be the target compounds. A discrete mathematical programming model was formulated to give an assessment about the coal-fired power plant operations in an electricity generation network. Different scenarios of increased electricity demand and emission reduction targets were applied on Ontario Power Generation (OPG network to give an illustration of the proposed model. Conclusion: The case study results show the significant impact of combining renewable energy or zero emission technologies on the optimal operation of a network that combines coal-fired power plants.

  18. Large-scale utilization of wind power in China: Obstacles of conflict between market and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional strict planning system that regulates China's power market dominates power industry operations. However, a series of market-oriented reforms since 1997 call for more decentralized decision-making by individual market participants. Moreover, with the rapid growth of wind power in China, the strict planning system has become one of the significant factors that has curtailed the generation of wind power, which contradicts with the original purpose of using the government's strong control abilities to promote wind power development. In this paper, we first present the reasons why market mechanisms are important for large-scale utilization of wind power by using a case analysis of the Northeast Grid, and then we illustrate the impact of conflicts between strict planning and market mechanisms on large-scale wind power utilization. Last, we explore how to promote coordination between markets and planning to realize large-scale wind power utilization in China. We argue that important measures include implementing flexible power pricing mechanisms instead of the current fixed pricing approach, formulating a more reasonable mechanism for distributing benefits and costs, and designing an appropriate market structure for large-scale wind power utilization to promote market liquidity and to send clear market equilibrium signals. - Highlights: ► We present the reasons why market is important for utilization of wind power. ► We discuss the current situation of the conflict between planning and market. ► We study the impact of conflict between planning and market on wind power output. ► We argue how to promote coordination between market and planning.

  19. Study on Battery Capacity for Grid-connection Power Planning with Forecasts in Clustered Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takae; Kawasaki, Norihiro; Ueda, Yuzuru; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Kurokawa, Kosuke

    This paper aims to clarify the battery capacity required by a residential area with densely grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper proposes a planning method of tomorrow's grid-connection power from/to the external electric power system by using demand power forecasting and insolation forecasting for PV power predictions, and defines a operation method of the electricity storage device to control the grid-connection power as planned. A residential area consisting of 389 houses consuming 2390 MWh/year of electricity with 2390kW PV systems is simulated based on measured data and actual forecasts. The simulation results show that 8.3MWh of battery capacity is required in the conditions of half-hour planning and 1% or less of planning error ratio and PV output limiting loss ratio. The results also show that existing technologies of forecasting reduce required battery capacity to 49%, and increase the allowable installing PV amount to 210%.

  20. Wind power installations in Switzerland - Regional planning basics and impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the basics of regional planning and its impact on the construction of wind-energy installations in Switzerland. The authors state that the planning and realisation of wind turbine installations is often time and resource consuming: this document presents and discusses the results obtained in a project that aimed to supply consolidated knowledge on project-relevant basics and their effect with respect to wind-energy installations. Experience gained in Switzerland and in other countries is discussed. This report on the basics of wind-energy planning with its detailed information formed the basis of a checklist described in a further report. In nine chapters, regional planning aspects, environment and landscape-relevant aspects, effects on the national and regional economies and social acceptance factors are discussed. Also, success-factors and possible solutions for the successful realisation of wind-energy projects are looked at.

  1. EHV AC undergrounding electrical power performance and planning

    CERN Document Server

    Benato, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    EHV AC Undergrounding Electrical Power discusses methods of analysis for cable performance and for the behaviour of cable, mixed and overhead lines. The authors discuss the undergrounding of electrical power and develop procedures based on the standard equations of transmission lines. They also provide technical and economical comparisons of a variety of cables and analysis methods, in order to examine the performance of AC power transmission systems. A range of topics are covered, including: energization and de-energization phenomena of transmission lines; power quality; and cable safety cons

  2. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  3. Wind power planning: assessing long-term costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the following paper, a new and straightforward technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic load duration curves to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. The model is applied to potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on CO2 charges, and capital costs for wind turbines and IGCC plant is also discussed. The methodology is intended for use by energy planners in assessing the social benefit of future investments in wind power

  4. Is EIA part of the wind power planning problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research evaluates the importance and effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) within wind farm planning debates, drawing on insights from case studies in Scotland. Despite general public support for renewable energy on the grounds that it is needed to tackle climate change and implement sustainable development, many proposed wind farms encounter significant resistance. The importance of planning issues and (EIA) processes has arguably been overlooked within recent wind farm social acceptability discourse. Through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and textual analysis of EIA documents, the characteristics of EIA are assessed in terms of its perceived purpose and performance. The data show that whilst respondents perceive EIA to be important, they express concerns about bias and about the inability of EIA to address climate change and wind farm decommissioning issues adequately. Furthermore, the research identifies key issues which impede the effectiveness of EIA, and reveals differences between theoretical and practical framings of EIA. The paper questions the assumption that EIA is a universally applicable tool, and argues that its effectiveness should be analysed in the context of specific development sectors. The article concludes by reviewing whether the recently amended EIA Directive (2014/52/EU) could resolve identified problems within national EIA practice. - Highlights: • Evaluation of EIA for onshore wind farm planning in Scotland. • EIA is important for multiple aspects of onshore wind farm planning. • Multiple substantive deficiencies of relevance to wind farm planning exist in EIA. • Further research into EIA effectiveness for specific development types is required. • Directive 2014/52/EU may improve EIA effectiveness within wind farm planning

  5. Is EIA part of the wind power planning problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Duncan Ewan; Stojanovic, Timothy A., E-mail: tas21@st-andrews.ac.uk; Warren, Charles R.

    2014-11-15

    This research evaluates the importance and effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) within wind farm planning debates, drawing on insights from case studies in Scotland. Despite general public support for renewable energy on the grounds that it is needed to tackle climate change and implement sustainable development, many proposed wind farms encounter significant resistance. The importance of planning issues and (EIA) processes has arguably been overlooked within recent wind farm social acceptability discourse. Through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and textual analysis of EIA documents, the characteristics of EIA are assessed in terms of its perceived purpose and performance. The data show that whilst respondents perceive EIA to be important, they express concerns about bias and about the inability of EIA to address climate change and wind farm decommissioning issues adequately. Furthermore, the research identifies key issues which impede the effectiveness of EIA, and reveals differences between theoretical and practical framings of EIA. The paper questions the assumption that EIA is a universally applicable tool, and argues that its effectiveness should be analysed in the context of specific development sectors. The article concludes by reviewing whether the recently amended EIA Directive (2014/52/EU) could resolve identified problems within national EIA practice. - Highlights: • Evaluation of EIA for onshore wind farm planning in Scotland. • EIA is important for multiple aspects of onshore wind farm planning. • Multiple substantive deficiencies of relevance to wind farm planning exist in EIA. • Further research into EIA effectiveness for specific development types is required. • Directive 2014/52/EU may improve EIA effectiveness within wind farm planning.

  6. Nuclear power enterprise tax planning strategy in the background of reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of tax planning can be converted into enterprise's productivity, tax planning strategy can maximize the desired effects and bring out its full play to tax planning. Taking new round of tax reform in 12th five-year-plan and the reformation of professional groups as the background, the author detailedly conceived a frame of corporate tax planning strategy for nuclear power enterprises of China National Nuclear Corporation at the forefront of reformation from an all-round comprehensive view and multi-angle stand. (author)

  7. ''Training plan optimized design'' methodology application to IBERDROLA - Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend in both Europe and the United States, towards the understanding that no training plan may be considered suitable if not backed by the results of application of the S.A.T. (Systematic Approach to Training) methodology, led TECNATOM, S.A. to apply thy methodology through development of an application specific to the conditions of the Spanish working system. The requirement that design of the training be coherent with the realities of the working environment is met by systematic application of the SAT methodology as part of the work analysis and job-based task analysis processes, this serving as a basis for design of the training plans

  8. Integrated resource strategic planning: Case study of energy efficiency in the Chinese power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last quarter of the 20th century, many power companies used the integrated resource planning (IRP) approach in power expansion planning. Today, very few power companies use this approach because of the split between the power generation and distribution activities. It seems that, in some countries, long-term power system expansion planning has become a task of the central government. To help the government in this area, this paper proposes a new approach called the integrated resource strategic planning (IRSP). When combined with a smart grid, this approach can replace the IRP for the government's power sector expansion. This paper introduces the necessity and possibility of using this new approach, presents a framework on how to use the approach, and justifies the effectiveness of this approach against the traditional power planning approach, with a case study in China. This paper concludes that if China follows the IRSP approach, it may be able to avoid or postpone up to 69 GW of power generation in the period 2009-2015. These measures could help mitigate 201.8 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), 0.816 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2), and 0.946 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx).

  9. Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. Discovering Sustainable Solutions to Power and Secure America’s Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    Sustainability is fundamental to the Department of Energy’s research mission and operations as reflected in the Department’s Strategic Plan. Our overarching mission is to discover the solutions to power and secure America’s future.

  10. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of nuclear power reactor security plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance document contains acceptance criteria to be used in the NRC license review process. It contains specific criteria for use in evaluating the acceptability of nuclear power reactor security programs as detailed in security plans

  11. Power System Planning: Emerging Practices Suitable for Evaluating the Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report explores the impact of high-penetration renewable generation on electric power system planning methodologies and outlines how these methodologies are evolving to enable effective integration of variable-output renewable generation sources.

  12. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station five-year business plan and operating results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company, Ltd. first 5-Year Business Plan (hereinafter referred to as 5-Year Business Plan) serves as guidance of both the operations and management of the company. Continuous performance improvement of the nuclear power station has been achieved through the fulfillment of goals and improvement plan defined by the 5-Year Business Plan, and through standard and systematic management. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) has made great contributions to sustainable economic developments of both Guangdong and Hong Kong since its commercial operation in 1994. As of the end of 1999, the cumulative off-take electricity generated by GNPS had reached 69.9 billion kWh. Of the WANO indicators universally applied by nuclear power industry throughout the world, 6 indicators of Daya Bay performance entered the world top quartile while 9 the medium level

  13. Thermal power plants - types and plans for construction in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a brief presentation of site selection procedures, the situations, politically and economically, of the principal types of thermal power plant, nuclear, gas-fired, oil fired and coal fired, are discussed. The pollution aspects of fossil-fuel power plants are included. Future technical developments, fluidized-bed combustion and breeder-reactors are briefly presented. Economic comparisons are presented in a series of tables and figures. (JIW)

  14. Plans to expand nuclear power production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish Government made in January 2002 a Decision in Principle which concludes that constructing of a new nuclear power plant in Finland is in line with the overall good of the society. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2002. Based on this decision, the electricity generating company TVO is authorised to continue preparations for the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit

  15. From planning to decommissioning: Life of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a facility no longer serves a useful social or economic purpose, it needs to be dismantled and the site made available for other uses. The six phases (Planning; Physical & Radiological Characterization; Decontamination; Dismantling & Demolition; Preparation for Reuse; Final Survey & Release from Regulatory Control) of steps in the decommissioning process are highlighted

  16. Rubbia floats a plan for accelerator power plants

    CERN Multimedia

    Aldhous, P

    1993-01-01

    Carlo Rubbia is planning a project to develop a nuclear reactor fueled by thorium. A particle accelerator would increase the neutron supply to the thorium cycle reactor. Rubbia states that the idea is theoretical but believes that it would be economically practical.

  17. Empirical study on voting power in participatory forest planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikainen, N; Kangas, A; Kangas, J

    2008-07-01

    Multicriteria decision support systems are applied in natural resource management in order to clarify the planning process for the stakeholders, to make all available information usable and all objectives manageable. Especially when the public is involved in planning, the decision support system should be easy to comprehend, transparent and fair. Social choice theory has recently been applied to group decision-making in natural resources management to accomplish these objectives. Although voting forms the basis of democracy, and is usually taken as a fair method, the influence of voters over the outcome may vary. It is also possible to vote strategically to improve the results from each stakeholder's point of view. This study examines the use of social choice theory in revealing stakeholders' preferences in participatory forest planning, and the influence of different voters on the outcome. The positional voting rules examined were approval voting and Borda count, but both rules were slightly modified for the purposes of this study. The third rule examined, cumulative rule, resembles utilitarian voting rules. The voting rules were tested in a real participatory forest planning situation in eastern Lapland, Finland. All voting rules resulted in a different joint order of importance of the criteria. Yet, the preference orders produced had also a lot in common and the criteria could be divided into three quite distinct groups according to their importance. The influence of individual voters varied between the voting rules, and in each case different voter was the most influential. PMID:17395363

  18. A nuclear power plant certification test plan and checklist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations within the nuclear industry are requiring that all reference plant simulators be certified prior to or during 1991. A certification test plan is essential to ensure that this goal is met. A description of each step in the certification process is provided in this paper, along with a checklist to help ensure completion of each item

  19. Planning and establishment of information system at the preliminary stage of a nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the practice of Hainan Nuclear Power Project, this paper analyses the urgent need of information system during the preliminary work of a nuclear power project, and presents the solution, i.e. near-term planning plus overall planning. Then the paper discusses how to implement management system at EPC mode, and puts forward the orientation and role of informationization in corporation management. (authors)

  20. Clean Technology Fund Investment Plan Approved for Concentrated Solar Power in the MENA Region

    OpenAIRE

    Coma-Cunill, Roger; Govindarajalu, Chandra; Pariente-David, Silvia; Walters, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) clean technology fund investment plan proposes co-financing of $750 million and mobilizes an additional $4.85 billion from other sources to accelerate deployment of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) by investing in the CSP expansion programs of Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. Specifically, the Investment Plan will support MENA countries to ...

  1. Some special problems during the planning and construction of the Paks nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the power plant building using cradle case technology is outlined. The planning and construction of the auxiliary building for waste storage, for water-treatment equipment and others are described. The planning and specifications of a part of the electrical and control systems are presented briefly. Finally, the use of computer-aided design techniques is mentioned. (R.P.)

  2. New aspects in the radiological emergency plan outside the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexican government through the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards has imposed to the Federal Commission of Electricity to fulfill the requirement of having a functional Emergency Plan and under the limits that the regulator organisms in the world have proposed. The PERE (Plan of External Radiological Emergency) it has been created for the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde, Mexico

  3. Planning for rate base treatment of large power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses two related areas of planning for inclusion in rate base of large generating stations. First, the paper discusses the range of options available as to how the plant is to go into rate base, e.g., phase-in plans. In this connection the process of generating the entire range of options that may be available is described and examined. Second, the paper examines innovative ways of using procedures (e.g., accounting proceedings, settlement procedures, cost caps, and other ideas short of a full-blown rate case) and the resources available in the ratemaking arena, to obtain, in the least painful way possible, the necessary ratemaking orders. The thesis is that there must be better alternatives to the many proceedings that have either begun as, or seem to be leading to, endless retrospective examinations of multiple questions (from load forecasting to construction management to continuation-of-construction decisions) under the label of prudence inquiries

  4. Estimation of Powering Characteristics of a Semi Planning Ship

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Rana; K. A. Damodaran; Kang, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    High speed ships, especially with planning type of hull forms are popular amongst navies of the world. Appropriate propulsion plant configuration has to be selected to provide the desired maximum speed and quick responses. Dynamic response of the ship's propulsion plant is one of the main considerations in selection procedure. Accuracy of dynamic response obtained from computer simulation depends on the accuracy of data, especially the hull resistance and propeller characteristics. Thi...

  5. Planning for decommissioning of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance to Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Closure Law, the Government of Lithuania approved the Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Decommissioning Program until 2005. For enforcement of this program, the plan of measures for implementation of the program was prepared and approved by the Minister of Economy. The plan consists of two parts, namely technical- environmental and social-economic. Technical-environmental measures are mostly oriented to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel and operational radioactive waste stored at the plant and preparation of licensing documents for Unit 1 decommissioning. Social-economic measures are oriented to mitigate the negative social and economic impact on Lithuania, inhabitants of the region, and, particularly, on the staff of Ignalina NPP by means of creating favorable conditions for a balanced social and economic development of the region. In this paper analysis of planned radioactive waste management technologies, licensing documents for decommissioning, other technical-environmental and also social-economic measures is presented. Specific conditions in Lithuania important for defining the decommissioning strategy are highlighted. (author)

  6. Power plant construction lead times: The value of contingency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an analysis of two different approaches to the construction of a major power plant (nuclear) is presented. The analysis compares an accelerated, ''go-for-broke'' strategy-which has some risk of being delayed-with a more deliberate contingency construction schedule in terms of revenue requirements and costs of electricity. It is demonstrated that under a wide variety of circumstances there are important advantages to the contingency strategy, but that the magnitude of those advantages is sensitive to the character of the power system being examined and to the flexibility of the contingency approach

  7. Plan 95. Cost for the radioactive wastes from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future cost for handling, storing and disposing of radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power plants are calculated. Total future cost from 1996 are estimated to 44,7 billion SEK during 60 years. Up to 1995 10,1 billion SEK have been spent

  8. Generation expansion planning of the electrical power system in West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thorough study on the generation expansion planning of the electrical power system, covering mathematical and computerized calculations, and financial analysis on the daily load, the load duration, and the assumption of future load, supporting the idea for building nuclear power plants in Indonesia, is presented. (RUW)

  9. Estimation of Powering Characteristics of a Semi Planning Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Rana

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available High speed ships, especially with planning type of hull forms are popular amongst navies of the world. Appropriate propulsion plant configuration has to be selected to provide the desired maximum speed and quick responses. Dynamic response of the ship's propulsion plant is one of the main considerations in selection procedure. Accuracy of dynamic response obtained from computer simulation depends on the accuracy of data, especially the hull resistance and propeller characteristics. This paper discusses the estimation of hull resistance and propeller characteristics of the ship with the help of computer programs and their comparison with full-scale trial data.

  10. Power supply models as decision making aids in energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation of energy supply is characterized by a great variety of interrelated problems such as depletion of reserves, import dependency, financing difficulties, environmental impacts, ect. Consequently those models allowing for the complex reciprocal effects involved, play an important role as decision making aids for energy planning. An energy model for the Federal Republic of Germany is presented as an example of application, which particularly illustrated the feedback processes between energy, economy, environment and society. In this connection, possibilities for development are pointed out, analysed and discussed on the basis of both conservative assumptions and crisis conditions. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear power plant severe accident research plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsequent to the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident, recommendations were made by a number of review committees to consider regulatory changes which would provide better protection of the public from severe accidents. Over the past six years a major research effort has been underway by the NRC to develop an improved understanding of severe accidents and to provide a technical basis to support regulatory decisions. The purpose of this report is to describe current plans for the completion and extension of this research in support of ongoing regulatory actions in this area

  12. Study of the optimization of maintenance plan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a quantitative evaluation method for the maintenance plan for nuclear power plants, developed by introducing the scientific approach, and also proposes a method to search for an optimum maintenance plan to be obtained by maximizing nuclear safety and economic efficiency simultaneously, then balancing them. As a result of consideration, the following results were obtained. (1) The quantitative evaluation methodology for optimizing the maintenance plan for nuclear power plants was developed. (2) The computer simulation of maintenance planning for a couple of BWR systems by using this methodology was carried out. It was concluded that this methodology can produce a new maintenance plan which meets the maintenance targets corresponding to optimum maintenance. (author)

  13. Piloted Mars mission planning: NEP technology and power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the strong interrelationship between assumed technology and mission performance requirements for NEP. Recent systems analysis efforts by NASA, DOE, and various contractors are used to project achievable system performance as a function of technological sophistication for two piloted Mars mission applications. Specific mass regimes for each collection of technologies are presented as a function of power level for piloted applications. Low thrust mission analyses are presented which relate these system performance projections to achievable mission performance. Mission performance ''maps'' are constructed which link prime mission figures-of-merit of time and initial mass with system requirements on power level and specific mass, and hence technology. Both opposition and conjunction class piloted Mars missions are presented for the 2016 opportunity, analogous to those proposed in the ''90-Day Study'' and ''Synthesis'' architecture studies. Mass and time breakdowns are presented for 10 MWe piloted and 5 MWe cargo point designs

  14. Planning Models for Single Wire Earth Return Power Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkabulindi, Geofrey

    2012-01-01

    The high cost of grid extension to rural areas, often characterized by scattered communities with low load densities, requires the use of low cost electrification technologies to ensure economic viability. In Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) power distribution networks, the earth itself forms the current return path of the single phase system leading to significant cost savings on conductors, poles and poletop hardware compared to conventional systems. However, challenges exist in SWER with re...

  15. Deregulated power transmission analysis and planning in congested networks

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Fei

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 31/03/2008. In this thesis, methods of charging for the transmission system and optimising the expansion of the transmission network under the competitive power market are described. The first part of this thesis considers transmission tariff design. In the proposed approach, not only is all the necessary investment in the transmission system recovered, but also an absolute economic signal is...

  16. Power Generation Investment Planning in a Modern Power System With High Share of Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikova, I.; Ruksans, O.; Turcik, M.

    2014-04-01

    This article is focused on investment planning in power generation industry, which becomes an important direction of research under the conditions of newly formed environment of electricity market. The authors emphasize the key role of effective instruments and methods for estimation of the costs and economic efficiency of a generating capacity and its adequacy in a modern power system. In the paper, cost-based concepts are analyzed which form a basis for decision-making and long-term planning of investments in the power generation sector for a power system with high share of renewable energy sources. Mūsdienās energoinfrastruktūras attīstības un tā vadības procesā ir jāpieņem un jāpilda vairāki lēmumi par nepieciešamiem kapitālieguldījumiem, kas ir rūpīgi jāplāno un jāpamato. Viedo tīklu tehnoloģiju ieviešana un energosistēmas drošuma uzturēšana, ņemot vērā liberalizēto elektroenerģijas tirgu, rada nepieciešamību pēc principiāli jaunām pieejām un metodēm kapitālieguldījumu novērtēšanas uzdevumu risināšanai. Pētījums veltīts investīciju plānošanai elektroenerģijas ģenerācijas iekārtai elektroenerģijas tirgus apstākļos, ņemot vērā lielo atjaunīgo energoresursu (AER) īpatsvaru. Modernu energosistēmu vadība prasa pietiekamu ģenerācijas jaudas elastīgumu un to pareizo kombināciju. Lai to sasniegtu, vispirms ir nepieciešama dažādu ģenerācijas tehnoloģijas izmaksu novērtēšana, ko var veikt, izmantojot pienācīgo instrumentu. Tas arī ir pētījuma mērķis, kura rezultātā tika piedāvāta elektrostaciju ekonomiskas dzīvotspējas novērtēšanas koncepcija, balstoties uz elektroenerģijas ražošanas līmeņizmaksām (ed costs), lai salīdzinātu dažādu elektroenerģijas ražošanas tehnoloģijas izmaksas. Lai to sasniegtu tika veikti: - investīciju plānošana ģenerācijā, metožu pētīšana; - elektrostaciju darbības principu analīze elektroenerģijas tirgū; - elektrostaciju

  17. POWER SYSTEM EXPANSION PLANNING IN MOZAMBIQUE: TRANSIENT STABILITY ASPECTS AND OPTIMIZATION OF VAR SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kalemba, Lester

    2011-01-01

    The Generation Master Plan recently (July 2009) developed by Norconsult for the Mozambican Power Sector in Southern Africa highlights a number of candidate projects, most of which will involve building of large Hydro Power Stations around the Zambezi River Basin in the North, and Coal, and Natural gas, based Thermal power plants in Central and Southern Mozambique, respectively. The development of these projects will require substantial grid investments within Mozambique, and across towards So...

  18. 2015 Plan. Project 3: forecasts of electric power market and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actual evolution and view of the Brazilian electric power market by consumption group and by region are analyzed. The forecast of electric power market until the year 2015 for the macro economic view, determined in the Project 2- The electric power sector and the Brazilian economy: insertion and forecasts are also studied. Some comparison with the 2010 plan forecasts and with the behaviour of the market verified in other countries are yet presented. (C.G.C.)

  19. Modeling and forecasting of electrical power demands for capacity planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan imports oil from neighboring countries for use in power production. As such, the cost of electricity production is high compared to oil producing countries. It is anticipated that Jordan will face major challenges in trying to meet the growing energy and electricity demands while also developing the energy sector in a way that reduces any adverse impacts on the economy, the environment and social life. This paper described the development of forecasting models to predict future generation and sales loads of electrical power in Jordan. Two models that could be used for the prediction of electrical energy demand in Amman, Jordan were developed and validated. An analysis of the data was also presented. The first model was based on the levels of energy generated by the National Electric Power Company (NEPCO) and the other was based on the levels of energy sold by the company in the same area. The models were compared and the percent error was presented. Energy demand was also forecasted across the next 60 months for both models. Results were then compared with the output of the in-house forecast model used by NEPCO to predict the levels of generated energy needed across the 60 months time period. It was concluded that the NEPCO model predicted energy demand higher than the validated generated data model by an average of 5.25 per cent. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs

  20. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  1. Nuclear power planning study for Indonesia (Java Island)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of the study is to determine the optimum timing and size of nuclear size of nuclear power plants that could be built on Java Island during the period 1978-1997. The study could also be considered as a general survey of the available energy resources in the country. Included are economic background, rational energy resources, electricity supply system on Java Island, forecast of electric energy demand, methodology and basis for evaluation, frequency stability analysis and results of analysis. In 8 appendixes technical, economic and financial aspects of the demand for electrical energy are discussed

  2. Visions, Scenarios and Action Plans Towards Next Generation Tanzania Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kyaruzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents strategic visions, scenarios and action plans for enhancing Tanzania Power Systems towards next generation Smart Power Grid. It first introduces the present Tanzanian power grid and the challenges ahead in terms of generation capacity, financial aspect, technical and non-technical losses, revenue loss, high tariff, aging infrastructure, environmental impact and the interconnection with the neighboring countries. Then, the current initiatives undertaken by the Tanzania government in response to the present challenges and the expected roles of smart grid in overcoming these challenges in the future with respect to the scenarios presented are discussed. The developed scenarios along with visions and recommended action plans towards the future Tanzanian power system can be exploited at all governmental levels to achieve public policy goals and help develop business opportunities by motivating domestic and international investments in modernizing the nation’s electric power infrastructure. In return, it should help build the green energy economy.

  3. Integrated multiperiod power generation and transmission expansion planning with sustainability aspects in a stochastic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a multistage stochastic programming model to address sustainable power generation and transmission expansion planning. The model incorporates uncertainties about future electricity demand, fuel prices, greenhouse gas emissions, as well as possible disruptions to which the power system is subject. A number of sustainability regulations and policies are considered to establish a framework for the social responsibility of the power system. The proposed model is applied to a real-world case, and several sensitivity analyses are carried out to provide managerial insights into different aspects of the model. The results emphasize the important role played by sustainability policies on the configuration of the power grid. - Highlights: • This paper considers integrated power generation and transmission expansion planning. • Sustainability aspects are incorporated into a multiperiod stochastic setting. • A stochastic mathematical programming model is developed to address the problem. • The model is applied to a real-world case and numerical studies are carried out

  4. Novel binary PSO algorithm based optimization of transmission expansion planning considering power losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuty; Haryono, T.

    2016-04-01

    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is one of the issue that have to be faced caused by addition of large scale power generation into the existing power system. Optimization need to be conducted to get optimal solution technically and economically. Several mathematic methods have been applied to provide optimal allocation of new transmission line such us genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and tabu search. This paper proposed novel binary particle swarm optimization (NBPSO) to determine which transmission line should be added to the existing power system. There are two scenerios in this simulation. First, considering transmission power losses and the second is regardless transmission power losses. NBPSO method successfully obtain optimal solution in short computation time. Compare to the first scenario, the number of new line in second scenario which regardless power losses is less but produces high power losses that cause the cost becoming extremely expensive.

  5. A basic study for development of environmental standard review plan of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Cho, Jae Seon; You, Young Woo [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-12-15

    In this study is performed a basic study to be ready for the development and detail analysis of NUREG-1555 ESRP. As a fundamental research for literature survey and development of draft review plan, review and translation of NUREG-1555 published by NRC, and which is applied to licensing procedure of Nuclear Power Plants are included. These provided the basic information for the developments of the environmental standard review plan.

  6. The long term plan for the integration of nuclear power plants into the Turkish Electrical Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers in detail the study of the expansion of the Turkish Electric Power System for the period 1980-1987. Load forecast is done by sectors and regions and inter-regions power balances gave the basis for the high voltage network configurations. Expansion alternatives are defined giving priority to hydroelectric projects, to local resources and nuclear power plants concurrently with conventional plants (lignite and oil). Several reactor strategies are analysed with LWR, HWR, FBR and HTGR power plants. Present worth value method is used for comparison of alternatives and sensitivity analysis is done for those ranked in the first places. Load flow, transient stability and frequency deviation studies of the power system are studied carefully by means of A.C. calculator and digital computer codes in order to see the influence of the introduction of large-sized power plants (600-750MW(e)) and their location in the power system. A 600MW(e) nuclear plant in 1983 and a second one of 750MW(e) in 1987 should, it is found, be commissioned into the system. The economic optimization was done with two computer programmes developed by KFA (Juelich): IACO for fuelling nuclear plant and RESTRAPO for power system with high hydroelectric component. The report is bound in three volumes: Volume I: Summary and Conclusions; Volume II: System Planning; Volume III: Electrical Survey

  7. State and local planning procedures dealing with social and economic impacts from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roles of state and local agencies in planning for and managing social and economic impacts of nuclear power plants are studied. In order to be effective in these roles state and local agencies must work with each other as well as the NRC. A comparative case study approach is used which analyzes six sites in three West Coast states. The case studies included plants in operation, plants under construction, and plants still in the planning stages. In contrast to some states, all three of these states have moderately centralized procedures for siting power plants, and all have strong environmental laws

  8. Revised Environmental Assessment for the Sacramento Area Office Western Area Power Administration, 1994 Power Marketing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents information on power marketing; expiring contracts; economic methods and assumptions; detailed power supply cost data; guidelines and acceptance criteria for conservation and renewable energy projects; hourly flow impacts graphs; difference in hydro dispatch; generation data; flow data; fishery resources of the Sacramento River; and water quality

  9. An investigation on technical bases of emergency plan zone determination of Qinshan Nuclear Power Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the general principal and the basic method of determination of emergency zone and safety criteria and in the light of the environmental and accidental release characteristic of Qinshan Nuclear Power Base, the expectation dose of assumed accident of each plant was compared and analyzed. In consideration of the impact factor of the size of emergency plan zone and referring to the information of emergency plan zone determination of other country in the world, the suggestions of determination method of emergency plan zone are proposed

  10. Multiobjective Transmission Network Planning considering the Uncertainty and Correlation of Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to consider the uncertainty and correlation of wind power in multiobjective transmission network expansion planning (TNEP, this paper presents an extended point-estimation method to calculate the probabilistic power flow, based on which the correlative power outputs of wind farm are sampled and the uncertain multiobjective transmission network planning model is transformed into a solvable deterministic model. A modified epsilon multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is used to solve the above model and a well-distributed Pareto front is achieved, and then the final planning scheme can be obtained from the set of nondominated solutions by a fuzzy satisfied method. The proposed method only needs the first four statistical moments and correlation coefficients of the output power of wind farms as input information; the modeling of wind power is more precise by considering the correlation between wind farms, and it can be easily combined with the multiobjective transmission network planning model. Besides, as the self-adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation are adopted, the global search capabilities of the proposed algorithm can be significantly improved while the probability of being stuck in the local optimum is effectively reduced. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are validated by IEEE 24 as well as a real system.

  11. The socio-economic costs of the planned development of wind power energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The socio-economic consequences of the Danish government's planned further development of wind power energy are discussed in detail. It is claimed that, currently, electricity produced by wind turbines is more expensive than that produced by power stations, if the relative environmental effects are not taken into consideration. It is expected that technological development will contribute to cost reduction by the year 2010 so that electricity produced by wind turbines will be competitive, but until then costs of wind power energy will be high and it is reckoned that losses will be in the range of 5-6 billion Danish crowns, minus 2.5 billion saved by lack of CO2 emission. The socio-economic factors regarding windmills of various sizes (150 kW and 225 kW) are calculated and the planned development of wind power until 2010 is explained. The socio-economic costs of the development programme under various conditions, including the calculation of the saved emissions of carbon dioxide, are discussed. The author states that, in the light of these arguments, he is not in agreement with the governmental plan for the development of wind-turbine produced electricity. It is suggested that this plan could be postponed until such time as wind-power produced electricity should be more competitive in price, and that it should not be pursued during a period of economic recession. (AB)

  12. Path planning and energy management of solar-powered unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Adam

    Many of the applications pertinent to unmanned vehicles, such as environmental research and analysis, communications, and information-surveillance and reconnaissance, benefit from prolonged vehicle operation time. Conventional efforts to increase the operational time of electric-powered unmanned vehicles have traditionally focused on the design of energy-efficient components and the identification of energy efficient search patterns, while little attention has been paid to the vehicle's mission-level path plan and power management. This thesis explores the formulation and generation of integrated motion-plans and power-schedules for solar-panel equipped mobile robots operating under strict energy constraints, which cannot be effectively addressed through conventional motion planning algorithms. Transit problems are considered to design time-optimal paths using both Balkcom-Mason and Pseudo-Dubins curves. Additionally, a more complicated problem to generate mission plans for vehicles which must persistently travel between certain locations, similar to the traveling salesperson problem (TSP), is presented. A comparison between one of the common motion-planning algorithms and experimental results of the prescribed algorithms, made possible by use of a test environment and mobile robot designed and developed specifically for this research, are presented and discussed.

  13. PLAN 94. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB prepares every year, on behalf of the nuclear power utilities, a calculation of the costs for all the measures that are required to manage the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors and the radioactive waste deriving from it and to decommission and dismantle the reactor plants. The cost calculation is submitted to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). SKI uses this as a basis for calculating a proposal for the fee for management of the radioactive waste products of nuclear power that is levied on nuclear-generated electricity. The calculation, which is based on specific scenarios for energy production, waste quantities and required measures, are presented in annually issued reports, the last one PLAN 94, dated June 1994. PLAN 93 was a comprehensive report giving an overview of the Swedish radioactive waste management system. The 1994 status regarding general premises, facilities, systems, RD and D, etc., differs only slightly from 1993, and the present English edition of PLAN 94 has therefore been reduced to include only an updated set of those tables and other significant data that were included in PLAN 93. The reader is kindly advised to consider the present report as an addendum to PLAN 93. 7 refs, 2 figs, 13 tabs

  14. Tactical supply chain planning for a forest biomass power plant under supply uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainty in biomass supply is a critical issue that needs to be considered in the production planning of bioenergy plants. Incorporating uncertainty in supply chain planning models provides improved and stable solutions. In this paper, we first reformulate a previously developed non-linear programming model for optimization of a forest biomass power plant supply chain into a linear programming model. The developed model is a multi-period tactical-level production planning problem and considers the supply and storage of forest biomass as well as the production of electricity. It has a one-year planning horizon with monthly time steps. Next, in order to incorporate uncertainty in monthly available biomass into the planning, we develop a two-stage stochastic programming model. Finally, to balance the risk and profit, we propose a bi-objective model. The results show that uncertainty in availability of biomass has an additional cost of $0.4 million for the power plant. Using the proposed stochastic optimization model could reduce this cost by half. - Highlights: • Developed a two-stage stochastic optimization model to consider supply uncertainty. • Maximized the profit of a forest biomass power plant value chain. • Minimized two risk measures, variability index and downside risk, to manage risks. • Stochastic optimization model provided feasible solution for all scenarios. • Results showed a trade-off between profit and risk management

  15. Kilowatt isotope power system, Phase II Plan. Volume IV. Teledyne FSCD vs GDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-15

    This Volume contains Teledyne's input to the Kilowatt Isotope Power System Phase II Plan. Included is a description of the Flight System Heat Generation System, Flight System Radiator, Thermal Insulation Stability, GDS Heat Generation System and GDS Radiator.

  16. Workshop: Research and development plans for high power spallation neutron testing at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of vugraphs from presentations at the meeting. The papers covered the following topics: (1) APS as a proton source; (2) target status for NSNS (National Spallation Neutron Source); (3) spallation neutron source in Japan; (4) liquid LiBi flow loop; and (5) research and development plans for high power tests at the AGS

  17. Follow-up of the results of the nuclear power plant stress tests and action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the stress tests carried out by the European nuclear power plants in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, subsequently subjected to peer reviews, have made it possible to identify the measures to be applied to improve safety. Action plans have been put in place to implement these measures within appropriate time frames. (Author)

  18. Dynamic Isotope Power System: technology verification phase, program plan, 1 October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology verification phase program plan of the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) project is presented. DIPS is a project to develop a 0.5 to 2.0 kW power system for spacecraft using an isotope heat source and a closed-cycle Rankine power-system with an organic working fluid. The technology verification phase's purposes are to increase the system efficiency to over 18%, to demonstrate system reliability, and to provide an estimate for flight test scheduling. Progress toward these goals is reported

  19. Recent advances in application of intelligent decision suport software systes for inspection planning in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the BE5935 joint project of the Commission of the European Communities and European industry a new concept of advanced multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) has been developed and applied onto several selected practical problems (bridges, offshore structures, power plants). The example in the area of power plants concerns the planning of periodic inspections (overhauls). The paper describes the concept as applied and customized for power plant related practical applications, and presents the results obtained in 1994 and early 1995. The results confirm the high relevance of the concept for the practice. (author). 6 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Factor analysis for imperfect maintenance planning at nuclear power plants by cognitive task analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperfect maintenance planning was frequently identified in domestic nuclear power plants. To prevent such an event, we analyzed causal factors in maintenance planning stages and showed the directionality of countermeasures in this study. There is a pragmatic limit in finding the causal factors from the items based on report descriptions. Therefore, the idea of the systemic accident model, which is used to monitor the performance variability in normal circumstances, is taken as a new concept instead of investigating negative factors. As an actual method for analyzing usual activities, cognitive task analysis (CTA) was applied. Persons who experienced various maintenance activities at one electric power company were interviewed about sources related to decision making during maintenance planning, and then usual factors affecting planning were extracted as performance variability factors. The tendency of domestic events was analyzed using the classification item of those factors, and the directionality of countermeasures was shown. The following are critical for preventing imperfect maintenance planning: the persons in charge should fully understand the situation of the equipment for which they are responsible in the work planning and maintenance evaluation stages, and they should definitely understand, for example, the maintenance bases of that equipment. (author)

  1. Participation of the ININ in the external radiological emergency plan of the Laguna Verde power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planning of performances in radiological emergencies, with the object of reducing the consequences as much as possible on the population to accidental liberations of radioactive material coming from Nuclear power plant, it has been of main interest in the nuclear community in the world. In Mexico it has not been the exception, since with the setting in march of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant exists an executive program of planning for emergencies that it outlines the activities to follow trending to mitigate the consequences that are derived of this emergency. As integral part of this program this the External Plan of Radiological Emergency (PERE) that covers the emergencies that could leave the frontiers of the Laguna Verde power plant. In the PERE it settles down the planning, address and control of the preparation activities, response and recovery in emergencies, as well as the organization and coordination of the institutions that participate. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), like integral part of these institutions in the PERE, has an infrastructure that it allows to participate in the plan in a direct way in the activities of 'Control of the radiological exhibition the response personnel and control of water and foods' and of support way and consultant ship in the activities of 'Monitoring, Classification and decontamination of having evaluated' and 'Specialized medical radiological attention'. At the moment the ININ has a radiological mobile unit and this conditioning a second mobile unit to carry out part of the activities before mentioned; also accounts with 48 properly qualified people that directly intervene in the plan. In order to guarantee an adequate response in the PERE an organization it has been structured like that of the annex as for the personnel, transport, team, procedures and communication system, with the objective always of guaranteeing the security and the population's health in emergency situations in the

  2. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1995. Report about operation, construction, and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report about Operation, Construction, and Planning in 18 European Countries Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1995. The ''Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1995'' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1995, 214 (1994: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,010 (176,322) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation in seventeen countries, and 26 (30) units with 24,786 (28,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (245) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,796 (204,408) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1048 TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1994; 792 TWh of this aggregate was converted in 137 units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 77%, has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 75% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 5%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power plants are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.)

  3. Optimal Planning and Operation Management of a Ship Electrical Power System with Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Meng, Lexuan;

    2016-01-01

    Next generation power management at all scales is highly relying on the efficient scheduling and operation of different energy sources to maximize efficiency and utility. The ability to schedule and modulate the energy storage options within energy systems can also lead to more efficient use of the...... generating units. This optimal planning and operation management strategy becomes increasingly important for off-grid systems that operate independently of the main utility, such as microgrids or power systems on marine vessels. This work extends the principles of optimal planning and economic dispatch...... problems to shipboard systems where some means of generation and storage are also schedulable. First, the question of whether or how much energy storage to include into the system is addressed. Both the storage power rating in MW and the capacity in MWh are optimized. Then, optimal operating strategy for...

  4. Nuclear power as an option in electrical generation planning for Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected increase of electricity consumption in the next two decades, if covered mainly by domestic production, will require roughly 4500 MW of new installed capacity. The question is which resource mix would be optimal for the future power plants. Taking into account lack of domestic resources for electricity generation, current trends in the European energy markets, and environmental impact of various energy technologies, it seems reasonable for Croatia to keep the nuclear option open in the future energy planning. In line with that conclusion, this paper analyzes how the introduction of nuclear power plants would influence future power system expansion plans in Croatia, and the possibility to meet the Kyoto requirement. The effects of CO2 emission tax and external costs on the optimal capacity mix and the emissions levels are also examined. (author)

  5. Interesting tools for the cybersecurity plan of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of digital technologies in monitoring and control systems of nuclear power plants and their connectivity requirements, originate cybersecurity difficulties that should be addressed in a cybersecurity plan. This plan should guide the policies and procedures followed during the design maintenance and operation of the systems inside a nuclear power plant. It also should refer to adequate tools able to reach the established cybersecurity requirements. The combination of Datadiodes and tools for publishing video(like tVGA2web), permit an isolation and remote maintenance in a 100% safety way and their use should be disseminated. In the paper other type of tools useful for nuclear power plants are also mentioned.

  6. An investigation on the impacts of regulatory interventions on wind power expansion in generation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large integration of intermittent wind generation in power system has necessitated the inclusion of more innovative and sophisticated approaches in power system investment planning. This paper presents a novel framework on the basis of a combination of stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) algorithm and game theory to study the impacts of different regulatory interventions to promote wind power investment in generation expansion planning. In this study, regulatory policies include Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) incentive, quota and tradable green certificate. The intermittent nature and uncertainties of wind power generation will cause the investors encounter risk in their investment decisions. To overcome this problem, a novel model has been derived to study the regulatory impacts on wind generation expansion planning. In our approach, the probabilistic nature of wind generation is modeled. The model can calculate optimal investment strategies, in which the wind power uncertainty is included. This framework is implemented on a test system to illustrate the working of the proposed approach. The result shows that FITs are the most effective policy to encourage the rapid and sustained deployment of wind power. FITs can significantly reduce the risks of investing in renewable energy technologies and thus create conditions conducive to rapid market growth. - Highlights: → The impacts of regulatory policies to promote wind power investment are investigated. → These policies include Feed-in-Tariff (FIT), quota and tradable green certificate. → Result shows that FIT is an effective policy to motivate the rapid growth of wind power. → In quota, customers are forced to provide the quota decided by regulators from wind.

  7. Report to the Parliament 2009 - 2020 period. Multi-annual planning of investments for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Multi-annual Planning of Investments (PPI) for power generation in France has been realized in order to meet the conclusions of the Grenelle Environnement Forum for a better management of energy demand and a large investment program in non carbon energies. Some renewable energy development targets are set for 2020: 25000 MW for wind energy (19000 MW on land and 6000 MW on sea), 5400 MW for solar energy, 2300 MW for biomass energy, 3 TWh.year and a peak capacity of 3000 MW for hydroelectric power. Concerning nuclear energy, power plant operation will be optimized and two EPR-type reactors will be launched; the minimum required of conventional thermal power plants will be modernized in order to reduce its atmospheric emissions. Power systems in two regions (Brittany and PACA) will be reinforced

  8. A basic plan for the environment-friendly aspects of improved Korean standard nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Improved Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP+) design has been made possible on the basis of engineering experiences and referring to an in-depth analysis of the design and construction of all the domestic nuclear power plants in operation. The KSNP+ is designed for improved safety, better economics, operability and maintainability by means of advanced technology expecting to demonstrate enhanced performance. The plant also has incorporated several environmentally friendly features through the restoration of excavated areas using an ecological approach, external coloring, figure of turbine generator building and landscaping around nuclear power plant. This is the first time that KOPEC has embarked on inducing environmentally friendly features into the basic plan. This is expected to mitigate the negative perceptions held by the residents in the vicinity of nuclear power plants and will contribute to a new and improved image of nuclear power plants. (authors)

  9. Radiological emergency preparedness and emergency response plan for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Disater Prevention Council which is the central organ of the Government for controlling disaster prevention actions in Korea took the step to establish urgent counter-measures to be taken against nuclear emergencies. Emergency Technical Advisory Team was organized by the KAERI stffs for the purpose of offering necessary technical advices to the relevent Government Agencies as well as to Korea Electric Power Coporation (KEPCO). We have participated in the establishment of the national emergency response plan and prepared reports such as ''General principles gor radiological emergency response plans and preparedness'' and ''Guideline for radiological emergency response plans and preparedness'' etc. We also reviewed the radiological emergency response plan and procedures of Korea Nuclear Unit 1 and 3, and the head office of KEPCO. (Author)

  10. Power system engineering planning, design, and operation of power systems and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Schlabbach, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    With its focus on the requirements and procedures of tendering and project contracting, this book enables the reader to adapt the basics of power systems and equipment design to special tasks and engineering projects, e.g. the integration of renewable energy sources.

  11. Hybrid power markets in Africa: Generation planning, procurement and contracting challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    African power sectors are generally characterised by insufficient generation capacity. Reforms to address poor performances in the 1990s followed a prescribed evolution towards power markets that would allow wholesale competition amongst generators and so lead towards efficiency improvements. Despite reforms being embarked, competitive power markets have not been established in Africa; rather, the result has been the emergence of hybrid markets where state-owned generators and IPPs operate devoid of competition; and although IPPs have emerged in a number of African power sectors, many countries still do not have sufficient generation to meet their electricity demands. This paper investigates the development of private generation power projects in Africa by analysing data collected from both primary and secondary sources in four case studies of power sectors in Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire, Morocco and Tunisia. It identifies how planning and procurement challenges have lead to difficulties in adding sufficient generation capacity in a timely manner, exacerbating the problem of insufficient generation capacity in Africa. It provides suggestions as to how these frameworks could respond more effectively to the capacity challenges faced by hybrid electricity generation markets, and how broader power sector reforms should be guided to reflect the challenges of hybrid markets better. - Research highlights: → The standard model of power sector reform should no longer be used as a progress measure of power sector development in Africa and many other developing countries. → The hybrid market should in itself be recognised as an established 'model' of power sectors in Africa and many developing countries. → Planning, procurement and contracting arrangements should be shaped specifically for hybrid markets in order to address the problem of insufficient generation capacity in developing countries.

  12. An integrated GIS environment enhancing the operation and planning of power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of electrical power systems was tightly geared by the development of two fields: power engineering, with the advanced technology of physical elements comprising all parts of a power system, and information processing tools to manage the performance of electric power utilities. Compared to power engineering that has gone through tremendous developments, information technology applications for electrical power systems are relatively young. The possible improvements of these applications are in their graphical, mapping an data analysis capabilities. State-of-the art information technology such as Geographic Information Systems provides these facilities. The objective of this thesis is to devise a technique that combines power system software tools with the Geographic Information Systems software to enhance the operation, control and planning of electrical transmission systems. The load flow, voltage control and fault analysis models for the transmission system will be re-engineered in a Geographic Information System environment.The research is generic, special attention is given to its application to the Lebanese electrical power system, which is recovering from an infrastructure devastating war. The research entails integrating power systems analysis and control package, or PSACP developed at the AUB within a Geographic Information Systems environment. This will enhance the power modeling capabilities by the use of powerful thematic mapping, geographic and data analysis and user interface techniques that come with Geographic Information Systems. An overview of the two technologies involved is presented, followed by a detailed description of the integration technique before describing the integrated system. Moving to a higher level, the features of the system are presented, followed by sample applications of the integrated system on the Lebanese electrical power system. The thesis contributes to the research arena by developing a software re

  13. Operation planning in power plants - possibilities and limits; Rechnergestuetzte Energieeinsatzplanung - Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubrich, H.J.; Flechner, B.; Hartenstein, R.; Wolter, H.

    1995-12-31

    Cost-effective, reliable operation of power supply systems requires foresighted planning. In power plant operation planning the crucial planning term is considered to be one year because it involves making important, commiting decisions which must hold against a great many unpredictable influences. The present paper gives an overview of a three-year research project carried out at the Institute for Electric Installations and Energy Economy of RWTH Aachen (Aachen University of Technology), which had been commissioned by Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG (EVS) to determine the required modeling accuracy in power plant operation planning and the possibilities of and limits to using computer-aided methods for this purpose. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der kostenguenstige und zuverlaessige Betrieb von Energieversorgungssystemen erfordert eine vorausschauende Planung. Der Energieeinsatzplanung mit einem Betrachtungszeitraum von einem Jahr kommt dabei eine Schluesselrolle zu, da unter Beachtung zahlreicher Zufallseinfluesse wesentliche Vorentscheidungen festzulegen sind. Dieser Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber ein dreijaehriges Forschungsprojekt am Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft der RWTH Aachen, in dem im Auftrag der Energie-Versorgung Schaben AG (EVS) untersucht wurde, welche Modellierungsgenauigkeit bei der Energieeinsatzplanung erforderlich ist und welche Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen bei einer rechnergestuetzten Energieeinsatzplanung bestehen. (orig.)

  14. Problems in planning the early closure of the Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ignalina nuclear power plant is the main electricity generator in Lithuania. Having two RBMK-1500 type reactors has meant that the country has the highest per capita nuclear electricity fraction (more than 70%). The design life of each reactor was 30 years of operation, with fuel channel renewal at mid-life. On this basis, Ignalina Unit 1 should have operated until 2013, and Unit 2 up to 2017 (note that the Russian Federation has already announced a 15 year life extension for the similar type Leningrad-1 nuclear power plant). The early closure of Ignalina was finalized in an additional protocol to the Accession Treaty of Lithuania to the European Union. The protocol committed Lithuania to close Unit 1 of the Ignalina plant before 2005 and Unit 2 by the end of 2009, and committed the European Union to provide appropriate funding. The first unit was permanently shut down on 31 December 2004. Decommissioning planning started with the preparation of the Preliminary Decommissioning Plan in 1999; the preparation of legal acts began at the same time. Several legal documents regulating the decommissioning of the Ignalina nuclear power plant and the management of the resulting radioactive waste have since been adopted. The adoption of the Final Decommissioning Plan and the selection of the decommissioning strategy have their own history and outcomes, as described in the paper. The paper also deals with decommissioning financing, problems encountered in the planning process, social measures and local economic regeneration, and lessons learned. (author)

  15. Environmental valuation for long-term strategic planning. The case of the Brazilian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If not properly dealt with over compatible horizons, environmental issues may cause ventures to incur higher costs and extend over longer implementation periods. Prompted by the uncertainties and risks inherent in these issues, as well as by the need for long-term plans to incorporate sustainable development principles, the Brazilian Power Sector is encouraging the inclusion of environmental aspects as a decision variable right from the start of the planning cycle. The purpose of this paper is to bolster efforts to include in this sector's expansion plans, costs resulting from environmental degradation of the environment. The paper offers an overview of the methodology developed to assess and include in long-term planning for this sector, external environmental costs linked to hydro-power and thermo-power generation. It suggests the use of environmental economic valuation techniques a practice commonly used to analyze the degradation of natural capital in various countries as well as assessing projects and programs, adopting the premises and simplifications required for application over the longer term.21 refs

  16. Modeling the effects of demand response on generation expansion planning in restructured power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahdi SAMADI; Mohammad Hossein JAVIDI; Mohammad Sadegh GHAZIZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Demand response is becoming a promising field of study in operation and planning of restructured power systems. More attention has recently been paid to demand response programs. Customers can contribute to the operation of power sys-tems by deployment demand response. The growth of customers’ participation in such programs may affect the planning of power systems. Therefore, it seems necessary to consider the effects of demand response in planning approaches. In this paper, the impact of demand responsiveness on decision making in generation expansion planning is modeled. Avoidance or deferment in installation of new generating units is comprehensively investigated and evaluated by introducing a new simple index. The effects of demand responsiveness are studied from the points of view of both customers and generation companies. The pro-posed model has been applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus system and the results of the study are discussed. Simulation results show that reducing just 3%of the customers’ demand (due to price elasticity) may result in a benefit of about 10%for customers in the long term.

  17. Report to Congress on status of emergency response planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report responds to a request (Public Law 96-295, Section 109) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to report to Congress on the status of emergency response planning in support of nuclear power reactors. The report includes information on the status of this planning as well as on the Commission actions relating to emergency preparedness. These actions include a summary of the new regulatory requirements and the preliminary results of two comprehensive Evacuation Time Estimate studies; one requested by the NRC including 50 nuclear power plant sites and one conducted by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for 12 high population density sites. FEMA provided the information in this report on the status of State and local planning, including projected schedules for joint State/county/licensee emergency preparedness exercises. Included as Appendicies are the NRC Emergency Planning Final Regulations, 10 CFR Part 50 (45 FR 55402), the FEMA Proposed Rule, 'Review and Approval of State and Local Radiological Emergency Plans and Preparedness', 44 CFR Part 350 (45 FR 42341) and the NRC/FEMA Memorandums of Understanding

  18. Dose assessment for setting of EPZ in emergency plan for decommissioning of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In emergency plan for a nuclear power plant, taking enough measures in EPZ boundary (Emergency Planning Zone) is one of priority matters, to have protection against the release of radioactive materials in accident efficiently and quickly to minimize environmental impacts. EPZ is set as the zone which emergency plans should be mainly prepared on emergency conditions. The criteria of EPZ is that dose value in the area between plant and EPZ boundary have to be less than 10 mSv, even if very conservative release mechanisms and path are supposed. The released amount of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant is calculated to the accident scenario were supposed with the each phase of decommissioning. Moreover, the dose value is calculated as the evaluation of environmental impacts, using atmospheric diffusion parameters are determined by the plume concentration Gaussian type distribution model at steady state, and annual meteorological data of the reference plants. Both of 'the spent fuel storage phase' and 'the safe maintenance and dismantling phase' on each of the expected accident scenario, the dose value in EPZ boundary is much less than safety criteria (10 mSv), and there is no need to plan offsite emergency plan, such as the Sheltering and Escape for a reference plant. This result is agreeing with the opinion of Waste and decommission working group 2006 of Western European Nuclear Regulator's Association (WENRA). (author)

  19. Integrated generation and transmission expansion planning including power and fuel transportation constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comprehensive optimal expansion planning model for an integrated generation and transmission system. The objective function used in the optimization model comprises of the capital cost of the new generating units to be built, the fuel cost incurred in running all the generating units in the system including the transportation cost of fuel from the fuel source ends to the generating unit locations and the capital cost of the new transmission lines to be installed for meeting the forecasted system demand at the target planning year. Constraints taken care of in the model include the fuel availability limits at the fuel sources, the fuel transportation limits for the transportation of fuels from fuel sources to the generating unit locations, capacity of generating units required to be built as well as the power transmission limits of the transmission lines in the system. The developed model is tested on a system to bring out the relative advantage of adopting the integrated generation and transmission expansion planning approach as compared to the sequential approach of first planning the generation expansion and then the transmission expansion. The model has also been applied to the integrated generation and transmission expansion planning of a real system. - Highlights: ► Integrated generation and transmission expansion planning model has been developed. ► Fuel transportation routes and power transmission network have been considered. ► Power flow over transmission lines have been modeled considering both Kirchoff’s laws. ► Electricity production and supply chain has been optimized.

  20. Evaluation plan for the Bonneville Power Administration residential energy-conservation programs. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Berry, L.; Bronfman, B.H.; Johnson, K.E.; Tepel, R.; Trimble, J.L.

    1982-07-01

    A detailed plan is presented for evaluation of the residential energy conservation programs offered by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to the utilities in its four-state region. The steps suggested to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the program are concisely stated, and include: evaluation planning, data collection and processing, analysis of evaluation issues (energy savings, cost-effectiveness, differences between participants and nonparticipants, and comparison of heat loss methodology results with data), and evaluation outputs. The programs to be evaluated include the shower flow restrictor program, water heater wrap program, and the residential weatherization program. (LEW)

  1. Experience with the Agency's WASP for nuclear power planning in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Advisory Group Meeting to discuss recent experience with, and to suggest improvements to, Wien Automatic System Planning Program (WASP), was held in Vienna in September 1985. It was clear from the meeting that WASP is a very useful tool as an aid in planning electric power generation systems. It is widely used in both developed and developing countries and its use will continue particularly if some of the suggestions for its improvements are implemented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 presentations of this meeting

  2. Optimal Production Planning of Electricity from Coal-Fired Power Plant Networks under Environmental Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib H. Al-Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, electricity production from a network of coal power plants and under environmental constraints is considered. Several pollutants are incorporated into the decision planning process including nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx and mercury (Hg. A Nonconvex Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP model was first developed to assist in the evaluation process. An exact linearization of the nonconvex terms was then derived to reformulate the MINLP model into a mixed integer linear program (MILP. Several scenarios of electricity production planning and emission reduction targets are analyzed on a representative case study.

  3. Optimal reactive power planning for distribution systems considering intermittent wind power using Markov model and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng

    Wind farms, photovoltaic arrays, fuel cells, and micro-turbines are all considered to be Distributed Generation (DG). DG is defined as the generation of power which is dispersed throughout a utility's service territory and either connected to the utility's distribution system or isolated in a small grid. This thesis addresses modeling and economic issues pertaining to the optimal reactive power planning for distribution system with wind power generation (WPG) units. Wind farms are inclined to cause reverse power flows and voltage variations due to the random-like outputs of wind turbines. To deal with this kind of problem caused by wide spread usage of wind power generation, this thesis investigates voltage and reactive power controls in such a distribution system. Consequently static capacitors (SC) and transformer taps are introduced into the system and treated as controllers. For the purpose of getting optimum voltage and realizing reactive power control, the research proposes a proper coordination among the controllers like on-load tap changer (OLTC), feeder-switched capacitors. What's more, in order to simulate its uncertainty, the wind power generation is modeled by the Markov model. In that way, calculating the probabilities for all the scenarios is possible. Some outputs with consecutive and discrete values have been used for transition between successive time states and within state wind speeds. The thesis will describe the method to generate the wind speed time series from the transition probability matrix. After that, utilizing genetic algorithm, the optimal locations of SCs, the sizes of SCs and transformer taps are determined so as to minimize the cost or minimize the power loss, and more importantly improve voltage profiles. The applicability of the proposed method is verified through simulation on a 9-bus system and a 30-bus system respectively. At last, the simulation results indicate that as long as the available capacitors are able to sufficiently

  4. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  5. Reliable generation expansion planning in pool market considering power system security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Power system security of different load points is considered in the generation expansion planning problem. ► A modified game theory is proposed to evaluate the contrast of generation companies by independent system operator. ► The reliability of all load points is optimized based on the availability of the composite power system. ► A dynamic programming method is used to find the best solution of GENCOs for decision making of investment. - Abstract: One of the main challenges of restructured power systems is to maintain sufficient installed generation capacity to meet system demand in different load points of transmission network both for present and future time. This paper presents a comprehensive Generation Expansion Planning (GEP) scheme in pool market, ensuring secure operation of power system in different load points. The proposed algorithm is divided into two programming levels: master and slave. In the master level, a Modified Game Theory (MGT) is proposed to evaluate the contrast of generation companies (GENCOs) by Independent System Operator (ISO). Besides that, the reliability level of all load points is optimized based on the availability of the composite power system, i.e. generation and transmission level. In the slave level, a Dynamic Programming (DP) method is used to find the best solution of each GENCO for decision making of investment. The validity of the proposed GEP is studied on Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS).

  6. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act

  7. Safety features in nuclear power plants to eliminate the need of emergency planning in public domain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Vijayan; M T Kamble; A K Nayak; K K Vaze; R K Sinha

    2013-10-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, the safety features of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are being re-examined worldwide including India to demonstrate capabilities to cope with severe accidents. In order to restore public confidence and support for nuclear power, it is felt necessary to design future NPPs with near zero impact outside the plant boundary and thus enabling elimination of emergency planning in public domain. Authors have identified a set of safety features which are needed to be incorporated in advanced reactors to achieve this goal. These features enabling prevention, termination, mitigation and containment of radioactivity for beyond design basis accidents arising from extreme natural events are essential for achieving the goal of elimination of emergency planning in public domain. Inherent safety characteristics, passive and engineered safety features to achieve these functions are discussed in this paper. Present trends and future developments in this direction are also described briefly.

  8. Relationship between regional planning and site finding of power stations with regard to energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the discussion on energy policy generally brought in the fore, spatial relationships are discussed especially in the field of electricity supply. A review is given of the legal systematism in which electricity supply and regional planning are to be found. How state planners organize the provision with sites for high-capacity thermal power stations is described as the concrete development of systematic legal relationships, concepts of, and opportunities for, state and regional planning. In the main part, this paper focusses on the analysis of the course of development power station construction and the distribution system have taken with regard to the question as to whether and to what extent this technological character is also responsible for an emerging structure in which these plants are mainly centred in a special region. (orig.)

  9. Energy and environmental studies associated to the emergency plan of natural gas thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a first exertion to evaluate the environmental impacts due to the operation of planned gas power plants. This study was carried out with the model EcoSense, that is a computer program developed for the quantification of environmental impacts and their external costs resulting from the operation of thermal power plants or other industrial activities. EcoSense is still in development and the achieved results should still be considered with caution although it becomes clear the potentiality of the use of this tool in the support of the decision making process in energy planning. Based on the method of approach of the damage function established in the ExternE project this program provides models for an integrated evaluation of the impact rate from the air pollutants resulting from burning fossil fuel, which are transported by the air. (author)

  10. Improvements in in-bay irradiated fuel inspection planning and analysis at Bruce Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes improvements in irradiated fuel inspection planning and analysis implemented at Bruce Power since 2012. A review of inspection plans and fuel performance reports since 2001 identified significant variations in how irradiated fuel bundles were selected for inspection from year-to-year. A series of inspection tasks was established in an inspection logic and technical basis document. Inspection objectives and bundle selection criteria were defined for each task. These requirements, along with resource availability are now used to prepare a fuel inspection plan each year. The inspection results are then considered in the context of the analysis objectives for each task. The inspection results are presented in brief monthly updates and in-depth semi-annual reports in addition to the Annual Fuel Performance Reports. These changes have improved the effectiveness, consistency and efficiency of Bruce Power’s fuel performance monitoring. (author)

  11. Medical emergency planning in case of severe nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an attempt to discuss a three-step-plan on medical emergency planning in case of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the basis of own experiences in the regional area as well as on the basis of recommendations of the Federal Minister of the Interior. The medical considerations take account of the severity and extension of an accident whereby the current definitions used in nuclear engineering for accident situations are taken as basis. A comparison between obligatory and actual state is made on the possibilities of medical emergency planning, taking all capacities of staff, facilities, and equipment available in the Federal Republic of Germany into account. To assure a useful and quick utilization of the existing infra-structure as well as nation-wide uniform training of physicians and medical assistants in the field of medical emergency in case of a nuclear catastrophe, a federal law for health protection is regarded urgently necessary. (orig.)

  12. Task action plans for unresolved safety issues related to nuclear power plants. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains Task Action Plans for generic tasks addressing 'Unresolved Safety Issues' related to nuclear power plants. The Task Action Plans in this document include a description of the issue, a description of the NRC staff's approach to resolving the issue, a general discussion of the basis for continued operation and licensing pending resolution of the issue, a discussion of the technical organizations involved in the task, and the requirements for manpower and program support funding. This document does not include Task Action Plans for generic tasks addressing 'Unresolved Safety Issues' for which reports providing the NRC staff resolution of the issue have been published. Those tasks for which reports have been published are identified and the reports are referenced

  13. Power system generation expansion planning using the maximum principle and analytical production cost model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the electric utility demand in most countries has increased rapidly, with a doubling of approximately 10 years in the case of developing countries. In order to meet this growth in demand, the planners of expansion policies were concerned with obtaining expansion pans which dictate what new generation facilities to add and when to add them. This paper reports that, however, the practical planning problem is extremely difficult and complex, and required many hours of the planner's time even though the alternatives examined were extremely limited. In this connection, increased motivation for more sophisticated techniques of valuating utility expansion policies has been developed during the past decade. Among them, the long-range generation expansion planning is to select the most economical and reliable generation expansion plans in order to meet future power demand over a long period of time subject to a multitude of technical, economical, and social constraints

  14. Augmented reality for improved communication of construction and maintenance plans in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of implementing Augmented Reality, AR, in the planning, construction and maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants is to secure strict control, precise and correct constructions, exact execution of assignments and heightened safety at all levels. Communication of construction plans to ensure precise and correct assembly of structural elements is essential in all building projects. This is especially crucial in the construction of nuclear plants and installation of new components. The current ways in which construction plans are communicated, blueprints, 3D digital models and written descriptions all embody the need for significant levels of abstraction and interpretation, and are thus both difficult to understand and can lead to misinterpretations. A simulation system with full scale three dimensional models experienced in the physical setting where operations are to take place would bring operators closer to the real life assignments. Augmented Reality is a visualization technology that provides this motivation. (author)

  15. Handbook for the planning, co-ordination and evaluation of emergency exercises in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of the on-site emergency organization in German nuclear power plants is tested regularly through emergency exercises. To achieve federal harmonization on a high level of quality a handbook for the planning, co-ordination and evaluation of such exercises has been developed in the frame of the regulatory investigation programme. In this handbook requirements are set out for emergency training. Key elements are a modular structure, rules to be observed and guidance for post-exercise evaluation. (orig.)

  16. Planning the closure of nuclear power stations: theoretical rationale and practical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of closing nuclear power stations is at the centre of ongoing debates regarding a Parliamentary bill on energy transition in France. This calls into question the role of the State in the management of all the existing nuclear facilities. What are the economic arguments that justify public intervention with regard to determining the electricity mix and the calendar for the planned closing down of these stations? (authors)

  17. Opportunity study and a business plan for a wind power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides illustration of opportunity study and a business plan for utilizing the wind renewable resource for electricity production in Macedonia. The study is prepared under UNIDO recommendations for feasibility studies (see [1]) and following the IAS, by Marjan Nikolov and Risto Naumov. This is a project simulation for a small wind farm comprising 3 power plant units. We use price list from 'Proven Engineering Products Ltd' UK.

  18. Active Experiment with High-Power Electron Gun in the Polar Region (Plan)

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki,Susumu/Kaneko,Osamu/Kawashima,Nobuki/Yagi,Yasuyuki/Akai,Kazunori/Nakai,Yutaka

    1981-01-01

    A plan of a high-power electron beam experiment in the polar region is discussed. An electron beam is quite useful for studying space plasma phenomena as one of the active experiments. The main objective of the experiment is to study the aurora/airglow and various kinds of waves artificially excited by the electron beam, as compared with natural ones. It can be also used to trace the magnetic field line in the polar region.

  19. Power Demand Forecasting Methodology as a Tool For Planning and Development of the Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław G. Korpikiewicz; Leszek Bronk; Rafał Magulski

    2014-01-01

    Planning for the development of the distribution network, providing the required level of reliability, while minimizing expenditures for the expansion requires forecasting future demand for power end-users connected to the network. Dynamics of changes in electrical load will depend on many factors, both local (e.g. changes in the structure and number of customers) and global (e.g. changes in energy intensity of consumption). The forecasting methodology presented in the paper combines the powe...

  20. Generation Planning Methodology Based on Load Factor for Hydroelectric Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Hakan Sevilgen; Hasan Hüseyin Erdem

    2014-01-01

    Major parameters affecting the generation capacity of hydroelectric plants are resource regime, reservoir geometry, and water head together with flow rate and efficiency. For the same resource regime and flow rate, water head can be altered depending on generation planning. By means of holding water in the reservoir and consequent increase in head can lead to boost power generation. In this paper, a method to compare two different operational styles has been identified; a plant operating with...

  1. Launching and implementing FEMP`s 1997 outreach plan featuring the ``You Have the Power`` campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP`s) mission is to help Federal agencies reduce energy costs by delivering effective technology transfer and outreach programs. It is important that FEMP provide leadership and good examples to the Federal sector so that FEMP`s programs and priorities can be transferred throughout Federal agencies and offices across the Nation. In order to achieve this mission, FEMP must send a clear message to everyone involved with the management of Federal facilities concerning its available resources, effective information and assistance, educational programs, tools, and training. To achieve this objective, American Ideas and Designs, Inc., d/b/a Greening America (hereinafter referred to as Recipient) has assisted FEMP in developing a comprehensive energy efficiency technology transfer program plan (hereinafter referred to as the outreach plan). A key component of the outreach plan involved the development and launch of a technology transfer campaign entitled ``You Have the Power.`` The outreach plan and the ``You Have the Power`` campaign emphasized the ability of individual Federal employees, Federal agencies, and stakeholder organizations to easily access FEMP`s energy efficiency tools and resources through a set of integrated interagency delivery programs.

  2. Explaining wind power planning outcomes: some findings from a study in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the factors that influence the outcome of onshore windfarm planning application in England and Wales. Various qualitative and quantitative methods have been employed, including regression analysis. Strong associations have been discovered between the outcome of local authority planning decisions, the opinions of local planning officers, the opinions of parish councils where the proposed windfarms are to be sited and the opinions of landscape protection groups. The attitude of people in the immediate vicinity of proposed windfarms is found to be the most important influence on the decisions made by local authorities. However, the local perception of the economic impact is of crucial importance in forming this judgement, as is the national political environment. The expected attitude of Appeal Inspectors is also important. It is concluded that there is a lot that wind power developers could do to improve the prospects of planning success. This includes engaging in local 'parish council' politics, talking to the closest residents to proposed schemes and encouraging local pro-wind power campaigns. Future projects are likely to be favoured by installing viewing towers at the tops of turbines to encourage visitors and in selling shares in the schemes to local people

  3. Switch: a planning tool for power systems with large shares of intermittent renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fripp, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Wind and solar power are highly variable, so it is it unclear how large a role they can play in future power systems. This work introduces a new open-source electricity planning model--Switch--that identifies the least-cost strategy for using renewable and conventional generators and transmission in a large power system over a multidecade period. Switch includes an unprecedented amount of spatial and temporal detail, making it possible to address a new type of question about the optimal design and operation of power systems with large amounts of renewable power. A case study of California for 2012-2027 finds that there is no maximum possible penetration of wind and solar power--these resources could potentially be used to reduce emissions 90% or more below 1990 levels without reducing reliability or severely raising the cost of electricity. This work also finds that policies that encourage customers to shift electricity demand to times when renewable power is most abundant (e.g., well-timed charging of electric vehicles) could make it possible to achieve radical emission reductions at moderate costs. PMID:22506835

  4. The outline of decommissioning plan for Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station's Unit 1 and Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, terminated nuclear power stations must be dismantled and removed, and doing this requires establishing a nuclear reactor facility decommissioning plan as based on the Law on the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors, and getting the approval of the national government. Termination Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station's Unit 1 and Unit 2 on January 30, 2009 Chubu Electric submitted an 'Application for Approval of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station's Unit 1 and Unit 2 Decommissioning Plan' to the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry in keeping with the stipulations of Article 43, Paragraph 3-2-2, of the Law on the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors. On June 1, 2009 As the application was authorized on November 18, 2009, Chubu Electric started to dismantle. The application includes an overall plan for dismantling reactor facilities safely and surely, a description of tasks to be performed during the period Chubu Electric is preparing to dismantle the facilities in the coming years (system decontamination, survey of facility contamination, etc.) and safety assurance measures, among other information. (author)

  5. Genetic algorithms for optimal reactive power compensation planning on the national grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, J. D.

    This work investigates the use of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for optimal Reactive power Compensation Planning (RCP) of practical power systems. In particular, RCP of the transmission system of England and Wales as owned and operated by National Grid is considered. The GA is used to simultaneously solve both the siting problem---optimisation of the installation of new devices---and the operational problem---optimisation of preventive transformer taps and the controller characteristics of dynamic compensation devices. A computer package called Genetic Compensation Placement (GCP) has been developed which uses an Integer coded GA (IGA) to solve the RCP problem. The RCP problem is implemented as a multi-objective optimisation: in the interests of security, the number of system and operational constraint violations and the deviation of the busbar voltages from the ideal are all minimised for the base (intact) case and the contingent cases. In the interests of cost reduction, the reactive power cost is minimised for the base case. The reactive power cost encompasses the costs incurred from the installation of reactive power sources and the utilisation of new and existing dynamic reactive power compensation devices. GCP is compared to SCORPION (a planning program currently being used by National Grid) which uses a combination of linear programming and heuristic back-tracking. Results are presented for a practical test system developed with the cooperation of National Grid, and it is found that GCP produces solutions that are cheaper than solutions found by SCORPION and perform extremely well: an improvement in voltage profiles, a decrease in complex power mismatches, and a reduction in MVolt Amps-reactive (VAr) utilisation were observed.

  6. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    contribution by synthesizing information from research in power market economics, power system reliability, and environmental impact assessment, to develop a comprehensive methodology for analyzing wind power in the context of long-term energy planning.

  7. Problems of heat sources modeling on stage of isolated power systems expansion planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to use computer codes for evaluation of possible applications and role of nuclear district heating plants in the local self-balancing power and heating systems, which are to be located in the remote isolated and hardly accessible regions in the Far North of Russia. Key factors in determining system configurations and its performances are: (1) interdependency of electricity, heat and fuel supply; (2) long distance between energy consumer centres (from several tens up to some hundred kilometers); and (3) difficulty in export and import of the electricity, especially the fuel in and from neighbouring and remote regions. The problem to challenge is to work out an optimum expansion plan of the local electricity and heat supply system. The ENPEP (ENergy and Power Evaluation Program) software package, which was developed by IAEA together with the USA Argonne National Laboratory, was chosen for this purpose. The Chaun-Bilibino power system (CBPS), an isolated power system in far North-East region of Russia, was selected as the first case of the ENPEP study. ENPEP allows a complex approach in the system expansion optimization planning in the time frame of planning period of up to 30 years. The key ENPEP module, ELECTRIC, considers electricity as the only product. The cogeneration part (heat production) must be considered outside the ELECTRIC model and then the results to be transfer ed to ELECTRIC. The ENPEP study on the Chaun-Bilibino isolated power system has shown that the modelling of the heat supply sources in ENPEP is not a trivial problem. It is very important and difficult to correctly represent specific features of cogeneration process at the same time. (author)

  8. Integrating planning and design optimization for thermal power generation in developing economies: Designs for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, John Dinh Chuong

    In the twenty first century, global warming and climate change have become environmental issues worldwide. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants through improved efficiency. This need is shared by both developed and developing countries. It is particularly important in rapidly developing economies (for example, Vietnam, South Korea, and China) where there is very significant need to increase generation capacity. This thesis addresses improving thermal power plant efficiency through an improved planning process that emphasizes integrated design. With the integration of planning and design considerations of key components in thermal electrical generation, along with the selection of appropriate up-to-date technologies, greater efficiency and reduction of emissions could be achieved. The major barriers to the integration of overall power plant optimization are the practice of individual island tendering packages, and the lack of coordinating efforts between major original equipment manufacturers (OEM). This thesis assesses both operational and design aspects of thermal power plants to identify opportunities for energy saving and the associated reduction of CO2 emissions. To demonstrate the potential of the integrated planning design approach, three advanced thermal power plants, using anthracite coal, oil and gas as their respective fuel, were developed as a case study. The three plant formulations and simulations were performed with the cooperation of several leading companies in the power industry including Babcock & Wilcox, Siemens KWU, Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation, Hitachi, Alstom Air Preheater, TLT-Covent, and ABB Flakt. The first plant is a conventional W-Flame anthracite coal-fired unit for base load operation. The second is a supercritical oil-fired plant with advanced steam condition, for two shifting and cycling operations. The third plant is a gas-fired combined cycle unit employing a modern steam-cooled gas

  9. Bias present in US federal agency power plant CO2 emissions data and implications for the US clean power plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Huang, J.; Coltin, K.

    2016-06-01

    Power plants constitute roughly 40% of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the United States. Climate change science, air pollution regulation, and potential carbon trading policies rely on accurate, unbiased quantification of these large point sources. Two US federal agencies—the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency—tabulate the emissions from US power plants using two different methodological approaches. We have analyzed those two data sets and have found that when averaged over all US facilities, the median percentage difference is less than 3%. However, this small difference masks large, non-Gaussian, positive and negative differences at individual facilities. For example, over the 2001–2009 time period, nearly one-half of the facilities have monthly emission differences that exceed roughly ±6% and one-fifth exceed roughly ±13%. It is currently not possible to assess whether one, or both, of the datasets examined here are responsible for the emissions difference. Differences this large at the individual facility level raise concerns regarding the operationalization of policy within the United States such as the recently announced Clean Power Plan. This policy relies on the achievement of state-level CO2 emission rate targets. When examined at the state-level we find that one-third of the states have differences that exceed 10% of their assigned reduction amount. Such levels of uncertainty raise concerns about the ability of individual states to accurately quantify emission rates in order to meet the regulatory targets.

  10. Appendix XXIV: Human resource planning and training for nuclear power projects in CPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China Power Investment Corporation (CPI) is one of the five largest state-owned power generation groups in China with controllable installed capacity of 28,000 MW(e) and 70,000 staff. CPI owns shares of five operating NPPs and four new planed NPP projects. CPI is also working on preparations for new in-land NPP projects. At present, CPI is investing in, with major shares, and developing Shangdong Haiyang NPP and Liaoning Hongyanhe NPP projects. Based on demands on nuclear professionals and very limited human resources available in China, a plenty of professionals from conventional power industry, the strategy of human resource planning for CPI's nuclear projects is defined as 'Introduction from outside, while mainly reliance on training by CPI'. That is, on one hand, to directly introduce experienced nuclear professionals, and on the other hand, to train and strengthen the prominent staff with rich construction and operation experience in conventional plants, in nuclear construction, operation and management

  11. Stages in planning and construction of the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On October 23, 1972, RWE gave a letter of intent and on January 9, 1973 an order for the construction of a nuclear power plant on a turn-key basis to the consortium of BBC, BBR and Hochtief. The power plant in question was the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station with a pressurized-water reactor of a gross efficiency of 1,295 MWe. After considerable delay of the project, the first building permit was issued to the builder-owner on January 15, 1975, and the constructional work on the building site started immediately afterwards. As the planning and constructional work has so far been carried out according to schedule and the consortium intends to keep the effects of the belated license as small as possible, the start-off of the plant will probably be in summer 1979 if the constructional work is not interrupted. (orig./AK)

  12. Nuclear Power Safety Reporting System implementation plan, concept evaluation and operability test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1984 fiscal year, the Aerospace Corporation continued to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in evaluating the concept of a Nuclear Power Safety Reporting System (NPSRS). The NPSRS concept embodies a voluntary, nonpunitive, third party managed human factors data gathering system that (with the NRC as its parent agency) could be used for identifying and quantifying factors that contribute to the occurrence of safety problems involving personnel in nuclear power plants. NPSRS data could be used to: (1) support efforts to quantify the human reliability elements of probabilistic risk assessments (PRA's); (2) to evaluate the influence of various nuclear power plant systems on human error-proneness within the system; and (3) to aid in the development of design criteria for human-machine safety systems. The draft implementation plan and a description of the operability demonstration test have been published. Progress toward initiating the actual test is reported as are issues yet to be resolved

  13. Geothermal power plants of the United States: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1978-04-01

    The development of geothermal energy as a source of electric power in the United States is reviewed. A thorough description is given of The Geysers geothermal power project in northern California. The recent efforts to exploit the hot-water resources of the Mexicali-Imperial Rift Valley are described. Details are given concerning the geology of the several sites now being used and for those at which power plants will soon be built. Attention is paid to the technical particulars of all existing plants, including wells, gathering systems, energy conversion devices, materials, environmental impacts, economics and operating characteristics. Specifically, plants which either exist or are planned for the following locations are covered: The Geysers, CA; East Mesa, CA; Heber, CA; Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT; Valles Caldera, NM; Salton Sea, CA; Westmorland, CA; Brawley, CA; Desert Peak, NV; and Raft River, ID. The growth of installed geothermal electric generating capacity is traced from the beginning in 1960 and is projected to 1984.

  14. Tradeoffs in the design of health plan payment systems: Fit, power and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruso, Michael; McGuire, Thomas G

    2016-05-01

    In many markets, including the new U.S. Marketplaces, health insurance plans are paid by risk-adjusted capitation, sometimes combined with reinsurance and other payment mechanisms. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating the de facto insurer incentives embedded in these complex payment systems. We discuss fit, power and balance, each of which addresses a distinct market failure in health insurance. We implement empirical metrics of fit, power, and balance in a study of Marketplace payment systems. Using data similar to that used to develop the Marketplace risk adjustment scheme, we quantify tradeoffs among the three classes of incentives. We show that an essential tradeoff arises between the goals of limiting costs and limiting cream skimming because risk adjustment, which is aimed at discouraging cream-skimming, weakens cost control incentives in practice. A simple reinsurance system scores better on our measures of fit, power and balance than the risk adjustment scheme in use in the Marketplaces. PMID:26922122

  15. Power Demand Forecasting Methodology as a Tool For Planning and Development of the Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław G. Korpikiewicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Planning for the development of the distribution network, providing the required level of reliability, while minimizing expenditures for the expansion requires forecasting future demand for power end-users connected to the network. Dynamics of changes in electrical load will depend on many factors, both local (e.g. changes in the structure and number of customers and global (e.g. changes in energy intensity of consumption. The forecasting methodology presented in the paper combines the power demand trend extrapolation techniques, resulting from historical measurement data, with using the information about the potential socio-economic development and available economic and demographic forecasts at different levels of territorial division of the country. Application of the proposed methodology allows performing medium and long term projections of demand for power in the nodes of the distribution network.

  16. National nuclear power plant safety research 2011-2014. SAFIR2014 framework plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    A country utilising nuclear energy is presumed to possess a sufficient infrastructure to cover the education and research in this field, besides the operating organisations of the plants and a regulatory body. The starting point of public nuclear safety research programmes is that they provide the necessary conditions for retaining the knowledge needed for ensuring the continuance of safe and economic use of nuclear power, for development of new know-how and for participation in international cooperation. In fact, the Finnish organisations engaged in research in this sector have been an important resource which the various ministries, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the power companies have had at their disposal. Ministry of employment and the economy appointed a group to write the Framework Plan of the new programme. This report contains a proposal for the general outline of the programme, entitled as SAFIR2014 (SAfety of Nuclear Power Plants - Finnish National Research Programme). The plan has been made for the period 2011-2014, but it is based on safety challenges identified for a longer time span as well. Olkiluoto 3, the new nuclear power plant unit under construction and new decisions-in-principle have also been taken into account in the plan. The safety challenges set by the existing plants and the new projects, as well as the ensuing research needs do, however, converge to a great extent. The research programme is strongly based on the Chapter 7a of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. The construction of new power plant units will increase the need for experts in the field in Finland. At the same time, the retirement of the existing experts is continuing. These factors together will call for more education and training, in which active research activities play a key role. This situation also makes long-term safety research face a great challenge. The Framework Plan aims to define the important research needs related to the safety

  17. Pluri-annual planning of power generation investments. 2005-2015 era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pluri-annual planning of power generation investments (PPI) is provided by article 6 of the law from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric utility. The PPI is the concrete translation of the energy policy and aims to identify the necessary investments with respect to the security of power supplies and beyond the already known commitments. In the framework of market deregulation and respect of competition, the PPI is limited to the identification of such investments but not to their realization. This document, which corresponds to the 2005 exercise, is the second report to the Parliament. It stresses on the following points: the mastery of power demand and the demand scenarios, the level of accepted risk, the carrying out of the development of renewable energy sources (5 GW by 2010 and 12.5 GW by 2016 for wind power, and 6 TWh more for biomass by 2016), the start-up of an EPR reactor in 2012, the investment needs for classical thermal power plants (+2.6 GW of diesel fuel power plants and +500 MW of combustion turbines as decided by EdF), the development of production means in 2 regions with specific needs: Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Bretagne (Brittany), and also in insular areas (Corsica and overseas territories), and the reflexions to carry on in continuation of the PPI. (J.S.)

  18. Ontario's integrated power system plan : discussion paper 3 : conservation and demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario's Integrated Power System Plan (IPSP) has identified the conservation, generation and transmission investments needed in the next 3 to 5 years to meet Ontario's power requirements. The plan specifies the relative contributions that will be made from conservation and demand management (CDM), renewable generation and conventional sources of supply. The purpose of this CDM discussion paper was to promote engagement from consumers, distributors, generators and transmitters to ensure that their priorities and views are considered in the plan's development. The approach that the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) has taken to address CDM was presented along with the size of the potential CDM resource by customer sector and CDM category. The criteria to be used in building a CDM portfolio was outlined along with the principles used to design, deliver and evaluate individual CDM initiatives. This document also outlined the steps required to establish comprehensive evaluation, measurement and verification procedures to ensure continuous improvement in how the CDM resource is developed. The development of the plan will be shaped by stakeholder comment and advice on key questions from this paper, which ask if the understanding of the CDM challenge is consistent with stakeholders' understanding of the challenge and whether the approach for developing the CDM resource is appropriate for meeting the targets. The paper also questions if the estimates of potential energy savings and demand reduction by economic sector and CDM category are a good starting place for the development of the first IPSP. The CDM consultation process will involve a future workshop for exchanging information. 4 refs., 30 tabs., 9 figs., 3 appendices

  19. Automatic data processing and analysis system for monitoring region around a planned nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortström, Jari; Tiira, Timo; Kaisko, Outi

    2016-03-01

    The Institute of Seismology of University of Helsinki is building a new local seismic network, called OBF network, around planned nuclear power plant in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. The network will consist of nine new stations and one existing station. The network should be dense enough to provide azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic detection capability down to ML -0.1 within a radius of 25 km from the site.The network construction work began in 2012 and the first four stations started operation at the end of May 2013. We applied an automatic seismic signal detection and event location system to a network of 13 stations consisting of the four new stations and the nearest stations of Finnish and Swedish national seismic networks. Between the end of May and December 2013 the network detected 214 events inside the predefined area of 50 km radius surrounding the planned nuclear power plant site. Of those detections, 120 were identified as spurious events. A total of 74 events were associated with known quarries and mining areas. The average location error, calculated as a difference between the announced location from environment authorities and companies and the automatic location, was 2.9 km. During the same time period eight earthquakes between magnitude range 0.1-1.0 occurred within the area. Of these seven could be automatically detected. The results from the phase 1 stations of the OBF network indicates that the planned network can achieve its goals.

  20. Gas allocation plans based on failures scenarios: PETROBRAS-Gas and Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise; Vieira, Flavia; Saker, Leonardo; Heil, Luciana [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galvao, Joao [DNV, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present gas allocation plans developed for PETROBRAS Gas and Power Sector, considering failure to supply scenarios that could occur along gas supply network. Those scenarios, as well as the associated contingency plans, were identified and validated by an experienced team, composed by engineers and operators from different PETROBRAS sectors. The key issue of concern was the anticipation of possible undesired scenarios that could imply on contract shortfalls, the evaluation of possible maneuvers, taking into account best gas delivery allocation. Different software were used for the simulation of best gas supply allocation and for the verification of delivery pressure and conditions for final consumers. The ability of being capable of dealing with undesired or crisis scenarios, based on suitable anticipation levels, is, nowadays, a highly valuable attribute to be presented by competitive corporations, for best crisis management and prompt recovery response. Those plans are being used by Gas and Power Gas Operation Control Centre and as an input for reliability modeling of gas supply chain. (author)

  1. Aluminum Alloy Conductors to Be Widely Applied in Power Grid Construction in the 12th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>2011 is the first year of the 12th Five-Year Plan, but electric power supply has become a bottleneck of China’s economic development. Therefore, it is urgent to carry out power grid construction. From the beginning of 2011 till now, China has made a huge investment to build state-level smart power grid, and new aluminum alloy transmission conductors or smart power grid will play an active role in the construction boom.

  2. Plan 93. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish nuclear power utilities are responsible for adopting such measures as are necessary in order to ensure the safe management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors. In order to fulfill this responsibility, the nuclear power utilities have commissioned SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., to plan, build and operate the necessary facilities and systems. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The facilities and systems that exists are: * transportation system for radioactive waste products. * central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB. * final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Future facilities under planning are: * encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel, EP. * deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. * final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research and development, including the Aspo hard rock laboratory, and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plants, etc. The amounts of waste to be handled are dependent upon the total operating time of the nuclear power plant. The total future costs of the Swedish waste management system, commencing from 1994, have been calculated to be SEK 48.3 billion in January 1993 prices considering operation of all reactors up to and including the year 2010. These costs will be incurred over a period of about 60 years. SEK 9.3 billion has been spent up to the end of 1993. In case of 25 or 40 years of reactor operation the total future costs will be SEK 45.9 or 55.5 billion respectively. This cost calculation is presented annually to SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, wich uses it as a basis to propose a fee on the nuclear electricity production to cover all future expenses. The fee for 1993 is on average 0.019 SEK/kWh

  3. Policy planning for nuclear power: An overview of the main issues and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special report, Policy Planning for Nuclear Power: An Overview of the Main Issues and Requirements, has been prepared in response to the express request of a number of IAEA Member States for a document to assist makers in developing countries on the introduction of nuclear power. The report contains information on the political, governmental, economic, financial and technical issues and requirements associated with planning and implementing a safe, economic and reliable nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed and decisions taken, as well as the role and responsibilities of government, the plant owner and national industry. Also presented are the main criteria to assist policy planners in defining options and strategies which can achieve a balance among such objectives as cost effective and efficient electricity production, realistic and acceptable financing arrangements, national development requirements, safety and environmental protection. Further information and details on the technical and other issues presented in this report are given in the list of related IAEA publications and documents at the end of this report

  4. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latest demands on nuclear plant inspections are the ongoing actualisation of the outage plan on the basis of the current work progress and current events as well as the permanent access to the current planning status and work process of all people involved in the outage. Modern EAM systems (EAM: Enterprise Application Management) made up ground on established project planning tools with regard to functionalities for scheduling work orders. A shift towards an integrated planning in the EAM system increases the efficiency in the outage planning and improves the communication of current states of planning. (orig.)

  5. Using the ENPEP program for nuclear power planning study in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of national R-D project KH-09-04 ''Establishment the fundamental basic for the introduction of nuclear power into Vietnam'', 1996-1998, and Technical cooperation project VIE/0/009 ''Prefeasibility study for the introduction of nuclear power plant into Vietnam'', 1997-1999, planning study of energy and nuclear power has been conducted. Based on 3 scenarios (high, based and low) of the Vietnam socio-economic development up to year 2020, the energy demand (forecasting was carried out using computer model MAED. The electricity demand forecast obtained from the MAED is used as one of the basic inputs to the optimization study of the electricity generating sector using the WASP model. In view of the limited, energy supplies form indigenous resources, it has been assumed that imported coal and nuclear power will be considered as the future energy supply options. From the results of optimal electric system expansion found in the study, it can be concluded that nuclear power should be added to the system from 2016 to 2020 depends on national economic development and availability of domestic natural gas sully (author)

  6. Regional power systems planning: a state of the art assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to define regional power systems planning problems, the tools available and their shortcomings, and to document all of the above in a concise readable form. The approach consisted of a survey and literature search. The survey determined the tools being used by utilities, the tools they had rejected, and the tools they planned to try out. The literature search was conducted for the purpose of documenting the tools available, and performing a comparative analysis of these tools. The project included a mix of utility, university, and consulting organizations. Several organizations were consulted in the selection of the participants. A non-profit organization, The University of Oklahoma, was selected to manage the project. The results were reviewed in a series of four one day meetings by known authorities in each field. This report consists of the results of this project. Perhaps its major finding is that several aspects of the regional planning problem are not well defined, the roles of the various participants in regional planning is not clear, and certainly research is needed for the development of new methodology.

  7. Proceedings of the APPrO 2007 19. annual Canadian power conference and networking centre : sharpening the blueprint : how the industry will deliver on Ontario's power plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a forum for members of the Association of Power Producers of Ontario to discuss recent developments in electric power management, supply and distribution. The conference included a roundtable of industry experts who discussed major directional issues related to the electric power industry. Industry experts addressed the regulated price plan for residential consumers which is intended to shield consumers from price volatility. While the province plans to shut down all of Ontario's coal-fired generating facilities by 2014, the industry is facing challenges in terms of social judgements on the quality of new proposed projects and their development process. The conference also addressed emerging issues with the integrated power system plan (IPSP) as well as options for new and improved Ontario Power Authority (OPA) procurement mechanisms. Other topics of discussion included Ontario's Clean Energy Standard Offer and Renewable Energy Standard Offer Programs; prospects for competition; transmission planning; securing gas for power generation; First Nations power generation panel; and, technology options for nuclear energy in Ontario. This conference was held in conjunction with the APPrO green power conference. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Impact of forecast errors on expansion planning of power systems with a renewables target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Salvador; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2015-01-01

    and transmission expansion plan that minimizes system-wide investment and operating costs, while ensuring a given share of renewable generation in the electricity supply. Unlike existing ones, this framework includes both a day-ahead and a balancing market so as to capture the impact of both......This paper analyzes the impact of production forecast errors on the expansion planning of a power system and investigates the influence of market design to facilitate the integration of renewable generation. For this purpose, we propose a programming modeling framework to determine the generation...... production forecasts and the associated prediction errors. Within this framework, we consider two paradigmatic market designs that essentially differ in whether the day-ahead generation schedule and the subsequent balancing re-dispatch are co-optimized or not. The main features and results of the model set...

  9. Meteorological aspects of environmental health and safety planning in nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micrometeorological data i.e. those dealing with the properties of atmosphere in the first 100 meters or so above the earth's surface are required in planning and control of environmental impact of gaseous effluent releases from a nuclear power plant. Data of various types to be collected during the stages of site survey, site evaluation, normal operation of the plant and accident contigency planning are described. Atmospheric dispersion models in general and one suggested by Pasquill in particular are outlined. These models relate the dispersion parameters to the meteorological observables and are used in evaluating environmental dose. Cautions to be exercised while applying these models to the real situation are mentioned. The use of meteorological data for accident analysis while evaluating plant design parameters is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  10. Probabilistic tools for planning and operating power systems with distributed energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöckl, Bernd; Papaefthymiou, George; Pinson, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    owners are either the grid operators, the generation owners, or the energy traders. For the grid operators being the DES owners, storage operation will have to be integrated into the planning of the system, therefore multivariate nonparametric time series analysis and synthesis methods have to be applied......Stochastic energy flows are an increasingly important phenomenon in today's power system planning and operation. They are – among other reasons – caused by large amounts of stochastic generation such as wind. The inclusion of energy storage devices, distributed in future systems (distributed energy...... storage – DES), is continuously being mentioned as a possibility to alleviate some of the problems arising from stochastic generation. The authors show that the potential ownership of the DES systems is an important criterion on which probabilistic methods will be applied for assessment. The potential...

  11. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Electrical Power Systems Test Operations: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTA Electrical Power Systems Test Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  12. Report to the parliament. Pluri-annual planning of power production investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article 6 of the law from February 10, 2000, relative to the modernization and development of the electric utility, schedules a pluri-annual planning of the production investments (PPI) which represents a concrete translation of the energy policy in the domain of electricity. The PPI will allow to reach the energy policy goals using a balanced development of the national production means in terms of primary energy sources, techniques of production and geographical distribution of investments. This document is the first PPI report to the parliament. It is based on the scheme of energy collective services and on a provisional status made by the manager of the transportation network (RTE). In 2010, renewable energies should cover 21% of the French electricity needs. This ratio will be reached mainly thanks to the development of wind power (7000 to 14000 MW of installed power, which represents 20 to 35 TWh of additional production). Hydro-power should be increased of 8 TWh max, depending on the public policies implemented, and biomass will have a significant contribution too. On the other hand, actions of mastery of the electricity demand will have to be implemented. From 2008 onward, the decommissioning of several power plants will impose to find new solutions to satisfy the peak power needs. The covering of consumption peaks requires a correlation study of the power peaks at the European scale. Finally, the situation of non-interconnected areas and of areas with fragile supply has been carefully considered. The creation of new power production means must be envisaged in most of these areas. (J.S.)

  13. Policy planning for nuclear power: an overview of the main issues and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains information on the political, governmental, economic, financial and technical issues and requirements associated with planning and implementing a safe, economic and reliable nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed and decisions taken, as well as the role and responsibilities of government, the plant owner and national industry. Also presented are the main criteria to assist policy planners in defining options and strategies which can achieve a balance among such objectives as cost effective and efficient electricity production, realistic and acceptable financing arrangements, national development requirements, safety and environmental protection. (NHA)

  14. Outline of construction planning on No. 2 Reactor of the Shika Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hokuriku Electric Co., Ltd. carries out the expansion of the Shika Nuclear Power Plant No.2 (ABWR) to start its in March 2006. It is situated in north neighboring side of No. 1 reactor under operation at present, and its main buildings are planned to position a reactor building at mountain side and a turbine building at sea side as well as those in the No. 1 reactor. And, cooling water for steam condenser was taken in from an intake opening built at north side of the lifting space situated at the front of the power plant, and discharged into seawater from a flashing opening positioned about 600 m offing. Here were described on outline of main civil engineering such as base excavation engineering, concrete caisson production, oceanic establishment engineering, and facility for steam condenser, and characteristics of the engineering. (G.K.)

  15. Experience of oil in CANDU® moderator during A831 planned outage at Bruce Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their address to the Nuclear Plant Chemistry Conference 2009, Bruce Power staff will describe the effects of oil ingress to the moderator of a CANDU® reactor. During the A831 planned outage of Bruce Power Unit 3, an incident of oil ingress into moderator was discovered on Oct 17, 2008. An investigation identified the cause of the oil ingress. Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) assessed operability of the reactor with the oil present and made recommendations with respect to the effect on unit start-up with oil present. The principal concern was the radiolytic generation of deuterium from the breakdown of the oil in-core. Various challenges were presented during start-up which were overcome via innovative approaches. The subsequent actions and consequential effects on moderator chemistry are discussed in this paper. Examination of the plant chemistry data revealed some interesting aspects of moderator system chemistry under upset conditions which will also be presented. (author)

  16. Experience of oil in CANDU moderator during A831 planned outage at Bruce Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their address to the Nuclear Plant Chemistry Conference 2009, Bruce Power staff will describe the effects of oil ingress to the moderator of a CANDU reactor. During the A831 planned outage of Bruce Power Unit 3, an incident of oil ingress into moderator was discovered on Oct 17, 2008. An investigation identified the cause of the oil ingress. Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) assessed operability of the reactor with the oil present and made recommendations with respect to the effect on unit start-up with oil present. The principal concern was the radiolytic generation of deuterium from the breakdown of the oil in-core. Various challenges were presented during start-up which were overcome via innovative approaches. The subsequent actions and consequential effects on moderator chemistry are discussed in this paper. Examination of the plant chemistry data revealed some interesting aspects of moderator system chemistry under upset conditions which will also be presented. (author)

  17. Interregional power transmission: a component in planning for renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the role played by interregional power transmission on the basis of recent scenario work. In a project dealing with long-term planning for energy efficiency and renewable energy in Europe we modelled a scenario for the present 15 EU countries' energy system in 2050. The basis for the scenario is the concept of 'fair pricing' for energy services, meaning that the price of energy should reflect all externalities, but not otherwise be taxed or subsidized. The project assessed resource availability and expected technology price developments over time for a number of energy-related technologies, both on the supply side, the intermediate conversion chain and on the demand side. Among these, transmission technologies play an important role, both in smoothing out renewable energy supplies within the European Union region, and also allowing substantial import of energy from countries outside the EU having a surplus of renewable energy based power. (orig.)

  18. Plan 92. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish nuclear power utilities are responsible for adopting such measures as are necessary in order to ensure the safe management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors. In order to fulfil this responsibility, the nuclear power utilities have commissioned SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., to plan, build, and operate the necessary facilities and systems. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on a scenario for management and disposal of the radioactive waste products, which has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The facilities and systems that exist are: * Transportation system for radioactive waste products. * Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB. * Final repository for radioactive waste from reactor operation, SFR 1. Future facilities under planning are: * Encapsulation station for spent nuclear fuel. * Final repository for long-lived waste. * Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculation also include costs for research and development and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plants etc. The total future costs of the Swedish waste management system, starting in 1993, have been calculated to be SEK 46.4 billion in January 1992 prices. These costs will be incurred over a period of about 60 years. SEK 8.7 billion has been spent up to the end of 1992. This cost calculation is presented annually to SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, which uses it as a basis to propose a fee on the nuclear electricity production in order to cover all future expenses. The fee for 1992 is on average 1.9 oere/kWh (0.019 SEK/kWh). (au)

  19. Power system modeling and optimization methods vis-a-vis integrated resource planning (IRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsali, Mohammad H.

    1998-12-01

    The state-of-the-art restructuring of power industries is changing the fundamental nature of retail electricity business. As a result, the so-called Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) strategies implemented on electric utilities are also undergoing modifications. Such modifications evolve from the imminent considerations to minimize the revenue requirements and maximize electrical system reliability vis-a-vis capacity-additions (viewed as potential investments). IRP modifications also provide service-design bases to meet the customer needs towards profitability. The purpose of this research as deliberated in this dissertation is to propose procedures for optimal IRP intended to expand generation facilities of a power system over a stretched period of time. Relevant topics addressed in this research towards IRP optimization are as follows: (1) Historical prospective and evolutionary aspects of power system production-costing models and optimization techniques; (2) A survey of major U.S. electric utilities adopting IRP under changing socioeconomic environment; (3) A new technique designated as the Segmentation Method for production-costing via IRP optimization; (4) Construction of a fuzzy relational database of a typical electric power utility system for IRP purposes; (5) A genetic algorithm based approach for IRP optimization using the fuzzy relational database.

  20. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom, adjacent to an existing nuclear power station incorporating Magnox and Advanced Gas Cooled reactors. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry presented here introduces the concept of the Reference Accident as the basis for emergency arrangements. The description which follows of the emergency arrangements at the Hinkley Point site include: the respective responsibilities and their co-ordination of bodies such as the CEGB, external emergency services and government departments; the site emergency organization; practical aspects of the emergency arrangements; and consideration of the extension of the arrangements to a PWR on the same site. Recent developments in emergency planning, such as those arising out of post Chernobyl reviews and the Sizewell ''B'' PWR Inquiry, are taken into account. The conclusion is reached that soundly based emergency arrangements already exist at Hinkley Point which would require relatively minor changes should the proposed PWR be constructed. (UK)

  1. Medium-range planning economics of future electrical power generation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their continuous planning for load growth, electricity utilities search for the most economic generation schemes. But this will be subject to a number of constrains, such as the type of generation schemes,.B(ut this will be subject to a number of constrains, such as the type of fuel available and compliance with national environmental standards. In this paper, medium range planning economics of using alternative fuels options for electrical power generation systems in Jordan is discussed. Imported natural gas, heavy fuel oil, coal and local oil shale are compared. A net present value model was used to compare electricity generation cost for different types of thermal power plants. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the influence of the most important variable, such as unit capital and fuel prices, discount and inflation rates. It was found that imported natural gas, as a future primary fuel, to supply new combined cycle and/or upgraded existing gas turbine stations, in Jordan represents the best option during the study period.(Author)

  2. A fuzzy knowledge based method for maintenance planning in a power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inspection planning in electric power industry is used to assess the safety and reliability of system components and to increase the ability of failure situation identification before it actually occurs. It reflects the implications of the available information on the operational and maintenance history of the system. The output is a ranked list of components, with the most critical ones at the top, which indicates the selection of the components to be inspected. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of a fuzzy relational database model for manipulating the data required for the criticality component ranking in thermal power systems inspection planning, incorporating criteria concerning aspects of safety and reliability, economy, variable operational conditions and environmental impacts. Often, qualitative thresholds and linguistic terms are used for the component criticality analysis. Fuzzy linguistic terms for criteria definitions along with fuzzy inference mechanisms allow the exploitation of the operators' expertise. The proposed database model ensures the representation and handling of the aforementioned fuzzy information and additionally offers to the user the functionality for specifying the precision degree by which the conditions involved in a query are satisfied. In order to illustrate the behavior of the model, a case study is given using real inspection data

  3. Task action plans for unresolved safety issues related to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains Task Action Plans for generic tasks addressing Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs) related to nuclear power plants. Progress on USIs is reported to Congress each year in the NRC Annual Report pursuant to the requirements of Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended. In addition, the NRR issues NUREG-0606, Unresolved Safety Issues Summary, Aqua Book on a quarterly basis; this report provides current schedule information for each USI. The Task Action Plans in this document include a description of the issue, a description of the NRC staff's approach to resolving the issue, a general discussion of the basis for continued operation and licensing pending resolution of the issue, a discussion of the technical organizations involved in the task, the requirements of manpower and program support funding, interactions with outside organizations and potential problems. This document does not include Task Action Plans for generic tasks addressing USIs for which reports providing the NRC staff resolution of the issue have been published. Those tasks for which reports have been published are identified and the reports are referenced

  4. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adequacy of current contingency planning by Federal and State authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizing radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports is reported on and 39 recommendations are made. After introductory chapters, the remainder of the report consists of two parts. Chapters 3 to 10 deal with the main issues relating to nuclear powered warship (NPW) visits and the adequacy of current contingency plans. Chapters 11 to 13 deal with the question whether any specific planning is required for visits by nuclear weapons capable warships. In part one the present emergency arrangements and criticisms of the current plans are reviewed. The NPWs' reactors, safety records and visit arrangements in other countries are discussed. The validity of the reference accident on which current NPW emergency planning is based is assessed. In part two nuclear weapons and their accidents are reviewed. The dissenting report of one of the Senators is included

  5. Plan 90. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish nuclear power utilities are responsible for adopting such measures as are necessary in order to ensure the safe management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors. In order to fulfil this responsibility, the nuclear power utilities have commissioned SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, to plan, build, and operate the necessary facilities and systems. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on a scenario for management and disposal of the radioactive waste products. Since disposal of the high-level (long-lived) waste will not commence until some time into the 21st century, continued RD and D activities may reveal new methods, that can affect both system design and costs. The facilities and systems that exist are: Transportation system for radioactive waste products. Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB. Final repository for radioactive reactor waste, SFR 1. Future facilities under planning are: Encapsulation station for spent nuclear fuel. Final repository for long-lived waste. Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research and development and for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. The total future costs of the Swedish waste management system, starting in 1991, have been calculated to be SEK 45.5 billion in January 1990 prices. These costs will be incurred over a period of about 60 years. SEK 8.0 billion has been spent up to the end of 1990. This cost calculation is presented annually to SKN, the National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel, which uses it as a basis to propose a fee on the nuclear electricity production in order to cover all future expenses. The fee for 1990 is on average 1.9 oere/kWh (0.019 SEK/kWh)

  6. Fuzzy-TLBO optimal reactive power control variables planning for energy loss minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new approach to the problem of optimal reactive power control variables planning is proposed. • The energy loss minimization problem has been formulated by modeling the load of system as a Load Duration Curve. • To solving the energy loss problem, the classic methods and the evolutionary methods are used. • A new proposed fuzzy teaching–learning based algorithm is applied to energy loss problem. • Simulations are done to show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm compared with other methods. - Abstract: This paper offers a new approach to the problem of optimal reactive power control variables planning (ORPVCP). The basic idea is division of Load Duration Curve (LDC) into several time intervals with constant active power demand in each interval and then solving the energy loss minimization (ELM) problem to obtain an optimal initial set of control variables of the system so that is valid for all time intervals and can be used as an initial operating condition of the system. In this paper, the ELM problem has been solved by the linear programming (LP) and fuzzy linear programming (Fuzzy-LP) and evolutionary algorithms i.e. MHBMO and TLBO and the results are compared with the proposed Fuzzy-TLBO method. In the proposed method both objective function and constraints are evaluated by membership functions. The inequality constraints are embedded into the fitness function by the membership function of the fuzzy decision and the problem is modeled by fuzzy set theory. The proposed Fuzzy-TLBO method is performed on the IEEE 30 bus test system by considering two different LDC; and it is shown that using this method has further minimized objective function than original TLBO and other optimization techniques and confirms its potential to solve the ORPCVP problem with considering ELM as the objective function

  7. Brazilian nuclear power plants decommissioning plan for a multiple reactor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actually, Brazil has two operating Nuclear Power Plants and a third one under construction, all at Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. To comply with regulatory aspects the power plants operator, Eletronuclear, must present to Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, CNEN, a decommissioning plan. Brazilian experience with decommissioning is limited because none of any nuclear reactor at the country was decommissioned. In literature, decommissioning process is well described despite few nuclear power reactors have been decommissioned around the world. Some different approach is desirable for multiple reactors sites, case of CNAAA site. During the decommissioning, a great amount of wastes will be produced and have to be properly managed. Particularly, the construction of Auxiliary Services on the site could be a good choice due to the possibility of reducing costs. The present work intends to present to the Eletronuclear some aspects of the decommissioning concept and decommissioning management, storage and disposal de wastes, based on the available literature, regulatory standards of CNEN and international experience as well as to suggest some solutions to be implemented at CNAAA site before starts the decommissioning project in order to maximize the benefits. (author)

  8. Design and Test Plans for a Non-Nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Palac, Donald; Gibson, Marc; Houts, Michael; Warren, John; Werner, James; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Radel, Ross; Harlow, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) team is developing concepts and technologies for affordable nuclear Fission Power Systems (FPSs) to support future exploration missions. A key deliverable is the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The TDU will assemble the major elements of a notional FPS with a non-nuclear reactor simulator (Rx Sim) and demonstrate system-level performance in thermal vacuum. The Rx Sim includes an electrical resistance heat source and a liquid metal heat transport loop that simulates the reactor thermal interface and expected dynamic response. A power conversion unit (PCU) generates electric power utilizing the liquid metal heat source and rejects waste heat to a heat rejection system (HRS). The HRS includes a pumped water heat removal loop coupled to radiator panels suspended in the thermal-vacuum facility. The basic test plan is to subject the system to realistic operating conditions and gather data to evaluate performance sensitivity, control stability, and response characteristics. Upon completion of the testing, the technology is expected to satisfy the requirements for Technology Readiness Level 6 (System Demonstration in an Operational and Relevant Environment) based on the use of high-fidelity hardware and prototypic software tested under realistic conditions and correlated with analytical predictions.

  9. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of its effort to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need for introducing nuclear power, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package for carrying out power generation expansion planning studies. WASP was originally developed in 1972 in the USA to meet the IAEA's needs to analyze the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. The model was first used by the IAEA to conduct global studies (Market Survey for Nuclear Power Plants in Developing Countries, 1972-1973) and to carry out Nuclear Power Planning Studies for several Member States. The WASP system developed into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. Following these developments, the so-called WASP-Ill version was produced in 1979. This version introduced important improvements to the system, namely in the treatment of hydroelectric power plants. The WASP-III version has been continually updated and maintained in order to incorporate needed enhancements. In 1981, the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) was developed in order to allow the determination of electricity demand, consistent with the overall requirements for final energy, and thus, to provide a more adequate forecast of electricity needs to be considered in the WASP study. MAED and WASP have been used by the Agency for the conduct of Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Studies for interested Member States. More recently, the VALORAGUA model was completed in 1992 as a means for helping in the preparation of the hydro plant characteristics to be input in the WASP study and to verify that the WASP overall optimized expansion plan takes also into account an optimization of the use of water for electricity generation. The combined application of VALORAGUA and WASP permits the

  10. Production Planning with Respect to Uncertainties. Simulator Based Production Planning of Average Sized Combined Heat and Power Production Plants; Produktionsplanering under osaekerhet. Simulatorbaserad produktionsplanering av medelstora kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggstaahl, Daniel [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden); Dotzauer, Erik [AB Fortum, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Production planning in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems is considered. The focus is on development and use of mathematical models and methods. Different aspects on production planning are discussed, including weather and load predictions. Questions relevant on the different planning horizons are illuminated. The main purpose with short-term (one week) planning is to decide when to start and stop the production units, and to decide how to use the heat storage. The main conclusion from the outline of pros and cons of commercial planning software are that several are using Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In that sense they are similar. Building a production planning model means that the planning problem is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem. The accuracy of the input data determines the practical detail level of the model. Two alternatives to the methods used in today's commercial programs are proposed: stochastic optimization and simulator-based optimization. The basic concepts of mathematical optimization are outlined. A simulator-based model for short-term planning is developed. The purpose is to minimize the production costs, depending on the heat demand in the district heating system, prices of electricity and fuels, emission taxes and fees, etc. The problem is simplified by not including any time-linking conditions. The process model is developed in IPSEpro, a heat and mass-balance software from SimTech Simulation Technology. TOMLAB, an optimization toolbox in MATLAB, is used as optimizer. Three different solvers are applied: glcFast, glcCluster and SNOPT. The link between TOMLAB and IPSEpro is accomplished using the Microsoft COM technology. MATLAB is the automation client and contains the control of IPSEpro and TOMLAB. The simulator-based model is applied to the CHP plant in Eskilstuna. Two days are chosen and analyzed. The optimized production is compared to the measured. A sensitivity analysis on how variations in outdoor

  11. Planning of micro-combined heat and power systems in the Portuguese scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High efficiency cogeneration is seen by the European Commission as part of the solution to increase energy efficiency and improve security of supply in the internal energy markets. Portuguese residential sector has an estimated technical market potential of around 500 MWe for cogeneration of e in size. Additionally, in Portugal there is a specific law for power production in low voltage, where at least 50% of the produced electric energy must be own consumed and the maximum power delivered to the power utility should be less than 150 kWe. Therefore, generic application tools cannot be applied in this regard. In this work, we develop the MicroG model for planning micro-CHP plants in agreement with the Portuguese energy legal framework. The model is able to design, evaluate and optimize from the techno-economic point of view any micro-CHP plant. MicroG appeals to some data bases, such as micro-cogeneration technologies and power consumption profiles that are also described. In addition, a practical case on a gym is considered to show all the functionalities of the model. The developed model has proven to be extremely useful from the practical point of view. This model could help the development of the micro-CHP Portuguese market, which in turns contributes to accomplish the targets of Kyoto protocol and EU cogeneration Directive. Other improvements to MicroG model can be made in order to enlarge the range of application to other micro-cogeneration technologies and to accomplish with the CO2 emissions trading

  12. Plan 93. Cost for the radioactive wastes from nuclear power. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future cost for handling, storing and disposing of radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power plants are calculated in this report. The following plants and systems are operating: - Transport system for radioactive wastes. - A central intermediate storage plant. - A repository for low and medium level wastes. The following are planned: - A treatment plant for spent fuels. - A repository for high-level wastes. - A repository for decommissioning wastes. The cost include R and D and decommissioning. Total future cost from 1994 are estimated to 48.3 billion SEK (approx. 7 billion dollars during 60 years. Up to 1993 9.2 billion SEK (approx. 1.2 billion dollars have been spent

  13. Nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundary materials and plans for collecting and presenting their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    A program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in their assessment of the effects of degradation (primarily corrosion) on the structural capacity and leaktight integrity of metal containments and steel liners of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to characterize and quantify manifestations of corrosion on the properties of steels used to construct containment pressure boundary components. This report describes a plan for use in collecting and presenting data and information on ferrous alloys permitted for use in construction of pressure retaining components in concrete and metal containments. Discussions about various degradation mechanisms that could potentially affect the mechanical properties of these materials are also included. Conclusions and recommendations presented in this report will be used to guide the collection of data and information that will be used to prepare a material properties data base for containment steels.

  14. Tools to be used in planning the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As more and more nuclear power plants will be decommissioned and disposed of in the future, such projects increasingly will be assessed in the light of economic aspects. Problems of technical feasibility have already been solved in research and development programs and in actual decommissioning projects. Economic aspects in decommissioning and disposal imply comparisons among variants, estimates of complete, lengthy activities, or the recognition of consequences and impacts, all in the light of conditions specific to a certain plant. Such weighing is very time consuming. In some cases, the criteria must first be found which are to be used to weigh pros and cons. This is where computer codes specially developed for this purpose can help achieve the required planning performance: Stillko for cost assessment; Plakad for dismantling; and Conty for selecting the appropriate packaging for the final storage of radioactive waste. (orig.)

  15. Tactical Action Plan: Powering the Energy Frontier (An Appendix to the Strategic Roadmap 2024)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    The Tactical Action Plan identifies and describes the Western-wide tasks and activities, existing and new, needed to fully achieve the goals in Strategic Roadmap 2024. Each activity in the TAP chart is briefly described in this document and also linked to the Critical Pathway it supports. As the TAP is a list of specific strategies and actions susceptible to changing environments and needs, the TAP will be updated more frequently as Western progresses towards its goals. The TAP is organized into seven Strategic Target Areas that serve as Western’s priorities and areas of focus for the next two to three years. These Target Areas are: Power and Transmission Related Services; Energy Infrastructure; Partnership and Innovation; Asset Management; Safety and Security; Communication; and Human Capital Management and Organization Structure. Target Areas are also used to create the agency’s annual performance targets, which measure progress and implementation of the TAP, and the status of which will be reported regularly.

  16. Nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundary materials and plans for collecting and presenting their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in their assessment of the effects of degradation (primarily corrosion) on the structural capacity and leaktight integrity of metal containments and steel liners of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to characterize and quantify manifestations of corrosion on the properties of steels used to construct containment pressure boundary components. This report describes a plan for use in collecting and presenting data and information on ferrous alloys permitted for use in construction of pressure retaining components in concrete and metal containments. Discussions about various degradation mechanisms that could potentially affect the mechanical properties of these materials are also included. Conclusions and recommendations presented in this report will be used to guide the collection of data and information that will be used to prepare a material properties data base for containment steels

  17. Indian Point Nuclear Power Station: verification analysis of County Radiological Emergency-Response Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was developed as a management tool for use by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region II staff. The analysis summarized in this report was undertaken to verify the extent to which procedures, training programs, and resources set forth in the County Radiological Emergency Response Plans (CRERPs) for Orange, Putnam, and Westchester counties in New York had been realized prior to the March 9, 1983, exercise of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station near Buchanan, New York. To this end, a telephone survey of county emergency response organizations was conducted between January 19 and February 22, 1983. This report presents the results of responses obtained from this survey of county emergency response organizations

  18. Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes - Romanian experience: Master - Nuclear Materials and Technologies Educational Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the Master Nuclear Materials and Technologies Educational Plan are: 1. To deliver higher education and training in the following specific domains, such as: Powders Technology and Ceramic Materials, Techniques of Structural Analysis, Composite Materials, Semiconductor Materials and Components, Metals and Metallic Alloys, Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, Nuclear Materials, The Engineering of Special Nuclear Materials, 2. To train managers of the Nuclear Waste Products and Nuclear Safety, 3. To qualify in ICT Systems for Nuclear Process Guidance, 4. To qualify in Environmental Protection System at the Level of Nuclear Power Stations, 5. To train managers for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Energetic Processes, 6. To deliver higher education and training regarding the International Treatises, Conventions and Settlements in force in the field of nuclear related activities. (author)

  19. Pakistan's Devolution of Power Plan 2001: A brief dawn for local democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawwar Alam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Local government is not a new concept in Pakistan. Since the founding of the country in 1947 Pakistan has always had local governments as the lowest-tier political structure. However, grassroots democracy has been eclipsed at different times in the country’s history. As we write this article, there is no elected local government in Pakistan. The article documents the recent history of decentralisation with special reference to the Devolution of Power Plan (DOPP introduced by the military government of General Pervez Musharraf in 2001. The author was closely involved with the DOPP at both policy and implementation levels. The paper also looks at political economy issues relating to decentralisation in Pakistan.

  20. Prediction of source terms for reactor emergency planning - a powerful PC based expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a major advantage to those that must make decisions about the implementation of an emergency plan following an accident at a nuclear power plant if the likely release of activity is predicted before it occurs. To this end, a software module, which provides a rapid estimate of the source term to the environment, has been developed by NNC Ltd. Termed the RODOS STM, the software has been developed such that it can be used with the RODOS system. Operating outside of RODOS, the software remains a useful source term prediction tool. The software employs Bayesian analysis techniques, and the results of level 1 and level 2 probabilistic safety analysis, to calculate the probability of the possible releases of activity into the environment and the potential magnitude of those releases, given a set of observations about the status of the NPP. The software has been developed using the Sizewell 'B' PWR design. (author)

  1. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  2. Final Report: African Power/Energy and Environmental Development Plan, July 1, 1994 - August 21, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, John M.

    1999-08-21

    In 1994 AEF signed a Cooperative Agreement with DOE to address a program called the African Power /Energy and Environmental Development Plan. The Program initially addressed five area: (1) Historical Black Colleges and Universities Energy/Environmental Program; (2) The Department of Energy and United States Private Industry Africa Program; (3) The Annual United States Energy Study Tour; (4) South African Training Program, and (5) South African Environmental Program. The programs were implemented in conjunction with DOE, institutions, agencies and the private sector support in the USA and within African nations. AEF has worked with government and technical representatives from 13 African nations and expanded the program to address sponsorship of South African students in Historical Black Colleges and Universities, supporting DOE trade missions through participation and planning, and giving presentations in the U.S., and Africa regarding business opportunities in the African energy sector. The programs implemented have also opened doors for the US private sector to seek business opportunities in Africa and for African nations to gain exposure to US products and services.

  3. Energy and nuclear power planning using the IAEA's ENPEP computer package. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regional (Europe) Technical Co-operation Project on the Study of Energy Options Using the IAEA Planning Methodologies was first implemented by the IAEA in 1995. The project aims at improving national capabilities for energy, electricity and nuclear power planning and promoting regional co-operation among participating countries in the European region. The project includes the organization of workshops, training activities at the regional and national levels, scientific visits, etc. The proceedings of a workshop held in Warsaw, Poland, from 4 to 8 September 1995 are contained herein. The workshop had as a basic objective the analysis of the specific problems encountered by the represented countries during application of the IAEA's ENPEP package in the conduct of national studies and to provide a forum for further co-operation among participating countries. A second objective of the workshop was to make proposals for future activities to be organized within the project. This publication is intended to serve as reference for the users of the IAEA's ENPEP package, as well as for energy and electricity planners in general. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Near-term benefits of life extension planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life Extension of Nuclear Power Plants is now viewed as a realistic alternative to construction of new generating facilities. The subject has been under intensive study since 1984 and two comprehensive pilot plant programs have been completed under EPRI, U.S. Department of Energy and utility sponsorship. A major lesson learned from these studies is that planning for life extension must start early and that many activities must be implemented as early in life as possible to enhance the option for life extension through mitigate and preventive actions. It was also determined that achievement of a 40-year licensed life is by no means guaranteed without substantial effort during the remaining plant life. In examining these recommended actions, it becomes obvious that conscientious implementation also leads to realization of significant short-term benefits in the form of availability improvement, outage reduction, maintenance optimization and longer term planning decisions. In addition to the economic benefits, plant safety is also enhanced by reducing challenges to the safety systems and slowly switching from a corrective maintenance to a preventive maintenance program

  5. OTEC-1 Power System Test Program: test plan for first deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This report describes in detail all tests planned for the first eight-month deployment of OTEC-1, a test facility constructed by the US Department of Energy in order to test heat exchangers for closed-cycle power plants using ocean thermal energy. Tests to be performed during the first-deployment period are aimed primarily at determining (1) the effectiveness of countermeasures in preventing biofouling of the heat exchanters, (2) the extent of environmental impacts associated with operation of an OTEC facility, and (3) the performance of a 1-MWe, titanium shell-and-tube evaporator and condenser pair. The condenser to be tested has plain tubes, and the evaporator employs the Linde High Flux surface on the working-fluid (ammonia) side to enhance the heat-transfer rate. This plan provides a statement of the objectives and priorities of the test program, describes the test equipment, gives a detailed account of all tests to be performed and the test schedule, and discusses provisions for management of the test program.

  6. The three hurdles of tax planning: How business context, aims of tax planning, and tax manager power affect tax

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Anna; Schanz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The question of why some companies pay more taxes than others is a widely investigated topic of interest. One of the famous suspect explanations is a phenomenon called tax avoidance. We develop a holistic theoretical concept of influences on corporate tax planning through a series of 19 in-depth German tax expert interviews. Our findings show that three distinct hurdles in the tax planning process can explain different levels of tax expense across companies. Those three hurdles are which tax ...

  7. Optimal day-ahead network-constrained power system's market operations planning using an interior point method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for Day-Ahead-Market (DAM) operations planning is proposed. The model considers offers and bids for power supply as well as for spinning reserve, and is able to consider network security through a DC power-flow model. DAM operations planning is the first task to be solved by deregulated environment system operators, such as the Independent System Operator (ISO), proposed in several jurisdictions planning deregulation of the electricity industry. This paper presents preliminary results of a study designed to solve a general DAM operations planning model that is able to accommodate most of the current and foreseeable deregulated operations policies. The large scale optimization problem is solved using the Primal-Dual Logarithmic Barrier Interior-Point method. Modelling results for a 14-node system are discussed. 11 refs., 2 figs

  8. Summary report of the decommissioning plan for the Olkiluoto power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning plan for the nuclear power plant units TVO I and II at Olkiluoto is based on approximately 40 years of operation and 30 years old safe storage prior to dismantlement. A handing chamber for the segmentation of the activated reactor vessel and its internal components will be built in each reactor hall. The segmented activated waste will be packed in concrete containers with thick walls. The contaminated components will be dismantled, segmented and packed in lighter concrete boxes. Large contaminated components will be disposed of as such, segmented into smaller size according to transport limitations. The waste will be disposed of in the bedrock of Olkiluoto by extending the VLJ repository. For the activated waste, a separate bedrock silo will be excavated and inside it a reinforced concrete silo will be built. The contaminated waste will be placed in two shotcreted bedrock silos. The time required for the dismantlement of the two power plant units, conditioning of the spent reactor internals and disposal of the waste totals approximately 15 years. The actual dismantlement will take about 7 years. (28 refs., 19 figs., 23 tabs.)

  9. Development of a strategic plan for an international R and D project on innovative nuclear fuel cycles and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term outlook for nuclear energy should be considered in a broader perspective of future energy needs, operational safety, proliferation and environmental impacts. An Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Development of a Strategic Plan for an International R and D Project on Innovative Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Power Plants was convened in Vienna in October 1999 to assess the criteria, the needs for international cooperation, and to formulate a strategic plan for project integration. (author)

  10. Criteria for preparation and evaluation of radiological emergency response plans and preparedness in support of nuclear power plants. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a common reference and interim guidance source for: state and local governments and nuclear facility operators in the development of radiological emergency response plans and preparedness in support of nuclear power plants; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other Federal agency personnel engaged in the review of state, local government, and licensee plans and preparedness

  11. Practical experience with the planning and organization of inspections at Beznau I and II nuclear power stations of North Eastern Switzerland Power Stations Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznau I and II are identical pressurized water reactor power stations each of 350 MW capacity. After every inspection the accummulated experience has been evaluated, so that before each further inspection the objectives could be freshly formulated. The paper reports on experience in carrying out the planned work with foreign firms. (orig.)

  12. Implications of renewable energy technologies in the Bangladesh power sector. Long-term planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Alam Hossain

    2010-10-04

    Bangladesh is facing daunting energy challenges: Security concerns over growing fuel imports, limited domestic energy resources for power generation, and projected demands for electricity that will exceed domestic supply capabilities within a few years. By acknowledging the potential of renewable energy resources, the country could possibly meet its unprecedented energy demand, thus increasing electricity accessibility for all and enhancing energy security through their advancement. The integration of renewable energy technologies in the power sector through national energy planning would, therefore, be a step in the right direction, not only for sustainable development of the country but also as part of Bangladesh's responsibility toward the global common task of environmental protection. This study estimates the potential of renewable energy sources for power generation in Bangladesh from the viewpoint of different promising available technologies. Future long-term electricity demand in Bangladesh is projected based on three economic growth scenarios. The energy planning model LEAP is applied to forecast the energy requirements from 2005 to 2035. Different policy scenarios, e.g., accelerated renewable energy production, null coal import, CO2 emission reduction targets and carbon taxes in the power sector from 2005 to 2035 are explored. The analyses are based on a long-term energy system model of Bangladesh using the MARKAL model. Prospects for the power sector development of the country are identified, which ensure energy security and mitigate environmental impacts. The technical potential of grid-connected solar photovoltaic and wind energy are estimated at 50174 MW and 4614 MW, respectively. The potential of energy from biomass and small hydro power plants is estimated at 566 MW and 125 MW, respectively. Total electricity consumption was 18 TWh in 2005 and is projected to increase about 7 times to 132 TWh by 2035 in the low GDP growth scenario. In the

  13. Development of an Implementation Plan Related to Biological Opinion on Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System ; Step 1: Review and Critique of Implementation Plans.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret

    2000-12-01

    The Draft Biological Opinion on Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System calls for the development of 1- and 5-year implementation plans. These plans will provide the roadmap for planning and subsequent implementation of actions intended to meet specific performance standards (i.e., biological objectives) in a timely manner. To develop implementation plans the key tasks and sequences of steps must be determined. Those responsible for specific tasks must be identified and they must understand what they need to do. There must be assurances that the resources (human, physical, and fiscal) to complete the tasks are available. Motivation and incentive systems should be set up. Systems to coordinate efforts and guide activity must be devised and installed. An information management system must be designed to manage and analyze data and ensure that appropriate data are collected. This will aid managers in assessing whether individual activities or actions are tracking with stated goals and objectives. Training programs to improve managerial and worker capability in making and implementing plans should be designed. Managerial leadership to guide the efforts of all individuals in achieving the goals of the anadromous and resident fish recovery must be developed. It is the entire process of managing fish recovery in relationship to the Biological Opinion that will guide, coordinate, motivate, and control work and determine the effectiveness and efficiency of plan implementation.

  14. Plant life extension program for Indian PHWR power plants - Actual experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is responsible for design, construction and operation for all nuclear power plants in India. Currently, it has fourteen (14) reactor units under operation and another eight units are under various stages of planning and construction. India has adopted Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) for the initial phase of its nuclear power program. In the earlier PHWRs zircaloy-2 has been used as coolant tube material. Subsequent studies and experience have shown their life to be considerably lower (about 10 full power years) than originally estimated. This meant that reactors at Rajasthan - 1 and 2 Madras - 1 and 2 Narora - 1 and 2 and Kakrapara-1 would require en-masse coolant channel replacement at least once in their lifetime. Subsequent reactors from Kakrapara-2 onwards would not need this en-masse coolant channel replacement as the coolant tube material has been upgraded to Zr 2.5% Nb. En-masse coolant channel replacement and other life extension work have been carried out successfully in Rajasthan Unit-2 (RAPS-2). Madras unit-2 (MAPS-2) has been shutdown since January 2002 and preparatory work for en-masse coolant channel replacement and plant life extension is in progress. This paper discusses in brief the experience of RAPS-2 in carrying out the above jobs as well as the strategies being adopted for MAPS-2. Since the coolant channel replacement work requires a plant outage of about 18 months, this opportunity is used to extend life of existing systems as well as upgradation work. This life extension and upgradation program is based on the results of detailed in service inspection, evaluation of performance of critical equipment, obsolescence and other strategic reasons. This paper discusses in detail some of the major areas of work done, for example introduction of supplementary control room, process control, computer based plant information and event analysis systems, provision of enhanced

  15. Study plan for evaluating carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 2 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one report of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated December 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for the development of a study plan based on the critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. In the evaluation of carrying capacity the authors concluded that defining capacity and listing the determinants of capacity is not a simple exercise. Capacity is a complex variable among the attributes that all together define salmon performance. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, will not lead to the development of a useful study plan. To increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. This report describes the elements of a study plan that could be used to increase the understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors that influence salmon survival under current conditions

  16. Three essays on the effect of wind generation on power system planning and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Clay Duane

    While the benefits of wind generation are well known, some drawbacks are still being understood as wind power is integrated into the power grid at increasing levels. The primary difference between wind generation and other forms of generation is the intermittent, and somewhat unpredictable, aspect of this resource. The somewhat uncontrollable aspect of wind generation makes it important to consider the relationship between this resource and load, and also how the operation of other non-wind generation resources may be affected. The three essays that comprise this dissertation focus on these and other important issues related to wind generation; leading to an improved understanding of how to better plan for and utilize this resource. The first essay addresses the cost of increased levels of installed wind capacity from both a capacity planning and economic dispatch perspective to arrive at the total system cost of installing a unit of wind capacity. This total includes not only the cost of the wind turbine and associated infrastructure, but also the cost impact an additional unit of wind capacity has on the optimal mix and operation of other generating units in the electricity supply portfolio. The results of the model showed that for all wind expansion scenarios, wind capacity is not cost-effective regardless of the level of the wind production tax credit and carbon prices that were considered. Larger levels of installed wind capacity result in reduced variable cost, but this reduction is not able to offset increases in capital cost, as a unit of installed wind capacity does not result in an equal reduction in other non-wind capacity needs. The second essay develops a methodology to better handle unexpected short term fluctuations in wind generation within the existing power system. The methodology developed in this essay leads to lower expected costs by anticipating and planning for fluctuations in wind generation by focusing on key constraints in the system. The

  17. PLAN 98 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear utilities in Sweden are responsible for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The most important measures are to plan, build and operate the facilities and systems needed, and to conduct related R and D. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products. Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB. Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR I. Plans also exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. At the end of 1995, certain amendments were made in the Financing Act which influence the calculations presented in this report. The most important amendment is that the reactor owners, besides paying a fee or charge on nuclear energy production, must also give guarantees as security for remaining costs. In this way the fee can be based on a probable cost for waste management. This cost includes uncertainties and variations that are normal for this type of project. Cost increases as a consequence of major changes, disruptions etc. can instead be covered via the given guarantees. The total future costs, in January 1998 prices, for the Swedish waste management system from 1999 onward has been calculated to be SEK 45.8 billion. The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. They will fall due over a total period of approximately 50 years up to the middle of the 2l st century, but the greater part will fall due during the next 20 years. It is estimated that SEK 12.1 billion in current money terms

  18. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing international concern over the threat of global climate change has led to proposals to buy insurance against this threat by reducing emissions of carbon (short for carbon dioxide) and other greenhouse gases below current levels. Concern over these and other, non-climatic environmental effects of electricity generation has led a number of states to adopt or explore new mechanisms for incorporating environmental externalities in utility resource planning. For example, the New York and Massachusetts utility commissions have adopted monetized surcharges (or adders) to induce emission reductions of federally regulated air pollutants (notably, SO2, NOx, and particulates) beyond federally mandated levels. These regulations also include preliminary estimates of the cost of reducing carbon emissions, for which no federal regulations exist at this time. Within New England, regulators and utilities have also held several workshops and meetings to discuss alternative methods of incorporating externalities as well as the feasibility of regional approaches. This study examines the potential for reduced carbon emissions in the New England power sector as well as the cost and rate impacts of two policy approaches: environmental externality surcharges and a target- based approach. We analyze the following questions: Does New England have sufficient low-carbon resources to achieve significant reductions (10% to 20% below current levels) in fossil carbon emissions in its utility sector? What reductions could be achieved at a maximum? What is the expected cost of carbon reductions as a function of the reduction goal? How would carbon reduction strategies affect electricity rates? How effective are environmental externality cost surcharges as an instrument in bringing about carbon reductions? To what extent could the minimization of total electricity costs alone result in carbon reductions relative to conventional resource plans?

  19. Study on European Nuclear Safety Practices during Planned Outages at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present project was aimed at providing: a description of the current status of nuclear safety practices during planned outages at nuclear power plants followed in Europe; the criteria for the safety analysis of future reactors at the design stage; proposing a set of recommendations on good practices and criteria leading to the improvement of nuclear safety during those conditions. The work was organised in 3 phases: Collecting data on current practices; Analysis of questionnaire answers and drawing up of safety good practices references and recommendations; Collecting relevant ideas related to the future reactors at design stage (European Pressurised Water Reactor, European Passive Plant project, European Utilities Requirements and Utilities Requirement Document project). The key element of the performed work was the detailed questionnaire, based on bibliographical review, expert experience and outage practices available in the working team. Different safety areas and activities were covered: outage context; nuclear safety; outage strategy, organisation and control; operating feedback; use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The questionnaire was answered by 12 European nuclear power plants, representing 9 different European countries and three different types of reactors (Pressurised Water Reactor, Boiling Water Reactor and Water Water Energy Reactor). Conclusions were drawn under the following headers: Organisational survey and generalities Organisational effectiveness Quality of maintenance Quality of operation Engineering support, management of modification Specific aspects Each analysed subject includes the following topics: Questions background with a summary and the aim of the questions. Current status, that describes common practices, as derived from the answers to the questionnaire, and some examples of good specific practices. Identified good practices. (author)

  20. Standard Review Plan for the review of safety analysis reports for nuclear power plants: LWR edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) is prepared for the guidance of staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation in performing safety reviews of applications to construct or operate nuclear power plants. The principal purpose of the SRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of staff reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. It is also a purpose of the SRP to make information about regulatory matters widely available and to improve communication and understanding of the staff review process by interested members of the public and the nuclear power industry. The safety review is primarily based on the information provided by an applicant in a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The SAR must be sufficiently detailed to permit the staff to determine whether the plant can be built and operated without undue risk to the health and safety of the public. The SAR is the principal document in which the applicant provides the information needed to understand the basis upon which this conclusion has been reached. The individual SRP sections address, in detail, who performs the review, the matters that are reviewed, the basis for review, how the review is accomplished, and the conclusions that are sought. The safety review is performed by 25 primary branches. One of the objectives of the SRP is to assign the review responsibilities to the various branches and to define the sometimes complex interfaces between them. Each SRP section identifies the branch that has the primary review responsibility for that section. In some review areas the primary branch may require support, and the branches that are assigned these secondary review responsibilities are also identified for each SRP section

  1. Introduction of composite reliability evaluation in power system operation planning; Introducao da confiabilidade composta no planejamento da operacao eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J.C.O. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Schilling, M.T.; Gomes, P. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of an ongoing, detailed and first-hand investigation about the current reliability levels of the Brazilian power system, as seen from the electrical operation planning point-of-view. A set of practical results are presented and commented. (author) 41 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Shandong XinfaPlans to Invest 70 billion Yuan to Develop CoalPower-Aluminum Project in Zunyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>DOn April 18, Shandong Xinfa Group and Zunyi People’s Government formally signed a framework cooperation agreement for coalpower-aluminum integrated project, planning to invest 70 billion yuan to concentrate on building North Guizhou coal-power-aluminum integrated resource downstream processing base.

  3. 76 FR 20652 - Idaho Power Company; Notice of Application of Land Management Plan Update for the Bliss, Upper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Idaho Power Company; Notice of Application of Land Management Plan Update for the Bliss, Upper Salmon Falls, and Lower Salmon Falls Projects and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests Take notice...

  4. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  5. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and its participation in the External Radiological Emergency Plans at Laguna Verde Power plant; El ININ y su participacion en el Plan de Emergencia Radiologica Externo de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Proteccion Radiologica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    In this article it is described the form in which the ININ participates in the External Radiological Emergency Plan at Laguna Verde Power plant. It is set the objective, mission and organization of this plan. The responsibilities and activities that plan has assigned are mentioned also the organization to fulfil them and the obtained results during 9 years of participation. (Author)

  6. Progresses in decontamination and radioactive waste management plans for developing the decommissioning plan of a CANDU 600 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of radioactive wastes generated by decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities represents the main part of the decommissioning process. The aim of waste management strategy, as part of the Decommissioning Plan, is to ensure that the generation, conditioning and storage of the waste resulted in the decommissioning process is conducted according to the project goals. This article presents the progress regarding the need of integrating the Decontamination and Management Plans for Radioactive Waste into the Decommissioning Plan representing an integrated concept as part of a National Project. The optimization possibilities of the integrated system concept are much larger and could lead to lower general costs. The decommissioning activities related to the nuclear facilities raise a lot of issues regarding the additional radioactive used materials and the generated radioactive wastes. According to some available assessments, the quantity of decommissioned materials and wastes can exceed 10 - 200 times the operational waste of the facility's life. The cost of radioactive waste management can increase the overall decommissioning budget with mat least 50%. The radioactive wastes resulted from decommissioning are often different than those generated during the normal operation or normal maintenance of the nuclear plant systems. The differences are due to the diversity of chemical, physical or radiological characteristics, of physical form or to the different amounts and volumes generated during the two activity types. Due to these specific characteristics, some wastes are considered to be problematic, e.g. the wastes for which routine methods of manipulation, treatment and conditioning require more attention from safety and organization point of view. The experience and analysis of available data within the management of various problematic waste types, generated during decommissioning, is important for identifying the most adequate and efficient

  7. PLAN 98 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The nuclear utilities in Sweden are responsible for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The most important measures are to plan, build and operate the facilities and systems needed, and to conduct related R and D. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products. Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB. Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR I. Plans also exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. At the end of 1995, certain amendments were made in the Financing Act which influence the calculations presented in this report. The most important amendment is that the reactor owners, besides paying a fee or charge on nuclear energy production, must also give guarantees as security for remaining costs. In this way the fee can be based on a probable cost for waste management. This cost includes uncertainties and variations that are normal for this type of project. Cost increases as a consequence of major changes, disruptions etc. can instead be covered via the given guarantees. The total future costs, in January 1998 prices, for the Swedish waste management system from 1999 onward has been calculated to be SEK 45.8 billion. The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. They will fall due over a total period of approximately 50 years up to the middle of the 2l st century, but the greater part will fall due during the next 20 years. It is estimated that SEK 12.1 billion in current money terms

  8. Plan 99. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear utilities in Sweden are responsible for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The most important measures are to plan, build and operate the facilities and systems needed, and to conduct related R and D. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products. Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB. Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. At the end of 1995, certain amendments were made in the Financing Act which influence the calculations presented in this report. The most important amendment is that the reactor owners, besides paying a fee or charge on nuclear energy production, must also give guarantees as security for remaining costs. In this way the fee can be based on a probable cost for waste management. This cost includes uncertainties and variations that are normal for this type of project. Cost increases as a consequence of major changes, disruptions etc. can instead be covered via the given guarantees. The total future costs, in January 1999 prices, for the Swedish waste management system from 2000 onward have been calculated to be SEK 48.1 billion (about 5.6 billion USD). The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. They will fall due over a total period of approximately 50 years up to the middle of the 21 st century, but the greater part will fall due during the next 20 years. It is estimated that SEK 12.9 billion

  9. Long-term power generation expansion planning with short-term demand response: Model, algorithms, implementation, and electricity policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Timo

    Electric sector models are powerful tools that guide policy makers and stakeholders. Long-term power generation expansion planning models are a prominent example and determine a capacity expansion for an existing power system over a long planning horizon. With the changes in the power industry away from monopolies and regulation, the focus of these models has shifted to competing electric companies maximizing their profit in a deregulated electricity market. In recent years, consumers have started to participate in demand response programs, actively influencing electricity load and price in the power system. We introduce a model that features investment and retirement decisions over a long planning horizon of more than 20 years, as well as an hourly representation of day-ahead electricity markets in which sellers of electricity face buyers. This combination makes our model both unique and challenging to solve. Decomposition algorithms, and especially Benders decomposition, can exploit the model structure. We present a novel method that can be seen as an alternative to generalized Benders decomposition and relies on dynamic linear overestimation. We prove its finite convergence and present computational results, demonstrating its superiority over traditional approaches. In certain special cases of our model, all necessary solution values in the decomposition algorithms can be directly calculated and solving mathematical programming problems becomes entirely obsolete. This leads to highly efficient algorithms that drastically outperform their programming problem-based counterparts. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of all tailored algorithms and the challenges from a modeling software developer's standpoint, providing an insider's look into the modeling language GAMS. Finally, we apply our model to the Texas power system and design two electricity policies motivated by the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's recently proposed CO2 emissions targets for the

  10. Multi-objective and multi-criteria optimization for power generation expansion planning with CO2 mitigation in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamphol Promjiraprawat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In power generation expansion planning, electric utilities have encountered the major challenge of environmental awareness whilst being concerned with budgetary burdens. The approach for selecting generating technologies should depend on economic and environmental constraint as well as externalities. Thus, the multi-objective optimization becomes a more attractive approach. This paper presents a hybrid framework of multi-objective optimization and multi-criteria decision making to solve power generation expansion planning problems in Thailand. In this paper, CO2 emissions and external cost are modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem. Then the analytic hierarchy process is utilized to determine thecompromised solution. For carbon capture and storage technology, CO2 emissions can be mitigated by 74.7% from the least cost plan and leads to the reduction of the external cost of around 500 billion US dollars over the planning horizon. Results indicate that the proposed approach provides optimum cost-related CO2 mitigation plan as well as external cost.

  11. An integrated stochastic multi-regional long-term energy planning model incorporating autonomous power systems and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power sector faces a rapid transformation worldwide from a dominant fossil-fueled towards a low carbon electricity generation mix. Renewable energy technologies (RES) are steadily becoming a greater part of the global energy mix, in particular in regions that have put in place policies and measures to promote their utilization. This paper presents an optimization-based approach to address the generation expansion planning (GEP) problem of a large-scale, central power system in a highly uncertain and volatile electricity industry environment. A multi-regional, multi-period linear mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, combining optimization techniques with a Monte Carlo (MCA) method and demand response concepts. The optimization goal concerns the minimization of the total discounted cost by determining optimal power capacity additions per time interval and region, and the power generation mix per technology and time period. The model is evaluated on the Greek power system (GPS), taking also into consideration the scheduled interconnection of the mainland power system with those of selected autonomous islands (Cyclades and Crete), and aims at providing full insight into the composition of the long-term energy roadmap at a national level. - Highlights: • A spatial, multi-period, long-term generation expansion planning model is presented. • A Monte-Carlo method along with a demand response mechanism are incorporated. • Autonomous power systems interconnection is considered. • Electricity and CO2 emission trade are taken into account. • Lignite, natural gas and wind power comprise the dominant power technologies

  12. Analysis of emergency planning at nuclear power plants in the US. Part I. Organizational and technical provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of emergency planning at nuclear power plants in the USA is described. The plans include: the organization of the emergency bodies of the plant and their functions; the role of national authorities, local services (police, fire brigades, health service) and other organizations; the sequence of transmission of orders and transfer of information between the entities; coordination of activities of the internal and external bodies; technical equipment of the emergency squads (operating center, personnel); and communication and monitoring systems. (J.B.). 8 tabs., 20 figs

  13. The regulatory approach to ensuring the adequacy of emergency planning for nuclear power stations in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first nuclear power station in South Africa became operational in 1984. The paper describes the basis on which emergency planning was required from a regulatory point of view. The extent of planning required and the associated facilities are described, together with the structure of the emergency response organization and associated responsibilities. The provisions in place to ensure ongoing readiness of the emergency response organization are discussed. These include training and retraining of operational staff, equipment and inventory checks and the conducting of an annual full-scale demonstration exercise. (author)

  14. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and its participation in the External Radiological Emergency Plans at Laguna Verde Power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article it is described the form in which the ININ participates in the External Radiological Emergency Plan at Laguna Verde Power plant. It is set the objective, mission and organization of this plan. The responsibilities and activities that plan has assigned are mentioned also the organization to fulfil them and the obtained results during 9 years of participation. (Author)

  15. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority. The

  16. The Wind Power Handbook. Planning and approval of wind power plants on shore and in coastal areas; Vindkraftshandboken. Planering och proevning av vindkraftverk paa land och i kustnaera vattenomraaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    The Wind Power Handbook is designed to make it easier for municipalities and wind energy companies to plan wind power projects. It contains the issues to be considered when planning and review, both the legal bases under essentially Planning and Building Act and the Environmental Code and the environmental assessments. The manual is primarily addressed to the municipalities and various operators. There are many interests to be met at a wind power establishment, which requires knowledge and cooperation of the different actors on the planning and approval process to be effective. Here we have gathered important knowledge base to facilitate the process and to contribute to a balanced decision

  17. Publication of the planned erection and operation of a nuclear power plant near the town of Lingen, Emsland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plant site is planned in the south Lingen industrial park in field 5 of the Darme district and in fields 34 and 35 of the Bramsche district, about 0.6 km nortn-east of the section between kilometers 139 and 140 of the Dortmund-Ems canal which shares the river bed of the Ems in this section. The nuclear power plant will have a PWR with a thermal power of 3765 MW, i.e. an electrical gross power of 1291 MWe during normal operation under design conditions. Heat removal from the turbine condenser will take place in closed recirculation cooling operation via a natural-draught cooling tower. (orig.)

  18. Plan 2004. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; Plan 2004. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total cost for handling the waste from 40 years operation of the 11 Swedish reactors in operation and Barsebaeck-1 which already is taken out of operation, amounts to about 70 billion SEK (about 9.3 billion USD). 18 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants, and for research and development. The future costs amounts to 51.5 billion SEK. The cost are financed by the nuclear utilities in the form of a special charge on the electricity produced by the nuclear power plants. At present this charge is, on average, 0.005 SEK/kWh (about 0.0007 USD/kWh)

  19. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-IV. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of its efforts to provide methodologies and tools to Member States to carry out comparative assessment and analyse priority environmental issues related to the development of the electric power sector, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package WASP-IV for carrying out power generation expansion planning taking into consideration fuel availability and environmental constraints. This manual constitutes a part of this work and aims to provide users with a guide to use effectively the new version of the model WASP-IV. WASP was originally developed in 1972 by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA to meet the IAEA needs to analyse the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. Previous versions of the model were used by Member States in many national and regional studies to analyse the electric power system expansion planning and the role of nuclear energy in particular. Experience gained from its application allowed development of WASP into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. New, improved versions were developed, which took into consideration the needs expressed by the users of the programme in order to address important emerging issues being faced by the electric system planners. In 1979, WASP-IV was released and soon after became an indispensable tool in many Member States for generation expansion planning. The WASP-IV version was continually upgraded and the development of version WASP-III Plus commenced in 1992. By 1995, WASP-III Plus was completed, which followed closely the methodology of the WASP-III but incorporated new features. In order to meet the needs of electricity planners and following the recommendations of the Helsinki symposium, development of a new version of WASP was

  20. An analysis of operational experience during low power and shutdown and a plan for addressing human reliability assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent nuclear power plant events (e.g. Chernobyl, Diablo Canyon, and Vogtle) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reports (e.g. NUREG-1449) have led to concerns regarding human reliability during low power and shutdown (LP ampersand S) conditions and limitations of human reliability analysis (HRA) methodologies in adequately representing the LP ampersand S environment. As a result of these concerns, the NRC initiated two parallel research projects to assess the influence of LP ampersand S conditions on human reliability through an analysis of operational experience at pressurized water reactors (PWRs) an boiling water reactors (BWRs). These research projects, performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for PWRS, and Sandia National Laboratories for BWRs, identified unique aspects of human performance during LP ampersand S conditions and provided a program plan for research and development necessary to improve existing HRA methodologies. This report documents the results of the analysis of LP ampersand S operating experience and describes the improved HRA program plan

  1. A methodology to assist in contingency planning for protection of nuclear power plants against land vehicle bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a methodology which could be used by operators of licensed nuclear power reactors to address issues related to contingency planning for a land vehicle bomb, should such a threat arise. The methodology presented in this report provides a structured framework for understanding factors to be considered in contingency planning for a land vehicle bomb including: (1) system options available to maintain a safe condition, (2) associated components and equipment, (3) preferred system options for establishing and maintaining a safe shutdown condition, and (4) contingency measures to preserve the preferred system options. Example applications of the methodology for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) are provided along with an example of contingency plan changes necessary for implementation of this methodology, a discussion of some contingency measures that can be used to limit land vehicle access, and a bibliography. 2 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  2. The Evaluation and Application Plan Report for the Development of Nuclear Power Plant DCS Using CASE Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.Y.; Moon, H.J.; Yoon, M.H.; Lee, Y.K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    This report contains the evaluation and application plan report for the development of nuclear power plant DCS using CASE tools. In this report, the necessity of using CASE tools is considered and a available CASE environment is suggested. And, also according to the IEEE Std 1209 Recommended Practice for Evaluation and Selection of CASE Tools, their functional and economical evaluation about available commercial CASE tools is performed and described. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The response of the Government of Ontario to the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1980, after nearly five years of hearings and research, the Ontario Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning submitted the first volume of its final report. The remaining eight volumes were submitted in April 1980. The Commission made 88 recommendations on technical, operational, and policy issues. The present document sets out the Ontario government's response to the recommendations. The government accepts and is implementing 77 recommendations. Four recommendations require further study, and six have been rejected

  4. Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology. National Education Technology Plan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the Administration's National Education Technology Plan. This plan calls for applying the advanced technologies used in everyone's daily personal and professional lives to the entire education system to improve student learning, accelerate and scale up the adoption of effective practices, and use data and information for…

  5. Nuclear power reactor security personnel training and qualification plan reviewer workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Training and Qualification Plan Reviewer Workbook has been developed to provide the information required for evaluating the adequacy of the Training and Qualification (T and Q) Plans developed to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 73.55(b)(4) and 10 CFR 73, Appendix B

  6. A study of the evaluation methodology for radiological emergency planning zone of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the protection of the public health against nuclear accidents with major release of radioactive material, the Emergency Planning Zone(EPZ) has been designated for an area with a radius of 8∼10 km around nuclear power plants(NPPs) in Korea. However, since the current size of EPZ set in 1980's is based on simple assumptions about accident source terms, meteorological conditions, and conservative protective action guides(PAGs), 10 mSv to the whole body and 100 mSv to the thyroids, it is questionable that the current EPZ provides adequate protection against spectrum of accidents encompassing probable severe reactor accidents. The aim of this study is to establish a new methodology to determine the EPZ for NPPs in Korea by reflecting advances in the reactor risk assessment. An illustrative evaluation of EPZ sizes was carried out for the Uljin NPP units 3 and 4. Since the previous PAGs did not seem to warrant initiation of burdensome protective actions, the new PAGs were set to the level of preventing serious deterministic effects-early fatality was considered in this study-as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP). In addition, after the guidelines developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA), EPZs were sub-divided into two categories: the Precautionary Action Zone(PAZ) and the Urgent Protective Action Planning Zone(UPZ). Six severe accident source term categories(STCs) resulted from the individual plant examination study for Uljin 3 and 4, for which the core damage frequency exceeded approximately 10-6 per reactor year, were selected and corresponding environmental release source terms were adopted as accident source terms for EPZ determination. The MACCS2(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System2) was used in calculation of radiological consequences. The radiological emergency plans and procedures for Uljin NPPs were referred for accident notification system and the planned protective actions. The regional

  7. Powerful Environments for Underclass Youth: A Reeducational Plan for Inner-City Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Thomas E.; Forster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Described are the dehumanizing conditions of Black underclass life and possible improvements through creation of re-educative therapeutic communities, termed "powerful environments." Powerful environments include expectations, psychological distancing from negative culture, positive social integration, staff leadership, peer power, work, and…

  8. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report refers to the adequacy of current contingency planning by the Australian Federal and Senate authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizating radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports. Much of the material was obtained in response to questions put in writing by the Senate Standing Committee to the Department of Defence, ANSTO and others. In addition, the report contains relevant information from Commonwealth documents as well as the Committee findings and recommendations. Issues considered include: types of visiting nuclear powered vessels, accident likelihood and consequences, differences between naval and land-based reactors, safety records. The persons or organizations who made submissions or appeared in all public hearings are listed in the appendixes, along with all visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships from 1976 to 1988

  9. The power of information and contraceptive choice in a family planning setting in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, E.; Sloan, N; Winikoff, B.; Langer, A; Coggins, C; Heimburger, A.; Conde-Glez, C.; Salmeron, J

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: This study measured the effect of information about family planning methods and STD risk factors and prevention, together with personal choice on the selection of intrauterine devices (IUDs) by clients with cervical infection.

  10. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 4. Radiological emergency response planning for nuclear power plants in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the state of emergency response planning for nuclear power plants in California. Attention is given to the role of Federal agencies, particularly the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in planning for both on and off site emergency measures and to the role of State and local agencies for off site planning. The relationship between these various authorities is considered. Existing emergency plans for nuclear power plants operating or being constructed in California are summarized. The developing role of the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission is examined

  11. Risk perception, trust, and factors related to a planned new nuclear power plant in Taiwan after the 2011 Fukushima disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011, an international review of nuclear safety indicated that two of the three nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating in Taiwan were listed as the most dangerous in the world. To understand the perception of NPP risks by the public in Taiwan and their attitudes regarding a planned fourth NPP after the Fukushima nuclear incident in 2011, a study was conducted in August 2011. A sample of 2819 individuals responded to the survey, with 66% perceiving that Taiwan’s safety management of NPPs was inferior to Japan’s, while 40% perceived a higher possibility of nuclear accidents like that in Japan. On average, a ‘safe’ distance of 94 km from an NPP was expected. 56% opposed the planned fourth NPP, with females (adjusted odd ratios (aOR) 2.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71–2.41), residence near the planned fourth NPP (aOR/CI 13.90/7.79–24.80), distrust of safety management (aOR/CI 1.98/1.45–2.69) and emergency planning (aOR/CI 1.89/1.49–2.40) as the main determinants. Others included those who expected larger safe distances from an NPP (trend test, p < 0.001), perceived excess cancer risks of living within 30 km of an NPP (aOR/CI 2.74/2.02–3.71), and projection of no electric shortage without NPPs (aOR/CI 1.93/1.50–2.49). Given that Taiwan’s large population lives close to the existing NPPs and long-term concerns about the safety of these nuclear plants, the Fukushima incident in Japan likely augmented public risk perceptions on nuclear power in general and on the planned fourth NPP. (paper)

  12. An efficient scenario-based stochastic programming for optimal planning of combined heat, power, and hydrogen production of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed for planning the location and operation of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Power Plants (MCFCPPs) in distribution networks when used for Combined Heat, Power, and Hydrogen (CHPH) simultaneously. Uncertainties of electrical and thermal loads forecasting; the pressures of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide imported to MCFCPPs; and the nominal temperature of MCFCPPs are considered using a scenario-based method. In the method, scenarios are generated using Roulette Wheel Mechanism (RWM) based on Probability Distribution Functions (PDF) of input random variables. Using this method, probabilistic specifics of the problem are distributed and the problem is converted to a deterministic one. The type of the objective functions, placement, and operation of MCFCPPs as CHPH change this problem to a mixed integer nonlinear one. So, multi-objective Modified Firefly Algorithm (MFA) and Pareto optimal method are employed for solving the multi-objective problem and for compromising between the objective functions. During the simulation process, a set of non-dominated solutions are stored in a repository. The 69-bus distribution system is used for evaluating the proper function of the proposed method. - Highlights: • A scenario-based stochastic programming is proposed for optimal planning of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Power Plants (MCFCPP). • The effect of Combined Heat, Power, and Hydrogen production (CHPH) is considered simultaneously. • Uncertainties of electrical and thermal loads forecasting are considered. • Uncertainties of the pressures of H2, O2 and CO2 importing to MCFCPP, and the nominal temperature of MCFCPP are considered. • Generation of thermal energy, hydrogen, and total emission of MCFCPPs and network are managed

  13. Power Outages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plants Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Power Outages This page provides basic safety tips and ... during and after a power outage. Before a Power Outage Build or restock your emergency preparedness kit , ...

  14. Policy Orientation for Power Industry in the 11th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiaoping; Fang Yun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Power industry is one of the largest energy consuming and the heaviest pollutant discharging departments.To meet the targets of energy saving, consumption reduction and environment protection set forth by the state, policy supports are imperative to ensure healthy and sustained development of power industry.

  15. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are described in reference to electric power production in New England: Fuel Prices; Emission Factors and Externality Surcharges; Cost and Potential of Demand-Site Efficiency Improvements; Fuel Switching; Conventional Utility Generation; Gas Supply Constraints; Cogeneration Potential; Biomass Resources; Potential Power Production from Municipal Solid Waste; and Wind Resource Potential

  16. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, technologies, cost and availability. Sub-project forest biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential and the costs of forest biomass utilization for electric power generation in Brazil are evaluated, including a discussion of the technologies and the forecasts in fuel production area (forests management) and in electric power conversion and generation areas. The socio-economics and environmental aspects referring to wood utilization as energetic resource are also described. (C.G.C.)

  17. Alternative fuels for power generation options in medium-range planning: thermo-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents alternative-fuel options for power generation for Jordan. The economics of using alternative fuels, i.e. important natural gas, heavy fuel oil and coal as well as local oil shale to supply power plants are compared in terms of medium range production economics. A net present value model was used to compare unit electricity generation cost from different kinds of power plants. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the influence of the most important variable, such as unit capital and fuel prices, discount and inflation rates. The choice of natural gas as a future primary fuel to supply combined cycle gas turbine power stations, in Jordan, is highly recommended. The results of this study agree with those obtained from similar power stations, which are now operating commercially in the international market.(Author)

  18. Wind power planning and operational benefits and issues in evolving competitive markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the advantages of wind energy generators for both short periods (hours to days) and for longer periods. The value of wind power in the light of the increasing level of risk that owners of generators will face in the new electricity market is also discussed. It is claimed that only now are we beginning to understand the issues associated with the use of large-scale wind power plants in regulated markets and this is coming about through a combination of both experience and computer modelling. As the electric power market becomes increasingly competitive, it is necessary to adapt our knowledge base to cope with the new market structure and to appreciate the associated risks and how they can be mitigated by, say, good siting. The importance of power transmission from wind power generators is emphasised: only if transmission access is afforded to all technologies will the competition succeed

  19. Issues Influencing Power Energy Efficiency the in 11th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Jianhua; Jin Wen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Incessant promotion of power efficiency Since long, power industrial energy-saving specifications,standards and management systems has been systematically established pursuant to state laws, regulations and policies,and been steadily improved through optimization, structure upgrading, and technical retrofitting. The ratio of primary energy transformed into electric energy, the ratio of electric energy consumed by end users and the important power technical and economic indexes which weigh national economic development level, economic efficiency, energy utilization efficiency and environmental protection have been continuously improved and gained significant progress. In particular, along with the rapid development and incessant technical upgrading of Chinese power industry, the commissioning of Left Bank Station of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station, 900-MW (1000-MW class) super-critical coal-fired unit in Waigaoqiao Plant and 750-kV transmission and substation project as representatives indicate the additional part of power development has reached basically the world advanced level.

  20. A multi-period superstructure optimisation model for the optimal planning of China's power sector considering carbon dioxide mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power sector is the largest CO2 emitter in China. To mitigate CO2 emissions for the power sector is a tough task, which requires implementation of targeted carbon mitigation policies. There might be multiple forms for carbon mitigation policies and it is still unclear which one is the best for China. Applying a superstructure optimisation model for optimal planning of China's power sector built by the authors previously, which was based on real-life plants composition data of China's power sector in 2009, and could incorporate all possible actions of the power sector, including plants construction, decommission, and application of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) on coal-fuelled plants, the implementation effects of three carbon mitigation policies were studied quantitatively, achieving a conclusion that the so-called “Surplus-Punishment and Deficit-Award” carbon tax policy is the best from the viewpoint of increasing CO2 reduction effect and also reducing the accumulated total cost. Based on this conclusion, the corresponding relationships between CO2 reduction objectives (including the accumulated total emissions reduction by the objective year and the annual emissions reduction in the objective year) were presented in detail. This work provides both directional and quantitative suggestions for China to make carbon mitigation policies in the future. - Highlights: ► We study the best form of carbon mitigation policy for China's power sector. ► We gain quantitative relationship between CO2 reduction goal and carbon tax policy. ► The “Surplus-Punishment and Deficit-Award” carbon tax policy is the best. ► Nuclear and renewable power and CCS can help greatly reduce CO2 emissions of the power sector. ► Longer objective period is preferred from the viewpoint of policy making.

  1. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and

  2. Support for planning and designing power plant construction works by integration of CAD data; CAD data no togo ni yoru karyoku hatsudensho kensetsu koji no keikaku sekkei shien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, K. [Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, Y.; Mizushima, Y. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    Basic plans and loading data are frequently changed in planning and designing civil engineering facilities for a steam power plant, because of magnitude of the overall scale and peculiarity involved in the plant facility construction. The CAD data of facilities and geological/ground conditions are integrated to establish a supporting system for Chugoku Electric Power Co.`s Ohsaki Power Plant construction works, in order to effectively cope with the above situations. This is for common use and integrated management of updated plan and design drawing information. This paper outlines the system and associated activities. It integrates various CAD data, such as geographical maps, land preparation plans, basic plans of various facilities and implementation design structures, to improve working efficiency for planning and designing civil engineering and building facilities in the power plant. The system improves planning/designing efficiency of the implementation design works for designing underground line facilities with the aid of three-dimensional CAD data, planning methods for foundation construction, and drawing efficient civil engineering plans. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Development of the nuclear power programme in the Republic of Korea: Experience and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of nuclear power in the Republic of Korea's economy is discussed in this paper, especially the economic contribution of the first nuclear power plant, which has been in operation since 1978. Since nuclear power has and will continue to be economically preferable in Korea to fossil fuel as per the results of WASP, the program run which has been analysed here, it is assumed in this study that the nuclear share of total installed power capacity will grow steadily from the current 6% to over 47%, involving 13 nuclear units by 1991, and by 2000 to about 60%, involving 31 nuclear units. Such experience as local participation in nuclear power projects is also briefly discussed in terms of construction, architectural engineering, and hardware manufacturing, based on the nine currently committed nuclear units. The current infrastructure for the development of the Korean nuclear power programme is discussed and some suggestions are made especially in respect to nuclear safety evaluation to solve those problems effectively which may arise in the course of carrying out the massive nuclear power programme which Korea is about to carry out. Since the world uranium reserves are limited, it is desirable that fast-breeder reactors soon be commercially available. In this sense, the future nuclear reactor mix scenario has been strategically analysed. As a result, the need for international co-operation is emphasized to improve nuclear safety and to solve spent-fuel problems. (author)

  4. Multi objective large power system planning under sever loading condition using learning DE-APSO-PS strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An efficient planning strategy using DE and APSO in coordination with PS algorithm is proposed. • An interactive process is proposed to balance the exploitation and exploration capability of (DE-APSO) and PS. • Fuel cost, power loss, and voltage deviation considering loading condition are optimized. • The proposed strategy (DE-APSO-PS) is validated on three large practical test systems. - Abstract: This paper introduces an efficient planning strategy using new hybrid interactive differential evolution (DE), adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO), and pattern search (PS) for solving the security optimal power flow (SOPF) considering multi distributed static VAR compensator (SVC). Three objective functions such as fuel cost, power loss and voltage deviation are considered and optimized considering sever loading conditions. The main idea of the proposed strategy is that variable controls are optimized based on superposition mechanism, the best solutions evaluated by DE and APSO at specified stages are communicated to PS to exploit new regions around this solution, alternatively the new solution achieved by PS is also communicated to DE and APSO, this interactive mechanism search between global and local search is to balance the exploitation and exploration capability which allows individuals from different methods to react more by learning and changing experiences. The robustness of the proposed strategy is tested and validated on large practical power system test (IEEE 118-Bus, IEEE 300-Bus, and 40 units). Comparison results with the standard global optimization methods such as DE, APSO PS and to other recent techniques showed the superiority and perspective of the proposed hybrid technique for solving practical power system problems

  5. Dynamic Isotope Power System: technology verification phase. Test plan. 79-KIPS-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this document is to outline the test plan for the KIPS Technology Verification Program. This test plan is inclusive of component simulating (rig) testing, component testing and system testing. Rig testing will prove concept feasibility, measure basic performance and to develop the hardware necessary prior to initiation of GDS component part manufacture. Component testing will measure basic performance and verify component integrity prior to GDS assembly. The GDS system testing will: simulate the flight system operation; determine the life limiting components; measure performance and relate to potential system lifetime; demonstrate 18+% DC generating efficiency; and perform a 5000 h endurance test with final configuration hardware

  6. Test plan: Brayton Isotope Power System Ground Demonstration System (BIPS-GDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-13

    The purpose of this test plan is to provide an overall outline of all testing to be accomplished on the GDS. Included in this test plan are administrative requirements, instrumentation accuracies, instrumentation, equipment definitions, system test setup, and facility installation. The test program will enable collection of sufficient data to establish material, component, and system design integrity. The data will also be used to establish and evaluate component and system performance and reliability characteristics, verification of proper system component integration prior to initiation of Phase II, and flight system (FS) development.

  7. Test plan: Brayton Isotope Power System Ground Demonstration System (BIPS-GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this test plan is to provide an overall outline of all testing to be accomplished on the GDS. Included in this test plan are administrative requirements, instrumentation accuracies, instrumentation, equipment definitions, system test setup, and facility installation. The test program will enable collection of sufficient data to establish material, component, and system design integrity. The data will also be used to establish and evaluate component and system performance and reliability characteristics, verification of proper system component integration prior to initiation of Phase II, and flight system (FS) development

  8. An efficient algorithm for bi-objective combined heat and power production planning under the emission trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Define fuel mix setting for the bi-objective CHP environmental/economic dispatch. • Develop an efficient algorithm for constructing the Pareto frontier for the problem. • Time complexity analysis is conducted for the proposed algorithm. • The algorithm is theoretically compared against a traditional algorithm. • The efficiency of the algorithm is justified by numerical results. - Abstract: The growing environmental awareness and the apparent conflicts between economic and environmental objectives turn energy planning problems naturally into multi-objective optimization problems. In the current study, mixed fuel combustion is considered as an option to achieve tradeoff between economic objective (associated with fuel cost) and emission objective (measured in CO2 emission cost according to fuels and emission allowance price) because a fuel with higher emissions is usually cheaper than one with lower emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP) production is an important high-efficiency technology to promote under the emission trading scheme. In CHP production, the production planning of both commodities must be done in coordination. A long-term planning problem decomposes into thousands of hourly subproblems. In this paper, a bi-objective multi-period linear programming CHP planning model is presented first. Then, an efficient specialized merging algorithm for constructing the exact Pareto frontier (PF) of the problem is presented. The algorithm is theoretically and empirically compared against a modified dichotomic search algorithm. The efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm is justified

  9. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume V. Safety, quality assurance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a 238PuO2-fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Included in this volume are: launch and flight safety considerations; quality assurance techniques and procedures to be followed through system fabrication, assembly and inspection; and the reliability program made up of reliability prediction analysis, failure mode analysis and criticality analysis

  10. Offshore wind power - Possibilities and shortcomings in the planning and design; Vindkraft till havs - Moejligheter och brister vid planering och projektering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Daniel

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to examine how the planning preparedness offshore unfolds. Planning conditions of municipalities have been investigated through interviews with municipal planners and representatives of the wind power stakeholders. At the same time, the problems and deficiencies that impede the expansion of offshore wind power have been identified. In the report, based on the survey of the state of planning, as well as the shortcomings of current systems, the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning presents opportunities for improvements. With these proposals the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning opens up for an increased cooperation with the aim to facilitate a future expansion of offshore wind power. The report primarily addresses central government agencies and authorities, county councils, as well as planners or other officers of the national, regional and municipal levels

  11. Analysis of the emergency plan of Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plants: a critical view related to accessibility and mobility of people with special needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work intends to make a critical analysis of the emergency plan of the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plants related to appropriate transportation, accommodation and infrastructure for people with special needs

  12. Wind Power, Published in 2005, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Garrett County Planning & Land Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Wind Power dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. Data by this...

  13. Kilowatt isotope power system phase II plan. Volume II: flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) is described. Included are a background, a description of the flight system conceptual design, configuration of components, flight system performance, Ground Demonstration System test results, and advanced development tests

  14. Kilowatt isotope power system phase II plan. Volume II: flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    The Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) is described. Included are a background, a description of the flight system conceptual design, configuration of components, flight system performance, Ground Demonstration System test results, and advanced development tests.

  15. Satellite Power System (SPS) concept development and evaluation program plan, July 1977 - August 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the program to evaluate the solar satellite power system concept is presented. Environmental, health, and safety factors are examined along with economic, international, and institutional issues.

  16. PEGASO - simulation model for the operation of nuclear power plants for planning purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization manual for PEGASO is presented, consisting of a set of programs whose objective is to simulate the monthly operation of nuclear power plants (up to 10 NPP), determining the principal physical parameters and criticality. (Author)

  17. 2015 Plan. Project 2: the electric power sector and the Brazilian economy: insertion and forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project shows the economic and the energetic view of the Brazilian electric power sector, mentioning the actual conjuncture; the economy evolution; some sector forecasts; demographical aspects; international price of petroleum and National Energetic Matrix. (C.G.C.)

  18. Modeling an aggressive energy-efficiency scenario in long-range load forecasting for electric power transmission planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Improved representation of end-use energy efficiency is needed for load forecasting. • An emergent application is long-range electric power transmission planning. • A “hybrid” econometric-technology forecasting approach incorporates efficiency. • A high efficiency scenario was created for Western U.S. transmission planning. • Significant load-growth reductions from increased end-use efficiency are possible. - Abstract: Improving the representation of end-use energy efficiency, and of the effects of policies and programs to promote it, is an emergent priority for electricity load forecasting models and methods. This paper describes a “hybrid” load forecasting approach combining econometric and technological elements that is designed to meet this need, in a novel application to long-run electric power transmission planning in the western United States. A twenty-year load forecast incorporating significant increases in energy-efficiency programs and policies across multiple locations was developed in order to assess the potential of efficiency to reduce load growth and requirements for expanded transmission capacity. Load forecasting and transmission planning background is summarized, the theoretical and empirical aspects of the hybrid methodology described, and the assumptions, structure, data development, and results of the aggressive efficiency scenario are presented. The analysis shows that substantial electricity savings are possible in this scenario in most residential and commercial end-uses, and in the industrial sector, with magnitudes depending upon the specific end-use as well as upon the geographic location of the utility or other entity providing the electricity

  19. Protection and relay planning in electric power systems on the West Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes a process for skills upgrading in relay engineers at a network company on the West Bank. The article also discusses selected topics from protection theory and describes briefly some methods for relay planning and documentation that also apply to other network companies

  20. Interlacing Mission, Strategic Planning, and Vision to Lean: Powerful DNA for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Alison; Flumerfelt, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The authors' purpose for this article is to describe a K-12 public school district's journey to internalize and actualize its mission, strategic planning and vision as one coherent engagement using Lean principles and tools. Lean jointly comprises an organizational philosophy and management toolkit prominent in private, government, and nonprofit…

  1. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 73 - Nuclear Power Plant Safeguards Contingency Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... define the perceived dangers and incidents with which the plan will deal and the general way it will... promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (The statement contained in 10 CFR 73.55(a) or subsequent... redundancy in case of equipment failure. 4. Responsibility Matrix. This category of information consists...

  2. Interim format and content for a physical security plan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document serves as interim guidance to assist the licensee or applicant in the preparation of a physical security plan. It is to be used in conjunction with interim acceptance criteria for physical security programs, which will be distributed at a later date

  3. Business plan of the Nuclear Information Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Information Center was born on June 15, 1983, in the Research and Development Headquarters. The purpose of its establishment is to analyze and deliver synthetically the information on nuclear power generation as electric power industry by collecting all information, and to contribute to the safe operation and the improvement of reliability of nuclear power generation. The necessity of positively utilizing the information on the experience of nuclear power generation was recognized particularly owing to the TMI accident. The organization of the Center is composed of the divisions of statistical analysis, information analysis, technical development, information management and general affairs. The ''Committee of raising grade of nuclear power station information'', the ''Expert committee on information analysis and evaluation'' and so on are organized. The number of personnel of the Center is 21, and 12 of them are temporarily transferred from electric power companies. The business of the Center is as shown by the organization of the Center, and it is briefly explained. As the effective means to obtain the information from foreign countries, the Center has utilized the NOTEPAD system managed by the INPO of USA. Its information can be read through the communication networks of KDD and USA. (Kako, I.)

  4. Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    We consider the exercise of power in competitive markets for goods, labour and credit. We offer a definition of power and show that if contracts are incomplete it may be exercised either in Pareto-improving ways or to the disadvantage of those without power. Contrasting conceptions of power including bargaining power, market power, and consumer sovereignty are considered. Because the exercise of power may alter prices and other aspects of exchanges, abstracting from power may miss essential a...

  5. NET IBK Computer code package for the needs of planning, construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences (NET IBK) a systematic work has been performed on collecting nuclear data for reactor calculation needs, on developing own methods and computing programs for reactor calculations, as well as on adapting and applying the foreign methods and codes. In this way a complete library of computer programs was formed for precise prediction of nuclear fuel burnup and depletion, for evaluation of the Power distribution variations with irradiation, for computing the amount of produced plutonium and its number densities etc. Programs for evaluation of location of different types of safety and economic analysis have been developed as well. The aim of this paper is to present our abilities to perform complex computations needed for planning, constructing and operating the nuclear power plants, by describing the NET IBK computer programs package. (author)

  6. Spatio-temporal modelling of electrical supply systems to optimize the site planning process for the "power to mobility" technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Florian; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The transformation of the energy sector towards decentralized renewable energies (RE) requires also storage systems to ensure security of supply. The new "Power to Mobility" (PtM) technology is one potential solution to use electrical overproduction to produce methane for i.e. gas vehicles. Motivated by these fact, the paper presents a methodology for a GIS-based temporal modelling of the power grid, to optimize the site planning process for the new PtM-technology. The modelling approach is based on a combination of the software QuantumGIS for the geographical and topological energy supply structure and OpenDSS for the net modelling. For a case study (work in progress) of the city of Straubing (Lower Bavaria) the parameters of the model are quantified. The presentation will discuss the methodology as well as the first results with a view to the application on a regional scale.

  7. Preliminary study of the emergency planning zone evaluation for the nuclear power plant in Taiwan by using MACCS2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to government regulation, the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) must be designated before operation. The related emergency response planning (ERP) in EPZ must be planned to guarantee all necessary resources are available under the postulated accidents of NPP. Thus the pre-planned necessary actions will be helpful to protect population from the damage during the possible accident. The purpose of this preliminary study is to perform the evaluation of EPZ for a NPP by using MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2) code which was developed by SNL for estimating the radiological doses, health effects, and economic consequences that could result from postulated accidental releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere. The specific meteorological data used in this study was collected during July 1997 to June 1998 at the planned site and the population distribution was reinvestigated in April 1999. The source term data including inventory, sensible heat content, timing, duration, the fraction of inventory released with each segment etc. are based on a preliminary design result of the NPP. The effective dose equivalent and thyroid dose together with the related individual risk, social risk for each category of accidents are evaluated by MACCS2 code. An interface program has been developed to summarize the dose and risk results from all the accident categories. By comparing the results of individual risk, societal risk, whole body dose, and thyroid dose vs. distance to the Protection Action Guide and the NUREG-0396 report related criteria, a reasonably conservative EPZ is proposed. (author)

  8. Operational planning of an independent microgrid containing tidal power generators, SOFCs, and photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The characteristics of a microgrid composed of SOFCs and tidal power generators were investigated. ► The CO2 emissions of this microgrid were calculated based on an oceanographic investigation. ► The frequency and wave form quality of the electric power system were investigated. ► The voltage regulation and reactive power control of the electric power system need to be improved. -- Abstract: The development of local energy systems is important to curtailing global warming and improving public safety. Therefore, in this work, the basic performance of an independent microgrid consisting of tidal power generators, photovoltaics, fuel cells, and heat pumps to locally produce energy for local consumption was analyzed. Fast tidal currents near inlets that join lakes to the sea were converted into electrical energy via a three-phase synchronized generator connected to Darius water turbines. On the basis of the results of an oceanographic survey, the production of electricity and the CO2 emissions of each generator were calculated using balanced equations for electricity and heat. The calculations indicated that 33% of the CO2 emissions were associated with the energy supplied through conventional methods during the summer season. Although the frequency and waveform of the electricity of the microgrid were high quality, improvement in the voltage regulation was still required.

  9. Development of Resonant Diplexers for high-power ECRH – Status, Applications, Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasparek W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diplexers for ECRH has been pursued at a number of institutes because of their attractive variety of applications: Power combination, non-mechanical, electrically controlled switching (of combined beams between launchers with tens of kHz, and discrimination of low-power ECE signals from high-power ECRH is feasible. In a first part, this paper reports on plasma experiments with a ring resonator (Mk IIa at ASDEX Upgrade. Commissioning experiments on fast switching between two launchers for synchronous stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes, as well as in-line ECE measurements have been performed, and experimental issues and first results are discussed. A clear influence of the switching phase on the amplitude of the 3/2 NTM mode was measured, complete stabilization could, however, not be demonstrated yet mainly due to imperfect resonator control. Concepts for improved tracking of the diplexers to the gyrotron frequency are presented. In a second part, the design of diplexers with ring resonators matched to HE11 fields is briefly discussed; these devices can be connected to corrugated waveguides without any mode converters. A compact version (MQ IV is under investigation, which is compatible with the ITER ECRH system (170 GHz, 63.5 mm waveguide, vacuum tight casing, with the final goal of high-power tests at the 170 GHz gyrotron facility at JAEA in Naka, Japan. First low-power test results are presented.

  10. Modeling for planning municipal electric power systems associated with air pollution control – A case study of Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an IFJMP (interval-parameter full-infinite joint-probabilistic mixed-integer programming) method is developed for supporting EPS (electric power systems) management. The IFJMP-EPS model cannot only deal with uncertainties expressed as joint probabilities, crisp interval values and functional intervals, but also examine the risk of violating joint-probabilistic constraints. The developed IFJMP-EPS model is then applied to a case study for planning EPS of Beijing within a multi-energy resource, multi-electric power plant and multi-period context, where MILP (mixed integer linear programming technique is employed to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of facility-capacity expansion. With the aid of IFJMP, tradeoffs among system costs, electricity-supply security, and air-pollution control can be obtained under joint probabilities. The results can be used to help managers to identify desired system designs and to determine which of these designs can most efficiently accomplish optimizing the system objective under uncertainty. The results can also address the challenges generated in the processes of electric-power production (such as imbalance between electricity supply and demand, the contradiction between air pollution emission and environmental protection); this allows an increased robustness in controlling electricity-generation and -supply risk for Beijing's EPS under various complexities and uncertainties. - Highlights: • An innovative optimization method is developed for tackling uncertainties. • It can reflect the risk of violating system constraints under joint probability. • The developed method is applied to planning electric power systems of Beijing. • Solutions related to electricity supply and capacity expansion are obtained. • Results can generate the city's energy policy to satisfy different objectives

  11. Beta Test Plan for Advanced Inverters Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Basso, T.; Coddington, M.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary (beta) test plan for grid interconnection systems of advanced inverter-based DERs. It follows the format and methodology/approach established by IEEE Std 1547.1, while incorporating: 1. Upgraded tests for responses to abnormal voltage and frequency, and also including ride-through. 2. A newly developed test for voltage regulation, including dynamic response testing. 3. Modified tests for unintentional islanding, open phase, and harmonics to include testing with the advanced voltage and frequency response functions enabled. Two advanced inverters, one single-phase and one three-phase, were tested under the beta test plan. These tests confirmed the importance of including tests for inverter dynamic response, which varies widely from one inverter to the next.

  12. Annotated bibliography of safety-related occurrences in nuclear power plans as reported in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants reported in 1974 are reviewed and summarized. This bibliography covers the individual reports on each of the 1421 abnormal occurrences reported to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as well as some 455 other documents pertaining to these and other events of note. The review is intended to provide insight as to where additional effort can be expended to improve operations in nuclear power plants. The individual reports, abstracted by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, concern incidents and failures, design or construction deficiencies, and noncompliance citations for license violations. A bibliography is included which contains 100-word abstracts of each incident. For convenience, the bibliography is organized according to type of facility as follows: boiling-water reactors; pressurized-water reactors; non-water-cooled power reactors; and reactors, general. Key-word and permuted-title indexes are provided for each section. (U.S.)

  13. The politics of communication between planning officers and politicians: the exercise of power through discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Tait; Heather Campbell

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between local government officers and elected members is central to the decisionmaking processes associated with planning, as with many other areas of public policymaking. Legal responsibilities and issues of accountability and legitimacy lie at the heart of the relationship between officers and members, with interaction mediated and constituted through ritualised communicative encounters such as committee meetings and associated reports, and less formally through ad hoc cont...

  14. Power-knowledge in district-based planning : the case of regeneration in Kowloon City District

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Kin-ho; 楊建豪

    2014-01-01

    For the past decade, Hong Kong’s redevelopment strategy has been dictated by property-led urban regeneration. This approach is highly controversial as it often neglects the voices of people in the plan-making process. The growing desire for transparency and public involvement in the city’s governance system prompted the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government to introduce broad-based public engagement (PE) procedures to its institutional framework. In 2011, the new Urban Re...

  15. C A R A fuel element for Atucha nuclear power plants and development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the current state and the development plan of the C A R A fuel element.Main activities were carried out towards to welding of the end plates of the C A R A fuel element by a new process, and the assembling and hanging of the C A R A fuel element in its Atucha configuration, by using an external basket

  16. Operation planning of electrical power systems; Planeacion de operacion de sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The development of a software that has facilitated and improved considerably the planning tasks, besides diminishing the production costs is presented. The software denominated Hydrothermal Coordination (HTC)(Coordinacion Hidrotermica (CHT)), was developed in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), with this software the plan of short term operation of the generating units is determined. The software analyzes mathematically a great number of options regarding to the allocation of generation units and selects very close solutions, in cost, to the optimal one. It constitutes in addition an information system that stores the relevant data of each unit, useful for decision making. [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo de un software que ha facilitado y mejorado considerablemente las tareas de planeacion, ademas de disminuir los costos de produccion. El paquete denominado Coordinacion Hidrotermica (CHT), fue desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); con el se determina el plan de operacion a corto plazo de las unidades generadoras. El paquete analiza matematicamente un gran numero de opciones en lo que se refiere a la asignacion de unidades de generacion y selecciona soluciones muy cercanas, en costo, a la optima. Constituye ademas un sistema de informacion que almacena los datos relevantes de cada unidad, utiles para la toma de decisiones.

  17. A study on maintenance optimization by the automatic planning tool for regular plant outage work in nuclear power plant using the logic programming language 'Prolog'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses maintenance optimization by the automatic planning tool for regular plant outage work in nuclear power plant using the logic programming language 'Prolog'. As a result of consideration, the following results were obtained. (1) The automatic planning tool for regular plant outage in nuclear power plant was developed. (2) Using this tool, the work plan for BWR primary recirculation system and residual heat removal system was automatically made on the condition of flattening man loading over the plant outage schedule as much as possible. (3) Several points for improving the developed tool were listed. (author)

  18. NuSTAR results and future plans for magnetar and rotation‐powered pulsar observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, H.; Kaspi, V.M.; Archibald, R.;

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, we do not see a spiky pulse profile in the hard X‐ray band, as previously reported based on Suzaku observations. For other magnetars and rotation‐powered pulsars observed with NuSTAR, data analysis results will be soon available. (© 2014 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  19. Mechanisms of Power within a Community-Based Food Security Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, Christine; Pelletier, David; Barr, Donald; Wilkins, Jennifer; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    A community food security movement has begun to address problems of hunger and food insecurity by utilizing a community-based approach. Although various models have been implemented, little empirical research has assessed how power operates within community-based food security initiatives. The purpose of this research was to determine how power…

  20. Emergency planning and preparedness for re-entry of a nuclear powered satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety practice report provides a general overview of the management of incidents or emergencies that may be created when nuclear power sources employed in space systems accidentally re-enter the earth's atmosphere and impact on its surface. 8 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  1. Participation and Power: Reflections on the Role of Government in Land Use Planning and Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Noelle; Leeuwis, Cees

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of power in interactive policymaking settings. Design/Methodology/Approach: A literature study is combined with four case studies relating to citizen participation in natural resource management and rural development in the Netherlands. Findings: Many of the identified problems and dilemmas of interactive policymaking…

  2. Participation and Power: Reflections on the Role of Government in Land Use Planning and Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.N.C.; Leeuwis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of power in interactive policymaking settings. Design/Methodology/Approach: A literature study is combined with four case studies relating to citizen participation in natural resource management and rural development in the Netherlands. Findings: Many of the identified p

  3. Participation and power: reflections on the role of government in land use planning and rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Aarts; C. Leeuwis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of power in interactive policymaking settings. Design/Methodology/Approach: A literature study is combined with four case studies relating to citizen participation in natural resource management and rural development in the Netherlands. Findings: Many of the identified p

  4. Transmit Power Minimization and Base Station Planning for High-Speed Trains with Multiple Moving Relays in OFDMA Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2016-03-15

    High-speed railway system equipped with moving relay stations placed on the middle of the ceiling of each train wagon is investigated. The users inside the train are served in two hops via the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) technology. In this work, we first focus on minimizing the total downlink power consumption of the base station (BS) and the moving relays while respecting specific quality of service (QoS) constraints. We first derive the optimal resource allocation solution in terms of OFDMA subcarriers and power allocation using the dual decomposition method. Then, we propose an efficient algorithm based on the Hungarian method in order to find a suboptimal but low complexity solution. Moreover, we propose an OFDMA planning solution for high-speed train by finding the maximal inter-BS distance given the required user data rates in order to perform seamless handover. Our simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed resource allocation schemes in the case of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) and compare them with previously developed algorithms as well as with the direct transmission scenario. Our results also highlight the significant planning gain obtained thanks to the use of multiple relays instead of the conventional single relay scenario.

  5. A method for site-dependent planning and its application to the preselection of sites for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the paper a computer-aided method for dealing with the problems of site-dependent planning is described. By means of the modular program system COPLAN complex conjunction between locally varying data can be performed rapidly and accurately with respect to spatial orientation. The system consists of data input, numerous ways of processing, and graphical representation of the results. The second part shows the application of the system to preselection of sites for thermal power plants. By means of a method analyzing its usefulness, the suitability of each point in (the German Federal State of) Baden-Wuerttemberg as a power plant site is determined. Compared with the currently used methods of preliminary site selection the present method is distinguished by area-covering calculation, the possibility of balancing up advantages and disadvantages, as well as transparency and suitability for being checked up. The paper establishes and considers criteria from the fields of operational economy, safety, ecology, and district planning. The computations are performed for different orders of preference. It is shown that there are regions of sites which are acceptable with respect to a large spectrum of object systems. (orig.)

  6. Recommended criteria for the evaluation of on-site nuclear power plant emergency plans, volume II: criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of existing Canadian and international nuclear power plant (NPP) emergency plans, evaluation criteria, and approaches has been conducted to provide AECB staff with information which can be used to assess the adequacy of NPP on-site emergency response plans. The results of this work are published in two volumes. Volume I, Basis Document, provides the reasons why certain requirements are in place. It also gives comprehensive references to various standards.Volume II, Criteria, contains the criteria which relate to on-site actions and their integration with control room activities and the roles of off-site responsible organizations. The recommended criteria provide information on what is required, and not on how to accomplish the requirements. The licensees are given the latitude to decide on the methods and processes needed to meet the requirements. The documents do not address NPP off-site plans and response capability, or the control room emergency operating procedures and response capability. This report contains only Volume II: Criteria. 55 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Recommended criteria for the evaluation of on-site nuclear power plant emergency plans, volume 1: basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of existing Canadian and international nuclear power plant (NPP) emergency plans, evaluation criteria, and approaches has been conducted to provide AECB staff with information which can be used to assess the adequacy of NPP on-site emergency response plans. The results of this work are published in two volumes. Volume I, Basis Document, provides the reasons why certain requirements are in place. It also gives comprehensive references to various standards.Volume II, Criteria, contains the criteria which relate to on-site actions and their integration with control room activities and the roles of off-site responsible organizations. The recommended criteria provide information on what is required, and not on how to accomplish the requirements. The licensees are given the latitude to decide on the methods and processes needed to meet the requirements. The documents do not address NPP off-site plans and response capability, or the control room emergency operating procedures and response capability. This report contains only Volume I: Basis Document. 58 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Project final report: Energetic planning focusing small scale hydroelectric power plants; Relatorio final. Projeto planejamento energetico com enfase em pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Yara dos Santos

    1994-12-31

    Considering the increasing need for a better utilization of the Brazilian hydric resources, a deeper analysis of small scale hydroelectric power plants has been demanding. This work presents a case study of energetic planning based upon small scale hydroelectric power plants in a district of Amazon state - North Brazil 8 refs., 11 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Erection planning for the electrical components and systems of a 1300 M We PWR nuclear power plant such as Angra-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to present the concepts used in the erection planning for the electrical components and systems of a 1300 M We PWR nuclear power plant such as Angra 2. These concepts were developed and implemented in several erection time schedules by the design company (NUCLEN) and were based on the experience gained from erection of similar German nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. Population risk in the wider area around the planned nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk assessment methodology as presented in WASH-1000 has been intoduced. In spite of numerous uncertainties owing to the assumptions and simplifications, the methodology proved to be very useful if it accompanies the NPP design development. The Sizewell-B project, having parallels with our present search for the standard NPP being acceptable for a series of NPPs, illustrates how the present low risk level can be achieved. Within the 80 km radius around the planned Prevlaka site the individual and population risk was partly and preliminary assessed, assuming a 1000 MW PWR design.(author)

  11. Energy and electricity demand forecasting for nuclear power planning in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guidebook is designed to be a reference document to forecast energy and electricity demand. It presents concepts and methodologies that have been developed to make an analytical approach to energy/electricity demand forecasting as part of the planning process. The Guidebook is divided into 6 main chapters: (Energy demand and development, energy demand analysis, electric load curve analysis, energy and electricity demand forecasting, energy and electricity demand forecasting tools used in various organizations, IAEA methodologies for energy and electricity demand forecasting) and 3 appendices (experience with case studies carried out by the IAEA, reference technical data, reference economic data). A bibliography and a glossary complete the Guidebook. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Future plans for the design and construction of fast reactor power stations in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies related to fast reactor technology have been pursued in Italy for a long time and this country is now deeply engaged in the demonstration and marketing phases, in accordance with the outlines of the Italian national energy plan. In the paper the following topics are examined: current possibilities for introducing fast reactors in Italy; the main social and political constraints concerning their introduction; the necessary industrial and organizational structures (in the broadest meaning) existing or foreseen; the national programme pertaining to activities towards achieving this goal. (author)

  13. System model for evaluation of an emergency response plan for a nuclear power plant based on an assessment of nuclear emergency exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius C.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are designed and built with systems dedicated to provide a high degree of protection to its workers, the population living in their neighborhoods and the environment. Among the requirements for ensuring safety there are the existence of the nuclear emergency plan. Due to the relationship between the actions contemplated in the emergency plan and the nuclear emergency exercise, it becomes possible to assess the quality of the nuclear emergency plan, by means of emergency exercise evaluation, The techniques used in this work aim at improving the evaluation method of a nuclear emergency exercise through the use of performance indicators in the evaluation of the structures, actions and procedures involved. The proposed model enables comparisons between different moments of an emergency plan directed to a nuclear power plant as well as comparisons between plans dedicated to different facilities. (author)

  14. System model for evaluation of an emergency response plan for a nuclear power plant based on an assessment of nuclear emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants are designed and built with systems dedicated to provide a high degree of protection to its workers, the population living in their neighborhoods and the environment. Among the requirements for ensuring safety there are the existence of the nuclear emergency plan. Due to the relationship between the actions contemplated in the emergency plan and the nuclear emergency exercise, it becomes possible to assess the quality of the nuclear emergency plan, by means of emergency exercise evaluation, The techniques used in this work aim at improving the evaluation method of a nuclear emergency exercise through the use of performance indicators in the evaluation of the structures, actions and procedures involved. The proposed model enables comparisons between different moments of an emergency plan directed to a nuclear power plant as well as comparisons between plans dedicated to different facilities. (author)

  15. A Statistical Approach to Planning Reserved Electric Power for Railway Infrastructure Administration

    OpenAIRE

    M. Brabec; Pelikán, E. (Emil); Konár, O. (Ondřej); Kasanický, I.; Juruš, P. (Pavel); Sadil, J.; Blažek, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the requirements on railway infrastructure administration is to provide electricity for day-to-day operation of railways. We propose a statistically based approach for the estimation of maximum 15-minute power within a calendar month for a given region. This quantity serves as a basis of contracts between railway infrastructure administration and electricity distribution system operator. We show that optimization of the prediction is possible, based on underlying loss function deriv...

  16. Personnel planning and employment: Organizational concepts for safer power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well thought out plant-specific organisation, proper staff selection, careful training, far-sighted management and an optimum man-machine relationship; this together guarantees problem-free operation of nuclear power plants. Organizational concepts must not be considered as statistical values. The management must maintain the capacity of re-thinking and, if necessary, leaving the beaten track of organizational routines. (orig./HSCH)

  17. Recommendations for planning of emergency provisions by nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommendations revised by the SSK Committee and the SSK Commission on April 30th, 1976, and passed by the Laenderausschuss fuer Atomkernenergie (Nuclear Energy Committee of the Laender) on the 15th and 16th July, 1976. In case of incidents or accidents with damage which could lead to an increased emission of radioactive substances into the surroundings of the nuclear power station, adequate emergency provisions of personnel, organizational and technical nature must be taken so that necessary counter measures for the protection of the surroundings can be undertaken effectively and without delay. Alarm schedule for nuclear power stations: it contains measures to be taken at impending danger, damage to persons, fire, radiation accidents or other accidents, for the checking of danger, for assistance, and for the restoration of security. Among these measures are also those necessary for the protection of the surroundings as long as and in so far as they are not taken care of by other authorities according to the official disaster control schedule. The necessary measurements of radiation exposure are to be undertaken in the surroundings of the nuclear power station until the disaster control organization of the authorities takes over. The cooperation of authorities and relief organizations, envisaged in the case of accident and to be arranged beforehand, is also mentioned in the alarm schelude. (orig./HP)

  18. Plant life extension program for Indian PHWR power plants - Actual experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is responsible for design, construction and operation for all nuclear power plants in India. In the earlier Indian PHWRs zircaloy-2 has been used as coolant tube material, which is observed to have useful life of only about 10 full power years. Reactors at Rajasthan-1 and 2 Madras-1 and 2 Narora-1 and 2 and Kakrapara-1 require en-masse coolant channel replacement at least once in their lifetime. For subsequent reactors from Kakrapara-2 onwards the coolant tube material has been upgraded to Zr 2.5% Nb. En-masse coolant channel replacement and other life extension work have been carried out successfully in Rajasthan Unit-2 (RAPS-2). Work for en-masse coolant channel replacement and plant life extension for Madras unit-2 (MAPS-2) has been taken up since January 2002. Since the coolant channel replacement work requires a long plant outage, this opportunity is also used to extend life of existing systems as well as upgradation work. This life extension and upgradation program is based on the results of detailed in service inspection, evaluation of performance of critical equipment, obsolescence and other strategic reasons. This paper discusses in brief the experience of RAPS-2 in carrying out the above jobs as well as the strategies being adopted for MAPS-2 and future reactors. (author)

  19. Plans for new nuclear power plants in the U.S.: first steps have been taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, American electricity utilities did everything in order to do without new nuclear power plants. They drastically improved the availability of existing plants, increased plant power, and laid the foundations for longer service lives of the plants. These possibilities have been exhausted by now. In the past decade, mainly new gas-fired power plants were commissioned. Building coal-fired plants has become very difficult. For these reasons, utilities now initiated a new nuclear beginning. Five applications for combined construction and operating permits have been filed so far. The first four projects are considered reference projects for the different reactor lines, i.e. ABWR, AP1000, ESBWR, and US-EPR. Another fourteen applications are expected to be filed in the course of this year. The applications field and expected cover a total of 29 new nuclear generating units. The utilities so far have spent triple-digit millions on preparing the applications, on design work, and on the precautionary purchase of components on the critical path. The first permits will be issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission probably in 2010/2011. Factors critical to the success of the projects on the side of vendors and utilities above all are a reliable supply chain and the training of qualified manpower. The measures necessary to achieve these goals have been initiated. (orig.)

  20. 15 years of production of electric energy of the Laguna Verde power plant, its plans and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the year 2005 Laguna Verde power plant reaches 15 years of producing electric power in Mexico arriving to but of 100 million Megawatts-hour from their beginning of commercial activities. The Unit 1 that entered at July 29, 1990 and the Unit 2 at April 10, 1995, obtaining the Disposability Factors from their origin is: 84.63% in Unit 1 and 83.67% in Unit 2. The march of the X XI century gives big challenges of competition to the Laguna Verde Central, with the possible opening of the electric market to private investment, for their Goals and Objectives of a world class company, taking the evaluation system and qualification of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) that promotes the Excellence in the operation of the nuclear power stations in all their partners. This Association supports the development of programs that allow the monitoring of the behavior in Safety Culture, Human fulfilment, Equipment reliability, Industrial Safety, Planning, Programming and Control, Personalized Systematic Training, and the use of the Operational experience in the daily tasks. The present work tries to explain the system of evaluation/qualification of WANO, the definition of Goals and Objectives to reach the excellence and of the programs, it will present the Program of the Reliability of Equipment with its main actions the productivity. (Author)

  1. Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS). Phase I: Integrated Program Plan (IPP). Report 75-311574A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-27

    The government, AIRPHX, AIRLA, and contractor BIPS program coordination efforts are discussed. These coordination efforts are essential for defining program objectives, and achieving these objectives in an efficient manner. The IPP outlines a long range effort intended to: (a) develop end product confidence; (b) identify government and contractor activities pertinent and contributory to BIPS development; (c) recommend government and contractor activities required to ensure BIPS program success; (d) establish activity priorities based on program cost and schedule impacts, and achievement of technical objectives; (e) coordinate the efforts of contributing agencies; (f) provide general information and, to a limited extent, BIPS program-related development activity status to interested individuals and agencies; and (g) provide contractor team program planning guidance.

  2. Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS). Phase I: Integrated Program Plan (IPP). Report 75-311574A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government, AIRPHX, AIRLA, and contractor BIPS program coordination efforts are discussed. These coordination efforts are essential for defining program objectives, and achieving these objectives in an efficient manner. The IPP outlines a long range effort intended to: (a) develop end product confidence; (b) identify government and contractor activities pertinent and contributory to BIPS development; (c) recommend government and contractor activities required to ensure BIPS program success; (d) establish activity priorities based on program cost and schedule impacts, and achievement of technical objectives; (e) coordinate the efforts of contributing agencies; (f) provide general information and, to a limited extent, BIPS program-related development activity status to interested individuals and agencies; and (g) provide contractor team program planning guidance

  3. Shift systems in nuclear power plants - aspects for planning, shift systems, utility practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture contains the most important aspects of shift structure and shift organisation. The criteria for shift planning involving essential tasks, duties, laws and regulations, medical aspects, social aspects, will be presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany some basic models were established, which will be shown and explained with special reference to the number of teams, size of shift crews and absence regulations. Moreover, the lecture will deal with rotation systems and provisions for the transfer of shift responsibilities. By example of a utility plant commissioning time scale (1300 MW PWR) the practice of shift installations will be shown as well as the most important points of education and training. Within this compass the criteria and requirements for training and education of operational personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany will also be touched. (orig.)

  4. Integrated approach to fire safety at the Krsko nuclear power plant - fire protection action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NPP Krsko) is a Westinghouse design, single-unit, 1882 Megawatt thermal (MWt), two-loop, pressurized water nuclear power plant. The fire protection program at NPP Krsko has been reviewed and reports issued recommending changes and modifications to the program, plant systems and structures. Three reports were issued, the NPP Krsko Fire Hazard Analysis (Safe Shout down Separation Analysis Report), the ICISA Analysis of Core Damage Frequency Due to Fire at the NPP Krsko and IPEEE (Individual Plant External Event Examination) related to fire risk. The Fire Hazard Analysis Report utilizes a compliance - based deterministic approach to identification of fire area hazards. This report focuses on strict compliance from the perspective of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), standards, guidelines and acceptance criteria and does not consider variations to comply with the intent of the regulations. The probabilistic analysis methide used in the ICISA and IPEEE report utilizes a risk based nad intent based approach in determining critical at-risk fire areas. NPP Krsko has already completed the following suggestions/recommendations from the above and OSART reports in order to comply with Appendix R: Installation of smoke detectors in the Control Room; Installation of Emergency Lighting in some plant areas and of Remote Shout down panels; Extension of Sound Power Communication System; Installation of Fire Annunciator Panel at the On-site Fire Brigade Station; Installation of Smoke Detection System in the (a) Main Control Room Panels, (b) Essential Service Water Building. (c) Component Cooling Building pump area, chiller area and HVAC area, (d) Auxiliary Building Safety pump rooms, (e) Fuel Handling room, (f) Intermediate Building AFFW area and compressor room, and (g) Tadwaste building; inclusion of Auxiliary operators in the Fire Brigade; training of Fire Brigade Members in Plant Operation (9 week course); Development of Fire Door Inspection and

  5. Load research as a tool in electric power system planning, operation, and control-The case of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric load research involves the systematic collection and analysis of customers' electrical energy as well as demand requirements by time-of-day, month, season, and year; consumption patterns; socio-economic and demographic influencing factors; and willingness-to-pay for electricity. The information created by load research are the bases for all studies and analyses conducted by the electricity company to plan, monitor, operate, and control the power system. Several attempts were carried out in Jordan to create this very important body of knowledge. Studies and analyses are conducted regularly to update the information. This paper presents the author's experience in conducting load research investigations. These efforts culminated in three distinct contributions, which are still very useful in planning and operation of the power system in Jordan. (1) The first contribution by the author is related to creating a huge database of energy and electricity consumption characteristics, trends, and driving forces. The database is being continuously updated and as such constitutes a very basic tool for all demand forecasting and other planning studies. (2) The second contribution involves the estimation of the cost of un-served (unmet) electrical energy due to outages. This estimate, which is still being used as reference for planning studies carried out in Jordan, was first coined by the author at 1.0US$/kWh. (3) The final contribution concerns the use of the information in the load research database and the accumulated experience in determining peak load composition. This effort created the 'near-exact' estimate of the characteristics and constitutions of the peak load divided among the various consuming sectors as well as among the various end-uses in Jordan. The results of these contributions are still being used by the electricity sector in Jordan until this day, either as unique information or as a guideline or reference to more recent estimates. More importantly

  6. Line-Focus Solar Power Plant Cost Reduction Plan (Milestone Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Glatzmaier, G.; Moss, T.

    2010-12-01

    Line-focus solar collectors, in particular parabolic trough collectors, are the most mature and proven technology available for producing central electricity from concentrated solar energy. Because this technology has over 25 years of successful operational experience, resulting in a low perceived risk, it is likely that it will continue to be a favorite of investors for some time. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry is developing parabolic trough projects that will cost billions of dollars, and it is supporting these projects with hundreds of millions of dollars of research and development funding. While this technology offers many advantages over conventional electricity generation -- such as utilizing plentiful domestic renewable fuel and having very low emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants -- it provides electricity in the intermediate power market at about twice the cost of its conventional competitor, combined cycle natural gas. The purpose of this document is to define a set of activities from fiscal year 2011 to fiscal year 2016 that will make this technology economically competitive with conventional means.

  7. Research plan on programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA) in 1995-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of nuclear energy research is to ensure the safety and continued development of Finnish nuclear power plants - a task which places high demands on expertise needed to support the work of public authorities and power companies. A factor necessarily influencing the orientation of the research is the Parliament's decision of late 1993 against further nuclear capacity in the country. Therefore the main emphasis of research shall be directed towards the ensuring the safety of existing plants and the continuous development of their safety along the progress of the science and technology. Anyhow, the preparedness for constructing new plants shall also be preserved. The utilization of programmable digital automation technology for the safety critical functions is the most significant change in the new plants, but also in existing plants this technology will be used for replacing and complementing the ageing automation systems. The safety evaluation of programmable digital systems can not be based on methods applied to conventional analog systems but new evaluation methods and tools must be developed for the assessing of their acceptability. (5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  8. A multi-period optimization model for planning of China's power sector with consideration of carbon dioxide mitigation—The importance of continuous and stable carbon mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great challenge China's power sector faces is to mitigate its carbon emissions whilst satisfying the ever-increasing power demand. Optimal planning of the power sector with consideration of carbon mitigation for a long-term future remains a complex task, involving many technical alternatives and an infinite number of possible plants installations, retrofitting, and decommissioning over the planning horizon. Previously the authors built a multi-period optimization model for the planning of China's power sector during 2010–2050. Based on that model, this paper executed calculations on the optimal pathways of China's power sector with two typical decision-making modes, which are based on “full-information” and “limited-information” hypothesis, and analyzed the impacts on the optimal planning results by two typical types of carbon tax policies including a “continuous and stable” one and a “loose first and tight later” one. The results showed that making carbon tax policy for long-term future, and improving the continuity and stability in policy execution can effectively help reduce the accumulated total carbon emissions, and also the cost for carbon mitigation of the power sector. The conclusion of this study is of great significance for the policy makers to make carbon mitigation policies in China and other countries as well. - Highlights: • A multi-stage optimization model for planning the power sector is applied as basis. • Difference of ideal and actual decision making processes are proposed and analyzed. • A “continuous and stable” policy and a “loose first and tight later” one are designed. • 4 policy scenarios are studied applying the optimal planning model and compared. • The importance of “continuous and stable” policy for long term is well demonstrated

  9. A two-stage optimal planning and design method for combined cooling, heat and power microgrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A two-stage optimal method is presented for CCHP microgrid system. • Economic and environmental performance are considered as assessment indicators. • Application case demonstrates its good economic and environmental performance. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-stage optimal planning and design method for combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) microgrid system was presented. The optimal objective was to simultaneously minimize the total net present cost and carbon dioxide emission in life circle. On the first stage, multi-objective genetic algorithm based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) was applied to solve the optimal design problem including the optimization of equipment type and capacity. On the second stage, mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) algorithm was used to solve the optimal dispatch problem. The approach was applied to a typical CCHP microgrid system in a hospital as a case study, and the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified

  10. A three-stage short-term electric power planning procedure for a generation company in a liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In liberalized electricity markets, generation companies bid their hourly generation in order to maximize their profit. The optimization of the generation bids over a short-term weekly period must take into account the action of the competing generation companies and the market-price formation rules and must be coordinated with long-term planning results. This paper presents a three stage optimization process with a data analysis and parameter calculation, a linearized unit commitment, and a nonlinear generation scheduling refinement. Although the procedure has been developed from the experience with the Spanish power market, with minor adaptations it is also applicable to any generation company participating in a competitive market system. (author)

  11. A three-stage short-term electric power planning procedure for a generation company in a liberalized market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabona, Narcis; Pages, Adela [Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    In liberalized electricity markets, generation companies bid their hourly generation in order to maximize their profit. The optimization of the generation bids over a short-term weekly period must take into account the action of the competing generation companies and the market-price formation rules and must be coordinated with long-term planning results. This paper presents a three stage optimization process with a data analysis and parameter calculation, a linearized unit commitment, and a nonlinear generation scheduling refinement. Although the procedure has been developed from the experience with the Spanish power market, with minor adaptations it is also applicable to any generation company participating in a competitive market system. (author)

  12. Plan for research to improve the safety of light-water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's first annual report to Congress on recommendations for research on improving the safety of light-water nuclear power plants. Suggestions for reactor safety research were identified in, or received from, various sources, including the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, the NRC regulatory staff, and the consultants to the Research Review Group. After an initial screening to eliminate those not related to improved reactor safety, all the suggestions were consolidated into research topics. It is recommended that the following research projects be carried out: alternate containment concepts, especially vented containments; alternate decay heat removal concepts, especially add-on bunkered systems; alternate emergency core cooling concepts; improved in-plant accident response; and advanced seismic designs

  13. 2001 replacement plan of main component for Genkai nuclear power plant unit 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercial operation of Genkai unit 1 started in October 1975 and Genkai unit 2 in March 1981. Each of them is a two-loop type PWR plant whose output is 559 MW. Until now Genkai unit 1 and 2 have been operating satisfactorily with good operating performance since their commercial operation started. Meantime we have made efforts to improve the reliability of facilities and their functions by systematically performing improvement and repair work reflecting the lessons learned from operation experience of nuclear power plants at home and abroad and the result of technical development. We have decided to replace main component during the 20. outage of Genkai unit 1 and the 16. outage of Genkai unit 2 which are scheduled in March 2001, in order to reduce future radiation exposure and to improve the reliability. (author)

  14. Geothermal power plants of Mexico and Central America: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo. R.

    1978-07-01

    In this report, the fifth in a series describing the geothermal power plants of the world, the countries of Mexico and of Central America are studied. The geothermal plants are located in areas of recent and active volcanism; the resources are of the liquid-dominated type. Details are given about the plants located at Cerro Prieto in Mexico and at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. In both cases, attention is paid to the geologic nature of the fields, the well programs, geofluid characteristics, energy conversion systems, materials of construction, effluent handling systems, economic factors and plant operating experience. Exploration and development activities are described for other promising geothermal areas in Mexico and El Salvador, along with those in the countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama.

  15. Energy strategy 2025. Perspectives towards 2025 and introductory action plan for the future power infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish Government's long-term energy strategy follows up on the political agreement of 29 March 2004. The energy strategy is a coherent formulation of the Government's long-term energy policy. The pivotal point for the energy strategy is liberalized energy markets and market based tools for obtaining goals such as efficiency, security of supply and environment. The focus is increasingly on the substantial business potential within development of new and more efficient energy technology, in which Denmark takes up several globally strong positions. Furthermore, transportation energy consumption has been included directly in an energy strategy for the first time. At the same time as the energy strategy is presented, a summarizing background report from the Danish Energy Agency with facts, analyses and evaluations is published, as well as a report from energinet.dk that summarizes the system responsibilities' input to that part of the energy strategy that deals with power infrastructure. (BA)

  16. Development of a stochastic simulation–optimization model for planning electric power systems – A case study of Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A stochastic simulation–optimization model (SSOM) is developed for planning EPS. • It can reflect risk of violating system constraints under uncertainty. • SSOM can predict electricity demand and optimize energy allocation. • Scenarios associated with SO2-emission mitigation policy are analyzed. • Results create tradeoffs among system cost, energy generation and SO2 mitigation. - Abstract: In this study, a stochastic simulation–optimization model (SSOM) is developed for planning electric power systems (EPS) under uncertainty. SSOM integrates techniques of support-vector-regression (SVR), Monte Carlo simulation, and inexact chance-constrained programming (ICP) into a general framework. SVR coupled Monte Carlo technique is used to predict the electricity consumption amount; ICP is effective for reflecting the reliability of satisfying (or risk of violating) system constraints under uncertainty. The SSOM can not only predict the electricity demand exactly, but also allows uncertainties presented as interval values and probability distributions. The developed SSOM is applied to a real-case study of planning the EPS of Shanghai, with an objective of minimizing system cost and under constraints of resources availability and environmental regulations. Different scenarios associated with SO2-emission policies are analyzed. Results are valuable for (a) facilitating predicting electricity demand, and generating useful solutions including the optimal strategies regarding energy sources allocation, electricity conversion technologies, and capacity expansion schemes, (b) resolving of conflicts and interactions among economic cost, electricity generation pattern, SO2-emission mitigation, and system reliability, and (c) identifying strategies for improving air quality in Shanghai through analyzing the economic and environmental implications associated with SO2-emission reduction policies

  17. Patient-specific stopping power calibration for proton therapy planning based on single-detector proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple robust optimizer has been developed that can produce patient-specific calibration curves to convert x-ray computed tomography (CT) numbers to relative stopping powers (HU-RSPs) for proton therapy treatment planning. The difference between a digitally reconstructed radiograph water-equivalent path length (DRRWEPL) map through the x-ray CT dataset and a proton radiograph (set as the ground truth) is minimized by optimizing the HU-RSP calibration curve. The function of the optimizer is validated with synthetic datasets that contain no noise and its robustness is shown against CT noise. Application of the procedure is then demonstrated on a plastic and a real tissue phantom, with proton radiographs produced using a single detector. The mean errors using generic/optimized calibration curves between the DRRWEPL map and the proton radiograph were 1.8/0.4% for a plastic phantom and −2.1/ − 0.2% for a real tissue phantom. It was then demonstrated that these optimized calibration curves offer a better prediction of the water equivalent path length at a therapeutic depth. We believe that these promising results are suggestive that a single proton radiograph could be used to generate a patient-specific calibration curve as part of the current proton treatment planning workflow. (paper)

  18. Trading our health: Ontario Power Generation's plan to violate its air pollution reduction commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amid growing concerns about nitrogen oxide (Nox) emissions, the Ontario Clean Air Alliance is recommending in this report that the Ontario government restrict Nox emissions from Ontario Power Generation (OPG) in the year 2000 and not let the corporation meet its emissions cap by on a net basis by retiring Pilot Emission Reduction Trading (PERT) Nox emission reduction credits. Instead the alliance believes the Ontario government should require OPG to achieve emissions compliance by curtailing coal-fired electricity exports, purchasing renewable and natural-gas electricity and promoting energy efficiency. OPG's inventory of PERT Nox reduction credits are assessed against whether they will cause an increase in the year 2000 as a result of trading. Ontario Power Generation's Nox emissions are a central chemical component of acid rain and smog and are produced from its coal-fired electricity generators. The utility would like to achieve Nox reductions by establishing demand management programs which would reduce the demand for electricity by 5200 megawatts (MW), by purchasing 3100 MW of non-utility generation and by undertaking combustion process modifications at its Lambton and Nanticoke coal-fired generating stations. It has not met its 2000 demand management and non-utility generation targets, and specifically, as of December 31, 1998, Ontario Hydro's successor companies demand management programs have only reduced electricity demand by approximately 1300 MW. Furthermore, the successor companies will have only approximately 1700 MW of non-utility generation capacity under contract by December 31, 1999. The report describes the criteria for ensuring that Nox emissions trading will not lead to a net increase in Ontario's emissions in any given year, and a description is included of why the 'Draft Rules for Emission Trading in Ontario' rules do not meet these criteria. Permitting OPG to use its PERT credits to meet its Nox cap, will allow them to increase coal

  19. Operational planning optimization of steam power plants considering equipment failure in petrochemical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop a systematic programming methodology to address equipment failure. ► We classify different operation conditions into real periods and virtual periods. ► The formulated MILP models guarantee cost reduction and enough operation safety. ► The consideration of reserving operation redundancy is effective. - Abstract: One or more interconnected steam power plants (SPPs) are constructed in a petrochemical complex to supply utility energy to the process. To avoid large economic penalties or process shutdowns, these SPPs should be flexible and reliable enough to meet the process energy requirement under varying conditions. Unexpected utility equipment failure is inevitable and difficult to be predicted. Most of the conventional methods are based on the assumption that SPPs do not experience any kind of equipment failure. Unfortunately, a process shutdown cannot be avoided when equipment fails unexpectedly. In this paper, a systematic methodology is presented to minimize the total cost under normal conditions while reserving enough flexibility and safety for unexpected equipment failure conditions. The proposed method transforms the different conditions into real periods to indicate normal scenarios and virtual periods to indicate unexpected equipment failure scenarios. The optimization strategy incorporating various operation redundancy scheduling, the transition constraints from equipment failure conditions to normal conditions, and the boiler load increase behavior modeling are presented to save cost and guarantee operation safety. A detailed industrial case study shows that the proposed systematic methodology is effective and practical in coping with equipment failure conditions with only few additional cost penalties

  20. Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO2 and remove the other pollutants such as SOx and NOx which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

  1. National energy and nuclear power system plans of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous and secure procurement of energy is of vital importance for our national economy. This has been demonstrated drastically during and after the energy crisis in 1973. Therefore, the aim of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is to make energy available: (1) in always sufficient quantities; (2) with a maximum degree of security of supply; (3) in a way to protect the environment to a maximum extent; (4) at the cheapest possible cost to the economy. The other aim of our energy policy is to diversify the basis of primary energy sources in order to reduce our dependence on imported oil as fast as this is possible under reasonable economic conditions. For these reasons our efforts are concentrated on the development of nuclear and new non-nuclear energy sources as well as on the development of technologies on energy conservation. The concept of the Federal Republic of Germany for the development of new energy sources is outlined in the FRG program of energy research and technology. It combines the continuation of the 4. nuclear program of FRG (1973-1976) and the skeleton program of non-nuclear energy research (1974-1977). In continuation of existing activites the main object of the new program will be again the development of nuclear energy concentrating on advanced reactor systems, nuclear fuel cycle and safety and radiation protection research. In addition large efforts are made in the area of coal technology, the development of new primary and secondary energy sources and methods for energy conservation. Until 1985 in the FRG the percentage of nuclear energy will be increased from 2% of today to 15% in 1985, i.e. approximately 45.000 MWe. The development of nuclear power systems will be performed by industry and nuclear research centers. At present there are about 25.000 people working in this area

  2. Mexsyco project: representation of power plan control-instrumentation functions. Bibliographical analysis and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study covered in this paper is designed to review the current situation in terms of functional analysis, in order to find a functional analysis method for mechanical parts able to serve as a substrate for expressing operating safety constraints, time-related performance or any other tag of function description. This paper comprises three parts: The first is devoted to general notions of the formats used by the various functional analyses. It attempts to explain the three types of format: behavioural, structural and functional. It tackles the notions of trees and bottom-up and top-down approaches. It proposes examining the link between the expected functions of the systems and the hardware supporting these functions. It attempts to make a distinction between ''operators'' and ''operands'' enabling the notion of object to be linked to that of the three types of format seen above. It ends with a reminder of the distinction between semi-formal and formal. The second part analyses the current situation of functional analysis of the mechanical and control-instrumentation parts of power production plants, through a bibliographical search. The results of this second part are however disappointing. The purpose of the third part of the study is a prototype format built up from the considerations of the first two parts. This format meets our requirements better than those of the bibliographical analysis, but it could doubtless be improved: application of this format to RCV highlights its advantages, but also underlines the improvements needed. Given the deadlines of the Mexsyco project, the decision was taken to suspend development of this format for the time being and use a method currently being produced and based on use of the current functional breakdown (basic plant systems) and of a modular tree-structure representation of the control-instrumentation of a basic plant system. (author). 12 refs., 4 annexes

  3. Application Of VISA And RELAP5 Software To The Modelling, Simulation And Calculation Of The Thermal Hydraulic System Of Nuclear Power Plans With VVER-Type Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the VISA (Visual System Analyzer) and RELAP5 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program, version 5) softwares. Preliminary results of modelling, simulation and calculation of the thermal hydraulic system of a practical VVER-type PWR nuclear power plan (NPP) using the software are presented as well. This research has important practical implications, especially for the nuclear power plans that are being built in Ninh Thuan, Vietnam. The reactors adopted in the Ninh Thuan NPP would be the Russian VVER PWR. At this point, our research is a basic important step towards a practical case study. (author)

  4. Harnessing the Power of the WFIRST-Coronagraph: A Coordinated Plan for Exoplanet and Disk Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Margaret

    We propose to form a WFIRST Coronagraph Science Investigation Team (WFIRST-C SIT) for the purpose of defining the coronagraph scientific performance requirements, designing an exoplanet and debris disk observing program, and developing data analysis techniques including faint source detection and spectral retrieval. Our team will accomplish these tasks by: 1. Providing detailed characterization of the candidate target stars in terms of stellar/substeller companions, circumstellar debris, and astrophysical background in order to inform the final target selection by the community. As part of this effort, we will make a plan for coordination between WFIRST and Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) target selection, to obtain both scattered light and thermal emission observations of exozodiacal dust in the same systems. This will be important precursor science for future exoEarth direct imaging missions. 2. Creating simulated spatial-spectral data cubes representative of what the WFIRST coronagraph may see around the candidate targets, including known and hypothetical exoplanets, dynamically consistent interplanetary dust distributions, and astrophysical background contamination. The code framework to make the high-fidelity input models exists within our team, and we currently have a complete spectral data cube that allows us to generate images at any wavelength between 0.3 microns and 2.5 microns. To generate the simulated datasets for WFIRST, we will make use of instrument simulation tools provided by the coronagraph design team, spanning the range of expected coronagraph performance characteristics. We will also add functionality to these tools, or build our own, as required. 3. Designing and conducting a â€oeblind retrieval challenge― study to distribute these data amongst source detection and spectral modeling teams in the exoplanet and wider astrophysics community. Given the variety of sources expected in each planet-finding field, we expect

  5. Follow-up of the results of the nuclear power plant stress tests and action plan.; Seguimiento de los resultados de las pruebas de resistencia de las centrales nucleares y plan de accion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado Jimenez, I.

    2012-07-01

    The results of the stress tests carried out by the European nuclear power plants in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, subsequently subjected to peer reviews, have made it possible to identify the measures to be applied to improve safety. Action plans have been put in place to implement these measures within appropriate time frames. (Author)

  6. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power and...... creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable and...... floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity. It...

  7. Non-smooth optimization methods for large-scale problems: applications to mid-term power generation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript deals with large-scale non-smooth optimization that may typically arise when performing Lagrangian relaxation of difficult problems. This technique is commonly used to tackle mixed-integer linear programming - or large-scale convex problems. For example, a classical approach when dealing with power generation planning problems in a stochastic environment is to perform a Lagrangian relaxation of the coupling constraints of demand. In this approach, a master problem coordinates local subproblems, specific to each generation unit. The master problem deals with a separable non-smooth dual function which can be maximized with, for example, bundle algorithms. In chapter 2, we introduce basic tools of non-smooth analysis and some recent results regarding incremental or inexact instances of non-smooth algorithms. However, in some situations, the dual problem may still be very hard to solve. For instance, when the number of dualized constraints is very large (exponential in the dimension of the primal problem), explicit dualization may no longer be possible or the update of dual variables may fail. In order to reduce the dual dimension, different heuristics were proposed. They involve a separation procedure to dynamically select a restricted set of constraints to be dualized along the iterations. This relax-and-cut type approach has shown its numerical efficiency in many combinatorial problems. In chapter 3, we show Primal-dual convergence of such strategy when using an adapted sub-gradient method for the dual step and under minimal assumptions on the separation procedure. Another limit of Lagrangian relaxation may appear when the dual function is separable in highly numerous or complex sub-functions. In such situation, the computational burden of solving all local subproblems may be preponderant in the whole iterative process. A natural strategy would be here to take full advantage of the dual separable structure, performing a dual iteration after having

  8. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

    1992-11-01

    Growing international concern over the threat of global climate change has led to proposals to buy insurance against this threat by reducing emissions of carbon (short for carbon dioxide) and other greenhouse gases below current levels. Concern over these and other, non-climatic environmental effects of electricity generation has led a number of states to adopt or explore new mechanisms for incorporating environmental externalities in utility resource planning. For example, the New York and Massachusetts utility commissions have adopted monetized surcharges (or adders) to induce emission reductions of federally regulated air pollutants (notably, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates) beyond federally mandated levels. These regulations also include preliminary estimates of the cost of reducing carbon emissions, for which no federal regulations exist at this time. Within New England, regulators and utilities have also held several workshops and meetings to discuss alternative methods of incorporating externalities as well as the feasibility of regional approaches. This study examines the potential for reduced carbon emissions in the New England power sector as well as the cost and rate impacts of two policy approaches: environmental externality surcharges and a target- based approach. We analyze the following questions: Does New England have sufficient low-carbon resources to achieve significant reductions (10% to 20% below current levels) in fossil carbon emissions in its utility sector? What reductions could be achieved at a maximum? What is the expected cost of carbon reductions as a function of the reduction goal? How would carbon reduction strategies affect electricity rates? How effective are environmental externality cost surcharges as an instrument in bringing about carbon reductions? To what extent could the minimization of total electricity costs alone result in carbon reductions relative to conventional resource plans?

  9. Planning of medium-voltage networks considering optimized power factor control of distributed generators; Planung von Mittelspannungsnetzen unter Beruecksichtigung von Blindleistungssteuerung dezentraler Erzeugungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotering, Niklas; Schroeders, Christian; Moser, Albert [RWTH Aachen (Germany). IAEW

    2011-07-01

    Distributed generation causes new challenges in medium voltage networks. Especially voltage stability is becoming an issue. Conventional planning measures, like network expansion, can be used to address these challenges but they should planned with great care due to their high costs. Power factor control of distributed generators is an alternative to such measures. Therefore it should also be considered in long term distribution network planning. It is the purpose of this paper to present a new approach for long term medium-voltage network optimization that integrates near optimal power factor control. The structural optimization is heuristic and based on a Delaunay triangulation in combination with an ant colony algorithm. Power factor control is predicated on dynamic programming. It is shown how near optimal results can easily be realized under German law with present technologies. A case study illustrates the impacts and advantages of an integrated planning approach. The integrated optimization results in network costs that are 2.5% lower than the costs of the best topology found by conventional planning. (orig.)

  10. The triannual plan of power transmission system manager in Italy; Il piano triennale del GRTN (Gestore delle reti di trasmissione nazionale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, A. [Associazione Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Italiana, Milan (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    This paper reports the important planning activity of power transmission system managering in Italy, even if the document do not illustrate well enough the future prospects. [Italian] Il primo documento di questo tipo: importante, atteso, ma non del tutto esauriente circa le linee di tendenza future.

  11. The use of success path planning to reduce shutdown risk during a dual unit outage at FPL's Turkey Point Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the merits of using success path planning to direct nuclear power plant operators in their recovery actions from plant transients or equipment malfunctions that occur during plant outages. Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) prepared for an eleven month dual unit outage which involved the electrical distribution system. During different phases of the outage, up to half of the normal power distribution would be out of service. The removal of decay heat from the spent nuclear fuel from both nuclear units became a major planning focus. To reduce the risk of loosing decay heat removal functions. FPL used success path planning to aid the operators in the recovery of decay heat removal functions should an electrical transient occur. A open-quotes success pathclose quotes is the alignment of equipment, valves, piping and electrical power which will restore a plant function which was lost due to a transient or equipment malfunction. There can be more than one success path for a given transient. This method of planning to deal with transients was chosen due to the large amount of equipment that would be out-of-service and tracked according to the plant's Technical Specifications. To decrease the response time to transients, the success paths were proceduralized and included training of the individuals involved with the alignments

  12. What's at Stake in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disability? Part I: The Power of Naming, Defining, Diagnosing, Classifying, and Planning Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the power of naming, defining, diagnosing, classifying, and planning supports for people with intellectual disability. The article summarizes current thinking regarding these five functions, states the essential question addressed by the respective function, and provides an overview of the high stakes involved for people…

  13. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal power control and rain fade software test plan, version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The Power Control and Rain Fade Software was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (ACTS HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenters terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various experiments by government, university, and industry agencies. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitor (C&PM) Software system of the HBR-LET. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software automatically controls the LET uplink power to compensate for signal fades. Besides power augmentation, the C&PM Software system is also responsible for instrument control during HBR-LET experiments, control of the Intermediate Frequency Switch Matrix on board the ACTS to yield a desired path through the spacecraft payload, and data display. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 outlines the commands and procedures to install and operate the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 is a programmer's guide to the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. This manual details the current implementation of the software from a technical perspective. Included is an overview of the Power Control and Rain Fade Software, computer algorithms, format representations, and computer hardware configuration. The Power Control and Rain Fade Test Plan provides a step-by-step procedure to verify the operation of the software using a predetermined signal fade event. The Test Plan also provides a means to demonstrate the capability of the software.

  14. Implementation of the environmental management plan for the dismantling of nuclear powered submarines at Zvezdochka shipyard, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada is funding the dismantling of twelve nuclear powered submarines (NPS) from the Russian Federation's Northern Fleet as part of the Global Partnership Initiative against weapons and materials of mass destruction. In this paper, work performed by Nuclear Safety Solutions Ltd. and its collaborators in support of these activities is described. First, an environmental impact assessment of towing and dismantling NPS in the Kola Peninsula, and the Barents and White Seas was performed. The assessed activities included: towing of NPS from Naval Bases in Murmansk Region to the Zvezdochka shipyard (Severodvinsk); defuelling of onboard reactors; dismantling of NPS at Zvezdochka; and waste management. The assessment helped identify mitigation measures that could prevent the occurrence of adverse effects. Next, the project team defined and implemented an environmental management plan (EMP) based on the shipyard's existing environmental policy and the mitigating measures identified during the environmental assessment. Specific targets were defined to track the progress of the EMP implementation, and are described in this paper. During the study period, three Victor Class NPS were dismantled at Zvezdochka. The major benefits realized include: removal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies; treatment/ decontamination of liquid and solid radioactive waste; and the cultivation of collaboration between Russian and Western expertise. (author)

  15. Implementation of the environmental management plan for the dismantling of nuclear powered submarines at Zvezdochka Shipyard, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada is funding the dismantling of twelve nuclear powered submarines (NPS) from the Russian Federation's Northern Fleet as part of the Global Partnership Initiative against weapons and materials of mass destruction. In this paper, work performed by Nuclear Safety Solutions Ltd. and its collaborators in support of these activities is described. First, an environmental impact assessment of towing and dismantling NPS in the Kola Peninsula, and the Barents and White Seas was performed. The assessed activities included: towing of NPS from Naval Bases in Murmansk Region to the Zvezdochka shipyard (Severodvinsk); defuelling of onboard reactors; dismantling of NPS at Zvezdochka; and waste management. The assessment helped identify mitigation measures that could prevent the occurrence of adverse effects. Next, the project team defined and implemented an environmental management plan (EMP) based on the shipyard's existing environmental policy and the mitigating measures identified during the environmental assessment. Specific targets were defined to track the progress of the EMP implementation, and are described in this paper. During the study period, three Victor Class NPS were dismantled at Zvezdochka. The major benefits realized include: removal and spent nuclear fuel assemblies; treatment/decontamination of liquid and solid radioactive waste; and the cultivation of collaboration between Russian and Western expertise. (author)

  16. Planning under uncertainties paradigm - application to electric power distribution systems planning; Paradigma de planejamento sob incertezas - aplicacao ao planejamento dos sistemas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi Junior, Alberto

    1996-12-31

    In this work it is presented an original methodology of multistage planning, with conflictive objectives and restrictions, incorporating the concept of uncertainties. To do so, the proposed paradigm is based on the Dynamic Programming which comprehends the multistage subject to conflictive restrictions; on the Fuzzy Sets Theory, through the decisions and fuzzy numbers, which model the uncertainties and ambiguous decisions referent to qualitative variables; and on the consideration of evolutional rules associated to network flow algorithm. In its conceptual elaboration, the paradigm is developed in a very ample way, of generalized application to a well defined class of planning problems Particularly, the model fits in the flexible planning, which has been very discussed in the recent literature. Flexible planning must be understood as the one which allows to the planner, under well-defined limits, the evaluation of the planning policy composed by strips of options (discreet or continuous), associated to uncertainty levels related to the real world. In order to validate and consolidate the theoretic concepts, it was elaborated an algorithm turned to the aggregated planning of the distribution of electric energy, that presents intrinsic characteristics which are perfectly fitted in the paradigm`s applicability. (author) 41 refs., 26 figs., 36 tabs.

  17. Critical review of the national action plans (NAcP) of the EU stress tests on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima catastrophe was the horrible result of decades of mistaken safety philosophy, a very lax safety regulation under strong industry influence on the regulators - not only in Japan. The first shock led to the honest attempt to change this, to also involve events which are definitely possible but were kept out of the safety cases by using probabilities. When it was possible to ''prove'' an event as having too low probability, it could be ignored. On 12 October 2012, Tokyo Electric Power Co (TEPCO) admitted that the company had failed to prevent the Fukushima accident, reversing its earlier statement that the accident could not have been foreseen. A TEPCO task force has identified several factors that had led to the accident in March 2011 [NW 18/10/2012]: TEPCO did not learn a lesson from the incident in France of loss of off-site power due to flooding at the Blayais NPP on December 27, 1999, furthermore no safety measures aimed at preventing and mitigating a severe accident had been adopted since 2002. The task force attributed those facts to multiple root causes: - First, the management assumed a severe accident was extremely unlikely in Japan, and feared that retrofitting safety systems would increase anxiety among the public, especially among the residents near the plant. - TEPCO also feared safety retrofitting would require a costly shutdown period. The TEPCO task force also underlined that there were not enough engineers at the site who were familiar with safety systems' designs, operation manuals and their locations. Basically all circumstances leading to the Fukushima accident exist for the European NPP as well - only the tsunami risk does not apply for all NPP but e.g. for several UK NPPs. However the risk of flooding events or of earthquakes exists to a different extent for all NPPs. Also common to all NPPs: the operators insist on the low probabilities to avoid high investments and anti-nuclear activities of the public, very much as the same

  18. Critical review of the national action plans (NAcP) of the EU stress tests on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Oda; Lorenz, Patricia

    2013-04-15

    The Fukushima catastrophe was the horrible result of decades of mistaken safety philosophy, a very lax safety regulation under strong industry influence on the regulators - not only in Japan. The first shock led to the honest attempt to change this, to also involve events which are definitely possible but were kept out of the safety cases by using probabilities. When it was possible to ''prove'' an event as having too low probability, it could be ignored. On 12 October 2012, Tokyo Electric Power Co (TEPCO) admitted that the company had failed to prevent the Fukushima accident, reversing its earlier statement that the accident could not have been foreseen. A TEPCO task force has identified several factors that had led to the accident in March 2011 [NW 18/10/2012]: TEPCO did not learn a lesson from the incident in France of loss of off-site power due to flooding at the Blayais NPP on December 27, 1999, furthermore no safety measures aimed at preventing and mitigating a severe accident had been adopted since 2002. The task force attributed those facts to multiple root causes: - First, the management assumed a severe accident was extremely unlikely in Japan, and feared that retrofitting safety systems would increase anxiety among the public, especially among the residents near the plant. - TEPCO also feared safety retrofitting would require a costly shutdown period. The TEPCO task force also underlined that there were not enough engineers at the site who were familiar with safety systems' designs, operation manuals and their locations. Basically all circumstances leading to the Fukushima accident exist for the European NPP as well - only the tsunami risk does not apply for all NPP but e.g. for several UK NPPs. However the risk of flooding events or of earthquakes exists to a different extent for all NPPs. Also common to all NPPs: the operators insist on the low probabilities to avoid high investments and anti-nuclear activities of the public

  19. Energy planning and management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains printed copies of 60FR 53181, October 12, 1995 and 60 FR 54151. This is a record of decision concerning the Western Area Power Administration's final draft and environmental impact statement, and Energy Planning and Management Program

  20. U.S. Department of Energy Space and Defense Power Systems Program Ten-Year Strategic Plan, Volume 1 and Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Space and Defense Power Systems program provides a unique capability for supplying power systems that function in remote or hostile environments. This capability has been functioning since the early 1960s and counts the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as one of its most prominent customers. This enabling technology has assisted the exploration of our solar system including the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Neptune, and soon Pluto. This capability is one-of-kind in the world in terms of its experience (over five decades), breadth of power systems flown (over two dozen to date) and range of power levels (watts to hundreds of watts). This document describes the various components of that infrastructure, work scope, funding needs, and its strategic plans going forward.

  1. Energy and environmental studies associated to the emergency plan of natural gas thermal power plants; Estudos energeticos e ambientais associados ao plano emergencial de termeletricas a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Grynberg, Sueli E.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Branco, Otavio E.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martinez, Carlos B.; Versiani, Bruno R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos. Centro de Pesquisas Hidraulicas

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a first exertion to evaluate the environmental impacts due to the operation of planned gas power plants. This study was carried out with the model EcoSense, that is a computer program developed for the quantification of environmental impacts and their external costs resulting from the operation of thermal power plants or other industrial activities. EcoSense is still in development and the achieved results should still be considered with caution although it becomes clear the potentiality of the use of this tool in the support of the decision making process in energy planning. Based on the method of approach of the damage function established in the ExternE project this program provides models for an integrated evaluation of the impact rate from the air pollutants resulting from burning fossil fuel, which are transported by the air. (author)

  2. Evaluation of carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 1 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity

  3. Web-based collaboration in individual care planning challenges the user and the provider roles – toward a power transition in caring relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerkan J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jorunn Bjerkan,1,2 Solfrid Vatne,3 Anne Hollingen4 1Norwegian Research Centre for Electronic Health Records (EHR, Medical Faculty, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 2Faculty of Health Science, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Levanger, 3Faculty of Health Science, Molde University College, 4Møre og Romsdal Hospital Trust, Molde, Norway Background and objective: The Individual Care Plan (ICP was introduced in Norway to meet new statutory requirements for user participation in health care planning, incorporating multidisciplinary and cross-sector collaboration. A web-based solution (electronic ICP [e-ICP] was used to support the planning and documentation. The aim of this study was to investigate how web-based collaboration challenged user and professional roles. Methods: Data were obtained from 15 semistructured interviews with users and eight with care professionals, and from two focus-group interviews with eight care professionals in total. The data were analyzed using systematic text condensation in a stepwise analysis model. Results: Users and care professionals took either a proactive or a reluctant role in e-ICP collaboration. Where both user and care professionals were proactive, the pairing helped to ensure that the planning worked well; so did pairings of proactive care professionals and reluctant users. Proactive users paired with reluctant care professionals also made care planning work, thanks to the availability of information and the users' own capacity or willingness to conduct the planning. Where both parties were reluctant, no planning activities occurred. Conclusion: Use of the e-ICP challenged the user–professional relationship. In some cases, a power transition took place in the care process, which led to patient empowerment. This knowledge might be used to develop a new understanding of how role function can be challenged when users and care professionals have equal access to health care

  4. Disposal of metal artifacts by monochrome virtual images generated by TC dual power planning in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using monochromatic high-energy virtual images reconstructed by a scanner TCED is viable for planning radiotherapy treatments and improves image quality. Such images using the DICOM standard, and have been successfully exported to the planning system XiO treatments. (Author)

  5. Central-Receiver Solar-Thermal Power System 10-MW/sub e/ Pilot Plant: collector subsystem manufacturing plan report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-15

    The overall manufacturing planning effort included: design modification analysis; manufacturing/tooling conceptual trades; process/tooling verification experiments; and documentation of manufacturing plans and cost estimates. Innovative tooling concepts were evaluated. Studies also included comparison of costs of both field and shop assembly of heliostats.

  6. Innovation of Human Resources Planning of Modern Power Enterprise%浅谈现代电力企业人力资源规划创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓军

    2012-01-01

    人力资源规划是人力资源管理的重要组成部分,是企业发展战略的直接体现.人力资源规划可以为企业长远发展贡献一份力量.本文通过介绍电力企业中人力资源规划的特点、现状,以及所面临的问题,分析了提高电力企业人力资源规划科学性的相关措施.%Human resource planning is an important part of the human resource management, and directly reflects enterprise development strategy. Human resources planning contributes for the long development of the enterprise. This paper introduced characteristics, the current situation and the problems in the human resource planning of electric power enterprise, and analyzed the related measures to improve the scientific human resources planning of electric power enterprise.

  7. Conceptual design of Advanced Central Receiver Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept: development plan and pilot plant description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    This volume encompasses Task 6 of the Phase I effort on the Advanced Central Receiver. This task included developing a plan to bring the commercial plant conceptual design into being. The base version of the plan includes a pilot plant to be designed and constructed during Phases II and III, three subsystem research experiments to be performed during Phase II, and the design and construction of a commercial demonstration plant. These plans are discussed in detail, as well as several options which could reduce both cost and schedule to achieve the overall goal of a commercial-sized demonstration plant. In evaluating pilot plant characeristics, emphasis was placed on representing commercial plant receiver characteristics and total system operation. In considering total system operation, it was recognized that a water-steam pilot plant would already be in operation, hence certain systems will already have been tested. Several receiver configurations were investigated consisting of from one to five full-size panels, with the objective of representing peak north side power for a 100-MWe plant as well as the peak flux vaue of about 1.4 MW/m/sup 2/. This goal was accomplished with a 5-panel receiver; however, the power to the edge panels is very low. Hence, with little loss, these panels can be eliminated to give a 3-panel configuration. The total absorbed thermal power is about 38 MWt, which is sufficient for about 10 MWe. A plant of this size is described.

  8. The development of the Tabu search technique for expansion policy of power plant centers over specific defined reliability in long range planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new approach for optimizing the expansion policy of power plant networks has been developed based on the recursive Tabu search technique. The objectives of the expansion policy model are minimizing the fixed investment and the operational cost over certain networks reliability in the long term. The expansion policy problem is the Np-complete mixed integer-programming model. The model deals with optimizing the region allocation to power plant centers and the power plant center capacity over a specified planning horizon (years ) by considering the Energy, Environment, Economic and the network reliability constraints. Examples are given to illustrate that the approach is able to resolve the expansion policy model in short CPU time in comparison with an analytic approach

  9. An radiotoxicity evaluation of high level wastes for a scenery of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants in accordance with the Energy Expansion Brazilian Plan 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a part of the author scientific initiation, and makes an evaluation of the radiotoxicity which would be produced by the Brazilian nuclear power plants in a scenery of 7 power plants operating in 2030, in according to the official expansion plans which point out the additional introduction of 4000 MW(e), or 4 ne power plant additionally to the Angra I, II and III. Considering that all reactors would be a PWR reactors. The calculated parameter was the relative toxicity of the low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (LLPP - long lived fission products and HLW - high level waste related to the radiotoxicity of natural uranium versus time. All the calculation used the ORIGEN-S code. (author)

  10. Wind power installations in Switzerland - Regional planning basics and impact; Windkraftanlagen in der Schweiz - Raumplanerische Grundlagen und Auswirkungen - Grundlagenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Kaufmann, Y.; Steiner, P. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Sartoris, A. [IRAP-HSR, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung an der Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the basics of regional planning and its impact on the construction of wind-energy installations in Switzerland. The authors state that the planning and realisation of wind turbine installations is often time and resource consuming: this document presents and discusses the results obtained in a project that aimed to supply consolidated knowledge on project-relevant basics and their effect with respect to wind-energy installations. Experience gained in Switzerland and in other countries is discussed. This report on the basics of wind-energy planning with its detailed information formed the basis of a checklist described in a further report. In nine chapters, regional planning aspects, environment and landscape-relevant aspects, effects on the national and regional economies and social acceptance factors are discussed. Also, success-factors and possible solutions for the successful realisation of wind-energy projects are looked at.

  11. Pluri-annual planning of power generation investments. 2005-2015 era; Programmation pluriannuelle des investissements de production electrique. Periode 2005-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The pluri-annual planning of power generation investments (PPI) is provided by article 6 of the law from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric utility. The PPI is the concrete translation of the energy policy and aims to identify the necessary investments with respect to the security of power supplies and beyond the already known commitments. In the framework of market deregulation and respect of competition, the PPI is limited to the identification of such investments but not to their realization. This document, which corresponds to the 2005 exercise, is the second report to the Parliament. It stresses on the following points: the mastery of power demand and the demand scenarios, the level of accepted risk, the carrying out of the development of renewable energy sources (5 GW by 2010 and 12.5 GW by 2016 for wind power, and 6 TWh more for biomass by 2016), the start-up of an EPR reactor in 2012, the investment needs for classical thermal power plants (+2.6 GW of diesel fuel power plants and +500 MW of combustion turbines as decided by EdF), the development of production means in 2 regions with specific needs: Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Bretagne (Brittany), and also in insular areas (Corsica and overseas territories), and the reflexions to carry on in continuation of the PPI. (J.S.)

  12. Assessment of projected temperature impacts from climate change on the U.S. electric power sector using the Integrated Planning Model®

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzes the potential impacts of changes in temperature due to climate change on the U.S. power sector, measuring the energy, environmental, and economic impacts of power system changes due to temperature changes under two emissions trajectories—with and without emissions mitigation. It estimates the impact of temperature change on heating and cooling degree days, electricity demand, and generating unit output and efficiency. These effects are then integrated into a dispatch and capacity planning model to estimate impacts on investment decisions, emissions, system costs, and power prices for 32 U.S. regions. Without mitigation actions, total annual electricity production costs in 2050 are projected to increase 14% ($51 billion) because of greater cooling demand as compared to a control scenario without future temperature changes. For a scenario with global emissions mitigation, including a reduction in U.S. power sector emissions of 36% below 2005 levels in 2050, the increase in total annual electricity production costs is approximately the same as the increase in system costs to satisfy the increased demand associated with unmitigated rising temperatures. - Highlights: • We model the impact of rising temperatures on the U.S. power sector. • We examine temperature and mitigation impacts on demand, supply, and investment. • Higher temperatures increase power system costs by about $50 billion by the year 2050. • Meeting demand from higher temperatures costs slightly more than reducing emissions. • Mitigation policy cost analyses should account for temperature impacts

  13. Usage Driven Design of Power System and Multi-criteria Route Planning for Eco-Urban Electric Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Sedef, Kanber

    2015-01-01

    Eco-urban electric cars (EC) are superior to conventional cars in terms of the operation cost and carbon footprint. However, the performance of EC in terms of their maximum speed and power, initial and maintenance cost and reliability in the available power is lower than conventional cars. The reliability in available energy can be viewed as the main concerns when comparing EC to conventional cars. Reliability in available energy is highly dependent upon the efficiency of the power system as ...

  14. Comparison of Planning, Management and Organizational Aspects of Nuclear Power Plants A1 and V1 Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution deals with planning, management and organizational aspects of decommissioning of NPP shut down due to the accident (prototype NPP A1) and NPP shut down after normal operation (NPP V1). The A1 and V1 NPPs are located very close in Bohunice nuclear site however both plants have very different technology and operational history. The preparation of A1 NPP decommissioning strategy and relevant decommissioning plans was long term process, because the plant was shut down after the accident in 1977 and decommissioning was implemented first time in Slovakia with many specific difficulties. The decommissioning planning of V1 NPP was shorter and easier, because the plant was shut down after normal operation, there were lessons learned from the A1 NPP decommissioning planning, available legislation, available financing etc. Development of decommissioning strategies, preparation and planning for decommissioning, development of legislation for decommissioning, management of decommissioning projects and other aspects are described and compared. Lessons learned are formulated on the basis of analysis of past, ongoing and planned decommissioning activities in Slovakia. (author)

  15. 低热值煤发电专项规划编制方法研究%Special Plan Compilation Method for Low Calorific Value Coal Power Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡槐生; 徐志; 陶应东; 汪海

    2012-01-01

    Combined with the special plan compilation of low calorific value coal power generation project in Anhui Province,this paper probes into the demanded policy background,practical conditions and compilation principles for initiating the special plan.Then it summarizes how to conduct quality management using "Three-Stage Control Theory" and how to execute organizational management using "Functional Organizational Form",with a view to providing a reference for similar special planning or preliminary work of low calorific value coal power generation projects.%结合安徽省低热值煤发电专项规划的编制,研究探讨了如何确立专项规划立项所需的政策背景、现实条件以及编制原则,同时总结了如何利用"三阶段控制理论"进行质量管理及利用"职能式组织形式"进行组织管理,以期为类似专项规划的编制及低热值煤发电项目前期工作提供参考价值。

  16. Chances for autonomous photovoltaic power systems in the Netherlands. Summary of the market introduction plan for autonomous PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a large potential for effective and commercially attractive autonomous photovoltaic systems in the Netherlands. The Dutch government wants to stimulate an accelerated growth to realize 2 MWp per year in the year 2000. A market introduction plan for autonomous PV systems is summarized to give energy distribution companies in the Netherlands insight into the possibilities of such systems within the framework of the third round of Environmental Action Plans of the energy distribution companies. The summary includes a list of reference projects and a list of addresses of suppliers and end consumers

  17. Technical and economic assessments of planned and premature removal of first-generation nuclear power plants from operation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four power-generating units are now being removed from operation in the Russian Federation - the first-second units with water-graphite reactors AMB in the Beloyarsk and VVER in the Novovoronezh nuclear power plants; these units were shut down in 1983, 1989, 1984, and 1990. respectively. Work is now being performed on these units in preparation for removal from operation. In connection with the exhaustion of the service life, from 2001 to 2010 another 15 power-generating units with a total electric capacity of about 10 GW will be removed from operation in Russia

  18. Mexico's Regulatory Engagement in Bulk Electric Power System Planning: An Overview of U.S. Practices and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Barbara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pena, Ivonne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bracho, Ricardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Mexico's transition to a modern wholesale power market will place new demands on how regulators evaluate and approve transmission expansion projects. Transmission projects in a modern wholesale market fulfill one of several needs, and utilities, regional transmission organizations, and regulatory authorities in the United States have encountered comparable challenges in their market transitions to ensure projects meeting each type of need can be built. The purpose of this report is to open a window to view that experience. The report examines key practices of different U.S. jurisdictions that have moved from transmission planning to transmission approval, and it focuses on the role of the regulator in supporting a planning process that equitably meets identified needs.

  19. Flight route Designing and mission planning Of power line inspecting system Based On multi-sensor UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain various information of power facilities such as spatial location, geometry, images data and video information in the infrared and ultraviolet band and so on, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) power line inspecting system needs to integrate a variety of sensors for data collection. Low altitude and side-looking imaging are required for UAV flight to ensure sensors to acquire high-quality data and device security. In this paper, UAV power line inspecting system is deferent from existing ones that used in Surveying and Mapping. According to characteristics of UAV for example equipped multiple sensor, side-looking imaging, working at low altitude, complex terrain conditions and corridor type flight, this paper puts forward a UAV power line inspecting scheme which comprehensively considered of the UAV performance, sensor parameters and task requirements. The scheme is finally tested in a region of Guangdong province, and the preliminary results show that the scheme is feasible

  20. Beyond defense-in-depth: cost and funding of state and local government radiological emergency response plans and preparedness in support of commercial nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadequate, sporadic, uncertain and frustrating are words local, state and Federal officials use to describe the current hodgepodge funding approach to State and local government radiological emergency response plans and preparedeness in support of commercial nuclear power stations. The creation of a Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness Fund for State and Local Government is offered as a preferred solution. Monies for the Fund could be derived from a one time Fee of $1 million levied on the operator of each nuclear power station. Every five years, adjustments could be made in the Fee to assure full recovery of costs because of inflation, revised criteria and other cost related factors. Any surplus would be refunded to the utilities. Any state that has obtained NRC concurrence or is in the process could be reimbursed for previous expenditures up to two years prior to NRC concurrence. Concurrence in all state and local government plans is the objective of the funding program. The Fund should be administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report also discusses actions by Federal and state agencies and points to long range considerations, such as a training institute, including transportation and non-commercial and other fixed nuclear facilities, where preparedness could be enhanced by a coherent funding mechanism. All recommendations are based on an inquiry by the Office of state Programs, NRC, into the historical and future costs and funding of radiological emergency response plans and preparedness at the state and local government levels and are derived from discussions with many local, State and Federal officials

  1. Report to the parliament. Pluri-annual planning of power production investments; Rapport au parlement. Programmation pluriannuelle des investissements de production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The article 6 of the law from February 10, 2000, relative to the modernization and development of the electric utility, schedules a pluri-annual planning of the production investments (PPI) which represents a concrete translation of the energy policy in the domain of electricity. The PPI will allow to reach the energy policy goals using a balanced development of the national production means in terms of primary energy sources, techniques of production and geographical distribution of investments. This document is the first PPI report to the parliament. It is based on the scheme of energy collective services and on a provisional status made by the manager of the transportation network (RTE). In 2010, renewable energies should cover 21% of the French electricity needs. This ratio will be reached mainly thanks to the development of wind power (7000 to 14000 MW of installed power, which represents 20 to 35 TWh of additional production). Hydro-power should be increased of 8 TWh max, depending on the public policies implemented, and biomass will have a significant contribution too. On the other hand, actions of mastery of the electricity demand will have to be implemented. From 2008 onward, the decommissioning of several power plants will impose to find new solutions to satisfy the peak power needs. The covering of consumption peaks requires a correlation study of the power peaks at the European scale. Finally, the situation of non-interconnected areas and of areas with fragile supply has been carefully considered. The creation of new power production means must be envisaged in most of these areas. (J.S.)

  2. GRIPS Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-31

    The GRIPS (Geothermal Resources Impact Projection Study) Commission was established by a Joint Powers Agreement between the California Counties of Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma. The objectives of GRIPS are primarily to develop and use a cooperative environmental data collection and use system including natural, social, and economic considerations to facilitate their independent decisions and those of State and Federal agencies related to the environmental effects of geothermal development. This GRIPS Plan was prepared from a wide range of studies, workshops, and staff analyses. The plan is presented in four parts: summary and introduction; environmental data status report; planned programs; and budget. (MHR)

  3. Inspection planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) division of nuclear and radiological safety inspection has developed systematic approach to their inspections. To be efficient in their efforts regarding regular and other types of inspections, in past years, the inspection plan has been developed. It is yearly based and organized on a such systematic way, that all areas of nuclear safety important activities of the licensee are covered. The inspection plan assures appropriate preparation for conducting the inspections, allows the overview of the progress regarding the areas to be covered during the year. Depending on the licensee activities and nature of facility (nuclear power plant, research reactor, radioactive waste storage, others), the plan has different levels of intensity of inspections and also their frequency. One of the basic approaches of the plan is to cover all nuclear and radiological important activities on such way, that all regulatory requests are fulfilled. In addition, the inspection plan is a good tool to improve inspection effectiveness based on previous experience and allows to have the oversight of the current status of fulfillment of planned inspections. Future improvement of the plan is necessary in the light of newest achievements on this field in the nuclear world, that means, new types of inspections are planned and will be incorporated into plan in next year.(author)

  4. Geothermal power plants of New Zealand, Philippines, and Indonesia: a technical survey of existing and planned installations. Report No. CATMET/17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1978-06-01

    This report is the fourth in a series dealing with the geothermal power plants of the world. Here the existing and planned stations in the south Pacific area are surveyed including New Zealand, the Philippines and Indonesia. Details are given for the plants at Wairakei and Kawerau, and for the one proposed at Broadlands in New Zealand; for the plants proposed for Tiwi and Los Banos, and the wellhead units operating at Los Banos and Tongonan in the Philippines; and for the wellhead unit soon to be installed at Kawah Kamojang on Java in Indonesia. The geologic characteristics of the fields are described along with wellflow particulars, energy conversion systems, environmental impacts, economic factors and operating experiences, where available. The geothermal resource utilization efficiency is computed or estimated for the power plants covered. Furthermore, some discussion is devoted to the other sites which may prove exploitable for the production of electricity.

  5. [Power of personal goal sharing--treatment plan using personal goal maps for patients with mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueren

    2011-01-01

    A female patient in her sixties with schizophrenia had secretly disposed of all her medication and was not cooperating with hospital staff for about four months. During one of our consultations she mentioned that she wanted to be out of hospital by a certain date. That date happened to be her grandchild's birthday. It was at this point that she shared her goals with us, and voluntarily started having treatment. She was able to return home three months later, just in time to celebrate her grandchild's birthday with her family. A male patient in his sixties was able to leave the seclusion room after 10 years. The first doctor in charge and other hospital staff had firmly believed that releasing him from the seclusion room wasn't a possibility. However the patient decided he wanted to be discharged and was interested in finding out how to go about it. The moment he realized it was possible, his outlook changed immensely. He gradually started to open up and communicate better with his new doctor in charge, and was able to work towards his newly found goals. Staff members were also surprised when he was able to leave the seclusion room. They realized this patient was another person like them who had dreams and goals, and stopped stereotyping patients who seemed to be 'difficult to handle'. I have always experienced the power of goal sharing at clinical scenes, and have noticed its importance for patients making a start on the road to recovery. In order to discuss goals and the way to go about achieving them, I use a simple drawing of a mountain. I call this mountain 'A Personal Goal Map'. I like to think of myself (the doctor) as the mountain guide, and my patient as the mountain climber. The three key philosophies are acknowledging individuality, diversity and freedom. These are important when we think about where we are now, where we are going, and where we want to be. Firstly at the start point, we need to define the patient's problem and discuss ideas and goals

  6. Influence of Forecast Accuracy of Photovoltaic Power Output on Facility Planning and Operation of Microgrid under 30 min Power Balancing Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Sone, Akihito; Shimakage, Toyonari; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    A microgrid (MG) is one of the measures for enhancing the high penetration of renewable energy (RE)-based distributed generators (DGs). For constructing a MG economically, the capacity optimization of controllable DGs against RE-based DGs is essential. By using a numerical simulation model developed based on the demonstrative studies on a MG using PAFC and NaS battery as controllable DGs and photovoltaic power generation system (PVS) as a RE-based DG, this study discusses the influence of forecast accuracy of PVS output on the capacity optimization and daily operation evaluated with the cost. The main results are as follows. The required capacity of NaS battery must be increased by 10-40% against the ideal situation without the forecast error of PVS power output. The influence of forecast error on the received grid electricity would not be so significant on annual basis because the positive and negative forecast error varies with days. The annual total cost of facility and operation increases by 2-7% due to the forecast error applied in this study. The impact of forecast error on the facility optimization and operation optimization is almost the same each other at a few percentages, implying that the forecast accuracy should be improved in terms of both the number of times with large forecast error and the average error.

  7. 计及线路路径优化的空间电网规划%Spatial Power Network Planning Considering Electric Line Route Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒隽; 韩冰; 陈学姣

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to precisely take complex paths and environmental costs into account in traditional power network planning methods. This paper presented a spatial power network planning model considering electric line routing and substation location based on rasterized three-dimension map. The objective function in the proposed model was to minimize the investment and operation cost of the power network while subject to a list of constraints to ensure the security of power system and the feasibility of electric line route. It is a mixed integer, non-linear, non-convex optimization problem, which is complex and computationally demanding. In view of this, this paper proposed a bi-level structure in which the master problem was traditional power network planning considering substation location to be solved by genetic algorithm, while the sub problems were route optimizations for candidate lines to be solved by dynamic programming. Meanwhile, a memory structure was introduced in genetic algorithm to improve the computational efficiency. Numerical case studies utilizing IEEE Graver-6 system, IEEE 118-bus system and a real power system illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach for the spatial power network planning problem.%针对传统电网规划方法难于有效计及复杂路径及环境成本的问题,基于栅格化三维地图,以设备投资成本和运行费用综合最小为目标函数,考虑传统电网规划约束和线路路径优化约束,建立了考虑路径优化和变电站选址的空间电网规划模型。该模型是一个复杂的混合整数非线性规划模型,将其分解为考虑变电站选址的电网规划上层问题和线路路径优化下层问题,并提出适合求解该模型的遗传算法和动态规划法相结合的混合优化算法,该混合优化算法在采用遗传算法解决网架结构优化和变电站选址优化的同时,将动态规划法嵌入到遗传算法中,求

  8. Radioactive waste management plan. Plan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the first account of the nuclear power utilities of Sweden about the plans for the final disposal of the radioactive waste products of the nuclear power. Part 1 describes the general background, the plans for research and development, including the necessary facilities. The time schedule and the calculated costs of the operations are presented. (G.B.)

  9. Calculating primary fuel load of a nuclear reactor and planning the fuel component at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing differences in the method for calculating costs for nuclear fuel, relating them to one or another type of industrial asset (fixed assets or long-term working capital), can lead to distortion in the engineering and economic indicators that characterize the efficiency of nuclear power plants, and to differences in the results of evaluating their efficiency in comparison with other methods for producing energy. Calculating costs for nuclear fuel is discussed and it is concluded that despite a series of specific features of nuclear fuel from a theoretical standpoint we must consider the fuel load of a reactor as long-term working capital of a nuclear power plant. Dividing up the complex costs into types of production of two-purpose nuclear power plants should be carried out with consideration of the consumer cost of secondary nuclear fuel, i.e., with consideration of both the efficiency of subsequent utilization for production of electrical energy and the cost levels associated with this. A reduction in long-term working capital of nuclear plants is advisable not by accelerated recording of the portion of the cost for nuclear fuel determined by the level of its residual cost, but on the basis of a corresponding organization of calculations within branches for utilization of nuclear fuel that consider the efficiency of its utilization both at the nuclear power plant and in the fuel cycle of the nuclear energy association as a whole

  10. 核电站水下机器人路径规划仿真%Simulation of Path Planning for Underwater Robot Of Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雅乔

    2015-01-01

    针对核电站水下机器人在核环境中的任务要求,采用启发式搜索和分块遍历算法,分别研究了机器人的点对点全局路径规划以及完全覆盖路径规划,并应用LabVIEW Robotics、RobotBasic对机器人规划进行了仿真与分析.从仿真结果可知,算法可以有效提高作业效率,为机器人完成作业任务打下了基础.%According to the mission requirements of the underwater robots in nuclear power plants in the nuclear environment , this paper researches the point-to-point global path planning of mobile body and global complete coverage path planning with heuristic search and block coverage Algorithm. The simulation and analysis of robot's path planning are carried on with applying LabVIEW Robotics, RobotBasic softwares. The result of the simulation analysis shows that Algorithm can improve operational efficiency, which makes the foundation for robot to finish its tasks.

  11. Simulating stakeholder behavior in a marine setting: Integrated coastal zone planning and the influential power of selected stakeholders in Frøya, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gjelsvik Tiller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture expansion is a political priority in Norway, despite simmering conflicts and competing claims. We expand on this hypothesis and analyze the Norwegian governance system by adding stakeholder theory in case of a simulated model of the effects of municipal coastal zone planning in the municipality of Frøya, Norway. One cannot analyze the governance system in Norway without fully comprehending the perspectives of the stakeholders involved. Different stakeholders will react and respond differently and have conflicting presumptions basing their actions towards the planning process for coastal areas. They will also have different levels of power and abilities to influence the system. The article presents the interdisciplinary, first generation development of an agent based simulation model that mimics the outcomes of coastal zone planning for a stakeholder groups, the commercial fishers and the aquaculture industry, based on qualitative input from legislation, regulations and stakeholder workshops. We proceed with verifying the applicability of this simulator in light of the key actors involved, namely the commercial fishers. We found that the simulator had two outcomes for the commercial fishers that were consistently recurring, namely collapse and stability, based on the simulated occurrences of complaints by the stakeholders, with the latter being the de facto perceptions of actuality by the commercial fishers. Using stakeholder theory, we argue that the aquaculture industry’s role has the saliency of an Important Stakeholder in Frøya has steered the commercial fishers, who has the role of Dependent Stakeholders according to stakeholder theory, to no longer see any legitimacy in the process in that their complaints were never upheld because of their lack of the attribute Power.

  12. Renewable Power Planning Considering Carbon Emission Reduction Benefits%考虑碳减排效益的可再生电源规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段建民; 王志新; 王承民; 周勤勇; 韩家辉

    2015-01-01

    针对风电、光伏等可再生能源的快速发展,给电力系统规划带来的显著影响,将各种能源发电的碳减排效益引入电源规划之中。首先介绍了风、光、水、火等各种发电形式的碳排放强度,结合单位 CO2处理成本,得到各种电源的碳处理成本。在此基础上考虑风电、光伏出力的间歇性、波动性,在保证电力电量平衡的前提下,以发电运行成本、CO2处理成本最小为电源规划的目标函数,建立考虑碳减排效益的电源规划模型。最后,以IEEE 30节点测试系统结合我国某地区实际数据构造算例,应用蚁群算法求解,给出了不同工况下的规划结果,验证了所提出的模型与方法的合理性与有效性。%Rapid expansion of renewable energy sources such as wind power generation and photovoltaic (PV) generation brings significant impacts on power system planning, and to cope with it the carbon emission reduction benefits from renewable energy sources should be led into generation expansion planning. Firstly, the carbon emission intensities of wind power generation, PV generation, hydropower generation and thermal generation are presented, and based on the processing cost for unit mass of CO2 the carbon emission processing costs of various kinds of power generations can be obtained. On this basis, considering the intermittence and fluctuation of wind power generation and PV generation, under the premise of ensuing the balance of electric power and energy and taking the minimum power generation and operation cost and the minimum processing cost for CO2emission as objectives, a generation expansion planning model, in which the carbon emission reduction benefits are taken into account, is built. Finally, a study case, which combines IEEE 30-bus test system with actual output curves of wind power generation and PV generation as well as the load data in a certain region in China, is constructed and solved by ant

  13. Country planning bottlenecks for the Integral Program Wind power (IPW) projects and the importance of knowledge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most bottlenecks in realizing the aims of the Dutch title project concern problems with the site selection and administrative or juridical problems. The attitude of municipalities towards wind turbines is reserved, their policies not uniform, and the possibility to participate in the licensing procedures has been frequently used. If the energy policy of the Dutch government to produce 1000 MW in the year 2000 should be realized, initiatives must be developed to clear these planning bottlenecks. Some propositions are made with regard to government standards for noise pollution, safety, nature values, agreements with dike managers, regulations for land acquisition, transfer of information, and a manual for municipalities. 2 figs., 5 refs

  14. Risk Informed Support of Decision Making in Nuclear Power Plant Emergency Zoning - Generic Framework towards Harmonising NPP Emergency Planning Practices

    OpenAIRE

    KUBANYI JOZEF; BOLADO LAVIN RICARDO; SERBANESCU DAN; TOTH BELA; WILKENING HEINZ

    2008-01-01

    The report provides a systematic overview of the essential aspects of risk informed support of decision making (RIDM) in nuclear power plant (NPP) emergency zoning (EZ) as a contribution to harmonising strategic practices in the area. Owing to the state-of-the-art understanding and increased characterisation of NPP severe accidents, overall management of them should be analysed as an integrated complex process. The interrelationship of NPP emergency operating procedures, safety and risk asses...

  15. Preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge towards Indonesia's plan to operate first nuclear power plant by 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia will need a nuclear power plant (NPP) to overcome the lack of power supply due to increasing consumption of electricity while the traditional power supply, including crude oil, has been decreasing. The recent study under IAEA technical co-operation project titled 'Comprehensive Assessment on Different Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in Indonesia' showed that an energy mixed scenarios has to be applied in Indonesia in order to reduce amount of oil used for transportation and electricity generation. The medium to large scale of NPP would be techno-economically feasible to be operated in 2015-2016 for Java Island. In the past, efforts to launch nuclear power programme based mainly on economic justification have failed for various reasons; ones of the most important reasons were due to the lack of public support because of repeated accident on NPP. As a government owned institute having the task of promoting peaceful utilization of nuclear science and technology as well as doing research and development, the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) has to initiate the endeavor to launch the utilization of nuclear energy and prepare human resources to support construction, operation and maintenance of the future NPP in Indonesia. Meanwhile the BATAN nuclear workforce is aging because of more and more nuclear workers are approaching retirement age, without a corresponding influx of appropriately qualified younger personnel to replace them. This situation happens due to zero growth policy in government employment or more precisely negative growth policy on BATAN employment. This paper outlines the important of the establishment and maintenance of a formal human resources policy and nuclear knowledge management strategies to ensure that an organization maintains adequate numbers of competent and motivated personnel, and the availability of essential technical information for research and development in reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear

  16. Application of safety standards and rules in the Shelter Implementation Plan at the destroyed power unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the application of safety standards and rules to the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) measures. Since 1998 this plan is being implemented at the Chornobyl NPP destroyed unit (which is now known as the Shelter). It includes a set of various tasks whose performance will help partially achieve the established safety objectives. The Regulatory Authority should establish for the Shelter safety goals, principles, and criteria in general, while the Operator of the Shelter is free to independently select the optimum method for their implementation. The Operator of the Shelter must demonstrate (in safety analysis report) that established safety goals are achieved and safety principles and criteria are met. Safety goals, principles, and criteria established for radioactive waste management are reasonable to apply in measures provided for by SIP. However, due to the unique nature of the Shelter, some criteria should not be applied directly and in full scope. Norms and rules on radiation protection should be applied in full scope. The specifics of radiation protection during each Shelter-related activity are considered individually. Safety standards and rules related to technical aspects are reasonable only as a basis. Effective resolution of specific technical issues associated with safety assurance is achieved through interaction between the Operator and the Regulatory Authority during design of SIP structures and systems. Hence, effectiveness of the licensing process plays an important role in the success of the SIP.(author)

  17. Cost-based Optimal Distributed Generation Planning with Considering Voltage Depended Loads and Power Factor of Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Yousefi-Khangah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available If determination of location and size of Distributed Generation (DG are applied accurately, the DG’s ability will improve the network situation and reduce operation costs. In this paper, various market conditions are considered to maximize the benefit of DG’s presence and make a trade off among advantages of DG, network situation, and Distribution Company (DISCO owners. To determine the optimal location and size of DG, two methods of the cost minimization and the nodal pricing are combined. In addition to evaluating the impact of parameters such as variation of energy price and load on objective function, effect of these parameters on location and size of DG is considered. To confirm the results, impact of loads which are dependent on voltage and variation of the power factor of the DG units is applied and then effect of power factor on optimal location and size of DG is shown. A method is proposed for convergence of different results which is caused by different power factors. To observe long-term impact of the DG’s presence in the network, a load growth for five years is considered annually. Study is carried out on IEEE30 bus test circuit.

  18. Electricity planning for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following issues of electricity planning for developing countries are discussed: evolution of planning methodologies; the Latin American Energy Organization's view on energy planning; power sector history and trends; risk and uncertainty in policy formulation

  19. Optimal production planning of wind and thermal power plants with respect to constraints on transmission line and taking into account the uncertainty of wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taimori fard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and multiplicity of factors affecting the exploitation from power systems, makes completely impossible to solve this problem. Therefore, the optimal planning problem in system exploitation is decomposed into several sub-problems. One of exploitation sub-problems from power systems is economic dispatch of production on system units in order to meet the consumption needs. This is an optimization problem in real power systems, with great dimensions and multiple constraints including economic dispatch of system, transfer network restrictions, rate of increase and decrease in production, prohibited areas of operation units, spinning reserve storage of systems, loading effects of steam valves, multi-fuel production units. A suitable algorithm based on probabilistic search methods has been proposed in order to solve the proposed model effectively in the future. An experimental system with complex solution space is used in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method and new model and it is compared with some of the latest techniques for solving problem. In this paper, MATLAB software is used for above reviews.

  20. Preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge towards Indonesia's plan to operate first nuclear power plant by 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear power is needed to sustain economic development in the world's fourth most populous country. More than half of Indonesia's 220 million people live on the island of Java. The problem is not that Indonesia lacks resources, but that they are far from Java - much of the coal, oil, natural gas and other assets are hundreds of miles away in the northern part of the island of Sumatra. Indonesia will need a nuclear power plant (NPP) to overcome the lack of power supply due to increasing consumption of electricity while the traditional power supply, including crude oil, has been decreasing. The National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan) has advocated the introduction of nuclear power in Indonesia as a part of a long-term national energy system. According to the landmark of Batan, the first Indonesian nuclear power plant construction would start by 2010 and the plant would be operational by 2016. Since the decision to build nuclear power plant, according to the law number 10 year 1997, has to be consulted to the Parliament, it is indeed necessary to have always excellent communication with members of Parliament, to be understood by them and has to be supported by the society at large. In the past, efforts to launch nuclear power programs based mainly on economic justification have failed for various reasons; ones of the most important reasons were due to the lack of public support. Indonesia is pushing ahead with nuclear power at a time when the commercial use of nuclear power is in decline after 40 years of expansion. It is being rejected because of escalating costs, faulty technology and continuing public concern about accidents and radioactive waste disposal. Again this mean strong, effective and credible public information, public education and public relation organization have to be established to win the heart and the mind of the public. The problem is the majority of the people in Indonesia is low educated that makes them easy to be manipulated by the

  1. Space Solar Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  2. A new data model for planning calculations in power transmission lines. Ein neues Datenmodell fuer Planungsrechnungen in elektrischen Energienetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, A.; Wellssow, W.H. (Forschungsgemeinschaft fuer Hochspannungs- und Hochstromtechnik e.V. (FGH), Mannheim (Germany). Abt. Technisches Rechnen); Clodius, D. (Preussen-Elektra AG, Hannover (Germany). Abt. Netzplanung); Dickers, K.H. (Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG (VEW), Dortmund (Germany)); Henschel, M. (Berliner Kraft- und Licht (Bewag) AG, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Technische Planung); Knoche, B. (RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany). Abt. Energieuebertragung und -verteilung); Richter, H.J. (Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG (EVS), Stuttgart (Germany))

    1991-10-21

    The authors give a description of the requirements the environment and the general concept of a data model for planning calculations which is a new, amended version of the previously used 'DVG (Deutsche Versuchsgesellschaft) - formats for data exchange in network calculations' based on relational data bases. The network data which have so far been stored on punched cards (high redundance) are now compiled in tables (low redundance) whose content maybe converted into sequential data files. The data quantity remains almost the same as in the previous formats which allows old data to be converted with computer assistance. The data model may be extended to other tasks of computing. One essential additional feature is the availability of auxiliary equipment for the administration of different calculation tasks. (orig.).

  3. Medical treatment of radiation damages and medical emergency planning in case of nuclear power plant incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical measures in case of radiation damages are discussed on the basis of five potential categories of radiation incidents and accidents, respectively, viz. contaminations, incorporations, external local and general radiation over-exposures, contaminated wounds, and combinations of radiation damages and conventional injuries. Considerations are made for diagnostic and therapeutic initial measures especially in case of minor and moderate radiation accidents. The medical emergency planning is reviewed by means of definations used in the practical handling of incidents or accidents. The parameters are: extent of the incident or accident, number of persons involved, severity of radiation damage. Based on guiding symptoms the criteria for the classification into minor, moderate or severe radiation accidents are discussed. Reference is made to the Medical Radiation Protection Centers existing in the Federal Republic of Germany and the possibility of getting advices in case of radiation incidents and accidents. (orig.)

  4. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI action plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, a program was established whereby an annual NUREG report would be published on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was compiled and reported in three NUREG volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). This annual NUREG report combines these volumes into a single report and provides updated information as of September 30, 1991. The data contained in these NUREG reports are a product of the NRC's Safety Issues Management System (SIMS) database, which is maintained by the Project Management Staff in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and by NRC regional personnel. This report is to provide a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan Requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, and GSIs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. An additional purpose of this NUREG report is to serve as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  5. Summary of public comments and NRC staff analysis relating to rulemaking on emergency planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This NUREG provides a summary and discussions of public comments received during the expedited rulemaking to upgrade emergency preparedness around nuclear power reactor sites. The final rule was published in the Federal Register (45 FR 55402) on August 19, 1980. The information in NUREG-0684 was excerpted in the main from internal paper SECY-80-275 (June 3, 1980) which forwarded the final rule to the Commission for consideration. This document, along with NUREG-0628, NUREG/CP-0011, and the materials cited in the Final Rules, should be considered a compendium of the major issues raised in this proceeding and acted upon by the Commission

  6. Plan 2010. Costs starting in 2012 for the radioactive residual products from nuclear power. Basis for fees and guarantees during the period 2012-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    According to the current regulatory framework, it is the responsibility of the holder of a licence to own or operate a nuclear power reactor to prepare a calculation of the costs for all measures that are needed for the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel that has been used in the reactors and other radioactive waste products and to decommission and dismantle the reactor plants. The regulatory framework comprises the Act (2006:647) and the Ordinance (2008:715) on Financial Measures for the Management of Residual Products from Nuclear Activities (hereinafter referred to as the Financing Act and the Financing Ordinance, respectively). This cost calculation shall be submitted periodically to the Government or the authority designated by the Government. SKB's owners have assigned SKB the task of preparing such a cost calculation jointly for the licensees of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report, which is the twenty-eighth annual plan report, gives an updated compilation of these costs. As in previous years' reports, the costs are shown for two cases. The first case concerns the system as a whole, including management and disposal of radioactive operational waste plus certain waste deriving from other facilities than those belonging to SKB's owners. This case has been based on a scenario concerning reactor operation that is based on the nuclear power plant owners' current planning. The second case concerns the system with the restrictions that follow from the regulatory framework, which stipulates the time for operation of the reactors that is supposed to serve as a basis for fees. The report is divided into three parts: Chapter 1 provides background information regarding the Financing Act and SKB's calculation model. Chapter 2 provides information on the underlying calculation, which is based on current plans for reactor operation and SKB's activities. Chapter 3 presents the cost estimates required by the Financing

  7. Comparative analysis of fuzzy model and numerical model for indicators in monitoring and strategic planning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of performance and safety indicators in the monitoring of nuclear power plants is a reality. Recently, after the publication of the General Guide of Indicators by International Agency of Atomic Energy (IAEA), which suggests actions, conditions and procedures in order to reach the safety requirements, as well as to assure a high performance rate, new works are being done based on this philosophy. In a previous work, an intelligent system (Fuzzy Model) was developed, which would be able to infer about a generic structure of indicators, in order to establish the representative status of the nuclear power plant Angra 2. In this work a new implementation was developed, an intelligent system (Numerical Model), which would be able to infer about the same generic structure of indicators, with the same objective, the determination of status of the Angra 2. The objective of this work is a comparison between the results gotten by the Numerical Model and the Fuzzy Model, emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of each implementation aiming to improve the performance of this tool of monitoring, analysis and management. (author)

  8. Transportation infrastructure between nuclear power plant gates and nearest line-haul networks: Plan and procedure for data development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is concerned with the segments of the transportation system that include possible routings over public roads and private (or public) rail links, and waterway access (within 25 miles) from the gates of typical reactor sites to proximate links of what can be termed the national through-route system. These routings are by no means uniform throughout the United States. Local roads and rail links near reactor sites may be subject to a wide variety of jurisdictions for maintenance, repair, and inspection; may or may not (at present) qualify for federal assistance under the Federal-Aid Highway and related funding programs; may or may not meet accepted construction standards for facilities expected to bear heavy loads; and, perhaps most importantly for the spent-fuel transportation program, may be subject to occasional and currently unavoidable disruptions that could seriously impair shipment schedules. The overall objectives of the study are to describe a framework for identifying the characteristics of the near-site transportation networks of all existing nuclear power plants that could give rise to important shipment scheduling and programming constraints. These characteristics cover both transportation infrastructure and existing structural and environmental limitation, and define a scope and schedule for constructing a data base for the transportation networks surrounding all nuclear power plants. 6 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Clinch River: an alternate financing plan. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, first session, 20 Sep 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representatives of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) project, the nuclear industry, taxpayers, the financial community, and legislators testified at a hearing held to review administration plans for completing the CRBR by attaching its financing to a continuing resolution and avoiding the legislative process. A Congressional Budget Office report noted that the administration's financing proposal will generate up to 37% return on investment from tax relief alone, which is more appropriate for high-risk than government-backed investment. The Congressional Research Service challenged that the plant's power production capacity was overstated and its price overvalued. Of concern to the committee was the fairness of asking taxpayers to share in the $2.5 billion needed to complete the project. Additional material submitted for the record follows the testimony of 20 witnesses

  10. The activities of the IAEA International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) in 1994 and plans for 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the IAEA's International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) is to provide the Member States with information and guidance on design aspects, material selection, testing, maintenance, monitoring and mitigation of degradation related to major components with the aim to assure high availability and safe operation of NPPs. Technical documents and reports on proceedings of specialists meetings on many of these topics have been produced or are in preparation. Coordination of research aimed at understanding the phenomena which occur and the consequent degradation mechanisms is an extensive field of the IWG-LMNPP activities. Radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels has been a major subject of concern. Thermal degradation, corrosion and fatigue are also considered to be very significant. In the monitoring field, non-destructive examination techniques and fracture mechanics are areas included in the IWG-LMNPP plans

  11. Wind power plants. Planning procedure using the example of a system with savonius rotor; Windenergieanlagen. Planungsablauf am Beispiel einer Anlage mit Savoniusrotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecken, Christoph; Knull, Bjoern [bow ingenieure gmbh, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Wind energy gained in importance for electric power supply due to financial incentives for wind turbine generators (WTG) as politically favoured renewable energy source and the resulting technical further development. Building a relevant landscape element, the approvability of the structure plays a decisive role in planning and design of WTG. Another topic is the structural (and the related economical) optimisation of the plants in terms of most effective exploitation of the building material. As most of the WTG are fabricated in small batch series, certification or type testing is advantageous. Using the example of a WTG with savonius rotor, the proceeding of the structural analysis is shown including the most important load assumptions and an outlook on the required verifications. (orig.)

  12. Data processing systems for planning and accompanying the erection of pipes and supports in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The piping, for a Nuclear Power Plant Station, represents around 60% of all Mechanical and Electrical erection costs. Considering the high complexity of piping design, the 55000 erection documents produced by this design, as well as the several revisions of these documents, it has been of utmost importance the development of proper follow-up instruments to allow the management of interface among, quality assurance erection and documentation. Due to the volume of the data base information, their updating criteria, analytic functions and request frequency, the option was the development of Data Processing Systems, aiming at a greater reliability, integrity and quicker access to the information. The purpose of this work is to present the basic concepts and products of these systems. (author)

  13. High power 1 MeV neutral beam system and its application plan for the international tokamak experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemsworth, R.S. [ITER Joint Central Team, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed for the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, ITER, in Europe Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D{sup 0} to the ITER plasma for a pulse length of >1000 s. Each injectors uses a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D{sup -}. This will be neutralized by collisions with D{sub 2} in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. ITER is scheduled to produce its first plasma at the beginning of 2008, and the planning of the R and D, construction and installation foresees the neutral injection system being available from the start of ITER operations. (author)

  14. Gendered power dynamics and women's negotiation of family planning in a high HIV prevalence setting: a qualitative study of couples in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Elizabeth K; Dworkin, Shari; Withers, Mellissa; Onono, Maricianah; Kwena, Zachary; Newmann, Sara J

    2016-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, high burdens of HIV and unmet need for contraception often coexist. Research emphasises the need to engage men and couples in reproductive health, yet couples' negotiations around fertility and family planning in the context of HIV have been sparsely studied. This study examined the gendered power dynamics that frame women's and couples' negotiations of contraceptive use in western Kenya. We conducted 76 in-depth interviews with 38 couples, of whom 22 couples were concordant HIV-positive. Qualitative data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Direct communication around contraception with men was often challenging due to perceived or expressed male resistance. A substantial minority of women avoided male reproductive decision-making authority through covert contraceptive use, with concern for severe consequences when contraceptive use was discovered. Many men assumed that family planning use signified female promiscuity and that infidelity motivated covert use. Men were more willing to use condoms to avoid HIV re-infection or on the recommendation of HIV care providers, which allowed some women leverage to insist on condom use. Our findings highlight the tension between male dominated reproductive decision making and women's agency and point to the need for gender transformative approaches seeking to challenge masculinities that negatively impact health. PMID:26503879

  15. Study of a proposal for the insertion of operational experience as a tool for support the training plan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of this work are: to determine, through the operational experience analysis of Angra 1 nuclear power plant, the plant operational vulnerabilities that affect its staff training and to propose a modeling to plan a training program to address these vulnerabilities. This analysis utilizes the Angra 1 document entitled 'Ocorrencia de Relato Obrigatorio', which reports the plant event occurrences. Through this document, as well as the opinion of specialists on the most probably root causes of the reported events, the backdrop of the operational experience analysis of internal events was built. The modeling using the SAT method and has as a guideline the internal operational experience analysis. Moreover, this modeling encompasses techniques of event and second generation human reliability analysis, both specific of the nuclear area. The development of this work shows that: the internal operational experience analysis provides a realistic view of the vulnerabilities present in the plant in all areas (technical and organizational), which must be addressed to the plan of the training program and the modeling, based on realistic view of the plant, is dynamic, not linear, and is always up to date on events in the plant, its causes and consequences. (author)

  16. Techniques of artificial intelligence applied to the electric power expansion distribution system planning problem; Tecnicas de inteligencia artificial aplicadas ao problema de planejamento da expansao do sistema de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froes, Salete Maria

    1996-07-01

    A tool named Constrained Decision Problem (CDP), which is based on Artificial Intelligence and a specific application to Distribution System Planning is described. The CDP allows multiple objective optimization that does not, necessarily, result in a single optimal solution. First, a literature review covers published works related to Artificial Intelligence applications to Electric Power Distribution Systems, emphasizing feeder restoration and reconfiguration. Some concepts related to Artificial Intelligence are described, with particular attention to Planning and to Constrained Decision Problems. Following, an Electric Power System planning model is addressed by using the CDP tool. Some case studies illustrate the Distribution Planning model, which are compared with standard optimization models. Concluding, some comments establishing the possibilities of CDP applications are followed by a view on future developments. (author)

  17. 家族企业权力传承的规划设计研究%A Study on the Planning of Power Succession in Family Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权英; 吴士健; 刘新民

    2011-01-01

    The power succession in a family business,including the continuation of property,reputation and social status as well as the inheritance of power from generation to generation, determines the sustainable development or even survival of a family business. With the "inheritance model" being the main trend, family businesses should make a scientific planning on issues such as the selection and training of the successors, the optimal timing of succession and the withdrawal of the old generation, etc. To promote the execution of the planning, family businesses should also build up a coordinating mechanism, pay close attention to the responses of all stakeholders and fully value the significance of the family spirit and the transmission of corporate culture based on the formality and normalization of succession planning.%家族企业权力传承既是企业所有权和控制权由上一代传递给下一代的过程,同时也是家族财产、声誉和社会地位的传递,关系到家族企业的持续发展乃至生死存亡。在“予承父业”的主流模式下,家族企业谘须对权力传承所涉及的继任者选择、继任者培养、权力交接的最优时机设计以及老一代家族企业主的退出等问题进行科学的规划设计。为推动传承规划的顺利执行,家族企业还应在确保传承规划设计的正式性和规范性的基础上,建立有利于权力传承的协调机制,密切关注各利益相关者的反应并充分考虑到家族精神和企业文化的传承的重要意义。

  18. Should a small combined heat and power plant (CHP) open to its regional power and heat networks? Integrated economic, energy, and emergy evaluation of optimization plans for Jiufa CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of industrial ecology has led company managers to increasingly consider their company's niche in the regional system, and to develop optimization plans. We used emergy-based, ecological-economic synthesis to evaluate two optimization plans for the Jiufa Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plant, Shandong China. In addition, we performed economic input-output analysis and energy analysis on the system. The results showed that appropriately incorporating a firm with temporary extra productivity into its regional system will help maximize the total productivity and improve ecological-economic efficiency and benefits to society, even without technical optimization of the firm itself. In addition, developing a closer relationship between a company and its regional system will facilitate the development of new optimization opportunities. Small coal-based CHP plants have lower-energy efficiency, higher environmental loading, and lower sustainability than large fossil fuel and renewable energy-based systems. The emergy exchange ratio (EER) proved to be an important index for evaluating the vitality of highly developed ecological-economic systems

  19. Competency build up, sustained performance enhancement of human resource through effective man power planning, training and proper safety culture and organizational climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human resource competence building and continued enhancement of performance is the most vital input for safe and reliable operations of a Nuclear Power Plant. Integrated planning leading to the decision of timely selection of optimum number of fresh people and deployment of experienced manpower with desired lead time is inevitable to achieve the above objective. For safe and reliable plant operation human performance analysis followed by suggestive measures to improve the same is needed. Corrective or strengthening input may be in terms of training, work environment, motivations, organizational culture and climate, leadership and prevailing environmental force and bio-rhythm of individuals with critical days are to be worked out The adequacy in training and development not only gives safe and reliable plant operations but results in greater employee satisfaction and self esteem as well. As of date, in the present vibrant global scenario, only the organization which impart good training in addition to competitive pay and perks to their employees are able to attract good people. Indian nuclear power plant in general and TAPP 3 and 4 in particular has been referred. (author)

  20. Performance Analysis and Optimum Operation Planning of Distributed Energy System Based on Micro Gas Turbine-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Aina; Kimijima, Shinji

    In this paper, the economical and energy saving advantages of the distributed energy system, which consists of a micro gas turbine-solid oxide fuel cell hybrid power generation system, waste heat recovery devices and air-conditioning equipments, are investigated. Firstly, the thermodynamical performance evaluation of the hybrid system with the heat recovery devices is discussed to estimate the energy conversion efficiency of the whole system. Secondly, by using 1inear programming technique, the optimum operation planning of the cogeneration plant based on the hybrid system is discussed to predict the reduction of the primary fuel consumption and utility cost. Throughout detailed investigation, it is found that the energy conversion efficiency, which includes the waste heat utilization, reaches over 80% (LHV). In addition, the optimum operation of the hybrid system, of which power generation capacity is appropriate for the energy demand, achieve the highly effective energy saving against the traditional energy supply scheme, that is, the fuel reduction reaches around 40% to the conventional value.